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Inglês Carlos Augusto

1ª AULA

TOP TEN SUBJECT MATTERS - OS DEZ ASSUNTOS MAIS QUENTES I. FUNCTION WORDS & CONTENT WORDS - Palavras Funcionais e de Conteúdo II. REGULAR & IRREGULAR VERBS - Verbos Regulares e Irregulares III. TRUE & FALSE COGNATES - Verdadeiros e Falsos Cognatos IV. DISCOURSE MARKERS - Palavras Marcadoras do Discurso V. VERB TENSES - Tempos Verbais VI. MODAL VERBS - Verbos Modais VII. VOCABULARY BUILD-UP TECHNIQUES - Técnicas para construção do vocabulário VIII. PHRASAL VERBS - Verbos + partículas adverbiais IX. AFFIXES - Afixos (Prefixos & sufixos) X. COLLOCATION / IDIOMS - Collocation & Expressões Idiomáticas

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Basic English Course

Prof. Carlos Augusto

UNIT 1

MINI TEXT 1

How to do well in Exams

Start studying for your exam as early on as possible, but don’t try to learn everything in a short period of time, please. Make sure you make organized notes. Study in a place with little distraction. Revision is very important. But don’t try to review many topics on the day of your exam. Exercise a little, but don’t do too much. Sleep well the night before the exam. 5

Arrive to your exam in good time, if possible 30 minutes before the scheduled time. Don’t forget to bring your ID card. In the exam room, sit down, close your eyes, breathe deeply, and try to relax. Relaxation is extremely important.

Look at the test paper, spend some time reading all the directions carefully and follow them 10 according to your plan. Ask the examiner a question, if you have one. Budget your time judiciously Plan your timing for each question. Remember to write clearly. Leave enough time to check your answers before the end of the exam. After finishing the exam, don’t wait around. Don’t waste your time, please. Go away and have a rest. Begin preparing for your next exam.

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ANALYSIS OF MINI TEXT ONE

Task: Como você traduz o título deste mini text? ________________________________________________________

FUNCTION WORDS & CONTENT WORDS

Esta é a principal distinção que você deve fazer desde já para que seus estudos de inglês sejam proveitosos.

A - Function words (palavras funcionais, ou palavras- função), como o nome está indicando são aquelas que exercem uma função na frase, seja de sujeito, de complemento verbal, de conectivo, etc. For example: your (L-1), with (L-3), don’t (*) (L-5, 7, 17), if (L-7 & 13), some (L-11), each (L14), before (L-16), around (L-17)

Nesta primeira unidade, tendo em vista que o tempo verbal enfatizado é o imperative, ficará claro, o que significa don’t (*), forma contraída de do + not, usada como auxiliar na formação do imperativo negativo. Neste caso, o auxiliar do não tem tradução no nosso português.

As palavras funcionais devem merecer sua especial atenção. Analisando algumas das function words extraídas do texto:

From text 1: if you have one (L-13) se você tiver uma

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Os pronomes pessoais, tanto subjetivos quanto objetivos, enquadram-se na categoria de function words indispensรกveis.

Pronoun Forms

Subject

Object

I

me

You

you

He

him

She

her

It

it

We

us

You

you

They

them

From text 1: Start studying for your exam (L-1) Comece a estudar para o seu exame.

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Possessive Forms

Adjectives

Pronouns

My

mine

Your

yours

His

his

Her

hers

Its

-x-

Our

ours

Your

yours

Their

theirs

B - Content words - palavras de conteúdo

As content words são aquelas palavras de que nos valemos para designar ações, descrever objetos, expressar emoções, etc. Obviamente formam um grupo muito mais numeroso do que aquele das palavras funcionais. No text 1 ‘How to do well in Exams’ (Como se sair bem nos exames), naturalmente a palavra de conteúdo mais importante neste texto é exam (exame, prova), forma abreviada do substantivo examination.

Alguns Outros exemplos somente do primeiro parágrafo do texto 1: studying, early, possible, learn, everything, short period, time, make, sure, make, organized, notes, place, little, distraction.

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MARKED AND UNMARKED INFINITIVES

a) Marked Infinitive

The marked infinitive is the infinitive with the particle ‘to’ O infinitivo marcado é o infinitivo com a partícula ‘to’.

to speak

falar

to work

trabalhar

to love

amar

to teach

ensinar

b) Unmarked Infinitive

The unmarked infinitive, is the infinitive without the particle ‘to’. O infinitivo não marcado é o infinitivo sem a partícula ‘to’.

write

escrever

read

ler

listen

ouvir

walk

caminhar

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THE IMPERATIVE

Quem não se lembra do filme ET, The Extra Terrestrial. Se o ET aprendeu rapidinho a dizer: “Be good” (Seja boazinha), quando falou com a menininha, tenho certeza de que você não terá a menor dificuldade em aprender este verb tense também.

The infinitive without the particle ‘to’ is used to form the imperative in English. O infinitivo sem a partícula ‘to’ é usado para formar o imperativo dos verbos em inglês.

Study the following examples. Estude os seguintes exemplos

Speak slowly. Fale devagar.

Listen to me now. Ouçam-me agora.

Open your books to page 10. Abram seus livros na página 10.

Use ‘don’t’ before the unmarked infinitive to form the imperative negative. Use ‘don’t’ antes do infinitivo sem a partícula ‘to’ para formar o imperativo negativo.

Study the following examples: Estude os seguintes exemplos

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Don’t speak fast. Não fale rápido.

Don’t read the text. Não leia o texto.

Don’t memorize the list. Não decore a lista.

MORE USES OF THE IMPERATIVE

A) Podemos suavizar uma recomendação, um conselho, uma instrução, etc com a utilização da palavra please.

Study the following examples: Estude os seguintes exemplos

Sit down, please. Sentem-se, por favor.

Don’t stand up, please. Não se levanteme, por favor.

Repeat this exercise, please. Repita este exercício, por favor. 8


Don’t leave so soon, please. Não se vá tão cedo por favor.

B) O imperativo, como vimos, é usado com frequência em inglês; para expressar recomendações, instruções, ordens, etc. Se você tiver a oportunidade de visitar o website da União Européia, um ambiente precioso para alunos e professores brasileiros, você encontrará:

Visit the EU institutions Visite os organismos da UE

Connect with EU on social networks Conecte-se com a UE nas redes sociais

Have your say on EU policies Tenha voz ativa nas políticas da EU

Help us improve Ajude-nos a melhorar

Make a formal complaint Faça uma reclamação formal

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Join an online debate Junte-se a nós num debate na rede

Print this report Imprima este relatório

Take part in public consultations Participe de consultas públicas

Comment on blogs and video clips Faça comentários sobre blogs & vídeos

Search the Commissions archives Pesquise nos arquivos das comissões

Browse and find EU-funded research projects Pesquise e encontre projetos de pesquisa patrocinados pela UE

USEFUL TIPS

Therefore (= portanto), diante de tão belos exemplos, não há dúvida que o site da EU não pode deixar de ser visitado por você. É uma verdadeira mão na roda. O único stumbling block, se é que é obstáculo, é que o português apresentado lá, é o português de Portugal. Agora, com um simples click você muda para o idioma inglês (British English) e tem diante de você um mundo para suas leituras e pesquisas. It’s really worth it!, ou seja, realmente, vale a pena! Visit: http://Europa.eu/take-part/index_en.htm

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EXERCISES

I. PRACTICING WITH THE IMPERATIVE - Veja se consegue traduzir as seguintes frases:

1. If you drink, don’t drive. _____________________________________________________

2. Come in. The door is open. _____________________________________________________

3. Don’t smoke in the classroom. _____________________________________________________

4. Answer the phone, please. _____________________________________________________

5. Study these notes. _____________________________________________________

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II. PERSONAL PRONOUNS - Substitua as express천es em negrito por um pronome pessoal.

1. Listen to your father, please. _____________________________________________________

2. Talk to your mother, please. _____________________________________________________

3. Listen to the music now. _____________________________________________________

4. Talk to your brother and me, Patricia. _____________________________________________________

5. Follow all the directions according to your plan. _____________________________________________________

6. Give your students some extra time. _____________________________________________________

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III. MORE PRACTICE WITH THE IMPERATIVE – (exemplos de aplicação do modo imperativo de variadas fontes)

1. Click here to see this video. _____________________________________________________

2. Share your experience with your colleagues. _____________________________________________________

3. Have a good weekend. _____________________________________________________

4. Write a short report. _____________________________________________________

5. Send me another e-mail. _____________________________________________________

6. Don’t be late for work. _____________________________________________________

7. Don’t leave so soon. _____________________________________________________

8. Read that poem aloud. _____________________________________________________ 13


8. Drive carefully. _____________________________________________________

9. Don’t drink alcoholic beverages. _____________________________________________________

10. Don’t call me at home. _____________________________________________________

IV. PRACTICE WITH CONTENT WORDS – Traduza os seguintes fragmentos do mini text 1.

1. Start studying for your exam as early on as possible _____________________________________________________

2. … but don’t try to learn everything in a short period of time, please. _____________________________________________________

3. Make sure you make organized notes. _____________________________________________________

4. Study in a place with little distraction. _____________________________________________________

5. Exercise a little, but don’t do too much.

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6. Sleep well the night before the exam. _____________________________________________________

7. Arrive to your exam in good time, if possible 30 minutes before the scheduled time. _____________________________________________________

8. Don’t forget to bring your ID card. _____________________________________________________

9. In the exam room, sit down, close your eyes, breathe deeply, and try to relax. _____________________________________________________

10. Look at the test paper, … _____________________________________________________

11. … spend some time reading all the directions carefully and. _____________________________________________________

12. Ask the examiner a question, if you have one. _____________________________________________________

13. Budget your time judiciously. _____________________________________________________

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14. Plan your timing for each question. _____________________________________________________

15. Remember to write clearly. _____________________________________________________

16. Leave enough time to check your answers before the end of the exam. _____________________________________________________

17. After finishing the exam, don’t wait around. _____________________________________________________

18. Don’t waste your time, please. _____________________________________________________

19. Go away and have a rest. _____________________________________________________

20. Begin preparing for your next exam. _____________________________________________________

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2ª AULA

UNIT 2

TEXT 1: NEW YEAR’S DAY

In the United States, people begin celebrating the new year on December 31, New Year's Eve. Many people have parties, and sometimes masquerade balls, where guests dress up in costume and cover their faces with masks to hide their identity. According to an old tradition, guests unmask, or remove their masks, at midnight. Many people enjoy the tradition of watching the New Year's festivities in Times Square in the heart of New York City. This celebration is telecast live on news channels across the nation. Traditionally, at one minute before midnight, a lighted ball begins to drop slowly from the top of a pole that is attached to a building. As the ball drops, all the people in Times Square—and many television viewers as well—count down the final minute of the year. At the stroke of midnight, the ball reaches the bottom of the pole, and a huge "Happy New Year" sign lights up. Then Times Square is filled with cheers and noisemakers. Confetti is dropped from windows above, and revelers hug, kiss, and wish each other a "Happy New Year!"

Visit: http://exchanges.state.gov/media/oelp/pdfs/newyearsday.pdf

Vocabulary Study (Vocabulário de Apoio)

1. masquerade balls bailes de máscaras

2. hide their identity esconder suas identidades

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3. watching the New Year's festivities assistir às festividades do Ano Novo

4. in the heart of New York City no coração da cidade de NY

5. This celebration is telecast live este festa é televisionada ao vivo

6. on news channels across the nation em canais de notícias por todo o país

7. from the top of a pole do topo de um mastro, de um poste

8. many television viewers as well muitos telespectadores também

9. At the stroke of midnight na badalada da meia-noite

10. filled with cheers and noisemakers repleta de aplausos e barulhos

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Reminder Lembrete

Usarei – ao longo de nosso curso - o verbo regular to walk (= caminhar, andar) e o verbo irregular to give (gave, given) [= dar] como modelo para conjugação dos principais tempos verbais a seguir.

PRESENT SIMPLE

AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS

I / You / We / They

walk / give

He /

walks / gives

She / It

NEGATIVE STATEMENTS

I / You / We / They

do not walk / give

He /

does not

She / It

walk / give

Note: do not = don’t // does not = doesn’t

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QUESTIONS

Do

I / You / We / They

walk / give?

Does

He / She / It

walk / give?

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

Indispensable question words:

What…?

O que...?

Who…? Quem...?

What kind…?

Que tipo...?

How…? Como...?

Where…?

Onde....?

How many…? Quantos/ Quantas...?

When…?

Quando...?

How often…? Quantas vezes...?

PRESENT SIMPLE PRACTICE

I. Answer the following questions, preferably using complete sentences, just to practice using present simple constructions:

1. When do people begin celebrating the new year in the USA? People begin celebrating the new year on Dec. 31, New Year's Eve.

2. What do people have on this occasion? People have parties, and sometimes masquerade balls. 20


3. How do guests dress up for the parties? Guests dress up in costume.

4. Why do they cover their face with masks? They cover their faces to hide their identity.

5. What time do they remove their masks? They unmask at midnight.

6. Where do many people watch the New Year's festivities? They watch them in Times Square.

7. What do news channels do across the nation? News channels across the nation telecast this celebration.

8. When does a lighted ball drop slowly from the top of a pole? It begins to drop at one minute before midnight.

9. Where do they attach the pole? They attach it to a building.

10. What do people do as the lighted ball drops? People count down the final minute of the year.

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11. When does the ball reach the bottom of the pole? It reaches the bottom of the pole at the stroke of midnight.

12. What happens next? A huge "Happy New Year" sign lights up.

13. What comes next in Times Square? Then cheers and noisemakers fill Times Square.

14. Where does confetti come from? Confetti comes from windows above.

15. How do revelers behave then? Revelers hug, kiss, and wish each other a "Happy New Year”!

DISCOURSE MARKERS

From text 1: “As the ball drops, all the people in Times Square—and many television viewers as well—count down the final minute of the year” (L-10/12) Quando a bola desce, todas as pessoas em Times Square – e muitos telespectadores também – fazem a contagem regressiva do último minuto do ano.

“Then Times Square is filled with cheers and noisemakers.” (L-13/14) Então Times Square se enche de aplausos e barulhos.

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Estudaremos as palavras marcadoras do discurso – discourse markers - durante todo o nosso curso. São elas que ajudam o autor a transferir seus pensamentos de um páragrafo para outro, ou de uma frase para outra. São essas palavras que vão servir de link para conectá-los. Imagine um autor que deseje expressar uma idéia adicional e se valha da conjunção and, all the time. Seria no mínimo very boring.

Discourse markers indicando adição ou acréscimo:

AND, furthermore, besides, as well, in addition (to), also, likewise, moreover _____________________________________________________________

Discourse markers indicando passagem do tempo

THEN, after a short (long) time, lately, temporarily, while, after a while, presently, as, afterward, recently, thereafter, at last, since, eventually …

ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

From text 1: “Many people have parties, and sometimes masquerade balls.” (L-2/3) Muitas pessoas dão festas e algumas vezes dão bailes de máscaras.

Quando se estuda o present simple é fundamental conhecer os frequency adverbs. Os principais são: always (sempre), frequently, often (freqüentemente), sometimes, occasionally (algumas vezes), usually (geralmente), rarely, seldom, hardly ever (raramente), never (nunca). Observe que estes advérbios normalmente vêm antes dos verbos principais e depois dos auxiliares. 23


Study the following examples: Estude os seguintes exemplos:

All the guests always remove their masks at midnight. Todos os convidados sempre retiram suas máscaras à meia noite.

Luisa hardly ever wears a costume at Carnival. Luisa raramente usa uma fantasia no carnaval.

Lots of American families frequently watch the New Year's festivities in Times Square. Muitas famílias nos EUA frequentemente assistem às festividades do Ano Novo na Times Square.

My wife and I never travel abroad to celebrate New Year’s Day. We always stay home with our relatives. Minha mulher e eu nunca viajamos para o exterior para celebrar o Ano Novo. Sempre ficamos em casa com nossos parentes.

Our daughter, who lives abroad, occasionally visits us at Christmas. Nossa filha, que vive no exterior, nos visita no Natal de vez em quando.

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WORD FORMATION PREFIXES & SUFFIXES

Por que estudar os principais prefixes & suffixes do inglês? Simplesmente porque é uma das formas mais poderosas que conheço de fortalecer o seu vocabulário.

Para exemplificar, estudaremos nesta aula o prefixo UN- e o sufixo –ER. Observe os seguintes fragmentos:

A) THE PREFIX UN-

From text 1: “guests unmask, or remove their masks” (L-5) os convidados se desmascaram, ou removem suas máscaras

Este é um dos prefixos ingleses, que acrescentado a verbs & adjectives, forma palavras com sentido oposto.

