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CONSTRUCTING ENVIRONMENT LOGBOOK ENVS10003 Ian ALCAZAR 698457

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WEEK 01 ChapteENVS10003_SM1_2014

INTRODUCTION TO CONSTRUCTION

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STRUCTURAL LOADS AND FORCES

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WEEK 02

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WEEK 03 ChapteENVS10003_SM1_2014

FOOTINGS AND FOUNDATIONS

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(Ching, 2008)

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CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM

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MATERIALS

(Newton, 2014)

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LOT 6 CAFÉ

Lot 6 cafĂŠ employs many structural elements. It features a beam and the use of masonry. It uses concrete and steel frames for the main building. There is also an underground area in which concrete panels are laid over. It also uses fixed joints, therefore creating a rigid structure.

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Fixed joint

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UNDERGROUND CARPARK

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The iconic university underground car park has been featured in a few films. Structurally, it was designed to provide parking area whilst still retaining the south lawn. A series of columns allow distribution of weight. It mainly uses reinforced concrete. These concrete receives a significant amount of compressive loads.

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The stairs was designed to allow pedestrian access to the upper level of the union house. It mainly composed of galvanised steel. This was done to prevent damage through rusting as it is exposed to the outside environment. The stair structure is supposed to be hanging from the steel cables, relying on the tensile strength of the material. However, this may not be the case. As seen on the left picture, there is a structural system that connects the stairs into the ground. Furthermore, the design of the stairs may be unnecessary as often there is no pedestrian traffic. The lower end of the steel cables is connected to the cantilever steel beam through a pin joint. This therefore allows movement to the said structural element.

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UNION HOUSE WEST END STAIRS

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The north court has a membrane structure. It mainly relies on tensile forces inflicted by the angle columns and pin joint connection to the adjacent building in order to keep its shape and strength. This membrane structure spans on a wide area, a common characteristics on this structural type. Its wide span was exploited by building a water drainage system on the middle. As seen on the sketch and the picture, steel cables connect the circular steel feature of the membrane to the ground. Through gravity, water flow to this area.

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NORTH COURT UNION HOUSE

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The Beaurepaire Centre Swimming pool employs Portal framing. This allows roof structures to span over a wide distance. It uses steel rafter for the roof with steel columns supporting its weight. All the joint of this system should be rigid in order to resist wind loads and the roof loads. Therefore employs fix joints. The building also employs space saving strategies. The roof drainage pipe was place in between the columns.

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BEAUREPAIRE CENTRE POOL

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The modern new building employs many structural techniques and elements. Its faรงade is covered with white concrete panels. It is windows also have varying sizes adding a additional depth aesthetically to the structure. One of the most prominent structures is the cantilevered building. Due to the substantial amount of moment of force or torque the cantilever is expected to have a strong counterweight. This maybe in a form of a deep foundation.

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NEW MELBOURNE SCHOOL OF DESIGN

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ART WEST STUDENT CENTRE

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The arts west student centre has a structural system that employs trusses and columns. It was designed to carry the soffit of the adjacent building. However, its purpose is questionable as it was maybe made for improving the aesthetics of the surrounding environment. The truss system is similar to truss system employed at bridges. The design of the structure also have triangular hole on the middle. Not only does it provide better aesthetic to the structure, but it also allows the air movement through it therefore reducing wind loads inflicted upon the structure. At the left side, a short column was used to support the weight of the structure above.

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The Frank Tate pavilion offer students shade and protection against precipitation. It is cladded with painted metal and timber

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FRANK TATE PAVILLION

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Week 4

WEEK 04 ChapteENVS10003_SM1_2014

FLOOR SYSTEMS & HORIZONTAL ELEMENTS

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STRUCTURAL CONCEPTS

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CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM

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MATERIALS

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What information is found in the title block?        

