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Civil and Environmental Research ISSN 2224-5790 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online) Vol.3, No.8, 2013

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Groundwater Research and Development Potential in Auchi Polytechnic-Philipa Idogho Campus Abdulasisi Titi UMORU*, Edwin .O. OYATHELEMI,Tunde, Usman Nurudeen SULE. Dept. of Mineral Resources Engineering Tech., School of Engineering Technology, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi. E-mail: ttee4all@yahoo.com, eddielemi99@yahoo.co.uk. latotuns@yahoo.com This Research is Initiated & Co-Ordinated by DR. (Mrs) Philipa .O. Idogho, the Rector of Auchi Polytechnic, We acknowledge her kind support and negotiation with the research sponsor- ETF research and development for underground water potential in Nigeria (2010). Abstract The immediate need of water is very vital to every organism therefore its availability and provision becomes very essential to life. As a result this study focused on the provision of quality ground water for sustainability of staff and students of Auchi polytechnic and its environs. It carried out conduction of resistivity sounding at the site and interpretation of the field Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) data to obtain geo-electric parameters. Determination of the hydrogeological characteristics of the subsurface at the site based on geo-electric and available geologic information reveal the possible of water availability. It recommended that a suitable drilling rig that can effectively drill to the required specifications and depth should be mobilized to site for subsequent projects. Keywords: Lithology, Depth, Geological survey, Ground water, ETF, Campus 1. Heading 1 Introduction The basic need and sustenance of man is water. As a result of its immediate needs to animal, plant and others, water availability and provision becomes very essential to life. According to Mulla, Syed, Abed and Pardhan (2011) observed that water is essential for life on the earth and any other planet and further explained that it is the fundamental right to get pollution free water to the every individual. The pollution of surface water can be treated with different techniques. It is very difficult to get purified ground water. In the Marathwada region from ancient times the people were using ground water for day-to-day use and drinking purpose. Groundwater resource development is a very viable means of meeting the ever increasing needs of our teeming population for potable water. Groundwater abstraction is more commonly done through borehole drilling. The amazing rates of failure recorded in the past drilling works have necessitated the absolute need for pre-drilling investigations (Fasunwon, Ayeni and Lawal, 2010). Geophysical methods have been very useful in determining the geological sequence and structure of the subsurface rocks by the measurement of their physical properties. Although there are varieties of geophysical techniques, which could be used in groundwater exploration, electrical resistivity method has proved reliable in delineating zones of relatively low resistivity signatory of saturated strata in various geologic terrains (Odejobi, 1999). Some chemical constituents are expected of ground water. For instance in the study of Majolagbe, Kasali and Ghaniyu (2011), the following chemical observations were recorded and helped to shape the study in Lagos suburban for ground water project. The chemicals are Cd, Fe, Cu Zn Mg and Na which were determined using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Buck scientific 210VGP model). The study confirmed that concentration of Pb, Fe and Cd found in Isolo study area were higher than WHO health based guideline values, indicating possible impact of landfill on the groundwater quality. This raises the question of toxicities of these elements, hence pose potential threat to man. Most of the nutritive metals analysed (Na, Zn, and Cu) in Isolo samples maintained strong positive correlation with r values ≥ 0.8 showing possible common source, unlike Ifo water samples that had all the metals analysed found within the WHO standards for drinking water. Ifo groundwater is soft with pH within the WHO acceptable range for drinking water while Isolo water is moderately hard, acidic in nature; hence require further treatment for it to be potable. In the ground water study of the Auchi Polytechnic presents a different view point based on the location, depth, geophysical analysis and Lethological laboratory test conducted before embarking on the project in the survey site. In addition, the total field operations and data acquisition at the site lasted for two days and follow the execution of the ground water project. 1.1Research Objective The primary objective of this investigation focuses on the followings: • Conduction of Resistivity sounding at the site and interpretation of the field Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) data to obtain geo-electric parameters.