VERB

NOUN TRADUÇÃO

tie

untie

desatar, desamarrar

do

undo

desfazer

wrap

unwrap desembrulhar

dress

undressdespir-se

fasten unfasten

desamarrar, soltar

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ADJECTIVE

ADJECTIVE

popular unpopular expected

impopular

unexpected

happy unhappy

TRADUÇÃO

inesperado

infeliz

fortunate

unfortunate

infeliz

important

unimportant

sem importância

B) THE SUFFIX -ER

From text 1:

“and many television viewers as well” (L-11) bem como muitos telespectadores

“and revelers hug, kiss, and wish each other a "Happy New Year!" (L-15/16) e os foliões se abraçam, se beijam e se desejam um Feliz Ano Novo

O sufixo –ER é um dos mais frequentes da língua inglesa. Geralmente é acrescentado a verbos para formar nouns (substantivos). Indica aquele que executa a ação. No exemplo acima TV viewers, são aqueles que assistem a TV; assim, os telespectadores. Observe estas outras formações: VERB

NOUN TRADUÇÃO

teach teacher professor sing

singer cantor / a

set

setter levantador (no vôlei)

play

player jogador /a

interpret

interpreter

intérprete 26


N.B: Você encontrará também os sufixos –OR & -AR cumprindo o mesmo papel que o sufixo acima. Observe os seguintes exemplos:

I. THE SUFFIX -OR

VERB

NOUN TRADUÇÃO

visit

visitor visitante

survive survivor connect

sobrevivente

connector

survey surveyor

conector

pesquisador, inspetor

II. THE SUFFIX -AR

VERB

NOUN TRADUÇÃO

lie

liar

beg

beggar mendigo, pedinte

mentiroso

GRAMMAR & USAGE TIPS A FEW OTHER ESSENTIAL POINTS

Em todas as nossas aulas vamos procurar chamar sua atenção para alguns tópicos de gramática e uso da língua inglesa; mainly, aqueles que ajudem você a melhorar a sua capacidade de recognition das estruturas do inglês.

A. –ING & INFINITIVE AFTER VERBS 27


From text 1: “In the United States, people begin celebrating the new year on Dec. 31, New Year's Eve.” (L1/2) Nos Estados Unidos as pessoas começam a celebrar o Ano Novo em 31 de dezembro, a véspera do novo ano.

No caso do verbo to begin ele tanto pode ser seguido da forma –ING ou do infinitivo do verbo sem alteração do significado. For example:

Children begin playing football in Brazil very early in life. Or Children begin to play football in Brazil very early in life.

Ambas as frases correspondem a: As crianças começam a jogar futebol no Brasil muito cedo.

Em outros casos, é preciso atenção pois há alteração do sentido quando se tem a foram –ING ou o infinitivo. Por exemplo com o verbo to stop:

Dr. Sellers wants my cousin to stop smoking immediately. O Dr. Sellers quer que minha prima pare de fumar imediatamente.

Compare com:

On her way to work, my cousin stopped to smoke another cigarette. A caminho do banco, minha prima parou para fumar outro cigarro.

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Como você observa após a forma stopped, passado do verbo to stop, que estudaremos na próxima aula, você encontra o infinitivo to smoke, alterando completamente o sentido da frase em comparação com o exemplo anterior. Fique atento para outros exemplos de verbos com formação semelhante.

B. PHRASAL VERBS

Diferentemente de um curso regular, onde há um controle rígido da sequência dos tópicos principais a serem apresentados, é possível se falar desde logo nos phrasal verbs - verbos seguidos de preposições ou partículas adverbiais - num curso cuja ênfase, como já dissemos, é recognition das estruturas do inglês com vistas a facilitar a leitura fluente. Veja estes exemplos extraídos do text 1:

“Guests dress up in costume.” (L-4) Os convidados vestem-se (elegantemente) com fantasias.

“People count down the final minute of the year.” (L-12) As pessoas fazem contagem regressiva do último minuto do ano.

A huge "Happy New Year" sign lights up.” (L-14) Um enorme letreiro onde se lê Feliz Ano Novo se acende.

Nos três casos citados, não há uma radical alteração do sentido mais comum dos verbos: to dress (vestir-se); to count (contar) & to light (iluminar acender)

On the other hand, com verbos como to call (chamar), ocorrem significativas alterações de sentido quando são acrescentadas as diversas preposições ou partículas. For example:

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This year, the mayor decided to call off the new year’s festivities. Este ano, o prefeito decidiu cancelar as festividades de final de ano.

Why don’t you call her up tonight? Por que você não telefona para ela hoje à noite?

Johnny’s instructor often calls him down in front of the other kids. O instrutor do Johnny frequentemente o repreende na frente das outras crianças.

This difficult situation calls for the expertise of a system analyst. Esta situação difícil requer a perícia de um analista de sistemas.

Next month we plan to call on our parents in São Paulo. No mês que vem planejamos ir visitar nossos pais em SP.

C. A MIX

From text 1: “This celebration is telecast live on news channels across the nation.” (L-7/8) Esta festividade é televisionada ao vivo nos canais de notícias pelo país inteiro.

Não é difícil neste trecho inteiro do text 1 buscar alguma coisinha importante to highlight:

C. 1) celebration

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A palavra celebration é um noun (substantivo), derivado do regular verb to celebrate (celebrar, festejar) formado pela adição do sufixo -(A)TION; que, geralmente, corresponde a uma palavra em português terminada em –ÇÃO; as in: education (educação); regulation (regulamentação), creation (criação), dissertation (dissertação, tese), organization (organização), collaboration (colaboração) etc

C. 2) telecast live

Certamente você conhece o verbo regular to live (viver, morar); mas, no exemplo acima, trata-se do adjetivo live, que rima com five. Quando você vir: live broadcasts, você já sabe que são transmissões ao vivo; em oposição a recorded broadcasts (transmissões gravadas).

Naturalmente você conhece o substantivo life, as in life insurance (seguro de vida); que tal, então, saber o significado de alive, as in: Wanted: Dead or Alive (Procura-se: Vivo ou Morto). O que significa alive and kicking? Nem pense em traduzir por: vivo e chutando!?!? Significa que alguém está alive and well; em português: vivinho da silva!

C. 3) on news channels

In English, there are two words for ‘canal’: channel & canal. a) Canal – para designer uma via navegável artificial, man-made waterway, ou seja feita pelo homem. For example: The Suez Canal (O Canal de Suez), The Panama Canal (O Canal do Panamá), b) Channel - The English Channel (O Canal da Mancha), the Discovery Channel, TV Channels (canais de TV)

C. 4) across the nation

It means: throughout the entire nation (pelo país inteiro). In other words, News channels across the nation & news channels that broadcast nationwide are synonymous.

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D. At the stroke of midnight

Como vimos, a locução At the stroke of midnight (L-12), corresponde a: (Na badalada da meia noite), onde stroke – é um substantivo. Agora, qual é o verbo que pertence a esta word family? Tem-se o irregular verb to strike (struck, struck) – bater, atingir; como no boliche quando se faz um strike, derrubando-se todos os pinos. Atenção! A palavra stroke, no jargão médico, significa ‘derrame’.

Lembre-se: tudo é importante, se você achar que é. Suas notas de grammar & vocabulary devem ser personalizadas. Vincule-as sempre a um texto. It works!

E. Confetti

From text 1: “Confetti is dropped from windows above” (L-14/15) Confete é jogado do alto das janelas

Como eu costumo aconselhar meus alunos a consultarem o dicionário à procura de significados diversos para palavras aparentemente transparentes, óbvias até, I looked up the meaning of confetti.

Confetti – plural of the Italian word confetto, small streamers (*) of colored paper that are thrown around on festive occasions.

De quebra, descobri que streamers são as serpentinas.

Ah, descobri também, que nossos irmãos de Portugal chamam confete de papelinhos. Ora, pois!

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PRESENT SIMPLE PRACTICE

See if you can translate these fragments:

a) people begin celebrating the new year __________________________________

b) Many people have parties __________________________________

c) guests dress up in costume __________________________________

d) cover their faces with masks __________________________________

e) guests unmask, or remove their masks __________________________________

f) Many people enjoy the tradition __________________________________

g) a lighted ball begins to drop slowly __________________________________

h) As the ball drops _________________ 33


i) people count down the final minute of the year _________________________________________ j) the ball reaches the bottom of the pole __________________________________

k) a huge "Happy New Year" sign lights up _________________________________________

l) revelers hug, kiss, and wish each other a "Happy New Year!" _________________________________________________

A LOOK AT PAST EXAMS

How to Live a Better Life

Get regular fresh air. Sunshine is cheering, rain refreshing. Best of all, fresh air gets you out of the office. Most offices are unhealthy. Get out of your car and onto public transport. You will reduce noise, get finer and have more time to read, think and look. Don't travel long distances to work. Find a job near home. Move out of the city. Go home from work earlier. Long hours don't make you more efficient. If there’s too much work for you to do, say so. Learn to enjoy yourself. Relax, play sport or music, take up a hobby. Please yourself more make/find time to do it. Exercise regularly, eat sensibly, don't smoke or drink alcohol, cut down on caffeine drinks. Try water or herbal teas.

(From: Getting Ahead, Sarah Jones - Macziola & Greg White, Cambridge University Press, 1996) [ACAFE 1998] - [about 120 words]

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1) Select the CORRECT alternative, according to the text: a) You are more efficient when there is a lot to do. b) It is important to work long hours. c) In general, offices are not healthy places. d) It is easier to find a job in the city. e) If you exercise regularly, you can smoke.

2) According to the text, what can you do to have a better life? 1. Get fresh air. 2. Live in the city. 3. Start a hobby. 4. Drink alcohol. 5. Eat the correct food.

The CORRECT sequence from the top to the bottom is: a) 1 – 2 – 4 b) 2 – 4 – 5 c) 2 -- 3 – 4 d) 1 – 2 – 3 e) 1 – 3 – 5

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3) According to the text, if you use public transport, you will a) help reduce noise. b) arrive earlier at work. c) get more fresh air. d) have more time to work. e) find time to please yourself.

4) Select the CORRECT answer for the following question, according to the text: What can you do to enjoy yourself? a) Work more efficiently. b) Drink caffeine drinks. c) Smoke. d) Play a sport. e) Try herbal teas.

5) Complete the following sentence, according to the text: To have a job near your house is good because ‌ a) there isn't so much noise. b) you don't have to travel a long way to work. c) you don't need to use public transport. d) you can have more time to read. e) if there's too much work, you can take it home.

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3ÂŞ AULA

Basic English Course

Prof. Carlos Augusto

UNIT 3

TEXT 1: MARTIN LUTHER KING DAY

Martin Luther King Day honors the life and legacy of one of the visionary leaders of the Civil Rights Movement and recipient of the 1964 Nobel Prize for Peace. At a young age Martin Luther King, Jr. showed strong promise, skipping the 9th and 12th grades and entering Morehouse College at the age of 15. His beliefs in equality and brotherly love developed early as he listened to the sermons of his father and grandfather, both ministers. In late 1955, Martin Luther King, Jr. received his doctorate degree in theology, and moved to Montgomery, Alabama, with his wife, Coretta Scott King, to preach at a Baptist church. There, as in many southern states, he witnessed the indignities suffered by African Americans as a result of racism, discrimination, and unjust laws. One law required all black passengers to ride in the back of public buses and to give up their seats to white passengers when the front of the bus was full. Dr. King knew that this law violated the rights of every African-American. On December 1, 1955, a courageous black passenger, Rosa Parks, was arrested and jailed for refusing to give up her seat to a white man. In response to the arrest, black leaders organized a boycott of the public buses in the city of Montgomery. Dr. King was asked to lead the protest, Thousands of people, black and white, refused to ride the bus; instead they formed carpools and they walked. Dr. King urged people to demonstrate peacefully and not resort to violence.

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Vocabulary Study (Vocabulário de Apoio)

1. honors the life and legacy homenageia a vida e o legado 2. recipient of the Nobel Prize for Peace recebedor do Prêmio Nobel da Paz 3. skipping the 9th and 12th grades pulando a 9ª e 12ª séries no colégio 4. His beliefs in equality and brotherly love Suas crenças na igualdade e no amor fraterno 5. to preach at a Baptist church para pregar numa igreja Batista 6. There, as in many southern states Ali, assim como em muitos estados do sul 7. to ride in the back of public buses viajar na parte de trás dos ônibus 8. give up their seats to white passengers ceder seus lugares para passageiros brancos 9. a courageous black passenger uma passageira negra corajosa 10. arrested and jailed for refusing presa e encarcerada por se recusar 11. In response to the arrest Em reação a essa prisão 12. instead they formed carpools ao invés disso, revezaram-se no transporte solidário 38


13. not resort to violence não recorrer à violência PAST SIMPLE

AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS

I / You / He / She / It/ We / They

walked / gave

NEGATIVE STATEMENTS

I / You / He / She / It / We / They

did not walk/ give

Note: Did not = didn’t

QUESTIONS

Did

I / You / He / She / It / We / They

walk/ give?

USES OF THE PAST SIMPLE

É usado para expressar uma ação que aconteceu num tempo definido no passado. Freqüentemente, advérbios ou expressões como yesterday (ontem), last week, last month, last year (semana passada, mês passado, ano passado) two hours ago (duas horas atrás), etc estão presentes. At times há uma oração inteira (a time clause, for example) indicando o tempo perfeitamente definido no passado:

I met her two years ago. Eu a encontrei há dois anos.

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My brother didn’t get a job last month. Meu irmão não conseguiu um emprego no mês passado.

Did you see Spielberg’s latest film last Sunday? Você viu o filme mais recente do Spielberg no sábado passado?

Jack arrived ten minutes late today. O Jack chegou dez minutos atrasado hoje.

Milton worked at KNY for thirty five years. He retired last year. Milton trabalhou na KNY por 35 anos. Aposentou-se no ano passado.

My family lived in the suburb when I was a child. Minha família morava no subúrbio quando eu era criança.

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

Indispensable question words:

What…?

O que...?

Who…? Quem...?

What kind…?

Que tipo...?

How…? Como...?

Where…?

Onde....?

How many…? Quantos/ Quantas...?

When…?

Quando...?

How often…? Quantas vezes...?

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PAST SIMPLE PRACTICE

I. Practice using the past simple constructions:

1. When did Dr. King receive the Nobel Prize for Peace? He received it in 1964. 2. Why did Dr. King show strong promise at a young age? Because he skipped the 9th and 12th grades and entered Morehouse College at the age of 15. 3. Which traits of character did Dr. King develop very early? He developed his beliefs in equality and brotherly love. 4. Who had a great influence on Dr. King? His father and his grandfather, both ministers, had a great influence on him. 5. What did Dr. King do after he received his doctorate degree in theology? He moved to Montgomery, Alabama, to preach at a Baptist church 6. Who accompanied him then? His wife, Coretta Scott King, accompanied him. 7. What did Dr. King witness there in Montgomery? He witnessed the indignities suffered by African Americans. 8. What kind of indignities did he witness? Those that were a result of racism, discrimination, and unjust laws. 9. Why did black passengers have to ride in the back of public buses? Because one law required it. 10. What did Dr. King think of this law? Dr. King knew that this law violated the rights of every African-American.

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11. Why did they arrest Rosa Parks? Because she refused to give up her seat to a white man. 12. What kind of protest did the black leaders organize? Black leaders organized a boycott of the public buses in Montgomery. 13. Who led the protest? Dr. King did. 14. How did the black community act in protest? They refused to ride the buses. They formed carpools or they walked. 15. What did Dr. King urge the people to do? Dr. King urged people to demonstrate peacefully. 16. What did Dr. King urge the people not to do? He urged them not to resort to violence.

REGULAR VERBS

A) THE SUFFIX –ED

A terminação –ED está presente na formação do passado simples e do particípio passado dos verbos regulares.

INFINITVE

PAST TENSE

PAST PARTICIPLE

work

worked

worked

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Atenção para os particípios passados que funcionam como adjetivos e são usados com substantivos para formar combinations / collocations:

interested students

(alunos/ as interessados /as)

an excited audience

(uma platéia empolgada)

developed countries

(países desenvolvidos)

organized crime

(crime organizado)

IRREGULAR VERBS

Você precisa descobrir de que maneira vai fazer seu approach com relação aos irregular verbs – no máximo uns 100 – se só nos preocuparmos com os mais famosos. Da simples análise estatística, pura e simples, podemos nos tranqüilizar com o fato de que a esmagadora maioria dos verbos ingleses é regular. Melhor ainda, aqueles verbos novos que vem sendo criados, por quaisquer tipos de imposições, são regulares.

Veja o caso de e-mail. Já é usado como verbo, regular naturalmente, to e-mail (e-mailed, emailed)

I e-mailed you yesterday. Why didn’t you send me your reply? Enviei um e-mail para você ontem. Por que não me respondeu?

Quando o fax se popularizou, passou-se a usar como verbo regular também:

They faxed us last week. Eles nos enviaram um fax na semana passada.

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Até mesmo o OK virou verbo regular:

The manager okayed my check before I could cash it. O gerente deu o OK pro meu cheque antes que eu pudesse descontá-lo.

Dá para ficar tranqüilo na grande maioria dos casos. Porém, não há como escapar do estudo dos verbos irregulares por uma razão muito simples: eles pipocam nos textos a toda hora. Essas formas verbais têm que se tornar music to your years.

IRREGULAR VERBS FROM TEXT 1

infinitive

past tense

past participle tradução

be

was, were

been

ser, estar

have

had

had

ter, possuir

lead

led

led

liderar, conduzir

know

knew

known

saber, conhecer

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DISCOURSE MARKERS

From text 1:

“instead they formed carpools and they walked.” (L-20/21) ao invés disso, organizaram transporte solidário ou caminharam.

