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Integrated Design Report Aleksandra Belitskaja





Integrated Design Essay

Fig. 1 Snapshot from the movie “The Fountainhead”


“But I don’t understand. Why do you want me to think that this is great architecture? He pointed to the picture of the Parthenon. That, said the Dean, is the Parthenon. - So it is. - I haven’t the time to waste on silly questions. - All right, then. - Roark got up, he took a long ruler from the desk, he walked to the picture. - Shall I tell you what’s rotten about it? - It’s the Parthenon! - said the Dean. - Yes, God damn it, the Parthenon! The ruler struck the glass over the picture. - Look,- said Roark. - The famous flutings on the famous columns – what are they there for? To hide the joints in wood – when columns were made of wood, only these aren’t, they’re marble. The triglyphs, what are they? Wood. Wooden beams, the way they had to be laid when people began to build wooden shacks. Your Greeks took marble and t hey made copies of their wooden structures out of it, because others had done it that way. Then your masters of the Renaissance came along and made copies in plaster of copies in marble of copies in wood. Now here we are, making copies in steel and concrete of copies in plaster of copies in marble of copies in wood. Why?”

― Ayn Rand, The Fountainhead


Fig. 2 The Blazing Wing Fig. 3 Rooftop Remodeling Falkestrasse 10

University is the time to step out of your comfort zone. For most of the students first year at university is the first time they leave their homes, family and childhood friends. It is the first time they abandon their comfort zones and get a glimpse of the reality of life. Suddenly you are left on your own, to wash your clothes, and to look after yourself, do grocery shopping and manage your money and time. It is exciting and frightening at the same time. You are just thrown at all these people and unknown conditions you have never dealt with before and forced to interact with them. It is unpredictable, chaotic and frightening, but at the same time essential in the forming of the human identity and personality. The task of the project is to propose a scheme of a mixed-use student housing complex, including a library and a reflective space in St Andrews, Fife, tackling the issues of private and public spaces and integrating it with the urban fabric of the town. The allocated site is historical St Salvador’s quadrangle. The challenge is to propose something, which is beyond the architectural language of St Andrews, focusing more on representation of the perception of the student life and help them to get through their first year at university. Architecture which is not another copy of the Victorian building desperately trying to blend in and pretend it has been there for centuries. Architecture has to speak up for itself. It has to have an opinion and a purpose. It has to create a resonance in the existing environment and shake off the outdated conditions. Architecture has to do a little bit more rather than just camouflage and pretend it is still 18th century, because it is not. “We want architecture that has more to offer. Architecture that bleeds, exhausts, that turns and even breaks, as far as I am concerned. Architecture that glows, that stabs, that tears and rips when stretched. Architecture must be precipitous, fiery, smooth, hard, angular, brutal, round, tender, colorful, obscene, randy, dreamy, en-nearing, distancing, wet, dry and heartstopping. Dead or alive. If it is cold, then cold as a block of ice. If it is hot, then as hot as a tongue of flame. Architecture must blaze!� Coop Himmelb(l)au, 1980 The aim of the project was to propose a scheme where a strong architectural element within St Andrews would make a change. A change within the social perception of the people, a change in the urban morphology of the town and a change of the global picture of St Andrews as an international centre of research and education.


Fig. 4 Complexity: beyond order, before chaos; bifurcation diagram Fig. 5 Plan drawing of Poundbury


Integrated Design Essay

“Tiny differences in input could quickly become overwhelming differences in output. It influences the entire environment it is built in.” (Gleck, 1987) “Chaos breeds life, when order breeds habit.“ (Henry Adams)

Wall – Room – Corridor – Flat – Block – Building – Site – Street – City – Country – World. Everything is interlinked. When you make a decision about something in the beginning it influences the final outcome. The Butterfly Effect claims that the butterfly flapping its wings in New Mexico could cause a hurricane in China. It might take a very long time, but the connection is real (, 2015). “Everything interacts with everything” is a view supported by Patrik Schumacher (Schumacher, 2011) . Thus Wall-Room is as relevant as Wall-World association. According to the theory of chaos, causing a shift in St Salvador’s might change the situation in the whole town – country – world. Visiting St Andrews is a wonderful experience. People get fascinated with the historical atmosphere, looking in awe at the old buildings and tiny medieval streets. However, this should not become an exhibition space because it is not reality; it is the past which we respect and learn from but we do have eventually to move forward. Therefore this is the time we burst the imaginary bubble the town has been in for centuries and introduce a piece of architecture which would actually speak for its current time. Symbolizing the current era of change and technology, it felt important to propose something which is bold in its position and thought provoking. A building which would represent modern society and its aspirations. Reject old ways of working and offer a journey which would never stop. The architecture itself would pull you through showing something new every step you make, revealing its corners and hidden spaces. An architecture which would cause discussions and fights, emotions and arguments. An architecture which would shake off the thick layer of dust of St Andrews. You cannot just simply mimic the past, as this is not the way it would work. Poundbury, a town designed by the prince Charles, for example is a ‘museum of a mythical past’ (Morris and Booth, 2009). It is a toy town, with no soul and no heart. A fake history and a mish mash of different styles put together by one architect. It is a clear example that we cannot just blindly follow up the historical patterns expecting it to look just fine. We build current styles, current architecture and issues its tackling at the moment. That how the historical pattern should naturally develop in the cities.


Fig.6 A student pours Moet over his head Fig.7 A scene mimicking Chariots of Fire Fig.8 Young men from St Andrews University decadently drenching themselves in ÂŁ25 bottles of Moet Chandon


“In general, we invest ourselves in the representation of our home, but in amassing and enjoying wealth in an environment as isolated and insulated as possible.” (Betsky and Adigard, 2000) Cities tend to grow into the closed box with high walls. Carving out private spaces for ourselves we tend to make facades as cold, anonymous and closed as possible, putting reflective mirrored surfaces on the exteriors and high fences around (Betsky and Adigard, 2000). University plays an important role in the urban fabric of St Andrews. When you would expect the town and campus work together, the university completely disassociates itself by putting 3m stone walls around the institutions, as seen in St Salvador’s. Why don’t town and university collaborate together and contribute to each other’s benefit? The high-class culture of the “prestige” university can’t be open, the sacre tradition of studying happens behind the walls, doesn’t it? Somehow, acknowledging the fact that the education is free in Scotland, I tend to be quite skeptical about the elite culture in St Andrews. When education is highly accessible, you would expect people from different social layers to study together. Different picture is happening in St Andrews where a very sharp separation between social layers is highly visible.

