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PARAMETRIC URBANISM

PROTOTYPE X

BY JAH!

Javier Leal Tecnologico de Monterrey

Alejandro Madero August - Dicember 2009

Tutor: Alex Rodriguez

Hector Farrera Architectural Workshop V


CONTENTS INTRODUCTION

7

ANALYSIS

8

CONCEPT

14

DESIGN ENGINE

16

EXPERIMENT

18

SITE LECTURES

24

FINAL EXPERIMENT

32

VORONOI

36

SPATIAL QUALITIES

48

MASTER PLAN

54


INTRODUCTION An intervention in the center of Monterrey, MÊxico with a Parametric approach leads us to design an inner city with the support of sciences such as biology, chemistry, mathematics and computational sciences that generate an alternative design tool of urbanism, reaching a solution on architectural spatial qualities, taking into cosideration human and cultural properties. The purpose of this inner city is to serve as a model that can be repeated using the same design engine in different cities worldwide. Step by step, the design tool works effectively to accomplish a social regeneration based on the existing user´s aptitudes and necessities.

7


ANALYSIS

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LOCATION The site is a large polygon (1.5km x 2.0km) located in the center of Monterrey city.

9


PROBLEMS

This part of the city is physically and socially divided by the Santa Catarina River. One half holds the most insecure section of the city known as “La Independencia� where killings take place every day, and the other holds one of the largest concrete and cement company in the world, CEMEX. This shows the radical difference between these two sections of the city, both being closer that 2km from the city central plaza and governmental buildings. 10


FACTS

The site analysis showed the difference on the way people lives in the different sectors of the city. In the “Independencia� side a neighborhood lifestyle, where people know their neighbors and their security depended on the good relation they have with each other. The culture of walking is fundamental for this society to work.

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URBAN DISPLACEMENTS

Daily trips people take to travel from different sectors of the city to the center of it.

12


Daily trips people take to travel from sector to sector of the city.

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CONCEPT

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SOCIAL REGENERATION

The concept of prototype x is to socially regenerate the city by creating an equilibrium and interdependence between the users. This prototype aims for the city to be completely independent from the outside world and extremely dependent from the inside, where people’s aptitudes are enhanced to produce labor effectiveness and at the same time to fulfill the necessities of others.

DETONATOR

To make this social regeneration work, punctual detonators are needed, where values are added to existing ones creating a reaction to produce compact nodes with mixed programs that have an attached correlation. 15


DESING ENGINE

To create a parametric system, a design engine was elaborated to know the location, quantity, area, program and height each node is going to have.

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EXPERIMENT To know the location and spatial relationships between these nodes, an investigation of natural sciences such as physics, chemistry and biology was applied analyzing different behaviors resulting on an ideal urban system. After an extensive research, the chemical reaction of effervescence was adopted because of its great advantage to iterate using the tablet form, as well because it covered the urban intentions of the project, such as chain connection, active and static spaces etc.

EFFERVESCENSE REACTION

H2 CO3 > H2O + CO2 Where a pressurized dilute solution of carbonic acid in water releases gaseous carbon dioxide at decompression

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The escape of gas from an aqueous solution.

19


20


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QUALITIES networks active areas

fluids

static areas

force

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A frame is shown to measure the active area that five different sized tablets produce to know the quantity of tablets needed to fill the site.

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SITE ANALYSIS PROGRAM > DENSITY AREAS > ACTIVITY

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READING PROGRAM > DENSITY AREAS > ACTIVITY Green area Commerce & Service Equipament Multifamily Home Singlefamily Home Mixed Use High Impact Low Impact Slope Home Low Mixed Use

PROPERTY COST LEVEL > SOCIAL ECONOMIC LEVEL > APTITUDE Residencial Middle Middle Economic Irregular Emplacement Low Income House

ACTIVITY LEVEL BY ZONE

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ACTIVITY LEVEL BY ZONE

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SIZE & QUANTITY Five different reactors with its own active area. Each one of them assigned to every activity level.

D E

B C

A PROGRAM

1-2

3-4

5-6

7-8

9-MORE

DIAMETER

400

450

500

550

600

125,664

159,043

196,350

237,583

282,743

AREA

ZONE AREA _______________ ACTIVITY AREA

E

E

=

NUMBERS OF

TABLETS D

D

A

A

C

C

E E E

A

27


ITERATION

Knowing the behavior and qualities, the experiment is manipulated by iterating the position of every reactor in the site until a desirable urban approach is acquired.

D

E

E

D

E

E

A

C

A

E

C

A

D

E

E

E

D

E

C

A

A

C

E

D

E

E D A

28

A

E

C

C

E

A

E A


E E

D D

E

C A

E

C

A A

E Final scheme of the reactor´s location. - connections between both sides of the river. - static areas to turn into green spaces. - networks between different activity areas.

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IDEAL PROGRAM To follow the concept of social regeneration, different programs need to be distributed along the nodes. Taking the aptitudes plan into consideration, program is distributed to enhance effectiveness between the users as well as different needs each one might have, making each node dependant from each other.

HEIGHT Height is established depending on the program each node is going to have. (Offices = maximum height, fields=minimum height). Each node receives an X value depending on the height needed.

30


offices

fields

=

X

31


FINAL EXPERIMENT 1

2

3

EXPLICAR PROPIEDADES DE EXPERIMENTO FINAL Y FOTOS DE PROCESO 33

34

35

68

69

70

133

134

135

193

194

195

32


An optimum frame is selected from pictures taken with a one second interval during the chemical reaction. 4

5

6

36

37

38

71

72

73

136

137

138

196

197

198

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OPTIMUM FRAME

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35


VORONOI

CONCEPT & BUBBLE RELATION

A voronoi diagram is a decomposition of a metric space determined by distances to a set of points in space, creating equidistant lines and nodes between them.

