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Manual

Preparatory Kindergarten for Roma and Egyptians

DOMINUS Montenegro Bureau for Educational Services

An EU funded project managed by the European Commission Delegation to Montenegro. A project implemented by S.I.C.I. Dominus (Spain), in consortium with ABU Consult Berlin GmbH & Particip GmbH, carried out in cooperation with the Ministry of Education, Montenegro


Manual For Montenegrin professional staff (preschool teachers, professional associates, principals), RE assistants and all who are interested in inclusion of Roma and Egyptian children in education.

Autors: Dr. Sibylle Hielscher Aleksandra Radoman Kovačević Nataša Vlahović Ana Pavličić Snežana Laković Žana Krivokapić Danijela Vučurović Serđan Baftjari Title: Manual - Preparatory Kindergarten for Roma and Egyptians Publisher: EU-Montenegro Inclusive Education Services Project Ministry of Education Vaka Đurovica bb 81000 Podgorica Podgorica Tel.: +382 20 410 157 +382 20 410 125 +382 20 408 937 E-Mail: dominus@mps.gov.me Web page: http://www.eu-miesp.com For publisher: Dr. Sibylle Hielscher Main Editors: Dr. Sibylle Hielscher and Aleksandra Radoman Kovačević


Prepress: Emil Šabotić www.formatcg.com Printing office: ,,IVPE’’ Cetinje Copies: 30 S.I.C.I. Dominus C/Ángel 16 E-18002 Granada, Spain Podgorica, January 2013

CIP - Каталогизација у публикацији Централна народна библиотека Црне Горе, Цетиње ISBN 978-9940-568-03-0 (Ministarstvo prosvjete) COBISS.CG-ID 21667856

*This publication has been produced with the assistance of the EU. The content of the publication are the sole responsibility of authors and does not necessarily represent the official position of the European Union.


Montenegro Inclusive Education Services

Introduction to the manual for Preparatory Kindergarten Montenegro has opened the door widely and has become home for refugees and displaced persons in hard times during its recent history. Displaced Roma and Egyptians have become the most vulnerable population in Montenegro after the war in Kosovo. Consequently, the Republic of Montenegro committed itself to reduce the differences between their position and position of the rest of the residents. Thus, it is clear that all levels of education must be equal for all. It should become a place for developing feelings, empathy and affection, behaviour without labelling, which leads to equity, respect for the differences and social cohesion. The system of preschool education is the first one that children meet and which is of crucial importance for overall growth, development and forming of their personalities. Consequently, preschool services must be available for those children. Support to the early development and learning of RE children as a most sensitive population is essential, especially when referring to best investment for future and progessive development of the society. Therefore, this programme of preparation of five to six years old RE children for school enables them to develop skills and values which represent the most important basics for further development and progress. It creates basics for future performance in a holistic way. This Manual shows that the origins of a child need to be taken into consideration when working with them. A lot of respect for child rights is expressed in it. Moreover, it gives directions for stimulating physical, cognitive, language, social and emotional development. It offers ideas how to create an ambience for a secure and safe childhood of these children. And it also offers examples for further implementation of the

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activities respecting their culture, dignity and autonomy and improving independence and self-control. Thanks to this manual implementers are given competences for work in the context of social and cultural diversity. They also develop work habits as a team, correlate knowledge, and use materials for teaching and activities reflecting the existing diversities in the community. Thus, professionals are enabled to recognise, acknowledge and respect cultural and individual diversities. The manual helps them to understand values of these children and their families, to encourage intercultural respect and understanding among children. And last but not least it leads the reader to understand social and cultural dimensions of education. Tamara Milić Senior advisor for special education needs Ministry of Education, Podgorica, Montenegro

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Executive summary This manual is written for all professionals who will be involved in future Preparatory Kindergartens in Montenegro. It is structured in three main chapters that correspond to the phases of every kindergarten: preparation, implementation and evaluation. Each main chapter describes the process to follow step by step and is accompanied by a toolbox giving concrete mechanisms and tools such as a format for an action plan, a letter to a sponsor or music and movement games. Our experience with the Preparatory Kindergarten shows that it is very important to prepare the educational as well as the organisational activities. Preschool teachers should prepare daily plans that are in line with the kindergarten curriculum but still be flexible enough to react to the needs of the children in the kindergarten. As it is an intensive kindergarten it is good to be aware of group dynamics 1 and to know how to deal with them. Building up on the experiences gained during the pilot Preparatory Kindergarten, we highly recommend keeping this practice of daily briefings in order to discuss the outcomes of the kindergarten as well as to overcome problems and organize events such as closing event or visits of the schools. It is advisable to start soon with sponsoring activities and best would be to have sufficient hygienic packages and clothes as well as didactic materials before the start of the Preparatory Kindergarten. It is important to ensure to be aware of the role of the culture of an

1

Characteristics of group beviour during starting, implementation phases and ending

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Šphoto: Emil Šabotić

organisation2 when implementing effective Preparatory Kindergartens. The norms and values of child centred work should not only be adopted in theory but also put into practice by creating a welcoming atmosphere in the kindergartens where the children feel respected. The willingness of the parents to send the children to school and the wish of children to be part of the school will be created in this way.

2 The definition of organizational culture in an academic way is to understand the sum of the norms, values and way of thinking that is shared in an organization on all hierarchichal levels.

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List of Contents 1. Abbreviations ................................................................................................09 2. Preparatory Kindergarten ......................................................................15 3. Organisation and Sponsoring .................................................................23 Organisation ..................................................................................................24 Selecting institutions ...................................................................................25 Working groups .............................................................................................25 Action plans ...................................................................................................26 Selection of people to be involved ......................................................26 PRESCHOOL TEACHERS...........................................................................26 V O L U N T E E R S ......................................................................2 8 MOTHERS............................................................................................29 Press activities .............................................................................................29 Preparation of the educational part ...................................................30 Curriculum Development ..........................................................................30 Training activities .............................................................................................30 Daily Plans ......................................................................................................33 Sponsoring .....................................................................................................34 Toolbox: Organisation & Sponsoring ....................................................43 4. Education ........................................................................................................57 Curriculum .....................................................................................................58 Tips on how to form groups: ....................................................................59 Toolbox: Education .....................................………………………………………77 Attendance list for children ....................................................................78 Daily Plan Format .........................................................................................79 Daily Plan Example ......................................................................................80 Recitations in Albanian .............................................................................83 Recitations in Montenegrin ....................................................................83 Movement Games ..................................................................................86 Hokipoki ..........................................................................................................89

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5. Evaluation ........................................................................................................91 What went well? Reflections on the Pilot ..........................................92 What should be improved ..........................................................................107 Toolbox: Evaluation ...................................................................................113 Agenda for Evaluation ..............................................................................114 Open questions for parents and children ........................................116 Anexes ...................................................................................................................119 Annex 1:Publications & Links ...............................................................120 Annex 2:How to provide sponsorship? .............................................123 Annex 3:Overview of NGOs and their activities.............................124 Annex 4:Fact Sheet pilot Preparatory Kindergarten...............125 Annex 5:Authors...........................................................126

Abbreviations ADHD

Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder

BES

Bureau for Education Services

MEIS

Ministry of Education Information System

MoE

Ministry of Education and Sports

M&E

Monitoring and Evaluation

NGO

Non-governmental Organisation

PI

Public Institution

RE

Roma and Egyptian

RC

Resource Centre

REF

Roma Education Fund

SEN

Special Education Needs

ToT

Training of Trainers

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1. Introduction “We could see the happiness on their faces”

The IPA project EU-Montenegro Inclusive Education Services, Contract No. 2011 / 274-926, implemented the pilot Preparatory Kindergartens in Podgorica and Nikšić in the last two weeks of June 2012. The manual has been written for future kindergartens and is based on the experience gathered in the pilot action. What does the manual serve for? Our aims are: • To document all steps carried out in the pilot Preparatory Kindergarten • To give practical tools • To evaluate the pilot kindergarten • To facilitate implementation of Preparatory Kindergarten for RE children as an integrated part of the formal preschool education system The manual will serve as a guide in addressing issues related to the preparation, implementation and evaluation of Preparatory Kindergartens for RE children. The manual has been written in a way to show the experience gained through the Preparatory Kindergarten carried out during the MIES project in 2012 (in further text the abbreviation PK is used) and to recommend activites for the coming years. The aim is to share the experiences gathered during the pilot implementation and give practical ideas for future work in preparation of the RE children for succesfull further schooling.

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Apart from the manual which consists of four main chapters and toolboxes with practical tools.

The manual contains four main modules:

Module 1: Preparatory Kindergarten Module 2: Organisation & Sponsoring Module 3: Education Module 4: Evaluation How is the manual drafted? The main part of the manual is drafted in a three day retreat in the Ethno village Montenegro in Brezna between 10 th and 12 th of July 2012 - shortly after the closing of the pilot Preparatory Kindergartens. For whom has it been written? This manual is meant for all those who are involved in dealing with Preparatory Kindergartens for Roma and Egyptians in Montenegro. Also this Manual could be useful in the future in follow up activities and for the further and continues kindergarten activities for the future RE generations. The following scheme gives an overview of the target groups of the manual:

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For whom the manual has been written Stakeholders

To whom it might also be of interest

Local

Preschool teachers, Kindergarten management

Municipalities Teachers and school directors in primary schools

National

Ministry of

Faculty of Philosophy Nikšić- Preschool Education Department NGOs, esp. NGOs for Roma (e.g. Foundation for Roma Scholarships, Centre for Roma initiatives) Potential sponsors

Education, Bureau of Education Services, Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare

©photo: Emil Šabotić

Level

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How to use the manual? Each of the modules can be used independently of the others. Thus it is recommended reading the needed chapters related to the user’s interest and tasks at hand. Each module is described within a specific chapter. The tools are user friendly and describe the activities to follow step by step. If more background information is needed we advice to read the running text beforehand, where different aspects related to the topic at hand are highlighted. Thus, our readers are invited to learn from experiences gathered during the pilot Preparatory Kindergarten and the recommendations that result from it Best usage of the manual There are three tips for usage: 1. Take what fits the needs of the institution We encourage the reader to use the bits and pieces that are attractive at the moment of reading and that fit the needs of their work. 2. Exchange experiences with others Best usage of the manual can be reached when readers discuss it related to future implementation and to adapt it to the situation at hand. We also encourage the reader to exchange views and experiences with others because this is one of the best approaches to learning. 3. Use the manual as a living document A living document is a document that is updated and used regularly. Best usage can be made by updating it whenever you have gained new insights and developed new tools. Every day practice changes constantly according to your experience, to the context of preschool education and the demands of the target groups (mainly the RE children in Montenegro). Therefore, this manual lays the foundations for developing more competence, professionalism and experience of preschool teachers, professional associates, coordinators, RE assistants and others related to Preparatory Kindergarten preparation, implementation and evaluation.

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What does the manual contain? The first module refers to the preparation of documents as well as to define all the steps necessary to prepare the kindergarten. The toolbox concentrates on issues related to the organization and sponsoring. The second module mainly addresses the implementation phase. The toolbox gives many examples for educational aspects and tools used in the Preparatory Kindergarten. The third module explains how to evaluate a Preparatory Kindergarten. The toolbox gives formats and examples used in the evaluation of the pilot Preparatory Kindergarten. We want to give our readers professional incitement for using the tools according to their needs. We aim at giving our readers information that is matching the Montenegrin context by informing you about:

The manual is practice-oriented. The approach is not theoretic and avoids an overload of ongoing academic debates. The writing style is journalistic using short sentences and making well illustrated practical points.

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Acknowledgements This manual could not have been written without the engagement of all those who were involved actively in the pilot Preparatory Kindergarten. We would like to thank them all: • Tamara Milić, National Coordinator for SEN in the MoE for a very thorough reviewing of the document and excellent professional comments • Nataša Vlahović Senior Advisor III in BES for working with us continuously and intensively throughout the preparation, implementation and evaluation of the Preparatory Kindergarten We also thank: • The principals of the kindergarten in Podgorica and in Nikšić. • The coordinators of the kindergartens • The preschool teachers and RE assistants who implemented it. • Bojana Lakovic, Project assistant - for her continuous support in organizational aspects of Manual preparation • Emil Sabotic, photographer for taking professional photos in kindergartens • Last but not least thanks are due to the sponsors of the Preparatory Kindergarten who contributed hygienic packages and clothes. • All others who contributed to the success of the Preparatory Kindergarten Special thanks are due to Javier Ruiz for lecturing English and Sanja Orlandić for lecturing Montenegrin version of the Manual.

