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NOUN + IS + NOUN Canada is a country. A cat is an animal Singular means “ ONE” Canada = a singular Noun Is = a singular Verb Country= a singular Noun

A and AN have the same meaning. They are both articles.

A=

is used in front of the words that begin with consonants: b, c, d, f,etc… Examples: a bed

a friend

a cat a girl

An= is used in front of words that begin with vowels: a, e, i, o, u Examples:

an animal

an ear

an island

an office


A. SIMPLE PRESENT The simple present express daily habits or usual activities.

The simple present is used for events or situations that exist always, usually or habitually in the past, present and future.

The simple present is used for: Routines Ask about beliefs Likes/ Dislikes Preferences Qualify / Adjectives.


VERB TO BE SUBJECT PRONOUNS I You She He It We You They

To be verb

Contraction

Negative

Contraction

Am Are Is Is Is Are Are Are

I’m You`re She`s He’s It’s We’re You’re They’re

I am not You are not She is not He is not It is not We are not You are not They are not

I’m not You`re not She`s not He’s not It’s not We’re not You’re not They’re not

Examples of positive sentence: He is my friend. We are brothers. You are a good student She is Ann. You are Luis and Vivian I am a teacher.

Examples of negative sentence: He is not (isn’t) my friend. We are not (aren’t) brothers. You are not (aren´t) a good student She is not (isn’t) Ann. You are not (aren’t) Luis and Vivian. I am not (I‘m not) a teacher.

YES / NO QUESTION

ANSWERS

Are you my best friend?

Yes, I am

Is he Mike?

No, he is not

Is Lucia at work?

No, she isn’t

Are they janitors?

Yes, they are

Are you outside?

No, we are not

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BE + ADJECTIVE

NOUN + VERB TO BE + ADJECTIVE

A ball is round. Balls are round. Mary is intelligent.

PRONOUN + VERB TO BE + ADJECTIVE

I am hungry. She is young. They are bad.  The noun or pronoun that comes at the beginning of a sentence is called a “subject”.  Adjectives often follow a form of be (am – is – are).  Adjectives describes or give information about a noun or pronoun that comes at the beginning a sentence.  Adjectives never pluralize.


LIST OF ADJECTIVES

ADJETIVOS DE PERSONALIDAD Inglés – Español absent-minded ambitious amusing anxious bad-tempered brave calm charming cheerful clever crazy cruel decisive enthusiastic friendly funny generous gentle good-natured intelligent kind lazy mean modest

distraído ambicioso divertido preocupado inquieto de mal genio valiente tranquilo encantador alegre listo loco cruel decisivo entusiasta amable divertido generoso tierno – dulce bonachón inteligente amable perezoso mezquino – agarrado modesto


LIST OF ADJECTIVES 2 sucio – obsceno travieso – pícaro nervioso simpático optimista pesimista educado tranquilo

nasty naughty nervous nice optimistic pessimistic polite quiet

rude / maleducado – grosero self-confident sensible sensitive serious shy silly stupid sweet well-behaved wicked

de

seguro de sí mismo sensato sensible serio tímido tonto estúpido amable – dulce buen comportamiento malvado / malo


EXAMPLES:

1. 2. 3. 4.

I’m not sad. I’m sad. Mr.Thomas isn’t rich. He is poor. My clothes aren’t dirty. They’re clean. The classroom isn’t quiet. It`s noisy.


“WH” QUESTIONS.


FORM OF QUESTIONS

SENTENCE

SUBJECT + VERB + COMPLEMENT

QUESTION

WH + VERB + SUBJECT + COMPLEMENT?


DEMOSTRATIVE PRONOUNS THIS = (SINGULAR) When you can touch the thing. Example: This is a window. THESE = (PLURAL) When you touch. Example: These are 2 books. THAT = (SINGULAR) When you don t touch. Example: That is window. THOSE = (PLURAL) When you don t touch. Example: Those are 2 books.


