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l\,vqntljo thonk everyone iNoh/ed In cleoiicg lhls book. lom sinceelygrcJefullo Donold Holden,I\,4ory Suffudy ond CondoceRoneyfor lheif wisdom ond gL]idonce.

Ed'led by MarySLrilodyand CandaceRan6y Oe{ign€dby BobFlle Graphicp|oduclionby E lenG€ons

LrpliI Publoations Cogright@1986by Wat6on-G Fn$ pubtished 1986in N€wYorkby Watson-Guplill PLrbllcations, Publications, a dMsioi ol Billboard nc. 1515aroadwayNewYork,N.Y1003€ t ir'ry

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Lrssolls tom Michelangslo. 1. F$tEdlawing-Tschnique. 2. Drawing, 3. [4ichelangelo FgEirsaE-E{hniqu6. Buonarlo, r475-156a-Thern€€, moti!€s. l. Title. 743'.4 ifc6t5.B8'/ €86 86-11107

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Disttrtsd h !E t niled Kingdomby PhaidonPress,Lld., Li@ab Eols€, SL EbbebSt., Oxiofd All riits r€s€.Ed. No pa.t of ihis publicationmay be rwodr€d 6us€d h any iom or by any means graphic, electD.*i n nE ls*:al. indlding photocopying,recod'ng, lalirE, 6 hturdir| $rage ard leidevalsystems-wilhout sm€.t pr.tri*irx: d t|e Fui*rer Manuftdll€d in U.S-A. 1 23,1 5 6 7 8910/919089 8A87 86

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woy,l wsnledlo nne do,/ \dh e vlewingo drowng show Rothetin o moslp eosurable Vhod on etperience thot offected m-- st down wilh you,lookai lhesemognficent :eeplyLs cosuoywo kedlhroughiheroom, worksond beg n d scussng thoseospeclsof :aw o drowingI coudn't toke my ey€solf, eoch wgrkthol o recleo resi1l.observeoswe :nd ol lhe olher drowlngsseemedsho ow os mosiimporlonilo lirstrolefgure drowing Iire drawngsseecied ior th s trookshow and undslingushed by comporson.Thoi :rcwingwoso nude sfudyby M chelongelo ih,. figurein manywrols posesirom a ldi lihough h o d b e e n l o m i o r w l h terenlpo nlsofvew Thereiso greoloppodu '.ilcheongelotworkol my fe, iseemedlhol nly here10observehowo moslerdrcflsmon monyol the fofmsof lhe body .nly now perhopsbecouseof myeducolion foreshodens :nd troinng,waslrecept\€to hh nfe|preto ond chongeslheif shopesin ihe different _?nsof lhe figufe nfocl,ilwasosf hodn-.ver Anyonewho serously $ontslo underslond :eenlhembeforeondlholnothingcouldbe -ore exciiinglhcn lo be n ihe presenceof greolfrguredrowingmuslde\r'cie o conslder _ gh Renoissonce od ond flnoly hove eyes ob e omounloflirnelolhesludyofonolomy _rolcoud seeit hoveonlyconcenlroledon the moslimpor n ionl musclesond musce groupson l1_ie slr Sincelhol doy I ho!€ been lhoroLrghly ,c\,€d n the processond mogicof drowing face of the f gure Forgreolerclorlv I ho\€ _.1efgure My increosedknowledgehos ncludednextlo Michelongelob workso di _e\€rde$royedlhe sponlonellyond mogcl ogromof lhe skeleton showng ony ihe mus ' hosonlyenhoncedilgreoiy ln foct,I ho!€ cle or muscesunder discussionTheseore 'rund thol drowng wthouto frm foundolion nlended io he p you underslondond re_ lhe p ncpes of onoiomy s morediflicuI anemberexocilywhereo fom beginsand ron ihe ocil.rolsdrnng of lhoseprnciples When begonio wte lh s book,mYinTen- Thesewrl ngsoTeio be consideredon in_3nwqsio keep the spirl of fgu€ drowing troductonorcotolyslio o pfofoundslLlciy thoi .iocl.lho!€ nol oltempledio soyeveMhing yo! w spendlhe restof )o!r doysenJoyng.I roi con be saidoboul drowing,nor frove fei stronglyihol \tonled lo createo book - ed to lisiolLihemuscesoflhe h!mon body ihoi would knockdown some borefs ond iclher,in o mosipleoslroblewqy,I \tonleclto a low \,oungorihisio beg n to reqllyundef: i downwiih \,ou,lookol thesemognifcenl stondthe lormsoffhe flgure,lilscleorto me thosecspectsof thal f wonledihe reoderlo shoremy g€oT ,,crksond begindiscusslng ',llch6ongelo3\^ofklhoi ore ceoresllo ob- enihlsiosmfor onolomyanddrqwng prlnc:?tueos wel os mosl imporiantio lilsl_roie p es, wou d have lo expresssome comp ex '3iJ|edrowng, deos in o more simplfed wqy ond I loke when lbegon io wriieihisbook,my inien responsibiV lor thot. N4orelhon on!4hngese, lhis book is ihe rn wosio keep lhe spit of figuredrowng _ioct, ho\€ nol oliernptedto soye\€Mh ng express on of o lo\,€affor thol I hovehodwllh -ci con be sod oboui drowng, nor hove I the exhoordinorydrawlngsof lhe greolesl - ed to sla I the mlrscles of the humonbodl mosterof the figure,Mcheongeo. Michoe Bubon NewYorkC ly,1986





FORINFNUDES SKETCH'S 1508,tadd point ontl p.n 73/r'.t 9qt p1.27 t 24.45ch)


Preliminory Skerches is n9.ForMicheonge o, drow Eorm eleMh rcrm I ng s o pfoceou€ rcr oercrmrnrng the i uson of form s merelyappfoxmoleiJ lorm is ndicoledby lighl ond shodeolone Theshopeof o form sdelined exaclly by ihe use of ne, fire lhree seaied figLrreswere drownwilh lighl sketchyInes colled p€nr'' or chongesof m nd menli 'Yepenlonces," beforclhe lnol contourisdrown. Prelminorysketchesor conlour drowngs thol ndicoteoverolproportonsondlhe ges fure of the pose o€ essenliollo sLrccessfu fgu€ drowings,Thereis not much poini in deloilsos hondsor€elor movingonlo sLrch

10lhe nsidemodelng of lhe fgue wilhoul firsieslab shingthe ollside shopeoJlhe fig uTen o geneTotwgy E!€ryfigurehoson implcil oclion,or gesture.]helneA connechihe portsof lhe body lrcm heodio ioe and suggesis lhe geslureof nrepose.Gestu€istheh.4hmor musicofthe p figure.whichcreoleso peosingrelotionsh benreen one form cnd onolher Mchef ongelo ncorporoledo slrongsenseof ges Hhboldcurvingond turein o lof hisdrowngs. lire posefrcm bespirolinginespre\r'enled comingstiffond wno'rurol,

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ealg ond belllchelongelo drew consfonil\4 ItI cousepoper was expensi\ein the sixleenthceniuryh spogeswelen\oroblyflled wlh o\,e opping sketchesond studies. lhe his skelches on ihispoge cleory demonsirole eorly esioblishmenl of powe !1, e\ocot\â‚Ź dlowings.Thebod, untoliernginesusedlo ndicotelhe oulsideshopeof ihe odulttg!â‚Ź and ch d {A)ore beoulifuydrown Oncethe oliside conlourof o llgufev/osdelermined,

Mcheongelo begon to indcote more deio ed forms He representedskeeiol ond musculormossesby quick,light nes Forex omple,ihelnesol Bindicoiethe col orbones, or c avcles;ihe shod nes in lhe oreo of C suggesilhegreolpecioro muscles on lop of lhe r b coge.A seresof shorllnes,which\dere suggesi then applied lo lhe arge mosses, formsthoi ore lo be in shodowtnole lhe cur\,edlineson the bock ofihe thlghoi D.



of Form TheShopes The n o fgureson ihe rqhlotlhs drowing, ! whch ore renderedn lqhi ondshode(4 wereperhopsfrctskelchedln line,muchlike the n o frgu€s on the eft (Bl Itishelplulfilsiloindcolelheoulsideshape of lhe figLrre in o looseond genero monner, wilhoulbeing concemed oboul mnor de toils.l€epng in mindhowlheheod,ribcoge, ond pe vicmosses orelo be p oced inspoce, musl o so delerrn ne the poslonsof ihe ),ou ormsond egs,Onceyouho€ opproprole y drownlhe oulsde shopelo del lle lhe direc iion ond size of ihe forms,lhen colefully ond poienlly refne ollthe genero linesio ochievethe flno ouisde conlour ine Asyou obser\ethe oulsideshopesof thesefgures, noiicelhe\,orouschongesin difeciionof lhe lnes l.liimotely,lhe linesof lhe f glle connol be vogue;ihey must cleory fepresentthe onolomy lt s mportanl, ho\^€!€i notlo drow d fecllonsond linesndicolngdetalsL.htilthe propofiions ol the lorgerformsoreexocty lhe lhe woyyouwsnilhemObviouslythesiudyof shopesof ihe formsof ihe bodyisfundomenio io drowingihoseformsoccuraieyAsihe trueshopes of lhe boneond rnuscleslructure ore underslood,lin€sbecome \€ry eosyto

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ln the d'owing ol efl, tou con see how IMchelongelo bu i feshyforrnson lop of lhe skeletolshucture.lhe ribcoge (AJondlhe pevis(B)ore hugebonystructuresonwhichto Londmork boselhe enlireposeondgesture, greonyfromone indviduollo \r'ory oflhe iLesh onolherOnsomemodelsthen pp esorelowl on olherslheyore high Bonesg \,eo reloble on whlchto setof fixedpoints,or ondmorks, buiLdo drowing. lvloke onofomcol drowlngsolong with )o!rdraw nggfromthe model.Ofcourselour rnode does nol ook like on onotomcal drowng,bui by mokn9occomponyng skel' etolondmuscuordrcwngs,youore liflinglhe curtoinof skin n orderlo seelhe uhderlyng strlcturethof detgrmneslhe shopeson lhe

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Agoodwoylo eorniheformsofihebody s lo proclicedrowingthe majof mossesffom onoiomy chorh Drow ihe frcni, side,ond bock views Closeihe book dnd see how much'ou can dfowlrcm memoryll lsa soo good ideo lo proclice drowing frcm the greotmo$ers,lf N,lchelongelocon gi\€ )ou on ideowherethe linesshoud be pul down, whal betrerhelp coLJldyou ho1€?Another wqyio eorn isio dtaw ftom o reolskelefon, Skelchihe skeeion o\€r yourfguredrowings io seeif lou hove ploced ihe bonescorrecily, lhe skin-for Monybonesore directlyLJndor instonce, ihe skul,the knee,ond lhe bonesof ihe feol and hoads

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Ihese boxes ore bosed on the lenglh af the slernum. ^lale lhe relallonship af lhis lenglh la alhet

minuslhe xiphod process, I n drowing,the fgure s bu I oul ol mosses bone,or sternum, 5 s wh ch s ocoiedot lhe boliomof lhe siern!m I lhol hoveo relofonshp io eoch oiher:Th acLectpropodons n o ploportono sYslem Thelenglhoflhe slernumnlocleqLrolslhe _-reori st con usewhoteverporl of lhe bocly longlhof selerc oiher seclionsof lhe onoi^? kesos o lnl of meosureThenhe need omy Forexompe, l eqlols the engthof The the lengihol lhe shoulderblode,or :- y anol\/?ehow lhh chosenunil Ie oles10 clovcLe, :: erpodsofthebodyTheonc enl EgYplons scop! o,lhe d sloncebelweenlhe scopuoe, _:c o propodionolsystem thoi\dasbosedon the lenglhof lhe hand m nuslhe tp of lhe -,. englh ol lhe midde fnger opp colions th rd f nger ond lhe w dth oi ihe heod n oddton, ihe siernollenglhmutpled :: rhhsyslemoso occur n cerToinexompes the one ond o ho f limesequa slhe lenglhofihe :'Greek orl Accordng 10 lhs syslern, :^qih ofihe midde fngermulip ed by n ne' heod (fromthe top of the sku io the boliom _:.n equos the heght of ihe figure The ollhechin)ondthe englhollhe foreormThe ihe engih ol :^glh of ihe hond muiplied by ien or the slernollengihdoubed eqLrols :^glh oi ihe looi muLlp ed by sx a so op- lhe r b cooe,iheoppfoxmoleu/dih oiihe fli) : .x moieslhe heghiof on o\â‚Źroge hlmon coge oi iiswdesl poinl ond ihe engThofihe upper orm, or humerus Ihree iimes ihe ri l'redeveopedlhe drowingshownhere, lenglhoilhe siernurn ol tte eqlo sihe Lengrih '. a.eongelowosevdeniylhnkng of lhe lhighos\de oslhe lenglhofihe egwihlhe :_!i1 of lhe kneeond how il le oieslo lhe fool, lhal s, the heighloi ihe fooi (ihe dis :-: formsoflhebodyAflercorrecly render lonce fromihe onke io lhe groLlndl n ine,M cheongelo Ho\,e),ouevercompleledo drowng oiihe :-e porlsoitheknee :::eeded to odd lght ond shode-noie figureonlyio fnd lhoi lhe head isioo srno, - :' -e ght in lhisdrowingcomesfromthe ihe orm s ioo long,oI the body sloo wide? Thecurefortheseproblemsslo workosmuch =' .-i iowqrdthe fronlol lhe liglrre -: nlerestng lo observelholihe engihoi osyoucon wth proporions,TheoncienlorT -:..39,ihoi s,lhedisloncefromlhetopoisis of Greece lo\,ed lo work wlh meosure -: ::-rmon lendon,(4, of lhe quodrlceps mentsond numbersond thosehormonoLrs -,:: . io ihe knee ng polnl,or tuberce oi numbersloundihe rwoyinlothereoi onships -: -: . forms lhe lgure of lhe of equa s the enerlh of lhe br,aosilBl,

Proportions Used byRenoissonce Artists



be- usuollymode n the owerlmbs Qy underrtondngthe reoionshrps glween fofmsin a siondnq f qLrfeyouw Accordingio lhs systemof meosuremenf, hovea beller deo of whot io expeclwhen ihe heod lselfconsiitules the irst meosure h the dlslou encounlerfglres in seotedor €clinng meni(A).Thesecondmeosuremenl lance beireen lhe chin ond ihe nppes (B) Arlisisof ihe Renossoncewere fond of Thethird meosuremenis lhe d sloncefrom Lrsingihe englh of Jhe heod os o uni of lhe n pp es io the e\€ ol the no\,e (C)rihe meosureThe engih of Jheheod mulip ed iourlh fromthe no\€l lo ihe crolch,or symsevenond one hof lmes equo/slhe loto physspubls(D)jtheRfihffornihe crolchloihe he ghiof on a\erogeliguretlheheod lengih leve of lhe mddle ol ihe ihigh (E)rlhe sixth mullipliedby eghl equohlhe heighloJololl fromlhe midde ol lhe lhighlo ihe le\,eof the personrond the heod lenglh mulllp/ied knee (D;lhe se\,enfhfrom lhe knee lo lhe roughlyby sevenequo slhe he ghl ol o shod m dde ol ihe ower eg (G)jond the eighfh ndviduol.Renossonceorlsh usualy used fromlhe mlddleof the owerleg io the bol eghi heodsas o meosuremenl simpy be- tom of the foot (H) I yo! oppy lhe englh of lhe heod to lhe couse il s eosier10 subdivdeeighl lhon se\,enond o holf.Ofcoursenolo lrnodeho€ w dihsoisorneoi ihe mossesolihe figufe,),ou ihe some height D screpdncyn heighl in con seelhol lhe lengthol one heod equa s mosTinsionces, occursn the o\^€rlimbsrlhe lhe d sloncebe veenthe nipplesos we os lengihoilhe heodond lnrnkdoesnot\ilryso lhe d slonceocrossthe \ro si, One ond one hol heod engihsequo lhe much.Thelefore, odjuslmentsn heghlwefe




y'6youdrow conlinuolyscon\,oursubleci iLsiancebeireen the ormpihos wellosthe lemoeb The lntroduclionol bod proporlionsresulls ,ldlh of lhe mo eh pevc massrlhe whenyou Looktoo longat ony givenpan or seLvicrnossss ghllywidet delollof lhe body n odditionto lhe propor dsthe lengih of tu/o heodsequoh ihe here, '3nce ocross lh,a moe3 shouders;the lionolsysiems thothovebeend scussed relo_ wlh oiher come up why nolexplore ond norrov€t The ore sighty shouders =moeb olyourown?Themorereollonships .nglh ofiv/oheodsso soequolto ihe lengih uonships thoiyouconlindosyoudrowlhe moreoccu_ :i ilre lhigh. role yourlgure wiL be. Proporiionosy$ems n drow ngiromlhelop li so mhiokeiobeg be lseful and comiodoble Mchei_ your shoLrld sh drow_ lo fn ond oliempl ihe heod :: -g of ihe bo1lomoi the fgLrreojl n one ex ongeos meoslrremenls oi ihe llgure ore lhose ol soy E Greco lrcm poris of The ceorly differenl sketch n ihe :arion Lnsfeod, 'j!re n o generolv/oy,lndicoing proporiions Thefemoe fgu|e oi DeLoh ond the orger tholyouhovebeenstudyng :_c ceslure,Thnkof ),ourfiguredrowng oso lg!re ofSornson -.p on whichyo! simpyv,/oniio pon ond here ore dfown occordingio proporlionol thal ore roughyihe same I s ihe :;coler ihe plocemenlof the porlsof lhe syslems of meosurelhal ore d i ol po nts,or lond lengths lhe Lrnits of ..:dy lhe esloblishmenl -ark, ond the plocemenlof inesconneci €leni noiice lhol the heod ol Sornsonis _3 lfese poinlsore mportonl n poitng i\r ce os lorgeoslhol oi Delioh : aperproporijonsbetv€enlormsofthebody

AH S,AMSON ANODEUL 153Arcd chdlk loli t 15.!, 1272 \ 395 ch)

Fonns Designing The eftecllveplocemeniot one obleci in I fe otonto onolheroblecfs\ery mporlonl in a work of orl. Thelhingsthot )ou leorn oboul drowingo sngle figurewillo so be of help in composlngo piciule mode !p of groupngsof frgures. Juslostheâ‚Ź iso geslule, or h)4hm,throughoulihelormslhol mokeup o singleflgure,theremuslbe a rhy,thm lhot conneclsmuliple imoges, In ihis drowing of Hercuesengoged in d sporole octions, lhe gesfuresof lhe ind! vlduolfguresbiendhormoniousylo creoieo unifed composillonThoifhormonyofgestue cousesthe eyelo fow freelyfromone fgure lo onoiherTryio visuolize curved,ffowinglines thofconnecithethreef gufesin lhlsdrcwing. A good composilionollen hos numerous fildhm hesrunnlngln monydifferentdireclionr,Thus,ihe podsof o drawingore never ireoiedas bh ond piecesbul workiogether lo forrno lorgerlnljy

Rhy'hmlinesindi.ote lhe flaw ot .rD.Jenlenlwithin o drcwing ond rclote indiviluol figut$ ta the compositr, os o whole.