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2. Preparatory Kindergarten

“All children have a right for schooling“

This module deals with the approach and the objectives of Preparatory Kindergarten. It also describes the roles and functions of the stakeholders involved and the target groups and their needs.

Our aim for this module is: • • • •

To To To To

define what we mean by Preparatory Kindergarten explain the concept of the Preparatory Kindergarten give a clear picture of the involvement of all stakeholders analyse the needs of the target groups

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Project: EU-Montenegro Inclusive Education Services3 Component 2 of the project focuses on increasing the numbers of RE children in pre- and elementary school as well as on reducing the high rates of drop-outs. The project’s approach to obtaining these objectives is twofold: 1. Introduction of preschool Preparatory Kindergartens 2. Introduction of case management4 in elementary schools

Both activities are linked to each other as some of the crucial elements for success are the same: • • • • •

Cooperation with RE assistants Cooperation with parents Respect for the Roma and Egyptian culture Ensuring a safe way to school and back for the children Giving additional support to highly disadvantaged children

The Preparatory Kindergarten can be defined as follows: The Preparatory Kindergarten (PK) is an intensive two week preschool activity that aims at increasing school readiness of Roma and Egyptian children in 1st grade enrolment age in elementary school. It aims at giving an extra support in key areas like social behaviour, basic hygiene and motivation for school.

3 The IPA Project “EU-Montenegro Inclusive Education Services” has three components: Component 1: Establishment of Resource Centres for SEN Component 2: Increasing the number of RE children and pupils in mainstream preschools / elementary schools Component 3: Improving assessment and examination of SEN students 4 “School-based Case Management approach is a strategy that has emerged from schools’ concern for “children who are failing in school due to a variety of interacting school, home, and community influences” (Smith, 1). It mainly involves identifying clients, assessing their situation and developing a “coordinated service plan” (Smith, 2). Implementing and monitoring service delivery, and evaluating the effectivemenss of the strategy by considering the outcomes.

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Overall objective The overall objective of the Preparatory Kindergarten is: To offer short-term, practical learning opportunities to RE children increasing their School Readiness

The expected results for the Preparatory Kindergarten have been identified as: • Showing that a short-term Preparatory Kindergarten can have an effect on the level of school readiness • Prooving that short – term Preparatory Kindergarten contributes to achieve higher levels of enrolment in the first grades Specific objectives

The specific objectives are the following: • To give support to the RE minority tailor-made to their needs • To offer them an intensive two weeks of school preparation in order to overcome some of the obstacles they are facing regarding Enrolment, Acceptance and Achievement in school • To enrol of RE children in the mainstream educational system from the earliest possible age • To create a verified model of the Preparatory Kindergarten • To create mechanisms previously verified model

for

institutionalizing,

• To create mechanisms for monitoring participants of the PK during enrollment in school, attendance and progress in class

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Approach to piloting the Preparatory Kindergarten The Preparatory Kindergarten is introduced in Montenegro to increase the number of RE children in schools by giving them a two week intensive preparation. Therefore, it is offered only to domicile and refugee RE children who have not had the chance to be included in regular preschool education which runs from age three to six. The reason is to give this disadvantaged group tailor made additional support by dealing with aspects related to school readiness like hygiene, social behaviour, being used to stay inside rooms, willingness to accept rules, motivation and readiness for school and language. Based on a concept for the Preparatory Kindergarten and a specialized curriculum, the Preparatory Kindergartens are prepared by developing daily plans for the two-week programme. Moreover, training for teachers and other involved staff has been carried out beforehand. The focus of work needs to be put on the usage of the programme of the Preparatory Kindergarten, working with vulnerable groups and on the methods to be applied. Special attention should be put in developing mechanism for following up the PK participants’ entry into Elementary first grade – so that both preschool inclusion and drop-out prevention and mitigation are addressed. Stakeholders The coordination and well tuned actions of the all involved is essential: Beneficiaries • MoE decides upon the concept of the kindergarten and choses the educational institutions where the Preparatory Kindergarten takes place • BES is involved in all steps of the Preparatory Kindergarten.

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Target group • Focus on target group of pupils which had never before participated in any formal type of pre-school education • Including children from highly disadvantaged/vulnerable groups (primarily RE communities) RE stakeholders • Involvement of parents and establishing partnership relations with them • Roma and other NGOs • Involvement of RE assistants, students, parents as a support to entire activities. Other Montenegrin Stakeholders • Direct involvement and engagement of existing pre-school educational institutions. • Involvement of the local as well as the RE community • Fostering social networking

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Target Group There are three types of students in the Preparatory Kindergarten:

The target group consisted of RE children from Nikšić and Podgorica, preschoolers (from 5 to 6 years old) and pupils who did not attend before pre-school educational programmes which generally runs from the age of 3 up to the age of 6, and are ready to enrol in school for the next school year. During the pilot Preparatory Kindergarten the target group in Nikšić included 65 preschool children who were divided into two groups. The target group in Podgorica consists of around 150 preschool children5 who came to two kindergartens and were divided into 4 groups. The number of children increased during the PK implementation as we covered all children who met the criteria and who were interested in 5 See Annex 5 for detailed overview of children

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participation. Thus, for future Preparatory Kindergartens in Nikšić and Podgorica it is likely to have a similar amount of children. Preparatory Kindergartens in other areas need to research the number of children. This can be done best by cooperating with the communities. It is necessary to use RE assistants in this process and to prepare all those who will be involved in future implementation with sufficient space, food, materials, and preschool teachers and RE assistants. The main challenges in working with the target group are: • Insufficient or no Montengrin language skills • The mother tongue of the Roma and Egyptians is normally not spoken or understood by the preschool teachers and the professional associates (pedagogues and psychologists) in the Preparatory Kindergarten • Working habits and discipline to stay in an organized workplace were not developed to an optimal degree • Poor hygiene habits were common, basics of hygiene were not developed to the expected extent for enrolment in primary school • Reduced ability to maintain attention during the organized work • Lack of information concerning the Roma population (number of RE children in school age, background information about RE families) • Lack of readiness and motivation for participation in organized classes.

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The following major obstacles occurred during the pilot in an ongoing way and as they are related to the socio-economic situation of Roma and Egyptians as well as their status in the Montenegrin society, they are likely to occur again during future Preparatory Kindergartens: • Language barriers, • Peers6 do not have the experience of being with RE children so it can occur the rejection (not accepting them), • Educational staff does not possess sufficient information about the needs of the students, their family as well as the cultural and social context of the students. • RE families are too poor to provide transportation for their children. • There are safety issues related to the way from home to Kindergarten and back

6 Peers are individuals equal in age, education or social class etc. without a hierarchical difference..

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3. Organisation and Sponsoring Meeting the challenge This module deals with the issues which need to be organised during the preparatory phase for each Preparatory Kindergarten: Organisation and Sponsoring

Our aim for this module is:

• To share steps which need to be taken in preparation of the kindergarten and model of dividing it on education, organisation and sponsoring part. • To explain in more detail process of preparation. • To introduce participatory approach to organisation of the Preparatory Kindergarten.

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This module explains the concept of a participatory approach which involves most of the important stakeholders thriving for the common aim of a full inclusion of RE children in education. Participatory approach in organising Preparatory Kindergarten means involving beneficiaries and interested parties who can contribute to following aspects: 1. Education – involving institutions, direct delivery services – Kindergartens in Nikšić and Podgorica, representatives of BES (Bureau of Educational Services, engaged both in RE and preschool education issue) and other relevant institutions. 2. Organisation – involving kindergarten representatives, MoE representative, Roma NGO representatives 3. Sponsoring – involving NGOs and profit organisations to support and provide hygienic packages, clothes and shoes, 4. Collecting - Involving kindergartens for organising the collection of clothes and shoes and/ or elementary schools The participatory approach is oriented towards a long term implementation. It aims to connect and use existing resources in the communities in the best possible way. Offering participation in the process shows excellent results in connecting RE leaders from the communities to educational institutions, e.g. the Preparatory Kindergartens. Organisation Organisation of the Preparatory Kindergarten should start at least three months before its implementation and it should be structured in several parallel activities related to: • Selecting towns and kindergartens • Selecting preschool teachers, coordinators and RE assistants to be involved • Identifying sponsors and other interested parties etc.

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Selecting institutions The process of selecting institutions is successful when all institutions involved provide direct services for Preparatory Kindergarten and RE children are ready and willing to enter in this process. Selecting of institutions should be made based on the following: 1. Institutions directly carrying out activities, e.g. PI7 ,,Dragan Kovačević ‘‘, Nikšić and PI ,,Djina Vrbica‘‘, Podgorica 2. Bureau for Education Services - Specially the Senior Advisor III Pilot schools from Podgorica and Nikšić can also be supportive in organising school visits and some of them also in providing clothes for children. Working groups Working groups should be formed according to the needs and on voluntary basis. The participatory approach in the community provides an active role for all important stakeholders. In this context the following representatives and organisations should be involved in the organisational groups in Podgorica and Nikšić: 1. Two representatives of kindergarten (coordinators of the Preparatory Kindergarten) 2. One to two representative of RE community 3. Representatives of NGOs working in the field of education, youth, especially those working with domicile and Roma refugees 4. Representatives from MoE – BES 5. Others Best results can be achieved by cooperating and networking with RE NGOs. RE NGOs have often very reliable data on RE children and they support the process of cooperation with parents in order to motivate them to send their children to kindergarten. This relation can be a good starting point for long 7 PI = Public Institution

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term cooperation. RE NGOs should show a high degree of willingness in order to support their community and good starting for their children. During the distribution of the open call for RE assistants and the application process RE NGOs can give substantial support in working with the communities. At a later stage, especially during the implementation stage, RE NGOs such as the Centre for Roma Initiatives and Foundation for Roma Scholarships, should give support to RE assistants. Action plans In order to achieve needed results and organise the implementation process detailed action plans need to be developed after each meeting. Every action plan should be agreed upon, fulfilled and sent out to the organisation group members after every meeting. As providing several organisation aspects, members of the group are directly responsible for delivering the activities at hand. During the first phase of the preparation period it is important to have reliable data on children enrolling in the Preparatory Kindergarten. Every action plan should include columns for activity, responsible person, deadline and expected results. This renders the meetings task oriented and planning process easier and clearer.

Selection of people to be involved PRESCHOOL TEACHERS Selection of preschool teachers should be carried out by principals and coordinators of the Preparatory Kindergarten activities. They should be selected on basis of: • Voluntary participation • Previous experience in working with RE children if any and • Availability during Preparatory Kindergarten activities

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RE ASSISTANTS The call for RE assistants is best organised by publishing an Open Call to Institutions, organisations and NGO’s, fifteen days prior the interview and practise selection. The process should start with the Open Call in which RE assistants are given information on the tasks to be delivered as well as about the professional profiles needed. They are asked to send application letter dealing with their motivation for the Preparatory Kindergarten and their opinion (attitudes) towards education. After fifteen days a second cycle of selection should be organised by using group interview, individual interviews and small group practical part - dealing with issues that concern Preparatory Kindergarten and the delivery of RE assistants’ tasks, especially: • How to deal with children who are not ready for sharing toys and playing together with other children? And how to deal with conflicts among children in general? This issue is also related to “How to deal with aggressive children?” • How to deal with bored or non-interested children? • Parents not having trust to send their children to kindergarten due to bad experience • Parents not being motivated to send the children to any sort of education institution due to their own habits and culture of living etc. RE assistants should show additional skills also mentioned in the open call, e.g. working with groups and individuals. This is of great value during implementation of the Preparatory Kindergarten activities as preschool teachers are dealing with different issues. RE assistants are supporting safety, understanding, participation of children and sometimes mediation between conflict parties during the implementation of the Preparatory Kindergarten.

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VOLUNTEERS The Preparatory Kindergarten gives an opportunity for new experience in the profession of education and contribution to local community to volunteers who are enrolled at the Faculty of Philosophy – Preschool Education Department and kindergartens (not permanent employed personnel continuing to contribute kindergarten activities). Volunteers should be introduced to the Preparatory Kindergarten idea and activities through an interactive presentation. They also can participate in a first training dealing with: identifying RE children needs, organising activities through practical application, and feedback information in context of direct work to children and giving feedback to colleagues. As organised in time of exams, students can participate in the Preparatory Kindergarten activities in periods when most needed, at the beginning of the first week and end of second week.