RULES OF REGULAR PLURAL OF NOUNS  Add S to singular nouns. Example: door =doors

 Add ES to singular nouns ending with o, s, x, sh,ch,z Examples: watch = watches volcano = volcanoes address= addresses box =boxes

 Add IES to singular nouns ending consonant t y Examples: Baby=babies Copy=copies Factory= factories attorney =attorneys


ďƒ˜ Add VES to singular nouns ending with f, fe Examples: wife =wives leaf =leaves scarf= scarves EXCEPTIONS kilo

kilos

auto

autos

piano photo

pianos photos

tattoo

tattoos

video

videos

belief

belief

cliff

cliffs

roof

roofs

chief

chiefs


IRREGULAR PLURALS Some nouns have irregular plurals. Singular

Plural

man

men

woman

women

child

children

person

people

mouse

mice

louse

lice

ox

oxen

crisis

crises

foot

feet

gooses

geese

tooth

teeth

bacteriom

bacteria

DONT CHANGE sheep

sheep

deer

deer

fish

fish

shrimp

shrimp

species

species


NONCOUNT / COUNT NOUNS Some noun are called NON COUNTABLE NOUNS 1. They are not immediately preceded by a / an or one. 2. They don t have a plural form (no final s is added). THERE + VERB TO BE (IS SIMPLE PRESENT) (WAS SIMPLE PAST) AFFIRMATIVE There is a book on the table. There is one room in the house. There is some rice in the fridge. There is a little salt on the table. There is much / too much water here. There is a lot of water here. NEGATIVE There is not (isn’t) a book on the table. There isn’t any rice left. There isn’t a lot of sugar. QUESTIONS Is there an apple here? Is there any sugar? How much sugar is there in the table? Where is there a pen?


COMMON NON-COUNTABLE NOUNS WHOLE GROUPS MADE UP OF INDIVIDUAL PARTS A. clothing equipment food fruit furniture garbage hardware jewerly machinery mail makeup money (cash change) noise postage silence scenery stuff traffic B. homework housework work C. advice information news D. history literature music poetry


E. English, Arabic, Chinese, etc names of languages F. grammar slang vocabulary

G. corn dirt dust fruit flour grass hair

help pepper rice salt sand sugar wheat


LIQUIDS Beer – blood- coffee- cream- gasoline- honey- juice- milk- oil- shampoo- soup tea- water- wine

SOLIDS AND SEMI-SOLIDS Bread- butter- cheese- ice- ice cream –lettuce- toast- meat- beef- chicken fish- ham- lamb- pork –chalk- copper- cotton-glass- gold- iron- paper- rubber silver- soap- tin- toothpaste- wood- wool

GASES Air- fog- oxygen- pollution- smog- smoke- steam

NATURAL PHENOMENA (THINGS THAT OCCUR IN NATURE) Weather- rain- snow- lightning- thunder- humidity- darkness- light- sunshine

ABSTRACTIONS (AN ABSTRACTION IS SOMETHING THAT HAS NO PHYSICAL FORM. A PERSON CANNOT TOUCH) Anger – beauty- confidence- courage- cowardice- education- enjoyment entertainment- experience –fun- generosity- greed –happiness- hate- health help –honesty- hospitality- ignorance- intelligence- justice- knowledgelaughter- love- luck –patience- peace- poverty- pride- progress- recreation research-stupidity- time –violence- wealth


COUNT NOUNS

Some noun are called COUNTABLE NOUNS 1. In the singular they can be preceded by a / an or one. 2. They have a plural form ( S or ES is added).

THERE + VERB TO BE (ARE SIMPLE PRESENT) (WERE SIMPLE PAST)


AFFIRMATIVE There are three books on the table. There are some books on the table. There are many / too many books here. There are a few / a few books here. There are several books here. There are a lot of books here.

NEGATIVE There are not (aren’t) three books on the table. There aren’t any books left. There aren’t many books here. .

QUESTIONS Are there many books here? Are there any people here? Are there some sheep in the yard? How many children are there here? Where are there some books?


SIMPLE PRESENT WITH REGULAR E IRREGULAR VERBS  Final ES is added If the verbs ends with o, sh, ch, x, s, z Example pass = passes  Final ES is added to do and go Example: do- does go – goes  Many verbs end in E. Final S is simply added. Example: hope – hopes  Final S not ES is added to most verbs. Examples: speak - speaks happen – happens  If a verb ends in a consonant + Y, change the Y to I and added ES Example try-tries cry- cries  If a verb ends in a vowel + Y, simply add S Example pay - pays buy - buys

Examples verb to wash

I wash my clothes.

verb to go

She goes to dance on weekends.

verb to watch

He watches TV every sunday.

verb to fix

He fixes the car at the garage.

verb to have

She has a lot of money. They have a lot of money.