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IHRFELABORS OF NERCUTES 1523 rcd cholk 144" ' 16qr (27.31t 4223ch) DoDoged

Form Complex Simplifying Thk is o foscinolinoskelchnloving mony I fgufesondmuchdynomc oction,lis!cuobe becouseii showshow lvlchelongelo lhoughl oboui ond drew compicotedcuslers oi inlerocJngfgures Theseliguresore drownos simpe iornrs,bll the drowingis in no v\rcy vague,Theseporoionof one muscle mossirom onolheron lhesesmoi bodiesis c eorlydeined by Inei ond shorl holched nesore paced on thosetiguresor porlsol fgures1o â‚Źpresentshoding Nole lhat lhe ighi source n N/ichelongelo's drowingsol mosio wqyscomes from lhe efl Wrelherlou are workingon o drowingof one fgure or o hlfdred fgures,il is wiselo keepo lihe foms smple lf youcon v sucize you one hundredfguresos one lorge rnoss, w I ha\e discoveredo fundomenlolkuth oboui whot greatdrowingenlois lhe subord nolionofdeioi io ihe elfeclverendering




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l Mossing lheHeqd Th s h o delo I of lhe drowinglhol oppeors concept I on poge 131.lheoldestmossing |.Bedby orl slsfor lhe head h lhol of ihe boll ond the owl. Tryto seelhrough deloils of lhe heodosif lheydid nol exslond nolelhoi the or cranium,sosphefe(Al.ondthe t rolncose, mossofthe iJce, whenthe feoluresore dis'egoded, oppeors lic be on o\r'ol(B).ll is exiemey imporloniic wderstondthe slzeof li|e bo oflhe heod in le olonshiptolhe size

of theowl of lhe nrce.Thebolloftheheod,or cronium,willRlinloa perbcJsqloretthe ovol ofthe loce isone ond o holft mesoslongos lhe boll of the heod. Peopleofien moke lhe ihe croniumloo smollforthe foce Theorlisl mustalsoconsiderhow these1vr'o large mossesore io be ploced, lhe relo lionshipof ihe ballof the heod lo the owlof lhe focâ‚Ź will of cou6e wry depending on ihe posiiionof lhe heod.

the relallonshpat the poll of lhe hed b t'heawl at thb fo.P wj chonge os the mode/3pcrtion chonges


fheHeodin Spoce Posifioning

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The iosr or dfowng,ucl"rcomplcoied I fo{m5os lhe heod in o llted posilions greaiy essenedf youlrst th nk ofthot head oso slmpeiorm o bock,cy ndetorovo ond ihen placeihiss mpe form n o posilion lhoicorâ‚Źspondsioihedes redposion oiihe heod Disreoord ng ihe ieolures, Thedrowng of ihs heod con be Lrnclerslood os a cyiinder kemossilling ntolhepoperoilh,-lopos the bolTorn of the cylnderproleclsforwarclf o cy nder were poced n lhis posion in spoce you woud see some of lhe c rcuor underpone allhe boltomor bosebul none oi the c rculorlop plone.Nolce lhal lh-- nes represenifglhe hol (Aldefne ond ernphosze ihe cy ndrcol shope of ihe for-oheocl, ond ihol the rlesusedfor the borderof lhe oweriaw (BJsuggesilheunderpone ol the cy rdetvsuo z ng lhe foceoso cy nderwih inesencrc ng t also heps nsurethot you ploce eyes,nose,and mouthon the heod

la irs,te lf)e ptapet tlll af the hedd lr .dtowirg. t is helptulta lhi.k af the fa.e as o cftnCtical

SIUDYOF IHE NEADOF DA\II..I 1524-21 tot totet) ed chdtk, bldck choik, ohd peh 13', \ 31/,',63 42 t 21 se cn) L




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When pasilioning the feo ^.trct il is helpful ta divide lhe loce inla lhnds wilh light hai

The I fsllhinqsyoumighlnoice n lhisdfowI ing of o heod ofe the beoulfulond com p exdetoih,blllhedelaiharenotwholmoke ihs drowing greol Whol h mportant lo nollce s lhclthe smollerforms o€ drawnso thotihey appeorlo reslgrocefullyon lop of lhe ofger mossof lhe heod ls€lf.Heods drownby Micheangeoovr'cysgile the u sionof beng o solidmossn spoce. Whendecid ng on lhe plocomentol lhe feotures,t s hepful lo dividelhe loce inio Thrds Youmightwantlo rln ghl horizonio lnesoroundlhe ow - ikemossof ihe foce al the evel of lhe balures.Theforeheodfrom the holrinelo ihe brcw (4 woud represenl one lh rdi lhe nosewoud represeni the sec ond lhirdtond lhe spocefrcmthe bofromof lhe nose (B)lo the bollom of the ch n (CJ woLrldloke up ihe losflhird.lhislosisecton con be furthersubdividednio ihirdsin order lo ploce lhe moLrihond chin colecly The seporotonof ihe lps willbe otihe botiomol the firstlhirdtlhetop of the chn wil be neor lhe boltomofthe secondihirdrond the bol, tomoflhechinw be ai ihe bollomol the osi thirdYouhoveto soy"neof"of "oboul,whsn speokng of meosufemenhbecouselhere youcon justnotlcehow ofe no obsolutgrulest c oselyiheleoluresofihe mode corespond io the c osscal proportonsoui ned obove n iems of depih, ihe reoilonshipof ihe boiufesmustoho be c eory esloblishedThe nose s fodhefforv,qrdlhan lhe mouihiihe upper lip is mo€ forvr'ord lhon ihe owerllpr ond ihe chln s fortherbockthanihe mouih. Iry drowing consiructonlines-hor zonioi, \ericol, ond diogono-from one feolureio onoiherThephllirum(D),or areo obo\€ ihe cenler of lhe lpper p exiendsdownwqrd frornlhe cenlerof the boseol the nose,lhe philirurnformso rnosi nlereslngplonet I s conco!€ irom lop io boitomond oso conco\€ iromsideloside.Thsistheonlypone of iisknd on lhe enl re lgure, you ore io reolronshlps the moresensili\,e belween vorous ieoiures,ihe belier your drowngswi be. Nol€that on mognory\€r Uco ne exlendingupwordlromthe bock of ihewingoJihenosewouldconneclthispoint of org n withlhe innercornerol the ele. Noticeloo thot the chn sirop (E)in this drowlngservesaso contourineihothelpsio exploinihecuri€d ospecloflheunderplofe ot the owerlow(Fl Ihe ch n stroposo separoles the ower jow flom onother cufted pone,lhe cylindorof the neck {Gl.Youcon seelholihechn ntesecisthe neckot o ower elellhon doesthe backoJtheskull. Thebase oflheneck s owerinfronlthon in bock,which gives i o fo^/crd ihrust


tl I







.- oiLt,5323/.bto-\.1o\'..




lheFeotures withLightondShode Defining - : .:=re' c eorwheiherlh s slhe l]owiire symboof o so d s weokened. I--::: I :' : - an oro womon, lvlcheionoe o Olco!rsewiihihe heod rilh s posltion,the sde ond podonsoiihe fronipionesof ol of ,,.-:. -19 crlsfsnlo sketchlinescrevs thesmolerforms olthe heodoreo sovisibe, .. ^nsCrowing Thereo revery€w slroighl osorelhebockord sde ponesofthe neck. .:3.efe Michecnge o wasconcernedwih Thed rect ght n thisdrowng comesifom .leci nga soldheodono faipieceolpopet ihe efi ondihe iellecled ghlcomeslrornthe ,n cars besloccomplishedby usingcurvecl r ght.Thesideplonesof ihe heod ore in ght, nes Ihe linesof lhe hol (Aond B)he p c or fo whereoslhe frontpanes of lhe foce o€ in iire foundness ol the heod Thelinesof lhe shodowLghl and shadedel ne ihe meelng siernocledomasloidmuscle(C)help lo de poces of fronlond srdepones,ll rsmost m po onllholsr-rch fne the neckos o cylinder clefnilionbe estobshedby ThislhreequorlerposI on clromolicaIy n- lneor by ghl ond shcderolherwhelhe forms creoseslhe uson of ihe heod os o lhree- of the heod ond lace w I oppeorfol Themergingol thefronlondsidepionesof dimensionol foranThnk of a cube drown n juslsucho poslon Nowd.ow of lh nk of o lhe nose (Dl.s ernphcszedby lhe obrLrpl cube poced n o compelesde vewt nole chonge frornlghi lo shade Therdge oi o form,ihe iunclureof l^/o panes,shouldbe nlio y eslob shedby drowng o line. l/ore roundedformsore ndicoled by o moregroduallronslon ofva ue fromiighiio clork.BecoLrse ol th sgrodLraprogression. ihe loreheocloncl neck oppeor mor,-ro!nclecl ihon do lh-6nose,rnollh,onclch n on which ihe clrongeifom lightio clorks obrupt.The nose.mouTh.ond chin are bocklike n opTlreeor sbeoli fu lydrowno nd posilofed. tsfroniborder s ocaledallheholwrypo nl of ihe sde of ihe heod f th s worco siroqhl profe viewihe lop oriheeorwoudoppeor e!€ w th lhe browondihe bofom ollhe eor woLrldappear e\,1rwilh lhe bofonr of the nose.8!i snce ihe hed.l s I 1e.l.lownword, ihe ear correspon.l ng y iilisupword n conkasl lo ihe nose ond o\irl oi the loce Th-. more the hecrd s t led, ihe more ihe reo-



Afierp npointingihe conecllocoiionofThe eor youshoud generolly--stabsh ls olrlsicle shope NoleM checngeob corefuoiJeniion lolhelubekecort ogesoflheeor lhefm,or heix (E)rlhe Yshopeclnnercorl oge oi ihe onlhe x (Fl, which cLr^/es dowri\,lord o ongsde ihe he ix;ihehro smalprojeclions oi lhe irogus(G) ond ontilrosus(H) /rogus comesfromlhe Greekwordmeonng goofs beorcl"ril s herelhol hoirsn lhe eor occur Thecorliogessurround cnd deine lhe hear ing cono, or concho 0. Theeor/obe!) s hondsomeydecorotedwlh lhe eorrnO.The cortiogesformng the eols ond noseconlinue10grow througholtour lelme, whch meons od foks somelimeshove er1roor d nor y bg eorsond nosesi


^s .l

a;-!, NEID,1516,red cholkS' \ 6lr" 2AS \ '165nnl

of Voluefo line TheRelolionship con opply qhiondshodelo o cV n lf VoLr I Oer yolr con dfow ihe necl of o mode Oflenlhe heod coslso shodowon lhe neck Mcheongeo knew lhol such dork spois coud spoillhesuble effeciof ghl. iis nier esing io nolelhol oilmes, he om iredor jLrsi borey suggesledsuch cost shodows(A Thereo refewexlremely dorkionesin ihe eye



sockeioreo{Bl,ondthecaslshodowiromihe nose [C] is oso qule subJe ,\ o .ue, Micheongeo ,,!caexircmelycorefu cboul cosl shodowsand oiher dorktonesused10 defne forns n ghi oreasof hh drawngs. Youcon undersiondhow lhe drcclon of ihisheoclwasesiob shed by vsualzng hvo mpo(onTconsirucionnes;mooneo horzontc ne runningthroughlhe eyesond o !â&#x201A;Źrfco ne runnnOlhrough ihecenierofihe foce Thenose s beouifLrlydrowncnd pertucllyp oced coftislenlwth the directon of lhe rnossof the head ll m ghl be he pfu lo lh nkofonimognoryorrowpiercing ihe bock ol ihe mossoi lhe head,ot lhe eve of the bottomof lhe nose,ond com ng oullhe froni of lhe head ol the some eve Thisonow woud ndiccle the direction n which lhe nosesnouroDeolown TheInesoflhh ng oreveryexpress ve onclore reoled 1oo llhe olher eemenlsof clrowng.Lnesusecltodeineformsoflenioke ihevo uesopp ed ioihe orgermosses ln ihe oreasihai lhey possover Forexample,ihe ne oi lhe lroi iso aonTour ihai isdrowno\er ord explonslhe shopeol ThefoleheoclThis ine s very ghl os i lrovehlhroughihe high ighl oreo [D]ol the mossoi lhe heod ond becon'es.larl<er as il r'rovesnlo lhe shadow oreo(ElTherno$ ofihe foce sstrocl,od mrch os o large egg woLrdbe The/ighi s fo nO fronrabove efi ond lo\dordihe ironl.Sucho ighlng schemeifsuresthot threeJourlhs ol lhe heod s in ighi wh e one fourth s n Theinesusedonlhe efl sideofsuchfofrfs os ihe eyebrows, ihe oi the eye,ihe w ng oiThenose. ondihe lpsoreolliglriernione thanthe nesusedon the rightsde. Theeyebrows olso rcpresenledby nes lhoi eclro ond expoin ihe fofm obo\â&#x201A;Ź ihe eye Thesepofotonfiefr'r'een the froniond sideof the foreheodoccursct F Thecurved LnesLJsed for lhe eyeldsdelinelhe rounded iorm of lhe eyebol, and lhese iinescurve sighiy up\dord,ndicolng thoi lhe heocl s t led s ghllydownwcrclThe ine usedlo sep orole the lps oso curles.slightyupward Slroghl nesonywhereon the f gurelend io

IEADOFFEMALP FIGURE 3ld ' 55/l(2121 \ 1129cn)


theNoseondMouth Shoping T h e r g h l n g s c h e m ee m p o y e d h e f et r o sa I R)vofrle or Micheongeoe o enge lqhl soufce from lhe efl lowsrd ihe ironl ond obove ihe figure, L nes os wel os lghi ond shade n [,4cheongelo3 drawngs ore olwcys bosed on lhe orlislsp'oiound underslondng oi forrn.Thevo ues con be ihoughloi os lhin oyerc of skin plocecl on lhe so d scu pluro forms of the figufe P,s n ihe drowngs seen eor er,eyeld linesore cqrefulyclrownherelo convey a sense of lhe mass of lhe eyeba l. AdisTsrarey nd cole fhe eye oshesbecouse lhey hove so lllle fo|m McheongeoS unclerslondingoi ihe poris ol The nose ore c eorly demorislraieclhere Theoreo bel\reenlhe bfows,obove the nose, s colecl lhe giobeilo (Al 1is o down\aord s o p n g p c n e , w h c h c u r \ e su f d e r o n c l o w o y from lhe lighfsourceemonolng from obove SLrbllegroylone oppl-ad lolhe g obello sug gesTsih scLrrvingowoy lrom the lighi D reciy beow th.,rgobela s The Jrone câ&#x201A;Źoied by ihe bi.lqei of lh,- nose.which s composeii of l v / os m . r / l n o s ob o n e s( B J . l h ipso n e . w h c h s iooclo.l by ghl, wideris os l sopes.lowir\,!ad .rfd lerrrrfoles on o evc ihoT corre spoftls wiThThe nner corncrsol ih.- cyes.The ower hn iollhc cy r.lcrjiko rierl] oflhc fos{l lrecomes rnorc noffow os it eiTencis(lown rfTolhe bulb oi ihcrorc (Cl The owerer.rol thc nosc s formed by ihree smo . rolnded,

yelblocklke masseslhebub, niheceniet ond Thewngs on eilhersde,wh ch ore por lio y embedded n the cenlro and slighiy orgerbu b Nolce howMichelangeobmaslerfu monpulolionof \4true cousescerioin oreosol Thenose io odvancewhie oiher oreosTecedeThereolonshipben/eenihe formsoflhe head n lermsoi deplh s oiwoys we consdered b'y Micheangeo For n slonce,onelee sihoi n h sdrawngslhenose sc eaflyiorwardoiihe eyesofdiholihe eyes ole ceoriyfor\,lordof ihe eors ft4icheongeobdrowi]rgsof mouihsfever ookfol. n thisdrowng lheTes o ceofsense oi Tfremouihcurvngaroundlhe loolh cy n der of the underyingsku The upper p pone, receves which s o clownwarclsopng essghithqndoestheoweriip,wh chslopes upwordTheowerlp lnlhisdrawng hosbeen shacledosone woud shodeo horzontacy incleflhe upper p ismade up ofihfeeiorms one in the m .l.lle oriclonc on eoch sido whie Theow--r p s made up of hro forms. Once Thesirlclureof Thehe,:,:ls esTob ishecl,you sho! d TokecoreTo dec cleon ihe exocTocoTionol lhe leoTLil:s. A qoo.l eye n ihe wrongploce sworseilran o bod drawfg ollh(--cyen lhrir ehip oce \lnr.rlirco !l ftJof hornrna onrl v-^dico r,-s o(f,ossyolr nxxlcl! lftje vr lhot yo! can .lejemii'r the le ai onshp of lh--f-.aiues