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Civil and Environmental Research ISSN 2224-5790 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online) Vol.3, No.8, 2013

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Determination of the hydrogeological characteristics of the subsurface at the site based on geo-electric and available geologic information. • Making an appropriate recommendations for the planning and execution of a viable groundwater abstraction project (at the site) through borehole drilling • Production of groundwater and quality distribution in the study area. • Installation of a treatment plant unit. 1.2 Study Area: Site location and description The geophysical exploration was carried out within Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria. VES 1 is approximately defined by the geographical coordinates of latitude N070 02’44.4” and Longitude E0060 16’11.8”. The observed elevation above the mean sea level is 213 m. •

MAP OF AUCHI, IGARRA, OSOSO AND ENVIRONS 0

1.5

3

6

9

12

15

Kilometers

6°5'0"E

")

1100

6°10'0"E

IBILLO 15

00

Ineme-Ekpe

7°25'0"N

6°25'0"E

Mekeke

Ekpesa Ugboshi-Afe

R iv er Ub o

OSOSO

")

500

7°25'0"N

1500

Ugboshi-Sale

6°20'0"E 60 0

Ekpesa

Ebune-Ugbo

6°15'0"E

Ajayo

70 0

1000

6°0'0"E

Ille-Aro Oja-Sale

Onumu-Sale

1000

00 17

Ineme-Osa Ogbe-CaneOgbe Sale-Ogbe Ogbe-Oke

7°20'0"N

00 10

15

Ojirami-Ogbo Dagbala

1000

1000

Ayegunle Egene Ugboshi Oke

1500

Akpama

00

1500

UnemenekhuaEshawa

Egbetua

Oja

1400

Onumu Ogbe-Oke

1500

Ogugu

1000

1000

Aiyetoro

IGARRA Akuku Owan

1200

Okpilla Cement

Awuyami

Oyanmi 1000

1200

")

1100

Okpoto

1000

Semorika AfekeOjirami

7°20'0"N

00 10 00 15

Somorika

00 10

Oke150 0 Sanunu CampEturu Ogute

Udiegua 1200

1500

Kominio Afokpilla

Imiegele

Ogute

10 00

Ogriga

Awuyemi

15 00

Okugbe

800

1500

Utejie

Ogbido

10 00

700

Iddo

1000 1100

Imiekwi

900

13 00

900

Oku

7°15'0"N

Utejie Camp

90 0

11 00

1000

00 10

Egbigele

Jimoh Camp

Iyemu

R iv er E kp e

River Ekafe

sh i

Iyuku

Sebe-Ogbe

1000

Ake

Isokwi Imiakebu Imiagba

500

Isa

12 00

Ate

rle O er iv R

110 0

Salami Camp

Suberu

14 00

00 11

Sasaro Gbagere

Otuo Ikao I Ikao II Oloma

7°10'0"N

7°10'0"N

Uruoke

er iv R an w O

Igwe Ekperi

Saliu Camp

Ogbida Afana

90 0

800

10 00

Jettu

7°5'0"N

60

0

50 0

500

700

Ovbiomu

700

Ugba Ekpeye Obie Sebe

IyabaSebe

Med. 800

90 0

Igwe

Usun Ubuneke Ebetse 00

7°0'0"N

")

Ugbeno Ikabigbo Irukpai

80 0

6°0'0"E

Iyakpe

40 0

")

700

7°5'0"N

Ibia-Nafe Jeda Evoike Egboto

6°5'0"E

WARRAKE

Okpemi

UgbekpeAzukala

Ugieda Ubiane 300

7°0'0"N

6°10'0"E

6°15'0"E

6°20'0"E

Legend ")

800

AUCHI

500

0 70

90 0

Afashio

Ugboha

0 60

1000

6

Okpokhumi 40 0

Ayuguri

0 10

Ohama

Ogbona

0 110

0 90

IrelliYelwa Afua 0

Uokha

Ogbona

Iviotha

Avia

400

700

Meke

Ojo River

Ago-Isame

10 00

7°15'0"N

10 00

6°25'0"E

NIGERIA

Major_Settlements

River

Settlements

Contours

Major_Roads

River AUCHI TUNDE

Source: Authors’ Extract of Auchi and its environments, 2012.