NEGATIVE

SUBJECT + DO-DOES + NOT + VERB + COMPLEMENT ? DON’T (DO NOT) for: I - YOU - THEY - We DOESN’T (DOES NOT) for: SHE- HE - IT

Examples I don t wash my clothes. She doesn’t go to dance on weekends. He doesn’t watch TV every sunday. He doesn’t fix the car at the garage She doesn’t have a lot of money.

YES / NO QUESTIONS

DO-DOES + SUBJECT + VERB + COMPLEMENT? Do you wash your clothes? Yes, I do / No, I dont Does she go to dance on weekends? Yes, she does / No, she doesnt Does the party start at 7 pm ? Yes, It does / No, it doesnt

NEVER COMBINED VERB TO BE WITH AUXILARES DO-DOES NEVER USE S IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES AND QUESTIONS


WH / QUESTIONS

WH + DO / DOES + SUBJECT + VERB + COMPLEMENT?

Marks eats pizza What does Mark ( he ) eat? Bob drinks too much water How much water does Bob drink? The party starts at 7pm What time does the party start? She works out on Mondays. When does she work out? They spend a lot of time in front of the T.V How much time do they spend in front of the TV?


FREQUENCY ADVERBS

When you describe daily activities by making sentences it used with frequency adverbs.


SUBJECT + ADVERB OF FREQ + SIMPLE PRESENT VERB + COMPLEMENT. YES/NO QUESTION

DO / DOES + SUBJECT + ADVERB + SIMPLE PRESENT VERB + COMPLEMENT?

HOW / QUESTIONS HOW + ADVERB OF FREQ + AUX DO – DOES + SUBJECT + VERB + COMPLEMT? ALWAYS 100 ALMOST ALWAYS USUALLY VERY OFTEN OFTEN SOMETIMES 50 SELDOM NOT VERY OFTEN RARELY ALMOST NEVER NEVER 0 Examples

I usually eat breakfast. She never eat lunch.


These are placed at the end of sentences

ONCE IN A WHILE ONCE A WEEK TWICE A MONTH THRICE A YEAR THREE TIMES A DAY FOUR TIMES A WEEK ONCE IN A BLUE MOON EVERY DAY EVERY MONDAY EVERY OTHER DAY EVERY OTHER WEEK ON SUNDAYS ON WEEKDAYS

Examples I usually read books in the evening. Do you usually read books in the evening? She often plays chess. Does she often play chess? Frank sometimes plays the piano How often does Frank play the piano?


PRESENT PROGRESSIVE Express an activity that is in progress ( is occurring, is happening) right now. The event is in progress at the time the speaker is saying the sentence. The event began in the past, is in progress now and will probably continue into the future.

YOU – WE- THEY + ARE + VERB + ING HE – SHE – IT + IS + VERB + ING

AFFIRMATIVE SUBJECT + VERB TO BE + ING VERB + COMPLEMENT She is studying English. They are swimming in the sea.

NEGATIVE SUBJECT + VERB TO BE + NOT + ING VERB + COMPLEMENT She is not (isn’t) studying English. They are not (aren’t) swimming in the sea.

YES / NO QUESTIONS TO BE + SUBJECT + ING VERB + COMPLEMENT Are you working hard? Yes, I am / No, I am not Is she studying English? Yes, she is / No, she is not.


WH / QUESTIONS WH + TO BE + SUBJECT + ING VERB + COMPLEMENT? Where are you doing? I am cooking Where are you working? I am working at INA Who are you eating with? I’m am eating with Ed. How are you studying? I’m studying hard.

The present progressive can be used to described close future. She is working tomorrow. I am not studying next week. We are calling later.


NON ACTION VERBS Some verbs are not used in progressive tenses.

incorrect I am hearing a bird correct I hear a bird ( right now)

LIST OF NON ACTION Appear- be- believe- belong- doubt- consider- envy- exist- feel- forget -hate hear- hope- imagine- know- like- love- mean- need- own- posses- prefer realized- recognized- remember- see- seem- smell- sound- supposed- taste understand- want


Simple Present in general (regularly, often, never) Colin plays football every Tuesday. present actions happening one after another First Colin plays football, then he watches TV.