. -"'*11"'

tA s lda,





TheMuscles ofExpression





SIUDY FOEruE HEAD OFTI]EDON MADONM '15034, red.hdlk /'h \ 6* [24 \ 1715cn)

T he dominorng rormortheheod sthesku cronrum,hoso iendinoussheeilhol exlends I Theob, i1lto drowlhe heod vlettEbosed o\€r lhe lop of ihe cron Lrmlo lhe foreheod, on on underslonding ofthe shopeoJlheskull. wherefibersogoinoccur.Allhe fo€heod the Thoreole o fewveryihin mltsces ol ihe foce musce term noles in the skn obo\,e lhe eye Thoii ll oulihebonysiruclure ol ihe skutt. These brows.Theoccipiiojronlals hosihe funclion cre the musctesoi expressionAddltionolltj oi lfiing up lhe eyebrows, creoiinghorizonloi lhere ore lwo musceson lhe heod, wh ch wrinkeson lhe foreheodos seen n lhe exmo\e the ower jow or mandbe, ond ore presson of surprse or ollenton usedfof chewng food Theele s sufioundedby se\€ro musces, Themusclesof expression ore slrucluroly Theseincludehro selsofcirclilor muscleslhe \€ry diJlelenlfromlhe musclesof lhe body nnerondoulerringsof lhe orbiculorh ocu i (B the mlsclesiholmo\€ lhe bodyofginofeot and Cl Theinnefrngs,or po pebralpori (Bl, one bone ond insertnto onolherbone.The are respons be for openingand closingihe muscesol exp€sson o soorginoleon bone, eye ds. The ouler ring,or obiiol porl (C), on ihe skuI,bulihey inserlinlotheskinofihe oboveTheeyes,whenconlraciedw llpulllhe irce Whef lhesemusclesconirocl ihey pLt/l skin beireen lhe eyebrows s ghlly down the skin,producingwriousfcrcioexpressions.word,cousrngshortverilcolwrnkes lo op Theocc p to-frontolis muscle(A co\ersthe peorbei/,eenlhe brows.Ths muscleexpresOock,lopond fronlof the cronium,Thlsm!s- seslhe letlocll\,eor mediloli\e slo1e, cle, orginoiing n Jberson lhe bock of the Anolhermusclein lhe ele oreo islhe cor-


i -Jgotorof lhe eyebrowor corugolor super : i (D),o \,erysmaI muscleor ginotingon lhe '3reheod,underlhe occipiiolironiolismusae. Thecorrugolornserh nlo lhe skinoiihe -ndpo ni of lhe eyebrcws,pu ling lhem n of .,rordond up\,!ardcreolng expressions

ihe nseriinio ihe musce fbels surrounding lob lnmoulholthe lower p Thedepressor ferioispu lsthe ov,€rlp down in lhe aclions oTcryrng. Youmusiunderstond thal lhesemlsclesof expTession ore ol inlerconnecledwllh one anolher n ihe r porlcu or oreos;lhusin ihe Oneofihe musclesofthe nosesthe p^/ro- subllemo!€rnenisof the eye oreo or the _ridolisnosi(E).li orsesfromlhe nosa bones moulh regon, severolsmollfociol muscles Or the rnd exlends upvr'crdlo nsed nlo lhe skin moy be in\€l\,ed n one expression. ng moreirronone emoThismusce pu s lhe loce moybe express ceiweenlhe eyebrows, :kn obo\€ lhe nose downwqrd,creoing lon n o drowingol lhe heodsuchoslh sone, shorthorzoniolwr nkes ol ihe bridgeof lhe lvichelongeodoes nol d.ow lhe ndviduol iirem,lruThe cer_ on ol o nger focio musces;he mosses rosechoroclesl c of lhe express hlhe ioiny knowsol ob,orriihem ond tronsoles one oflhech efmuscesof ihe rnoLrlh .ygomotcusrnojor (D I oig noles ol lhe lhem inloo drowingolthe heodlhoishowso olzygomoT|c greoidea of expression. cwerborderoflhe cheekbone, cone,ond exlendsdown io nserlneorlhe osIn of lhe mouthwhen conlTocled, aorners ine exp€ssonof oughtei thismuscleplls iiie cornersoflhe mouihupwqrdond tolhe Thezygomolcusminor(G),onothermouth 'nusce, of sesfrornthe fronloflhezygomolic aone,coser io lhe nose Theelewtol oflhe Jpper p, or e\'oiorlobi superios (H)rses or iom ihe lowerboldel of ihe ele sockeT, arbiio covlly lhese iwo muscesexi'enddown 'o inseriiniolhe orbcuorLsorlsin lhe oreoof 'le upper p Theyhovethe funclonof ftng 1e upper ip neor ihe midpoinlwh e lhe :ornercofthelipdropdown,os n expresslons al g ef. Theorbcuors orls0, a circuormLlsce ihe moulh,hoslhe funciion .vhichsurrounds lhemoulhisouleribersbendwlh rf closing :nd con act ogoinslthe wriousolh-armus_ : esthot ore otiochedio t Anolhermusce ol lhe moulh,co led ihe : evoioroflhe upper p and lhe wingoi ihe -3se,or e\olor lob superoriso oeque nos fromlhe lpper -1,so th n rnuscleorlginoting moxilo, extending or the upper :.d of low i swnwordlo inserlnlolhe wing,oro o, oi lhe _3seond lhe upper ip Theseformsore lfied - ihe ocl on of sobEng. Iheconinus,or ewior ongu oris(l!, orises -3m the moxllo and inserlsinlo ihe skn I30\e lhe con ne looth Thismusce litisihe - 3per lp,exposinglhol loothto giveo sneer or ofthe angleof lhe mouTh, ihe depressor ihe mon ::cressorongu oris(L),orisesfrom : ae, or owerlow qnd exiendsupwordto _:garnlolhe cornersolthe moulhTheiunc_ _ar ofthismusce islo pul the cornersoTThe -auih downuordn expressions ol ogony ofihe ower p, or depressor -e depressor :: nferors{lvl),ohoorignoieson irremon: : e. Fromihere ihe muscleexiendsup lo

oflheJow TheMuscles the h{o musces of mostcolon edend I do\anhi.rdtromthe mmovobl--slillioihe molcbe owerlow On lhe bock port of lhe cheek s lhe mossefermuscle(Al,whch exlends down$ord and bcclolofd from the zygomoicorchoflhe sku lolheongeoiihe owerjo\,vBybeing owqreof lhe posiiionof ih s mlsce, you can underslondis funciion, which ls lhal of fo sing lhe lowerjow This powerfulmusc e con be fellby c enchinglhe owerlow h th ckifont bordercreoleso sho lowdepression on the foce,d recly ln froniof

Thelemporos musce(Blislocoledonihe sideotihe cronum in the temporo fossc ls lbers possdownwordunderlhe zygomolic orchond inserinio the coronod processon lhe owerjow Ths musce workswih ihe mosselermusce lo rose lhe oweriow when o personchews,lhe oiernoing coniroclon ond reoxalionoi the iemporalsmusce s opporenionlhe sideoflheheod in iheoreo ol lhe lemples Ancenl onolomslsnarned lh s musce ond lh s oreo of lhe skuI lem poro s,reolng iollme,becouseliisherelhol hoirslLrrnwhle so qulckiy .. .ir

,:,* : :a-


3r A NEADtOR TllE LASTIUDGEMENI 1534 block ond Ed cholk l Sl/t' t

. .

..t:.i ,i




O r gn :

to ihe corono d process




O r gn :

to ihe corono d process







The orfl$nrsiseesbrm in lermsof sirnple goingonliosmollerforms I mossbeic€ ond deloil.lhe neck is essenliollv o cvllnderllke moss,lvichelongelone\,'erlirlledto emphoqlollly of ihe neckwhichis sizethecyllndrlcol widetot the bosethonot lhe top lhe neck ossumes o cvinddcolshooebecouselhe flsi lvroribs,whichlbtmlhe boseof lhe neckore chculor,]he hlgherle\,elof lhe neckIn lhe bocklhon ln the fronlof the body€6ull$in o fcMurdthrustmoredfomotlclnwomenlhon In men.the sldesof the neckCyllnder or€ fomed bVthreescolonusmuscles-onleior gdend m6dlus, ond pod€fior.Ihe6e muscle6 upv,ordfromthe ffnt two ribsic the upp€r neck\erlebroe,]he 6cdlenus muscles couso the n6ckto b6nd, Onthefronioftheneckihereole importont piojector.rtv,ord icrmsthot ftomthe cyllnder 'lhese mo$, o€ th6 cortlloges o@!ndlhe wlndplp€, or trocheo, whichfom the\oice boxorloryrx,Theshopeof thelorynxlslhot of on upslde-down lrlongl€. Theopo(of lh€hlongle ls locdtedat the pli of the ihroot(Al, ondthe upperbordercofi€sponds to o le\€l lustbelor tho low€rlow Theportof thevolce boxthdl lvlchelongelov ts mostlnlei€siedIn portoylnghele lslhE upp€redge @),whlch prcJecis liofom the ldomt opple, Ano\er fom thdt i!4lch6long€lo wosw€ll owsr€of ls th6 hlold bone,o smollhoBe' shoe+hooed boneoboletheAdomtoDole thol helprholothe wlndplpeIn ploc6,thls smollh)he b hot vlslblgon th€ rurlbce,brJt occurswherelhe underplone of lhe lower JowlepoiEis6ftom the fiont plon6 of th€ neck ]ho lhrootmufclosleatowr tho corillqger of the\olca bo(,lh€9ethlnrduscies ole mossgd, ond fhry lprm the generol cyllndor 9hopeof fd9fronlof lhe neck

lorynx(\,olcebo0r Adqln!

SIUOY FORIHE.HEAD OFAN E\IAXOEUSI '1517-18, Bd 6&R 'ht\, x Hl 123.26, 19.6*'n)



i :

IheStetnocleidomosfoid Muscle

'.'i., .ot,' ..ri,...-' .t "






The two nernoceidomostod mlsces resi I on, ond ore porlio v embedded n the cyindermossof lhe neck,Theyore ropelike muscesthot exlendfromthe top ofthe ster num up to the heod beh nd the eor They nserinio lhe moslod process(A)of lhe sku Eachmuscleis oi ls widesiobout ho tMoy downtheneck.Alls lowerend tbronchesoff inlohro iendonsrone lendonisotiochedto ihe top ol lhe siefnum(B),ond lhe other s altochedlo lhe clovcle (Cl.Thesehdolendonscreoieo smollhongLrlor (D); deprcssion lhe heod of lhe c ov cle s ot lhe baseof this depesson Theiendonlhol oltocheslo lhe lop of lhe sternumh verypronouncedand cordlike,whie lhe one lhol ollocheslo ihe clovcle isrolherf ol ofd brood Theiendons thol ollochto ihe sternumformlhe pil oflhe ihroat IEJf lhe slernoceidomosiod muscle on one sldeoflhe neckconhocis,ihe heod wll roiole in ihe opposiledireclionor t i downwordloward the shouder Theselwo musclesusuolly\^/ofkogo nsleoch oihot bui whenlhey do wo.klogelhe, ihey cousethe heod lo be lhrownup whie smuloneously pullnglhe neckdown, l\4ichelongeo hos drown ihe steF nocledomosioidmusclesn o subiewsybe" cause,oshasbeennofed,iheyore delollson ond porliolyembeddedn ihe orgermossof ihe neck Theymusinoi oppeor ioo promnent.ln ihs drawingo smoI podlonof ihe orge tropezusmuscles vlsble (FJ, EetMieen the slefnoclodomqsloidmusce and ihelropeziusiso rolherlargefiongu or depression co led ihe 'onofomicolsollbox"(G) Theneckh consiruciedlor greoi freedom ond vorlet of mo!â&#x201A;ŹmeniThesho!dergidle (i,,/oscopuloe ond ]u,o c avic â&#x201A;Źs) s ihe skeelo siruclLrre upon whichtho l oshyformsoi-



ST]JOY FORHEADOFTHENUDE ATLEFT ABOr'EPERSIAN SIBYL ',511,ed cholk 14h \ 7lt t3s86 , 1937@)








t.. Fl l'.

righi r.






Plocing lhelorueMosses oftheBody l nr formlhotthe orisldrowsw obviolrsv ook ng Lrpol lhe body of Chrsl bLriyou o€ Ahove o cerloinposton ondd recionreo ook ng down on h sfeeiond oilhe sku otihe '/elo thespacelholsurrounds il Theposition base of lhe cross The heod of lhe figure s : delerminedbythe locolon oflhe obiect n direcled 10 lhe rghl lhe rb coge s turned :oocetlhe d recion s deiermned by wh ch lowofd lhe iefi ond si led londordrihe moss ihe obiecl h focng. mogne on oxis o f t h e p e v s s i l r n e d s i g h t y t o t h e g h t o n d a oced vedcollyihroughihe cenier oi the llled fo^altrrclio\rcrd The eft. rbjecl Now mog ne ihoi lhe objecl roioies Thereare ih€e mpcrloni orge mossesof rround ih s cxis.Thedegreeof roloion s of T h eh u m o n i g L r ei h e h e o d T h e r i b c a g e , o n d on tire pevs A: hos ceen shov/n n iire eor er .cu6elhe obleclsdreclon Thequeslons :rlislaslcbeforeclrowinga I gureoreiWhcts sludy oi ihe hecd, i ! .rc!_ rnporionl lo '.e dreclon of ihe part oJ the body onr :rowng? s I d ecled lowsrdlhe ell oI lhe .ght and by how much?Howfor foovardor siori dro\^/ng ihe 'gLJre i s 'e .iLr ircn' ihe in spoceislhe form eon ng? Fur- b e g i n nn g , i o d r r w i h e s g - a s s e . <a s s r n p e cocL^r'ord iitermore,ihe orlistrnustconslderlhe relo lorms,for exomc L cn egg, :cne€ a! .:er, 'onshipof h sown poslon n spocetothotof o r b o c k l t i s . n L r cehc s e r i c p c a e o a . - c 9 r -heobieclbeingdrown Hedoesnol hovelo f o r ml k e l h e i b c o g e n o d f t c r ' p . : r . . . , / Crowlheoblecl n lhe posiliofiromwhichhe d r o w i n go s i m p l eb o c k i n i h a i p o s i o . ' : : ' !ews I bulil hedoesnot,he rnusldelermne Youcon then skelch I lhe r b ccge o''sr i'e ire positionfrom which lhe iorm s To be block Snce lhe humon figLrre s tne most drown,ond he muslmeniollyoccommodoTe complex iorm on oriisi can drow i s neces s o r yi o s e e r g h l i h r o u g ho l l h e i n i r c o i eo n d

l\4icheangeodetermned ihe poslion of confls ng clelo h lo the crrge,simpe mosses th s ligureverycorefuly n odv.rnceYo! ore

Ihese sinple bax figurcs con be Lsed l. detetnine lhe elolire pasilian af lhe moses

the heod, r/b

. 'i;ii,:: ,$.€/,:

:i .i:i jj







':':.. ':

OVEPTHE DEAO CI]RISI 1 2 3 2t 2 6 . 2 . n )








of theT0ls0 Ihe Plones


nons der whol porlonsotlhe vorousporis \rof the igLrreyou ore lookng ol n ihis drowng.Do)ou seelhe loo fionl sde, or o I ofthese?Theseare the plonosof o form. Dsregordlng detoilsforo momenlthinkof thetorsoaso orgeb ockcreotedbythofioni plone (4 ond ihe sde plane (Bl The sde plonesofthe lorsoole ol o sighl obluseong e lo thefrontp ane,mokingthe bockwider lhon the front of lhe torso rnogne o seresof linesrunningfrcm lhe lop oflhe shoulderslolhe n pp es,lromshou der lo shoulderand from npple 10 nipple Thesenes\^/ould definelhe b g lop ploneof lhe chesi(C),which iswiderol lhe shouder ihon ol ihe nipples,lhls pone lncLudes lhe fronlplaneof the delo d musce (D) Youmoynolcetholthe occuroiedefniiion of plonesisd reciy fe oled 1othe successful hondingof ghi dnd shode.Forinsionce, the armon lhe righiisdrownoso roundedblock the lght top plone (E)is clearlysepooted fromthe pane in shodow(F) Thetocilholbolhihe ffonlof thelorsoond o sectionoflhe sldeorevisibe giveso powerfu i usionofihe figureoso lhree-dimenslono Themoslinlrigunglhingoboulfiguredrowing s ihot ii requkesyouto ihlnkond do severol differeniihingssmuioneously, Snce t s diilicultin lhe beg nningio ddselero ih ngs ol once, I moy be he lo consldefony one eement ol o iime,e\,entholgh lt is !ndersioodihoi oll e emenisof o drawlngore nierleloied.Theelemenhof o good figure drawngareline,mossonddeioil,proporilon, thrusi,onotom\tperspecii\â&#x201A;Ź, lighiondshode, Whenbeginnng o drowng,iiisoflenhe pfLrlo consder onlyihe plonesAfleryouha\,â&#x201A;Ź esloblished ihe ouhide shapeof ihe lgure, drow inesthotseporoteone ponefrom on' ofher Thinkof ond drow lhe plonesof lhe lorgestmosses f rsi lhen go on io ihe plaries of lhe smollerforms

Ihese slmpledrcwings werc dohe os preliminorysketchesfo determine lhe lorge plonesal lhe la6o frcm lhe frcnl, bcck and lhrcequoners views

NUDE MALE FIGURE RIJNNING 1496 150],,pq, b@n ihk ond block chotk 1a! \ 9./d(3).47| 23.13m1









Gidle IheShoulder

}; &:




.' -iir

..i' :{-




;'' \.;]?.*{-.

