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Curtain Wall Systems THA1240 Technology 3: Integrated technology coursework

Year 3 Alexandra Calin

University of Huddersfield School of Art, Design and Architecture Department of Architecture and 3D Design


Curtain Wall Systems 1


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Fig. 1

Introduction Transparent elements are becoming more important in today’s building design due to their visual aesthetics and modern appearance. Architectural glass has a major role to play in building envelopes design as it acts as a huge mirror during the day reflecting back the surroundings and during the night provide a clear view of the interior lit places. For this coursework I choose to have a look at curtain wall systems as it is an interesting architectural element commonly used today in building construction. 3


Contents 1.. History of curtain wall systems 2. Performance & Manufacture 3. Types of curtain wall systems 4. Components of a curtain wall system 5. Visual and aesthetic qualities

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Case studys

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Maintenance and aftercare

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Regulations

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References


History

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In the past buildings were contructed with the exterior walls supporting the load of the entire structure. The development of structural steel and reinforced concrete made possible that small columns support large loads, and the exterior walls were no longer required for structural support. Then the modern curtain wall was born with the incresed use of glass as an exterior facade.

Fig. 4

Fig. 5

Fig. 6

Fig. 5 shows Promontory Appartments, by Mie Van der Rohe in 1949 with typical wall section. Fig. 6 shows the Fagus Shoe Factory in Germany, by Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer. 6


Some of the curtain walls were made with steel mullions and the plate glass was attached to the mullions with asbestos. Eventually silicone sealants were substituted by using a glass mullion system. Earliest modernist examples of c.w. are the Bauhaus Building in Dessau (1926) Fig. 4 and the Hallidie Building in San Francisco (1918) Fig. 10. Fig. 7

Fig. 8

Fig. 9

Fig. 10

Fig. 7 shows Lake Shore Building by Mie Van der Rohe 1951. Fig. 8 shows Allied Bank Tower, Dallas, Texas, by I. M. Pei and Partners in 1986 with mullion plan details. Fig. 9 shows Pepsi-Cola Building in New York by Owings and Merril 1960, with typical mullion plan detail. 7


Performance & Manufacture Manufacture Mock-ups Thermal performance

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Manufacture Curtain wall is known as cladding or building faรงade also the skin of a building with its primary role to separate interior and exterior environments. It is a nonload bearing element, supporting only its weight, no other vertical loads. Fig. 11 In the 1970s began the widespread use of aluminium extrusions for mullions. The advantage that alluminium offers is that of being able to be easily extruded into nearly any shape required for design. Professionals involved in design, fabrication and construction of such systems receive their training on the job and learn the fundamentals through experience of working on different projects.

Fig. 12

The processes involved in the manufacture of curtain wall systems are: fabrication, assembly, glazing and installation.

Fig. 11 shows modern curtain wall under construction Fig. 12 & 13 shows mechanical equipment for aluminium extrusions used at mullions

Fig. 13

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Fig. 14

Fig. 15

Fig. 16

FABRICATION is the first stage in manufacture process where all machining operations are made including cutting, drilling, milling and punching. All these are made on the aluminium extrusion framing members. ASSEMBLY is the next stage where fastening together aluminium framing members to create the frame that supports the glazing infill. In order to make the frame water and air tight, joints of the frame need to be covered with sealant, the insulation is attached to spandrel openings. GLAZING is the process where infill is attached to the vision or spandrel frame opening. There are different infill types; the most common one is an insulated glass unit. Other infills are aluminium, stainless steel or granite panel. The area between aluminium framing members occupied by an infill is called a vision or spandrel. INSTALLATION is the last stage where all the work performed on the construction site takes place. Fig. 14, 15 & 16 shows aluminium profiles examples