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The bubble’s perimeter is determined by the radial force the air creates inside of it. When two bubbles with the same pressure interact with each other without joining, their limit is right in between them, just as the voronoi tessellation creates equidistant lines between the desired points.

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2D VORONOI TESSELLATION

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Points are set at the center of each bubble of the optimum frame, also at the center of each reactor and the centroid of the static spaces. 39


2D VORONOI TESSELLATION

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447 m2

226,381m2 41


3D VORONOI

points in space

boundary

voronoi cells

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Cells form based on the mathematical spatial relation between points on space and a boundary.

43


HEIGHT & BOUNDARY

X= 0

X= 3200

X= 6814

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Boundary has the same value for every node (.7)

value: 0.0

value: 1.0

value: 1.6

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3D MODEL

46


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SPACE QUALITIES CELL PROTOTYPE

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NODE PROTOTYPE

The cells created with the 3D voronoi system lead to a new conception of retail space going from squared meters to cubic meters, having the capability of joining depending on the program that it might occupy. This flexibility allows users to hang, attach, or arise from the existing structure making it more efficient on the way the cell gets occupied.

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STRUCTURE DETAIL

grasshopper script

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51


CLIMATE ADAPTATION

52


N

53


MASTERPLAN DISTRICTS LEISURE

MARKET COUNTRY

54


N

CORPORATIVE

COMMERCIAL The masterplan of PROTOTYPE X has the main objective of creating a social regeneration, so the relation between nodes need to be ensambled by the proper urban elements. This model seeks for the users to have an interdependant relation, the program is distributed in a parametric way, responding to social aptitudes and to user needs. The voronoi tessellation was adopted because of the specific mathematical spatial relation it creates between points, linking the nodes in a precise way. 55


INFRASTRUCTURE Actual streets with conexions

Vertical Axis

Secondary Streets Underground parking

Urban Tram Tram stop

Green Axis Fields

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The main existing streets are prolonged through the inner city flowing along the voronoi path making them the primary roads.

Along with the primary roads, a another street is added that runs trough the site in a perpendicular way (as a vertical axis) , working as a principal distributor along the inner-city.

Secondary streets link the main ones to the nodes, most of them being underground in order to reach the parking system below.

A tram runs longitudinally along the site with stops located at strategic points between nodes, ending at the existing metro stop in “Washignton� steet.

Static spaces read in the experiment turn into a green axis that flows inbetween the nodes articulating them to boost cycling and walking.

Streets are buried at diverse sections to keep the green axis free from traffic noise and air poluttion. Colorlines represent ways running along level zero. The rest of the voronoi network is proposed as pedestrian to promote coexistance between the users. 57


PROGRAM BY NODE

HABITATIONAL COMMERCE OFFICE SERVICE EDUCATIONAL PUBLIC AREAS RECREATIVE AREAS INDUSTRY

COMMERCIAL DISTRICT

CORPORATIVE DISTRICT 58


LEISURE DISTRICT

MARKET DISTRICT

COUNTRY DISTRICT

59


TRANSVERSAL SECTION

LONGITUDINAL SECTION

60


N

61


64


65


66


67


“When the interval between design iterations is reduced to a very small period of time the process becomes on-line design. This process is possible when computers are employed to speed the analysis and presentation aspects of architecture. On-line design depends on how fast the designer can: 1) simulate a design action and recieve a sufficiently comprehensive evaluation, 2) revise and generate another solution, and 3) sort and record learned behavior. It is possible for a single designer to change both the criteria and the design actions through the computer console, or the same procedures can be followed in an equally effective manner by a team of designer, client, and consultants to more highly corroborated design solutions.”(Boyce)

“Arguing that economic, social, and cultural life were all dependent on a high density of settlements, he (Le Corbusier) believed that the true solution to the “problem” of the existing city was neither the selfcontained small center of the misnamed urbanists nor the disurbanist linear city. Instead, he repeated his advocacy of a reconfigured high-density core surrounded by housing set amidst greenery, ideas he had already put forward in his plans for the Ville Contemporaine.” (Mumford)

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CONCLUSION With this intervention, a successful alternative solution was possible trough experimentation with certain parametric tools. While excelling at this creative process, fundamental values, such as environmental and ecological factors, social interaction, and logical infrastructure, where prioritized, proving that parametric urbanism is a feasible alternative. This innovative development as a whole is not alienated from architectural basis, as stated on the ideas of James R. Boyce and Le Corbusier. The design process has always been influenced by parameters that affect the final reslut, when they change, technology helps to reconfigure the system in a precise and effective way, letting the designer simulate rather than representate.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Works Cited: - Boyce, James R. Rethinking Technology a Reader in Architectural Theory. Ed. William W. Graham and Jonathan A. Hale. What is the Systems Approach?. New York: Routledge, 2007. Print. - Mumford, Eric. The CIAM Discourse on Urbanism, 1928-1960. Comp. Kenneth Frampton. N.p.: The MIT Press, 2002. Print. - Stefanescu, Dimitrie. “2D Voronoi, 3D Voronoi q-hull, Q-hull convex merge.” 3D Voronoi in grasshopper . WordPress.com, May 2009. Web. Oct. 2009. <http://dimitrie.wordpress.com/2009/05/01/3d-voronoi-ingrasshopper/>. - “Voronoi Diagram.” Wikipedia Foundation. MediaWiki, n.d. Web. Sept. 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voronoi_diagram>.

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PROTOTYPE X TESIS  

PARAMETRIC URBANISM

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