Como dissemos, discourse markers ajudam o autor a transferir seus pensamentos de um páragrafo para outro ou de uma frase para outra. Vamos estudar, aqui, as palavras que indicam contraste ou oposição.

Discourse markers indicando contraste ou oposição

BUT, after all, in spite of, on the other hand, nevertheless, whereas, while, however, on the contrary, yet, despite, notwithstanding, still, in contrast …

WORD FORMATION – PREFIXES & SUFFIXES

From text 1: “Dr. King urged people to demonstrate peacefully.” (L-22/23) O Dr. king insistiu para as pessoas protestassem pacificamente

“His beliefs in equality and brotherly love developed early” (L-6) Sua crença na igualdade e no amor fraternal se desenvolveu cedo

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Os dois exemplos acima me permitem falar sobre o sufixo –LY que pode formar advérbios geralmente correspondendo a palavras no nosso português terminadas em –MENTE, como peacefully (pacificamente); e adjetivos, como brotherly (fraternal) no outro exemplo acima. a) THE SUFFIX –LY a) to form adverbs – study the following examples: ADJECTIVE

ADVERB

TRADUÇÃO

final

finally

finalmente

happy

happily

felizmente

beautiful

beautifully

lindamente

skilful

skillfully

habilidosamente

b) to form adjectives - study the following examples: NOUN

ADJECTIVE

TRADUÇÃO

mother

motherly

maternal

love

lovely

adorável

live

lively

animado / a

dead

deadly

mortal

Seu conhecimento de gramática vai lhe ajudar nesta distinção. Os adjetivos terminados em – LY, of course, precederão o substantivo como é usual em inglês. Assim: Lovely children (crianças adoráveis) Lively parties

(festas animadas)

A deadly weapon

(uma arma mortal)

A Lonely girl

(garota solitária)

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b) THE PREFIX UN– From text 1: “as a result of racism, discrimination, and unjust laws” (L-12/13) em consequência do racismo, da discriminação e de lei injustas O prefixo UN-, geralmente acrescentado a adjetivos, forma outros adjetivos com sentido oposto. ADJECTIVE

ADJECTIVE

TRADUÇÃO

fair

unfair

injusto / a

popular

unpopular

impopular

equal

unequal

desigual

stable

unstable

instável

c) THE PREFIX IN– From text 1: “he witnessed the indignities suffered by African Americans” (L-11/12) ele testemunhou as indignidades sofridas por Afro-americanos O prefixo IN-, quando acrescentado a adjetivos e substantivos, também pode formar outros adjetivos e substantivos com sentido oposto.

ADJECTIVE

ADJECTIVE

TRADUÇÃO

Sane

insane

insano /a

decent

indecent

indigno /a, indecente

definite

indefinite

indefinido /a

complete

incomplete

incompleto / a

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NOUN

NOUN

TRADUÇÃO

equality

inequality

desigualdade

sincerity

insincerity

falsidade

coherence

incoherence

incoerência

Justice

Injustice

injustiça

N.B: Há diversos outros prefixos que funcionam de maneira semelhante; isto é, que transformam em substantivos ou adjetivos com sentido oposto as palavras as quais são acrescentados. Estudaremos os principais em nossas próximas aulas.

FUNCTION WORDS - KEY WORD: AS

From text 1: “There, as in many southern states, he witnessed the indignities suffered by African Americans as a result of racism, discrimination, and unjust laws” (L-11/13) Ali, assim como em muitos estados do sul, ele testemunhou as indignidades sofridas por cidadãos afro-americanos em consequência do racismo, da discriminação e de leis injustas. “as he listened to the sermons of his father and grandfather, both ministers” (L-6/7) quando ele ouvia os sermões de seu pai e de seu avô, ambos clérigos Dentre as várias function words do texto 1, escolhi a palavrinha ‘as’ para lhe mostrar porque você deve estudar estas verdadeiras ‘gems’. A key word AS pode ser usada como:

a) conjunção significando when (= quando) As I was taking a shower, the telephone rang. Quando eu estava tomando um banho, o telefone tocou. Turn off the light as you leave. Apague a luz quando estiver saindo.

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b) conjunção significando because (=porque) As Mr. Cheng only spoke Chinese, we needed an interpreter. Como o Sr Cheng só falava Chinês, precisávamos de um intérprete.

c) conjunção significando in the same way (= da mesma maneira, como) Do as I say, not as I do. (common popular saying). Faça como eu digo, não faça como eu faço.

d) preposição significando in the role of (= na qualidade de, como) My wife works as a dentist. Minha esposa trabalha como dentista. I have worked as a teacher for many years. Trabalho como professor há anos. Encontra-se a palavra ‘as’ também em várias expressões:

I - As if ... (= como se ...)

It looked as if it was going to rain. Parecia que ia chover.

II - As + adj. + as (formação do comparativo de igualdade)

Chris is as tall as Rita. Chris é tão alta quanto a Rita.

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Benjamin is not so fast as Brian. Benjamin não é tão rápido quanto Brian.

This topic is as important as that one. You should study both. Este tópico é tão importante quanto aquele. Você devia estudar ambos.

My friends are not so motivated as they were last year. Meus amigos não estão tão motivados quanto estavam no ano passado.

III –As usual (como de costume, pra variar ...)

Natalie is late, as usual. Natalie está atrasada, pra variar.

There comes Nora, crazy as usual. Lá vem a Nora, maluquinha como sempre.

IV –such as (tal como, tais como quando se quer exemplificar)

At that time nobody had many comforts in life, such as freezers, computers, air conditioners… Naquela época ninguém possuía muitas comodidades na vida, tais como congeladores, computadores, aparelhos de ar condicionado ...

V – the same as (o mesmo que)

Helen’s dress looks the same as her sister’s. 50


O vestido da Helen parece com o da sua irmã. George studied in the same school as I did. George estudou na mesma escola que eu. JUST FOR FUN

You’re not a machine! Você não pode esquecer jamais disto. So, de vez em quando, dê um tempo no seu estudo pesado. Faça alguma coisa light, não esqueça do seu lazer. For example, start with the the picture test below. A ilustração é do meu amigo Adail, cujo traço é inconfundível. Na gravura abaixo o nome dele não aparece, mas jamais pensem que eu desenho com essa maestria.

Come on, try it. It’s fifty-fifty, Você tem sempre 50% de chances de acertar!

PICTURE TEST

Mr. Nuts kept [a) making / b) doing] passes at his pretty secretary.

IRREGULAR VERBS PRACTICE

I. Complete the sentences with the PAST FORM of the verbs in brackets.

1. Dr. King ________ the 1964 Nobel Prize for Peace. [RECEIVE] ________________________________________________________

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2. At a young age Martin Luther King _______ strong promise. [SHOW] ________________________________________________________

3. His beliefs in equality and brotherly love ________ early. [DEVELOP] ________________________________________________________

4. In late 1955, Martin Luther King ________ to Montgomery, Alabama. [MOVE] ________________________________________________________

5/6. Dr. King _______ [KNOW] that this law ________ [VIOLATE] the rights of every AfricanAmerican. ________________________________________________________

7. Black passengers always __________ [GIVE] up their seats to white men. ________________________________________________________

8. Black leaders __________ [ORGANIZE] a boycott of the public buses in the city of Montgomery. ________________________________________________________

9. Dr. King _________ [LEAD] the peaceful protest.

10. Thousands of people, black and white, __________ [REFUSE] to ride the bus. ________________________________________________________ KEY WORD: AS

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II. Traduza somente as expressões em negrito a seguir onde aparece a palavra ‘as’; consulte um dicionário se precisar.

1. As the judge entered the courtroom, everybody rose. ________________________________________________________

2. I left by the back door so as not to meet Jenny’s brother. ________________________________________________________

3. That yard is not so long as ours. ________________________________________________________

4. As long as you promise to return my book soon, you can borrow it. ________________________________________________________

5. As yet they haven’t chosen the new president. ________________________________________________________

6. Nobody knows English well in my group. I might as well do the translation myself. ________________________________________________________

7. You’re wrong! Bill’s father works as an engineer for ICF. ________________________________________________________

8. I know you like strawberries, but the other kids love them as well. 53


________________________________________________________

9. As a rule Ruth wakes up early to go to work. ________________________________________________________

10. Henry looked pale, as though he had seen a ghost. ________________________________________________________

11. We will start the review for the final test as of next week. ________________________________________________________

12. My old Dad does not walk round the square as he used to. ________________________________________________________

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4ª AULA

UNIT 4

Text 1: Young Saudis to attend forum in Brazil

A group of 20 youths from Saudi Arabia, comprising men and women, will come to Brazil next month to meet with Brazilian students. The Forum of Young Saudis and Brazilians will be held from June 26th to July 5th when participants will travel to São Paulo, Manaus and Rio de Janeiro to discuss three main topics: environment and fighting poverty; clean energy; and organization of major events. Saudi Arabia has a much broader experience in large events,” said Ibrahim Aleisa the vice ambassador of the Arab country to Brasília during a visit to the headquarters of the Arab Brazilian Chamber of Commerce last week in São Paulo. “Brazil will host the 2016 Olympics and it will cause a large concentration of people at once. In Saudi Arabia, there is the Haji, which is the pilgrimage to Mecca, which last three days and concentrates over 3 million people in one place. There is the entire logistical aspect of food, healthcare and security," says Aleisa, explaining that the experience of the Hajj may help Brazil organize the sports event. Aleisa explains that the young Saudis will spend ten days with Brazilian university students aged 20 to 25 to discuss the topics mentioned. At the end of the meeting, three letters will be written containing the conclusions of the debates. One of the letters, to be written by the Brazilian group, will be delivered to king Abdullah, of Saudi Arabia; another letter will be written by the Arab group to be handed to the Brazilian president Dilma Rousseff; and a third document, to be jointly elaborated by the two groups, will be sent to the secretary general of the United Nations, Ban Ki-moon. [22.05.11]

(By Áurea Santos) - * áurea.santos@anba.com.br *Translated by Gabriel Pomerancblum Visit: http://www2.anba.com.br/noticia_servicos.kmf?cod=11925330

Vocabulary Study (Vocabulário de Apoio)

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1. comprising men and women consistindo de homens e mulheres

2. environment and fighting poverty meio ambiente e luta contra a pobreza

3. clean energy energia limpa

4. organization of major events organização de grandes eventos

5. has a much broader experience tem experiência muito mais ampla

6. the pilgrimage to Mecca a peregrinação a Meca

7. There is the entire logistical aspect há todo o aspecto logístico

8. of food, healthcare and security de alimentação, assistência médica e segurança

9. to be written by the Brazilian group a ser escrita pelo grupo brasileiro 56


10. to be handed to the Brazilian president para ser entregue à Presidente do Brasil

11. to be jointly elaborated a ser elaborado em conjunto

FUTURE SIMPLE

No text 1 encontramos um grande número de estruturas com o modal verb will, auxiliar formador do future simple:

AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS

I / You / He / She / It/ We / They

will walk / give

NEGATIVE STATEMENTS

I / You / He / She / It / We / They

will not

walk/ give

Note: will not = won’t

QUESTIONS

Will

I / You / He / She / It / We / They

walk/ give?

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USES OF THE FUTURE SIMPLE

a) The future simple with will

a.1) To express simple futurity or determination. Para expressar ação futura simples ou determinação.

I will be on vacation next month. Estarei de férias no mês que vem.

The president will go to China next year. O presidente irá à China no ano que vem.

a.2) To express promises, offers or predictions. Para expressar promessas, ofertas e previsões.

Can I borrow your dictionary? I will bring it back tomorrow. (promise) Pode me emprestar seu dicionário? Eu o devolverei a você amanhã. (Promessa)

It will be hard to control inflation. (So I predict) Será difícil controlar a inflação. (Assim prevejo)

Joe will help you with those heavy boxes. (offer) Joe ajudará você com essas caixas pesadas. (oferta)

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b) O future simple pode ser também expresso por meio de: verb in the present simple (quando se tratar de uma ação já programada, por exemplo)

My plane leaves at 8 o’clock tomorrow morning. Meu avião parte (partirá) às 8h amanhã de manhã.

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

Indispensable question words:

What…?

O que...?

What kind…?

Que tipo...?

Who…?

Quem...?

How…?

Como...?

Where…?

Onde....?

How many…? Quantos/ Quantas...?

When…?

Quando...?

How often…? Quantas vezes...?

FUTURE SIMPLE PRACTICE

I. Practice using the future simple constructions:

1. What will the young Saudis do in Brazil? They will attend a forum in our country.

2. According to the text, when will they come to Brazil? They will come to Brazil next month.

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3. Why will this group of 20 youths from Saudi Arabia come to Brazil? They will come to meet with Brazilian students.

4. When will the Forum of Young Saudis and Brazilians occur? The Forum will be held from June 26th to July 5th

5. Where will the participants travel to? They will travel to S達o Paulo, Manaus and Rio.

6. How many topics will they discuss? They will discuss three main topics.

7. Why will there be a large concentration of people in Brazil soon? Because Brazil will host the 2016 Olympics.

8. How long will the young Saudis stay in Brazil? They will spend ten days with Brazilian university students.

9. How many letters will both groups write? The groups will write 3 letters.

10. Who will receive the third letter? The secretary general of the United Nations will receive it.

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DISCOURSE MARKERS

Observe este trecho do text 1:

“At the end of the meeting, three letters will be written containing the conclusions of the debates. One of the letters, to be written by the Brazilian group, will be delivered to king Abdullah, of Saudi Arabia; another letter will be written by the Arab group to be handed to the Brazilian president Dilma Rousseff; and a third document, to be jointly elaborated by the two groups, will be sent to the secretary general of the United Nations, Ban Ki-moon.”

No text 1, (L-18/23), ao se referir às três cartas a serem redigidas pelo jovens brasileiros e sauditas, o autor bem poderia ter usado: first or first of all (primeiro, primeiramente), antes de one of the letters; second or secondly (em segundo lugar) antes de another letter, e third or thirdly (em terceiro lugar) antes de a third document.

Indicando seqüência ou enumeração FIRST, first of all, second, secondly, third, thirdly, in the 1st place, in the 2nd place, then, finally, next, last …

WORD FORMATION – PREFIXES & SUFFIXES

From text 1: The Forum of Young Saudis and Brazilians” (L-2/3) O Fórum dos jovens sauditas e brasileiros

THE SUFFIX -(I)AN

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Esse sufixo é muito comum na formação de substantivo e adjetivos designativos de um determinado povo. Study the following examples:

COUNTRY

ADJECTIVE /NOUN

TRADUÇÃO

Mexico

Mexican

mexicano

Canada

Canadian

canadense

Peru

Peruvian

peruano

Bolivia

Bolivian

boliviano

Os nativos ou habitantes da Saudi Arabia (Arábia Saudita) são os Saudis (sauditas). Similarly, você tem: Pakistani (paquistanês);

TRUE & FALSE COGNATES

Através da análise atenta do título do text 1: “Young Saudis to attend forum in Brazil”, observamos que é preciso cuidado com o verbo regular to attend que deve ser traduzido por assistir ao fórum de debates, estar presente. Outro exemplo:

How many Brazilian students will attend the Forum? Quantos estudantes brasileiros assistirão ao fórum de debates?

Portanto, a melhor tradução para o título do texto é: Jovens Sauditas Assistirão ao Fórum de debates no Brasil.

On the other hand, tomando o 1° parágrafo do texto como exemplo, encontramos diversas transparent words, or true cognates, que correspondem em nosso português ao que aparentam mesmo; é o caso de: group, students, participants, discuss, topics, energy, organization, events.

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COLLOCATIONS & IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS

From text 1: “ it will cause a large concentration of people at once.” (L-10/11) provocará uma grande concentração de gente imediatamente

“The Forum of Young Saudis and Brazilians will be held” O Fórum dos jovens Sauditas e Brasileiros será realizado

ONCE

a) Nem ouso dizer que tem aquela música: You’re once, twice, three times a lady...;pois corro o risco de ser chamado de jurássico. Se, por acaso você lembrar do início de muitas fairy tales (contos de fada): Once upon a time (Era uma vez), tudo bem, é válido.

However (entretanto), é preciso ter em mente que existem várias expressões onde a palavra once aparece:

a.1) once in a while (de vez em quando)

I still go to Engenhão once in a while to watch a good soccer game. Ainda vou, de vez em quando, ao Engenhão assistir a um bom jogo de futebol.

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a.2) once and for all ( de uma vez por todas)

I will tell you this once and for all: I’m not going out with you. Vou-lhe dizer de uma vez por todas: não vou sair com você.

HOLD

b) Se você vem seguindo os meus conselhos, você deve ter anotado: hold (held, held) – segurar; as in: hold my hand (segure minha mão), e, por isso, já merece meus parabéns. Porém, você encontra a palavra hold, tanto como verbo quanto como substantivo em várias expressões:

b.1) hold (be valid)

The clauses of this contract still hold. As cláusulas deste contrato ainda valem.

b.2) have a good hold on math

That candidate has a very good hold on math. Aquele candidato tem um conhecimento de matemática muito bom.

For the time being, that’s enough; ou seja, por enquanto é só.