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Students can support education both in groups and individual work. They should closely cooperate with preschool teachers and RE assistants and are supported and supervised by BES. They should be open to learn and in some cases share valuable feedback and recommendations for improvement of work e.g. group cohesion achievement. MOTHERS Mothers, in some cases also fathers and grandmothers, are supporting Preparatory Kindergarten activities. Their role is important - especially at the beginning of Preparatory Kindergarten activities as they are the ones closest to the children. Principle is to have not more than one parent der day to be included and the parent should be also be open and be able to perform in a supportive way. They contributed by talking to children and supporting group activities. Interest in the activities and achievements of children is also intense during last two days of implementation of Preparatory Kindergarten. Closing activity should be supported not just by mothers, fathers and grandmothers but also by brothers and sisters of the children.

Press activities Public relations, as important part in promoting activities, should be organised in 3 phases: • Organised visits to TV, radio shows and press conference announcing Preparatory Kindergarten activities • Organised visit to kindergarten from TV and radio journalists at the beginning of activities (second and third day) • Organised visit to kindergarten from TV and radio journalists during closing/final events in kindergartens

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Preparation of the educational part Preparation of the educational part comprises several activities such as: • Curriculum development • Organising training • Delivering daily plans of work Planning education is a task in which it should be ensured that all stakeholders in preschool education, especially where the MoE, BES and kindergartens should be involved. A key issue for the implementation of the Preparatory Kindergartens is a good communication between all parties involved.

Curriculum Development Curriculum development needs to be based on the needs of RE children. The project developed an official curriculum for Preparatory Kindergarten. The curriculum for the Preparatory Kindergarten is characterized by concepts for social inclusion which directly involves social education and the use of interactive approaches meeting the needs of RE children. The curriculum is based on the usage of flexible methodologies oriented to what is achievable in ten days of work.

Training activities Training activities should be divided into two one day training events.

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The training should be organised for preschool teachers, students/ volunteers, principals and coordinators involved in PK activities. The number of participants should be not more than 20 to 30 per training.

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First training Training can be organised in the first training as follows: Module

Contents

Understanding the context of RE community 1. Module Understanding the needs of preschool children from RE community Introducing and discussing target group related topics: Hygiene 2. Module Communication, Introducing interactive methods of work with RE children 3. Module Self-evaluation and feedback Each module should be evaluated at the end. Second training Another training cycle for preschool teachers should be organised for another 3 modules with the following topics: Module

1. Module

Contents 1. Preparatory Kindergarten – from idea to practice – holistic approach, 2. Professionals in work with sensitive groups 3. Work with sensitive groups: building trust, communication (verbal, non-verbal), supporting environment etc.

2. Module

1. Work plan and relevant topics8 2. Daily work plan in the Preparatory Kindergartens

3. Module

1. Expected results and indicators of success 2. Evaluation of the training (using an evaluation form, rating conference or creative forms of evaluation)

8

8  See example of daily working plan below

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Daily Plans Daily plans are developed and planned according to Curriculum and topics discussed with the preschool teachers during first training. In order to prepare the Preparatory Kindergarten the planning of daily activities should start as soon as possible. After the first training small groups of two to three preschool teachers should be formed who develop further the daily plans which can then be followed up and discussed during the second training Every • • • • • • •

daily plan has the following elements: Duration of the activity, Name and description of the activity, Aims and objectives Responsible person, Resources needed, Expected results Materials

Some comments on the development of the daily plans. 1. Daily plans need to have clear aims and well-structured activities. 2. Didactical materials for the Preparatory Kindergarten should be the same as those used in regular kindergarten activities. Mainly materials should be selected that stress the developing the work of hand and similar. If additional didactical materials can be provided, this can be helpful. 3. Additional materials as the description of games for children can be developed and used during implementation. 4. Additional activities should be included which can be useful during implementation. This is important for being able to act in a flexible way to the needs of the children and to adjust to the situation in the Preparatory Kindergarten. 5. Outdoor activities need also to be well structured and mainly implemented through games and similar activities. Open space

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will be treated as a special environment to encoure children to scatter and to move individually as they wish. Open space activities are challenging for the preschool teachers but nevertheless important to be included inside the espace to the Preparatory Kindergarten. Structured, well planned and coordinated activities can help to use the most from outdoor activities for learning.

Sponsoring Sponsoring should be planned mainly for the meetings of the organisation group in Podgorica and Nikšić. The collection and distribution of clothes, shoes and hygienic packages should be planned. This ought to be done in a close cooperation with sponsors in Podgorica, Nikšić or any other city where the kindergarten is implemented. Additionally, kindergartens should organize the collection of clothes and shoes through all kindergarten units to provide missing resources for all children. Sponsors should be contacted as well in order to be able to provide clothes, shoes and hygienic packages for each child.

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Communication lines

Roles and lines of communication As providing different aspects of management and education, personnel in Preparatory Kindergartens have different roles and lines of communication: MoE & BES MoE and BES are coordinating the Preparatory Kindergarten. As in future a representative of BES should take over the facilitation, administration and communication tasks carried out by the project during the pilot.

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BES is responsible for: • Providing general coordination, support and supervision as well as monitoring. • Planning, implementing and evaluating Preparatory Kindergarten in Montenegro on a yearly basis. BES is responsible for selected the location (Podgorica, Nikšić and possibly also Berane, Tivat and other areas where RE children live). • Supervising meetings during the preparation phase as well as daily briefings during implementation and evaluation meetings at the end of sessions. All activities together provide opportunities for giving feedback on activities, discussing and finding solutions for different situations met in the direct work with the children. • Supervising RE assistants’ performance in the Preparatory Kindergarten as well as the cooperation with the coordinators of the PKs who guide support. BES should also supervise the cooperation with the parents. In cases of drop-outs or problems parents should be visited. Principals The principals of the kindergartens can be responsible for carrying out all necessary coordination and administration: • Facilitating to deal with problems and finding solutions. Principals should have a direct line of cooperation with BES. • Transportation (making sure that meeting drivers know the meeting points, that the RE families know where and when to gather) • Food (planning for the correct number of children) • Public relation activities • Dealing with sponsors • Organising final events • Providing additional personnel for support to activities • Providing good quality of education by naming kindergarten personnel responsible to track and implement different activities

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PK Coordinators The PK coordinators are responsible for: • Everyday coordination and support to kindergarten staff especially. Focusing on all staff members, mainly preschool teachers and RE assistants. • Managerial, behavioural and educational aspects on everyday basis. In most cases they are fully based in the kindergarten during the implementation, briefings and other activities as outgoing visits or ones who were welcoming during incoming visits. • Taking an active role in public relation activities. • Supervising, guiding and coordinating the work of the RE assistants Professional associates Professional associates (pedagogues, psychologists. Speech therapist) should be mostly engaged in: • Providing support for different qualitative parts of Preparatory Kindergarten (education process, health support, speech therapy). • The high level of energy of the children at the beginning of day is met by very intense activities, structured and planned to be delivered through games. Support in the early morning part helps to improve the overall atmosphere and contribute to a better development of group cohesion. • Furthermore, the professional associates play an important role in the delivery individual work which is equally important.

Technical support staff Technical support staff (Nurses, Drivers, Cooks, Cleaning personnel, others) should be mostly engaged in:

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• Dealing with challenges in direct work with children. This role of the technical support staff is also a very important role: Some of the activities are carried out early in the day during the starting phase of the daily activities. • Furthermore, the technical staff play an important role in creating a welcoming atmosphere and hygiene.

For parents the transportation of the children is an essential precondition when sending their children to Preparatory Kindergarten when ways arelong. Transportation should be organized by collecting children from home. RE assistants can collect the children at their home and bring them either to bus for transportation of to the kindergarten directly when the distance is near. This is a very important part as it creates trust in between parents and kindergarten! Many parents only agree to sending their children to the Preparatory Kindergarten once they have trust in the people collecting their children (RE assistants) and they are assured that the transportation is safe. During the pilot of the Preparatory Kindergarten it is interesting that transportation has been provided in cooperation with Resource centre 1. June and this activity shows how the system can cooperate. The organization is carried out either by staff of the kindergarten or staff of some other educational institutions. The attitude towards Roma and Egyptians by all people involved in the Preparatory Kindergarten is crucial. Also drivers, cooks, cleaning personnel needs to be free of discrimination – welcoming the RE children with openness, politeness and respect. Preschool teachers Preschool teachers are the most responsible ones for: • Delivering all activities with children such as: daily plans, assurance of safety, first aid, briefings, problem solving, organisation and carrying out closing event etc.

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• Reflecting on values and attitudes they are able to provide working with children (acceptance of different cultures, openness and willingness to dedicate to work with children) as well as skills (adequate approach to group and individual work with children, self-reflection, team work and cooperation) • Providing a good learning environment • Learning from challenges connected to solving problem situations, mediation and conflict resolving, active listening etc.) and knowledge (developmental stages of children, needs of RE children, group work and phases etc.). • Cooperating closely with RE assistants concerning the delivery of education, providing background information of the family situation and understanding it, sometimes developing together approach in specific situations or when encountering certain behaviour which challenges the group work (high energy of individuals, low attention and inclusion in work etc.). • Cooperating with parents (some of preschool teachers also had direct communication with parents), especially those who visited kindergartens or brought and collected their children themselves. RE assistants RE assistants are needed in the Preparatory Kindergarten in order to assure the following: • Providing the bridge between parents and kindergarten Supporting the education process as experienced workers in group and individual work • Providing pedagogical support • Communicating with parents on a daily basis- mostly related to current issues.

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Pedagogical support to preschool teachers is very important for development of the children by helping to communicate with the children in their language which is especially crucial for refugee children who speak no or only little Montenegrin. RE assistants also support in using a holistic approach which is apt for a multicultural context. RE assistants are needed to mediate, solve conflicts among children and deal with aggressivity when it occurs. They assist preschool teachers in developing each child individually and by involving all of them in group work. Thus, the role of RE assistants is as visible as the role o preschool teacher with the very complex terms of reference. Parents Some motivated parents (mothers and fathers) helped in the implementation of the Preschool Kindergarten by: • Giving additional support to individual children and group work. For this, preschool teachers should select which parent is able to contribute. All parents, however, can play a role in the Preparatory Kindergarten by: • Answering some of the issues on the individual level, mostly concerning their own child.

Volunteers A few volunteers can be involved in the Preparatory Kindergarten. They can be students from the University of Nikšić from the faculty of philosophy, psychology and pedagogy. For the students such an experience can be short but intense. For the Preparatory Kindergarten the input of volunteer students can lead to: • Giving fresh energy in work • Participating in a highly motivated way. • Gving feedback during briefing which is a valuable resource in finding solutions to some of the educational challenges (such as low cohesion of group).

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Additional support to individual children

Bridge between parents and kindergarten, support to education

Students

Project personnel

Education, safety, problem solving, providing equality and acceptance

Cook nurse

Other support: Driver, Cook and Cleaning staff etc.

Technical support: Nurse,Speach therapist and Psychologist etc.

Coordinator of kindergarten

Principal

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©photo: Emil Šabotić

©photo: Emil Šabotić

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Toolbox: Organisation & Sponsoring

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Action Plan Format ACTIVITIES

RESPONSIBLE PERSONs

DURATION

EXPECTED RESULTS

PROVIDING EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS

1. 2. 3. Action plan example ,,Radost’’, Nikšić The preparation phase of the PK includes several aspects: 1.

Educational aspects The development of the curriculum of Preparatory Kindergarten (PK), the training of teaching staff, the development of daily plans and the selection of materials, etc. All educational aspects should be discussed with the principal and the education working group as well as all preschool teachers who will be involved in the PK.

2.

Organisational aspects The planning and organisation of the kindergarten is very complex as many tasks need to be arranged and organisation groups have to be created. Issues include: • Publishing a call for RE assistants • Cooperation with Red Cross and RE NGOs as well as other NGOs • Supporting the work with the RE communities • Motivating RE parents and children to attend the Preparatory Kindergarten • Promoting the model of PK in wider community through the media

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3.

Sponsorship As many RE children come from poor families and are part of a disadvantaged group, care should be taken in order to provide • Food • Drinks • Clothing • Footwear

Equipment for teaching RE children.

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46 Chosen teaching staff

2. Participation in the

Until the end of May

Until the end of May

Until middle of May

9

Daily plan of PK with activities is drafted

skills in work with RE children organised and attended

Training for teaching staff of kindergarten, team of teachers with additional

Space for implementation of PK, chosen and named the teaching staff for work in the PK is agreed

EXPECTED RESULTS

9  Time given here is related to the implementaiton oft he Preparatory Kindergarten in the last two weeks of June. If this period is changed, the action plan needs to be adapted accordingly.