Present Progressive right now Look! Colin is playing football now. also for several actions happening at the same time Colin is playing football and Anne is watching.

Signal words always every ... often normally usually sometimes seldom never first then

at the moment at this moment today now right now Listen! Look!

Note: The following verbs are usually only used in Simple Present: be, have, hear, know, like, love, see, smell, think, want


Timetable / Schedule or arrangement?

Do you want to express that something is arranged for the near future? Or do you refer to a time set by a timetable or schedule?

Simple Present

Present Progressive

action set by a timetable or schedule

arrangement for the near future

The film starts at 8 pm.

I am going to the cinema tonight.

Daily routine or just for a limited period of time?

Do you want to talk about a daily routine? Or do you want to emphasis that something is only going on for a limited (rather short) period of time?

Simple Present daily routine

Present Progressive only for a limited period of time (does not have to happen directly at the moment of speaking)

Bob works in a restaurant. Jenny is working in a restaurant this week.

USING THE SIMPLE PRESENT TO EXPRESS FUTURE TIME The simple present can express future time when events are on a definite schedule or timetable. Only a few verbs are used in the simple present to express future time. The most common are arrive - leave - start - begin - end - finish - open - close - be.


EXPRESSING PAST TIME: THE SIMPLE PAST The simple past is used to talk about activities or situations that began in the past. (yesterday, last night, two days ago, in 1990) Most simple past verbs are formed by adding ED to verb. Example: Mark stayed at home last night.

Some verbs have irregular past forms. Example: Ann saw a zebra at the zoo one month ago.


FORM OF THE SIMPLE PAST AFFIRMATIVE SUBJECT + VERB PAST + COMPLEMENT I - YOU- SHE - HE - IT - WE - THEY worked yesterday

NEGATIVE SUBJECT + DID NOT (DIDN’T) + VERB PAST + COMPLEMENT I - YOU- SHE - HE - IT - WE - THEY didn’t eat breakfast.

QUESTION DID + SUBJECT + VERB SIMPLE FORM + COMPLEMENT? Did - YOU- SHE - HE - IT - WE - THEY eat breakfast?

SHORT ANSWER Yes, YOU- SHE - HE - IT - WE - THEY did. No, YOU- SHE - HE - IT - WE - THEY didn’t


NOTE: DID is not used with WAS and WERE. NEGATIVE SUBJECT + WAS - WERE NOT + COMPLEMENT I - SHE - HE - IT was not (wasn’t ) busy. WE- YOU - THEY were not ( weren’t ) busy.

QUESTION WAS - WERE + SUBJECT + COMPLEMENT? WAS I - SHE - HE - IT busy ? WERE WE- YOU - THEY busy?


EXPRESSING PAST HABIT: USED TO USED TO expresses a past situation or habit that no longer exists at present. FORM:

SUBJECT + USED TO + SIMPLE FORM OF A VERB

She used to play dolls on her cousin’s house.

QUESTION DID + SUBJECT + USE TO + SIMPLE FORM OF VERB + COMPLT? Did she used to play dolls on her cousin’s house?

NEGATIVE SUBJECT + DIDN’T USE TO / NEVER USED TO + SIMPLE FORM VERB + COMPLEMENT She didn’t use to play dolls on her cousin’s house.


PAST PROGRESSIVE

1) Actions were in progress at special time in the past

Peter was reading a book yesterday evening.

2) Two actions were happening at the same time (the actions do not influence each other) Anne was writing a letter while Steve was reading the New York Times.

3) Together with the Simple Past While we were sitting at the breakfast table, the telephone rang.

4) Repeated actions irritating the speaker (with always, constantly, forever) Andrew was always coming in late.

Past Progressive - Signal words While= during the time When= at the time

Past Progressive - Form to be (was, were) + infinitive + -ing


YOU – WE- THEY + WERE + VERB + ING HE – SHE – IT + WAS + VERB + ING

AFFIRMATIVE SUBJECT + VERB BE PAST + ING VERB + COMPLEMENT She was studying English. They were swimming in the sea.

NEGATIVE SUBJECT + VERB TO BE PAST + NOT + ING VERB + COMPLEMENT She was not (wasn’t) studying English. They were not (weren’t) swimming in the sea.