JUST FOR FUN

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Translate the following:

The Four Stages of Life

You believe in Santa Claus. You don't believe in Santa Claus. You are Santa Claus. You look like Santa Claus.

___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________

Text 2: Petrobrás rules out investing in Bolivia

PETROBRAS decided that it will not invest any more money in the project to expand Bolivian gas production, informed the director of the company's International Area, Nestor Cerveró. The project would add 15 million cubic meters to the current daily production level of 40 million cubic meters. According to Cerveró, the decree signed by Bolivian president Evo Morales at the beginning of the month, nationalizing his country’s petroleum reserves and the assets of the petroleum companies that operate in Bolivia puts new investments out of the question. "Raising royalty fees from the 50% they used to charge to 82% makes investments unfeasible, not only in Bolivia but anywhere in the world."

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He said that the joint commissions established to conduct the negotiations between PETROBRAS and the Bolivian government will basically discuss three main points: the nationalization of reserves and assets, the price of gas exported to Brazil, and the increase in the rate of royalty fees. Cerveró pointed out that Bolivia currently produces a daily maximum of 40 million cubic meters and that, of this total, "we will stand pat at the 30 million cubic meters we currently import, as stipulated in the contract we signed with them." He went on to say: "Any addition to this volume would imply new production, new investments, and new pipelines - and we have cancelled all of that."

(From Agência Brasil, by Nielmar de Oliveira, Translation: David Silberstein) // Access: 17/05/2006

VOCABULARY PRE TEST

Sem consultar nenhum dicionário procure correlacionar as colunas A & B:

A

B

1. daily production level

a. ( ) representaria novos dutos

2. the assets of the companies

b. ( ) torna inviáveis investimentos

3. raising royalty fees

c. ( ) os ativos das empresas

4. they used to charge

d. ( ) nível de produção diária

5. makes investments unfeasible

e. ( ) que costumavam cobrar

6. would imply new pipelines

f. ( ) elevando taxas de patentes

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ANALYSIS OF TEXT 2

1. Traduza o título do texto sem consultar nenhum dicionário. _______________________________________________________

2. Escreva abaixo duas construções verbais no future simple: _______________________________________________________

3. Quantas construções no past simple você destacaria do texto? _______________________________________________________

4. Quantas construções no past simple você extrai do texto? _______________________________________________________

5. No título deste pequeno texto há um belo exemplo de phrasal verb: to rule out, como vimos no quesito 1. Você consegue dizer o que significam os seguintes phrasal verbs?

a) pointed out (L-17) - _________________________________ b) went on (L-20) - ___________________________________

6. Tente encontrar um equivalente em português para a expressão we will stand pat (L-17) sem utilizar nenhum dicionário. _______________________________________________________

7. No fragmento a seguir, você consegue explicar porque o autor se utilizou de uma construção no present perfect simple: “and we have cancelled all of that”? (L-21/22) _______________________________________________________ 67


8. Basicamente quais três pontos a Petrobrás e o governo boliviano irão discutir? Escreva-os em português: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

IRREGULAR VERB FORMS

Verifique se você já sabe bem as formas de past tense & past participle dos seguintes verbos que apareceram no text 1:

Infinitive

Past Tense

Past Participle Translation

come

....................

....................

....................

meet

....................

....................

....................

hold

....................

....................

....................

have

....................

....................

....................

say

....................

....................

....................

spend

....................

....................

....................

write

....................

....................

....................

send

....................

....................

....................

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LAST BUT NOT LEAST

Só para ninguém dizer que não falei de nenhuma song nesta aula, aqui vai:

My Heart will Go On (Love theme from “Titanic”) Sung by Celine Dion

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5ª AULA

UNIT 5

Text 1: The Information Society

In brief: Practically non-existent 20 years ago mobile phones are everywhere. The internet provides endless streams of online information. We are offered a bewildering array of programmes* and services as high-capacity digital systems bring together two formerly separate worlds of broadcasting and telecommunications. This revolution in information technology is creating the information society - at home, at school and at work. The European Union and its policies and actions have guided and supported the revolution since the beginning. The communications revolution is driven by technology and market forces. The European Union has been at the heart of this process, setting the pace for opening markets, maintaining equal opportunities for all participants, creating a dynamic regulatory structure, defending consumer interests and even setting technical standards. The old publicly-owned telephone monopolies that once ran protected national markets have been transfigured. Aggressive and innovative newcomers have moved in, offering imaginative new services, attractively packaged. Competition has forced prices down and quality up. The result for individuals and businesses is cheaper and better service of a higher quality and reliability. Consumer choice has widened both in terms of suppliers and of services on offer. Demand for mobile telephones and internet access exploded. Now 90% of schools and businesses in the EU are online, while more than half the population are regular internet users. The information and communications sector must be among the most dynamic in the European Union and globally.

(Excerpt from Overviews of the European Union activities) visit: http://europa.eu.int/pol/infso/overview_em.htm

THE KEY WORD ‘OF’- Segundo os lingüistas a incidência da palavra chave ‘of’ nos textos é impressionante (vem em segundo lugar só perde para a palavra ‘the’); é muito superior à importância que a ela se dá.

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Faça a correlação de ‘A’ com B’ no quadro abaixo.

A

B

1. streams of online information

a. ( ) uma série de programas

2. array of programmes

b. ( ) no coração deste processo

3. service of higher quality

c. ( ) serviço de maior qualidade

4. worlds of broadcasting

d. ( ) condições dos fornecedores

5. at the heart of this process

e. ( ) correntes de ‘info’ na rede

6. terms of suppliers

f. ( ) mundos das transmissões

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS

I / You / We / They have walked / given

He / She / It has walked / given

NEGATIVE STATEMENTS

I / You / We / They have not walked / given

He / She / It has not walked / given

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Note: has not = hasn’t / have not = haven’t

QUESTIONS

Have I / You / We / They walked / given?

Has He / She / It walked / given?

USES OF THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

The present perfect simple is mainly used: O tempo presente perfeito é usado principalmente para:

a) to say that an action has just taken place or has repeatedly happened already but the definite time is not specified. Para dizer que uma ação acaba de acontecer – ou aconteceu repetidas vezes sem que um tempo definido seja especificado.

Mr. Philips has gone back home already. O Sr. Philips já voltou para casa.

Sorry, Miss Phelps has just left. Lamento, a Senhorita Phelps acabou de sair.

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b) To express actions which begin in the past and are connected with the present and are likely to go on in the future. ‘For’ and ‘since’ are commonly used. Para expressar ações que começaram no passado, têm conexão com o presente e possivelmente continuarão no futuro. As preposições ‘for’ e ‘since’ são comumente usadas.

My wife has been a dentist for 31 years. (She began 31 years ago and is still working as dentist) Minha mulher trabalha como dentista há 31 anos. (Ou seja: Começou há 31 anos e ainda exerce a odontologia)

My daughter has studied English since her childhood. (She keeps on studying the language till now) Minha filha estuda inglês desde a sua infância. [continua a estudar até hoje]

c) assim como ocorre com outros tempos verbais há advérbios e locuções que são usadas comumente com o present perfect. É o caso lately (ultimamente) recently (recentemente), as yet (até agora), so far (até agora) never (nunca), ever (alguma vez na vida). For example:

Lately we haven’t seen Grace very often. I wonder where she may be. Ultimamente não temos visto muito a Grace. Imagino onde ela possa estar.

So far we haven’t had any mechanical problem with our new car. Até agora não tivemos nenhum problema mecânico com nosso carro novo.

Bill and Mel have taken a trip to Japan. As yet I haven’t heard from them. Bill e Mel viajaram para Grécia. Até agora não tivemos notícias deles.

Recently there have been many terrorist attacks in that region of the globe. Recentemente têm ocorrido muitos ataques terroristas naquela área do globo. 73


I had to learn my French the hard way because I’ve never lived in France. Tive que aprender meu francês a duras penas porque nunca vivi na França.

d) Brazilian students should pay close attention to the use of the present perfect after the expression “It’s the first time (that) ... Os alunos brasileiros devem prestar atenção ao uso do presente perfeito após a expressão ‘É a primeira vez (que)

It’s the first time Silvia has tasted açaí. (She had never tasted it before) É a primeira vez que a Silvia prova açaí. (não tinha provado antes)

Is it the first time you’ve been to Rio, Glenda? É a primeira vez que visita o Rio, Glenda? (Ou seja: Nunca tinha vindo antes)

REMINDER Lembrete

Muitos alunos já me disseram que abandonaram seus cursos tradicionais quando o /a professor/ a começou com esse negócio de Have you ever been, I have gone here or there, Have you been to ... etc. me enrolei todo/ a, dizem. Na minha opinião não há nenhum motivo justificável para tal atitude. Minha sugestão: estude o present perfect simple como qualquer outro tempo verbal. Aceite, no entanto, minhas dicas quanto à tradução mais fácil das estruturas com estes tempos verbais. Good luck!

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SPELLING DIFFERENCES

Há algumas diferenças ortográficas entre o inglês do United Kingdom (Reino Unido) e o inglês do USA.

From text 1: programmes (n.) (UK) programs (n.) (US)

Cabe observar que a forma do verbo regular é igual tanto nos EUA quando no Reino Unido: to program (= programar).

FALSE COGNATES

From text 1: “The European Union and its policies and actions have guided and supported the revolution since the beginning…” (L-6-7) A União Européia, suas políticas e ações guiaram e apoiaram a revolução desde o início.

Ao invés de longas listagens, com um bando de false cognates, você se restrinja àqueles realmente problemáticos, capazes de distorcer o seu entendimento da frase. Quanto ao text 1:

a) No trecho acima a palavra policies – plural de policy - deve ser entendida como ‘políticas’. Also, você encontra ‘insurance policy’ (= apólice de seguro).

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Polices é o plural de polícia. Não confundir também com politics (= política) praticada pelos politicians (= políticos)

b) A melhor tradução para a forma verbal ‘supported’ no trecho acima é ‘apoiado’. Se você quiser dizer ‘eu não suporto isso’ diga: ‘I can’t bear / stand this / I can’t tolerate it / I can’t put up with this’.

Procure estudar apenas aqueles false friends realmente perigosos, no seu entender.

Por exemplo: o verbo to pretend não significa pretender e, sim, fingir. Para dizer pretender em inglês diga to intend, ou to have the intention of. A meu ver, este verbo deveria fazer parte da sua lista.

Agora, com sinceridade você acha que dever listar um vocábulo como bond (titulo do governo), que está todo dia nos jornais brasileiros, por ser parecido com bonde, o meio de transporte? Give me a break! Portanto, eu não listaria esta palavra.

DISCOURSE MARKERS

No text 1, a locução In brief (L-1), equivalente a ‘em resumo’, do text 1 é usada pelo autor exatamente para indicar sua intenção de resumir, de sumarizar.

Eis alguns dos outros discourse markers que você deve saber reconhecer.

Indicando conclusão ou para resumir IN SUM, in summary, to summarize, in brief, in short, to conclude, in conclusion, on the whole … 76


WORD FORMATION PREFIXES & SUFFIXES

From text 1: “Practically non-existent 20 years ago mobile phones are everywhere.” (L-1) Praticamente não existentes há 20 anos os celulares estão em todo lugar.

A. THE PREFIX NON-

O prefixo NON – é um dos formadores de antônimos. É colocado diante de substantivos ou adjetivos. O hífen nem sempre é usado, mas é mantido quando a outra palavra começa por letra maiúscula. Estude os exemplos a seguir.

I’d like to reserve a table for two. Non-smoking section, please. Queria reservar uma mesa para dois. Seção de não fumantes, por favor.

This is not a nonstop flight, madam. Este não é um vôo sem escalas, senhora.

Helga took part in the non-violent demonstration. A Helga participou da manifestação pacífica.

My grandfather was a non-smoker all his life. Meu avô foi um não fumante durante toda sua vida.

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That’s just nonsense! You can’t go there alone at this late hour. Isto é um absurdo! Você não pode sair só a esta hora.

What kind of books do you prefer: science fiction or nonfiction? Que tipo de livros você prefere - ficção científica ou não ficção?

B) THE SUFFIX –(I)TY

From text 1: “The result for individuals and businesses is cheaper and better service of a higher quality and reliability.” (L-16/17) O resultado para indivíduos e empresas é serviço melhor e mais barato, com qualidade e confiabilidade mais altas.

Este sufixo, muito freqüente em inglês, forma substantivos cuja terminação em português é normalmente ‘-dade’. Ocorrem algumas pequenas alterações ortográficas às vezes. No exemplo acima, do adjetivo reliable (confiável) chega-se ao substantivo reliability (confiabilidade).

Estude os exemplos a seguir.

Joe is so irresponsible. I’m tired of his irresponsibility. O Joe é tão irresponsável. Estou cansado de sua irresponsabilidade.

Actually, I see no reason for this feeling of inferiority. Na verdade, não vejo razão para este sentimento de inferioridade.

The president’s popularity has declined lately. 78


A popularidade do presidente tem caído ultimamente.

Às vezes apenas –TY é acrescentado ao adjetivo:

We were amazed by the cruelty shown by the bandits. Ficamos estarrecidos com a crueldade demonstrada pelos bandidos.

This is a privilege only for the members of royalty. Este é um privilégio só para os membros da realeza.

COLLOCATION & IDIOMS

Acho simplesmente fascinante o estudo das collocations & idioms.

Mas o que são collocations?

Entenda Collocations como blocos de palavras usados na fala ou na escrita, consagrados por native speakers. Da mesma forma que um estrangeiro não pode alterar nossas expressões e regionalismos, nós não podemos criar verbos, adjetivos e substantivos unidos a outros vocábulos ingleses ao nosso bel prazer. Um caso ilustrativo é o da expressão ‘cutucar a onça com vara curta’ que um estrangeiro não deve mudar para ‘cutucar a onça com vara breve’ !?!? por mais que curta e breve possam ser usadas indiferentemente em outro contexto como: A palestra do Prof. Silva foi breve, ou curta.

COLLOCATION & IDIOMS No texto The Information Society, logo no início, você encontra a locução in brief (em resumo). Ninguèm pode cismar que a sua expressão é at brief, on brief, etc porque elas simplesmente não fazem o menor sentido para os nativos da lingua inglesa. Portanto, minha 79


mensagem: habitue-se a estudar palavras em blocos, ou seja não deixe de estudar collocations.

Observe alguns maravilhosos exemplos de collocartions extraídos do texto inicial: mobile phones (telefones celulares); offered a bewildering array of programmes (ofereceram uma quantidade de programas de causar perplexidade); digital systems (sistemas digitais); at home (em casa), at school (na escola, no colégio); at work (no trabalho); at the heart of this process (no coração deste processo); setting the pace for opening markets (estabelecendo o ritmo para abertura de mercados); maintaining equal opportunities for all participants (mantendo oportunidade iguais para todos os participantes); creating a dynamic regulatory structure (criando uma estrutura regulatória dinâmica); defending consumer interests (defendendo os interesses dos consumidores); setting technical standards (estabelecendo padrões técnicos); Aggressive and innovative newcomers (recém-chegados dinâmicos e inovadores); attractively packaged (embalados, empacotados atraentemente); service of a higher quality and reliability (serviço de qualidade e confiabilidade mais altas).

MODAL VERBS

From text 1: “The information and communications sector must be among the most dynamic in the European Union and globally.” (L-14/15) O setor de comunicação e informação deve, com certeza, estar entre os mais dinâmicos na EU e no mundo.

Só há este exemplo de modal verb no text 1. Porém eu lhes asseguro: isso é exceção. Normalmente, encontramos vários modal verbs, such as: can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, have to, ought to. São verbos auxiliares colocados diante do verbo principal para emprestar nuances de sentido. Podem indicar permissão, possibilidade, necessidade, obrigação, etc. Vamos estudar os principais Modal verbs nas próximas aulas com atenção.

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JUST FOR FUN Uma coisa que nenhum candidato ou candidata pode esquecer é: de vez em quando, take it easy, relax. Do something just for fun.