“Girl: “Can I just say that I did not apply here to find a rich husband? Guy: “And I didn’t come here to marry a poor girl.” “ “I can’t decide which of my parents credit cards to use.” “It’s so annoying when you get people who don’t normally fly first class, and they’re just playing around with their seats and things like that…” “My family were badly hit by the recession we had to get a Land Rover Discovery instead of another Range Rover” Extracts from Overheard in St Andrews: Real life in the Bubble (Publishing, 2012)

What this project is aspiring for, is to open up the walls, and let people in. Bring back sense of the community to the town and show that university and education is for everyone, not just for priveleged. That is what Scotland was always going for. Free education for everyone. The project is aiming on erasing the unnecessary stereotypes of the town. Another issue in St Andrews is lack of active public spaces, which would be actually used by public. A free seating space off the street, not in a café, would be considered as luxurious. A lot of the spaces in St Andrews, especially gardens are isolated from the public use by tall stone fences. My proposal is to open up the walls, propose an active public space and let the people in.


Fig. 9 Havana Fig. 10 Venice Bienalle Sketch FIg. 11 Ewha Womans University


Ewha Woman’s University by Dominique Perrault presents a long asphalted strip, delineated at one end by a rare track, and completely surrounded by nature. From one side it slides down along the gentle slope from another side the slope becomes a huge stairwell which can be used as an open air amphitheater. One of the great examples of the active architecture when it’s being used outside as well. Lebbeus Woods was one of the few thinkers who ever wondered what it would be like if the people were free of conventional limits. He said that design mostly acts as means of controlling human behavior. Architecture can do much more than that. He designed under the manifesto : ‘what if’ and was never scared to imagine (Manaugh, 2009). “Architecture is a political act, by nature. It has to do with the relationships between people and how they decide to change their conditions of living. And architecture is a prime instrument of making that change – because it has to do with building the environment they live in, and the relationships that exist in that environment.” (Woods, 1992) Lebbeus Woods proposed the theory of free spaces when he intentionally designed spaces which are difficult or impossible to inhabit, explaining it by the fact that people would be encouraged to figure out themselves how to inhabit the spaces. Free spaces don’t have a purpose or a meaning, which means freedom, as there is no constrains to anything (Woods, 1992). I am truly fascinated by the idea of letting people choose their own environment and be the one in control of their own living conditions. Claude Parent, the leader of the Fonction Oblique movement in France, was addressing similar issues of Lebbeus Woods: stability and instability in architecture. He proposed ideas of undefined spaces where concepts of “wall” “floor” “up” and “down” were one continuous thing. Claude Parent explored how it would be like if spaces were more free and playful. If movement and being in space also meant climbing, reclining and sliding. He also explored the ideas of what if the given social parameters such as “chair”, “table”, “sofa”, “bed” would disappear and the furnitureless architecture would affect dynamics between people (Parent and Virilio, 1996). He explored this question and became one of the most important utopians in the modern architecture. Trying to apply this concept to the current fabric of conventional St Andrews, this scheme was intended to add a new layer of social acceptance to the exciting environment. Applying the concept of one continuous surface to the building, the scheme was meant to propose a landscape strategy on the roof which would represent fluidity and movement through. The space would be habitable by people and could be enjoyed by anyone. Design would bring people back together and an active public space which would be created within the city. Following the strategy of public spaces, the building itself would be used by people for other activities. All these architects were trying to break the conventional borders of human perception and build architecture which would solve the tension between the buildings and bring people together. 17

Fig. 12 Interactive Environment & AutoAdaptive Architecture Fig. 13 Bird’s Nest


St Andrews is a significant academic town with the oldest university in Scotland (, 2015). However, it is not the fact of being the oldest university in country, makes it so remarkable and outstanding. It is the high level of education, research and provided facilities. For a research based and pioneering town such as St Andrews it seems strange that its architecture does not follow this ethos. Ironically, St Andrews on opposite looks old and outdated. Development of the technologies in construction and media made many of the architectural dreams real. With the new technologies, it became possible to have every element of structure and form controlled individually and be connected in one complex program. Parametricism, is the new bigger style evolving after Modernism, claims Patrik Schumacher (Schumacher, 2011). Everything is changing and willing to change where the parameters are declared, not its shape. It is extremely useful in architecture when brief, requirements and conditions are constantly evolving, to have everything under total control. Algorithmic architecture gives the opportunity to explore the new capabilities of architecture which have never been known before. Every aspect of it, is under contol but allows to imagine chaotic structures which provides a new level of perception to the town. Now we have the ability to compose systems on the edge of chaos and order. One of the symbols of the 21st century technological break-through was the completion of the Beijing’s National Stadium by Herzog and De Meuron in 2008. The complex ‘bird’s nest’ structure was possible to build just with the use of parametric software. Following this strategy of injecting the new system into the St Andrews’ morphological pattern, the scheme proposes a design of current era. A structure which is possible to build just with current technologies and fabrication techniques.

The most obvious scheme strategy to the brief would have been to camouflage the building under existing St Andrews fabric, and hide it from a pedestrian view. However, architecture can do much more than that. Eisenmann states that it is important to know the difference between architecture and just a building. Architecture does something more than just shelterining people. Thus the intention was to make a building which would not function just as a building but would also make its direct contribution to the town and people, making a change in the existing environment of the political, social and technological patterns of St Andrews.

Architecture tries to speak to us, but do we ever listen?


List of Illustrations Fig. 1 King Vidor, (1949), The Fountainhead movie [ONLINE]. Available at: http:// [Accessed 02 April 15]. Fig. 2 Wolf D. Prix, Helmut Swiczinsky, (1980), The Blazing Wing [ONLINE]. Available at: BlazingWing/O_8001_F1_GZ_1600_1239_90.jpg [Accessed 02 April 15]. Fig.3 Wolf D. Prix, Helmut Swiczinsky, (1983), Rooftop Remodeling Falkestrasse [ONLINE]. Available at: images/Projects/8401_Falke/P_8401_F3_GZ_1097_1377_90.jpg [Accessed 02 April 15]. Fig.4 Robert May, (1976), Complexity: beyond order, before chaos; bifurcation diagram [ONLINE]. Available at: somlaifischer/somlaifischer-02.jpg [Accessed 02 April 15]. Fig. 5 Leon Krier, (1988), This drawing of Poundbury [ONLINE]. Available at: quality/75/? a617e18f2845d51a%2Fpoundbury-leonkrier-01-tcm20-2089905.jpg [Accessed 02 April 15]. Fig. 6 Anon, (2012), a student pours Moet over his head [ONLINE]. Available at: [Accessed 02 April 15]. Fig. 7 Anon, (2012), Bottles of Moet are poured over the heads of these students on The West Sands in St Andrews in a scene mimicking Chariots of Fire Read more: [ONLINE]. Available at: pix/2012/12/12/article-2247106-167B218A000005DC-53_634x397.jpg [Accessed 02 April 15]. Fig. 8 Anon, (2012), The YouTube footage shows a group of well-dressed young men from St Andrews University decadently drenching themselves in £25 bottles of Moet Chandon Read more: Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook [ONLINE]. Available at: [Accessed 02 April 15]. Fig. 9 Lebbeus Woods, (1994), Havana [ONLINE]. Available at: http://farm2.static. [Accessed 02 April 15]. Fig. 10 Claude Parent, (1970), Venice Bienalle [ONLINE]. Available at: http:// jpg?w=300 [Accessed 02 April 15]. Fig. 11 André Morin, (2008), Ewha Womans University [ONLINE]. Available at: http:// [Accessed 02 April 15]. Fig. 12 Fran Castill, (2013), Interactive Environment & AutoAdaptive Architecture [ONLINE]. Available at: png [Accessed 02 April 15].