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Civil and Environmental Research ISSN 2224-5790 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online) Vol.3, No.8, 2013

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MAP OF AUCHI, IGARRA, OSOSO AND ENVIRONS 0

1.5

3

6

9

12

15

Kilometers

6°5'0"E amp

6°15'0"E

Lankpeshe

1100

6°25'0"E

IBILLO

")

1500

Ekpesa

Ebune-Ugbo

6°20'0"E

Ogori

Ineme-Ekpe

7°25'0"N

OSOSO

")

R iv

er

U bo 500

1500

Mekeke

Ekpesa Ugboshi-Sale Ugboshi-Afe

Ajayo

7°25'0"N

0

1 0 00

Adaira C

6°10'0"E

70

6°0'0"E

Ille-Aro Ogugu 1000

Oja-Sale

Onumu-Sale

Egbetua

Oja

15 00

10 00

60 0

0 150

Ineme-Osa

10 00

17 00 15 00

15 00

Akpama Ogbe-Oke 1000 UnemenekhuaEshawa Ayegunle Ogbe-CaneOgbe Egene Ugboshi Oke Sale-Ogbe 1000 Ogbe-Oke

1400

Onumu

Ojirami-OgboDagbala

1000

7°20'0"N

")

1100

Okpoto

15 00

10 00

Ojirami

IGARRA

Okpilla Cement

Awuyami

Oyanmi 12 00

1500

1000 Imiegele AfokpillaKominio Ogute Utejie Camp Sanunu Camp Ogriga Udiegua1200 Awuyemi 15 00 EturuOke1500 1500 Okugbe Ogute Utejie Ogbido Oku Iddo 1000 Imiekwi

Akuku Owan

1200

7°20'0"N

10 00

Aiyetoro Somorika Semorika Afeke

800

1 0 00

900

1000

1000

11 0

0

1300

90 0

700

7°15'0"N

7°15'0"N

0

11 0

0

1 00

90

0

1000

10 00

Egbigele

Suberu

1200

Imiakebu

00

Jimoh Camp R

Salami Camp

14 00

11

Sasaro Gbagere

Otuo Ikao I Ikao II Oloma

r iv e

O rl

Ate

e

R iv

Iyemu

Ek

pe sh

i 70 0

Iyuku

Sebe-Ogbe

10 0 0

7°10'0"N

er

River Ekafe

Ake

50 0

110

0

Isa

Isokwi Imiagba

Uruoke

7°10'0"N

R iv

Igwe

er Ow

Ekperi

an

Saliu Camp

Ogbida Ago-Isame

Meke

Afana

R iv e r O jo

90 0

Ogbona

Iviotha

0

11 0

1 00

Avia

70 0

0

700

40 0

90 0

IrelliYelwa Afua

800

Ohama

10

Ugbeno Ikabigbo Irukpai

00

1000 900

800

10

00

Jettu

Ogbona

Ayuguri

7°5'0"N

800

90

0

Igwe

Ugba Ekpeye Obie Sebe

600

50

0

500

700

Ovbiomu

700

IyabaSebe

Med. 800

Uokha

Usun Ubuneke Ebetse 0

60

Iyakpe

Ibia-Nafe Jeda Evoike

Ugboha

Egboto 500

40 0

400

7°5'0"N

AUCHI

60

Okpokhumi 7°0'0"N

")

0

6°5'0"E

")

WARRAKE

Ubiane 300

7°0'0"N

6°10'0"E

6°15'0"E

6°20'0"E

Legend ")

Okpemi

Ugbekpe Azukala

Ugieda

6°25'0"E

NIGERIA

Major_Settlements

River

Settlements

Contours

Major_Roads

River AUCHI TUNDE

Source: Authors’ Geological Map of Auchi and its environments, 2012. 2. Material and Method of Study In this project, most materials employ involve geophysical survey, site clearing, mud pit construction, mobilization of equipment/personnel, drilling operation, excavation for tank foundation, chain design for tank foundation, casing of the borehole, gravel packing of the borehole, pump installation/pump testing, fabrication of the tank/stanchion , excavation for pipe laying, distribution points/reticulation, fetching points, treatment unit, painting of the stanchion/Tank, fencing of borehole perimeter, diagrams/pictures, financial breakdown, geophysical results, Some of our challenges/constrains. For illustrative purpose see the features below:

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Civil and Environmental Research ISSN 2224-5790 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online) Vol.3, No.8, 2013

