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TAIGA BIOME Trilok,

Alec,

and

Madeleine


Where to find it? Now the first thing to do before anything, where in the world is it? The taiga is vast across the world, but most of the taiga in the West is found in Canada/Northern US. And most of the taiga in the East is found in Northern Eurasia, as shown by this map. Better get packing! Latitude: 56.1 degrees North, Longitude: 86 degrees East


Temperature Turns out the taiga has a bit of a cold shoulder. Zoinks! Its the second coldest biome in the world, behind the tundra. Its also the biggest biome in the world, covering 29% of the world. The temperatures span from 0 degrees Celsius (32 degrees Fahrenheit) to 10 degrees Celsius (50 degrees Fahrenheit). Some northern taiga temperatures can be colder than that of the tundra!


Growing season and rainfall The taiga hardly gets any rainfall. Only between 220 to 750 mm each year (7.9 to 29.5 inches) During the month of July, there is a period called the growing season, where the temperatures rise between 15 degrees Celsius (59 degrees Fahrenheit) to 20 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit). The only thing growing for me is my fear of how cold this place is!


GRAY WOLVES:

There are five subspecies of Gray wolves in North America. The color of their coat can range from pure white to brown, gray, cinnamon or black. Gray wolves travel in packs of four to seven, led by the alphas. The mother and father wolves that track, hunt and choose dens for the pups or younger subordinate wolves.  Their coats are made up of wooly fur. This provides insulation and long guard hairs to keep out moisture. The gray wolves large paws have fleshy pads and claws for traction and can spread to provide better support in snow.  When a pack of wolves howl, they can be heard from ten miles away. The howl is used as a way to call to another pack or warn of danger. Young wolves stay in their parents' pack for at least two years before some of them take off to join other packs or start their own. 


MINKS:

Minks can reach 15 to 28 inches in length and weigh between 16 and 56 ounces. American minks are bigger than European minks. Minks are covered with soft fur that is usually black or dark brown. White marks can be seen on the chin, throat and chest. Minks are nocturnal creatures which means they are active during the night. Mink's are carnivore's (meat-eaters). Mink's produce smelly substances that is used for self-defense and marking of the territory. Mink have webbed feet and fur covered with oily substance which prevents soaking of the skin. This type of feet and fur represent adaptation to the life in the water.


MINKS:

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CARIBOU:

The Caribou's mating season takes place from September to November. Males fight with each other before the most dominant male gets opportunity to mate with the females. The winner can mate with 15 to 20 females. Pregnancy in females lasts around 7 and half months. It ends with one baby that is able to stand on its own feet few minutes after birth. The baby is able to run with its mother the next day. The young caribou becomes independent after a year and a half. Caribou can survive around 4.5 years in the wild. Females have shorter antlers and wear them a bit longer than males. The body of caribou's are covered with a winter coat which provides insulation at the low outer temperatures. They concave (curving inward) in shape and adapt to  walking across the deep snow. Antlers play an important role in the lifestyle of caribous. Besides protective role, they are used for digging of the snow during the search for food in the winter period. Caribou's can run as fast as 50km an hour! 


CONIFEROUS TREES The first plant native to the Taiga biome are the Coniferous trees. Coniferous trees are also considered evergreen trees, meaning they stay green all year. These trees are native to the taiga biome, and especially to the ones in Canada. These trees are in the same family as pine trees. These trees have spiky leaves, which help them produce sap and get water. The leaves also prevent water loss. These trees have seed cones, which make the tree a gymnosperm. A gymnosperm is when a plant or tree has seeds that are unprotected by fruit. In order for this plant to survive during the winter, the tree stops cell division and cell growth which keeps the plant alive. In the winter, the pine needles also stay green. The pine needles on this tree can be as little as one cm, and up to 15 inches long. With pine needles, it makes it harder for water to evaporate, making the coniferous tree able to keep its water. When the leaves fall, they interlock. When they interlock, it creates a mat that prevents soil erosion. When pine needles fall and die, they automatically return nutrients back to the soil when they decompose. There are over 600 species of Coniferous trees in the taiga. These trees are so beautiful and help to create the wonderful taiga.