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Mock-ups ‘Visual and performance mock-ups are full scale constructions of part of building envelope assembly that incorporate the actual specified materials. Weather made using a stick system (where components are assembled on site) or unitized panels (using prefabricated, large scale units), building envelopes must be watertight, i.e., resist water penetration to the interior, control air leakage and condensation, and resist wind loads.’ ( Lovell J., Building Envelopes, an integrated approach, approach (2010 2010), Princeton Architectural Press, New York ) The mock-up is subjected to a series of tests which typically include resistance to air and water leakage, structural performance under wind load, and condensation resistance. The mock-up’s response to each test is measured precisely and compared to the specified criteria. If the model performs as expected, it passes; otherwise, remediation measures are required, and the system must be modified so that it can pass a retest Fig. 17

Fig. 18

Fig. 17 shows an airplane engine and propeller used to simulate high winds during a curtain wall mock-up test Fig. 18 shows a curtain wall mock-up 11


Fig. 19

Thermal performance Temperature creates two types of problems in curtain walls: -

Expansion and contraction of materials Necessity of controlling the passage of heat through the wall;

The effect of solar heat on the wall creates one of the major concerns in aluminium curtain wall design, which is thermal movement. Temperature fluctuations critically affect wall details, all building materials expand and contract to some extent with temperature changes, but the amount of movement is greater in aluminium than that in most other building materials.

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Fig. 19

Thermal insulation of opaque wall areas become an important consideration when such areas constitute a substantial part of the total wall area, but when vision glass areas predominate, the use of insulating glass and the minimizing of through metal or ‘cold bridges’ are more effective in lowering the overall U-value of wall. Images from above ( Fig. 19) 19 shows a series of thermal analysis of different parts and components of a curtain wall, that meet the expected requirements in terms of thermal performance.

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Types of c w Systems & advantages of unitized systems

Stick- built Unitized Systems

There are two types of curtain wall systems characterized by the manner in which they are produced: stick built and unitized. Stick built curtain wall is fabricated in the shop and shipped in pieces to the construction site where it is assembled and glazed. Most of the wall production takes place onsite. Unitized curtain wall is fabricated and assembled at the manufacturer’s shop, then shipped to the construction site to be installed.

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Fig. 20

Fig. 22

Fig. 21

Advantages of using unitized curtain wall systems Stick-built walls have higher site labour costs as site labour is generally costlier than shop labour, also there is a longer schedule to enclose a building ( time means money). Being assembled and glazed outdoors in full exposure to the weather is the most important drawback of stick-built wall systems. Why? Because it is difficult to obtain a good adhesion of the sealants to the joint surfaces they are sealing in variable weather conditions. Sealants prevent air and water infiltration and they’re durability depends on good adhesion to the joint surfaces. Unitized curtain wall systems benefits form indoor assembly and glazing, improving its durability. The time required to close in a building is greatly reduced compared with stick-built systems, because most of the production is done in the shop. Installation involves placing preassembled and pre-glazed frames on a building.

Fig. 20 shows an example of unitized c w Fig. 21 shows an example of stick-built cw Fig. 22 shows comparison between two types

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Components of a c w system

Curtain wall consists of more than just glass. Typical curtain wall is made up of transparent vision glass and opaque spandrel-glass infills supported by a metal framework of aluminium extrusions. Other common infills are: stainless steel panels, painted aluminium panels, granite, limestone, marble, combination between glass and metal panel (called a shadow box), vents and louvres. A typical spandrel infill consist of insulation adhered to a galvanized steel sheet (backpan or foil back insulation), premanufactured insulation adhered to aluminium foil, inboard of a single insulating glass unit (IGU). Glass requires contact with soft materials called glazing gaskets such as high durometer ( rigid) rubber or silicone to prevent breakage. Low durometer (soft) gaskets are used at split vertical and horizontal members to form seals against air and water. 16


Fig. 23 The aluminium extruded members that comprise a curtain wall frame have specific names. The vertical extrusions are called mullions or verticals and support the infill and horizontals. horizontals The top horizontal member in the vision opening is called the head or header. header. The bottom horizontal member in the vision opening is called the sill. sill

An intermediate horizontal with vision above and below is called an intermediate horizontal. horizontal Horizontal members are referred to as transoms or rails. rails Vision openings contain a transparent IGU that can be double or triple glazed with one or more lites that are tinted, mirror coated or low-e coated.