YES / NO QUESTIONS TO BE PAST + SUBJECT + ING VERB + COMPLEMENT Were you working hard? Yes, I was / No, I was not Was she studying English? Yes, she was / No, she was not.

WH / QUESTIONS WH + TO BE PAST + SUBJECT + ING VERB + COMPLEMENT? Where were you doing? I was cooking Who was she eating with? She was eating with Ed.


Rule 5.3: Time Clauses - the Past Simple vs the Past Progressive Expressing past time using time clauses We can show that two ideas are related to each other and also linked to a specific time within the same sentence. There are many times when the Past Simple and Past Continuous are seen in the same sentence. There are also many examples of two clauses using only the Past Simple. This structure usually indicates that the two clauses, or subject + verb structure, are somehow linked. The two ideas are related.

a) When I went to Regina, I visited my aunt.

when I went to Regina = a time clause* I visited my aunt = a main clause* (a) and (b) have the same meaning.

b) I visited my aunt when I went to Regina.

A time clause can: 1. come in front of a main clause, as in (a); 2. follow a main clause, as in (b).

c) After Francois ate dinner, he went to the movies. d) Francois went to the movies after he ate dinner.

When, after, before, and while introduce time clauses.

e) Before I went to bed, I finished my homework. f) I finished my homework before I went to bed. g) While I was having a shower, the phone rang. h) The phone rang while I was having a shower. i) When the phone rang, I was having a shower. j) I was having a shower when the phone rang.

l) When the phone rang, I answered it.

when/after/before/while + subject and verb = a time clause

Punctuation: Put a comma at the end of a time clause when the time clause comes first in a sentence (comes in front of the main clause): time clause + comma + main clause main clause + NO comma + time clause

In a sentence with a time clause introduced by when, both the time clause verb and the main verb can be simple past. In this case, the action in the “when clause� happened first. In (i): First: the phone rang. Then: I answered it.


EXPRESSING FUTURE TIME

BE GOING and WILL are used to express future time. GOING TO is used for Intentions Example: I am going to do my homework tonight. Plans Example: I am going to study journalism. Predictions with strong visual evidence Example: Look at those dark clouds, it's going to rain. AFIRMATIVE SUBJECT + BE + GOING TO + VERB SIMPLE FORM + COMPLEMENT He is going to drive a truck tomorrow. They are going to travel to Asia on Monday.

NEGATIVE SUBJECT + BE + NOT + GOING TO + VERB SIMPLE FORM + COMPLEMENT He is not going to drive a truck tomorrow. They are not going to travel to Asia on Monday.


QUESTION VERB BE + SUBJECT + GOING TO + VERB SIMPLE FORM + COMPLEMENT? Is he going to drive a truck tomorrow? Are they going to travel to Asia on Monday?

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE EXPRESSING FUTURE Sometimes the present progressive is used to express future time. The present progressive is used to express future time when the sentence concerns a definite: plan, intention, future activity. Verbs such as come, go, stay, arrive, leave are frequently used in the present progressive to express future time. Such verbs express definitive plans. Verbs expressing planned means of transportation in the future are also frequently used in the present progressive. Example: fly, walk, ride, drive, take (a bus, taxi etc..)

He is driving a truck tomorrow. They are traveling to Asia on Monday. Don is going to come to the party tomorrow night. Don is coming to the party tomorrow night. I’m going to stay home tonight. I’m staying home tonight.


EXPRESSING FUTURE TIME WILL is used to express future time. INSTANT DECISION: at the time of speaking Example: The window is close. I’ll open it PREDICTIONS Example: I think it will snow next week. PROMISES Example: From now on he will clean the room. SHALL: Offers things. Use I-We Example: Shall I open the window for you? AFIRMATIVE SUBJECT + WILL + VERB SIMPLE FORM + COMPLEMENT He will drive a truck tomorrow. They will travel to Asia on Monday. NEGATIVE SUBJECT + WILL + NOT (WON’T)+ VERB SIMPLE FORM + COMPLEMENT He will not (won’t) drive a truck tomorrow. They will not ( won’t) travel to Asia on Monday


QUESTION WILL + SUBJECT + VERB SIMPLE FORM + COMPLEMENT? Will he drive a truck tomorrow? Will they travel to Asia on Monday? SHORT ANSWERS Yes, SUBJECT + WILL No, SUBJECT + WON’T CONTRACTIONS I’ II - You ‘ll – She’ ll – He’ ll – It’ ll – We’ ll – They’ ll Will is usually contracted with pronouns in both speech and informal writing. Bob + will Bob’ll the teacher will the teacher’ ll


USING PROBABLY WITH WILL People often use probably with WILL.