9

3. Development of daily work plan

teachers

BES, chosen teaching staff, RE assistants, students, volunteers

BES and Management of kindergarten

training program for

DURATION

PROVIDING EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS

RESPONSIBLE PERSONS

1. Choosing space and teaching staff

ACTIVITIES

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BES

BES

6. Preparation of criteria for evaluation of successfulness of the program

BES, chosen teaching staff, RE assistants, students, volunteers

5. Development of criteria for monitoring and support of work quality

4. Agreement on the roles of various participants in the implementation of PK

Until the end of May

Until the end of May

Until the end of May

implementation of PK

Defined criteria for evaluation of program

Criteria and indicators for monitoring the quality of work and program are defined

defined

of communications are

of PK as well as lines

Roles in implementation

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48

4. Public Awareness Campaign in RE communities about the importance of education

BES, management of

3. Identify the exact number of children for the PK

BES, RE assistants, RE community, with the support of Organizational Group

community

the kindergarten, RE

BES, management of the kindergarten and Organisational group

BES, management of the kindergarten, RE community

2. Participating in choosing RE assistants

1. Participating in choosing RE assistants

From 10.05. until the end of PK

Do sredine maja

Until middle of May

Until middle of May

PROVIDING ORGANISATIONAL ASPECTS

Number of interested children for attending PK and school is increased

List of interested children for attending PK in Nikšić is produced

RE assistants are chosen

Organisational team consisted of following participants is in place: • pedagogue of kindergarten, • teachers from the kindergarten, • representatives of Red Cross, • one NGO from RE community, • representative of the Project, • Representative of BES

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BES, Organisational Group

6. Promoting the model of PK

BES, Organisational Group, Civic Organisations like the Red Cross Montenegro, NGOs like the Food Bank of Montenegro, Enterprises like Hotel Ramada Podgorica, Schools like ,,Mileva Lajovic Lalatovic” ,,Olga Golovic” from Niksic and ,,Oktoih” from Podgorica, Other Sponsors BES, Organizational group, RC 1. June. Kindergarten Nikšić

1. Food, drinks, clothes, shoes, hygienic packages, accessories and equipment for work

2. Transportation

SPONSORSHIP

BES and Organisational Group

5. Development of action plan for realisation of PK

Until the end of May

Until the end of May

Before, during and after the implementation of PK

Until the end of May

Transportation for RE children is provided

PK are provided

interested children for

determined number of

equipment for the final

accessories and

hygienic packages,

drinks, clothing, shoes,

(breakfast and lunch),

Regular meals

General public is more informed about the issue of education of RE children and model of Preparatory Kindergarten

Action plan for implementation of PK is developed

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Selection procedures for RE assistants Procedures in RE assistants’ selection should refer to following process: • Written - Application letter submitted to the Project, • Performance level - Group interview, individual interview & practical part (role play situation on RE assistant future work)

I RE assistants’ selection / interview and role play 1. Starting with an introduction of who is who in the round, 2. Participants introduction – asking them to say: • How they would carry out RE assistant tasks (e.g. awareness raising of children, supporting children in school, helping teachers dealing with language problems Montenegrin, Roma and Albanian, giving an example of how to get the attention of tired children) • What to do to prevent drop-out or other way said what to do to insure regular attendance….. ) 3. Role play 4. Selection

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10.

9.

8.

7.

6.

5.

4.

3.

2

1.

Name

40 points max

towards education

Motivation/Attitude

30 points max 30 points max

children and parents

100 points

community work with

implementation related

Total

Experience in RE

Activities

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Daily performance list for RE assistants

NAME: _________________________________ DATE: _________________________________ Where?

When?

What?

07:00 - 07:30

Collecting the children

07:30 – 08:00

Coming to kindergarten

08:00 – 08:30

Supporting teachers

08:30 – 09:00

Breakfast

09:00 – 11:30

Supporting teachers

11:30 – 12:00

Supporting teachers

12:00 – 13:00

Supporting teachers

13:00 - 13:30

Taking children back home

14:00 – 15:00

Briefing Afternoon activities with the parents where problems occurred (e.g. non -attendance, health)

Total work hours Additional comments

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Mark if duty is performed


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REPORT Preparatory Kindergarten DATE: LOCATION: TEACHERS: RE ASSISTANTS: GROUP: DAILY WORKING PLAN Changes in the work plan and recommendations:10 1. Aims and expected results Give marks related to the degree of achievement mentioned in the daily working plan Topics Let’s be friends My family and I Frome home to school Friendship Hygiene In healthy body, healthy mind How do I imagine school

Yes

Partially

No

ADDITIONAL COMMENTS:

10

Attach/enclose the completed form along with the report

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2.

Work with individuals in the group

Indicators

1 2 3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Motivation for attending school Interest in learning Active participation in work Understanding and getting to know the basic concepts in school Hygiene habits Express their creativity Satisfaction Acceptance Attention and following work

ADDITIONAL COMMENTS:

3. Group work Indicators Teamwork/ team collaboration Peer acceptance Cohesion Help each other

ADDITIONAL COMMENTS:

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1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

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6. Cooperation Work and cooperation with colleagues

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Comments:

Work and cooperation with RE assistants Comments:

Work and cooperation with students Comments:

Report written by (signature):

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©photo: Emil Šabotić


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4. Education

Make all children welcome!

The second module deals mainly with education of domicile and refugee Roma and Egyptians.

. In this chapter some basics of the kindergarten curriculum will be introduced to you. The complete curriculum is an extra document (the link can be found in overview of literature in annex 1). Then, the methodology used in the pilot Preparatory Kindergarten is explained and last but not least tips for working with domicile and with RE refugees are given. The aim for this module is: • To reflect on the educational part of the Preparatory Kindergarten • To document what has been done • To give tips to all those involved in future Preparatory Kindergartens

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Curriculum Curriculum for preschool RE children should respond to the need of children in enrolling into the school and having more equal chances and opportunities to fit in the schooling environment. This curriculum is based on the official curriculum for kindergarten in Montenegro which has been adjusted for this purpose. In the official Curriculum, the following activities in the areas of preschool education are listed (from 3 to 6 years): 1. Physical activity and health; 2. Language activities; 3. Logical-mathematical activities; 4. Social activities; 5. Activities of familiarization and learning (mastering) the environment; 6. Art activities; 7. Musical activity. For each area are given objectives: 1. Discovering and mastering itself, 2. Developing relationships and building knowledge about the others, 3. Discovering the world and building knowledge about it. In addition to these objectives the types of activities and methodical instructions for use are given. The overviews of types of activities presented in three areas are: • Life-practical activities • Specific activities • Complex activities

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The objectives of the educational process in the framework of the Preparatory Kindergarten are related to: 1. Better motivation of pupils for regular attendance in elementary school, 2. Stimulating interest in learning 3. Encouraging creative expression and imagination, 4. Encouraging learning in group and team, 5. Developing intercultural learning (through valuation their culture, the values, culture and norms of others, and so on.), 6. Fostering a sense of belonging, 7. Fostering active participation through the support and encouragement from the teachers / principals and peer groups, 8. Encourage focus, attention and monitoring of the implemented tasks 9. Learning and fostering nice expression, 10. Getting to know some basic terms related to the school environment (equipment and materials needed for schooling, teachers, school, etc.), which are important for becoming familiar with elementary school, 11. Getting to know basic landmarks (heritage) in the city, through visits, trips etc. Principles used in the education process: • Equality – same respect to every child • Individual learning styles (principle of individuality) – adapting teaching style to learning style and different intellectual capacities, needs and interests of a child. • Needs related approach – according to life condition and needs coming from background of the child.

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• Step by step (System of graduality) – gradual learning by tracking the level of incorporated (usvajanja) from a child. • The principle of demonstration and practical application– children learning through games by observation, experimenting, manipulating etc. (ex. Preschool teacher demonstrates activity by verbal and non-verbal communication, applications, pictures, one teacher explains, other teacher practising by doing and third one correcting and modelling). • Organising kindergarten phases according to group life and group dynamics – put special emphases on the opening and ending procedures. At the beginning most stress should be put on getting to know each other’s, forming group by creating rules and when the end is close children should also be prepared for closing as to be aware of this phase and to accept it as natural phase of a group life in this dynamic and intense work and life of a group. Topics: 1. Me, my family and my friends, 2. The peer group to which I belong and the one with whom I’m encountering, 3. Kindergarten and school - appearance, purpose, employees and other. 4. Hygiene, 5. Habits of proper nutrition, 6. Basic rules of collective and safe way of movement, 7. Didactical material and usage etc. Correlation: Work on achievement of basic social skills, including communication and networking skills with all areas of activities in preschool education: • Language related activities: conversation, addressing to peers, adults, appropriate expression in different situations. • logical-mathematical activities: marking things in the environment by using symbols; • social activities: family, kindergarten, friends, team work;

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• activities of meeting and ruling with the environment: toys, transport, types of food, pieces of clothes; • physical activities: movement with music, imitation games and types of sports; • music activities: songs, musical development and sense of rhythm; • Art activities: drawing, painting etc. • Graphical – motor activities (rough and fine graphical-motor) Methodology The recommended methodology which should be used in the teaching and education process for these kinds of activities is a very important part of the curriculum. Considering the specific needs for preschool RE children, activities should be planed and implemented through a methodology adapted to individual and group needs of participants. This kind of approach provides involvement, participation and active learning that ensures ownership of what they learned as an important segment for their further motivation to attend school (so called active learning). The Preparatory Kindergarten focuses on increasing school readiness which includes improving practical life skills (communication, socialisation, hygiene, non-aggressive behaviour, etc.). Thus, it contributes to ensuring an equal position for RE children in the education system. Based on mentioned skills a curriculum of Preparatory Kindergarten is concentrated on life – practical skills, like: • Creating appropriate opportunities to activate children natural, spontaneous need of movement; • Creating activities of different character and dynamics, stimulating initiative, self-confidence, independence, etc.; • Improving of independence in everyday life activities: feeding, dressing etc.; • Getting to know characteristics of traffic, situation when children are moving, situation when children are playing, moving safely etc…;

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• Discussions on gained experiences during the implementation of these activities • Performing simple moves with music • Participation of children in process of making behavioural rules in working area; • Spontaneous talking about oneself experiences and happenings in the kindergarten and out; • Conversation with the teacher about their interests, what they want, describing everyday activities and experiences; • Conversation between children and kindergarteners about that what they saw, experienced and observed during agreed excursion and visits. • Motivating children to mark objects which are present in the environment with symbols (symbol on the bed, back pack etc.). • Putting children in structured environment in situations to make groups (one flower, two flowers, more flowers, one long wipe and two long wipes etc…) without forcing to make the concept of natural number “one”, “two”, “three”, “four” and „five“. • Getting to know the area in order to feel pleasant; • Through group games to develop and accept relation towards other children and adults. • Observing and talking about what surrounds us: the sun, stars, air, earth, water; • Creasing, scribbling, splicing, squeezing, twisting, cutting, clamping, with the aim of stimulating fine graphical motor; • Arranging internal and external area, arranging toys and playing areas; • Experimenting with colours (spreading, printing, rubbing, spraying, leaving marks and stains by fingers, brush and the other materials and items). In the context of achieving basic social skills it is needed to use appropriate working methodologies. The most effective results of work

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in this area are reached when focusing on the needs of the person and group. Practical skills and knowledge needs to be in the centre of the Preparatory Kindergarten work. During the two weeks of intensive work flexibility is needed in order to be able to meet the individual needs of the RE students. Using role play, rules for the establishment of discipline, monitoring entrance hall, etc. preschool teachers maximize learning and minimize hindering behaviours. Preschool education offers a variety of educational programmes, which can be classified in two wide categories: • Educational programmes for gaining different skills and knowledge • Programmes regarding learning of attitudes and positive life values Based on this division, characteristics of preschool education can be recognized regarding different target groups, i.e. its comprehensiveness in this regard. The Preparatory Kindergarten contributes to social equality and democracy. The learning and development principles in the Preparatory Kindergarten education are referring to: • “Social skills development • Orientation towards result and process and • Orientation towards individuals and group.” (Kovacevic, 2011: 37.) The following working styles have been used mainly: • Working with individuals • Working with all children (complete kindergarten group) • Work with small groups (3-4 children) Group work, most suited for the age of children, is based on interactive activities, planned to foster learning, motivation and effectiveness through topics which are adopted methodologically.