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The Physical diagram of the project execution

Figure 2 a and b Terrameter and reels

Figure 2 a and b Terrameter and mud pit 2.1 Field procedure The groundwater exploration carried out at the site was done using electrical resistivity sounding techniques (VES). This was achieved with the aid of ABEM AC Terrameter and other field accessories. Geographical coordinates and elevations were obtained from the GARMIN GPS map 76CSx’ set. Three Vertical electrical sounding (VES) were done at the site using Schlumberger array. The total spread length (i.e. AB/2) attained for the three VES points within the limit of the available space were 500m, 350m, and 150m. However, the artificially generated electrical signal can hardly go beyond AB>2Km. This is why resistivity sounding is best suited for groundwater and not petroleum exploration (Kearey and Brooks, 1988). The Physical diagram of the project execution

Figure 2 a and b drilling rig and chemical mixture of drilling mud

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Civil and Environmental Research ISSN 2224-5790 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online) Vol.3, No.8, 2013

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Figure 2 a and b stanchion stands and overhead tank under construction

Figure 2 a and b pump testing of borehole water 3. Geology and Hydrogeology Desktop study and field observations show that the geologic material underlying the site belongs to the Ajali formation. The formation hitherto known as upper coal measure is made up of false-bedded sandstone, thin lenticular shales, coal and pebbly gravel. The texture is variable but generally speaking, it is coarse. Hydrogeological formation is a good prospect and it is often associated with fairly deep water table conditions. 4. Data Presentation The quantitative interpretations of the resistivity sounding curves were done to obtain the geoelectric parameters (i.e. layer thicknesses and resistivities) with the aid computer assisted iteration techniques. Table 1: Geographical Coordinates and Elevations of Sampled Points Position S/N Description Latitude [N] Longitude [E] Elevation (m) 1 VES1 07O02’44.4” 006O16’11.8’’ 213 2 VES 2 07002’50.9” 006016’03.3” 218 3 VES 3 07002’49.1” 006016’07.0” 216 Source: Laboratory analytical results, 2011

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Civil and Environmental Research ISSN 2224-5790 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online) Vol.3, No.8, 2013

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Table 2: Geoelecric Parameters and Inferred Lithology [VES1] Layer no App Res Thickness Lithology [ohm-m] [m] 1 1762 0.875 Lateritic/ Topsoil 2 110 1.13 Sub topsoil 3 4

1341 10546

19.78 29.64

sandy horizon Resistive sandy/sandstone/clayey layer 5 198 65.71 Saturated sandy/partly clayey horizon 6 2061 52.88 Saturated sandy/sandstone/partly clayey layer 7 69766 Dry /resistive sandstone layer Source: Laboratory analytical results, 2011 lithological interpretation of VES1 Table 3: Geoelecric Parameters and Inferred Lithology [VES2] Layer App res Thickness Lithology no [ohm-m] [m] 1 720 0.89 Lateritic/ Topsoil 2 5315 3.26 Sub topsoil 3 522 12.93 Clayey unit 4 9047 16.32 sandy horizon 5 736 77 56.27 Dry sandy/sandstone/Sandy/clayey layer 6 1767 55.85 Saturated sandy/sandstone/partly clayey layer 7 6054 Resistive sandstone layer Source: Laboratory analytical results, 2011 lithological interpretation of VES2 Table 4: Geoelecric Parameters and Inferred Lithology [VES3] Layer no App res Thickness Lithology [ohm-m] [m] 1

1207

1.9

Lateritic/ Topsoil

2

2448

6.77

Sub topsoil

3

1296

5.82

Sandy/Clayey unit

4

8342

39.48

5

815

-

Dry sandy/sandstone-/clayey layer Saturated sandy/sandstone/partly clayey layer

Source: Laboratory analytical results, 2011 lithological interpretation of VES3

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Civil and Environmental Research ISSN 2224-5790 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online) Vol.3, No.8, 2013

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Table 5: VES-1Depth (m)

VES-2 Depth (m)

VES-3 Depth (m)

-0.89 -4.18 -17.08

A B C

Top Soil Subsoil Clayey Layer

-0.875 -2.01 -21.79

A B C

Top Soil Subsoil Sandy Layer

-1.9 -8.67 -14.5

A B C

-33.41

D

Sandy Layer

-51.44

D

-53.98

D

-90.08

E

-117.1

E

E

-170.0

F

Resistive Layer Saturated Sandy Saturated SSt

G

Resistive SSt

Dry Sandy/SSt -145.9 F Saturated Sandy ∞ G Resistive SSt Source: Field analytical results, 2011.