AFFIRMATIVE

SUBJECT + WILL + PROBABLY + VERB SIMPLE FORM + COMPLEMENT She will probably drive to the zoo next week.

NEGATIVE

SUBJECT + PROBABLY + WONT + VERB SIMPLE FORM + COMPLEMENT She probably won’t drive to the zoo next week. She will probably not drive to the zoo next week.


FUTURE PROGRESSIVE Describe an event or action that will occur over a period of time at a specific point of the future. SUBJECT + WILL BE + ING FORM OF THE VERB + COMPLEMENT He will be writting a letter for his sister tomorrow. We will be searching shells at the beach tomorrow. check google if clause by the time USING THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TO EXPRESS FUTURE TIME PAG USING THE SIMPLE PRESENT TO EXPRESS FUTURE TIME The simple present can express future time when events are on a definite schedule or timetable. Only a few verbs are used in the simple present to express future time. The most common are arrive - leave - start - begin - end - finish - open - close - be.


Comparative of equality As...as is used to say that the two parts of comparison are equal or the same in some way.

AFFIRMATIVE Ann is 21 years old. Ted is also 21 SUBJECT + VERB TO BE + AS + ADJECTIVE + AS + SUBJECT 2 Ann is as old as Ted. NEGATIVE Ann is 21 years old. Ted is 21 SUBJECT + VERB TO BE + NOT + AS + ADJECTIVE + AS + SUBJECT 2 Ann is not as old as Ted. * QUITE and NEARLY ARE OFTEN USED WITH THE NEGATIVE Amy is 5 years old. She is not nearly as old as Ann. Common modifiers of as ... as are just (meaning exactly) and nearby / almost


COMPARATIVE OF INFERIORITY

SUBJECT + VERB TO BE + LESS + ADJECTIVES + THAN + SUBJECT 2 Ann is less intelligent than Ted. This book is less interesting than that one.

COMPARATIVE OF SUPERIORITY 1. SUBJECT +VERB TO BE + ADJECTIVE + ER + THAN + SUBJECT 2 John is older than Mary. Melinda is shorter than John. Example: tall = taller cold = colder small = smaller old = older

new = newer short = shorter long = longer wise = wiser

2. SUBJECT +VERB + ADJECTIVE + CONSONANT + VOWEL + CONSONANT + THAN + SUBJECT 2 Maracaibo is hotter than Caracas. You look fatter than 3 years ago.


3.SUBJECT +VERB TO BE + ADJECTIVE + R + THAN + SUBJECT 2 My brother is nicer than I nice = nicer wise = wiser large = larger

4. SUBJECT +VERB TO BE + ADJECTIVE + IER + THAN + SUBJECT 2 2 syllable ending in Y chance to I Married people are happier than single people. happy - happier angry - angrier busy - busier

5.SUBJECT +VERB TO BE + ADJECTIVE (ER / LE / OW ADD ER) + THAN + SUBJECT 2 Women are significantly cleverer than them. Clever = cleverer Simple = simpler narrow = narrower


6. SUBJECT +VERB + 1 or 2 SYLLABLE ADJECTIVES IN ED / ING OR FUL/ OUS AND RE USE MORE + AD + THAN + SUBJECT 2 I always fell more tired on Mondays than Fridays. Nothing can be more boring than a baseball game on the radio. Pilots have to be more careful than car drivers.

tired = more tired careful = more careful obscure = more obscure boring = more boring famous = more famous

7. For other 2,3 or more syllable adjectives use MORE + ADJECTIVE + THAN Fish is more expensive than chicken. Nothing is more beautiful than you Playing is more important than winning 8. IRREGULAR COMPARATIVES FORMS Good = Better Bad = Worse Far = Farther Babies recognize face better than adults.


EXAMPLES:

ER OR MORE Handsome = more handsome Quit = quieter Polite = more polite Pleasant = more pleasant Simple = simpler Friendly = friendlier Clever = cleverer Gentle = gentler Common = more common

COMPARATIVE OF QUANTITY 1. Use MORE or FEWER with countable nouns Kate has more children than Karol I made fewer mistakes than you in the written test.