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Result and process Working in a group supports the achievement of results on the level of tasks and on the process level such as: • Achieving better cooperation • Having more opportunities for learning through experiences • Developing themselves in a group of peers • Developing self confidence • Developing communication skills • Resolving problematic situations • Building mutual trust • Agreeing on values and attitudes which make children more accepted and capable in building new relations • Being more aware of their own potential Focus on individual and group The process of finding your role as an individual within a group has its own speed and characteristics which is in line with the group phases. In order to give best guidance to the inclusion of RE children in the educational system a holistic approach is recommended supporting the matching of individual and group needs. Team building also supports this process in a positive way for all participants in the group. In the following overview the educational approach towards domicile and RE refugee children are differentiated:

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Mixing children with different (recognizing) knowledge of colours, exchanging colour sticky paper in small groups while working on different topics as ‘’gift for my mom’’ etc.

They made signatures on their artistic works and drawings

Giving the role of supporter, which helps children to overcome language barrier and other children to feel important and at the end more self-appraisal.

Recognizing and identifying basic colours

Knowing basic letters and forming basic words in written form – mom, dad etc.

Readiness to help other children in translating

Using resources and challenges Using it to improve knowledge of numbers by other participants by drawings, coming in pairs etc.

Challenges

Numbers – pairing, grouping

Resources

Overview of work with domicile children

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66 Stressing the good example of a child having developed hygienic habits

Having some previous knowledge may have increased the motivation of other children who are eager to achieve the same, some of them are helped by their peers in learning by translating Teachers using movement games and songs: ‘’Igrale se ruke dvije’’ and ‘’Hoki poki’’, ‘’Radite sto radim ja’’ etc.

Some of the children already know parts of the body

Taking conversation and exchanging toys between themselves

Some of the children with partly developed hygienic habits – washing hands, faces etc.

Not ready to share toys

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High level of energy

Informing parents on health problems, tracking and supporting them by RE assistants activities in the community

Doing demonstrations in small groups and exercising (ex. Washing hands before meals etc.).

Heath problems (scabies) as a consequence of bad hygienic conditions in family

Most of the children with low hygienic habits

High level of energy

Good preparation of the activities, especially the ones in accordance with high level of energy as most of the physical activities (musical chairs - muzičke stolice, ledeni čiča). After that, transitional activities will be organised such as: ‘’Day and night’’-“ Dan i noc’’, ‘’Let’s play with me’’ -,,Hajde sa mnom da igras’’, ,,Siri, siri, vezeni peskiri’’, playing with the ball repeating the name of a friendpassing over the ball by naming the friend that is passing the ball etc. Calming activities, encouraging (attention) attention to work – drawing, recitation in Roma or Albanian language.

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68 Providing anti lice shampoos and RE assistant activities with parents – giving instructions how to use anti lice shampoos and checking if this action is taken

Teachers and RE assistants demonstrating in group by movement games and songs ‘’Clean hands’’, ‘’Cistoca je pola zdravlja’’ etc.

Demonstrating eating with spoons – from all staff (kindergarteners, RE assistants, supporting staff)

Demonstrating by examples to throw papers into the garbage can. Is very effective for short time.

Demonstrating by conversation with nice behaviour. Dealing problem situations between them.

Lice

Not knowing how to use soap and other hygienic means

Eating by hands

Throwing papers around

Lack of basics of nice behaviour

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Resolving problematic situation Refusing to participate – trying to animate, than letting them observe others while working, making individual conversations with very important supporting role of RE assistant. Running around – first of all trying to get them and ask them why they are not working with others and what they need in order to work with others etc. Attacking each other through games and playing – Conversation in order to see why they behave like this, ask would they feel nice if their friend does something similar, how would they feel about it, do they accept fair play rules etc. Organizing activities - ,,Baš smo zgodni šta nam fali’’kindergartener demonstrates different feelings (basic ones – happy, sad, frightened, angry etc.).

Recognizing and expressing feelings

Using resources and challenges for positive change/ achievements

Behaviour of individuals – refusing to participate, running around, attacking each other’s etc.

Challenges

11 We will mostly pay attention in this part on issues not covered in domicile RE children characteristics

Resources

Overview of work with refugee RE children11:

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70 Taking care and paying more attention and encouraging

Insufficient self-esteem,

Lack of personal responsibility, awareness of possibilities, rights & responsibilities/ consequences for actions

Dealing with this behaviour but also asking for support from specialist

Attention deficithyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Giving possibilities to express attitudes.

themselves etc.

work of children showing sadness, children not fighting for

by: conversation, stressing the results and presenting

Resolving problem situation Conflict resolving techniques – mediation by conversation and exploring things that happened, feelings, exchanging roles. Example for a workshop : ‘’Name I like, I don’t like’’ etc. In the case we deal with deeper conflict situation we should ask also for support of supporting staff

Conflicts between children

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Good feeling for rhythm, dance, movement

Low attention to work

Giving opportunities to work by music, movement. They all include and participate easily as this type of activity shows something they are good in – example: ‘’Iva’s dance’’ (Ivin ples), ‘’When you are happy’’(‘’Kad si srecan’’).

Organising work in which the children have a responsibility and lead an activity or are given appropriate roles etc. These children need to be engaged. For example: An appropriate role could be to help a friend with his or her work, to assist a preschool teacher or RE assistant in activities.

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Techniques of work The following techniques of work are usually used in kindergarten work: • Group work (plenum or all children in the group) • Working in small groups (with only a few children) • Individual work During the implementation of the Preparatory Kindergarten working in a big group - so called frontal work – was applied most of the time as it responded best to the needs of the children. Group work with children of this age needs to be based on interactive activities, which are planned to foster learning, motivation and effectiveness. The topics used should be methodologically adjusted to working with 6-year old children. The concept of working with the groups needs to be based not only on topics (recfecting answer to the question: What should we do?) but also on the process of work (giving answers to the question: How should we achieve this?) The reason for concentrating not only on the topics but also on the process is due to the fact that the readiness of the RE children for education is not always the same. Therefore, group work (with all children in the group) is best suited as it provides opportunities to meet needs of the children. The following types of activities should be dealt with: • Language and speech activities, • Sensory activities • Discovery and experimenting and • Mathematical and logical activities Preschool teacher can implement just 3 to 4 centres of interest, achievable and appropriate for child development depending on structure of the group. From the experience gained through Preparatory Kindergarten implementation, we had the opportunity to see that the group work is most applicable one.

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Methods of work used in Preparatory Kindergarten are: • Game • Verbal (talking, description, recitals etc.) • Non-verbal (gesture, mimics, body movements) • Demonstrative and illustrative (applications and pictures) • Practical application (doing movements/talk etc.) • Practical experience • Experiment. Tips on how to form groups: *It would be good to form groups according to: • Number of children – from 20 (at the beginning) to maximum 25 (during the implementation) with minimum 2 preschool teachers and one RE assistant • Age - same or similar age considers similar needs concerning developmental stage of a child (example 6 years old child has mostly developed activity level) • Age from 6 to 7 or up to 9 years old (if there are children older than 6 or 7 years) – include all children from 6 to 9 years old. • Age from 4 to 5 years old which are mostly interested to be involved should not enter Preparatory Kindergarten; they should have explanation how they can enrol into regular kindergarten during next year. • Different language knowledge and skills which are more resource than challenge, because children do peer education (are interested to learn from each others) and also have more capacities to learn new language according to developmental stage of a preschool child • Gender – equal number of girls and boys, because of different peer interests, motivation to include and participate, energy level and types (example: competitive activities are more

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interested to boys etc.), combining competitive and team work and cooperation activities. Support to the learning environment: • Peer support – important for feeling of safety, security and acceptance • RE assistants in terms of: connection with children, encouraging attending kindergarten, supporting learning process, as role models, communication with RE parents and also raising awareness of importance of education. • Parents – as a core factor in encouraging children to attend kindergarten, as role model, hygienic habits developed in family as well as responsibilities for health. • Parents in kindergarten – one parent a day – can be helpful but not necessary. Selection needs to be done according to situation on the spot. • Premises and yard – rooms should be airy, lightened by natural light, fresh, with the furniture adequate for work. It also needs to be adaptable to activities. Yard should be safe for work, green environment with the shade, with the fence, swing and the rest of adequate mobiliar. • Didactical material – toys, puzzles, Lego cubes, memory games, „mathematics for small”, lottery, logical blocks, Orff instruments12. IV Professionals in the Preparatory Kindergarten: When we talk about the process of education and intercultural context a focus should be laid on the gaining social skills: It needs to be emphasized that professionals and other in PK engaged persons should have: 12 Orff sinstruments In addition to a variety of small percussion instruments, it would be useful to have a combination of soprano, alto, and bass xylophones and metallophones, and soprano and alto glockenspiels. Contra bass and small mallets could also be provided.

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• • • •

Awareness of needs of target groups based on previous information, Social skills, Holistic-oriented approach, Skills of intercultural learning which encourage the others and so on.

In general preschool teachers engaged in the Preparatory Kindergarten should have a good professional background and be well trained previously. They should be very open and easily accept planned activities. Values

Skills:

Knowledge:

1. Fairness, 2. Consistency , 3. Authenticity, 4. Openness, 5. Motivation, 6. Flexibility, 7. Adaptation to the situations and needs of target groups, 8. Creativity, 9. Invention, 10. Tolerance.

1. Resolving conflicts and problems,

1. Knowing problematic of RE community: social - cultural,

2. Intercultural, 3. Teamwork and corporation, 4. Communication skills: Empathy (compassion), active listening, asking open questions, 5. Interactive methods of work oriented towards student

2. Knowing preschool methods of work, 3. Knowing different types of learning.

6. Work with parents, 7. Self-reflection – ability to estimate process or approach in the work and based on that to continue develop skills/knowledge which suits better to the needs of the child or group during learning process.

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“Holistic approach implementation:

to

intercultural

learning

is

achieving

by

• Reflecting and applying ethics in education (values- attitudes, principles, procedures, rules) • Working with children and involving children. • Cooperating with families and communities. • Being professional in a diverse context by using sensitivity, education, and self-reflection. This means concretely: o Implementing interactive working methods, o Applying lifelong learning, o Developing key competences.” (Kovacevic, 2010: 9)

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Toolbox: Education

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Last name of the child

13 - domicile  14 - rerfugee 

13 14

Nr.

Name of parent

Name of the child

Attendance list for children Kindergarten: Group: ID number or date of birth D15

R16

Status

Address and phone

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Daily attendance

Comments

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Activities

Aims

Means/ Resources

Method of work

Telling an invented story with the help of the a doll,,Srecka’’ (handmade doll for children’s theatre)

30 min

-Developing empathic skills, especially a heightened sensibility. –Motivating children for coming again in kindergarten

Creating a pleasant atmosphere, the enjoyment and relaxation through artistic expression - Guignols Doll16 ,,Srecka’’ live word

Markers (felt pents)

-Conversation - Demonstration

-Conversation - Demonstration

Frontal

Frontal

Working style

-Developing a heightened sensibility – Motivating children for coming again in kindergarten

Creating a pleasant atmosphere, the enjoyment and relaxation through artistic expression

Expected results

15  Hand puppet or Guignols (from French: Guignol) is a kind dolls. The name is used for the character (in eng. Translation Guignol and hand puppet) and for the type of doll or puppet technique (hand puppet (a)). French origin, was made in Lyon 1808th year. The author was Laurent Mourguet. This doll is Mourguet celebrated Lyon and the French puppetry. With these types of puppets, the puppeteer inserts his hand inside the puppets, and hand puppets controlled by the fingers inside the doll or managed by two real solid wire. Puppet is controlled from below. The doll has wooden head, because it is anticipated that the doll can take a beating from the other dolls. Puppet show with hand puppet called ginjolijada (cf. [1]). - Wikipedia

15

Drawing by choice

30 min

Daily Plan Example An example of the daily program before and after kindergarten

Time

Daily Plan Format

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Movement game by wax figures,

Pronounce it correctly

We are handsome, what do we need else?