A PICTURE IS WORTH 1000 WORDS

Woman’s mouse

QUIZ

Leia novamente o texto ‘The Information Society’ e tente responder certo (C) ou errado (E):

1. Mobile phones have been everywhere for 20 years. ( ) _______________________________________________________

2. The current revolution in information technology is creating the information society. ( ) _______________________________________________________

3. The European Union has given support to this revolution since the beginning. ( ) _______________________________________________________

4. Market forces have no influence whatsoever in this revolution. ( ) _______________________________________________________

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5. There has been the transfiguration of old publicly-owned telephone monopolies. ( ) _______________________________________________________

6. 90 % of the EU population are regular Internet users. ( ) _______________________________________________________

7. The word ‘while’ (L-22), as a discourse marker, is indicating passage of time. ( ) _______________________________________________________

8. The word ‘among’ (L-23) could be replaced with ‘between’ without changing the meaning intended by the author. ( ) _______________________________________________________

9. O modal verb must (L-23) está indicando obrigação. ( ) _______________________________________________________

10. Os adjetivos em negrito no fragmento a seguir se encontram no grau comparativo: “cheaper and better service of a higher quality”. ( ) _______________________________________________________

EXERCISES

I. Complete the sentence with the correct PAST FORM of the irregular verbs in parentheses:

1. Digital systems ______ (BRING) together 2 formerly separate worlds. ________________________________________________________

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2. Technology and market forces ________ (DRIVE) the communications revolution. ________________________________________________________

3. The European Union ________ (SET) the pace for opening markets. ________________________________________________________

4. 90 % of schools and businesses in the EU _______ (BE) online then. ________________________________________________________

5. The old publicly-owned telephone monopolies that once ________ (RUN) protected national markets have been transfigured. ________________________________________________________

6. Aggressive and innovative newcomers ________ (HAVE) imaginative new services, attractively packaged, to offer. ________________________________________________________

7. This revolution in information technology ________ (MAKE) it possible for the information society to be created. ________________________________________________________

8. Demand for mobile telephones and internet access _______ (RISE) sharply. ________________________________________________________

9. The author ________ (WRITE) this text a few years ago. ________________________________________________________

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10. The author _______ (SEEK) to present a few facts about the revolution in information technology which occurred in the world. ________________________________________________________

II. THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE - Traduza para o portuguĂŞs as formas verbais em negrito.

a) The EU has supported the communications revolution since the beginning. __________________________________________________________

b) Aggressive and innovative newcomers have moved in... __________________________________________________________

c) national markets have been transfigured __________________________________________________________

d) Competition has forced prices down __________________________________________________________

e) Consumer choice has widened __________________________________________________________

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III. Complete the text ‘Information Technology enhances productivity’ with each of the words from the box:

delegates

seize

prosperity

shared advanced

"Information and communication technology (ICT) is a key to the future __________ (1) of all nations," said John H. Marburger, science advisor to the president and director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). He delivered a keynote speech to the meeting where ___________ (2) from 176 nations and hundreds of other agencies and non-governmental organizations have convened to examine how to allow all the world's people to enjoy the benefits that are created by ___________ (3) information and communication technologies. "An estimated 40 percent of U.S. productivity growth between 1995 and 2002 has been attributed to information technology," Marburger said. “Our ability to __________ (4) the opportunities afforded by information and communication technology depends upon a philosophy of __________ (5) optimism about the power of individual creativity and entrepreneurship as the ultimate source of economic strength." (By Charlene Porter, Washington File Staff writer) Visit: http://america.gov/

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6ª AULA

UNIT 6

Text 1: Freeing the Fishing Children of-Ghana

I first saw the boys who work the boats on the waters of Lake Volta in April 2002. Hard work under punishing conditions had robbed them of the joy and vitality that lights the faces of healthy, happy children. The faces of these trafficked children in the fishing villages were lifeless; their bodies were stunted in growth from malnourishment and neglect. I think their minds and spirits suffer another kind of hunger. Working in conditions of forced labor lacking any familial affection or nurturing, they are traumatized and dispirited. I found that they couldn’t communicate as a normal healthy child might. I would ask them, “Do you want to go home to your family?" I had to ask several times before they would answer, as if they had been told what to do so often, they’d lost the ability to speak for themselves and express their own wishes. After the question became clear to them, they did say, “yes.” “They want to go home even though it may be to the same families who unwittingly allowed these children to become indentured laborers. The parents likely didn’t know their sons would be awakened before dawn each day to go to the boats. They didn’t know the children would work until last nigh pulling the nets from the water. They were probably told that their boys would be cared for and educated while working at a skill that might bring them a better future.

(By Dr. Ernest Taylor, IOM Project Director Accra, Ghana) Visit: <http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/0603/ijge/gj05.htm>

Vocabulary Study (Vocabulário de Apoio)

1. I first saw the boys who work the boats on the waters of 86


Eu vi, pela 1ª vez, os meninos que operam os barcos nas águas do

2. Hard work under punishing conditions trabalho árduo sob condições escravizantes

3. the joy and vitality that lights the faces a alegria e a vitalidade que iluminam os rostos

4. their bodies were stunted in growth seus corpos haviam parado de se desenvolver

5. from malnourishment and neglect devido à desnutrição e aos maus tratos

6. lacking any familial affection or nurturing carentes de qualquer afeição familiar ou orientação

7. the ability to speak for themselves a capacidade de falar por eles mesmos

8. express their own wishes expressar seus próprios desejos

9. the same families who unwittingly allowed these children as mesmas famílias que inadvertidamente permitiram que essas crianças

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10. to become indentured laborers se tornassem trabalhadores forçados

11. their sons would be awakened before dawn seus filhos seriam acordados antes do amanhecer

12. would be educated while working at a skill seriam educados enquanto trabalhavam numa especialização

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE

AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS

I / You / He / She / It /We / They

had walked / given

NEGATIVE STATEMENTS

I/ You / He / She / It / We / They

had not walked / given

note: had not = hadn’t

QUESTIONS

Had I / You / He / She / It / We / They

walked / given? 88


USES OF THE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE

A) Procuro fazer um verdadeiro bombardeio com relação ao entendimento do past perfect com meus alunos. Primeiro martelando a idéia de que é um past before past e, segundo, porque sua tradução para o português, na esmagadora maioria dos casos, é tranqüila e corresponde ao nosso tempo composto mesmo. Study these examples:

Before Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva became the president of Brazil he had lost two presidential elections. Antes de Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva se tornar o presidente do Brasil ele havia perdido duas eleições presidenciais.

Olivia had already studied Spanish before she entered college. A Olívia já havia estudado francês antes de entrar para a universidade.

Before Mr. Chaves worked here, he had worked at the Stock Exchange. Antes de o Sr Chaves trabalhar aqui, ele havia trabalhado na Bolsa de Valores.

Dr. Lambert had not visited Rio de Janeiro before. O Dr. Lambert não havia visitado o Rio antes.

Had you called me this afternoon? Você tinha me ligado esta tarde?

When I got to the airport, Tina had already left. Quando cheguei ao aeroporto, a Tina já havia partido.

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B) In indirect speech, when the past simple was used in direct speech, the past perfect is used to report somebody’s words.. Em discurso indireto quando o passado simples foi usado no discurso direto, o past perfect será usado para relatar as palavras de alguém.

‘The witness didn’t talk to the criminal.’ the inspector said. - A testemunha não falou com o criminoso - declarou o inspetor.

The inspector said that the witness hadn’t talked to the criminal. O inspetor disse que a testemunha não havia falado com o criminoso.

WORD FORMATION PREFIXES & SUFFIXES

From text 1: “their bodies were stunted in growth from malnourishment and neglect” (L-5/6) seus corpos haviam parado no seu crescimento devido à desnutrição e aos maus tratos

A) THE PREFIX MAL-

Não apresenta grande dificuldade para o estudante brasileiro o prefixo MAL-. For example: Malformation (má formação, formação imperfeita) Maltreatment (maus tratos) Malpractice (prática indevida, negligência profissional) Malfunction (mau funcionamento)

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B) THE SUFFIX -TH

No exemplo acima a terminação –TH foi acrescentada ao verbo irregular to grow (grew, grown) para formar o noun growth (crescimento). Com pequenas alterações ortográficas, ou não, forma substantivos:

Deep (profundo) // depth (profundeza) Long (longo, comprido) // length (comprimento) Wide (largo / a) // width (largura) Strong (forte) // strength (força) Dead (morto /a) // death (morte)

N.B. Note que na formação dos ordinais em inglês, com exceção de first, second and third, você encontrará esta terminação –TH característica: fourth, fifth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth....

MODAL VERBS

From text 1: “I found that they couldn’t communicate as a normal healthy child might (communicate)” (L8/9) Percebi que não conseguiam se comunicar como uma criança saudável, normal poderia (se comunicar)

“They want to go home even though it may be to the same families” (L-13/14) Elas querem ir para casa muito embora seja para as mesmas famílias

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“The parents likely didn’t know their sons would be awakened before “dawn” (L-15/16) Os pais provavelmente não soubessem que seus filhos seriam acordados antes do amanhecer

Modal verbs são verbos especiais. Não têm um significado próprio. Emprestam nuances de significado ao verbo principal na frase. For example: ‘You should hard’, não passa de um fragmento sem sentido. Agora, ‘You should study hard’ faz todo sentido. A locução ‘should study’ expressa uma idéia do que é aconselhável fazer, em outras palavras, ‘é bom você estudar’. By the way ( A propósito), modal verbs é um grammar topic que você não deve deixar de estudar.

Modal auxiliaries têm as seguintes características especiais:

a) não se acrescenta nem ‘s’ nem ‘es’ a 3a pessoa do singular:

It may be right. Pode estar certo. É possível que esteja certo.

He can walk for a while. Ele pode caminhar um instante.

The boss should be here anytime now. O chefe deve chegar a qualquer momento.

She must phone him. Ela tem de ligar para ele.

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b) modal verbs não são seguidos da partícula ‘to’ do infinitivo (com exceção de ‘ought to’)

We should read that magazine. Devíamos ler aquela revista.

They might record the show. Eles devem gravar o show. (É possível que gravem o show)

But: She ought to study more. Ela deveria estudar mais.

c) para formar frase negativas basta colocar ‘not’ após os modal verbs.

We cannot stay here any more. Não podemos ficar mais aqui.

Would you come to my party? Você viria a minha festa?

You must not do that. Você não deve fazer aquilo.

May I leave? Posso sair?

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d) os chamados ‘perfect modals’ são assim formados: modal verb + have (nunca has or had) + past participle of the main verb.

Sheila kept me waiting. She should have called me up much earlier. A Sheila me deixou esperando. Devia ter me telefonado antes.

I might have gone there if you had invited me. Eu poderia ter ido lá se você me tivesse convidado.

They may have survived the shipwreck. Eles podem ter sobrevivido ao naufrágio.

We ought to have studied harder for the College Entrance Examination. Deveríamos ter estudado mais arduamente para o exame Vestibular.

Text 2: Albert Einstein

Although Princeton, New Jersey, is the location of a world famous university, it is still a small, conservative town of tree-shaded streets. It is not a place where anyone would particularly expect to see strange characters on the street. That is why one woman will never forget the day in 1940 when, as a child, she suddenly saw a funny-looking man coming toward her. “I remember,” she tells her children now, how wild his white hair looked as if it had been electrified. He was short. His clothes seemed baggy. He had a big nose, a bristly moustache, and deep-set eyes. When he came near, he accidentally noticed me and gave me a very pleasant smile. But then he walked on and went on thinking. I noticed he had on bedroom slippers. He had forgotten to put on his shoes. I thought I had imagined him, that somehow he had stepped out of my book of fairy tales. That night at dinner when I told my family about the strange, funny man I had seen my father put down his knife and fork and looked at me and said the most unbelievable thing, “My child, remember this. Today you saw the greatest man in the world!”

94


The man I had seen was Albert Einstein. How and why he had come to Princeton New Jersey, is a story of struggle, success and sadness. (From American Men of Science and Invention, Albert Einstein, p.99, USIA)

TEXT 2 VOCABULARY STUDY ROUND THE ALPHABET

a) where anyone would particularly expect _______________________________________________________

b) That is why one woman will never forget the day _______________________________________________________

c) she suddenly saw a funny-looking man coming toward her _______________________________________________________

d) she tells her children now _______________________________________________________

e) how wild his white hair looked _______________________________________________________

f) as if it had been electrified _______________________________________________________

g) He was short. His clothes seemed baggy _______________________________________________________

95


h) He had a big nose, a bristly moustache, and deep-set eyes. _______________________________________________________

i) When he came near _______________________________________________________

j) he accidentally noticed me _______________________________________________________

k) and gave me a very pleasant smile _______________________________________________________

l) But then he walked on and went on thinking _______________________________________________________

m) I noticed he had on bedroom slippers _______________________________________________________

n) He had forgotten to put on his shoes _______________________________________________________

o) I thought I had imagined him _______________________________________________________

p) that somehow he had stepped out of my book of fairy tales _______________________________________________________ 96


q) That night at dinner when I told my family about _______________________________________________________

r) the strange, funny man I had seen _______________________________________________________

s) my father put down his knife and fork and looked at me _______________________________________________________

t) and said the most unbelievable thing _______________________________________________________

u) Today you saw the greatest man in the world _______________________________________________________

v) The man I had seen was Albert Einstein _______________________________________________________

w) How and why he had come to Princeton New Jersey _______________________________________________________

x) is a story of struggle, success and sadness _______________________________________________________

97


JUST FOR FUN

PICTURE TEST

Come on, try another picture test. As usual, it’s fifty-fifty.

The man has just [a) snored / b) sneezed]!

EXERCISES

I. Retorne ao text 1 e busque:

A) 5 construções verbais no present simple: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

B) 5 construções verbais no past simple: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

II. PAST PERFECT SIMPLE PRACTICE – Complete com as formas de past simple e dde past perfect simple dos verbos entre parênteses:

98


1. Guess what! Last night I _______ something I _____ never _______ in my whole life: Bolivian salteñas. [EAT] Adivinhe! Ontem à noite comi algo que nunca havia comido na minha vida: salteñas bolivianas.

2. Yesterday I _______ something on TV that I _____ not _____ in my entire life. A hockey game! [SEE] Ontem eu vi na TV um programa que eu nunca tinha visto na minha vida inteira: Um jogo de hóquei.

3. Troy is an experienced pilot, but he confessed that he _____ not yet _______ such a big jet plane as the one he ________ yesterday. [FLY] O Troy é um piloto experiente, porém confessou que jamais havia pilotado um jato tão grande como o que pilotou ontem.

4. My son told me he _______ tequila at the party; a drink he ________ not yet ________ in his life. [DRINK] Meu filho contou-me que bebeu tequila na festa, uma bebida que nunca havia bebido antes na vida.

5. Mr. Hart visited us last week. He said that he _______ at a luxurious hotel where he ______ never ________ before during his business trips. [STAY] O Sr. Hart nos visitou na semana passada. Disse que se hospedou num hotel de luxo onde jamais havia se hospedado antes em suas viagens de negócios.

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7ÂŞ AULA

UNIT 7

Text 1: Bringing the Internet to Schools Effectively

Installation of computers and Internet access in schools must be preceded by careful consideration of how to best use and support the technology.

Internet access is spreading rapidly in primary and secondary schools around the world. Virtually 100% of schools are connected to the Internet in countries such as the United States, Australia, Finland, Canada, and Great Britain. The Internet is also fast becoming widely available in schools from Scandinavia to Israel to Korea. Almost daily, countries are making decisions with major educational and financial consequences about whether to connect schools to the Internet, what kind of connections to use, and to whom to permit access. Unfortunately, education officials do not always give sufficient thought to the adoption of Internet and other computer-based technologies in schools. Sometimes computer technology is acquired as a symbol of modernity rather than for carefully planned educational purposes. Furthermore, since the Internet is generally seen as a desirable resource, pressures mount on schools to broaden access in classrooms before plans have been formulated for its effective use there.

(By Janet Ward Schofield, Professor of Psychology and Senior Scientist, Learning Research & Development Center, University of Pittsburgh) Visit: http://www.state.gov/

Vocabulary Study (VocabulĂĄrio de Apoio)

100


1. Internet access is spreading rapidly O acesso à Internet está se disseminando rapidamente

2. widely available in schools amplamente disponíveis nas escolas

3. to whom to permit access a quem permitir o acesso

4. give sufficient thought to the adoption of Internet considerar a adoção da Internet criteriosamente

5. rather than for carefully planned educational purposes ao invés de [se considerarem] os fins educacionais cuidadosamente planejados

6. is generally seen as a desirable resource é normalmente vista como um recurso desejável

7. pressures mount on schools as pressões se avolumam nas escolas

8. to broaden access in classrooms para expandir o acesso [à Internet] nas salas de aula

101


PRESENT CONTINUOUS

AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS I

am

walking / giving

He / She / It

is

walking / giving

You / We / They

are

walking / giving

NEGATIVE STATEMENTS I

am

not

walking / giving

He / She / It

is

not

walking / giving

You / We / They

are

not

walking / giving

Note: is not = isn’t // are not = aren’t

QUESTIONS Am

I

walking / giving?

Is

He / She / It

walking / giving?

Are

You / We / They

walking / giving?

102


USES OF THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS a) Used mainly to describe an action happening at the moment of speaking. Usado para descrever ações acontecendo no momento em que se fala.

It is raining heavily today. Está chovendo torrencialmente hoje.

Is George working upstairs now? O George está trabalhando lá em cima agora?

We are not living in Ipanema any more. Não estamos morando mais em Ipanema.

b) The present continuous can be used to refer to future actions, too. Também o presente contínuo pode ser usado com ações futuras.

Dr. Valdez is leaving on vacation next week. O Dr. Valdez está saindo de férias na semana que vem.

We’re meeting Jane for lunch tomorrow. Why don’t you join us? Iremos almoçar com a Jane amanhã. Por que não se junta a nós?

A LITTLE BIT MORE ABOUT –ING FORMS

As –ING forms dos verbos ingleses são muito frequentes e nunca é demais detalhar seu estudo: 103


a) no caso do present continuous, como já dissemos, tem-se o auxiliar to be + present participle. Por exemplo:

We are studying verb tenses in English at present. Estamos estudando os tempos verbais em inglês atualmente.

b) após preposições devemos usar –ing forms. Para efeito de tradução para o português corresponderão ao infinitivo.