2. Use MORE or LESS with uncountable nouns Active people drink more water than sedentary people Girls spend less time on computers than boys.


SUPERLATIVES

1. Short adjectives: THE - EST old = the oldest cheap = the cheapest nice = the nicest That church is the oldest building in town 2. Y adjectives: THE IEST Easy= the easiest heavy = the heaviest pretty = the prettiest 3. Long adjectives: THE MOST modern = the most interesting = the most This is the most interesting class


IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES FOR SUPERLATIVES Good = Best She is the best in her class Far = Farthest Furthest Paso Canoas is the farthest place from SJ Bad = Worst Centeno is the worst person in Saprissa


Lista de Verbos Regulares

1

INFINITIVE

2

PAST

3

PARTICIPLE

CASTELLANO

admit (admít)

admitted (admítid)

admitted (admítid)

admitir

ban (ban)

banned (bánd)

banned (bánd)

prohibir

beg (beg)

begged (bégd)

begged (bégd)

rogar

bury (béri)

buried (bérid)

buried (bérid)

enterrar

clap (kláp)

clapped (klápt)

clapped (klápt)

aplaudir

copy (kópi)

copied (kópid)

copied (kópid)

copiar

cry (krái)

cried (kráid)

cried (kráid)

gritar, llorar

drop (drop)

dropped (drópt)

dropped (drópt)

dejar caer, caerse

dry (drái)

dried (dráid)

dried (dráid)

secar

empty (émpti)

emptied (émptid)

emptied (émptid)

vaciar

fancy (fánsi)

fancied (fánsid)

fancied (fánsid)

imaginar, desear

fit (fit)

fitted (fítid)

fitted (fítid)

caber, encajar

fry (frái)

fried (fráid)

fried (fráid)

freír

hug (jág)

hugged (jágd)

hugged (jágd)

abrazar

hurry (jári)

hurried (járid)

hurried (járid)

apurarse

identify (aidéntifai)

identified (aidéntifaid)

identified (aidéntifaid)

identificar

knit (nit)

knitted (nítid)

knitted (nítid)

tejer

knot (not)

knotted (nótid)

knotted (nótid)

anudar

label (léibl)

labelled (léibld)

labelled (léibld)

etiquetar

level (lével)

levelled (léveld)

levelled (léveld)

nivelar

marry (mári)

married (márid)

married (márid)

casarse

multiply (máltíplai)

multiplied (móltí-pláid)

multiplied (móltí-pláid)

multiplicar

pedal (pédal)

pedalled (pédald)

pedalled (pédald)

pedalear

plan (plan)

planned (pland)

planned (pland)

planear, planificar

plug (plag)

plugged (plagd)

plugged (plagd)

conectar

prefer (prífér)

preferred (prifert)

preferred (prifert)

preferir

program (prógram)

programmed (prógramd)

programmed (prógramd)

programar

regret (rigrét)

regretted (rigrétid)

regretted (rigrétid)

lamentarse

rely (relái)

relied (reláid)

relied (reláid)

confiar


reply (replái)

replied (repládt)

replied (repláid)

responder

rob (rób)

robbed (róbd)

robbed (róbd)

robar

rub (rab)

rubbed (rábd)

rubbed (rábd)

frotar

satisfy (satisfái)

satisfied (satisfáid)

satisfied (satisfáid)

satisfacer

shop (shop)

shopped (shópt)

shopped (shópt)

comprar

signal (sígnal)

signalled (sígnald)

signalled (sígnald)

hacer señales

sin (sín)

sinned (sínd)

sinned (sínd)

pecar

skip (skíp)

skipped (skípt)

skipped (skípt)

saltearse

slip (slíp)

slipped (slípt)

slipped (slípt)

deslizarse

stop (stop)

stopped (stópt)

stopped (stópt)

pararse, detenerse

supply (saplái)

supplied (sapláid)

supplied (sapláid)

proveer

terrify (térrifai)

terrified (térri-fáid)

terrified (térri-fáid)

aterrorizar

tip (típ)

tipped (típt)

tipped (típt)

dar propina

travel (trável)

travelled (tráveld)

travelled (tráveld)

viajar

try (trái)

tried (tráid)

tried (tráid)

tratar, intentar

worry (uári)

worried (uárid)

worried (uárid)

preocuparse


Lista de Verbos Irregulares:

1

INFINITIVE

2

PAST

3 PARTICIPLE CASTELLANO

be (bi)

was/were (uós/uér)

been (bin)

ser, estar

become (bikám)

became (bikéim)

become (bikám)

llegar a ser

begin (biguín)

began (bigén)

begun (bigán)

comenzar

break (bréik)

broke (bróuk)

broken (bróukn)

romper

bring (bring)

brought (brot)

brought (brot)

traer

build (bilt)

built (bilt)

built (bilt)

construir

buy (bái)

bought (bot)

bought (bot)

comprar

catch (kach)

caught (kot)

caught (kot)

agarrar

choose (chus)

chose (chos)

chosen (chúsn)

elegir

come (kám)

came (keím)

come (kám)

venir

cut (kat)

cut (kat)

cut (kat)

cortar

do (dú)

did (díd)

done (dán)

hacer

draw (dró)

drew (drú)

drawn (drón)

dibujar

drink (drink)

drank (drénk)

drunk (drank)

beber

drive (dráiv)

drove (dróuv)

driven (drívn)

conducir

eat (í:t)

ate (et)

eaten (ítn)

comer

fall (fol)

fell (fel)

fallen (fólen)

caer

feel (fí:l)

felt (felt)

felt (felt)

sentir

find (fáind)

found (faúnd)

found (fáund)

encontrar

fly (flái)

flew (flu)

flown (flón)

volar

forget (forguét)

forgot (forgót)

forgotten (forgótn)

olvidar

get (guét)

got (got)

got/gotten (got/gotn)

obtener, conseguir

give (guív)

gave (guéiv)

given (gívn)

dar

go (góu)

went (uént)

gone (góun)

ir

grow (gróu)

grew (grú)

grown (grón)

cultivar, crecer

hang (jéng)

hung (jáng)

hung (jáng)

colgar

have (jev)

had (jad)

had (jad)

tener, haber

hear (jíar)

heard (jerd)

heard (jerd)

oir

keep (kí:p)

kept (kept)

kept (kept)

guardar

know (nóu)

knew (niú)

known (nóun)

saber, conocer


learn (lérn)

learnt (lernt)

learnt (lernt)

aprender

lose (lú:s)

lost (lost)

lost (lost)

perder

make (méik)

made (méid)

made (méid)

hacer, fabricar

meet (mí:t)

met (met)

met (met)

encontrarse con

pay (péi)

paid (ped)

paid (ped)

pagar

put (put)

put (put)

put (put)

poner

read (rid)

read (red)

read (red)

leer

ride (ráid)

rode (róud)

ridden (rídn)

cabalgar

ring (ring)

rang (reng)

rung (rang)

sonar

run (ran)

ran (ren)

run (ran)

correr

say (séi)

said (sed)

said (sed)

decir

see (sí:)

saw (sóu)

seen (sin)

ver

sell (sel)

sold (sold)

sold (sold)

vender

send (send)

sent (sent)

sent (sent)

enviar

show (shóu)

showed (shóut)

shown (shóun)

mostrar

shut (shat)

shut (shat)

shut (shat)

cerrar

sing (sing)

sang (seng)

sung (sang)

cantar

sleep (slíp)

slept (slépt)

slept (slépt)

dormir

smell (smel)

smelt (smelt)

smelt (smelt)

oler

speak (spik)

spoke (spóuk)

spoken (spóukn)

hablar

spend (spend)

spent (spent)

spent (spent)

gastar, pasar

stand (stand)

stood (stú:d)

stood (stú:d)

pararse

steal (stíl)

stole (stóul)

stolen (stóln)

robar

swim (suím)

swam (suém)

swum (suám)

nadar

take (téik)

took (tul)

taken (téikn)

tomar, llevar

teach (tích)

taught (tot)

taught (tot)

enseñar

tell (tel)

told (told)

told (told)

decir, contar

think (zink)

thought (zot)

thought (zot)

pensar, creer

wake (uéik)

woke (uóuk)

waken (uéikn)

despertarse

wear (uéar)

wore (uór)

worn (uórn)

usar (ropa)

win (uín)

won (uón)

won (uón)

ganar

write (ráit)

wrote (róut)

written (rítn)

escribir



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