40 min

30-40 min

Activity

20 min

Time frame

To help a child to develop skills of understanding its own feelings and actions, as well as feelings and actions of others

and cultivating speech culture

Correct articulation

Exercising concentration and cooperation among children

Aims

-Drawings (sad, cheerful, frightened fa ce)

-Paper -Coloured chips, -Drawings, -Candies

Means/ Resources

-Frontal work/ Big group work - Work in small groups

-Conversation method

-Frontal work/ Big group work

-Game in pairs

Frontal work / Big group work,

Working style

-Game method -Demonstration

-Conversation method

-Game method -Demonstration

-Game method -Demonstration

Method

TOPIC: Let’s be friends                                DAILY    P L A N (example for 19th of June)

and actions

other’s feelings

its own and

and expressing

understanding

skills like

communication

to develop basic

To help a child

and cultivating speech culture

Correct articulation

Exercising concentration and cooperation among children

Expected results

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Me and my family

30 min Developing general motor skills and enrichment of emotional development

Encouraging cooperation and respect for the rules of games

Felt tip pen

-Conversation

-Clothes

-Game method -Demonstration

method

-Game method -Demonstration

-Laundry basket

- Work in small groups

groups

- Work in small

Big group work

-Frontal work/

Improved general motor skills and enrichment of emotional development

Improved cooperation and respect for the rules of game

20 min

Time frame

Movement game by wax figures

Activities

Exercise concentration and cooperation among children

Aim

Means/ Resources

Style of work Frontal work/ Big group work, -Play in pairs

Method of work

Game method -Demonstration

Concentration and team cooperation improved

Expected results

Examples of this and similar games can be found in ‘’New book of games for children and youth’’ in the Annex

Recommendations

DAILY PLAN AND PROGRAM AFTER THE KINDERGARTEN WITH RECOMMENDATIONS

Fashion marathon

30 min

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Folk dance and song

30 min

10 min

Didactic game ”Jezgoteka”Pronounce it correctly -How who answers -Pronounce these work

40 min

Calm game ”Guess who I am’’

Montenegrin and Roma

We are handsome, what do we need else?

30-40 min

Group calming

Developing consciousness on belongingness to culture and tradition to its own people and cooperation with other cultures without making difference

Proper articulation, cultivating speech culture

To help a child to develop skills of understanding its own feelings and actions, and feelings and actions of others

Ball

CD

Coloured chips, Drawings, Candies

-Drawings (sad, cheerful, frightened face)

Demonstrations

Game method Demonstration

Games, demonstrations, conversation

Demonstration

Game method

Group work

-Frontal work/Big group work

Frontal work, group work

-Frontal work/ Big group work, -Work in small groups

Group calming

Raised consciousness on belongingness to culture and tradition to its own people and cooperation with other cultures without making difference

Proper articulation, cultivating speech culture

Improved skills of understanding its own feelings and actions, and feelings and actions of others

This type of games apply after physical activities

Encouraging intercultural learning. Very useful.

This activity lasted longer because of the language barrier. Help of the RE assistant is useful. Literature: ‘’Practicum for speech development’’

Accepted by children, Recommended as suitable activity

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Recitations in Albanian PASTERTIJA PASANGJOHET NE MENGJES Laj fetyren me kujdes dhembet e mi i pastroj floket i krehi i lemoj thojt i kontrollojm per her si la kurr pa i pre edhe shamin ne xhep e shti trili-li trala-la pershendetje o femi erdh shtatori plot gezime hapi duart shkolla ime

Recitations in Montenegrin ČETIRI ČAROBNE RIJEČI Postoje četiri čarobne riječi kojima se ružno ponašanje liječi, koje zna svako, ko drugarstvo voli: hvala, molim, izvini, izvoli

ČISTE RUKE Pre i posle jela treba ruke prati nemoj da te za to opominje mati, prljavim rukama zagadi se jelo pa se tako bolest unese u telo.

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TUŽNO, SREĆNO, UPLAŠENO Tužno, srećno, uplašeno može biti svako dijete u životu vrlo često sa tugom se sreća plete

KOLOVOĐA Poneđeljak momak jak kolovođa lak do njega je utorak u sredini reda sitno veze srijeda četvrtak se klati njega petak prati a subota sama preplice nogama na kraju u vijencu neđelja na kecu od kad su se sastali nijesu s kolom prestali.

SEMAFOR Čas je crven, čas je žut, čas je vedar, čas je ljut. prvo oko znači stoj da ne bude poslije joj, drugo oko znači pazi može nešto da te zgazi treće znači srećan put ne zamjeri što sam ljut...

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JEDNA PRIČA IZ VRTIĆA Šapuće se u vrtiću jedna Ema voli Miću pa mu krišom kolač reže pa mu stalno prtle veže a kad sobu stisne zima pokriva ga po leđima. A i Mićo voli Emu samo ima strašnu tremu jer kad mu Ema priđe srce mu u pete siđe kasnije se čudi mama što kuca u cipelama.

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Movement Games 1.

Game: You do what I do

Children are in a circle, the leader is chosen (it can be a child or the teacher), makes a move for example claps the hands or does squats etc. saying “do what i do if you are interested” and the children imitating the leader’s moves say “we do what you do that makes us very happy”. The leader chooses the new leader for the next round.

2. Game: Traffic policeman Children are arranged in two lines facing each other. They all walk towards each other singing “One-two-one-two Traffic policeman who I am On the red light you stop On the green you go If you watch carefully now you will pass the street” The song is followed with the moves that the teacher creates.

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3. Game: Little sparrow Children form a round and move in a circle periodically changing the way and sing: “Little sparrow, little sparrow little bird Tell me little sparrow how do you Sow poppy seeds“ The round stops. On singing tic-tac they clap hands, sow poppy seeds and demonstrate it and then continue to move in the round/ circle singing: “Little sparrow, little sparrow little bird Tell us little sparrow how the poppy grows. Tic take poppy grows Little sparrow, little sparrow little bird Tell me little sparrow how do you pick the poppy Tic take pick the poppy Little sparrow, little sparrow little bird Tell me little sparrow how do minced the poppy Tic take I minced the poppy Little sparrow, little sparrow little bird Tell me little sparrow how do you eat the poppy Tic take I eat poppy“ Everything is followed with demonstration

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4. Game: „CIHU-CIHU-CIHUHU“ This game helps to get to know everyone in the group. The leader of the game puts the group in a circle and then it starts to make a line (train) in the following way: He/she comes to a child puts a hand on the other child’s shoulder saying for example „I’m Milica, and what is your name?“ and the answer is: “I am Jovan” - the child says his/her name and joins the train. The game continues until all the children join the train. If a child doesn’t want to participate, teachers should not insist.

5. Game: Musical Chairs “Trip to Jerusalem” A movement game in which the music determines the rhythm and speed. The teacher or the children set the chairs in a circle so that the backrest of the chair is inward. From the beginning there is one chair less than the total number of the children participating. The children stand in front of the chairs. When music starts playing the children move in a circle around chairs following the rhythm of the music. The moment the music stops, they all try to sit on one of the chairs. The child that didn’t manage to sit on a chair, drops out of the game. In the next round, there is one chair less and the music starts playing again. The game continues until – in the last round there is only one chair and two children.

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Hokipoki The lyrics of the song are followed with the movements. Nr. Contents in Montenegrin I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

Ispruži desnu ruku sad i razdrmaj se sav učini hoki.poki, dodirni svoj nos u tome je cijeli štos. Ispruži lijevu ruku sad i razdrmaj se sav učini hoki-poki, dodirni svoj nos u tome je cijeli štos. Ispruži desnu nogu sad i razdrmaj se sav učini hoki-poki, dodirni svoj nos u tome je cijeli štos. Ispruži lijevu nogu sad i razdrmaj se sav učini hoki-poki, dodirni svoj nos u tome je cijeli štos. Dodirni desno uvo sad i razdrmaj se sav učini hoki-poki, dodirni svoj nos u tome je cijeli štos. Dodirni lijevo uvo sad i razdrmaj se sav učini hoki-poki, dodirni svoj nos u tome je cijeli štos. Dodirni desno oko sad i razdrmaj se sav učini hoki-poki, dodirni svoj nos u tome je cijeli štos. Dodirni lijevo oko sad i razdrmaj se sav učini hoki-poki, dodirni svoj nos u tome je cijeli štos.

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5. Evaluation “Before kindergarten I said yes with my mouth, afterwards I said yes with my heart”16 The chapter on evaluation deals with what went well and what needs to be improved during future Preparatory Kindergarten implementation.

It is our aim: • To share the outcomes of the evaluation of the pilot Preparatory Kindergarten • To state clearly what went well and should be kept • To underline also where there is a need for improvement

16 Preschool treacher during evaluation

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What went well? Reflections on the Pilot Altogether the pilot Preparatory Kindergarten was a big success. Outcomes convinced all those that had been sceptical in the beginning and it proved that visible changes can be reached in only 10 days. To break down what went well, here it is to be found a more detailed overview of issues according to the topics discussed in the evaluation meeting. These outcomes were used for the finalization of the kindergarten curriculum and the tips for the implementation of the Preparatory Kindergarten in this manual – so we include them fully here: Education Children got more used to stay inside closed rooms Children got easily used to the working space. The first three days, as have been expected based on developmental milestones related to the adaptation abilities, all in the kindergarten had to be very careful so that children would not simply go home on their own. The change in behaviour is amazing as in the satellite school in Kamp Konik teachers have the problem that students go home during breaks even when in grade 2, 3 or 4. The main reason for achieving this success is a good preparation of the kindergarten and the flexible approach aiming at making children feel welcomed, safe, encouraged and motivated so that they loved to be in kindergarten. Also it is important the action plan and the daily planning ensuring an interesting programme for the children that met their needs.

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Children improved social behaviour Children improved their social behaviour remarkably during the 10 days of Preparatory Kindergarten implementation. There are some ways of behaving that are easier to achieve and others that are more demanding. Social behaviour that is easier to achieve: • Accepting group work and cooperation as well as helping each other to understand the language and instruction • Accepting behaviour by friend as a role model • Good interaction between child and kindergartener • Accepting visitors • Communicative • Being polite and avoiding insults Social behaviour that is more difficult to achieve: • Dealing better with conflicts (e.g. They are encouraged to talk and negotiate instead of fighting and threatening) • To be patient (e.g. When distributing pens, hygienic packages, clothes or meals everybody would like to be first. It is hard for them to wait until it is their turn.) Children feeling respected and important Children felt respected and important as they felt they were individually seen by kindergarteners, RE assistants and the rest of the staff members. They felt respected and accepted. They could give something back by presenting their own culture through songs, rhymes and dances. Altogether, they gained an increased awareness of the richness of their own culture and developed more self-confidence in this way.

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©photo: Emil Šabotić

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Children are introduced to the basics of hygiene Children learnt how to wash their hands before every meal. They actually very much enjoyed it and were very excited when the first day they played with the water and the soap and wettened the bathroom. During the 10 days of kindergarten implementation they got used to washing their hands regularly. There was a big difference between domicile and refugee children. Those coming from Kamp Konik did not know how to use a toilet and had to be introduced to it. Kindergarteners and RE assistants did it by taking them in groups of 3 and showing them the usage of the toilet.

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When children came to kindergarten in dirty clothes (e.g. trousers peed into), RE assistants talked to the parents to take better care of them. This worked out well. Children learnt basic rules Most rules introduced in the Preparatory Kindergarten are accepted by the children. Some are easier to accept than others. Easier to • • •

accept: To play with toys Hygienic habits, because of the supporting environment Eating well and helping cook while collecting dishes etc. (Mainly a behaviour of domicile children) • Adopting musical and movement games • Manipulating art materials • Experimenting with different materials (drawing, colouring, modelling and using sticky coloured paper)

More difficult to accept: • To accept the rule to do something at certain point in a clear time frame (e.g. they would interrupt the continuation of the work to do something else, or they are given a task but they decide to go out or even try to go home) • To share toys. Children are not used to playing together • To ask for permission (e.g. Can I do it now?) • Not to put pencils or toys in mouths • To put covers on pencils and use means correctly • Collecting and ordering toys. Many children would simply put them on one heap • Hard to eat, first days they had stomach troubling (refugee children) Organising activities outside in the courtyard (It is necessary to structure activities very well and to be closely with the group to keep the children’s attention on the activities carried out).

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Children are motivated to go to school Children started to love going to kindergarten, i.e. an institution where they are with peers and welcomed and respected. They were informed about schools and also visited them. The interactive and participatory way of presenting school activities and equipment (books, book notes, pencils and other working materials) carried out by a school teacher in the kindergarten in Nikšić made strong impression. The children were included, had fun even when dealing with ,,serious’’ tasks and were given appraisal for positive behaviour. Also parents expressed their willingness to send children to school provided that transportation is not an issue. RE assistants helped greatly in inspiring children and parents on the perspective of schooling.

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Children enjoyed incoming & outgoing activities As described above, children enjoyed the school visits, as well as the visit of the teacher to the kindergarten. They behaved very well and paid more attention. It was an exciting experience for them. The visit of the police in the kindergarten in Nikťić is also a highlight for kindergarten and we recommend organising it also in kindergartens in Podgorica in future. Children talked to the policemen about traffic rules and were allowed to sit behind the wheel in the police car.