Fig. 13 Anon, (2008), Bird’s Nest [ONLINE]. Available at: ImageThumbs/SHUH-0007-0030/3/SHUH-0007-0030_BEIJING_NATIONAL_ STADIUM_BIRDS_NEST___HERZOG__DE_MEURON_BEIJING__CHINA_2008_GRAND_ FRONTAL_VIEW_WITH_.jpg [Accessed 02 April 15]. Bibliography Alker, H. and Poppen, P. (1973). Personality and ideology in university students1. Journal of Personality, 41(4), pp.653-671. Berkel, B. and Bos, C. (1999). Move. Amsterdam: UN Studio & Goose Press. Betsky, A. and Adigard, E. (2000). Architecture must burn. London: Thames & Hudson. Boeree, G. (2015). Personality Theories: Introduction. [online] Available at: [Accessed 2 Apr. 2015]., (2015). What is Chaos Theory? : [online] Available at: [Accessed 2 Apr. 2015]. Kolarevic, B. (2003). Architecture in the digital age. New York, NY: Spon Press. Mail Online, (2012). Posh students from William and Kate’s university pour CHAMPAGNE over their heads in video mocking milking craze. [online] Available at: [Accessed 2 Apr. 2015]. Manaugh, G. (2009). The BLDGBLOG book. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. Morris, S. and Booth, R. (2009). Cracks appearing in Prince Charles’s dream village in Poundbury. [online] the Guardian. Available at: uk/2009/aug/17/prince-charles-dream-village-poundbury [Accessed 2 Apr. 2015]. Parent, C. and Virilio, P. (1996). The fonction of the oblique. London: Architectural Association. Publishing, Z. (2012). Overheard In St Andrews: Real life in the bubble. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. Ryan, Z. and Rosa, J. (2010). Hyperlinks. Chicago, Ill.: Art Institute of Chicago. Schumacher, P. (2011). The autopoiesis of architecture. Chichester: Wiley. Spiller, N. (2007). Visionary architecture. New York: Thames & Hudson., (2015). University of St Andrews - Scotland’s first university, founded 1413. [online] Available at: [Accessed 2 Apr. 2015]. Thorns, D. (2002). The transformation of cities. Houndmills, Balsingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave. Woods, L. (1992). Anarchitecture. London: Academy Editions. Woods, L. (1997). Radical reconstruction. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. 21




Unless you are really committed to being an archtect in the true sence of the world, its a terrible bussiness and I wouldn’t reccommend it for anybody, unless you need to it for some personal reason, I would say go into bussiness, go into law, medicine, but don’t be an architect. Peter Eisenmann


Semester1 Inspiration


Week 1 Week 2

St Andrews Analysis Cambridge Study Trip

33-43 44-47

Week 3 Week 4

Cambridge Measured Drawing BTM

48-55 56-65

Week 5 Week 6

St Andrews Site Analysis Individual Site Analysis

66-71 72-87

Week 7 Week 8

Design Landscape Workshops Design Development

88-99 100-109

Week 9 Week 10

Cross Unit Reviews Environmental Workshop

110-119 120-131

Week 11

Structural Workshop


Week 12

Design Development


Week 13 Week 14

Design Development Vertical Competition

148-159 160-167

24H Competition


Week 15 Week 16

Drawing Workshops BTM 2

172-175 176-181

Week 17 Week 18

Fire Design Structure workshops

182-185 186-189

Week 19 Week 20 Week 21

BTM 3 Environmental Workshops Detailed Design

190-193 194-197 198-215

Week 22 Week 23

BTM 4 Technology and design development

216-225 226-235

Week 24 Week 25

MPL Design Workshops

236-239 240-247

Week 26

Crit Week


Semester 2


Week 1

St Andrews Analysis St Andrews is a town of great significance which has established itself as a key religious, tourist and education settlement. Today the town is famed for its highly regarded university and its reputation as the birthplace of golf, a sport which brings in many tourists to the area. There are innumerable places of spatial significance which have been aided by the sense of enclosure, use of landmarks, fluidity and strong edges of the town. The concept of movement is prominent in the town and is the basis of much of this study.

A concept-video telling my vision and story St Andrews. First impression of the town. Sounds. Feelings. Moments. Textures Full version is available at :


A selection of short videos combined together in one composition shows the diverse etnity of St Andrews, highlighting the ‘‘special things’’ which are unique to the town. The sound aspect of the video plays very impostant role in delivering the concept of the video to the viewer.



Walk-Through Animation. The Animation was meant to show the 6 concept of the town. Edge - Focal Point - Transition - Views - Link - History Full version is available at 212 sketches were produced for this short 1.34 m video.




The town has three key streets: North Street, South Street and Market Street which are the primary commercial areas of the town, with residential, tourist and education streets running parallel and perpendicular to these. The key streets of St Andrews run from west to east and conclude at the historic ruined cathedral, which acts as a significant landmark in the townscape. The north to south orientated streets were often far narrower and were predominately residential properties. 40

These streets were often long with high walls or buildings on either side and thus creating an enclosed and dictated street with an entirely different characteristic to the wide, often vegetated primary streets. The Scores is a street which runs parallel to North Street and is notably individual in its function and style since it acts as the key tourist area in the town. Hotels, bars and golf shops line the street and help to create the strong edge recognisable from the Old Course golf course. 41

Serial vision and diagrams explaining 6 main concepts of St Andrews: Edge Transition Views History Link Focal Point 42

Models explaining concept of the edge of St Andrews. It shows sence of enclosure in the town created by the hard edge of the buildings. Site model indicating public buildings of St Andrews.