Top Soil Subsoil Sandy/Clayey Layer Dry Sandy/SSt Saturated Layer

Table 6: Physical Characteristic Combined Standards Results of Chemical Analysis S/N Parameter Philipa NAFDAC WHO Idogho Maximum SON Standard Allowed Standard Campus Limits Borehole Highest Desirable

Maximum Permissible

1

Colour

2.0 TCU

3.0 TCU

3.0 TCU

3.0 TCU

15.0 TCU

2

Odour

NS-Bent

N.S

N.S

N.S

N.S

3

Taste

tasteless

N.S

N.S

N.S

N.S

4

PH at 200C

6.7

6.50-8.5

6.50-8.5

7.0-8.9

6.90-9.50

5

Turbidity

ND

5.0 NTU

5.0 NTU

5.0 NTU

5.0 NTU

6

Conductivity

43.3(µS/cm)

1000(µS/cm)

1000(µS/cm)

100(µS/cm)

1200(µS/cm)

7

Total Solid

20.5mg/l

500mg/l

500mg/l

500mg/l

1500mg/l

8

Total Alkalinity

8.2mg/l

100mg/l

100mg/l

100mg/l

100mg/l

9

Phenolphthalein Alkalinity

-

100mg/l

100mg/l

100mg/l

100mg/l

10

Chloride

53.1mg/l

100mg/l

100mg/l

200mg/l

250mg/l

11

Fluoride

-

1.0mg/l

1.0mg/l

1.0mg/l

1.5mg/l

12

Copper

ND

1.0mg/l

1.0mg/l

0.5mg/l

2.0mg/l

13

Iron

0.25mg/l

0.3mg/l

0.3mg/l

1mg/l

3mg/l

14

Nitrate (NO3)

0.45mg/l

10mg/l

10mg/l

10mg/l

50mg/l

15

Nitrate (NO2)

0.15mg/l

0.02mg/l

0.02mg/l

0.2mg/l

3mg/l

16

Manganese

0.06mg/l

2.0mg/l

0.05mg/l

0.1mg/l

1.0mg/l

17

Magnesium

0.02mg/l

20mg/l

0.20mg/l

20mg/l

20mg/l

18

Zinc

0.01mg/l

5.0mg/l

5.0mg/l

0.01mg/l

3.0mg/l

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Civil and Environmental Research ISSN 2224-5790 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online) Vol.3, No.8, 2013