I n lhisslrongdrowing,whch k lessfinjshed I lhontheprecedingdrowng,lher bcoge is dromoilcolyUppedforv/ordli s cleor thoi Mchelongelodrewthe ligurewhie beorng ofihoiform n mnd lheiop orsuperiorview Theshouldergirdle,which reshon iop of ihe b coge, conssh of lhe hro clovlcles(A ond B) ond ol lhe 1uo shouder blodes,or scopuloe.Thescopuloeore bolh co\e€d in of ihe iropezius lhLsposebyihe hvc mosses musce [C ond D).Theshoudergirdle s oiioched io ihe rib coge ony ot the pil of lhe lhroolwherelhe clovclesmeeiihe iop of lhe

slernumThlss ght ollochmenito the restof the skeeion offordsthe lwo scopuoe ond fu/oc oviclesexiensivemobLly1Sinceihe up per limbsore oitachedlo ihe scopulobylhe the ormsore oso onlyslighty shoulderloini, ottoched lo the restof lhe lrunk oi the body ond ore olsocopobe of greol movement \lewed from the fronl,the c ovlc e oppooB osa slroghi line,butwhenseenfiom obo\€, os I s in lhs drowng, ils S shope cun€ is It is inleiesiingio observein suchon un nnshed drcwng os this one which c€os


':helongeo decided lo workon frsi ond _,, Thoseoreosthol projecl lorvr'ordihe -:n ihe shoulders ond ihe righlorm ore : moslde\eoped Theheod,howe\,ethos :_ yei been refrnedievdenly lhe odisi ._ied ilsl lo e$oblshthe symmelryof ihe :_:- der gndle -e poston oJlhe siernlm scn impodont -:-.r whendrowng lhe fibcoge n o djllicult r,rrcn. Ve\{ed from lhe fronl,ihe slernum :.:ecrs os o vertcol line,bLrlfromihe slde : .!ruâ&#x201A;Ź of lh s bone con be cleary ob.-.e.. HereMicheofgeo hosdrownlh-.



stefnum(E)n a waythot c eof y definesthe d rectionof the r b coge lorbordihrLr$jng ond l led downrard lowordlhe righi n ihis drowlnglhe siernumoppeorsmuch shorter Coler up ihe siernumwiThlhe Tjpof your lngerond seehowlhed recijonoJlhe orger moss,lhe lono, is weokened.Suchsmo el forrnsos c ovc es,breosfs, or lile sternum,f drowncorreciynperspeclile,wlgreoilyenhonce the ilusionol lorgermossessirongly pilchedJoMordor bock in spoce

ofile Chest IheForms LI ere iso mognifcenl drowing oJthe torco. fl the b€osi muscles,lhe iuo greot pecloroh, peclorclis mojor (Aond B),exiend ourwqrd from ihe sidesof the slernumond the borderof the clov lnlernolholfof ihe lo^r'er cle to inserlIntoihe orm underthe shoulder muscle,or deltoid (c). lhe fiberslwistos lheY neor lhe insertionpoinl, Ihe two greol pec torol musclesote sjmlLorln shope lo llot bloclc,whjch wrdp oroundthe fronl upper holf of ihe ib cgge, givlng lt o somewhoi ffojlenedoppeoronceintheupper€gion,or icp shelf, of ihe chesi.ThegredtpecicTolm!scles cover the front of lho b coge frorn lhe clovicles10the le\el of the fftthor sMhrlb The lowetbordersof theselwg mlsclesole ropre' sented by h\lc llne6 (D ond E),wh ch cln€ oulurordond downv/qldliom the slernum Mcholongelohos Indlcoledo smollbLlt importonl detoll of lhls oreo lho frbersof lhe pectorolmuscleneol the orm oro pusneo foMord bV ihe delicld muscle,c€otlng o bulge(Dobole lhe breootneof smolleggllke ihe armplt. A !€rtlcol groo\e (Gl s the rqsull of the ploirudonof ihe peclorol musclesowayftom lhe sidesof lhe sialnum. the liefnLrmis shop€d\ery mlch lke o swordwhlchpoinildownvlrd ll smolll?omon ls composedof lh€e pods iho hondle,of monubrllmjihe body or blode (lometlrneg whlchlsthelongeslpofcoLledth6 Olodlolus), ioni ond the xlphoidprocess,whLchreplo' senlsthe iip of the sword,Theuppq exlromily ot the siernumitms thleo noicheslthecenier noich forms lhe plt of lhe lnrooi (H) lhe lnnerendof oochclovlce restsinthenotcheg on elihersde of lhh ceniro noich thg plt of the stomoch0 l5formed bv the xlphoid

l t I

i i .1




sruDYFoR$ &qRrfploMEw 1s34-3tbtdcrchok 15t" \ 1YP9n9x Dodidoed

.! :



Forms oftheTo|so overlopping Ll e'e , /ef onothe'qrond drowng of the I lrqurelholtuns!rpossed n 15represenio iion of o soid iorm n spoce,M cheongelo \.!€ntedlhe igure3lefi shoulderond orm To odvonceond lhe righikfee to od',cnce.To pu somefo.msof lhe body fo^4ordwhile pushingolhersbock,ihe ori sl i rsicor€cly drowstheforms nspoceHerehedrewlherb coge mcsscs o roundedbock, whch i is fonir'crd al lhe lop ond irockot lhe boiiom The efl orm is o bock ke cy nder lhe iower end prolrudesfcrlherforv/ordlhon doesThe lop Nexl,the orlsi fnds i helpfu lo cnot"e lhe overoppng oi lorms f yolr ook ol lhe fguret leltshouder,youcon seelhollhe dei lo cl musce (4 ond upper orm ore ceory posilionedn fronlof lhe etl pecloro smojor musceondcovice;ihepeclorolondccvi cle ore n fronlof lhe groo\e oi the sternum e oncllhecy ndershapedneckTheseiorms n fronioiTheiigureS righipectoro,wh ch s n lroni oi hisrghTarm Thsi lsiol] s occom p shedby overoppng neslhol e.ho over oppingfoimsot Thebod\r Noice loo ThoT on lhoseoreosol lhe body rirereara sirongvolLre ihoi prolecltoru4.ird conirosisTheolh,-rlorms n the.ircwng orc buTthecof ol5orendcredn ghiand shocle, nosTisnot nearly$ sirongos on ihe proleci


It s niereningio nolcehowMcheorigeo haschorigedtheshop,6 of ihe pecTorosmo jor musce (8) ftom lhoi ri the prccedlno smusceoppeorsaso drowng n thcrlvr'orkih fol. bock ke mossrnihsclrowngiTisspher ico Theoclionorfunclonoflh s muscesTo drowihe orm to lhe lroni ollhe bocly Theserroturs mognusanlsce s mode Lrpoi n ne ifger kedglalonslhoioreocoleclon ihe sclesoJlhe r b coge bul are lorgey h clden by the peclorolsmolor Thed giloiions orgnolefromihe uppereghl rbs,and ex lend lo\4ardlhe backoi ihe r b coge,wrrere lheyconvergeond possunderihescopuo 10 iermnole ol h nnerborderThetwo serroTls mognusmlsc espu the iwo scopuoe oporl or iowordlhe fronlof lhe iorsoTheuppersx dgiloions o€ coveredbylhe pecioro s molortihe owerlhre,oore vsibe on lhe surioce oi lhe body ol C bei"veenpeclorolismclor otssmLrs ondolorgebockrnusclecoledlhe in Ths dors(D),o smo!poriofwhchisvsjbLe pose.The dig loi orisoresomelmesconiused wih the r bs,bui I bs ore poro el Toone onions oul on lhe olher,whereosth s nruscLe sidesol ihe r b coge reslingon iop of lhe ribs




iL, ,!::'


-a :iUoYfORTHENUDF ATEFTABOVE PERS|AN SByt,T6dond whl€ cho/k1Atu r 71/!!2699 \ 19OScht


Abdominus Muscle TheReclus



mo llrhenihe ormisrosed,theoeciorols tt lor musce (Al lckes on o iionqucr shope Thelbefs ol lhe musce exlendfrorn the r b coge ond inseri nto lhe lpper orm underthe deioid muscle(B)the mossol the peciora smojoro soconsliuiesihe troniilop or ihe ho ow oi ihe ormplt or ox lo (C) The ieresmojor,o sma muscleon ihe scopuio, iogeiherwliho sma pori on of ihe loiissmus dors,formsa mass(Dl,which mokes!p ihe bock flop of lhe oxi o holow Thelosilhree d gitotions(E,t G) of the serratusnrognus muscecre eegonly drown Theirposlion behveenlhe pecloro smolorond oissmus dorsimusces sceoryvsible The pectoro regionol lhe lorso s seporcledfromlhe ob'dominoregiof bylhethor occ orch of the rb coge.Ths s o orge po ntedorchformedbythe cortiogesofihe f bs ocoiedbe ow the siernum.The obdomno musce,or reclusobdomins (Hl,f s lhis orchond e\:lendsirornlhe owerrbs qndJhe x phod processol lhe slernumto ihe pubic bonesorfio povs, nofiowng os lrlescends Ihe neo olbo ( wh le ne l iso slrongien' .lon lhoiextendsdownlhe csnlerol lhe rec lusob.lonrn s,cliv.lng lhisrfusce iri ho f \r'er lco y Themusce s furlherdlvcledby lhree horzonlol.or lransverse, iendons One iendon crosses the abdomenotihe leve oflhe nove; onotherrilersecls the bollomol lhe rib cogei.rndihe Jhrd occLrrs beh,/eenthe bollornoflheslernumondlhe bollomof the rb coge flhemusceswe deveoped.asil sin ih s drowng, lhe lndviduolsectionsof the musclecTe vsbe. Exceplior o smo i!' ongulor-shopecl musce, pyrom dols,wh ch s locoled obo\,ethe pubic bones,rectusob dom n s isthe onlymusceon lhe froniol lhe obdomno regon.F\rronrida s s covereclby Jonytssue,wh ch proteclsthe pubc bones. ThereciLrs obdom nisworks ogoinsiiheslrong muscesof the bockto ho d ihe r bcoge in on uprghi posion, coLrnieroclngthe force ol grav]y Thhmusclecousesthe lorsolo bend fo^rordrI o so formslhe wol on lhe fronlof lhe pelvc bosin,wh ch proleclslheorgonsof digeslionEoch ndviduoLsecJon of lhe reclLrsobdominusmuscleh lke o porlionof an -.gginshopeondconbe dm orlyshodedn lhs poselhe rb coge s lilledforwsrdoslhe pevic mosss plched bcck ihe obdom nol muscesfodedon hefolo eve iLrsl obove

STUDY FORTNENUD!YOUIN Or'ER THE PROPNEI DANEL 1511 rcd cholk avet bldck cholk pepobtiahs 131/ t 9fd',(33.66/ 23.31cn)Dohoged






ll ll-re



's Ins

-r_g rcrr


: r-:3nsoi


TheExlernoloblique ng drowingot lhe figT his s o mostinJeresl I ure ln whch youcon obserueo rib coge lhcrl lsdlsiincllylipped to one side.The116shy mossofJheexlernoobliquemusce,or obliq, uusexternusobdom nus(4, exlendsfrcm lhe losleighl rlbsof lhe b coge ond inserhlnic lhe iop of lhe pelvis,or ilioccreslthe shape of lhe exlerno obllque ook like o leordrcp from mony ong es, n ihis pose, hore\€t lhe efrernol oblique oppeors os o rounded block,Whenlho lwo obique musces simultoneously coniroct,theywo in concerlwiih lhe reciusobdomlnisio bend lhe body for v,,ord. Whenonlyone contrcc,ls,lhe ribcoge isrotoigd,of pulled,loone sde, Ihesem!scles olso prelent o ddewsysclllqpse of lhe db coge.Ihepelvlcmosslsboundbylhe llloc crest (B),by ihe abdomen (C),whlch slopes downvrordbei\re€n lhe lh ghs, ond by the buttocks(D). Theodhi olJghttoknownot onlythe forms of the bodtl the mLJscleg on the surfoce,bLJi olsolhe chongesln ihEshopesofihese forms ln the dlffefenlmowments.A musclemoy become thlckerond $oder ln d sloie of conlrcclion,or ll moy be €loxed and reloilvely ffotlened. Obsefwtionosw€llos under,siondng lhe oc,lionor funciionof q mlscle wlll enobleyouto drow lhe foms ls offonsl\€io see o drowlng of o llgure in gr6ol octlonwhlleollihe mlsclesoreportro'€dos Ino 16oxedstote,oro €clinlngfgurewliholl lhe foms coniroclodqnd buging Inon oullondshmonneriTheonci€ntGr6ekodlsh,obseryngtho nlde oth elesot ihe gymnoglum, bscome mosieA ot porifoylng the exdcf onolomyoflhg body In mo\€ment.

o gif: the losleighlrbs (lhe libe6 nterd9 ioie w1hlhe d qltotonsof lhe lo{er senotus mosnut

FIGURE SIUDYFORTHE 'ECrrE OF QASCTM 1501,block chotk '16"x 10h [40.44 t 26.01\n]



f .

.l&' '

).# /',t




i l' ,r* t'i


, is


t. 'z:




1 nis )s,(F

rins, j {J,

tre This

onieror superor iac splne o n i e r o rn i e o r l o c s p n e

of Form:MoleondFemole Voriofions Th6ls o ne drowingof ihe lemoe iorsoc. hc € I whichlhe bosicformsol lhe figLJre y ole olvcE coled, Figurgs ind been coreful moreintereslng whenihe moss€soflhe boo, h rs ore onanged in opposingdireciions, drowinglhemodelsweighlison herrightl€g Ihereforeihe pelv s h pushed'rp\dqrdon tE ighis de of her bodylhe r b coge,whichl|16 downwqrd ond fo\dordlhe I ghl sid€ of ilE tho iil of ihe pelvd body,counterbalonces lhe ib coge s olsoiurnedslghllylowsrdltE models lefl side,whereoslhe pelvic o€c focesfondsrdloword lhe vie\det lhe moss (A) represenls lhe exlerno obllquemusce ll ls ony sllghtyseporolec frcm lhe mossbelow ii, ihe g uleus medi-6 muscle(Bl,becouseihesei^lt formsappect osonelorgemqsson monyfemoe modelsl^ generol,ihe musclesof lhe obdomnol 'e glonofthe femolefiguleolemuchmoresubfrom one onolher ile ond essdlstlnguished ofthe mole musces cofiesponding ihon ore lgu€. The llne epfesenilngihe lod of l'ne gron (C)ls nol os cleorydefned os ll vr'oub be in o mole fg!€, Theformsoi D ond Ecb nol €p€seni muscei iheyarecousedbythe fatryllssueof the th ghs. Ihe shopeof ihe deio d muscle(F)ls dif. shoudels fefeniln menihon lnwomen,lvlen3 lke n shope, ond more block ore brooder whereoso womon'sdeltod lssphercqloiihe topi flbersslopegroduollydownvlardcleol_ oi ihe botlom of ihe lng increoslngtullness fgures,ihen pp e hiusl n drowLngsofTnole obo\,e the ow€l border ond s ghily lo the side of the peclorolmusce. n drowngsof femole figu€s, howe\€t the breaslsresl di onihe mlddle recilyon ihe peclorolmuscles, lhkd of ihe rlbcogerihe I b coge oreoobole lhe breosisisequo lo ihe rib coge areobe_ ow lhem Of courselheseare closscalpro_ portions,ond e\€ry mode is different, but genero y breosisore p oced c oser to lhe thon lo ihe obdomen heod ond shouiders Vlewedirom ihe fronl, npples appeor io point oulvirrd iowqrd the sldesol the body ne\€rsiroghi io^dord.






SIIJDY OFCIASSCAI FEfi4AIE TORSO AN]IRIOR, 152A-21,bt6ck chotk 'r3.10cn) lold x 714 [25J2 \

is ,

t, ;





L5j Ii h Dt Il!