Fig. 23 shows typical c w elevation

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Fig. 24

Fig. 24 shows drainage path in unitized c w systems 18


Fig. 25

Fig. 25 Unitized c w components 19


Visual & aesthetic qualities of c w systems Fig. 26 shows capped system c w with technical details Fig. 27 shows structural silicone glazed system

The way glazing is retained by the framing has a visual effect on curtain wall’s appearance and provides a degree of creative freedom. Two methods are used to retain glazing: capped systems and structural silicone glazed systems. systems Capped systems physically hold the glazing infill with aluminium extrusions with rubber glazing gaskets to lock it to the frame. There are variations of capped systems where all four sides can be captured, called four-sided systems, but any combination is possible. Structural silicone glazed systems (SSG SSG) use structural silicone sealants that adhere the glazing to the frame (gluing the glazing). The visual difference between the two methods is clear, first one appears to have a picture frame of painted aluminium around the glazing and the second method has an uncluttered appearance, giving the impression of a wall of continuous glass. 20


Fig. 26

Fig. 27

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Case studies Torre Agbar Tower, Barcelona Spertus Institute of Jewish Studies, Chicago National Museum of Art, Osaka Citigroup tower, London Institute for Sound and Vision, Netherlands

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Fig. 28

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Torre Agbar Tower, Barcelona Torre Agbar is a thirty-one-story, bullet-shaped tower which employs a reinforced- concrete bearing-wall structure pierced with 4,500 individual window openings. Curtain Wall - Custom system of clear and translucent glass louvers suspended on extruded aluminium framing members, in front of a load-bearing reinforced-concrete wall with punched windows

Fig. 29

Fig. 30

The bearing wall is encased in a continuous external skin of clear and translucent laminated safety-glass louvers set at various angles. These louvers are mounted on vertical rails of anodized extruded aluminium that are suspended from the concrete wall on aluminium brackets at each floor level.

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Sketch of the curtain wall

Fig. 31 25


Wall section technical details

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Fig. 32


Wall section key

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Partial elevation

Fig. 33 28


Unrolled elevation

Fig. 34 29


Night/Day view of the tower

Fig. 35 30


Tower section showing the bullet shape

Fig. 36 31


Fig. 38

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Fig. 37


Spertus Institute of Jewish Studies Chicago Curtain Wall of Spertus Institute of Jewish Studies, Chicago is a custom hybrid system of structural, preglazed, silkscreened insulating glass units in multiple shapes mounted onto stick-built mullions of extruded aluminium. The building’s main facade measures 24.4 by 55.2 meters and is clad entirely in a folded, faceted custom glass curtain wall. The glass is factory-glazed along each edge with a structural silicone sealant that adheres it to a minimal frame of extruded aluminium. These units are then mounted onto Y-shaped aluminium mullions, spanning vertically from floor to floor, that bend and twist.

Near the centre of the facade, a portion of the wall peels away from the building mass to form a canopy, sheltering the street entrance and revealing the construction method of the curtain wall (Fig. Fig. 39) 39

Fig. 39 33


Wall section technical details

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Fig. 40


Wall section key

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Axonometric view of curtain wall exploded

Fig.41 36


Fig. 42 Main elevation facade Fig. 43 Diagram showing curtain wall facets Fig. 44 Partial elevation showing glass panels

Fig. 42

Fig. 43

Partial elevation

Fig. 44

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Plan detail at tipical Y mullion

Image courtesy Krueck+Sexton Architects retrieved from Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (2009) Murray S.

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The curtain wall incorporates 726 individual pieces of glass in 556 different shapes. Portions of the undulating wall project outward by as much as 1.5 meters and inward by 0.6 meters. With such variation in orientation, the glass surfaces simultaneously transmit and reflect sunlight through and across the facade. The double-pane insulating glass includes a high-performance low-E coating on the second surface for improved thermal performance as well as a silkscreened pattern of white ceramic frit dots for solar shading covering 40 percent of the surface.