After working I usually take the subway. Após trabalhar eu geralmente pego o metrô.

They are accusing the maid of stealing the jewels. Eles estão acusando a empregada de roubar as jóias.

c) em adj + noun collocations ou simples combinações formando substantivos compostos com a –ING form funcionando como adjetivo.

There’s a growing demand for our products in that country. Há uma demanda crescente por nossos produtos naquele país.

We don’t have a swimming pool in our building. Não temos uma piscina no nosso prédio.

d) –ING forms podem funcionar também como gerund, equivalendo na frase a um substantivo.

104


I don’t find fault with my wife’s driving. In fact, I think she drives very well. Não critico a direção de minha mulher. De fato, acho que ela dirige muito bem.

Reading books in moving vehicles is bad for your eyes. A leitura de livros em veículos em movimento é prejudicial à visão.

Doctors say smoking is harmful to people’s health. Os médicos afirmam que o fumo faz mal à saúde das pessoas.

e) Há alguns verbos que exigem que a –ING form seja usada depois deles. Por exemplo:

My wife and I enjoy watching movies on TV. Minha mulher e eu gostamos de ver filmes na TV.

My boss told us he will consider giving us a raise. Meu chefe disse-nos que vai pensar em nos dar um aumento.

f) apesar de não estarmos estudando passive voice ainda, vale a pena mencionar um caso especial com –ING forms:

Look at the door of your garage. It needs painting. Olhe a porta da sua garagem. Precisa de pintura. (ser pintada)

My hair is too long. It needs cutting. Meu cabelo está comprido demais. Precisa de corte. (ser cortado)

105


VERB TENSES PRACTICE

1. What must be considered before the installation of computers and Internet access in schools? It must be preceded by careful consideration of how to best use and support the technology.

2. How is Internet access spreading around the world? Internet access is spreading fast in primary and secondary schools around the world.

3. How many schools are connected to the Internet in some countries? Virtually 100% of schools are connected to the Internet.

4. What is happening in schools in Scandinavia, Israel and Korea, for example? The Internet is fast becoming widely available in schools there, too.

5. What king of decisions are some countries making almost every day? Countries are making decisions with major educational and financial consequences daily.

6. What are these decisions about? These decisions are about whether to connect schools to the Internet, what kind of connections to use, and to whom to permit access.

7. Do education officials give enough thought to the adoption of Internet? Unfortunately, education officials do not always give sufficient thought to the adoption of Internet and other related factors.

8. What happens to the acquisition of computer technology at times? 106


Sometimes computer technology is acquired as a symbol of modernity rather than for carefully planned educational purposes.

9. How is the Internet generally seen by most officials? The Internet is generally seen as a desirable resource

10. Why do pressures mount on schools to broaden access to the web in classrooms? Because education officials want to broaden access to the web in classrooms before plans have been formulated for its effective use there.

MODAL VERBS

From text 1: “Installation of computers and Internet access in schools must be preceded” (L-1) A instalação de computadores e do acesso à Internet tem de ser precedida

O modal verb must, que não apresenta outra flexão, e é substituído por uma forma da locução have to, geralmente é usado para indicar:

a) usados para expressar algo que é indispensável que se faça

I must study today. Tenho que estudar hoje.

Must you leave us so soon? Você tem que partir tão cedo?

107


Do you have to go now? Você tem que ir agora?

b) Must / have to in negative statements, não podem ser usados indiferentemente um pelo outro

You must not enter the meeting room. (must not indicates prohibition) Você não pode entrar na sala de reuniões. (must not aqui indica proibição)

You don’t have to go with us if you don’t want to. (Here ‘don’t have to’ indicates lack of necessity) Você não precisa ir conosco se não quiser. (Aqui ‘don’t have to’ indica que não há necessidade)

c) must também pode ser usado para tirar conclusões lógicas.

Look! The lights in Gina’s room are on. So, she must be awake. Veja! As luzes no quarto da Gina estão acesas. Logo, ela deve estar acordada.

d) ‘must have’ + past participle of main verb - para expressar probabilidade no passado

Look how tanned Linda is! She must have stayed a long time in the sun. Veja com a Linda está bronzeada! Ela deve ter ficado no sol um tempão.

108


WORD FORMS

Observe a grande quantidade de exemplos de palavras com o sufixo –LY, formador de advérbios e que normalmente correspondem a palavras em português com a terminação;MENTE: rapidly (rapidamente), virtually (virtualmente, praticamente), widely (largamente, amplamente), daily (diariamente), Unfortunately (infelizmente), carefully (cuidadosamente), generally (geralmente).

However, decidi concentrar-me em dois sufixos –FUL & -LESS.

From text 1: by careful consideration of how to best use and support the technology pela cuidadosa ponderação sobre o melhor uso e apoio à tecnologia

A) THE SUFFIX -FUL

O sufixo –FUL é acrescentado a substantivos para formar adjetivos. Veja estes exemplos

NOUN ADJECTIVE

TRANSLATION

beauty beautiful

belo / a

power powerful

poderoso / a

use

useful

útil

faith

faithful

fiel, leal

youth youthful

juvenil, moço

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B) THE SUFFIX -LESS

Vamos falar logo do sufixo -LESS com sentido oposto, também usado na formação de adjetivos.

NOUN ADJECTIVE

TRANSLATION

care

descuidado /a

careless

power powerless

impotente

use

useless

inútil

age

ageless

eterno, imutável

time

timeless

eterno, infinito

voice

voiceless

mudo, sem voz

DISCOURSE MARKERS

From text 1:

100% of schools are connected to the Internet in countries such as the United States, Australia, Finland, Canada, and Great Britain…” (L-4/5) 100% das escolas estão conectadas à Internet em países tais como Estados Unidos, Austrália, Finlândia, Canadá e Grã Bretanha

Neste fragmento o autor precisava citar exemplos de países cuja totalidade das escolas está conectada à Internet, para isso usou such as (tal como, tais como). Todas as palavras ou locuções abaixo podem sinalizar uma exemplificação. Refer to them as frequently as possible.

110


Indicando exemplificação FOR EXAMPLE, for instance, incidentally, indeed, in fact, in other words, in particular, namely, particularly, specifically, such as, that is …

JUST FOR FUN

Look at this illustration by my friend Adail. Illustrations offer marvelous opportunities to practice present continuous constructions. In this picture test we deal with the best answer to: What are the men doing?

PICTURE TEST

The two men are looking at a [a) snake / b) snail].

VERB TENSES PRACTICE

Pre-testing Vocabulary: Associe as colunas A e B:

A

B

1. reshaping the lives of people

a. ( ) cumprir plenamente a promessa

2. meet these challenges

b. ( ) seu cotidiano, seu dia-a-dia

3. has brought into being

c. ( ) mudando a vida da gente

4. achieve its full promise

d. ( ) fez nascer

5. their everyday lives

e. ( ) enfrentar tais desafios

111


Mini text 1: The Evolving Internet

Each day brings new examples of how information and communication technology (ICT) is reshaping the lives of people around the world. To one degree or another, the digital revolution has arrived in just about every corner of the globe… On the Internet and the World Wide Web, people are governing, learning, communicating, debating, “politicking,” shopping, and experimenting - conducting all kinds of interactions in ways only made possible by ICT. The Internet has brought into being a virtual world that, like the universe itself, is expanding every moment, full of promise, hope, and a little mystery. But challenges remain if it is to achieve its full promise. The United States, in partnership with other governments, international organizations, and citizens of many countries, is committed to assisting people around the globe to meet these challenges so that this virtual world becomes a helpful and productive part of their everyday lives.

Visit: http://exchanges.state.gov/

ANALYSIS OF MINI TEXT 1

1. Translate the title of this mini text: ______________________________________________________

2. Write 3 present continuous constructions below: _______________________________________________________

3. Sabendo-se que partner significa sócio, parceiro, o que você acha que a palavra partnership (L-10) significa? _______________________________________________________

4. Como você traduz o seguinte fragmento: “is committed to assisting people” _______________________________________________________ 112


EXERCISES

I. Make up questions for the statements below:

1. It is raining now. _____________________________________?

2. Dot is studying French at present. What _________________________________?

3. The Millers are traveling to Europe by plane. How __________________________________?

4. Dr. Lambert is writing a treatise on Macroeconomics. What kind of ________________________________?

5. I am living in Tijuca now. Where _________________________________?

II. Complete com uma palavra que forme um PHRASAL VERB com LEAVE. Um significado equivalente é dado entre parênteses:

OFF

FOR

ASIDE OUT

BEHIND

1. Make sure you’re not leaving my name _________. (= omitting) 113


2. My parents are leaving _________ Canada (= departing)

3. It’s still raining. There is no sign this rain will leave _________. (= stop)

4. Let’s leave other factors ________, the point is: can we afford a new car? (= not consider)

5. I was in the parking lot already when I realized that I had left my car keys ________ (= forgotten)

III. A few Picture tests more!

-AWhat’s the policeman doing? He’s [a) greeting / b) saluting] the lady.

-BThe shoeshine boy must be s wondering why everybody is wearing [a) stickers / b) sneakers]

-CCould you tell me why this man is [a) holding / b) acting] so strangely?

-DThe angry customer is [a) yelling / b) yielding] at the receptionist.

114


VERBOS IRREGULARES

Esta é uma das muitas formas de você fixar os principais irregular verbs. Use esta primeira listagem com alguns dos principais verbos irregulares para praticar oralmente. Não escreva nada nas lacunas. Logo em seguida você tem a listagem completa com todas as formas dos verbos para consultas.

Round the alphabet: A thru C

INFINITIVE

PAST TENSE

PAST PARTICIPLE

1. beat

beat

____________

2. begin

__________

begun

3. bind

bound

____________

4. bite

___________ bitten

5. blow

blew

6. break

___________ broken

7. bring

brought

8. build

___________ built

9. buy

bought

10. catch

___________ caught

11. choose

chose

12. come

___________ come

____________

____________

____________

____________

115


Round the alphabet: D thru F

INFINITIVE

PAST TENSE

PAST PARTICIPLE

1. do

____________

done

2. draw

drew

____________

3. drink

____________

drunk

4. drive

drove

____________

5. eat

____________

eaten

6. fall

fell

____________

7. feed

____________

fed

8. feel

felt

____________

9. fight

____________

fought

10. find

found

____________

11. fly

____________

flown

12. freeze

froze

____________

116


Round the alphabet: G thru K

INFINITIVE

PAST TENSE

PAST PARTICIPLE

1. get

got

____________

2. give

___________

given

3. go

went

____________

4. grind

____________

ground

5. grow

grew

____________

6. hang

____________

hung

7. have

had

____________

8. hear

____________

heard

9. hide

hid

____________

10. hold

____________

held

11. keep

kept

____________

12. know

____________

known

117


Round the alphabet: L thru Q

INFINITIVE

PAST TENSE

PAST PARTICIPLE

1. lay

laid

____________

2. lead

____________

led

3. leave

left

____________

4. lend

____________

lent

5. lie

lay

____________

6. lose

____________

lost

7. make

made

____________

8. mean

____________

meant

9. meet

met

____________

10. pay

____________

paid

11. put

put

____________

12. quit

____________

quit

Round the alphabet: R

INFINITIVE

PAST TENSE

PAST PARTICIPLE

1. read

read

____________

2. ride

___________ ridden

3. ring

rang

4. rise

___________ risen

5. run

ran

____________

___________

118


Round the alphabet: S

INFINITIVE

PAST TENSE

PAST PARTICIPLE

1. say

said

____________

2. see

____________

seen

3. sell

sold

____________

4. send

____________

sent

5. shoot

shot

____________

6. sing

____________

sung

7. sit

sat

____________

8. sleep

____________

slept

9. speak

spoke

____________

10. spend

____________

spent

11. stand

stood

____________

12. steal

____________

stolen

13. strive

strove

____________

14. swear

____________

sworn

15. swim

swam

____________

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Round the alphabet: T thru W

INFINITIVE

PAST TENSE

PAST PARTICIPLE

1. take

took

____________

2. teach

____________

taught

3. tear

tore

____________

4. tell

____________

told

5. think

thought

____________

6. throw

____________

thrown

7. understand

understood

____________

8. wear

____________

worn

9. weep

wept

____________

10. win

____________

won

11. wind

wound

____________

12. write

____________

written

LISTA COMPLETA DOS PRINCIPAIS VERBOS IRREGULARES

Infinitive

Past Tense

Past Participle Translation

beat

beat

begin

began

begun

comeรงar

bind

bound

bound

atar

bite

bit

bitten

morder

blow

blew

blown

soprar

beaten

bater

120


break

broke

bring

brought

brought

trazer

build

built

built

construir

buy

bought

bought

comprar

catch

caught

caught

agarrar, pegar

choose chose

broken

chosen

quebrar

escolher

come

came

come

vir

do

did

done

fazer

drink

drank

drunk

beber

drive

drove

driven

dirigir

eat

ate

eaten

comer

fall

fell

fallen

cair

feel

felt

felt

find

found

fly

flew

forget forgot

found

sentir achar, encontrar

flown forgotten

voar esquecer

get

got

gotten

conseguir (*)

give

gave

given

dar

go

went

gone

ir

have

had

had

ter

hear

heard

hide

hid

hidden

keep

kept

kept

know

knew

lead

led

leave

left

heard

ouvir

known

manter, guardaar saber, conecer

led left

esconder

conduzir, liderar deixar, partir 121


Infinitive

Past Tense

Past Participle Translation

lose

lost

lost

perder

make

made

made

fazer

meet

met

met

encontrar, reunir-se

pay

paid

paid

pagar

ride

rode

ridden

andar (a cavalo)

ring

rang

rung

tocar, fazer soar

rise

rose

risen

elevar, levantar

run

ran

run

correr

say

said

said

dizer

see

saw

seen

ver

sell

sold

sold

vender

send

sent

sent

enviar

sing

sang

sung

cantar

sink

sank

sunk

afundar

sit

sat

sat

sentar

speak

spoke

spoke

falar

spend

spent

spent

gastar

stand

stood

stood

ficar de pĂŠ, suportar

steal

stole

stolen

furtar

strive

strove

strive

esforçar-se

swim

swam

swum

nadar

take

took

taken

tomar, pegar (*)

teach

taught

taught

ensinar

tear

tore

torn

rasgar 122


tell

told

told

contar

think

thought

thought

pensar

throw

threw

throw

jogar, arremeçar

understand

understood

understood

entender

wear

wore

worn

vestir

weep

wept

wept

chorar

win

won

won

vencer

wind

wound

wound

enrolar, serpentear

N.B: Procurei usar a tradução mais comum desses verbos marcados com (*), porém muitos deles têm outros significados. É preciso prestar atenção ao contexto!

123


8ª AULA UNIT 8

Text 1: The Boston Tea Party

By the middle of the 1700s, the 13 colonies that made up part of England's empire in the New World were finding it difficult to be ruled by a king 3,000 miles across the Atlantic Ocean. They were tired of the taxes imposed upon them. But independence was a gradual and painful process. The colonists could not forget that they were British citizens and that they owed allegiance to King George III. A "tea party” and a “Massacre" were two events that hurried destiny. Along with general unrest these events united the colonists. In 1767 a tea company in India, owned by England, was losing money. To save the company, England levied a tax on tea sold in the colonies in 1773. Partly as a joke, Samuel Adams and other Bostonians dressed up as Indians and dumped a cargo of the India Company Tea into the Massachusetts Bay. King George III did not think it was funny, nor did he lift the tax on tea. In the Boston harbor, British soldiers were jeered and stoned by colonists who thought the soldiers had been sent to watch them. The soldiers fired into the crowd and killed a few citizens. The colonists exaggerated the number killed and called it a massacre.

(Excerpt from Independence Day, in Celebrate! Holidays in the USA) Visit: http://www.usemb.se/Holidays/celebrate/independ.html

Vocabulary Study (Vocabulário de Apoio)

1. that made up the empire que compunham o império

2. ruled by a king governados por um rei

124


3. painful process processo penoso

4. owed allegiance deviam lealdade

5. hurried destiny apressaram o destino

6. general unrest inquietação generalizada

7. dumped a cargo jogaram a carga

8. lift the tax suspender o imposto

PAST CONTINUOUS

AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS

I /He / She / It was walking / giving

You / We / They were walking / giving 125


NEGATIVE STATEMENTS

I / He / She / It was not walking / giving

You / We / They were not walking / giving

Note: was not = wasn’t / were not = weren’t

QUESTIONS

Was I / He / She / It walking / giving?

Were You / We / They walking / giving?

USES OF THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

a) To describe a past action in progress connected to another past action. Expressa uma ação contínua no passado, ligada a outra ação passada.

The phone was ringing when Mrs. Dawson arrived home. O telefone estava tocando quando a Sra Dawson chegou em casa.

Were you studying last night when I called you up? Você estava estudando ontem à noite quando eu telefonei para você?

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She wasn’t playing tennis this afternoon. She was dancing. Ela não estava jogando tênis esta tarde. Estava dançando.

b) It may also be used to describe an action that was happening at the same time another action was in progress. Pode ser também usado para descrever uma ação passada que estava em progressão ao mesmo tempo em que outra acontecia.