'I .,J


r: G

a*i ANDFORTHEDAMNED 15*' / 1ar'dUAA1 t 24.99cnl

Simplifying theForms oftheBock

A s hosbeen shown,Micfrelongeohod on mode lo ioke thh lnusual pose so lhol he Aeiiroord noryobi ly to seecomp er torms couldcorefuly copyit?ll sun/ikely Hehadon ci ihe body n lermsof lery simpe mosses, extensi/eunderslond ng of the formsof ihe \oie ihe hvo orge egglikemossesthot ore lrody lhol o lo\red him io drow the hLrrnon creoled by the rlb coge. The heod of ihe figurefrom oulofh sheod,wthoulomodet,in liyng i gure smerelyndicoledol lhissfageof onyposlon n spocethofhewished. Drowing thedrowlng.Micheonge o obviousy \,!'onied lrom liie is\â&#x201A;Źry mpodoni,o greotiesi oi on io eslobishthe symmelrycnd mossof the oaristsobiliv but i s no1ihe onty exerctse iorsowithoulthe inJerruptonof lhe smoller necessory n leorninghowio drowltrefgLrre iorm of Jhe heod The muscesorcundlhe Fgure drowng is noi copryingfrom o backond sideof the ribcoge oreolsodrown mode Sfudylhe muscesso ihoi yo! know os smol,egg ke shopes,wh ch ore porlio y wrrereeoch one comesfuorn,ond where i embeddedno orgermoss goesto, os wellos ls aclon. \\,b ore oble jo Thesublleilgureol ihe uppeftettcornerof drcw inesonty by knowingihe originond iil s drow ng suggesiso iorso seen from lhe insertonof the formsDrowingof the formsof sde lhe ouler line (4 represents the orge, ihe bodyccn comeonlyfTom onewhohoso dominonlmossoi lhe r b coge,Thedefn lve comp eie underslanding of construcionond nesond tonesof ihe finsheddrowng are onoiomy ProcJicedfowingihe ngurefromout cbsenthere,olowng )oU1oobsenethe m- of yourheod,withouto modet.This son excelcodonlinilio nesol o moslerdrawing enTV/oyio see f you reallyknowJhengure. Do you lhnk ivichelongetoosked ihe

oftheBock DeepMuscles




$ I



n rowinglhe bocI iso gfeol cholengebeinfluenceih lrcouse lhree olefsof mLJscles oppeoronce.The deep€slloler consislsof lhe ereclorspinoemuscet which orlginote ai the socrumond lhe bock of the pelvs,or llium,extendup the bockbone,io inserinlo the owerlorlebroeof lhe neckregion,Erector spnoe musclesbuLgeon ethersideofthe \eriebro spnescousng o furrow(4 down the m ddle of the bock, ond exlend ouiw,ord lo lhe oreo ol whichthe ribslurn ond bend lowcrd the onlerior of the boq/, Ereclorspinogo€ lhlckestin lhe oreo of lhe lo\derbock or umborreglonlB).ihey ore consequently mosivlsiblelhere,whee they on ihe surfoce c€ol6 iwo cy nderlikemasses of lhe body Thgyoppeorrotherfloi in lhe r b coge oreo becousethey don't hove rnuch flnclion lhefe.Theirfunciionislo exiend,or pullbockv,r'ord, ihe lrunkof ihe bodyofb ng ii bock oflet it hosbeen flexed,oI benl fondord. Theyoso hove ihe imporicni ftrncllonof helpnOtokeepihewholebodyhiheupr ghi Ariistsoflen €fer io ihe deep musclegol ihe spne os the shongcordsof lhe bock becouseof lhe cylndedlkemosseslhey moke on the su oce of the ow€r back (umboi regon,Mlchelongelolkedto ploy up those muscesln h s drowlngsbecouseoftholr!€ry humanfunclon ol holdlng us In ihe g€cl posliion.WhendrowlngIn lghi and shode, the odist th nl<sof ihe \ir ues on fuo greoi thesemosses becomewry ropesorcolumns, pfomlneniwhen the mode 19corryingq heoq/ object.


STIIDIES FORADAMS RIGHIIdEEANDINREEANGEIS INlHECREAIION 6F ADAIVI 1511,ed dnd btockbhotk 11q." \ 7/a" [29.s3 \ 19.69cn)






, '11

ondltsMuscles TheScopulo muscleswhch reslon dogonolyin ls uppef podon by o bony Tlre rhombodeus I ihe deep erectorsp noemlsc es,formNvo rdge,or spne (D)Thhbonyrdge exponds promnenimosses {Aond B)be /eenihe 1r,vo nlo lhe ocromon processot ihe summl of scop! oe Theorign of ihesemuscess lhe the shouder (El se\€nlh,or lcsf,neckveriebroand thel rslfve The suprospinclus musce (F) s ocoied ihorocc \€debroe Thefibersof ihe rnuscles obove the bony rclge of lhe scopuo ond Trovedownwordond ouhlcrd lo olioch to Tefmnoiesol lhe bock ol lhe upper orm oi ihe nner,orverlebrol,borderofihe scapuloe lhe humerusundef lhe deloid nruscleThe (C) Ihe fiombodeus musces pu ihe nfrospnolusmusce ond teres rnnor bolh scopuoelogelher,thal s,lo$ardlhe bock foTmo rnoss(G) ocoled beow lhe bony bone. f o mode! sho! derscre lhus pu ed riclge.Theynsertnio lhe upperorm besde bock,lhemossof the homboicleusmusces lhe suprospnotus.Thefunclionofihesethree oppeorcgrecty conirocled The fiombod mLrscess to pu ihe ormsbock\rsrdond lo moss s mode up of fu/o seclons rhonr- roioieihern oufilard,owayfromihe fronloi boideusrninoro nd rhombodeusmojor -'bui Theorisilhinksoflhem os one moss Theteresmolor muscle(Hls occied beow Thesccpua hasmusceslhotrestontopof nirospnolusand leresm nor I orginalesoi 1 t is o foi,lrionguar bone thol is crosse.J ihe owerporion of the scopulooncl nserls nlo the lronl of the upperorm beneoththe deTol:lmuscle Theieresmolor\dorks wlh the teres minor.ihe infrospnoius,ond lhe s! prospinolus io pLrlllhe ormsbock Bli i acis o one io roiolethe ormsinwcr.l,lowrrcllhe lronlorlhe (rndo othef lormscreole.lby lhc rnus.lesof lhe scqpuc oppear os smoI, cgg kcishopes,whichore pcriia y cmbedde.lln the argermassolihe


3 h " ( 2 3 5 t3 2 r . 2 7 c m l

n ilr s clrowingthe lighioga n comesfrom obo\4:ofi iyou.lisreoarda thesmollforms lor o momeni,you con visualze ihe enllre bcickoso orgef olTenedovolrthereiso ctecI progressonol clorkefingione from left Tc righl Thelighl crreo(ll,the ho lfone.or groy oreo, beh,leen lqhi ancl shocieond lhe shodowi uslroleih sprogresson,lnmode n-c ndividuolsmolLlorms )ou shouclkeep ir minclihsmovernenlof ght fto dofk. i s importaninol oniy lo knowihe exocr shopesof the scopuoe bul olso precisert howondwherelo p oce thesebonesreolve lo lhe rb coge Thescopuoe occupyihe upperholfof the rlb coge,ond ihe d sionce belweenihem isequoliolhelengihoi oneo.




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g€ol movemeni.Whenihe shoLrlders onc armsore ihrownfoMord,the scopuloedrau owsy lrom eoch olhe| when lhe sho! defs ore pulledbock,lhescopuoeore drownic word eoch oiher When ihe orm is roisec higherlhonihe sho!det ihe scopuo rolote: lronra \,eriicoto a horizonioposton on ihe b coge Thekeylo delermn ng lhe posi or oflhe sccpLrlo whendrowng o f gurewlh cf ormro sedoboveihe shoulder islo ookot ihe direclionolthe orm:1hescopulocnd ormw




c rnree ol lhese musces luberosityol lhe hlmefls


TheTtopezius Muscie o.- o.--e oo-. ncnsvory occord ng lo lhe parlofihe nLrsc: T I :e e , P ' - . o - , . r _ 5 liol s ocivcied f bolh shouders ore i!e: :::'!: an t.e backof ihe neck,shouder the ibers ocoEd lhere wi pul ihe he::

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:_: -33er back regon lls nner borcler ex':_:. n:n'ire bock oflhe slul tothe osi or -..eJ: ro veriebro l C ) T n e t r o p e z r . rhs a s ren.l noLrsslreeioreoson l, wh ch oppeoras s ght depressonson ihe s!fface oithe body Tne erlent oi Thesedepressonsdepends on The erTenToi muscu/ordeveopment ol the iro.le One afeo of ten.lon sheei s loccied orouridiha lwelflhlhorac cverl,.bro oTlheI p of the ia oiiheTropezus musce (C) Anolr]er o r e o s o c a i e . lo l t h e s p i n eo f i l r e s c a p r a o n ThesLrmmiof the sho! cer (D),on.] ihe lhrr.l .ireo nrrr() lhe promirn|l 5ev,ariihcer v (! !erT,-br.ron llE b(r.rkoi the r--ck (L).I hrs o s Ta r c o i . r a r | o n d s h o p o . lo r . l s I o n s l by th. trrfi:r rErg ns ol iho ltupezus ni!s. -8.rtrrLr,atlre iropcriLrsr|Lr5ce 5 ior!1,-on.l riints nio s.rvcr.rl.rrrrrsotth,o bock, ts nrnc

back, b,LJif ony one sde is oclivolec -.. heodwi be pLr ed down io il-rcl sho! cler -lowerf bresolTheia of iheiraoez u3clrcn --: s h o i r d e Tos o w n T h em d d l e f b e s o e . : Thescop! ae drowihe shouce6lowara : _= o n o t | r e rf l h e h e o c l s f x e d ,i i r e f b e r so ' ' _ : T r a p e z u si r i l r e n e c k o n c l s h o ! c l e r r e e : 'lb.lfow

lhe mLrsces ollhe back lo g !e _.: e i f e d o f a l h r e e d m e n so n c i g u r e , y o !- ! : fo conTfo Thc\,1]!$ ori the m|rsclesD€i := w h c i r l o r m so r , ar ] i h e i g h T . w h i cchl e r . : : T o r r eo.r l l w i r c h o r e n s h o d o \ rS k e k r h. " : url{resol ihe orgcsl nrosseslr5t Thenso:. the edllc bolw.iexrlhe I and rir:: To rouril oli The lorms Ony geonr€ : sli.rpes s|rch .rs lr .Lrbc lrov.r $urp ec! : wfoG on,- profe nrccls.xjoTfr(j

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Dorsi lotissimus


/f, nothersuperfrciomuscleot lhe bocL s tillhe loiissmusdorsi.Alonq wilhlhe bockoi lhe shoulders ond a srnolllrlonguloro€a of ihe musclesoflhe scopuo region,ihe iorms that rnoke up the surfoceof lhe back orei iropeziL$ ondthelwo holvesof afssimusdors [Aand B).ihishuge,symmeircol musc]eorigi nales oi lhe pe vis and socrum,exiendsup ward overjhe lurnbofregion,lhe lowersix poirs of rbs, ond the lo^,€rportionof the sccpuloos it exlendsollwqrd io lhe ompl, lhere loiisslmlsdorsi nseris,olong wiih the leresmojot intothe fronlof lhe hlmerus,lust below ls heod Thelowerport on of thisrnuscle,allhe socrum,pelvis,ond lo\derbock,is justo lhln lendnoussheei.Beneoihthisihln sh6ef,lheunderlynge€clor spinoemuscles (C)showcleorlyon the surfoceofthe figlle ln ths drawlng, Short,holched lnes(D)ndicoiewhereihe musclefberc'ofloiisslmus dorslorsefrornihe lendon sheei n the lo\rerbock Theselinet exlendlrom the higheslpo nl of the pe vls, LJp\rgrdond lnv,'ordtoMr'ordthe bockbone, Theupperboderoflhismlscle{E),whlch runs horizontally over lhe deeper icrms of ihe bock oi,the le\€l of lhe sxth r b veriebroof ihe bockbone, posseso!€r iho lowErpofllon of the scopua ond ihusholdsll downon ihe rlb coge Thelroni bofderof the otsslmus dorsl (D extendsdownv,ord fforn lh6 ormpll ond clrves oroundio the bock of lhe rb coge, creoilngo beouiifulIne on ihe fgufe, Lqtssimus do|simokegll possibleto ow€r lhe rclsedorm ond pu it back wlh fofce. I showshef cleody in such movemenlsos ployng gol swmrning,choppng wood,of p! lingono rope.lenob eslhe enllrebodylo be puled upvr'ordond fonr/ordwh-cr)ihe ormsore in o flxedposlllon, Aciionsthal por lcularly depend on ths muscleore rope climbingond workon a horzonlolbor Thehoh€sof the oiissimus dors ond ihe l -nderlyng rio coge s-ggesl'he shopesot lMr'olorge \^icfermeons, To ploce lighl and shodeon suchdominoniformsin Wlr drowing,lllshelpfuliovlsuolize, or elen ic indicoie on ihe paper on orror showingihe direciion iromwhichlhe lighiiscomng.ThoiwllleslobI shihe diect on of lhe mo\€menl of lighi lo dorkocrossihe flgue. ll willolsope\€nt the ighl fromjumpingto hil formsfromdlfferenl direclions, lhuslendingto destroyihe I unit In renderingmojorforms il solsohelptuio runo I ne down ihe formsto seporoJethe light oleo fiomthe shodoworea.Theholtlpneoreofo ls alonglhol line.





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lheBockwithLighlqndShode Modeling

7!. t 101/t[19.69\ 2572 cn)

Lolmuscles lhoi cover sheetoi ihe lalissimLrs dorsi The mossbeT..i$r. orqesuperfic I m.J cf ihe bock lolissimus dors ond lro tu€enihe bo1lomof lhe rbcoge ondlhelop Deziis. ore relotivelylhin folher ike o of lhe pevh is represenledby lhe externol cookei ond o€ thereforeinfuenced by oblique(ll. lie tormsof lhe deeper Lrnderlyjng muscles As lhey ore shownon onoiomlcolchodrs, Lnltr sdrowingihemossofihe bock(AJobo\€ ihee o€ no linesona modelSbockseporot, ihe spineol ihe scopulois forrnedby ihe ing musclemosses. Theformsoi the bock in lropeziusond lhe underyingsuprospinolus.o finshed drowing ore dep cied by smol The1r^omosses betweenthescopu in lghtond shode,wh ch orepadolly oe (Bond mosses C) ore lomed by lhe rhomboideus ond lra- embedded n lhe greol mossof lhe bock peziusmuscesA smollrnoss belowlhesplne lseI l€rnemberlhotdark nlhe ghl oi\4oys of lhe scoplo (D) is caused by th-. n- oppeordorkerlhontheyreollyorc.Thesome frospnotusmusce.liismosiimporlonlionoie oppliesfor relecied lighl ln shodow lhe thot ihe infrospnofus inlerockswilh,or tres lghls ov/oysoppeor ghterihon theyore.lf possesonto,lhe mossof lhe deltoidmusce l1cufo lowo simpe rue,lhe vo ues),ouuseio (E).The ow€r end of ihe scopuloond the shodelhe bock w be moredynomc and or€rlyng leres mojor form o smoll egg occurole Whenmodelinglhe ightoreosol shopedmoss(F)Theie€s major is locoied tour flgurc,mokethe dorksLghterihon they d recly on the iop borderof lhe lolssmus oppeor lo you, ond when working n the dorsi(GJThegreol coumngof lhe ereclor shodoworeos,moke lhe ighlsdorkerlhon splnoe [H) ore v]sibleihroughthe lenclon meyoppeorrc you








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lheBody Gidle:Boloncing ThePelvic Thee ore tuvosf,eelo grdleson lhe body, I ihe shouder qifdleond lhe pevic girdle Thefuncton of ihe shoulderg rdle s mob lilY Onlys ghllyollachedlo lhe restof ihe ske' eion, 1 olfordslhe upper lmbs lreedomoi Thefunclionol ihe pelvc g rd e s stoblily aswellos ocomoion oflhe owerlimbsThe lwo orge ho\es of the pelvs (meonng ''basinl ole limly olloched n bock to the socrum,ond in l|onllhe hvopubc bonesore frmly connectedlo eoch other Thepelvs, which €sts on iop of lhe heodsol lhe luo lhghbones.or l6murs,hods up Thebock-


Theonlyporlsof lhe pevislhot o€ vsible on the bock ore ihe pevic,or ilac, cresl(4 ond lhe sacrum(B).Theos socrumCsocred co ed, \doslhe bonel, os t wossomelimes bone ofleredup lo the gods n socriiceby early rnon ll i5 ociuoly fve !€rtebroeihol ho\,€osslied,or iusedlogeiherio iorm one lfionguor-shopedbone,Thesocrumisnollot but cufi€s ouhv]rd (con\€x)from iop lo bol tom.On is boseond nd coiing ls widlhore the posieriorpevic,or ilcc, spines(Cond Dl, whichoppeor on ihe surfcceof the body os andmorkd mpes.Theselondmorksole fat therqpcrrtonwomenlhan on men becalse the femolesocrumond pe visorewiderthon ihoseofihe mo e. Theseiv/opo nls,logeiher wlh lhe po ntlhatindcoleslhe bofiomof ihe formo usefuconslrucion lr ongle socrum(E), for clorlyingthe posilionof ihe pelvs ln ony g\€n pose.A line TLrnning ihroughpo nis (C ond D)wouldindcofe ihe iill of lhe pevis. Eelowlhe socrumore lhe four verysmol bonesthoi represenio ihoi remoinsof lhe veriebroeihotformlhe humontoi, or cocc\,l. The coccll s nol reo y of nteresllo orlsts becoLrseli cur\€s lnder ond betuv€€nihe lv/o bullocksand does nol oppeor on lhe surfoceof ihe fgure. lhe posilionof the pevh delermineslhe o\r'eroI pose of the figure Lfihe model is rcsl_ ng herwelghlon one eg,lherghi eg jnlhis drowing,lhepelvsisplshed Lrpon lhe rghi sdeond dropsoweron the opposilesideA lhe smollerformsrnustbe correspgfldingy liled To mointain ihe modelis boonce ogoinslthepu ofgroviv,lheshouden coLrn lerocl lhe d reci on ol lhe pelvis by tilt ng n lhe opposiledlreclonjthot s, ii ihe pevis s h gher on the rght sde,lhe shoulderw lle hgher on ihe eft side