Consultants Key plan Client Project Drawing title Drawing number Orientation Document Control Status

     

Project Number Date Revision number Project Architect Project Director Architecture Firm Name

Scale

The floor plan provides a bird’s eye view of the site’s selected level. It uses grids, reference to relevant drawing and annotation in order to properly convey the information give amongst the readers. Furthermore, a legend table was also included in order to identify unknown or unfamiliar symbols and drawings. How are dimensions shown? The dimensions were written by means of scale and the areas of some rooms. Is there a grid system? What determines where the grid lines go? The grid consists of many vertical and horizontal lines. Each lines are designated either a number or a letter; horizontal lines are letters while vertical lines are numbers. What is the purpose of the legend? The purpose of the legend is to better convey the information given in the drawing. Why are some parts of the plan annotated? Some parts of the plan are annotated so that various important elements are identified

Why is this information important?

What do the symbols mean?

It is important as it gives the proper credit to the people who made it. It also makes the documentation more organised as relevant information is included.

These symbols are designed to be use as a referencing tool. This means that the symbol correspond to a drawing located at the other pages

What type of information is shown in the floor plan?

Why is this numbering system used for doors and windows? The number system illustrates the type of window/door .

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WORKING DRAWING INTRODUCTION

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[LOGBOOK] Illustrate how floor levels are noted on the plan.

What types of information are shown in the elevation?

It illustrated through the use of:

The structure to be created or structure presently existing

FFL 47.100 (which means finished floor level 47.1 meters

The materials that will be used

Why are some sections on the plan clouded?

What type of information is shown in a section?

The clouded sections are revised sections.

It shows the cross section of the building. It also include the elevation, level (ground etc) the type of material and the name of space.

By using elevation, the drawings are easier to understand and comprehend compared to the floor plan. It is also more pleasing to see than the floor plan Are dimensions shown? Yes, however it lacks the indication of areas although this is compensated by the indication of ceiling levels.

Illustrate how section drawings differentiate from elements that are cut through and elevation. The elements are differentiated through the use of different thickness, shads, and patterns. These varying appearances represent different materials What sorts of thing are detailed?

Finish Floor level Finished (metres) above datum

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Walls Doors Railing Windows

Spot level – reduced level (meters) above datum

Skirtings

What types of levels are shown?

Spot level – Finished ceiling level (meters) above datum

Are the details compressed using break lines? Why?

Does the elevation show grid lines? If so, in which direction are they?

Some are compressed. Break lines indicate that they continue on however they can’t fit the page.

Yes, however unlike the ground floor plan, the grid only has vertical lines with corresponding numbers. This numbers still also correspond with the ground floor plan.

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What information is shown in elevation? How does it differ from what is shown on the plan?

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WEEK 5 ChapteENVS10003_SM1_2014

WEEK 05 COLUMNS, GRIDS & WALL SYSTEMS

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STRUCTURAL CONCEPTS + CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM

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MATERIALS

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STUDIO ACTIVITY: STRUCTURAL CONCEPTS This week’s learning outcome was to develop a working understanding of the structural systems. This was done through analyzing the structural and architectural documentation of the Oval pavilion; subsequently, making a detailed model. The group was assigned to do the Grid D Spine Truss. This structure will support a series of trusses, making a canopy structure that will carry the roof. The structure will be connected to the ground with a fixed joint made through a series of base plates and bolts. The types of joints used to the trusses however were not specified in the structural plan.

Various problems emerged as the group did the activity. Some group members had trouble comprehending the scale and measurements, therefore making mistakes. Another problem encountered was the use of material. By using a balsa wood with a square cross section, cutting the structural member needed precise angle in order to connect them with each other. Furthermore, the glue used was quite misleading. It was said to be quick-drying. However, it is not. This further delayed the progression of our group into completing the said task.

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Beforehand, group members bought various materials that will be used during the activity. This includes various sizes of balsa wood, quick drying glue, Stanley knife and cardboard.

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The other groups did considerably well compare to our group. As seen on the pictures, they have done their model to the extent in which it is recognisable.