Week 2

Cambridge Study Trip Cambridge study trip has been a very useful experience in terms of looking at context architecture and sensitive context. Have visited contemporary buildings I have noted down the ways architects used to respect or blend in with the context. Also having lived in the Pembroke College Student Accommodation I could experience the way students live there and I had enough time to understand how the building worked itself and probably use it as precedent in my next project.

From top to down: Robinson Library, History Faculty Library, Denys Lasdun New Court Student Accommodation 46

Sketches made in Cambridge exploring architecture and relationship of the public (squares) and private (university campus) spaces. 47


Week 3

Cambridge Measured Drawing Our group was given a Christ’s College site. Have divided the buildings between the team members we did the measured drawings separately and put them together analyzing the proportions and the history of the buildings. This particular task was helpful in terms of learning how to work in a team and getting some experience with the proportions of the classical architecture. This exercise wasn’t about the drawing abilities or how detailed we can represent the buildings in the drawigns. For me it was more an observing exersice where I had to analyse and understand the proportions.


Elevations and sections of the Christ College Court

Christ’s College is a Consistent college of the University of Cambridge. The college was founded by Lady Margaret Beaufort in 1505. The original 15th/16th century college buildings form part of first court, including the chapel, the master’s lodge and great gate tower. Second court is fully built up on three sides. The fourth side backs onto the massing’s garden. The third controversial concrete new court was designed in the modernist style by Sir Denys Lasdun.


New Court, The Lasdun Building - ‘The Typewriter’ Denys Lasdun & Partners designed this residential building to provide sixty-six study bedrooms, six flats for fellows, a general purpose hall seating two hundred, two squash courts, common rooms, four lock up shops, and covered parking space for twenty cars. All study bedrooms have private, south facing balconies. In section, the stepping back of each floor creates spaces at ground level under the residential accomodation for a shopping arcade.

The Stevenson Building The Stevenson building was designed by J.J.Stevensin in the 1880’s, built in 18881889. It was extended in 1905 as part of the college’s quadcentenary. In 1947 professor Albert Richardson designed a new cupola fo the Stevenson building, and a second building, the new-georgian chalncellor’s building (W Staircadem now known as the Blyth Building), completed in 1950.


The Fellow’s Building 1640-2 Architect Unknown. Detached stone building of 3 storeys and 11 bays. A fine example of the renaissance style with original and 18c staircase and panelling. The boom in student numbers in the seventeenth century required new accommodation, beyond the original college around what is now ‘First Court’. The result was the ‘Fellows’ building. Built in the early 1640s after an appeal to fellows anf old memebers. An arch in the fellows’ building leads to the college gardens.

The Blyth Building The Blyth Building was designed by Albert Richardson in 1947. To finish off the courtyard the almost identical memorial building was placed on opposite side in 1953 by the same architect.


Axonometric drawing of the site


Exploring through sections Two long sections traverse the site - from the gates to the south, climaxing at the brutalist new court to the north walking through the site the user is presented with an ever changing series of elevations, marking the colleges 400 years history building these drawings record this walk.

Approaching an elevation - Groundscape How we read the elevations and the spaces they enclose is directly related to how we approach them, governed by paths and “Do Not Walk On The Grass� signs the routes through these spaces are key to the expenience of viewing the elevations drawn here. We learn what an architeect considers important by how he has us approach his building.



Week 4

BTM 1 The first project of Between Thinking and Making module by Joe Thurrott was about Parability of Space. The year was divided into 6 groups and each had to plan a city of 9 blocks in 3 different scenarios: 25%, 50% and 75% of public space. Although other groups decided to design 3 blocks per person, our group started working as a whole team and not individuals. We had three teams each dealing with a specific variation.

‘The notion of architecture as comprised of ‘space’, rather than of built elements like walls and columns, is a relatively modern one. Space moved; it was fluid, open, filled with air and light; its very presence was a remedy for the impacted environments of the old city: ‘space’, the modern carrier of the Enlightenment image of hygiene and liberty.’ Anthony Vidler, a dark space, in: Rachael Whiteread House, Phaidon1995


Figure-ground plans of precedent cities


Figure-ground of the successful public spaces in Europe applied into the design of the city. Glasgow, Prague, Tallinn, Dundee, Edinburgh, etc 60

Axonometric drawings of the 75% public space scheme



Development diagrams of the 3 schemes. Trying ancor the layout to something we have researched. Aiming to create a successfull public space we took direct precedent studies of successful public spaces in Europe and embodied it into the scheme. The patterns used could be reconised as one of the most famous recognisable spaces.


Models of 25% and 50% public space schemes 64

Models of the 75% public space scheme 65


Week 5

St Andrews Analysis First visit to the site. Collected basic analytic information: photogrpahs,plans and notes. First ideas and aspirations.


Panoramic views of the site 68

Axonometric drawing of the site and its context, showing the main division of the specific areas: Seaside, cliff - Green, the Site - Road, busy, town The site is the connecting element between the busy town and quiet seaside. The site seems to be divided into two parts: the south - formal side and the north - informal. It also felt quite disjointed and separated from its surroundings. The tall 3m wall says quite a statement about the university closed mentalitet.


Sectional drawings throught the site 70

Site plan of the site 71


Week 5

Individual Site Analysis Synthesis

My first impression of the site

(Notes taken on site) Clear established hiearchy. Chapel as the oldest and the most imporant element is the most imporant within this immideate context Protected site from the roads Views opportunities to the north North west prevailing winds Sensitive context High wall, not inviting A lot of greenery A lot of potential for landscaping opportunities Used by students Can smell the sea Strong winds when up Connection with the pedestrians is minimal - needs change? Possibly could be introduced arches as a treshold space Strong sence of community View to the brutalist library Loads of trees on the north side of the side, more urban area on the south side Site doesn’t have any clear connection with its neighborhood Area is very sunny and not disturbed by shadows A transition area used for the graduation ceremonies on summer


Sketch analysis 75


Detailed history of the site 77

Historical development of St Salvador’s.


Personal investigation of the St Andrew’s newspapers and internet forums on elitism in St Andrews, showing that this is a real issue in the town.


As far as I have been analyzing the context of St Andrews it started accuring to me more and more that there is a very important missing link in this town. It is one of those places which have frozen in time, stuck to their traditions and ‘vernacular’ architecture, not willing to allow to get build anything from current age. But isn’t this how the context of the towns develops into the rich and complex mixture of styles? Having the oldest university in Scotland and not being open to new seems to be incredibly wrong to me. Have imagined myself being a student in St Andrews University and living in that time capsule, I felt terrible, claustrophobic and almost treatened.