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The visit of the medical doctor in the kindergarten in Nikšić was not as easy as other scheduled visits as the children were afraid of medical doctors because of previous experiences with vaccinations and injections. However, all went well due to the preparation and presence of the kindergarteners and RE assistants. Children improved sensory skills Children improved following sensory skills through thoroughly planned activities: • Development of tactile perception, small motoric (e.g.: Work with the coloured sticky paper, work with the flour, collecting beans, soft, wet etc.) • Recognizing and naming senses – hearing, tasting, seeing, smelling etc. (e.g. recognizing the sounds from nature, recognizing and mixing colours by hands etc.). Children learnt from each other Even though adults also served as role models it is said that learning from peers is even more effective during kindergarten implementation. This is reflected in the tips on how to form groups. Especially important is the mixing of children according to language skills – those who knew Montenegrin helped those who did not. But also related to hygienic practices, social behaviour or other skills learning from peers is an important factor in reaching the positive outcomes during the pilot kindergarten.

Group dynamics should be taken care of Altogether, group dynamics are important for the implementation of an intensive event such as the preparatory kindergarten. All personell involved should be able to cope well with the five phases of group development: forming, norming, storming, performing and ending.

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Phases of group development in Preparatory Kindergarten Phases of group development in two week Preparatory Kindergarten are presented in followingin order to show how to use best group work methods during implementation of this program. Forming is the first phase in group development. This phase is beginning of the group work and as such it is the key phase for further group development, place of each individual in group and group dynamics. At the very beginning, the facilitators, i.e. the preschool teachers, have the biggest power in the group. The group may have or not have clear aims but the group is gathered and members are all together in one place, getting to know each others and starting with the work and cooperation. This process is led by the preschool teachers. Children are active in giving contributions and in creating rules for the group together with preschool teachers and RE assistants. The rules for the group are a resource for further work, especially in providing discipline mechanisms for the group. Preschool teachers are directing children’s behaviour by referring to these rules. Storming is the next phase in group development. It is rcharacterized by first conflicts and problems arising in the groups. In this phase the groups are defined by different interests and unmet needs. In the second storming phase the children show differences which lead to challenges and conflicts. Preschool teachers and children should confront problems which provoked conflicts in order to develop more group cohesion.

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Norming is the third phase which comes after storming. It is the phase in which groups develop based on new experiences in group interaction or by adding new unwritten rules which come from resolved problem situations and challenges. Groups become stronger. Members of the group understand each other better and team work and performance is improving. Now, members of the group are clear on the hierarchy, processes, how to interact and cooperate etc. Performing is the fourth phase characterized by an increase in the group’s performance: the more the group works together, the more the performance improves. In this phase the independance of the students is on the highest level. The group is ready to adopt, learn and create very efficiently with less support from the preschool teachers and RE assistants. The closing of the group is a natural process coming at the very end of a group work. In the context of short term work, as the Preparatory Kindergarten, this phase of the group is inevitable and can be painful for the children as well as the preschool teachers and RE assistants. Therefore, it is important to prepare the closing phase and to do it in a professional way: The closing phase should be planned and implemented by carrying out activities which help children to become aware, realize and accept the closure of the group. This experince might be a resource for similar life situations (ex. ending of primary school, changing of the community, etc.) as well as for positive learning such as: summing up of results, contribution of the individuals in group work, etc. A well organized closure will not only sum up results but als acknowledge the team building process the groups went through.

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Closing events are also an opportunity for the children to show how much they have learnt: new skills (selfpresentation, acting etc.), team work and cooperation. This way, children are improving their self confidence, overcoming shyness and passivity in supporting environment.

Phases of group development can repeat in one cycle of the group life. For example, a group which went through the norming phase can again enter storming, if previous conflict and problem resolution were not completely solved. Conflict and problems resolution should support healthy group work and life which comprises supporting atmosphere of work and cooperation, positive relation towards peers, tolerance, acceptance etc.

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Hygienic packages & clothes were appreciated Children and their families highly appreciated the hygienic packages and clothes. It is very important to classify and choose the clothes by age and size which fits the best the child to whom the clothes are given. Even among our target group of domicile and refugee children there are far reaching discrepancies between the families – mainly related to their social background. Whereas the domicile Roma and Egyptians are mainly living on social welfare or on income earned by carrying out jobs, the refugee Roma and Egyptians mainly live on collecting things like metal or on begging. Therefore, the hygienic packages should stay an integral part of future Preparatory Kindergartens. Organisation One RE assistant per group All preschool teachers, kindergarten managers, representatives of the MoE and BES and others involved in the pilot kindergarten implementation agreed that RE assistants were crucial for having a high quality in the Preparatory Kindergarten. Tasks of RE assistants were the following: During preparation (should be more in future kindergartens) • Visiting families at home and raising awareness on the Preparatory Kindergarten • Creating/ updating the list for children registering for Preparatory Kindergarten. During implementation: • Overcoming language problems when there were problems of understanding • Supporting preschool teachers in all tasks

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• Collecting children from home and bringing them back • Creating relations of trust with the parents • Visiting families when there were problems After kindergarten: • Evaluating Preparatory Kindergarten by interviewing parents and children • Raising awareness for schooling All these tasks are only possible when there is one RE assistant per group. Group Size During pilot Preparatory Kindergarten group size is in between 20 – 25, in case of absences even less. For future Preparatory Kindergarten implementation this size should not be exceeded as the conditions are different from regular kindergarten. The children need to learn a lot in an intensive process and when having groups of 30 the same quality of preschool education would be difficult to maintain. A high number of children Instead of the two planned groups (one in Nikšić and one in Podgorica) for 15 children each in total 30, almost 161 children were included in the pilot kindergarten. The reason for enlarging the number is the request by BES to include all children in the two locations. In the pilot Preparatory Kindergartens, there were seven kindergarten groups: • Two in Nikšić • Five in Podgorica • Altogether we had 215 children The recommendation for future kindergartens is to include all children that are due to enrol in the first grade as well.

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RE children in two cities have been invited Nikťić and Podgorica were the locations where we carried out pilot Preparatory Kindergarten. Most projects have concentrated on working only with the RE population in Podgorica. Future Preparatory Kindergartens can be carried out in these two locations as well as in other areas if there is a need for it. No child should be refused Refugee as well as domicile children, boys and girls were included. We had some children with previous kindergarten experience and some without. We had older children and younger ones. This is a deviation from our original approach which is only for children due to go to primary school in September. However, our flexibility makes peer education possible which is an important for the good outcomes of the Preparatory Kindergarten. The high amount of children and the activities inside Preparatory Kindergarten also raises a lot of interest in the RE community. Many children have a look, coming to the doors to see which activities are developing inside. We also had almost every day some new children coming to kindergarten – some of them brought by parents asking if they could also attend. Thus, our open approach contributed to recruiting a higher number of children for primary school than in the years beforehand. For future Preparatory Kindergarten all children who are due to enrol in grade 1 should be included. Children that are younger should be included in the regular kindergarten. Drop-out of children during PK was prevented During pilot Preparatory Kindergarten implementation there is a lot of coming and going. New children came and children, who had been

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coming previously, did not come again. In these cases, RE assistants and from time to time kindergarten supervisor or project staff went to visit the families in order to discuss with the parents, find out the reasons and bring children back to kindergarten. In most cases, this strategy was successful. There have been only very few real dropouts due to moving of the family to Kosovo in order to obtain ID documentation. Still, this child wants to go to school, the journey only prevented the participation in the Preparatory Kindergarten. This system of drop-out prevention is possible due to the RE assistants that we employed for the Preparatory Kindergarten. Future kindergartens also need RE assistants! All involved cooperated well All three kindergartens involved in the Preparatory Kindergarten implementation cooperated well with each other as there is a good contact in between the management as well as the preschool teachers. Also RE assistants and volunteers had common meetings where tasks were prepared and experiences shared. There is willingness and openness for cooperation and networking by all parties involved. Transportation has been ensured Transportation is a key issue during kindergarten and it is highly recommended to organise transportation during all future Preparatory Kindergartens when the distance between kindergarten and home is more than one kilometre and also for special events like school visits. During the pilot Preparatory Kindergarten in Podgorica, the car and driver of the RC 1st of June have been used. As it is a period when children were not in school, car and driver were free, so only the petrol fee needed to be raised. Transportation needs to be organised for those children who had to cover some distance from their homes to kindergarten in both locations.

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Originally, it has not been as if the past would not continue foreseen for the children coming from Kamp 2 and going to Vrela kindergarten. The distance of two kilometres is not a problem in the cooler morning hours but during noon some of the children had real problems. Thus, transportation back from kindergarten to their homes after lunch has been organised. In order to be able to do all the transportation with one car, the kindergarten hours in Vrela kindergarten have been shifted by half an hour. Thus, daily hours were as follows: • In the Kindergarten: Vrela Ribnička: 7.30 – 12.30 • In the Kindergarten Jelena Ćetković: 08.00 – 13.00 During Preparatory Kindergarten in Nikšić transportation have been provided by kindergarten as they have their own resources. In Nikšić transportation is easier to organise because the group is smaller and more homogenic. Transportation will also be a key issue in future kindergartens

Sponsoring Companies & organisations were willing to help Sponsoring is an integral part of the education system in Montenegro. There is willingness and experience to do sponsoring on the part of the educational institutions as well as sponsors willing to donate what had been asked for. Thus, sponsoring has been a good experience enabling us to donate to all children in the Preparatory Kindergartens in Nikšić and in Podgorica hygienic packages containing toothpaste, toothbrush, soap and shampoo. Some hygienic packages also contained small towels. We also were able to distribute some clothes to all children. We had new and second hand clothes as well as different sizes. Some of the clothes were too small, some too big and some for winter. We classified all clothes and distributed them according to the needs of

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the families. Children from very poor families got more than others who were better off. All choices were taken by kindergarten personnel and RE assistants as it is clear that opening the possibility to choose and try on clothes would lead to conflicts among the children.

What should be improved? In the evaluation of the pilot Preparatory Kindergarten a number of recommendations were elaborated that are described in the following: Improve identification of RE children When preparing for the pilot Preparatory Kindergarten we used the lists of RE children who are due for primary schools. When implementing kindergarten we did our own lists as we had new children coming to kindergarten. At the end of the implementation we also received lists made by the primary schools in Podgorica (BoĹžidar Vuković PodgoriÄ?anin and Marko Miljanov). We propose that the same format is used by all working on lists of RE children for grade 1 and that the procedures are streamlined.

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One way of doing this can be by involving RE assistants once they have become a regular part of the system which we highly recommend. Cooperate directly between kindergartens - parents During kindergarten implementation some meetings with parents should be organised when there is a need for closer cooperation with families. During the pilot Preparatory Kindergarten RE assistants and in some cases also project and kindergarten personnel did visits of families at home related to health issues and irregular attendance of the child in kindergarten. For future kindergartens we propose to carry out in addition also meetings inside kindergarten with kindergarten personnel should be organised. The reason for this is twofold: On the one hand the parents take these meetings more serious than if they are visited by RE assistants alone. On the other hand, the kindergarten staff members get to know the parents and the background of the children better which will help them to better deal with the situation at hand. Working with parents a) Health & Hygiene Before kindergarten implementation we propose to carry out a workshop for parents on health where the following issues will be discussed: • Medical check-up • Vaccinations • Daily hygiene • Linking families to the health system (e.g. choice of general practitioners and treatment for chronic diseases or diagnosis of impairment) b)

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According to the Law on basic education (Official Gazette Republic of Montenegro No. 64/02, 49/07, Official Gazette Montenegro, No. 45/10) the enrolment of children is implemented by the rule in the month of April every year on the basis of the health examination results of the children in enrolment age. But not all Roma and Egyptian citizens are not aware of those procedures and that is why activities related to enrolment should include the following: • Deadlines for enrolment • Procedures • Visit of medical doctors • Contact with the schools • Personal Identity cards as well as possibilities to enrol without ID • Possibility to enrol children who are older than 6 years of age. In June every year enrolment procedures for primary schools are carried out. The Roma and Egyptian population are not always aware of the procedures, so we propose to carry out enrolment related workshops for them (in the period in which their peers usually are in enrilement process – April, May) that cover the following issues: • Deadlines for enrolment • ID documents & possibility to enrol without them • Possibilities for enrolment of children above school age Cooperate more closely with health personnel During the implementation of the pilot kindergarten we had different experiences in the cooperation with health personnel in Nikšić and in Podgorica. In Nikšić health personnel is more present and a medical doctor did the check - up of the children during the kindergarten time. Thus, lice and some other health problems were identified. However, the treatment of children should be organised faster as the kindergarten is an intensive one of two week duration. If a child has

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to stay at home waiting for lice shampoo for five days, this child is missing half of the kindergarten! For this reason, the project paid for the lice shampoo. In future, this needs to be planned beforehand as it is likely to find lice among the kindergarten target group. In Podgorica we had no medical staff available during the implementation of the kindergarten. With 105 children altogether in the two kindergartens, we were facing a number of health problems, e.g. small injuries, temperature, skin problems. Thus, we propose for future kindergartens the following: a) Planning of procedures, schedule, place, appointment for health examination should be done before the implementation phase of the Preparatory Kindergarten. b) If a nurse is present during implementation it could be helpful. c) Procedures for dealing with children with health problems need to be clear to all preschool teachers. Change Timing The pilot kindergarten has been carried out during the last two weeks of June. The evaluation has shown that this period is not optimal as it happens in a period of intensive administrative burden of kindergarten staff and as it is far from school start beginning of September. Almost all involved in the pilot kindergarten proposed August as a more suitable month for implementation. The heat of the summer is not an issue when proposing August as June also is very hot and as kindergartens are equipped with air conditioners. Train RE assistants more As RE assistants were recruited at a very late stage – just one week before the start of the kindergarten – the preparation time is very short.