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Fig. 45

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The National Museum of Art, Osaka The 13,500-squaremeter building is on three levels, all below grade. The first level is the public free zone, followed by two levels of temporary and permanent gallery space. The seemingly simple glass structure that marks the museum’s entrance is actually quite complex and technically sophisticated, the total length of the tubular steel structure is 260 meters and it rises to a height of 50 meters. Beneath this sculptural exoskeleton of stainless steel nests a steel truss structure painted industrial gray, which in turn helps to support the aluminum curtain wall that provides a weather-tight environment for the museum’s entrance. The brushed-finish stainless steel sculptural elements have a field-applied light catalyst titanium coating that causes water to bead up on the surface, keeping it dry, and makes the material self-cleaning so that pollutants do not damage the metal and cause corrosion. The overhead glass panels have a white ceramic frit pattern to reduce solar glare. Where a stainless steel stalk passes through the glass enclosure, it is fitted with a synthetic rubber bellows and a gasket for weather-tightness. Just below the bellows is an electrified stainless steel coil-woven sleeve that mitigates thermal bridging in cold weather, preventing condensation from forming inside the building. Model showing the structure of sculptural form

Main Entrance

Fig. 46

Fig. 47 41


East-West Section

Fig. 48

Interior view of atrium c w

South Elevation

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Fig. 49

Fig. 50


Section detail through internal gutter 1. Steel pipe roof structure 3. Insulated safety glass 8. Aluminium gutter 9. Thermal break 10. Silicone joint sealant 11. Weep 12. Pre-molded rubber seal 13. High strength nut

Fig. 51

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Fig. 52

Section through skylobby detail 1. Steel pipe roof structure 2. Stainless steel gusset plate 3. Insulated safety glass 4. Condensation drainage valve 5. Silicon glazing seal 6. Drainage gutter

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Fig. 53

Section through sunshade device 1. Steel pipe roof structure 3. Insulated safety glass 7. Aluminium mullion 8. Aluminium gutter 14. Aluminium closure panel 16. Steel base plate 17. Roller sunshade device 45


Skylight at base detail Fig. 54 46


Section through water stop detail 1. Primary stainless steel closure plate 2. Secondary stainless steel closure plate 3. Primary water stop 4. Secondary water stop 5. Insulated safety glass 6. Low voltage electrical wire 7. Smoke detector

Fig. 55

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Fig. 56

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Citigroup Tower, London The choice of materials for the curtain wall responds to the context of the earlier buildings. In comparison to the earlier tower, Citigroup’s curtain wall is more open and transparent. The 10-meter structural grid is expressed by wide column covers in a brushed-finished stainless steel that accentuate the tower’s height. The curtain wall design contributes to the reading of the building as lighter and less solid, thanks to the glass corners on each floor where the tower is recessed. The glass used throughout the tower is a sealed, double pane unit with a high-performance coating on the number 2 surface that achieves a shading coefficient of 0.37, which helps to cut heat gain. The glass has a reflective quality to it, and the color is slightly green, which unifies the entire curtain wall surface vision glass and spandrel glass panels

Fig. 57 shows partial facade of the building Fig. 58 shows c w section

Fig. 57

Fig. 58

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Fig. 59

Exterior and interior corners of c w showing the supergrid

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Fig. 60

Exterior corner detail 1. Double glazing unit, vision glass area 2. Local aluminium angle cleat in transoms to fix corner mullion 3. Painted aluminium extrusion 4. Back of mullion 5. Horizontal mullion cap

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Plan detail of curtain wall

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Fig. 61


Section detail of curtain wall

Fig. 62

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Fig. 63

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Institute for Sound and Vision, Netherlands The curtain wall of the Netherlands Institute for  Sound and Vision, is a custom double-layer wall with a continuous outer screen of textured,  colour-stained glass panels bearing abstracted scenes from Dutch television. The architects worked collaboratively with the graphic designer Jaap Drupsteen  and the glass manufacturer SaintGobain  to develop a method of transferring the selected film stills onto glass by CNC- milling them onto a wood panel, which  was then used as a mold onto which the glass, along with colored ceramic paste, were placed and then heated. The inner wall varies from clear insulating glass to a solid, opaque wall. At the office wing, the inner wall alternates between steel-framed insulating glass windows and precast- concrete wall panels faced with insulation and fiber-cement sheeting.