While his wife was doing the housework, Bill was writing letters. Enquanto sua esposa estava fazendo suas tarefas, o Bill estava escrevendo cartas.

All the time the movie star was bathing at the beach, her security agents were keeping an eye on anyone who came close to her. O todo o tempo que a estrela estava se banhando no mar, seus agentes de segurança estavam vigiando qualquer um que dela se aproximasse.

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

Indispensable question words:

What…?

O que...?

Which…?

Quais ...?

Who…?

Quem...?

How…?

Como...?

Where…?

Onde....?

Why ... ?

Por que ...?

When…?

Quando...?

How many…? Quantos / as...?

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Answer the following questions using complete sentences.

1. Why were the 13 colonies finding it difficult to be ruled by a king in the 1700s? ________________________________________________________

2. Who did the citizens owe allegiance to? ________________________________________________________

3. Which two events hurried destiny? ________________________________________________________

4. What was happening to a tea company in India, owned by England, in l767? ________________________________________________________

5. What did England do to save the company? ________________________________________________________

6. How did a number of Bostonians react? ________________________________________________________

7. Why were the British soldiers jeered and stoned by colonists? ________________________________________________________

8. Who fired into the crowd? ________________________________________________________

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9. How many citizens were killed? ________________________________________________________

10. How did the colonists call this incident? ________________________________________________________

MODAL VERBS

From text 1: “The colonists could not forget that they were British citizens and that they owed allegiance to King George III.” (L-5/6) Os colonos não podiam esquecer que eram cidadãos britânicos e que deviam lealdade ao Rei George III

O lema da campanha política do presidente Obama, ‘Yes, we can’ (Sim, nós podemos) ficou famoso e nos ajuda no estudo deste modal verb. É claro que ali estava implícito: Yes, we can change. (Sim, nós podemos mudar).

Vamos focalizar o modal verb CAN e suas formas COULD & COULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE nesta unidade. Vamos chamar sua atenção também para a locução BE ABLE TO.

Study the following cases:

a) ‘CAN’ or ‘COULD’ (usado para pedir e conceder permissão, uso mais informal que ‘may’)

Can I go home a little earlier today? 129


Posso ir para casa um pouco mais cedo hoje? (May I go can be used, too - but it’s more formal)

You can go upstairs now. Você pode subir agora.

Could I use your motorcycle tomorrow? Poderia usar sua moto amanhã?

b) ‘CAN’ or ‘COULD’ (para expressar habilidade)

My granddaughter can swim very well. Minha neta sabe nadar muito bem.

Can you play soccer? (Do you know how to play soccer?) Você sabe jogar futebol?

I could play chess quite well when I was in College. Eu sabia jogar xadrez bastante bem quando estava na faculdade.

c) COULD em solicitações, pedidos educados.

Could you please open the window? It’s hot here. Poderia por favor abri a janela. Está quente aqui. 130


d) CAN or one form of BE ABLE TO (para expressar ações futuras)

I don’t speak Italian fluently but I will be able to soon. Eu não falo italiano fluentemente, mas em breve falarei (serei capaz de falar)

e) indicando possibilidade lógica ou uma impossibilidade na negativa.

It couldn’t be John at the airport. I know that he’s dead. Não podia ser o John no aeroporto; eu sei que ele está morto.

f) no discurso indireto (reported speech)

‘You can go to the beach tomorrow’, Pat’s father said. Pat’s father said that she could go to the beach on the following day.

- Você pode ir à praia amanha, disse o pai da Dot. O pai da Dot disse que ela podia ir à praia no dia seguinte.

g) CAN HAVE / COULD HAVE (usado para expressar possibilidade no passado)

If you had phoned me, I could have visited you. Se você tivesse me telefonado, eu poderia ter visitado você.

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I was wondering what can/could have happened to my tapes. Estava imaginando o que pode/ poderia ter acontecido com minhas fitas.

WORD FORMS

THE SUFFIXES –ENCE / -ANCE

From text 1: “But independence was a gradual and painful process…” (L- 4) Porém a independência foi um processo gradual e doloroso...

Você tem outro exemplo de aplicação do suffix –FUL formador de adjetivos que já estudamos. Acrescentado ao substantivo pain (dor), obtemos painful (doloroso, dolorosa). But, let’s focus on the suffixes: –ENCE & -ANCE.

THE SUFFIX -ANCE

VERB

NOUN

TRADUÇÃO

attend

attendance

frequência, assistência

assure

assurance

garantia

appear

appearance

aparecimento

tolerate

tolerance

tolerância

perform

performance

atuação

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THE SUFFIX –ENCE

VERB

NOUN

TRADUÇÃO

Presente

presence

presença

insist

insistence

insistência

exist

existence

existência

consist

consistence

consistência, firmeza

coincide

coincidence

coincidência

Passe a fazer anotações de outros exemplos com esses sufixos, cuja incidência nos textos ingleses é expressiva.

KEY WORDS - CONFUSABLE WORDS

From text 1: “The soldiers fired into the crowd and killed a few citizens.” (L-15) Os soldados atiraram na multidão e mataram alguns cidadãos.

A) A FEW X A LITTLE - FEW X LITTLE

Estas palavras tradicionalmente estudadas nos livros textos nos remetem ao conceito de count-nouns e non-count nouns. Veja estes exemplos:

A.1) FEW- usado diante de count nouns.

The exam was so difficult that few students passed.

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A prova foi tão difícil que pouquíssimos alunos passaram.

A.2) A FEW também usado diante count nouns.

Even though the exam was hard a few students passed. Muito embora o exame tenha sido difícil alguns alunos passaram.

NB: Cuidado com a locução que engana bastante: quite a few (= muitos, um bocado)

Quite a few people attended Prof. Hartley’s lecture. Muita gente assistiu à conferência do Prof. Hartley.

B.1) LITTLE (= pouco /a) usado diante de non-count nouns

When he came to Brazil Mr. Tanaka spoke very little Portuguese. Quando o Sr. Tanaka veio para o Brasil ele falava português muito pouco.

B.2) A LITTLE (= um pouco) usado diante de non-count nouns.

I would like a little more sugar in my coffee. Gostaria de um pouco mais de açúcar no meu café.

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PHRASAL VERBS

From text 1: “By the middle of the 1700s, the 13 colonies that made up part of England's empire in the New World …” (L-1/2) Por volta de meados do século XVIII as colônias que compunham parte do império britânico no novo mundo...

Como já dissemos, os phrasal verbs se enquadram perfeitamente no conceito de collocations. No passado sempre foram estudados sob várias denominações, two-word verbs, sometimes three-word verbs, idioms, etc mas o certo é que não podemos negar sua importância.

Nos exemplos do texto, você já sabe que o verbo make corresponde a ‘fazer’ geralmente. Porém se você reparar bastou acrescentar a partícula ‘up’ e temos: compor, representar nesse contexto. E há vários outros significados para make up. Veja alguns exemplos:

Lílian made herself up for the party. Lilian maquiou-se para a festa.

Bill and Alice broke up last month. Now they’ve made up again. O Bill e a Alice brigaram no mês passado. Agora já se reconciliaram de novo.

Did you believe her story? I think she made it up. Você acreditou na história dela? Acho que ela a inventou.

SEPARABLE & INSEPARABLE PHRASAL VERBS

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O conceito de separable & inseparable phrasal verbs está ligado ao fato de se poder colocar um pronome, como ‘it’ por exemplo, entre o verbo e a partícula adverbial.

The phrasal verb make up above is separable.

Todavia há alguns phrasal verbs que são inseparable.

Every weekend we used to call on our parents. Todo fim de semana nós costumávamos visitar nossos pais.

JUST FOR FUN

PICTURE TEST

Give it a try! You always have a 50% chance o getting it right.

I just couldn’t believe it, the butler was carrying the dog’s [a) lamp post / b) lamp shade].

EXERCISES

I. Past simple practice. Do this exercise in writing or just orally:

Model: A: “Did you see ‘Titanic’ on TV last night?” B: “No, I didn’t. Last night I saw a documentary on Discovery Channel.” 136


1. A: “Did you go to the Zoo last Sunday?” B: “No, we didn’t. We ________ to the park.”

2. A: “Did you spend your last vacation in Rio?” B: “No, I didn’t. I ________ it abroad.”

3. A: “Did you study your English lesson yesterday?” B: “No, I didn’t. I ________ Chemistry.”

4. A: “Did Glenda leave the office late yesterday?” B: “No, she didn’t. She ________ quite early.”

5. A: “Did Sandra send you an e-mail last week?” B: “No, she didn’t. She _______ a postcard.”

6. A: “Did Phil visit you in Amsterdam?” B: “No, he didn’t. He _______ me in Paris.”

7. A: “Did Anna draw out R$ 100,00 from the ATM?” B: “No, she didn’t. She _______ out R$ 70,00.”

8. A: “Did Helen get the first prize?” B: “No, she didn’t. She _______ the 2nd prize.”

9. A: “Did I tell you to study the whole chapter?” B: “No, you didn’t. You _______ us to study part of it.” 137


10. A: “Did the director come to talk to you?” B: “No, he didn’t. His assistant _______ to talk to us.” II. Based on the three pictures below, make up a little story. Use present simple, past simple and past continuous constructions preferably.

VOCABULARY HELP

1. The girl’s name is Sally; the boy’s name is Ken. 2. Sally loves ice cream. She is licking at an ice-cream cone now. 3. Ken loves reading. He’s reading a comic book at the moment. 4. They bump into each other and fall down on the ground. 5. Ken’s glasses end up on Sally’s head. 6. Sally’s ice cream cone ends up on Ken’s head. 7. Sally looks furious. 8. Ken looks embarrassed.

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9ª AULA UNIT 9

The President in India

The trip produced a number of significant new milestones that show how the United States and India are working together to advance global peace, security and development and illustrate why President Obama believes our relations with India constitute an "indispensable partnership" for the 21st century. As President Obama said in his November 8 speech to the Indian Parliament, "For the first time ever, our governments are working together across the whole range of common challenges we face, Now, let me say it as clearly as I can: The United States not only welcomes India as a rising power, we fervently support it, and we have worked to help make it a reality." The big headline-maker was, of course, the President’s endorsement of a reformed United Nations that includes India as a permanent member. The endorsement of an Indian seat on a reformed U.N. Security Council, as a permanent member, reflects our confidence that it is a country with which we will be working ever more closely to advance global security and prosperity. (From India: The Rise of an Economic Power)

Visit: http://www.state.gov/p/sca/rls/rmks/2011/155318.htm

Vocabulary Study (Vocabulário de Apoio)

1. The trip produced a number of significant new milestones A viagem produziu um número significativo de acontecimentos marcantes

2. to advance global peace, security and development para incrementar o desenvolvimento, a segurança e a paz mundial

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3. the whole range of common challenges we face toda a gama de desafios comuns que enfrentamos

4. not only welcomes India as a rising power não só dá as boas vindas à Índia como uma potência emergente

5. we fervently support it nós fervorosamente a apoiamos

6. we have worked to help make it a reality trabalhamos para ajudar a torná-la uma realidade

7. the President’s endorsement of a reformed United Nations o apoio do presidente a uma Organização das Nações Unidas reformulada

FUTURE CONTINUOUS

AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS

I / You / He / She / It/ We / They

will be walking / giving

NEGATIVE STATEMENTS

I / You / He / She / It / We / They

will not be walking / giving

Note: will not = won’t 140


QUESTIONS

Will I / You / He / She / It / We / They be walking / giving?

USES OF THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS

It is used to say that you will be carrying out an action at a certain time in the future. É usado para expressar uma ação determinada que você estará realizando num tempo futuro.

Don’t worry. I won’t be sleeping. You can call me back later. I will be watching the news. Não se preocupe. Não estarei dormindo. Pode ligar mais tarde. Estarei vendo as notícias na TV.

It will be easy to recognize me. I’ll be wearing a tuxedo. Será fácil me reconhecer. Estarei usando um ‘smoking’.

Will you and your wife be watching the news on TV tonight? Você e sua mulher estarão assistindo ao noticiário na TV hoje à noite?

Linda will not be waiting for you at the station. Linda não estará esperando por você na estação.

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

Indispensable question words:

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What…?

O que...?

Why…?

Por que...?

Who…?

Quem...?

How…?

Como...?

Where…?

Onde....?

How many…? Quantos...?

When…?

Quando...?

How often…? Quantas vezes...?

Answer the following questions in complete sentences to practice various constructions with different verb tenses:

1. What did Pres. Obama’s recent visit to India produce? _______________________________________________________ 2. Why are the United States and India working together at present? _______________________________________________________ 3. How does President Obama regard the USA’s relations with India? _______________________________________________________ 4. Who delivered a speech to the Indian Parliament on Nov. 8? _______________________________________________________ 5. What did the President emphasize in his speech? _______________________________________________________ 6. What should happen to the U.N. Security Council according to Pres. Obama? _______________________________________________________ 7. How will the USA and India be working in the future? _______________________________________________________

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WORD FORMS

A) THE SUFFIX -MENT

From text 1: “The big headline-maker was, of course, the President’s endorsement of a reformed United Nations” (L-11/12) obviamente, o assunto que povoou as manchetes foi o apoio dado pelo presidente a uma ONU reformulada

Não é difícil reconhecer os substantivos formados pelo acréscimo do sufixo –MENT. No fragmento acima partimos do verbo regular to endorse (endossar, apoiar) e chegamos ao noun: endorsement (apoio, endosso). Study these other examples:

VERB

NOUN

TRADUÇÃO

establish

establishment

estabelecimento

develop

development

desenvolvimento

govern

government

governo

achieve

achievement

realização, feito

replace

replacement

substituição

Há inúmeros outros exemplos. Passe a observar isso nas suas leituras from now on.

B) THE SUFFIXES –ABLE & -IBLE

From text 1: “constitute an "indispensable partnership "for the 21st century.” (L-11/12)

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constituem-se numa ‘parceria indispensável’ para o século XXI.

Os adjetivos formados pelo acréscimo destes sufixos comuníssimos, geralmente, serão traduzidos pelas terminações –AVEL, -EVEL.–IVEL. Poderão ocorrer pequenas alterações ortográficas (as in: live / livable ocorre a queda do ‘e’ final). Study these examples:

We will work hard to change this hut into a livable place. Trabalharemos duro para transformar esta cabana num local habitável.

Stop being so irresponsible, or else you will lose your job. Deixe de ser tão irresponsável ou perderá seu emprego.

Nobody will believe your story. It’s incredible. Ninguém acreditará em sua história. É incrível.

C) THE SUFFIX -SHIP

From text 1: “constitute an "indispensable partnership" for the 21st century.” (L-11/12) constituem-se numa ‘parceria indispensável’ para o século XXI.

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Neste mesmo fragmento do texto, let’s focus on the suffix –SHIP formador de substantivos:

NOUN

NOUN

TRADUÇÃO

friend

friendship

amizade

member

membership

condição de associado

entrepreneur

entrepreneurship

empreendedorismo

relation

relationship

relacionamento

citizen

citizenship

cidadania

DISCOURSE MARKERS

From text 1: “The big headline-maker was, of course, the President’s endorsement of a reformed United Nations” (L-11/12) Obviamente, o assunto que povoou as manchetes foi o apoio dado pelo presidente a uma ONU reformulada

Numa prova o examinador poderá se valer de outros discourse markers semelhantes such as:

Indicando certeza ou para assegurar algo OF COURSE, for sure, undoubtedly, without any doubt, obviously, naturally, it goes without saying, needless to say, definitely

GRAMMAR TIPS

A) COMPARATIVE OF EQUALITY 145


From text 1: “Now, let me say it as clearly as I can…” (L-8) Agora, deixe-me dizer isto tão claramente quanto eu puder

A.1) AS + ADV. + AS

Neste caso, você tem o comparativo de igualdade com um advérbio, bastante conhecido: clearly (claramente).

Translate the following examples:

1. Let me tell you this as frankly as I can. ________________________________

2. Talk to me as sincerely as you can. ________________________________

A.2) AS + ADJ. + AS

Likewise (do mesmo modo) forma-se o comparativo de igualdade com adjetivos:

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Translate the following examples:

1. Dennis is as Frank as his brother. ________________________________

2. Helen is as sincere as her mother. ________________________________

Em uma pr贸xima unidade apresentaremos o grau comparativo e superlativo dos adjetivos e adv茅rbios com mais detalhes.

VOCABULARY BUILD UP

Complete the text with the words below.

meeting

emerging

fishing forecasting

seeking

Mini text 1: India: The Rise of an Economic Power

Our experts have developed enhanced monsoon ___________ (1) that will begin to transmit detailed forecasts to farmers, beginning with the 2011 monsoon season. India also is an ___________ (2) leader in earth observation, with the second highest number of earth observation satellites in orbit. American ___________ (3) fleets could increase their catch thanks to the collection of tidal data as part of this initiative. We are ___________ (4) additional ways to collaborate on future lunar missions, the international space station, human space flight, and data sharing. I hope that our private sectors will now have the opportunity to develop new avenues of cooperation in the space realm and build on our achievements to further improve the livelihoods of our populations. In fact, Commerce Secretary Locke will be traveling to India next month, and plans a 147


___________ (5) at ISRO to explore what more our two governments can do to encourage greater commercial cooperation in the space area.