SPHAGNUM MOSS

Sphagnum moss is another big plant in the taiga. The moss can grow up to 50 cm tall. Sphagnum moss has no flowers and no roots. This moss has a green, yellow, reddish tint. This moss has spear or cup-shaped leaves. This moss is more typically green. When you are looking for Sphagnum moss, you should look near trees. This plant helps to obtain nutrients from trees also, and are found in large groups. Instead of roots, the moss has large dead cells in its stems and leaves. Calcium and Magnesium are absorbed by its cell walls from rainwater. This plant holds rainwater and creates its own habitat. Sphagnum moss likes cold temperatures, including below 32°. This plant is often added to soil to hold moisture around different plants, This plant is part dead, part alive. This plant shuts down and becomes dormant, then comes back during summer. This plant also grows low, which helps to obtain heat from the ground during warmer months. This moss is a very interesting and important plant for the taiga.


LICHEN Lichen is an algae-like plant. Lichen is usually green and white. Lichen is a smaller, more leafy plant. Lichen grows slowly, and can easily break off to reproduce. This plant can live in cold areas. This plant, like sphagnum moss, shuts down, and becomes dormant in the cold winter months, and comes back when it's warmer. This plant grows low to the ground, or on trees. This plant is â…” of the food supply for caribou and reindeer. Lichen has 20,000 different species. This plant is a combination of fungi and algae. When this plant grows, it grows slowly and carefully, obtaining, and gathering all of the nutrients it can. Along with getting all of the needed water. This plant then will break off, to produce more and get extra water and needed nutrients. This plant helps to feed and attract multiple beautiful animals, which make the taiga unique and beautiful.


CAN YOU SURVIVE IN THE TAIGA?

OUR CHALLENGE EXPERIENCE REAL LIFE IN THIS BIOME


DO YOU THINK YOU CAN SURVIVE? This challenge will result in three main survival challenges. If you can survive you will get a warm hut to help you survive throughout the night. This challenge will take place in the northern taiga of Canada. In the Boreal forest. This forest has everything you would need to survive. Can you do it?

FIRST CHALLENGE You will need to gather wood to create a fire later on. You can use any tree that has dry wood. Gather about 5-7 logs. Put them into a triangular shape. Next, start the fire, adding more wood as needed. Make sure this fire will stay lit for a long time. You will need to use it later. If you can't complete this task early on, it might hurt you later on.


DO YOU THINK YOU CAN SURVIVE?

SECOND CHALLENGE

It is important to stay hydrated while keeping warm in the taiga. Since this challenge takes place during the fall, there are still streams filled with hydrating water. Get the water in a pot, which will be provided at the start of the challenge Then place the pot atop of the fire so it will heat up. Leave the water to boil for at least 2 minutes to get the bacteria out. This will make the water safe to drink. Wait for the water to cool, and drink up.

THIRD CHALLENGE

You don't want to die of starvation so you need to get something to eat Many people think that you need a fishing rod to get fish, but there are many other animals that you can eat besides fish. If you see a caribou in the taiga, go ahead and eat it. Create a spear using the bones of another animal, and sticks from a tree. The bones will be provided, but you will still have to clean them. Try to successfully aim at the reindeer, and kill it if you can. Then use the fire to cook the caribou. You can use the fur to keep you warm. If the caribou is not cleaned or cooked properly it can result in a sickness, so be as careful as you can.


The Rewards! (Ohh Ahh Rewards! Sweet!)

The reward for the first challenge completed is a pot! (Sweet!)  The reward for the second challenge is a bone !(Ohh Ahh!)  The reward for the third challenge is a hut! (Oh YEAH!) 