Building section

Fig. 64

Partial elevation

Fig. 65

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Section Detail

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Fig. 66


Partial plan detail

Building Elevation

Fig. 68

Fig. 67

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Maintenance and aftercare of curtain walls Curtain walls and perimeter sealants require maintenance to maximize service life. Perimeter sealants, properly designed and installed, have a typical service life of 10 to 15 years. Removal and replacement of perimeter sealants require meticulous surface preparation and proper detailing. Aluminum frames are generally painted or anodized. Care must be taken when cleaning areas around anodized material as some cleaning agents will destroy the finish. Factory applied fluoropolymer thermoset coatings have good resistance to environmental degradation and require only periodic cleaning. Stainless steel curtain walls require no coatings, and modern, embossed, as opposed to abrasively finished, surfaces maintain their original appearance indefinitely without cleaning or other maintenance. Some specially textured matte stainless steel surface finishes are hydrophobic and resist airborne and rainborne pollutants. Exposed glazing seals and gaskets require inspection and maintenance to minimize water penetration, and to limit exposure of frame seals and insulating glass seals to wetting.

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Curtain walling and construction regulations

Curtain walling is a construction product and is covered by the harmonised European Standard EN 13830, as a result CE marking will apply to all curtain walling from 1 July 2013. The CE mark may be applied to any construction product for which there is a harmonised Product Standard (hEN) or a European Technical Assessment Agreement (ETAG). A CE mark shows the performance of a construction product with regard to the essential requirements: • Mechanical Resistance and Stability • Safety in case of Fire • Hygiene, Health and the Environment • Safety in Use • Protection against Noise • Energy Economy and Heat Retention • Sustainable use of natural resources The responsibility for CE marking of a curtain wall lies with the specialist contractor but system and component suppliers will need to test their products. Considering the Building Regulations and product standard EN 13830 classes or levels of performance will always have to be stated for the following performance characteristics; • Reaction to fire • Fire propagation • Resistance to windload (safety) • Horizontal live load (Barrier load) • Thermal transmittance • Radiation properties • Durability

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Books

Bibliography

Brock L. (2005). Designing the Exterior Wall. New Jersey: Wiley & Sons. Crosbie M. J. (2005). Curtain Walls Recent Developments by Cesar Pelli & Associates. Basel: Birkhauser- Publishers for Architecture. Lovell J. (2010). Building Envelopes: An Integrated Approach. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Memari A., McFarquhar D. G., Brown G. W., Clift C., Cuoco N., De La Guardia R., Ettouney M., Fisher S., Green D., Morris F., Stathopoulos D., Suaris W. (2013). Curtain Wall Systems A Primer. Virginia- American Society of Civil Engineers. Murray S. (2009). Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Murray S. (2013). Translucent Building Skins. New York: Routledge. Schittich C. (2001). In Detail Building Skins. Basel: Birkhauser- Publishers for Architecture.

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Websites Allana K. & Carter D. (n.a). Building Envelope Technology Symposium: Curtain Walls Issues, Problems and Solutions. Retrieved from http://www.rci-online.org/interface/2012-bes-allana-carter.pdf Centre for Window and Cladding Technology. (2011). Curtain Walling and the Construction Product Regulations. Retrieved from http://www.cwct.co.uk/performance/cwctcemarking1.pdf Kawneer.(1999). Principles of Curtain Walling. Retrieved from http://www.kawneer.com/kawneer/ united_kingdom/en/pdf/Principles_of_Curtain_Walling.pdf Tesla Walls. (2015). Thermal Performance. Retrieved from http://www.teslawalls.com/thermal.htm Wikipedia (n.a). Curtain Wall architecture. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curtain_wall_(architecture)

Illustration Credits Fig. 1 Murray S. (2009). Interior view with translucent shades [Photograph]. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 175). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 4 Murray S. (2009). Bauhaus Building [Photograph]. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 22). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 5 Murray S. (2009). Promontory apartments [Photograph]. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 38). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 6 Murray S. (2009). Fagus shoe factory [Photograph]. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 19). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 7 Murray S. (2009). Lake shore building [Photograph]. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 38). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 8 Murray S. (2009). Allied bank tower [Photograph]. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 53). New York: Princeton Architectural Press