This also reminded me of the movie by Peter Weir called ‘‘The Truman Show’’. It is like being surrounded by artificial walls and nothing is actually real. Everything is on the show for someone else. How do you expect students study for the future in the past? The only possible solution to this problem I think is to built a piece of architecture which would represent the current time and technologies not hiding its initial nature under the old facades, pretending not to be from 21st century but 16th. This particular drawing is abstract but by abstracting and simplifying the tangible forms and shapes of the gates and the church the hirarchy of the site is established showing that the St Salvador’s Church is very important and old in the sity context and in the St Salvador’s site in particular. It felt imprortant to acknowledge the historical importance of the church by designing the student halls scheme in a particular way.

We are all hungry and thirsty for concrete images. Abstract art will have been good for one thing: to restore its exact virginity to figurative art. Salvador Dali


Abstarct representations of the site and design aspirations 81


Personal views on St Andrews and its ‘elite’ culture 83

Abstarct paintings on imperfection. Perfect is soulless. 84

Another set of abstract paintings on my design intentions 85

Inspired by the work of the architects, artists and theorists I like I made a manifesto for this project. What I wanted to do , to: offer creative, sustainable, fucntional and socially interactive envoronment balance private and common student living in a non-direct way react to the context and orientattion and offer a journey which never stops make a building which would always direct you in the right direction selection of spaces, quiet moments and expanded positions design a building which would be different from different sides, as the reflection of the current society being “different” and “dynamic” provide the visual connectivity reject linear architecture and provide the fluidity of spaces by introducing curvatures, as the curves allow you more interact with the building, it is just pulling you through and showing something new every step you make make a self organising form reject fixed stereotypes and reject rigid zoning “everything communicates with everything” design in a conceptual way but having deep rational reasoning and justification reject old ways of working and respect the context not by imitating but by interpretiting contemporary society’s motto “think outside the box” raise awareness of the current time provide a wide variety of contacts with the local environment while creating a symbolic impact as a large-scale semi-public building in the town use the building as a problem solution multifunctional building, as a contrast to the old buildings which only have one purpose - shelter deasign a multifunctional building respect the history not by imitating but reinterpretating 86



Week 7

Design Process Brief analysis and design proposals

Brief division 90

spaces analhysis

Detailed analysis of spaces 91

Reflective space strategy. Placing it at the ‘end’ making it the end point of the journey and ‘reward’ to the traveller. 92

Sketch analysis of the greenery on site. A lot of potential for developing green public spaces. 93

Concept models exploring relationshiop between structure and space. 94

Have been analysing St Andrews, it felt very outdated for such a large international research base and center of education. The design has to represent current time and technologies. How to tackle this issue? Innovative structure. New style. Parametric architecture has just started to become popular within current generation of architects. The unbelivable structures became possible to build just with the technological break throughs of the 21st century. These first conceptual models represent the first thoughts how I was thinking to tackle the spaces and play up the innovation. The idea behing that was to enclose spaces into solid walls which eventually lose their solidity and become a mesh (of controlled mathematical algorithm (Voronoi diagram). Resemblance with the stained glass in churches. The light pierces through and creates interesting shadows.


Concept models showing the idea of the fluidity of space. The wires represent portal frame structure and the glue mesh is the parametric pattern on the skin. One element is solid, almost rough, representing steel sheets and the glue mesh is the glazing with the Voronoi diagram pattern on it.


Conceptual models exploring fluidity and transparency of space 97

Other development models showing the intersecting spaces where everything interacts with everything. Introducing parametric aspects into the design. 98

Model sketching as a way of designing. It is not a resolved plan. It is not a resolved design. It is just an idea of intersecting planes and spaces within.



Week 8

Landscape Workshops and further design process Having met the Landscape architect John Mitchers from Edinburgh, we discussed the possible ways of enriching the site with the landscape stategies.

Landscape strategy 102

My first thoughts were to carve into the slope the seating areas projecting the existing steps to break the idea of unusability of the green spaces on UK university campuses and make even larger contribution to the site. Another thought was to introduce the water into the design, probably making a narrow strip along the site, adding another dimention of the design - the sound. In this version I made an attempt to divide spaces according to the non-obvious geometrical lines, as the projections of the buildings outlines. At the same time I was trying to integrate the design with the landscaping by making the building part of the ladscape. Here I was trying to propose an extention element to the gym. An external playing area? The space on the north of our site is used during graduation ceremonies. I thought it would be nice to create some sort of stage, which offtime could be used by students as seating areas and meeting place. Also trying to play with the landscape pattern, I thried to make something very organic, speaking the same language as the fluid design of the building.


Conceptual Model Making the building as a serious of interacting spaces wrapped up all together in a steel mesh separating it from the street and “imitating� the wall. 104

Model development Working in masses and conceptual thinking.


South end would be more formal and linear respecting the sensitive context of the St Salvador’s Quodrangle. The south end of the building would also go underground making the impression of wripped out landscape. By placing steps onto the building and making it a functional walk-through path I am making the building act as a contribution to the town itself as I believe St Andrews has a lack of defined public spaces. Also this way I would reject the old way of thinking of university as a closed department. I believe society and mentality has changed since 16th century and the way we build has to change as well. This quodrangle is formed by a beautiful 15th century St Salvador’s Chapel and university buildings. There is a green space in the middle which is not used. I am trying to change this old perseption and introduce something which would contribute to the place and people, making it enjoyable and nice place to spend your time


Massing model 107


Sketch work 109


Week 9

Cross Unit Reviews Having been 2 weeks in the design process, we presented our initial concepts and ideas

Various scheme’s variations. Have analysed the brief I have made the decision to place the library on the south side of the site as this part of the site being very public. Also touching part of the St Salvador’s Quadrangle I am connceting two separated parts of the site, public south and more private north as following the idea of fluidity and no rigid zoning.


The most clear solution to the brief was to leave all ground floor as a public and semi public spaces such as library, seminar rooms, reception, laundry, computer room, music room and fitness room, so it could also serve to the community. The rest of the private spaces, such as undergraduate rooms and master’s flats and the living room to lift up so it would gain a higher level of privacy and security.