SIUDYOF CIASSICALFEN'IA[!FOQM 101h , 71h 125.72 t. 19.45 ml



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The qutelrsmo/mus[A] ihe orgeslond I th clesl musce of lhe bodv formsihebul lock ll ariseslrom the bockfourlhoflhe i ac creslihe sccrum,ondthe cocc)r(Soflreof ils fberslerminolen sheeisoff bers,orfoscio,on lhe th gh; oihers nsed nio lhe bock of the shofi oi ihe femur lusi beow The greoTer trochanier(Bl,o orge,squoreprojecTion of lhe femur ocoied jlsi beow is heod ond neck Dependng on ihe conirocion of exponsonollhe g Lrleomuscesoroundii,ihe ppeorson lhe sudoceof lhe b,odyasa c ndmcrkdepresson or pfoieclon.Whenlhemode slondspedecly stroghl wth weghiequa y dslrbutedon bolh egs, ihe greaierlrochonlersore eve Howe\â&#x201A;Źr when the weghi is ploced on one eg, ihe grcotertrochonierof the slonclnOeg slhru$ oui ond oppeorsas o proieclonon lhe sur reloxecleg on The loce Thelrochonleroflhe opposlesde appeorsoso depresson ThegluieLrs moxmus s bock ke in shope, bll the foi ihol occursorj Ts ower border lhe shapelhereand creolesthe g u 1eo loLd(C) Nollcehow MicheLongeohqs manp'r olecl lne n lhs oreo of lhe drownO io nclcaie lhe unclerpane of lhe q uleLrs moxmls ol ilslunclurewThthe Thigh Theg {rleusnroxr'n!sexiencls lhe f execl,or bent,thsh,thot s,pu s I bdck rlo ne wih the lrlnk More rnporlonl,ii monlons lhe body,whoserrlnk wo!d olherwiseir for vlqrdol lhe hip jo nl, n on Lrprghtposion LongbeloreDorwf\ lheoryof evolufon,Ars iolle coled ihe giuleusrnoxinuslhe mosi ng mlscleofmonDurngiheevo dhilngLrsh (rionoryprocessilssze ncreosecl, ond iwos for ihe roiolon of ihe ui rnoleLyresponsrbe pevs iroma horzonioio o veriico posiion HerelVchelongelohos ceory inclcoied ihe lbers ol the gllieLrsmcximusinserlng behreenlhe homstrng moss(Dlatlhe bock exTurnus musce lEl ofihelhlghondlhevoslus



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sro0uu aqt ]o luo4 ut s puoq aql lo poq eLl{lDL.ll puo'puoq eqt ]o ^poq sLlllo luo4 ul sllslr eq] pql eq++o'. ',$r/vleql ro luorl u s LUroeroJ l oqs6u Morpqq+ul seu oql leL]touolo luo4 €3^ euo]o !ot+$odow oul+ocrpul)o] !t LUro] ep +uetacxeuDstourddDfeo leqpuo sdol Je o eu] euo !€|o r^oqeclloN llrlol peusl eql il^orpoflnculrpsl|]lJoiLLlolDuo roLlsarol sessodxa,^foelceull]o esn 9oe6uo|el]crn '| lo puoLl eql lo uolsod eu€4xe eL.ll Oulruesqoq peuroeleq ol qcnursraieql uolllsodploi on uD dnsJouollco o+Lrrjod eqlJouo$olorro'uollou eq1ur elor o sIDd oqo e csnursll.ll pueq reoon eul ol ^ oqF eql sesnorqcLl/r\'LrllD p)o,i^olLuroaroj eql 'pueq rc 'xej ol sl soes q eq Jo Uollcoe|11snrporeql 'LlroercJeu] io euop sapululrolpuor^oqe eql seuoqeq+Jo lo fd e! olu sdp ueqlsdeclqeql Dnoocs €1.{}o ^l^oc poueto eL.ll}o dol eql L!or} eql e(]ljo +l.rorj sesrDpD€Ll6110eql DLndocs l.lclqassocord uo*ra6uu +uaqo s€qLr]oser o-ss€3ord pocoloJ e+ uorl seslrDpDeq foqs eql olndocseql LlorJs€slloLpapoeq -oi {. sloeL! eu]DusIJelcsnu soeoq eL.lI eql sdocrl eW puo sd€cp eql lo sessoLu ueer^leqserr(H)ocsnurplo{ep eql lo xedo o(]l (e) sdeq4 aql PUD'(l) sdoqq eql'El rolouJsloro+ced6|.l+'M snzed04 eql ero plol e csnuleql $ep lep eq+punorrnspql sLlJlol qn urroeq+eslDro1 6 o eql o+ eql noqs lo oll lo uoqseq+}o 6pls s uotlcunls{ snraurnq "+noeql u/r\opio vlDqroqo lu oo D lo ]les -ul puo qulod aseqlLUo4pro^u/v\oppuelxe p ol6p eq+jo s6q I eq1 o ndocseql ]o eu ds aq] Jo urolloq 6ql puo 'sseoolouo!!ol3D oql'at.^Dlc eql lo pr Lll rero Lr.lolloqaql !D ol p sepulolo ]t a6uD4 u,^^op-ep6dn odoq6ul.rouJlssle csnurplolep ar$ueeql pro \roJpeqsndueoq soq+oqlLrroloJo uoFnleqlolsppo 6u !apo!! Buorlsql edDLls locueqdsqpolpp et]llol sluno3roqc q^\lep lnoqs eql lo lu olF)lros puo- Dqeql sre oc puo punoro sdo} pro+opaq+ ,o uopod Fddn 6ql C p pepclpu alD ecsnur eL-ll ]o $equra,!\oteqlrpeppourAlnllnoaqsl t3J epsnurp ol|epeqlJopDdreddnpedDqslDq eq+lo lrourpuol eql reptnoqseql JoI LrJurns poloclp! D q ondocs eql lo ssec irDac -orduotworcoeql L-ll[v\ [€Jelc^op eq1]o pue ralnoor+]o 6uleeL! eql l3plnoqspuDfaeu eqt ua€/'veq o qte^ s )cDq eql ]o lvj o csnLU v pelDln sn?edo4a6roleql JouolJoollou-rs -curotpu+s p eio uro pLJorop noLlslceu I slq+u I eql 6ut'^olpeu-rospuoq eql 1osuJ,|oj

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TheRelotionship oftheFomsoffheAm tofie scopulo



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Ll ere s onothermogntfcer]tsiudyor the I I fe ofonsh/pbehtu€en the musceson lhe bock oi the orm ond on the scopLrlolhe smollegg ke mosson the owerend of ihe scopuo is ihe teresmajor muscte(Al.The rnossobove I oi B s rnode up of ihe inlrospnolugmuscleond the ieresminormuscle.Secouseofthe bockvcrdposiiionof the orm,you con notce lhoi ihesefofmsof the upperbockorebulglngn o sioieof conlroc iion.Resing overlhe lop of the shouder ond receivng o lot oi ght isthe lropeziusmuscle {Cl.Theseparotionof the tropezus and ihe deliod muscleis indlcoiedby o chonge in Thedireciionof lhe lineol D Doube curves(E and D deine lhe shapeof lhe deto d Inih s beniposiiionof lhe ormlhe formson ThebockondlnsideofiheormoreVtsib e,The exiernolheod [G],ihe nterno heod (H),ond the ong heod of ihe lriceps(t)orea tcteorly seporoTedfrom lhe lower border of ihe de lold.the commoniendon (J tiesabovethe poiniofihe elbow(l()lo lhe lnsideofthe point of lhe elbowis the inner owerend,or con dyle,of lhe humerus(L),wh ch formso prom nem iondmark lhe abilly of the scopuoe lo mo!€ on jhe rb coge ]sextensive. Thuslhe shopesof mus clesin lhiso€o wllllorygreollyoccordln'glo ihe poseoi ihe modet.


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TheMuscles oflheRoised Arm /l n e\ce ent way to obsetuelhe r! ll of on Flort slisin lire dfowinqoflhe fo sedorm. n th s areo ihere ofe ihree musclesthoi orig, noTelrom ihe corocoid processof ihe scopulo.The ftrslrs lhe peclorolismino[ o smallmusce lhot scoveredbythe pecloro s mojorondgenefolydoesfoloppeoron lhe surfoceoi ihe body lhe second s ihe shori heod ol lhe biceps.lhe third is the coF ocobrocholismuscle,whichoppeorson lhe nsideofthe ormwhenlhe orm sroisedtiihos lhereiorebeen coled ihe brucfixon mus cle" SmoI and sienderil s visibeoiA. lt exlendsupuordfromlhe ormptond nserhinio Theupperorm oboui hal6,\oyup the shafiof lhe humerusbeiweenlhe bceps (B)ondthe ong heod of lhe lrlceps (C) The corocobrochios musce is on adduclorof the orm;tholh,il pu sihe armlo\rsrdthe sde of



Aso visbe ln ths drowng s the ntefno heod of ihe triceps(D),lhelnnercondye of lhe humerus(E),the smollmossof ihe ieres mojor(F),oncllhemossollhe loiissimus dorsi (G).Theleresmojorond ihe oissimusdorsl exlendfromthe bockoflhefigureandpcssn froniof ihe longheod of the fceps io iermi, nate n ihe froni01lheshofiof ihâ&#x201A;Ź humerus. Theolssimus dorcifofrns the backiop oi the ormpt wh e the peciorolsmolor (H)forms lhe ffonlilop. Mlcheangelomode mony siudiesof ihe foisedorm,Hedd soaso wayof knowingthe forms lr1this oreo and how ihey chonge shopens ghty ditferentposilions. Theorigns ond insgriions of ihe musclesinlol\ed in ihe roisedorm moy presento chollengeat frsl, buiwiihsludyloushouldbe oblelo drowthis complicoiedoreo of lhe fgure wilhoulony dificu1yol o/1.

TheMuscles ondBones oftheFoleotm N


Thes!eleton orlhe foreofmsdrownhere n I lhe posilionof dernipronoJion lhoi s,wrlh lhe pa m of lhe hand iurned holtutqybeh{een pronoton,or ioc ng downwcrd,ond supinolon,or foc ng upwsrd,Whenihe hond s in supinolon,the hvobonesofthe foreorm ondlhe muscesoi ihe foreormlienexllo one onolhetBLrlin pronoiion,lherodiusrololes,or crosses, o\â&#x201A;Źr 1h6ulna,and lhe mlscleso so crossTheforeormthen chongesfrcm a flot bockke moss to become cylindricolin shope In dempronolion,lhe lv!4,bones lhe rodus(L),on lhe thumbsde of lhe foreorm, ond lhe ulna (lvll,on ihe liiileJnger sde ond lhe foreorrnmuscesore in o pos Tonwheretheyore beginnng lo crosslhem At ihe elbow ihe iop of lhe u no jo nsihe bollom of lhe humerus(N)os o hingejotnt which permls flexlon(bending)ond exlenson (stroighlen ng)oflheforeormon iheorm. Thetop or heod,ol the rodluslol s shoped likeo horzonloldsc,whlch shollo\redoulon lop Thisholowed-ouidisc fis up ogo nsl o bo l-likeshope,ihecopilu urn,on lhe boltom of ihe humerus, on wh ch tsp ns Thespinnlng moton oflhe d sccousesthe rodiustoroiole oroundlhe u natlhe polm oflhe hondisthus lurned downv/ord ond upv/ord through mo!â&#x201A;Źmenisof pronolonond supernolon Theprojecton of bone oi P represenh ihe ponl oflhe elbowor olecronon.Thepfoleclon of bone on lhe rodiusbelowlhe heodoi Q isihe b cipiialiuberosi\/11owhichihe i-^ndon ofihe bceps s olloched Thereoree ghlbones nihewrisi(R)liis noi necessory io drow a I eighl wfhl or carpus, boneswhenyoudfowtheorm,butii is mpor, toni lo indicolethe mossor shopelhot lhey creolebetu/eenihe fofeormond lhe hond Fromthe iop of ih-. om lo the ilngersihe sectionsof lhe orm become progressve y shorlerond nofiower.The foreorm s ihe englh of lhe upper orm essone-fifih.The hond equos ihe lenglhof lhe foreormless one lfth Themassoilhewrisisiwce aswide os t is ong, ond lhe meioco.polbones(S), whichfomlhe bodyofihe hond,oreirce os long as lhe wlsi. Thelineof the knuckles(Tl mokslhe meelingofihe melacorpolbones ond ihe lirslof lhree sectionsof phoonges, Jhe bones of lhe ingels. Thh mporlont junciure is m dv/oy betuveenlhe lop oJ the wrslandihe endsoflhe fngers.Thelengihof lhefngersole roughy equollo lhe w si ond On the onoiomcol orm on lhe lefi o ffol

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ARMSIUDIES FORIHFIORD ANDSILIO]ES FORANGETS ONOFADAM INIHECREAT tud ohd blo.k chdlk 1511, eqd x 11'(21,27t 27.94q)

Ll ere ore o seresof siudlesof ihe orm ln I ldiihrofl posilions ond direciofs in spoce Theorm o1A s seporaiedfrcm ihe bockg.oundby a bold line,whichdefnesils form Thereore some fu/enly muscles n tho foreorm,bulin frguredrowinglheseiormsore mossedntolhreegroups lhe llexormuscles as one group Theerensor mlsclesos on olhet ond lhe longsupnoloros o lhkd moss of lhe foreormArnoslolof lhese musces o glnolefrom lhe condylesol the humerus ond ofioch io the bonesol ihe wrhl ond hond. Becouselhe musciesbecome tendinousobout hoif\4oydown lhe foreorm,ihe conlour ol the am chonges.The egglke shape of the lpper holf of lhe foleam h cousedbylhe fieshytbersofthe muscesilhe blocklke shopeof lhe lo\irerholf sformedby the iendonsond ihe fu/obones lhe rodus ond u no of ihe foreorm. lhe fexor muscles(B),on the fronl of lhe foreorm,orginoielromihe innercondye of thehumerusondconslsiof fourrnuscleslhe

plonolorlerestthe ieror of ihe wrsl on ihe rodius,or fexor corp rod olisiihe pomors ongus;ond the llexorof ihe wdsion'iheulno, or fexor corpl ulnors The pronolorteres, which ierm noles ho fi\oy down ihe ouief bords of the rodius,is one ol the musces respons ble for the roioiionolmo\,emeniof lhe foreorm,wrlslond hond li controcls,ro loing (cfossngllhe rodluso\er lhe uno, wh ch ploceslhehondpo m down[srd (pro noion) The olher three supericlolfexo6, whlch inserlinlo lhe undersde of the wrlst ond hond,ole responsible for bendinglflex ngl the wrsl ond hond fotu'ord,iowqrdihe fronl ol the foearm. Beneoththesefour supedcio flexolslso deeperflexormusce,lhe llexordigtorumsupefiiciols I s vsibleony where is lendons oppeoron the wflstbehdeenlhetendonsof lhe moâ&#x201A;Ź superficol iexors.Deeporsii ond not visibe on the surfoces the llexordgiorumprofundus,d reclyunderiheflexdidgiiorumsuperfciols,the powerfL{l lendonsof

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n n lhe su'foceotlhe polm ofe1l!omLrscle \rqfoups. Themossundef the thumb,the thenormoss(4 n M che onge ot drowingof the handolihetop ofihe poge,ismode up ofthe muscesofthe lhumb Thereorefourof them an odductoror adductorpo icisian obductotor obductorpo lics brevs;o short fexot or flexorpol cis brevs;ond o musce, opponenspo icis,which rfakeslhe thumb workln opposilionlo lhe fngers,Underlhe lllle fingerore the hypolhenormuscles(B), whichcontroithe lilllelinger Onthefronlof theforeorm, wherethe hond meehihew sf,orelhec€oses,orwr nkes,of the skinco ed w sl brocelels, C in the drcwng to the r ght Theyoremosivslblewhgnihe hondond wrisiore pulledtowardihe frontof lhe foreom. The oreo on the po m of the hond,befiveenihe ihenarond hypolhenor (D) n the top drowing,s formedby mosses, lhe podding,whichpfolecislhe hond,Asthe sklnon lhe hondfoldsoverlhe Jonls,w nkes ore formedon ihe po m these nesofe occenilaled by ariisislo express form, the bockofthe hond,in lhe r ghlCrossing hand drowng, ond extendng loward lhe ihumb,islhe tendonof ihe ong extensor of ihe thLrmb(E).On lho ouhldeborderof ihe wdsiorethelv"otendon9of tho shorloxiensor ond ihe ong abduclorof tho ihumb.on ihe surloc€iheseformsoppeorosonelorgeiendon (F)Belweentheselostlv/oiendonsand lhe iefdon ot the long exlensoro depfesslon (Gl called ihe "onatomcalsnutlbox"is apporeniwherithe lhumb s pulledbocku/,ord. At one tme, men snffed lobocco ffom thls Thekeylo drowinghondswe s o com p ele understond ng of lhe skeleiostructure ond oi ihe n-oshy formsihol fi t oul.Youneed nol leorn e\,erysmollmusclebul only ihe musciegroups, lhe shopeslhoiorcos ol lhe ormossumen posilions foreshorlened ore cleodydepicled n ihe lowefdrowingTheseclionsof lhe orm shouldb-. visuoizedos cylinderspoced n fronlol one onolherTheconiour ne usedfor the rightormot H s ocluolyo serlesofsmo , cun€d, o\erloppng nesthot indicotethoi lhe deioid moss{l sin fronloflheupperorm moss(Jlond lhollhe uppercrm isin fronlof the foreorm (K The lell orrn n lhe lowerdrowlngot L is exlremelyforcshorlened,Theseclionsof lhe ormoppeoroso\l3soregglikefoms p ocod one in frcntof onolher