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SPANNING AND ENCLOSSING SPACE

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WEEK 06

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(Newton, 2014)

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Week 7 DETAILING STRATEGIES 1

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WEEK 07

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(Ching, 2008)

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(Newton, 2014)

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(Newton, 2014)

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MATERIALS

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Week 8 OPENINGS

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WEEK 08

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(Newton, 2014)

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FOR 1:1 DRAWING PLEASE REFER TO ATTACHED SHEET

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Week 9

DETAILING STRATEGIES 2

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WEEK 09

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STRUCTURAL CONCEPTS STRESS AND STRUCTURAL MEMBERS When a load force, either compressive or tensile, is applied to a material, it is experiencing stress. Stress is defined as the magnitude of the applied force per cross-sectional area of the material.

This equation illustrates that having a greater CSA would result to a lesser stress. Therefore, by experiencing lesser stress per force applied, the strength of the material is greater. However, having a greater CSA would cost money and would also weigh more weight. Perfect balance between the required strength and the economical facet of the material is a must in a constructing environment.

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(Chapman, 2011)

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(Newton, 2014)

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CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS

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[LOGBOOK] Materials COMPOSITE MATERIALS -Combination of two or more materials providing that individual materials are easily distinguishable What are they? Combination of two different materials

Remain bonded together

Retain their identities and properties

Utilises each components’ characteristics

Types Laminar e.g. sandwich panels

Particulate e.g. gravel and resins

Hybrid e.g. combination of two or more composite types

e.g. products containing discontinuous or continuous fibres

Fibre Reinforce Cement Cellulose (or glass) fibres, Portland cement, sand and water Sheet and board products and shaped products such as pipes, roof tiles etc

Fibreglass Mixture of glass fibres and epoxy resins

Aluminium sheet composites Aluminium and plastic

Flat and profiled sheet products and formed/shaped products

Common uses

Cladding for exterior or interior walls, floor panels

Transparent or Translucent roof/ wall cladding and for preformed shaped products

Plastic core of phenolic resin or honeycomb sheet lined with two external skins of thin aluminium sheet Feature interior and exterior cladding material

Benefits

Doesn’t not burn, resistant to permanent water and termite damage, resistant to rotting and warping, inexpensive material

Fire resistant, weatherproof, relatively light weight and strong

Made From Common forms

Reduced amounts of aluminium, lighter weight, less expensive sheets, weather resistant, unbreakable and shock resistant, aesthetical detailing

Timber composites Solid timber, engineered timber (solid and sheet), galvanised pressed steel Timber top on bottom chords with gal, steel or engineered board/ plywood webs

Fibre reinforced polymers Polymers with timber, glass or carbon fibres

Beams and trusses

Decking, external cladding, beams and columns for pedestrian bridges using glass or carbon fibres, carbon fibre reinforced polymer rebar High-strength FRP materials with glass or carbon fibre reinforcements provide a strength-to-weight ratio greater than steel, corrosion resistant

Minimum amount of material is used for maximum efficiency, cost effective, easy to install, easy to accommodate services

Moulded or pulltrusion processed products

(Newton, 2014)

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Fibrous

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One of the rooms has in situ concrete walls with 1.5 m depth. This was specially made to prevent harmful radiation from escaping during chemotherapy and other radiation related treatment. Moreover, the façade site manager also hinted that these can withstand nuclear attacks thus creating a safe haven for ‘important people’ when a nuclear war erupts.

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OFF CAMPUS: CANCER COMPREHENSIVE CENTRE

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The building has three cranes which vary from sizes and placed on three strategic points. The sizes and function of these cranes where pre-determined, foreseeing possible problem and acting upon it before the problem happens. This is evident to the site as the cranes are designed to disassemble each other as the construction comes to an end.

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Building the core employed an efficient strategy. Formwork was jacked upwards once the concrete has set and hardened. As seen on the picture, the concrete wall has an indentation caused by the jack. Furthermore, to prevent the concrete from bursting out the formwork, long steel rods within a plastic tube was put inside the formwork.