Plan presented on the strategic review. Plan is way too rigid and doesn’t provide the fluidity and interesecting spaces as I intended. 114

Sketching on top of the photos of the site and showing the possible outline and functions of the proposed scheme. 115

Snapshots from the sketchbook 116


Geometry of arbitory shapes. Controlled randomness. Evolving shapes through the building are leading you somewhere, showing you the path, explaining its meaning and just asking you to give some of your precise attention to it. Taking the inspiration from the stained glass from the churches I am reinterpriting it into my design. Controlled randomness is a different type of symmetry. (Schu) Controlled environment is safe but does not excite, does not make you experience, be confused. You won’t get anxious. Architecture has to excite. 118

Inspired by Lebbeus Woods’ theory of ‘free spaces’ I was trying to imply it to the design. Have enriched the designed with series such sort of undefined spaces which don’t have a purpose would divide the program into separate parts and act as transition spaces between library and student accommodation and two blocks of the undegraduate halls. These spaces can’t have a purpose. They don’t have a meaning. It is dificult to inhabit. The Person himself have to figure out how to inhabite the space. This aspect was my main attraction to the idea. Architecture manipulates people’s behaviour. It almost predicts every single move of the inhabitant. Why do spaces not ask people any questions? Or do they? Architecture actually speaks to us, but do we ever listen?



Week 10

Design Development Cleaning up and applying changes needed to be applied to make design sensible


Who am I designing for? University? Yes, technically it would be my client, but the real users are not them. It’s students. Real people.They have just finished school and leaving their parents, their friends for the first time in their lives. They are excited and scared at the same time. I was a first year living in student halls not so far long ago. I didn’t know a single person in this country. And yes, I was desperate to make friends. The Old Mill student recidences wasn’t the most successful project of this type of accommodation. We lived in flats of 4 with a shared kitchen, toilet and a shower. Sharing my own experience, I could say I hardly ever saw them. Linear rooms layout and a long corridor wasn’t providing much interraction. Where was the problem then? Was it the people, or was it the building? How to make architecture interract with people, how to make them to interract with each other? If the contemprorary lifestyle and education systems have changed, the housing has to do so as well. We can’t leave in the past anymore. Student accommodation is extremely important piece of architecture. It is not just social housing, It is the place where you start the long journey to the big world, the place where you make friends, where you do work and have rest. How to manage all these aspects in one design? I thought I would start from the smallest but probably the most important unit - the room. Usually the word ‘room’ considers intself to be a box with 4 walls and a window. What if I change this persception. What if the rooms won’t be regular. What if they will be completely arbitory. What if I apply the thery of ‘freespace’ of Lebbeus Woods into these rooms and make them a ‘freespace’ themselves? Usually student halls are coming with a built-in furniture, with a ready layout. It is easy, it is efficient. But if you give the same layout, same thigs, you treat students like animals. There is no individuality. What I am trying to offer is to treat them personally as separate individuals. Give them different rooms, with irregular shape layout, let them figure out how to inhabit the place. Let them make it personal and adjust it to their needs. Following this concept, why not to place the doors on opposite each other at different angles so they would just be constantly bumping into each other, forcing them to talk. It is all about the smalltalks at the beggining, isn’t it? Now it’s clear to me that smalltalks it’s just unavoidable stage in the people’s relationships before the stage of friendship would come. You just have to get over it as soon as possible and find real topics you are into to talk about. By encouraging people to talk in the corridors, I believe, they become friends much sooner and the experience in university would be much richer and more interesting. 123


So by engaging people in their ‘flat-communities’ I am creating 4 groups of 6 people each. And to connect all these 4 groups I am placing social spaces within the flat units, kitchen and dining, on the side facing central atrium. So basically all of them will be overlooking each other, exhanging nods, and may be even talking! Following the idea of social interraction I was thinking of placing the ‘living room’ on top of the student halls blocks. But not the ‘living room’ in the traditional way of thinking, but introducing a large open plan space , which could be, again, rearranged by the students living there. I thought it would also be quite symbolical to place something that important on top. I am truly fascinated by the idea of letting people create their own environment. Letting them choose and decide. Figure out what is the best way for them. Architect should just give a rough sketch, a frame. In terms of the library, the decision to place in on the south side of the site was made almost immediatly. This quodrangle feels quite important surrounded by the St Salvadors beautiful 15th century church, but it is not used in any way. Why? I think it is just the old tradition of the old green spaces which are not supposed to be used. What I am suggesting is to make the library a part of the quod, part of the town you may say. The library would just come off the ground into the building. You wouldn’t even recognise it as a building at that stage. You would treat it as a part of a landcape inviting you to take a walk into the sky. The rest of the program I am going to place on the ground floor making it semi-public, as It would be able to be used by the community as well. The activity’s rooms (gym, computer room, music room and etc) I am grouping together on the north side near the second defined public access. Finally the decision to separate master’s (family) flats was made in terms of considering them as two separate social types. First years tend to live their lives to the limit and be loud at times. Separating them into separate block will solve that issue. The steel structure would support itself and the path and public spaces on top. There would be three types of openings: clear glass, non-clear glass and solid metal. Everything would be computer controlled so if the CO2 level in the building is too high, it would open the certain windows for the certain time so the thermal control wouldn’t be disturbed.




Frei Otto One of the reason Frei Otto was my inspiration is because of his belief that experimentation is essential in architecture. “The computer can only calculate what is already conceptually inside of it; you can only find what you look for in computers. Nevertheless, you can find what you haven’t searched for with free experimentation.” – From A Conversation with Frei Otto, by Juan Maria Songel


Grimshaw Architects Eden Project The Eden Project has created its own unique culture comprising performance, educational and artistic spaces which extends far beyond the site itself.


Zaha Hadid Maxxi The building is a composition of bending oblong tubes, overlapping, intersecting and piling over each other, resembling a piece of massive transport infrastructure. The idea was to move away from the idea of “the museum as an object” and towards the idea of a “field of buildings”.


Herzog and De Meuron Bird’s Nest The National Stadium, a new kind of public space for Beijing The National Stadium is situated on a gentle rise in the centre of the Olympic complex to the north of Beijing.



Week 11

Environmental Workshop Steve Kenicer from Max Fordam introduced us to the enviromental side of the design. His workshop and the lecture helped me to plan the enviromental strategy to my scheme .

The short span between rooms would allow cross ventilate the spaces. Also the atrium spaces would make stack ventilation work as an overall natural ventilation in the building. The sloping surface of the roof would allow south light enter the spaces and heat them up. Making a series of spaces dividing the building act as “noise cathcers�. Vertical services in the rooms. Curved shape of the building is justified by the orientation. It protects the inner courtyard from north-west prevailing winds 134

Environmental workshop worksheets 135

Taking inspiration of the stained glass used in churches I am trying to apply it to the metal mesh of the external structure. Back to basics. Back to the nature. Voronoi diagram is a way of dividing space into a number of regions. A set of points is specified beforehand and for each seed there will be a corresponding region consisting of all points closer to that seed than to any other.