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eroluqcnureLuoceq lueulLuord rnuro,oql lo pue rei o eq+p seipuoc eql puo 'no peL-lcla4s ao s€psnlueql uot+lsod stL+urieeq oql lo dol eql tD sedoLts tculstp ieql jo ouos esol sdor|ponb eL.+'tueq s SJoeqaqlueq^ d q eqlploql lurolpuoces o sessorcll puo sned eq+ uo dn sr ur6ro sf esnooeq^poq eq1to lun4 eul ot q6 L.lleql 6uxeuJouotpurytolo$tppoeq+soqqrourq snpaj eL.ll '6e le,4o eql Jo loFlelxe eLll sltll]ledq3q/n',{uoleeq eql uedo q6tqieql lo luorleqt uo sepsnuieqll6q+e6o{buLlcv q0lql eq+lo gdec|llor. so ecoJlnseq+uo rDeooo eorq aql 01relel uegoqspo op pql sqcsnLrj i\luenbesuo3slslD lo] eco]rnseql uo Llrol rolouro lou $ { arcJeleqlpuDe csnL!snureye deep sl 'snlpeurulel snlso^eql q+Deujepun -ul sruso dnor6 qql ]o elcsnu q+rnoleql oelo eeu)leql oNt Atonporose^rncqqq,r 'snureyesnFo eql Jo€ul lno+uocle+noelll seop uoql |e e )a\ol o +opuo ilploq eror,! eeq eql lo do+ eq+ o+lJler'Jncol sloeddo eul rnoluoc snurelulsnlsDo!116u[uese]der uorl pd\el^ ueqrlAolFloo leuulel']l'NoUeq+ plro uopue+uourLuoc eql to o6pe 16!!leqi olutsl]6sulpuornuJsle|']lrolloqseqlro eps reulleq+uoI sestroE) snure{usqso^eql q6lqleql ro )icoq eq+LJoe csnur+sr] eqi qeour ll 6laqj!\ )cDq eq+ol lolDrooslJnl eq+ol prJoSllouJqsn+cer eqlro.luoteLl{o{punorospue86 I ereq/v\'oet eql 'O O6pele+noeql o+ul I UOpUelUOLT.TLUOC Eiosll puD leNor]corl le+Der66ql lo Luolloq eql rDou1nL!e,eql Jo uoqsaq+p loo leq -dn eq+uot sostro I qOql eql ]o ep s+noeq+ uo papco sl tcj epsnLusnulelxesnFo^aq_L lJ) o q$ eqt]o atcreqnlro'tupdoltFaq eq+ olutpesulol lJlol eaui aql ouFsoralueuots| ollepd eq so pro. u,rop senu&oc uopue+ !o!!L!oc 6ql aeq eq+lo luorl oql s+colord '€colns xe^uoJo q+r ron6uol4^qonod tr 'uopuel qql ut pepp€qure q 'otlalod ro '(gldoca€Dieqt dnorostr{p sepsnlueql o o] uouruloc s Llcll/r sloluel soecrrponoeq+ lo uopuel uoururoc orll lo ool eql o+uleeLil o selouur,|elpuo oql e oqo eclolqp s|^edoqljo eups30 llle^ oleq+uroj uopuel 6uo4sD sDselDuloloI ssoureql p uol+rod elppllu eql saldncco M sroLirejsnlcer€ql 'snlpeLUrapl sqso eL.llpLroSnureNl snFo^aL.ll'slroual srucer srusDeql'snure+xa eql sepsnu rnol lo dn epoLusl I sroure, sdel ponb oL+pelloJseJsnurrosualan oll Jotuo4 eql ulli' lo ssolue6roto srL.t6rql

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nnlhe nsideofiheuppefporloflhelhgh ry s o lfionqulof-shoped moss[A].Theodduclormosso g natesal the pelvsond terminotesin the innersde of the shoftol lhe femurlhe ower porlionof lhis mosss cov eredby lhe quodrcepsfemorsmlsclesThe odductormosss boundfromobove by lhe iold oflhe groinond lhe obdominolmuscle Theodduclorspu I lhe lh gh bocklo\4ordlhe body fromo poslon of obduclon, n which the ihigh s oMr'oy fromthe body. l^r'oolherimportontsma Iermuscles onthe lh gh ore lhe lensorfoscioeloloe ond lhe sarlorus.Thetensorfoscioelqtoe (C),whjch orignolesprincipollyoiihepelvc po ni (Bl,or onlerorsupeToT ioc spne,oppearsas o smol mass jusi in fronl of lhe greoier irochanier ol ihe femur Jusl below ihe greolerlrochonietlhe musce exlendsinlo the oiibol bond (D),o longbondol f berson lhe oulsideollheth gh ca led ihe toscioala Ths band possesoverand holdsdown the vosiusexternus. Crossngthe outsde of the kneeloint,the bond lerminolesoi lhe ouier condye of the libo Generollylhe iolblol bond s noivslbleon lhe oLriside ofthelh gh, bul when ihe lensormuscleconlrocls,the i oiibol bond couseso s ghi ridge on ihe ouisideof lhe kneeond o \€ryshoilowOroovg on ihe wsiusexiernusmuscle Thesodorusmuscle(9 o so orignaiesoi the anleriorsuperior oc spne. ll exlends down\tordocfossihe insde ofihelhigh ond sweepsorcundlo ihe nnersde otthe knee, whereiiierminates neartheupperparioflhe innefsurfoceof ihe ibo,lhe sorlo us s only obouf /o fingerswde, but ii h lhe longest musceofihe body tspirohdownthe nsld-. of ihe ihgh n o beauiful c!r\,€ lhoi sepo rai,,.s lhe quodrcepson lhe lronlol lhe lhigh ffomlhe odduciormosson the insdeof ihe ihgh. Thesodoriuss knownos the 'io or's muscle"becouse in the posi lallors soi crcsseggedon top of Iorg€\dorktab6s. In that postion the sortoriusis cloory conThesortorilsmusce ond th6tensorfoscioo lotoeworkogoinsieoch other ihetefsor rololesih-oeg nwsrd,towordlhe body {medi o y),ond lhe sododusrololesitoLrluord,o\roy fromthe body (lateroy).Whenboih muscles acJtogetherihey help lilithe thigh Lrp\eord,



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Muscles TheHomstring n the bock of the th gh s the homsfing moss,or posleror femorol musces,A n


OF A SIRAGHTIEG T\^/OSIUDIES ANOTNE8,ACK fAOM THE NSIDE 1 1 ' 3 [ 2 1 C 4 ' 2 0 . 3 2c h )

ihe right-honddrawng,wh ch ismode up of threemusclesthe bicepslemors,the sem tendinosus, ond lhe semmembronosus Ths rnossof flexormuscesorignaieson the bock of lhe pevs, or ihe heelof lhe schum,be' neolh the g uleusmoximus(B)Thenro ten' dons of ihe homslrngmuscesbronch oul ocrosslhe bock ot the knee The nner homstrnstendon (c) crcsses the kneeond nserisnto ihe nsideedge of lhe lbia jusl beow lhe knee Theolier homslaing lendon (D)crosses the outsdeof the kneejoni ond nserlsniolhe heodoflhe fbLrlo.n ls enl rely the homslrng mossisshcpedverymuchlike o foolbo tsfuncton islo bencllhe knee,ihls fex ng the ower eg on lhe thigh. Thedrowng on lhe efl provdeson exce lenlopporlunlyio observethe sp ro quo t of the sortodusmusce (E).lt olsoshowsthe sroc is (Fl,on oddlcior muscleocoled di recty beh ndthe soriorus.Thegroc ls(meon' ns sendef' ln tatinl orsesfrom ihe ower porloflhepeLvs, ola pointneorihemeelng of ihe lvlo plbc bones Ths musce,wh ch clelinesThe nsideconlourot ihe ihgh, exlendsdownlvordr olonOwiththesoriorius ond ihe nnerhamslrinslendon t nsertsnto the innersurloceofihe tbia ot o po ntltrstbe ow the knee ThetendonsofiheselhreemLrscles sweeporoLrnd the insdeoJthe kne6,whore ihey{ormlhespircmossknownosihe goose foor tcl Becouselhe homstrngtendonsore !€ry shorl,I is dffcul io lfl the thgh when ihe knee s unbenJ. I the knee bends, the homstng tendonsore releosedond iththen eosyio ro sethe thightowordthe trunk.Tryitl n theseonotomco drowngsof the leg, M che ongeloco refulydel neoiedihe forms Whendfowng frorn fe, howe\€r,he dld nol seeor drowmonyof the musces ndivduc yl nsleodhe d€w them os mossesln o ile drowng,ihe hamstringmosswouldoppeor on lhe backofihe ihighnotosthreemusces bli os one moss n the rshl-honddrowng nol ce the line(H)runnng \€ri co y downihe cenleroflhehomsftngs,This seporolion does nol exlslon mosimodes lJ /o or moremusces ho\,elhe somefunction,the sepcrotion behleenlhe muscesw noibe ndicoledol c in o drowng or wi be ndicotedony slghiy by nes or shodng. li i\ro or more muscleshovediffe€ntJunctons,lhe seporo I on betu/eenthem w / be ind caled by strong inesor shodng,



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ol lhelhighto thePelvis Ihe Relofionship I rrthisdrowingyoucon cleoryobse^â&#x201A;Źthe of lhe lhigh to I reoiionshp ol lhe muscLes lhe muscesol lhe pelvc oreos.Theextenlof lho lensorfoscioeloloe (Alfrom ihe pelvc po nl (B)downwsrdond boclolqrd to lhe ouie.Ihe exierno sideoftho lhlgh sc eorlyvisib obliquemusce (Cl resison the creslof ihe pe visobo\,ethe gLuleus mediusmusce (Dl Ihe groolerlrochonter(Eloflhe lemurond it ore olsoc eoly dethe formsthoi sLrfiound ined; ihe tensorfoscae loloe musce (Al loms on egglikemossin frontof ihe greoler trochonlei lhe sphericolyshoped gluieus rnedius(Dlisobo\,eil, ond the g lTeusmox mus lFl formslhe rounded,blocklikernoss behind t. Thewstus exlernusmusce (G) is seporoiedfromlhe homslringmoss(Hlby o seresof shortInes 0. Rememberlhol lhh cearlyrendereddefniiionoflormsindicoios ihotlhesemuscesho\â&#x201A;Ź seporolefunclions lhe fronlof ihe lhgh The ine represenling ond knee beouilulLyexpo ns ihe anolomyl ihe \l]siusexternus noieihe rectusfemoris(.J), 10,the commoniendon(Ll,ond lhe potelo (M)

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The knee is one of the oreosof lhe body I whelethe boneisc oseto the surfoceond si'ongy influencesih form,Allhoughthe knee hosmonycomponenls, ihey ol mokesense in iems of lh funclionos o compoundjoinl lhe lowerend of ihe femurwidensinb n{o prcjeclionsof boner lhe inner condyle (4 ond lhe outercondyle (B).these condles lâ&#x201A;Źsl on the lop or ploifom, of the tbio (g lhe poiella,or kneecop (Dl,hos okeody been describedoso smollroughylriong!or bone wlh o con\,exsurfoceembedded lnio lhe orge commori tendon of ihe quodriceps, whichcrosses the iiont of the knee Thepotelo les ln ffonlof the lo\derend of lhe femur ond forms o projeciion on the flont of lhe kneejthe ower border of ths prdecfionis le\â&#x201A;Źl wlth ihe poni of seporollonbeiween lhe femw ond ihe lbio. Theligomenlof lhe pdte lo (EJterninotes ot the kneellngpolnl,or jhe iubercleofthe iiblo(0 ]heiuberce ofthe iiblo ls on unmstakoble andmark whlch morkslhelowefboderofthekneejit19ceo y vslblewhenthe eg isviewedln prolle.


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flecouse lhe l,neeiswder in bocl,lhon in l, front.someformsof the boci.of the [nee oreopporenlinthisdrowingoflhe frcntvew Theouler homslringlendon (Al is visibe on ihe oulsideof the knee lhis lendon insefs Thespko moss intotheheodof the libuo (B). lol,whichsmodeupofihemed ol homstring ond iendonond the tendonsoflhe sortorius groc ismuscLes, su€epsoroundlhe insde of lhe knee,whereil lerminoieson ihe shoflol lhe lib o Ths spiro mossof lendons cu^,€s down lowordlhe f.oni of lhe eg, wh e lhe outer homsfing €ndon exlends slroght dowa nlothe heodof the nbuloon lhe ouler sideof ih6leg Abo\eond be ow lhe pofelo (D on the frontof the kngeorelhe lol mosses ond E)whlch ore esponsibefor lhe greoi vorioionslhol orlislsencounljgr when drowkneesore ditferenl lng the knee.Eyeryoneb ond ihe fot massesoroundihe poleliocon show!p os smollprojectng foms mosking ihe restofthe onoiomyoflhe kriee.Theyo€, howe\€tnot o grealilcior on th€ benl knee os l-e) €c€oe nlo o hollowc eoled bv 'he oo-or oll_e fecr.'o"o'^e op ol lre'lbo




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I u + c 5 l h e r eo r e t a o b o n e . n l h e r o r e o r m , t, rhere ore tuo bone5 n ihe o^er leq lhe o r g e ri b a , o c o i e d o n i h e n s d e o i i h e e g , o n d l h e s m o l e rf b ! o , o c a i e d o n i h e o u T ds e T h e n n e rs ! r f o c eo f l f e s h a f l c f l h et b o o n d lhe shorp anlerlor cresl cre enirey on ihe from ihe boi surfoce.The cutue ofihe ibo iol.noflhe knee lA)down loihe proiecion on l h e n s d e o f l h e c n k e k n o v r ' cns t h e n i e r n o n a e o u s( B l s c e a r y v s b l e T h e p r o j e c l o n o n t h e o l t s d e o f t h e o n k e . l h e e x l e r n c. n a fbu o iThe worcl rio eo us comes irom the L a i n i o r " h a n r m e l ' o r " m a l e t : l T h e h - - a do f TlreibLr.r rs ocoied on lheo{rts.le s!rfoce ol The knee Ofy ihc uppor and ower ex lrem tes of th-a l b! r ore v s b e on irre sur facc. The shofi Lrn.leres tlre m|rsces oT lire .q i o l h e o l h r 1 ! - ' . r lfh . -i-b o s i h c i r r r . ' s a n T - r o r ( D l .d l e x o r t r r ( r s . r l-h- a i o r l l i r x r l c s . l ll h c L r p p -h - rv o t h ( l s o l l t i eI b r r T t t l . J i ! l o r i o f l l r \ nrrn:u pdjlrs I iurl ol ihlicf kc.rf.ld sop i l r r f , o f l t t r r n u 5 ! . o l l h o l o o l .w h e r c I pa$.s L rdint.rlh .rf.l rnscrlsinTollrc lros.l ol rtlr rfch rxlir l)ornr oi lic ltrc.rl lo.. llrc l . 5 lr f c l N l o r n r L T hj j i l . l ( ) f J V c r vo r g c o n c i s !i be wheie t cr.rsseslhe troft (n llre ()w.:r ,o! cn.l.rnke isnrnclon slo b,-.d (l--rlthe iooi nrv]l.l The eq, wheri ih,- t.rot D n ihit posi.D. iiie Tcl].lor.or be mod c,-ary D re.J y lo ih,- o!lt|.ie ofih,- Ubo sornerrr is The .,nq ollcnsor ol The To,4s. or ,Frl,Fns.] . l . l l o r l n r o r . l L s ( E )l l i s m | ] s c e o s o o r s , - s f r o n rl h - .L 4 ) t ) , -l w r ( )l t i ( l : r . ) l i h { ri t r t r o n . i p o r l of Tlref bLro lhe T.nclonoTThs ri|]sc e crosses ire nonTollhe.rnke, wh,-r,ai div cl,qsinto l.rLrr sflro erTenclonsllr.rTlonouton iir--T.rpback, or .lors|]mol Thefool fhese imo er len.lo15 n s e n n t o l h e o s t p h a o n g e so f t h e s e c o n d l h r o u g hi h . r f i t h i o e s A s l s n o m e i m p e s . l l r e ong erlensor oi llre ioes exlends (uncursl t h e s ei o e sa n c lh e L Ffse x t h e f o o i B o i h i b o i s anleror oncl ihe ong exTensorc1renrcrssed lnto one lorm or the froni ofihe eg The ghl n ih s dravr'ingisironr the efiironi of ihe fgure Youfab ly to clrow n ghl ond slrade greoiy mproveswhenyoLrreo zeilrol ghl os i oppeors on o lgLrre n noiure s noi necessorlylhe besl ol-tl lor drowng Ari$s u s u o l yd e v s eo s n g e i g h l s o u r c e , s n c eg h l hlifg ihe igure lrom d ilerenl clreclons iends lo breok up the lorms oflhe igure, creongelodd nol copy iohlng os l ex$ed n nanrrebut creoted h6 own

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l w o p e r o n e o m l s c e s a r , e f r o ml h e f b L o I on ihe ouhde or ihe eq The rorcl PeF o n e o m e a n s p e r l o n si o i l " r ef b u o f C e o r l y vs b e on ihe ouls de of ihe eg s Tl-teong peronecrmLrsce, or percneus ongus,A nfhe r i g h t - h o n c l d r onwg . w hc h a r s e s i r o mi h e u p p e r t w o i h r d so i i h e i b u o T h e i e n d o no TT hs m l s c e p o s s e so r o l n o l h e o u i e t m o l e o u s and exlenos Lrnderond across ihe fool lo ierm nole n ihe base olihe meloiorso oiThe g r e a i l o e l s m o l n f u n c l o n s l o e N T e n dl h e lool;howevei beccLJseof lhe poih of is ien clon acrossthe soe of lhe fooT,ihrs 'nuscle oso s responsibe ioriLrrnrrgihe so e ouiwrr.l leverirfg tl The short peroneo nLsce. ol p-.roneusbrevis[B],orses fforn ifre ovr'ertwo th of lhe lbLr o. Theferr.lon oi Th5 nusce oho posses oroln.l ihe exlerno molLeoLrs, blrl 1 rserTsinTolhebdsc ofTlrenrekrt.rrsoof The l!e lol]. or ifih rrrerol.rrso The mnld o ibre5 of lh s m!s.e ore covejed rry Theten tuf ol ihe of.l fr:]rofeo Togel'.J wilr The The pe(/re!s brevs ext--n.]5 orq peri]nl:].l1. Thel.rn by tflnq Thehee wh .r pLrslrrg thâ&#x201A;Źl

