Showing the range of digital storytelling content-wise might also invite your students to start creating their own. Porter discerns the following: • Personal Stories: Creating Living Memories • Kinship Stories: Family Stories of Who We Are • Hyper-Interactive Stories: Group Stories with Diverse Paths and Endings Personal Expression: • Creating Visual Expressions of Thoughts and Feelings • Myths, Legends and Tales: Past, Present and Future • Informative or Expository Stories: Information Beyond Words • Persuasive Stories: Influencing and Impacting Others • Itza Wrap: Stories of Lessons Learned • Future Vision Stories: Imagining the Future NOW 46
Empowerment Digital storytelling is a mediated way of telling stories. So students should know how to create in iMovie or Movie Maker or should visit tutorials on how to use apps. Peer teaching allowing students to show how they use digital tools can be very empowering too. Having increased their digital literacy, we move on to improve their story literacy. True as it may seem that we are surrounded by storytelling all day and use storytelling to express, explain, connect, we may feel daunted when having to create a story from scratch. It is a kind of the story of the centipede: we have been walking all day but one says now you are going to walk this may sound difficult. Perhaps we do not know which of our many actions is called walking. We therefore advise not only to give examples but also to give some clues. It does not tell them how to engage in digital storytelling but it gives them some “pebbles” to find their way.
46 Ibid., loc 1291
Sources which might improve the creation of a story are • • • •
Burke’s dramatic pentad,47 Campbell’s hero journey48 Dillingham’s Visual Portrait of a Story.49 8 Steps To Great Digital Storytelling http://samanthamorra. com/2013/06/05/edudemic-article-on-digital-storytelling/
“In oral storytelling, the meaning of a story is manipulated by voice tone, pacing, gestures, and body language. In digital media, the meaning of the story being narrated can also be manipulated with images, color, text fonts, sound effects, music, transitions, animations, special effects, pacing, and image/video composites.” 50 Ohler offers some sliding scales which help define the digital storytelling. Is your digital story “clear like an essay” or “challenging, like a poem”; a mini-documentary or a form of self-expression; resonant (relating to the audience’s stories) or non-resonant (opening their eyes); story or report; active (e.g. note-taking) or passive viewing; teaching about myself or me teaching about something else. These choices can be linked to the questions in Lambert’s Digital Storytelling Cookbook (2010): own your insight, own your emotions, find the moment, see your story, hear your story, assemble your story, share your story. In answering these choices and questions you have a notion of your outlines of your story.
Learning Digital storytelling has been linked to the national curricula in Australia, Canada and the USA. Ohler summarises it saying digital storytellers improve their competencies in digital technologies, art, orality and writing. They learn how to think 47 48 49 50
http://blueprintingrhetoric.weebly.com/dramatic-pentad.html http://www.sfcenter.ku.edu/Workshop-stuff/Joseph-Campbell-Hero-Journey.htm http://www.jasonohler.com/pdfs/VPS.pdf Porter 2004, loc 645