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19

Selenium

-

0.0mg/l

20

Silver

-

-

21

Cyanide

ND

0.01mg/l

22

Sulphate

1.54mg/l

23

Calcium

24

0.01mg/l

0.01mg/l

N/S

N/S

0.01mg/l

0.01mg/l

0.07mg/l

100mg/l

100mg/l

250mg/l

500mg/l

0.88mg/l

75mg/l

75mg/l

N/S

N/S

Aluminium

ND

0.5mg/l

N/S

0.2mg/l

0.2mg/l

25

Potassium

0.09mg/l

10.0mg/l

10.0mg/l

N/S

N/S

26

Lead

ND

0.01mg/l

0.01mg/l

0.01mg/l

0.01mg/l

27

Chromium

ND

0.05mg/l

0.05mg/l

0.05mg/l

0.05mg/l

28

Cadmium

0.01mg/l

0.003mg/l

0.003mg/l

0.003mg/l

0.003mg/l

29

Arsenic

-

0.01mg/l

0.01mg/l

0.01mg/l

0.01mg/l

30

Barium

-

0.05mg/l

0.05mg/l

0.05mg/l

0.07mg/l

31

Mercury

-

0.001mg/l

0.001mg/l

0.001mg/l

0.001mg/l

32

Antimony

-

N/S

N/S

33

Tin

-

-

34

Nickel

ND

35

Total Hardness(CaCO3) Vinyl Chloride

36

-

N/S -

-

0.02mg/l

-

-

1.2µg/l

-

-

-

0.02mg/l

100mg/l

100mg/l

100mg/l

500mg/l

0mg/l

0mg/l

0mg/l

0mg/l

Source: Martlet Environmental Research Laboratory Limited Results of Chemical Analysis 5. Results and discussion The interpreted result is presented as sounding curves and descriptive geo-electric logs/Section. Seven geoelectric layers were resolved for VES1. Layer 1 and 2 stand for lateritic topsoil and subsoil with thicknesses 0.875m and 1.13m and Layers 3 is the sandy horizon. Layer 4 is designated as the resistive sandy/sandstone/clayey layer. The fifth layer is the saturated sandy/ partly clayey horizon. Layer 6 is also saturated sandy/sandstone/partly clayey unit. The seventh layer of unknown thickness is designated as the dry/resistive sandstone horizon. VES 2 and 3 are of the same trend. Two distinct saturated layers (i.e. Aquifers) were identified from the interpreted VES results. The first is layer 5 while the second is layer 6. The calculated thicknesses of layers 5 and 6 are 65.71m and 52.88m respectively. Furthermore the depth to the to the base of layer 6 is 170m (561ft) The apparent resistivity values for the saturated layers are fairly low, indicating good aquifers. In view of the above hydrogeological and hydro-geophysical analysis, it can be deduced that groundwater resource development through borehole drilling at the site is feasible. Therefore the borehole at the site, a maximum drilled depth of 197m (650ft) is recommended and VES 1 is the recommended drilling point. It is advised that the terminal drilled depth of the borehole at the site should be left at the discretion of the site geologist and hydro-geologist, who should document and supervise the borehole construction work in it’s entirely. 6. Conclusion and Recommendation The on-going research work is currently on phase IV with a successful completion of phase I – III. The result of the pre-drilling geophysical investigations for groundwater resource development (through borehole construction) carried out within Auchi Polytechnic campus, Auchi Edo State is presented in this report. Hydrogeological and hydro-geophysical deductions made from the interpreted VES data establish the feasibility of a viable groundwater abstraction project at the site. A total drilled depth of 197m (650ft) is recommended. In addition, a suitable drilling rig that can effectively drill to the required specifications and depth should be mobilized to the 39


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site for the project. The entire (On-the-site) drilling process should be supervised and documented by a competent and professional geologist and hydro-geologist who should also determine the final/terminal depth of the borehole at the site. Well design and completion processes should be anchored on the downhole lithological assessment of cuttings. To establish water quality and portability, a full analysis of the water sample from the developed borehole should be done at a reputable laboratory for physio-geo-chemical and biological analysis, in order to ascertain the hydro-geochemical impurity determination of the groundwater, so as to pin-point the exalt type of water treatment plant-unit to be installed. In addition to the pump testing a 5.5HP submersible pump was installed. Reference Abdulrafiu O. M, Adeleke A. K and Lateef .O G (2011) Quality assessment of groundwater in the vicinity of dumpsites in Ifo and Lagos, Southwestern Nigeria, Advances in Applied Science Research Pelagia Research Library[Online], 2 (1): 289-298. [Accessed 23 June 2013]. Available at: www.pelagiaresearchlibrary.com Anozie A.N., and Odejobi O.J (2009). Evaluation of Heat Exchanger Network Design and Energy Efficiency in the Crude Distillation Units of Nigerian Refineries. JNSChE, 24, No. 1&2: 48-59 Mullaa, J. G, Syed, A., Abedc,S. and Pardhand, V (2011). Ground water quality assessment of babalgaon, district Latur. Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences, [Online], Vol.2.No.1, 501-504. [Accessed 23 March 2012]. Available at: www.scribed.com Fasunwon, O.O., Ayeni, A.O. and Lawal, A.O. (2010). A Comparative Study of Borehole Water Quality from Sedimentary Terrain and Basement Complex in South-Western, Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences [Online] 4(3): 327-335. [Accessed 23 April 2013]. Available at: http://scialert.net/qredirect.php?doi=rjes.2010.327.335&linkid=pdf

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