DID YOU KNOW? PRO TIP

YOUR BODY DOESN'T CARE HOW MUCH YOU CONSERVE WATER AS LONG AS YOU GET IT! THAT MEANS YOU CAN DRINK ALL OF YOUR WATER AT ONCE, OR SPACE IT OUT.

USE A POCKET KNIFE TO SHAPE THE BONES TOGETHER. THEN TIE IT ONTO THE STICK. TRY TO THROW A LITTLE IN FRONT OF THE REINDEER, SO WHEN IT RUNS YOU STILL HIT IT


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Bibliography "Gray Wolf- Canis Lupus." Gray Wolf- Canis Lupus, www.blueplanetbiomes.org/gray_wolf.htm. Accessed 11 Feb. 2018. "Gray Wolves Unique Features." Gray Wolves Unique Features, www.worldwildlife.org/blogs/ good-nature-travel/posts/ten-interesting-facts-about-graywolves. Accessed 11 Feb. 2018. Hut. footprintmag.wordpress.com/. Accessed 22 Feb. 2018. John N. Owens "Coniferous Trees" The Canadian Encyclopedia. Eds. Sarah Taïssir-Bencharif. Toronto: Historica Canada, 2012. Web. 8 Feb. 2018. "Lichen." Encyclopædia Britannica, 4 Feb. 2018, www.britannica.com/science/lichen. Accessed 9 Feb. 2018. Map of taiga. The Wild Classroom, www.thewildclassroom.com/biomes/taiga.html. Accessed 20 Feb. 2018. Mink Coats. Mink Coats, henigfurs.com/ mink-coat-with-shawl-collar-and-roll-cuffs.html.html? gclid=EAIaIQobChMIkaiDttq52QIViR-GCh2WWwBNEAQYAi ABEgJeCvD_BwE. Accessed 22 Feb. 2018. "Mink Facts." Mink Facts, www.softschools.com/facts/animals/mink_facts/469/. Accessed 11 Feb. 2018. Peeples, Gary. New Zealand Sphagnum Moss. 2011. Orchid Care Tips, 2011, www.orchid-care-tips.com/ new-zealand-sphagnum-moss.html. Accessed 14 Feb. 2018. Pot. www.timeslive.co.za/news/south-africa/ 2017-08-21-councillor-tells-of-human-ears-in-a-pot-incannibal-case/. Accessed 22 Feb. 2018.


Bibliography Sayre, April Pulley. "The Taiga Biome." Taiga, Lerner Publishing Group, Jan. 1994, p. 7. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/ login.aspx?direct=true&db=sch&AN=8835477&site=edslive. "7 Facts About Minks." 7 Facts About Minks, news.softpedia.com/news/7-Facts-About-Minks-76220.shtml. Accessed 13 Feb. 2018. "taiga." Find Latitude and Longitude, www.findlatitudeandlongitude.com/? loc=taiga#.Wo7LDa2ZPys. Accessed 20 Feb. 2018. "Taiga." Wikipedia, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiga. Accessed 20 Feb. 2018. Taiga Biome. Tes Teach, www.tes.com/lessons/LSvPo4zxyFcW4w/taiga. Accessed 22 Feb. 2018. Taiga Caribou. imgaws.ehowcdn.com/877x500p/photos.demandstudios.com/get ty/article/139/46/ 463285679.jpg. Accessed 9 Feb. 2018. Taiga Grey Wolves. biologybiomes.weebly.com/uploads/7/5/0/6/7506923/102081 _orig.jpg. Accessed 9 Feb. 2018. Taiga Minks. i.pinimg.com/originals/4c/c4/98/4cc49852c2de48bcfa7e0a50c ba89a19.jpg. Accessed 9 Feb. 2018. Thibodeaux, Wanda. "Facts about Pine Needles." Sciencing, Leaf Group, 25 Apr. 2017, sciencing.com/ pine-needles-6455979.html. Accessed 12 Feb. 2018.

TAIGA BIOME PROJECT  

ALEC, TRILOK, MADELINE

TAIGA BIOME PROJECT  

ALEC, TRILOK, MADELINE

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