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In future kindergartens, there should be more training for RE assistants and more streamlining with kindergarten personnel beforehand. Training for RE assistants should include: • Kindergarten curriculum • Methods for working with children (e.g. daily plans, group centred work, assertive communication, problem solving techniques and similar) • Organisational issues (transportation, visits of parents). Cover all locations with RE population We recommend that in future Preparatory Kindergartens are carried out in all locations where RE population is living, e.g. • Podgorica, • Nikšić • Berane • Bjelo Polje • Bar • Tivat • Herceg Novi • Ulcinj Carry out sponsoring earlier and with more sponsors Sponsoring in the pilot kindergarten was started a late stage in the process. In the beginning only one sponsor had been contacted and only after we met some difficulties we started contacting others. For future Preparatory Kindergartens we recommend to work with several sponsors from the beginning and to start early in the process. Best is to have all that needs to be distributed – hygienic packages containing toothpaste, toothbrush, soap, shampoo and small towels – beforehand. If possible, the hygienic packages should also contain lice shampoo. Also helpful for the RE families are clothes, especially shoes.

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During the pilot Preparatory Kindergarten the classification of sponsored clothes according to size and gender is initiated and partly carried out by the project. This needs to be done inside the preschool system in future. Establish improved communication lines During the pilot Preparatory Kindergarten the project facilitated communication and took the overall responsibility for the preparation, implementation and evaluation of the kindergarten. In future this needs to be taken over by the preschool education system in Montenegro. In order to do so, the MoE and the related stakeholders need to clear lines of communication. Roles, responsibilities and tasks as well as budget need to be decided upon and included in a Statute for Preparatory Kindergarten for RE children.

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Toolbox: Evaluation

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Daily Briefing All kindergarteners and RE assistants are recommended to have daily briefings with the supervisors. All staff members in Podgorica as well as all in Nikšić or in any other town should be united for the briefing. These meetings are very important to exchange experiences, identify problems and discuss solutions as well as in examining outcomes of the daily plans, developing solutions for problems that come up during the implementation process, etc. The daily briefings are recommended to take place immediately after the implementation of the Preparatory Kindergarten, e.g. from 13.00 – 14.00. The daily briefing consists by the following elements: • Reporting of all groups on activities carried out, attendance of children, outcomes of activities and problems encountered, • Group dynamics and individuals – involvement, • General issues, e.g. preparation of visits or closing event, • Discussion on specific problems in order to find solutions – e.g. what kind of activity would be interesting to children who often do not involve or similar.

Agenda for Evaluation All kindergarteners, RE assistants, principals and supervisors of the kindergartens involved should be invited for an evaluation meeting in the Ministry of Education shortly after the end of the implementation. In the pilot Preparatory Kindergarten the closing of the pilot Preparatory Kindergarten was on the 29th of June 2012. The evaluation meeting took place on the 3rd of July 2012, four days later. All stakeholders should be present so some may have to be replaced in their ongoing activities in order to be able to attend. The timely evaluation after implementation is important as over time the perception and memory of events change.

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The agenda of the evaluation event can be as following: • Feedback Round where every participant receives a piece of paper and a marker and creates two visualitatons on the paper: A) How did I see the Preparatory Kindergarten before implementation and B) How do I see it now after implementation? • Group Work on the following: o What went well and what needs to be improved related to the following four topics: • Group 1: Health • Group 2: Education • Group 3: Organisation • Group 4: Sponsoring • Rating conference A format for the rating conference can be seen below. The outcomes of the evaluation meeting can be seen in the annex.

Rating conference format The Rating Conference is a method for fast evaluation giving an overview of opinions of those who are taking part in the rating conference. A rating conference consists of a table with two elements: on the left side a list of topics you want to evaluate and on the right side boxes for evaluating by putting crosses into boxes for very good, good, bad and very bad. Normally, there is no box for neutral as this box is used for hiding. Better it is to ask participants to take a clear position. Also, normally rating conference does not have more than 10 topics. A good way to do them is to prepare the table with the topics on a flipchart paper beforehand.

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The format for a rating conference is as follows. Topic

Very good

Good

Bad

Very bad

1. 2. 3. 4. During the Preparatory Kindergarten evaluation we used the rating conference to get the overview for 10 topics which were relevant for the implementation of future kindergartens.

Open questions for parents and children Setting RE assistants should be guided on how to carry out open interviews with RE parents and children in order to obtain feedback information about the Preparatory Kindergarten. RE assistants should visit each family for an interview and subsequently report outcomes to the coordinators of the Preparatory Kindergarten. Interview is carried out individualy with child and individualy with mother/father. Questions: 1. How did you like the kindergarten? 2. Why did you like it? 3. What was best? 4. How much are you satisfied with the organization? 5. Why? 6. How much are you satisfied with what has been done inside kindergarten? 7. Did you notice any change? 8. Was there something that you did not like? 9. Do you want to go to school? 10. Is there a problem?

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Format for background information for RE children First and second name of child: Visit of Preparatory Kindergarten: Nr. City or place Age Status Domicile or Refugee Languages: Which language does the child speak?) Languages: How well does the child speak its mother tongue? Languages: How well does the child understand speak Montenegrin? (1 = without difficulties, 2 = partly, 3 = does not understand and speak) Kindergarten visited Number of brothers and sisters Age of siblings Do siblings go to school? Education of father Profession of father Education of mother Profession of mother

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Further comments

Overview: Problems influencing enrolment

During the implementation of the Preparatory Kindergarten some problems can be identified already that may influence the enrolment of the RE children in elementary school. In order to facilitate the enrolment and to pass on such information to the Bureau of Education and the elementary schools, it can be useful if preschool teachers together with RE assistants fill in the overview. First and second name of child: Nr. Sources of Income of family -

Social Welfare

-

Permanent employment (which one?)

-

Non-permanent employment (which one?)

Family situation (single parents, jobless parents, sick family members, etc.) Health problems (disabilities, diseases (e.g. epilepsy, skin problem, asthma, etc. ) Other (Missing documents)

Further comments

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ANNEXES

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Annex 1: Links & publications Useful publications ARPOMT/ Council of Europe, 2005, Teaching kit for Roma, Sinti and Traveler children at preschool level, Strasbourg. Basic J., Hudina B., Koller-Trbović N., Žižak A. 2005. Integralna metoda za odgajatelje i stručne saradnike u predškolskim ustanovama, Zagreb. Council of Europe and European Commission, 2000, T-kit 4 “Intercultural learning”, Strasbourg. Dearling, A., Armstrong, H. 1980, New Youth Games Book, Intermediate Treatment Resource Centre. New York Bernard, F. et al. “Sharing of Promising policies and practices”, in: Expert Meeting 10th – 11th September 2007, “Towards quality education for Roma children: transition UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, p. 21-26. GIZ, 2010. Baseline Research Report - Dropouts in Basic Education System in Municipalities of Prishtina, Prizren, Klina, Kacanik, Gjilan and Fushe Kosove, Prishtina Hough, M., 2001, Groupwork Skills and Theory, London. Kovacevic, S. 2010, Multiculturalism – a resource for holistic approach to the education of youth, Tempus Project, Niksic Kovacevic, S. 2011, Aktivnosti međunarodnih organizacija na primjeni neformalnog obrazovanja u Crnoj Gori, Principi učenja i razvoja u socijalnom obrazovanju, Magistarski rad, Univerzitet Crne Gore, Fakultet političkih nauka, Podgorica

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Latković, M., Lipovac, D., Soterović, V. Metodika početnih matematičkih pojmova, Zavod za udžbenike i nastavna sredstva, Belgrade Prentović, R., Sotirović, V., 1998, Metodika razvoja početnih matematičkih pojmova, Novi Sad Smith, A.J. Jr., 1997. “Current Applications of Case Management in Schools to Improve Children’s Readiness to Learn”. Journal of Case Management. 6(3). 105-113.

Project documents Radoman Kovacevic, A., Lakovic, S., 2012. Curriculum for Preparatory Kindergarten, EU –MIES, Podgorica Hielscher, S., Radoman, A. (eds.). 2013. Case management for preventing drop-outs and school refusal. EU – MIES Project, Podgorica.

Websites Council of Europe EDUCATION OF ROMA CHILDREN http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/education/roma/preschool_en.asp DO TO LEARN http://www.do2learn.com/organizationtools/Social SkillsToolbox/SharingMaterials.htm Ontario, Ministry of Education – Full day kindergarten http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/kindergarten/ Review of the literature and available research on the delivery of school based professional support services http://pssp.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Review-of-theLiterature-on-PSS-Final.pdf

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Smith, A.J. School-Based Case Management. Learning to Finish. Retrieved June 2011 from www.learningtofinish.org/doku.php?id=school-based_case_ management The Early Years Institute http://www.eyi.org/

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Annex 2: How to provide sponsorship? Who can give support? • Social services, companies, donors, parents, other education institutions etc. What is needed? • Give an example for what you need, i.e. hygienic packages, clothes for six old year boys/girls, shoes for six old years boys/ girls or similar How to provide needed resources? • By making lists of necessary resources, sending invitations to support providing needed resources etc.

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Annex 3: Overview of NGOs and their activities 1. Centre for Roma Initiatives, Nikšić Centre for Roma Inititives from Nikšić has a very important role in collecting and gatheringa data on RE children ready to go to Preparatory Kindergarten and school attendance. Member of this NGO have a very important impact on overall organisational aspects as engaged in Organisational group and supporting the work on kindergarten organisation. 2. Roma Scholarship Foundation-Institute of Social Inclusion The members of Fondation for Roma Scholarship are also members of Organisational group in Podgorica. Their impact is seen in providing reliable data on RE children to go to prepartory kindergarten and school. 3. Coalition NGO - Roma Forum for integration President of this Coalition helped in initial data collection for two Nikšić communities. He should also be invited to Organisational group for kindergarten.

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Annex 4: Fact Sheet pilot Preparatory Kindergarten Fact Sheet pilot kindergartens Locations

Podgorica and Niksic

Nr. of children in total

161

Nr. of children in PG

108

Nr. of children in Niksic

53

Nr. of boys

92

Nr. of girls

69

Nr. of refugees

66

Nr. of domicile

50 45

Nr. of unknown background

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Annex 5: Authors

Dr. Sibylle Hielscher Team leader and key expert for inclusion, EU/ Montenegro Inclusive Education Services project

Aleksandra Radoman Kovačević Junior Educational Expert for the Inclusion of Roma and Egyptians, EU/ Montenegro Inclusive Education Services project

Nataša Vlahović Advisor BES

Ana Pavličić Preschool teacher, PI ‘’ Đina Vrbica’’, Podgorica

Snežana Lakovic Preschool teacher, PI ‘’ Đina Vrbica’’, Podgorica

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Žana Krivokapić Preschool teacher, PI ‘’Dragan Kovačević’’, Nikšić

Danijela Vučurović Preschool teacher, PI ‘’Dragan Kovačević’’, Nikšić

Serđan Baftjari RE assistant, Podgorica

Bureau for Educational Services, as one of project beneficiaries, gave professional support to development of this publication.

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©photo: Emil Šabotić

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Manual - Preparatory Kindergarten for Roma ad Egyptian