What is the way to construct it? It would be all modelled in a parametric software, so it would be easy to adapt any changes and get the right dimentions for the steel parts. Separate parts would be made off site and put together, welded, on site. The primary structure, the rooms would be preconstructed offsite and craned to the building and on top of each other.


Structural pattern 138

Plans work. Early Stages. Connection between plan and structure 139


Week 12

Structural Workshop

Neil Burford. His workshop and the lecture helped me to plan the enviromental strategy to my scheme .

Structural workshop sheets. Structural strategy: internal structure - solid. External - light. 142

Primary structure - load bearing concrete. Secondary structure - steel mesh on top. 143

Structural model. Solid and void concept. 144

The steel structure is working 3 ways I intended it to work from the beggining. Structure - Space - Light . It supports itself + the roof. It creates exciting spacial effect. Brings different types of lighting into the space.



By making part of the panels clear glass, other - translucent, and other solid I am making the roof act different ways. It also controls the environment inside the building.



Week 13

Design Development Deve Crit Week

Digital experiments witht structure and skin 150


Digital experiments witht structure and skin 152

Axonometrics of primary and secondary structures




Models investigating spaces within external skin-structure. Exploration of the inside-outside relationship.


Concept model showing the idea of the solid concrete primary structure inside the building and the external steel skin outside.


Model of the current scheme 158

External skin structure 159


Week 14

Vertical Competition Winning Proposal Designed in collaboration with Shaun McCallum, Callum McGregor and Luca Marulli








24H Competition Designed in collaboration with Shaun McCallum




Week 15

Drawing Workshops Concept diagrams

Diagram models explaining the driving thoughts throughtout my design. 1 . the edge relationship of the site


Model diagrams representing main concept of the design, such as relationship to the town. Relationship of the structure and the surroundings.



Week 16

BTM 2 Structure







Week 17

Fire Design Strategy







Week 18

Structures Workshop Structure


Structure inspiration. Kristian Kerez 188

1:50 Structural Model 189


Week 19

BTM 3 Exploration of space through material experiments





Week 20

Environmental Workshops Strategies

Environmental workshop sheet 196

Environmental workshop sheet 197


Week 21

Detail Design Review

Location and analysis of the site 200

Development work and diagrams 201
















Week 22

BTM 4 Model










Week 23

Technology and design development Aspects of structure an d further design process


Model and its relationship to the immediate context. Curve



Model exploration experiments. Mostly form finding for the roof landscaping. Exploring relationship of the structure and its effect on the interior spaces. How does the structure create spaces inside? The effects of light and materials investigated as well.


Model development at scale of 1:500


Spatial experiments to see if the lightwells would work. They didn’t.


Chaos theory prototype


Parti of the scheme 235


Week 24


Aspects of structure and further design process


Section 2: RIBA Stage E Des gn Development & Technical De Building Warrant and Integrated Env

Section 1: RIBA Stages A-D, Overall Design & Planning Issues

Site and its immediate context within St Andrews The site is rectilinear shape however it is allowed to go beyond borders if that what requires your design move. The site itself is very green and sunny, which is currently used for graduation events in summers. However the white tent seems to create dissonance with the surroundings. Part of the design proposal is to propose a usable space for these events which could be used off holidays as well as public spaces where you can just sit and relax. Located between public and relatively noisy part of St Andrews (North Street) and quieter seaside, the site is considered to be some sort of transitional space, connecting public part of St Andrews with more quiet. Maximizing the effect, the building would act as bridge or a walk through from public part (St Salvador’s) to the quieter part (top of the building looking out to the St Andrews topography and main road axonometric maps Student accommodation project is intended to integrate design within urban context of St Andrews, Fife. St Andrews is located on the east coast of Scotland and is a home to the third oldest university in UK and also an important place for golf industry. Have been perceived by the majority of people as just 3 main streets: South, North and Market Streets, the context of St Andrews spreads further leaving space for residential areas, as centre of St Andrews is mainly university campus and business properties.. Our site is located on the north of the St Salvador Quadrangle. Immediate context includes Victorian buildings, old trees, tall stone walls and the extensive grass surface. The most significant object of the site surroundings is probably very old St Salvador’s church. The clear hierarchy of this area indicates on St Salvador’s being the most important element. Addressing this issue one of the first design moves was to make the building “invisible” from the ground level to the pedestrians, and make my design to act as a public space, contributing to the city and people themselves. It felt important to propose a piece of architecture which would not act as anonymous object in space but be an active contributor to the town. Acknowledging the issue of underuse of the green spaces in St Andrews, I am proposing to create an active urban public space within my scheme. By tilting the building to the south side, and making it to look like it is ripping off the ground and creating a walk to the top where beautiful view to the sea opens up. Another issue with St Andrews is their mania for privacy. St Andrews is living off the University and golf. That what makes St Andrews. And by creating those closed tall stone walls around the institutions is an old tradition which is just the right time to give up. The world and views have changed and from my point of view it has to open up to the rest of the world. Thus another design move is to remove part of the old stone wall surrounding the site and the gates and invite pedestrians to engage with the architecture and its landscape. Moreover the landscaping roof would consist of stairs and slopes inviting people to take a walk.

The site is sloping down to the north for 1.7m. The Site is very open and is not affected by the shadows of the existing buildings. There is not many restrictions could be applied.

Plan indicating footprint of the proposed scheme 1. Site St Salvador’s site. Important quadrangle and the chapel establish hierarchy on site. The site is considered to be a ‘transition’ space between formal quad and more informal and private north side of the site. 2. Program The brief requires a library, student accommodation and a reflective space. Library will be placed on the south side of the site, on the transition space of the quadrangle, as a public building. The building which would invite an observer to continue the journey into the site. The student halls would be in the middle in a more protected area which would also provide views into the green courtyard and to the sea. Reflective space would be placed at the far end of the program as the symbol of a journey and a walk-through - walk-to concept. 3.Orientation The building would follow the excisting wall geometry and be quite formal at the beggining as the reflection of the immediate context, and on the north side it would curl up in a protective shape providing sheltered courtyard for the students and protecting the building from the preveiling north-east winds. 4.Sunlight Maximizing south sunlight surfaces by tilting the roof towards the south. The building would be more sustainable and energy efficient as it would be heating up quicker. 5.Hierarchy At the St Salvador’s church is a very important element within this context, the building on the south side which touches the quadrangle is sloping and eventually merges with the ground. This way the hierarchy is clearly established. On the north side it would be on opposite, rising up, reflecting the chapels importantce. 6. Punctures Taking inspiration from the past, I am applying the language of the surrounding buildings and taking the idea of threshold spaces. 7. Arhces and tunnels Following the idea of numerous amount of arches used in St Andrews I am puncturing the building through to encourage circulation and endorse visual opportunities. 8. Floors Irregular shape of the floors make circulation throught the building more interesting and richer.