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A void is used in order to have a more organised and more efficient way on to delivering various services such as electricity and water.

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A composite material was also evident on the construction. Sandwich panel are panels that often have 2 sheets of metal with a non-metal centre. In this case, these will be used as fireproofing. This will create fire safe havens within the building, inhibiting the further spread of fire and also buys time for the occupants to evacuate. The site also incorporates pre-fabricated concrete. As the site manager said, the labour cost in Australia is relatively high making the labour extensive insitu concrete costly and therefore pre-cast concrete viable option. Cranes will be used to move pre-cast concrete around.

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One of the major problems encountered when building a structure upwards is the wind. Strong winds can inhibit water from going down. This would make some waterproofing strategies redundant as they often work based on water going down. Furthermore, applying waterproofing techniques on the interior side of the faรงade is preferred as it is much more repairable and observable compared to the waterproofing techniques based on the exterior. Silicon sealant is expected to be used for waterproofing, closing the gaps created when the aluminium framed windows was placed in the opening.

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WHEN THINGS GO WRONG

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WEEK 10

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FOR 1:1 DRAWING PLEASE REFER TO ATTACHED SHEET

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CONSTRUCTION WORKSHOP

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The point of structural failure was observed at the point where the individual timber members are connected. The nails hammered on the timber made the timber weak. Furthermore, the cracks follow the grain of the timber, highlighting another structural weakness. The maximum load carried was 420 kg. This was fairly good compared to the other groups. It maximum deflection was 3.2 centimetres. The other groups bridge is on the side.

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GLOSSARY

Bending Buckling Cantilever Composite Beam

Concrete Plank Cornice Deflection Door Furniture Down pipe Drip Eave Flashing Girder Gutter Insulation Joist Lintel

Definition A metal made of a combination of two or more metallic element. Refers to the force acting or administered along the lines of an axis of an object. (‘Axial Loading’, 2014) Sudden lateral instability of a slender structural member induced by the action of a compressive load (Ching, 2008) A beam with only one support A steel beam, which has concrete decking above it, and which is connected to the concrete by shear connectors, which cause the steel and the concrete to act together (‘Glossary of Steel Bridge Terminology’, n.d) A precast, prestressed concrete plank suitable for short spans and uniformly distributed floor and roof (Ching, 2008) Decorative top of column The action of deflecting or being deflected Handles, lock, and other fixtures on a door. a pipe to carry rainwater from a roof to a drain or to ground level a projection at the front lower edge of a sill or cornice designed to throw water clear of the wall below Protruding, hanging edge of a roof (Ching, 2008) Metal sheet or impervious material installed to prevent the passage of water from a angle (Ching, 2008) Stronger Lateral supporting joist ends (Ching, 2008) A channel of metal or wood at the eaves or on the roof of a building for carrying rain water(Ching, 2008) Material that insulates (e.g. Heat, Acoustic) Any series of small, repetitive, beams for supporting floors, ceiling or flat roofs(Ching, 2008) A header, placed over window, door and other openings

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Terms Alloy Axial load

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Moment of Inertia Nogging Pad Footing Parapet Portal Frame Purlin Rafter Retaining Wall Sandwich Panel Sealant Seasoned timber Shadow line joint Shear forces Skirting Slab on ground Soffit Spacing Span Steel decking Stress Strip Footing Stud