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Fig. 9 Murray S. (2009). Pepsi Cola building [Photograph]. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 41). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 10 Murray S. (2009). Hallidie building [Photograph]. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 20). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 11 Nouran Architecture (n.d). Curtain wall under construction. [Online image]. Retrieved from http:// www.alnoranarchitecture.com/projects/smart-village-ecg-main-bulding Fig. 12, 13 Mechanical equipment for aluminium extrusions [Online Images]. Retrieved from http:// www.gnaent.com/cold-extrusion-facilities.html Fig 14, 15, 16 Reynaers aluminium profiles examples [Online images]. Retrieved from http:// www.archiexpo.com/prod/reynaers-aluminium/glass-curtain-wall-aluminum-3519-163957.html Fig. 17 Airplane engine and propeller [Online Image]. Retrieved from http://ftl-incinfo.com/index.php/ testing/dynamic-testing Fig. 18 Curtain wall mock-up [Online Image]. Retrieved from http://panyc.info/portfolio/medicaleducation-building/800_img_1863/ Fig. 19 Thermal performance [Online Image]. Retrieved from http://www.teslawalls.com/thermal.htm Fig. 20 Unitized system[Online Image]. Retrieved from http://vicky9.sale.tjskl.org.cn/pz532238eunitized-curtain-wall.html Fig. 21 Stick built system [Online Image]. Retrieved from http://photogallery.tradebanq.com/78909/ Curtain-wall-stick-system.html Fig. 22 Ochorn J. (2012).Comparison between the two types of curtain walls [Online Image]. Retrieved from https://courses.cit.cornell.edu/arch262/notes/11b.html Fig. 23 Committee on Curtain Wall Systems (2013). Typical curtain wall facade. Curtain Wall Systems a Primer (Ch. 2, p.7). Virginia: American Society of Civil Engineers. Fig. 24 24 AAMA (American Architectural Manufacturers Association). (1996).Drainage path in unitized curtain wall system. Curtain Wall Deisgn Guide Manual Fig. 25 Committee on Curtain Wall Systems (2013). Typical curtain wall components. Curtain Wall Systems a Primer (Ch. 2, p.6). Virginia: American Society of Civil Engineers. Fig. 26 Capped curtain wall system[Online Image]. Retrieved from http://www.visionaluminum.biz/en/ our-products/ Fig. 27 Murray S. (2009). Glass façade [Photograph]. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 214). New York: Princeton Architectural Press 62


Fig. 28 Archello (n.d). Torre Agbar Tower [Online image]. Retrieved from http://www.archello.com/en/project/ torre-agbar/1138793 Fig. 29 Murray S. (2009). Installation of windows [Photograph]. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 147). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 30 Murray S. (2009). Detail of louvers [Photograph]. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 147). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 31 Archello (n.d). Torre Agbar Sketch [Online image]. Retrieved from http://www.archello.com/en/project/ torre-agbar/1003679# Fig. 32 Murray S. (2009). Section detail. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 145). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 33 Murray S. (2009). Partial elevation. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 144). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig.34  Murray S. (2009). Unrolled elevation. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 143). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig.35 Murray S. (2009). Night vs day view of the tower [Photograph]. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 143). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 36 Murray S. (2009). Tower section. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 141). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 37 Murray S. (2009). Glass façade [Photograph]. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 214). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig 38 Murray S. (2009). View from Michigan avenue [Photograph]. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 216). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 39 Murray S. (2009). Entrance canopy [Photograph]. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 217). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 40 Murray S. (2009). Wall section. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 219). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 41 Murray S. (2009). Axonometric view. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 221). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 42 Murray S. (2009). Tower elevation. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 215). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 43 Murray S. (2009). Diagram of curtain wall facets. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 221). New York: Princeton Architectural Press