Concept diagrams

9. Structure Following the concept of irregularity, the structure would be loadbearing, however the walls won’t be underneath each other , so the external steel self-supporting sturcture would provide lateral bracing.

Axonometric exploded diagram

Shadow diagram

10. External envelope - structure The steel structural voronoi diagram mesh would be placed on top of the primary structure providing stability and rigidity to the building 11. Building as a landscape The design proposal must contribute to the town and people, thus my scheme proposes a building which would be used by the public as well. The ground floor would be public/semipublic, which could be used for social and sport activities. As the building rips off the ground, it would be eventually evolved with steps and decked walk through. Public would be able to use it and at the end of the journey as a ‘reward’ get fantastic view to the sea.

Foundation 15mm floor finish 15mm plyfood 300mm floor slab 70mm rigif insulation 100mm sand 100mm gravel Floors 300mm floors 250mm services 22mm plasterboard ceiling

12. Green wall As the idea of merging with the nature I would plant Boston ivy or any other plant which would climb up the structure and make the building look actually green.

Walls (facade) internal finish insulation 200mm steel tube 6mm sheet steel bent to shape aluminium clapping strip external finish

Design Principles Using approach of rejecting the old rules, and applying modernized versions of it I established 4 main design moves. 1. The gates. In St Andrews gates play important role in the accessing and approaching destinations. However by mimicking the old and applying new principles, new concepts could be generated. Thus my building would be pierced through with the ‘tunnels’ which would not be just a “a hole in the wall” but space for social gatherings and meeting points, a place to sit and park your bike. 2. The Arches A great concept of threshold by-passing space created by arches could be transformed from a Victorian arches to the contemporary system of the steel structure elements. 3. Roofscape Mimicking the traditional roofscaping of St Andrews and creating dynamic landscaping on the roof encouraging people walk on it and interact with the building. 4. Floors Trying to reject the old perception that the floors are supposed to be flat and linear, I am proposing to introduce split levels and overlooking planes.

Design development diagrams

Aleksandra Belitskaja Y3


Detail 1:50

Fire Strategy


Choise of material of the structure (concrete) is fire resistant which is benefitial as there is no extra fire protection required. The secondary structure, however, is steel which requires extra fire protection as it is exposed in the interior. Steelwork requiring protection will be coated with an intumescent paint, which can be applied offsite to make site work easier. There will also be a smoke ventilation system installed to the steel facade system. ln the event of a fire, actuators open high level smoke vents and low level fresh air inlet vents. This will allow cool air into the building, forcing the hot air and smoke out via the roof, providing a smoke free layer for safe escape.

Due to a large occupancy there w in the library, ventilating spaces. natural ventilation would be contrib The use of actuators to automate w used in both natural and smoke ve reacting to sensors to control the indoor environment, or to clear sm escape or fire fighting operations. Automating a facade can also prov the building occupants. Large heav operated and held at various angle to ensure the level of ventilation is

Fire escape diagrams

esign nvironmental Strategy 1. Structure Primary structure of the building is load bearing concrete in-situ, Lateral bracing provides external steel self-supporting structure, The concept of this was taken from Voronoi diagram

Section 3: Cost related to design, All RIBA work stages Cost plans are prepared and developed at each stage as more information about the design becomes available. Site

Voronoi diagram is a way of dividing space into a number of regions a set of points is specified beforehand and for each seed there will be a corresponding region consisting of all points closer to that seed than any other. As the load wouldn’t be distributed proportionally, I will use strip foundations for my design. Strip foundations are used to support walls or closely spaced rows of columns. In my case that will be load bearing walls. Strip foundations could be used just with the soil with the good load bearing capacity. Size and proportion of the strips are directly related to the overall width of the wall. A compacted hardcore base of 150 mm will be installed to form a platform for the subfloor and the overall load of the building. 150 mm concrete subfloor will be poured on hardcore, then a radon barrier will be installed to form a continuous seal on the entire footprint of the building. Next, a damp proof course will be installed to avoid any rising moisture. Then, 100 mm of rigid insulation will be installed below the finished floor to ensure no heat will be lost through the foundation. Finally 75 mm concrete screed is going on top of this.


Access tot he site is fairly easy. Building could be accessed by delivery vans and service repair cars.


Design proposal implies a lot of additions to the exicting landscape. There would be carved in seating spaces into the slope plus added vegetation.


The site has a regular shape and a lot of space for activities. No real restriction as such apart from existing walls and the gates.


There is a 1.7m steep level change in the middle of the site which could cause a few restrictions during designing and construction. Would require additional waterproofing during construction and after.

Model showing walk through on the roof

In-situ concrete has a limitless flexibility in size and shape with no modular restriction. Also a wide variety of surface textures and colors can be achieved. In-situ concrete is also a robust material which does not require a lot of maintenance and it has the ability to be cast as a ‘sandwich’ incorporating an integral polystyrene sheet insulation.


The large spaces in the building may make the cost of the building higher, however is essential for spacial experiences.


The scheme itself is highly naturally ventilated. However would require an air handeling unit in the library and a museum as these spaces being of high occupancy and having books and exponats.


Insitu loadbearing concrete walls

Structural concept models


Structural pattern

The external envolope holding the facade would be prefabricated and constructed on site. Using computer software it would be easy to put it together, as every piece would be labeled. However using excessive amount of steel would cost extra money.

Expensive Irregular shape windows attached to the facade would provide extra cost but rich spacial opportunities. Medium Digging into the ground to build a museum would require extra cost but would provide the special sentsibility to the space. Expensive Walk through and landscaping on top of the building would cost extra money.


Axonometric section

Structure, model

Structural model

In real life there would have been developed a structure optimization program, which would carry out the structural analysis, optimization and design. The benefit of an automated program is that it allows for the process to be repeated allowing many design options to be considered quickly and accurately.

Structure (internal view)

View from the north


will be an air handeling unit However, due to stack effect ibuting to ventilation as well. windows can be entilation systems by he level of comfort within an moke to aid in the means of

Student accommodation implies to be a safe and protected place for students where they can leave their personal belongings and valuables. However, the program of the building implies to serve public as well, as a space for extracurriculum activities, such as fitness, music and computer classes. Thus there will be a card system installed in the building, making some doors open and some not.

Internal view

vide convenience for vy vents can be easily es where appropriate s sufficient. Model

Structural diagram

Natural ventilation diagram

Services diagram



Week 25

Design Workshops


Room Study







Week 26

Crit Week Interns


Structure 251












Flat Study



Design report  
Design report