the product of the force magnitude and the perpendicular distance between the line of action of the force and the point (Newton, 2014) Force exerted through movement Filling in between the wall frames, can be either brickwork or timber individual spread footings supporting freestanding columns piers ( Ching, 2008) Barrier which is an extension of the wall at the edge of a roof, terrace, balcony, walkway or other structure (‘Parapet’,n.d.). A rigid frame of two columns and a beam(‘Portal Frame’, n.d.) a horizontal beam along the length of a roof, resting on principals and supporting the common rafters or boards (‘Purlin’,n.d.) a beam forming part of the internal framework of a roof (‘Rafter’, n.d.) a wall designed to restrain soil a type of flat panel that consists of two thin aluminium sheets bonded to a non-aluminium core (‘Sandwich Panel’, n.d.) Seal against the passage of water and air (e.g. Mastic and Silicon) can also be used as part of an expansion joint Timber with increase strength, stability and resistance against fungi, insect and decay gained through wood drying unaligned forces pushing one part of a body in one direction, and another part of the body in the opposite direction (‘Shear Force”, n.d.) Baseboard, covering joint between wall and floor horizontal thick concrete slab acting as both foundation and floor system (Ching, 2008) Underside of roof eave Distance between the centre of two supports (Newton, 2014) Length of beam from one support to another Decking the employs the use of steel The amount of force applied per cross-sectional area Continuous spread footings of foundation walls (Ching, 2008) Any repetitive series of slender, vertical members of wood or light-gauge

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Moment/torque

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Substructure Top Chord Vapour barrier Window sash

metal forming the structural frame of a wall or partition (Ching, 2008) The foundation Top beams in a truss Material used for damp proofing (‘Vapor Barrier’, n.d.) A single assembly of stiles and rails made into a frame for holding glass. (‘Window Anatomy’, n.d.)

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REFERENCES Axial Loading (2014) . Retrieved from http://www.ask.com/question/what-is-axial-loading at 19 May 2014 Glossary of Steel Bridge Terminology ( n.d) . Retrieved from http://www.steel-bridges.com/glossary-steel-bridge.htm at 19 May 2014 Drip (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/drip Parapet (n.d.). Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parapet at 19 May 2014 Portal Frame (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.steelconstruction.info/Portal_frames at 19 May 2014 Purlin (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.google.com.au/search?q=rafter&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefoxa&gfe_rd=cr&ei=f0l6U-eMCuLC8ge9vICADg#q=purlin+define&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official at 19 May 2014 Rafter ( n.d.) . Retrieved from https://www.google.com.au/search?q=parapet&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefoxa&gfe_rd=cr&ei=IUx6U43kBsuN8QetzIGYBw#q=rafter+define&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official at 19 May 2014

Timber seasoning (n.d.) . Retrieved from http://www.ask.com/question/why-is-timber-seasoned at 19 May 2014 Shear Force (n.d.). Retrieved from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shear_force at 19 May 2014 Vapor Barrier ( n.d.) . Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vapor_barrier at 19 May 2014 Window Anatomy (n.d.) . Retrieved from http://www.pella.com/support-center/glossary/window-anatomy/default.aspx at 19 May 2014 Newton, Claire (2014) W09_m1 Composite Materials https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uem1_fBpjVQ&feature=youtu.be at 19/05/14 Ching, Francis D.k (2008) Building Construction illustrated Fourth edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc, Hoboken New Jersey

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Sandwich Panel (n.d.) . Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandwich_panel at 19 May 2014

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Newton, Claire (2014) W09_c1 Construction Detailing Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yqVwAV7yJCI&feature=youtu.be at 19/05/14 Newton, Claire (2014) W08_c1 OPENINGS: DOORS & WINDOWS Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g7QQIue58xY&feature=youtu.be at 19/05/14 Newton, Claire (2014) W07_m1 Rubber Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OPhjDijdf6I&feature=youtu.be at 19/05/14 Newton, Claire (2014) W07_m2 Plastics Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5pfnCtUOfy4&feature=youtu.be at 19/05/14 Newton, Claire (2014) W07_c1 Detailing for Heat and Moisture Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lhwm8m5R_Co&feature=youtu.be at 19/05/1 W07_m3 Paints Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WrydR4LA5e0&feature=youtu.be at 19/05/14 Newton, Claire (2014) W05_c1 WALLS, GRIDS AND COLUMNS Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vq41q6gUIjI&feature=youtu.be at 19/05/14

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Newton, Claire (2014) W05_m1 from Wood to Timber Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YJL0vCwM0zg&feature=youtu.be at 19/05/14

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