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Fig. 44 Murray S. (2009). Partial elevation. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 218). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 45 Crosbie M. (2005).Night view of South Elevation [Photograph].Curtain Walls Recent Developments by Cesar Pelli and Associates (p. ).Basel: Publishers for Architecture. Fig.46 Crosbie M. (2005). Main Entrance [Photograph]. Curtain Walls Recent Developments by Cesar Pelli and Associates (p. 66). Basel: Publishers for Architecture. Fig. 47 Crosbie M. (2005). Model of sculptural form F. Curtain Walls  Recent Developments by Cesar Pelli and Associates (p. 67). Basel: Publishers for Architecture. Fig. 48 Crosbie M. (2005). East-West section E. Curtain Walls  Recent Developments by Cesar Pelli and Associates (p. 67). Basel: Publishers for Architecture. Fig. 49 Crosbie M. (2005). South Elevation [Photograph]. Curtain Walls  Recent Developments by Cesar Pelli and Associates (p. 67). Basel: Publishers for Architecture. Fig. 50  Crosbie M. (2005). Interior view of atrium curtain wall [Photograph]. Curtain Walls  Recent Developments by Cesar Pelli and Associates (p. 70). Basel: Publishers for Architecture. Fig. 51 Crosbie M. (2005). Section detail through internal gutter. Curtain Walls Recent Developments by Cesar Pelli and Associates (p. 71). Basel: Publishers for Architecture. Fig. 52 Crosbie M. (2005). Section through skylobby K. Curtain Walls Recent Developments by Cesar Pelli and Associates (p. 70). Basel: Publishers for Architecture. Fig. 53 Crosbie M. (2005). Section through sunshade device M. Curtain Walls Recent Developments by Cesar Pelli and Associates (p. 71). Basel: Publishers for Architecture. Fig. 54  Crosbie M. (2005). Skylight at base detail J. Curtain Walls Recent Developments by Cesar Pelli and Associates (p. 69). Basel: Publishers for Architecture. Fig. 55 Crosbie M. (2005). Section through water stop H. Curtain Walls Recent Developments by Cesar Pelli and Associates (p. 68). Basel: Publishers for Architecture. Fig. 56  Crosbie M. (2005). Citygroup Tower [Photograph]. Curtain Walls Recent Developments by Cesar Pelli and Associates (p. 96). Basel: Publishers for Architecture. Fig. 57 Crosbie M. (2005). View of curtain wall from Jubilee park [Photograph]. Curtain Walls Recent Developments by Cesar Pelli and Associates (p. 97). Basel: Publishers for Architecture. F


Fig. 58 Crosbie M. (2005).Curtain wall section. Curtain Walls Recent Developments by Cesar Pelli and Associates (p. 97). Basel: Publishers for Architecture. Fig. 59 Crosbie M. (2005).Exterior and interior corners of curtain wall showing the supergrid. Curtain Walls Recent Developments by Cesar Pelli and Associates (p. 97). Basel: Publishers for Architecture. Fig. 60 Crosbie M. (2005).Exterior corner detail. Curtain Walls Recent Developments by Cesar Pelli and Associates (p. 98). Basel: Publishers for Architecture. Fig. 61 Crosbie M. (2005).Plan detail of curtain wall. Curtain Walls Recent Developments by Cesar Pelli and Associates (p. 99). Basel: Publishers for Architecture. Fig. 62 Crosbie M. (2005).Section detail of curtain wall. Curtain Walls Recent Developments by Cesar Pelli and Associates (p. 99). Basel: Publishers for Architecture. Fig. 63 Murray S. (2009). South-East corner [Photograph]. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 160). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 64 Murray S. (2009). Section. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 156). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 65 Murray S. (2009). Partial elevation [Photograph]. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 158). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 66 Murray S. (2009). Section detail. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 159). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 67 Murray S. (2009). Partial plan detail. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 158). New York: Princeton Architectural Press Fig. 68 Murray S. (2009). Building elevation. Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture (p. 155). New York: Princeton Architectural Press


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Curtain wall systems technology report  

This document is intended for educational non-profit use only, it is not intended to be publicly searchable. All sources are credited where...

Curtain wall systems technology report  

This document is intended for educational non-profit use only, it is not intended to be publicly searchable. All sources are credited where...

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