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olc rorey s,oerior ThertAofca mLr5c-as .lrowr oj n.lvil|ro nrrj.l.rsr on-.1 on(l slcnder Theyt--f(l io nrosi log--lh.J formrnq ih--llcncra cy n.lri.rr shopcolThe ow.rr cg. Vhef. lrowcver.the eg s I o iT.rieot llcol o.Ji{)f ior nn.rncc. wh-^n llic --ni re weighj .rt Th,- b(rly s on The l.r--5 lfrcse musc,-5 1'|rowup os sep.lruie fttffis onTh,-lor9-^rnr.'ss o f t h - -e q M c h e o n q e ( ) t ) l l . n . i e c o r o T e . i l h e oLrlscl,-ol ih.- fooTwlh no.rrlons oflhelen dons ol the nto p.'roneol n|]sc es \,vroppnq oro!fil ihc bcrckol lhe exicrfol nro eourr r ths dfowng lh,- smo niossof Th,-short el1ero oi ihe loes, of --xiensordSLTorlnl brevs(Cl, s cleory visbe Th. ne rLrnnnll lsihe I blo s clownlhefronioi lhe eg r,-prer-6n onler o| the te r.)on oth s m(rsc,- lDlcreoies o hondsornecurye on ihe fronl of ilre onke. Rememberthot the eg oLuayslo.s ihe fool os o cLrrveALsonoje ihai lhe eg shoLrdr]ol o p p e o r i o e n l e ro l l h e i o p o i t r e c r c h o r l h e fooi; ihe aciuo meellnQpo ni s allhe bock


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oftheCoff Ihe Muscles The colf of lhe leg is rnodeup of hi/omue(4 (the nome I cLes.The gostrocnemius meonstrog3be ly'l h a bulgingmusclevsible on lhe surfoceof lhe leg,lt hoslwo heods, wh ch orig nole frcm ihe bock of the con dylesof the€mur,ond it inserlsnlolhelop of the pchilleslendon,on lhe bock of lhe leg Thepoinlotwhichihefibers ofthe muscejo n thol l,endon(B)\cr esfrom personlo person downlhe bui usuollyoccursobout holfvi/,oy is we I bock of lhe leg lf ihe gostrocnemius de\€loped or In o sloteof controclion,the juncfureof the mlsc e fibersond lendonwll be cleorlydenned,lheinnerholfoflhe gostrocnemlus lson o lo\derle\€lthdn sthe olier holfjlhe Innerholf thefeforeInserlslntothe Achilestendonon o le\€lslghily owerthon the lnsertlonpont of the ollier hoi Theinlefno moleolus,how€\,€f, ls on ihe higher le\el lhon lhol of the exiernolmoleolusond shoudbe so epTesenledln o drcwlng, ThesoleuslC) (lhenone meons'floifsh')ls o llot nluscleihoi esdlecily underthe goslrccnemlus,ll or glnotesoi lhe upperpodlon of the bockof the tblo ond fbu o ond Inseft intothe Achillestjendonwellbeow ihe go!' lrocnem us.Exceptfor ilsriowerfbers,the 5olgosels s covorodby tho moIe superfcioL lheAchillestendon(D)lswlde oi lh upper bofderjlilaperctouordlhe backollho onke and ihen wldensogoln os t nsedsintolhe heelbone,or calconeug(E) Thepow€rlulcolf mlscleso€ lhe extengor musclesofihe fooi.Theyenobleo personlo putthe enl rewelghtofthebodyon lhe toes. In lhis drowingthe iendon of lho tbiols onterlor(0 lscleorlyvis ble on lhe lronioi ihe onkLe.lhe dorsumofihe fooi sdol ned bylhe iendon of lhe extensorof ihe greoi toe (O).


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O r gn : underneoihthe soslrocnemllrs, rfomihe upperpodon oi ihe bock ot the libio nsedion: cM€rthongaslrccnemus,

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TheFool:TheBonyArch Voucon leornogreoideolo boutlhe onolI om/ of lhe fool from studyingMicheange 03 drowngs Theformsof ihe fool o€ determinedmore by skeelal slruclurelhon byo nyotherfociorOnihe dorsumol lhe fool ihere s only one sma musce,the shoriex tensorof theloes,ondthelendonsof lhe ong exiensorof the toesond olher muscesthat ore ocoled on ihe frontof lhe eg.Theonkle, lhe orch,ond lhe heeloflheloot oreformed by lhe se\,enlorso bones lhe coconeus, lhe oslaogalus, the ncviculorbone, ihree cuneiformbones,ond the cubod bone.The

co con-auslorms the hee (4, osnoledeorlier Abole i the oslrogolusrestsn the covt formedby lhe lowerendsoflhe iibo (B)ond lhe fibuo (CJnlhiscovt lacls keahnge joinf, wh ch o owsihe fool lo mo\,€ up (flex ionlor down(exiens onl lhe novcuor bone, lhreecuneforms, ond lhe cubod bone form lhe archofthe loot ol D Beyondlhe lorso bonesore ihe i\e meio lcrso bones,wh ch formlhe bodyofihe fool, connecing lhe lorsus10lhe loes Eochloe hosthreepho onges,exceplfof ihe greolloe, which,ikethe thumb,hosony 1wo


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The fool h remorfoby s mibr io ihe hond. ihe greol I lhere ore dfferences,however; loe isnol os mobib oslhe lhumb.Aso,unlike posiliononthe honddlfferc lhethumb,whose poslion fromtholofihef ngers,thegreoJloe's on ihe fool isnot \,eryd fferenlfromlhol of lhe othertoes.Whenlhe g€ct loe h lified,o len' don-runnlng stroightdownlhe centerof lhe loe-is cleory vsibleon ihe dorsumof lhe fool. Ths h ihe lendon (4 of lhe exlensorof lhe greol loe, whch orisesfrom oboul holfwoyup lhe shoflof lhe fibuloond lermnoigs inihe osi(dsto)phoanxoflhegreoiloe.on ihe fronloflhe leg,thismuscleh complefely co\eredby the moresuperncai rrusclesond soh noivisb e,lislendonlsimporlontioorlsls becouseil morksthe hlghpoinl,or rldge,on the dorsumof lhe fooi. n thisdrawingnoiice thol,ffomlh s fidge,N4lchelongelo hosmode onep oneoflhe foolseemloslopegroduoly downvr'ordond oulvr'ordiowrrd ihe litl e ioe, whiLeihe pdne ot the insdeol the fooi op" peofslo drop downobruptyThefuncilonof lhe exiensofof the greol toe h lo extendthe greoiioe by llfilngt up io\dordlhe fronlof the leg Theon y muscleonihedorsumoflhe foolis lhe sho exiensorofthetoeg, osfoisd eor loi whch orignalesotihe h6elboneond lorms o smoIegg-shopedmassonlhe oLtlersdeof ihe fool (B),direcily n fronl ol ihe externo molleoLus, Fouflendonsextendffom il ond insediniothe pho ongosof the ffrslfourioes Theseiendonspossunderlhe fendonsof the long exiensorof ihe toesond ihereforeare fololyvisibeon the foot Theskeletoorch on the innersideof ihe footlsflledoulond sofienedbyihe abdLrclor of the greoitoe,or obduciofhol uc s (c) on iheforiher(dlsfal)end of ihe metolarscbon€ of ihe g€oitoe s o proleciion(D)ihoi s an mporlonl ondmokforihe odlsl Theouiside conlouroJihe fool isdeflnedbyihe obduclor of ihe tlle ioe, or obduclordjgitiminim (El and by o second londmorkprcleclion(D, whichiscousedbytheenlorgedc oser(prcximoI end oi ihe meiolorsolbone of the tt e toe ln ihh drowng, l\/lcheongelo emphosizedlhe powertullendon of lhe tbio lsonieriormusce (G)os l crosses lho onke loinllo i,.rm nole n ihe nsideborder of the fool,

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nfowinglhe egsolthe hlmon flguresnoi l, thol d tierenlfromdrowng lhe orms.lhe iricepsmasson lhe fronioflhe lh gh resem blesfhel cepson lhe bock ollhe orm.One musclegrolp openslhee bow ond slroighlenslhe foreormlo olgn wllhlhe lpperormj ond the olher group of musclesopenslhe kneelo slroghlenlhe lo\derleg ond olgn il wlh lhe ihigh Thef bersof lhe voslusexlernusmuscle{4 connectlo the commontendon (B) In the drowinglhe muscleformso projeclionwhile the iendon h porlrot€d os o llol oreo Ihe t cepsmuscles on lhe fionl ofthe thighho\€ o common furlc'lontlherefore Mcheongelot linesIndcoiing ndivduoLmusces are subilyond ghtydrown t isimpodonlloren_ lkemossond deriheth gh aso lofge,cyllndel ihe l ceps muscesos deloih portolly embedded n ond wroppingaroundthelorgel moss one of ihe g€dldifferencesbet$€enmon ond ihe ofhercnimosisthotmonslondsup" rghi l isevdent n M cheiangelo3drowings ihoi he knewvreI thot monyof the muscles hove ihe funclon ol hodng lhe body up ogolnslihe force of glovljy.porexomp e, ihe rbcoge mosslsheldup by r€ciusobdomnus on the lloni ol ihe torso,elec'lorsplnoeirom on b€hind,ond iho exiernolobl qLJemuscles maxmuspfewnh lhe lhe sldegiond gLuieus pelvlsfrom foling foMald. And, os con be s6en In the deto ol lotl, ihe knee lolnt h supportedby lhe irlcepsmuscleol the thlgh (C)ond ihe homslrlngmoss(D)

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Abdominolmusces,62 ingers,'104 1oal,126 Aceiobuum of hiploinl6T Achi esfendon,122 17,18,75,77 Acromionprocess, Adduclormossofthlgh,108 109 grocllh, 110-111 thigh,108 109 lhumb,99 Anolomcol drcwn9, 16,71,100 46 Anotomcol soltbox, 102 Analomcol snutfbox, 125 Ankte.17,21,124 Anlerof supeioriliacsPne,19,66 Anihe x, 34 Antirogus,34 Nch,124 125 pit,62,95 ArnT Ar$oie, 84 Arm-bone,seeHumerus Arms,88-105 bonesot 17,89,96-97 ond flexon, 96 exiension 97-99 exiensors, 104 loreom,89,96-97,'100-101, dorsiond, 78 loiissimus lengthof, 96 movementof, 74,78,96,99 musces,89-97 scopuo ond,92-93 lendons,98,100 t ceps,90-91 upper 89 Axilo,62,95 Bock10,7219,8A-81 toms ol 70 modelng,80 81 musces of, 72 79 50 Bockbone, Boonce, 82-83 Biceps, 89,90,94 95 orign ond nsettion,89 shortheod,95 Bicp tal groo\,€,58,/5, 78 Bicpiol1rrberosiv96 Brccholis,97 Breoslbone,see SlernLrm Breosls, 68 plocemenlmole/femole, 68 Buuocks, 84 85 18,19,122'125 Colconeus,

Coli muscles,122123 Coninus, 41 Copilulum,96 Coracoidprocess, 89 Corpus,17,96 Costshodows,36 Cheekbone,17,4'l Chesl,5859 Ch n $rop 32 C avtcle,'12,17, 18,21,46,52,56,58 Cacc\x, 18,19,82, 8A Colarbone,see Clovicle Commonlendon,21, 92 93,115 Composlon,24 Concha,34 Condye ol humerus, 92-93,98-99 Condyes of bmur 122 Contourdrowng, 11 Corccobrochios,94-95 Corocod processof scopuc,17 Corcnod process, 42-43 Cronum,19,29,40 relolonshp to foce,29 C.icod cori loge,44 Dollvn,Chores,84 Delold muscles, 58,62,68,89,92-93, 94 95 oclionoti 89 on lomoe,68 orign ond lnsedon,89 roisedorm,94-95 Dep€ssofobi inferors,41 D giloiions, 60,62,64 DofsoLspnes of lhoraciclertebloe,78 Da'srm,122, 124,'126 Dropery130-137 gestureof, 136 slmpting, 132 supportpo nts,'131, 132,134 Dtaw)ng,'t2,110,128,139 drapery130-137 wiih line,12 Eor34 Eorobe,34 Egyptonpropodons,21 ElG€co, 23 ELbow'17,89,96, 100 pointof, 96 Ereclorsp noe,72 Enendorl 96, 123,124 Extensor d gitorumlongus,1'18 119,126 Extensor oJlhe greotloe, 126 127 Extensors, 96 97,98 99

at.r'96 97,104 fnger '104 laat, 118-119, 122,124,'126 ]egs,147, 118-119, 126 thumb,99 Externol molleolus, 19,118 Exlernol obique muscle,64,66,68 Eyes, 34,32,4a-41

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prof e of lorso,86 pronolionoi hond,99 rb coge n spoce,52 ng moss femorh,seeHomsTr Posleror Posler or iLocspne.18 Pouporlslgoment 66 67 12,23 Pren'rnoryskelches, locio feollres,32 knee1obody 21 ol lgr'e.2o 23 Renossonce,22 23 syslems ot 20 23,32 Pyramidolis,62 108 Quodiceps,21,84,107 ociionol 107-108 commontendon,107 on,107-108 org n ond inserl Rodus,17,18,19,89,96-97 movemenlof,96-97 Recius obdominus,62 107,115 '116 Reclus femoris, Renossonceproporions,22-23 74-75,80-81 Rhombodeus, 24-25 Rhyrhm, Ribcoge, 21 of,50,52 mosslng poslon ng in sPoce,52,56 57 t pped,64 Ribs,18,19,50,58,60,62 o150,58,62 corliloge Rimot eat seeHelix 72,82 84 socrum,18,19, mole/femolevraotons,82 83 orion ol ereclorspnoe,72 34 orign of g uleusmoximus, orign oi lol ssmusdors,78 108 109,110 111 Soriorius, oclon ol 108 '108109 ofign ond nserlion, Scoene musces,44 a. 17,18,21,56 ScopLr oi 60,74 75,78 musces p ocemenlol 74 75 p io orms,9293 rcohonsh splneol l8 onierot 95 Serfo'tus rrognJs,60,64 Serrotus 36 Shodows,

Shope, oi dropery131,132 ol fornrs,14 '15 oulside,14, 134 smp fuing,132 Shinbone, seeTbio Shorlexlensor of lhe loes,126-127 Shouder blodes,seeScopuo Shou dergirde,46,56 57 Shou derjo nl,17 Shouder muscle,58 Shouders,82 83 fromework16-19 Skeletol Skul,40 Saetrs,122123 Spoce,lormsn, 30,52,56 57,60 Spne ofihe scopuo,18,75 Slondng, 128 129 Sternoce domostoid,46 Sternomoslod,34 Stefnum, 17,21,46,50,58 Portsol, 58 Supnolor 97 99 Suprosp noius,74-75 pubis,19,66-67 Symphyss Torsqbones,124-125 Torsus,17,21 Ternpora is,41 43 Tencion sheeh,76,78 Tensor fosce oioe,108-109 Teres major62,74-75,80-81,9293, 94 95 inseriion, 75 Teres minoi 74 75,80-81,92-95 Thenor mass,102 Thigh, 107 113 ironi ot '107 homsirngsond, 1'10-111 movemenlol 108 109 p lo pelvis,l'12-113 reloiionsh Thlghbone, seeFemur Throol46,56,58 Thorocc orch,62 Thumb,99, 104 105 mLrscles of,99,104 reolionship1ofingers,104-105 Throid codioge,44 \bia, 17, 18,19, 21,118-119 lLrberc e ol '19,21 Tbiohonterior 118119,126 lt t, ol heod,30,34,46,76,83 of pelvisfor boonce,82 83 Torso, 48 86 onleriorof,48 69 bonesol 17,58

iormsol chesl53-59 formsol 6l overlopping po$eior ot 70 87 prof e ot 86 rb coge,50 52 shouldefgkd e, 56 57 Trogus, 34 Tropez us,46,56,76 77,8o 81,89 orign ond nserlion, T6-77 Tro\,erse lendons,62 Trceps,89,90,92-95 ociionol 90 externoheod ol92-93 nlerno heod ol 92 93,94 ong heod of,92 93 orlgn ond inserlon,90 Ir cepsfemoralis, seeQuodrceps Iuberceof lhe libo,19,21 Uha,17,18,19,89,96-97,100 101 mossng,100-101 mo\emeniof, 96 97 Uprght pose,128 \(rue, 34,36,38,80-81,134 mode ng ihe back,80-81 \tstus exlernus, 107-108,115,116 orginond inserton, 107-108 \bsluslniermedlus, 107 ,l07,115,116 \hsiLrs iniernus, \brlebrae,'18, 19 ceNical,19,14-15,76 eeclor spinoemuscesond, 72 latssimus dorsiond, 78 trmbat.19,72,78 scalenemusces ond,44 scopuoe ond, 74 75 lrapeziusond, 76 thotaclc,19,50,74 75,78 vtetgfi , 68, 84, 86,124,02 on egs,84,86,120 a.t laes,122 plocemeniol 68 Whiiene,62 Wist,17,96,100 101 Wistbroceleis,102 Xiphod process, 17,21,58,62 Zygomolc orch,40 43 Zygomotclsmolor41 /gomotcusm not 41

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