Visit: http://www.state.gov/p/sca/rls/rmks/2011/155318.htm

ANALYSIS OF MINI TEXT 1

1. Translate the title of this mini text: India: The Rise of an Economic Power _________________________________________________

2. Write one future continuous construction from the mini text above: _______________________________________________________

3. O adjetivo highest (L-5) se encontra no grau comparativo. True or False? __________________________________________________

4. Translate the following fragments:

a) collection of tidal data - _________________________________ b) in the space realm - _____________________________________ c) build on our achievements - ______________________________ d) further improve the livelihoods - __________________________

5. The modal verb could (L-6) is used to indicate permission. True or False? ________________________________________________________

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6. In fact (L-13) could be replaced by the adverb actually without changing the meaning intended by the author. True or False? ________________________________________________________

7. The modal verb can (L-15) could be replaced by may without changing the meaning intended by the author. True or False? ________________________________________________________

JUST FOR FUN PICTURE TEST

What kind of hat is the man wearing? A [a) long / b) top] hat?

EXERCISES I. Practice using the past forms of the verbs in parentheses:

1. Lucas _________ well the night before his exam. (SLEEP] ________________________________________________________

2. In the exam room, he _______ down [SIT], _______ [CLOSE] his eyes and ________ [TRY] to relax. ________________________________________________________

3. Lucas _________ [SPEND] some time reading all the directions carefully. ________________________________________________________

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4. As he ________ [HAVE] a question, he _______ [ASK] the examiner to explain the instruction to him as clearly as possible. ________________________________________________________

5. Lucas _______ [WRITE] his answers clearly. ________________________________________________________

6. He __________ [LEAVE] enough time to check his answers before the end of the exam. ________________________________________________________

7. After the exam, Lucas didn’t waste his time. He _______ [GO] home and ________ [HAVE] a rest. ________________________________________________________

8. Immediately, he ________ [BEGIN] preparing for his next exam. ________________________________________________________

II. Flashback! See if you can fill in the missing words from Lennon and McCartney’s Yesterday: ……………… Suddenly I’m not half the man I ________ to be There’s a shadow __________ over me Oh, yesterday ________ suddenly Why she _______ to go I don’t know She ________ say I _________ something wrong Now I ______ for yesterday

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III. Choose the better alternative in parentheses that completes the text both in terms of grammar and logical meaning.

Patents and intellectual property are unquestionably essential factors in current commercial activities but according to British Scientist Sir John Sulston, when the discussion reaches the [1-a) rally / b) realm] of science, commercial value should not be the only consideration. “I am not against patents, I’m against patent abuse,” emphasized the researcher during the event. “Science cannot be held [-2-a) hostage / b) hasty] to the economic interests of big pharmaceutical companies. Profit leads to some cures, but certainly not to all of them.” A consequence of this [-3-a) pursuit / b) procurement] of profit is that medical research & development is mainly restricted to diseases of the developed world where people can [4-a) afford / b) attest] to pay for treatment while neglecting those that affect developing countries. This means that 90% of the world’s disease [5-a) burden / b) cargo] receives 10% of research funds. (From Britain Brasil magazine, p.42, July / August 2004)

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10ª AULA UNIT 10

Text 1: Police investigate biggest bank robbery in Brazilian history

Three months ago a house was rented for commercial use in Fortaleza, capital of the state of Ceará. The house was located some 80 meters away from the local Central Bank of Brazil (BC) building on a street that ran parallel to the street where the BC was located. A landscaping firm, called Synthetic Grass, opened for business in the house. For the past three months the occupants of the house have been doing some unusual landscaping. It was all underground. They dug a tunnel exactly 78 meters long, with interior lighting and air conditioning. The tunnel was dug 4 meters below the surface. It was 70 centimeters high, 70 centimeters wide and lined with canvas and wood. When the diggers reached their destination, the vault of the BC, they had to cut through 1.10 meters of solid steel-reinforced concrete before they could get to the money. That is what they did this weekend. The bank vault closed on Friday and when it was opened Monday morning a lot of money had disappeared and the robbery was discovered. The amount of money missing, in used, untraceable bills, totalled* US$65 million (R$150 million), making it the biggest bank robbery in Brazilian history, and the second biggest ever (behind only a US$72 million robbery in England in 1987). The police say they have descriptions of the men involved and have begun a manhunt. The BC president, Henrique Meirelles, has ordered the bank to make its own investigation and report back to him. Meirelles is curious about how that much money, weighing an estimated 3.5 tons, could have been moved around without anyone seeing anything. There is also the problem of an alarm system inside the vault that did not work.

(From Agência Brasil, translator: Allen Bennett 09/08/2005)

Vocabulary Study (Vocabulário de Apoio)

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1. Three months ago a house was rented for commercial use Há 3 meses uma casa foi alugada para uso comercial

2. on a street that ran parallel numa rua paralela

3. A landscaping firm uma firma de paisagismo

4. It was all underground todo o trabalho era subterrâneo

5. They dug a tunnel Eles cavaram um túnel

6. interior lighting and air conditioning iluminação interna e ar condicionado

7. lined with canvas and wood com paredes laterais de lona e madeira

8. when the diggers reached their destination quando os escavadores atingiram seu destino

9. the vault of the BC a caixa-forte do BACEN 153


10. the amount of money missing o montante em dinheiro que faltava

11. in used, untraceable bills em notas usadas e não rastreáveis

12. the police have begun a manhunt a polícia iniciou uma caçada humana

BRITISH & AMERICAN ENGLISH

Spelling differences:

Observe que em British English escreve-se ‘totalled’, enquanto que os norte-americanos escrevem ‘totaled’, sem o duplo ‘l’

USAGE NOTES

A) Besides ‘bank robbery’ you may find ‘bank heist’, a more informal phrase characteristic of American English. You may also find the word ‘holdup’, when it is robbery at gunpoint.

B) “Police investigate biggest bank robbery…” (Title) The police say they have descriptions of the men” (L-20)

Não pense que ocorreu algum erro de concordância no título e no fragmento acima, pois a palavra police, em inglês, exige que o verbo seguinte esteja no plural.

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PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS

I / You / We / They

have been

walking / giving

He / She / It

has been

walking / giving

NEGATIVE STATEMENTS

I / You / We / They

have not been walking / giving

He / She / It

has not been walking / giving

Note: has not = hasn’t / have not = haven’t

QUESTIONS

Have

Has

I / You / We / They

He / She / It

been

walking? / giving?

been

walking? / giving?

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USES OF THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Já mencionamos en passant que o present perfect simple e o present perfect continuous são usados indiferentemente como no exemplo abaixo.

I have worked for this company since last year. (OR) I have been working for this company since last year. Trabalho (tenho trabalhado) para esta companhia desde o ano passado.

Basicamente o present perfect continuous será usado para indicar que a ação que começou no passado vem se desenrolando até agora e poderá continuar no futuro. Contrasta com o present perfect simple quando este é usado para ações completas num tempo não definido. Compare:

Wilson has been writing his new play. He’s working hard. Wilson está escrevendo sua nova peça teatral. Está trabalhando arduamente.

Wilson has written many plays in his life. Wilson escreveu muitas peças na sua vida.

My youngest brother has been working at Banco do Brasil since 1986. Meu irmão mais novo está trabalhando no Banco do Brasil desde 1986.

Mrs. Hill has not been living in Brazil since last year. A Srª Hill não está morando no Brasil desde o ano passado.

Have Mrs. Hill’s kids been writing to her regularly?

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Os filhos da Srª Hill têm escrito para ele regularmente?

Tanto ‘for’ para indicar tempo decorrido e ‘since’ para marcar a origem da ação serão often usados com o present perfect continuous.

My former teacher Mr. Patrick Finn left England many years ago and has been living in Brazil ever since. Meu ex-professor Mr. Patrick Finn deixou a Inglaterra há muitos anos e está vivendo no Brasil desde então.

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

Read text 1 again and answer the following questions in English:

1. How much time did it take the robbers to carry out their plan? _______________________________________________________

2. How long was the tunnel dug by the thieves? _______________________________________________________

3. How could you describe the tunnel made by the thieves? _______________________________________________________

4. Which was the biggest robbery ever? _______________________________________________________

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5. How much money was missing from the BC vault after the robbery? _______________________________________________________

6. What have the police immediately begun? _______________________________________________________

7. What was the president of the Central Bank curious about? _______________________________________________________

GRAMMAR TIPS

A) A WORD ABOUT PASSIVE VOICE

From text 1: “a house was rented for commercial use” (L-1) uma casa foi alugada para uso comercial

“when the vault was opened Monday morning” (L-14) quando a caixa-forte foi aberta na segunda de manhã

“and the robbery was discovered” (L-15) e o roubo foi descoberto

Seria ridículo achar que candidatos e candidatas a concurso público no Brasil desconhecem a formação da voz passiva no nosso português. Therefore, com pequenas alterações, aplique os mesmos conhecimentos para formação da passive voice in English. Eis a voz ativa dos exemplos extraídos do texto: 158


They (the robbers) rented a house for commercial use. Os ladrões alugaram uma casa para uso comercial.

When they (BC employees) opened the vault on Monday morning … Quando funcionários do BC abriram a caixa-forte na segunda de manhã ...

People discovered the robbery. As pessoas descobriram o roubo.

Qual é a conclusão que você tira destes exemplos? Pois bem, rented, opened, discovered, todos esses verbos regulares se encontram no past simple. Consequently na passive voice o verbo to be também aparece no passado simples seguido do particípio passado do verbo principal. Esta regra de ouro se aplica à grande maioria dos casos de formação da voz passiva em inglês.

B) MODAL VERBS ONE MORE TIME

From text 1: “is curious about how that much money, …, could have been moved around” (L-22/24)

Translate the fragment above: ________________________________________________________

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VOCABULARY BUILD UP

Mini Text 1: Chinese New Year Gung Hay Fat Choy! This is the Chinese greeting for the New Year celebrated in the beginning of the year. From ancient times to the present, Chinese people have been welcoming in the New Year and chasing away the evil spirits by setting off firecrackers. Large crowds gather in the narrow streets of Chinatown in New York, San Francisco and other cities where Chinese have settled. A huge cloth dragon sways back and forth around the street corners, chasing a red sunball or a white pearl-ball. Following the dragon are people playing drums and gongs, and lion dancers with paper lion heads on sticks. As they dance, store and business owners come outside to give them money. In China, New Year is the most important holiday, and it is observed by Chinese all over the world. The holiday has added significance because every Chinese celebrates his / her birthday on New Year, regardless of the month in which he or she was actually born. (From Celebrate! Holidays in the USA)

Visit: http://www.usemb.se/Holidays/celebrate/labor.html

VOCABULARY PRE TEST

Sem consultar nenhum dicionário procure correlacionar as colunas A & B: A

B

1. chasing away the evil spirits

a. ( ) tenham nascido realmente

2. setting off firecrackers

b. ( ) ginga de um lado para outro

3. sways back and forth

c. ( ) grandes multidões se reúne

4. large crowds gather

d. ( ) afastando os maus espíritos

5. people playing drums

e. ( ) soltando fogos de artifício

6. was actually born

f. ( ) gente tocando tambores 160


ANALYSIS OF TEXT 1

1. Destaque um exemplo de verbo no present perfect continuous. _______________________________________________________

2. Responda se as formas have settled (L-5) & has added (L-12) poderiam ser colocadas no present perfect continuous sem prejuízo da gramática e do sentido do texto 1: _______________________________________________________

3. Escreva 3 três exemplos de verbos do texto no present simple: _______________________________________________________

WORD FORMS

A) THE SUFFIX -ESE

From mini text 1: “This is the Chinese greeting for the New Year” (L-1) Esta é a saudação chinesa para o Ano Novo.

Vale a pena observar alguns adjetivos referentes a nacionalidades e línguas dos povos. Do text 1 tem-se: people born in China are Chinese and they speak Chinese. Outros exemplos: Country

Nationality

Language

Portugal

Portuguese

Portuguese

Japan

Japanese

Japanese

Vietnam

Vietnamese

Vietnamese

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B) THE SUFFIX -ISH

b.1) Sem dúvida alguma quando falamos de países e nacionalidades o sufixo mais comum é – (I)AN a começar pelo nosso Brasil, em inglês Brazil – Brazilian; e também Canadá – Canadian, Bolívia - Bolivian, Germany – German, Colombia - Colombians e muitos, muitos outros. Porém, é bom observar os casos com o final –ISH. Veja os seguintes exemplos:

Country

Adjective

Translation

Sweden

Swedish

Sueco / a

Britain

British

Britânico / a

Turkey

Turkish

Turco /a

Denmark

Danish

Dinamarquês / esa

Poland

Polish

Polonês /esa

b.2) the suffix –ISH - usado para formar adjetivos do tipo:

Noun

Adjective

Translation

child

childish

infantil

green

greenish

esverdeado

yellow

yellowish

amarelado

JUST FOR FUN

PICTURE TEST You call this thief a [a) wallet picker / b) pickpocket]

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TASK Agora que você sabe como se diz batedor de carteira em inglês procure associar a coluna A com a coluna B a seguir:

A

B

1. smuggler

a. ( ) vigarista

2. burglar

b. ( ) escroque, quem desfalca

3. embezzler

c. ( ) falsário

4. shoplifter

d. ( ) contrabandista

5. counterfeiter

e. ( ) arrombador

6. con artist

f. ( ) ladrão de loja

EXERCISES

I. Say when you have to use only the present perfect simple or when both the simple and continuous forms can be used:

1. Melinda has lived in Ipanema for decades. _______________________________________________________

2. I have read ‘The Da Vinci Code’ twice. _______________________________________________________

3. Tess has waited for you the whole afternoon, Mr. Lampard. _______________________________________________________

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4. We have made the shopping list already. _______________________________________________________

5. Rogério has played for São Paulo for more than twenty years. _______________________________________________________

II. The other way round – Write the infinitive forms of the verbs in bold type.

1. The robbers built a tunnel 78 m long. ________________

2. The occupants of the house have done some unusual landscaping. ________________

3. They dug a long tunnel. ________________

4. The robbers cut through 1.10m of solid steel reinforced concrete. ________________

5. The police have begun a manhunt. ________________

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III. Phrasal Verbs with SET:

From mini text 1: “Chinese people have been welcoming in the New Year and chasing away the evil spirits by setting off firecrackers” (L-3/4) Os chineses dão as boas vindas no ano novo e espantam os maus espíritos soltando fogos de artifício

Complete the sentences with each of the words below:

up

back

out

off

aside

down

1. Joanne tries to set ______ 20% of her earnings every month. (save) _______________________________________________________

2. Beginning the manhunt, the police have set _______ roadblocks in order to capture the bank robbers. (build) _______________________________________________________

3. As they didn’t know the region well they set _____ the directions carefully. (write) _______________________________________________________

4. A big traffic jam was setting us _______. (slow down) _______________________________________________________

5. The chief inspector succeeds in whatever he sets _____ to investigate. (begin) _______________________________________________________ 165


6. The police can’t explain how the robbers did not set the alarm _____. (start) _______________________________________________________

IV. Modal Verbs - Analise as frases, traduza-as e explique o sentido dos modais em negrito:

1. You can do it.

________________ _______________

2. You should do it.

________________ _______________

3. You must do it.

________________ _______________

4. You might do it.

________________ _______________

5. You have to do it.

________________ _______________

6. You would do it.

________________ _______________

7. You could do it.

________________ _______________

8. You will do it.

________________ _______________

9. You don’t have to do it.

________________ _______________

10. You mustn’t do it.

________________ _______________

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11ÂŞ AULA

UNIT 11

Text 1: Official inflation index was 0.21% in April

The Broad Consumer Price Index (IPCA) rose 0.21% in April, a slackening down from March's 0.43% pace. Over the first four months of the year, the cumulative increase in the index totalled 1.65%, substantially lower than the 2.68% registered during the same period last year. In April, 2005, the IPCA, which the government uses to fix its inflation targets, was 0.87%. These data were released today by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. According to the IBGE, the deceleration in April was mainly the result of a more abundant supply of agricultural goods and a settling down of fuel alcohol prices. Commercialization of the sugarcane harvest led to a 0.11% drop in fuel alcohol prices, which had been climbing since July of last year, to the extent that in March of this year consumers were paying 27.41% more than in December, 2005. Following the trend in alcohol prices, gasoline prices also decreased. In March, gasoline, which had been increasing in price in function of both the rise in alcohol prices and the temporary hike in the gasoline content of the gasoline-alcohol mixture sold at the pumps, was the item that most contributed to the rise in inflation. Gasoline cost consumers 4.50% more in March than in December, 2005.

(From AgĂŞncia Brasil, by Cristiane Ribeiro, Translation: David Silberstein)

167


Vocabulary Study (Vocabulário de Apoio)

1. broad consumer price index índice geral de preços ao consumidor

2. a slackening down from afrouxamento em relação a

3. fix its inflation targets fixação das metas de inflação

4. settling down of prices estabilização dos preços

5. Commercialization of the sugarcane harvest a comercialização da safra de cana de açúcar

6. Following the trend in alcohol prices seguindo a tendência dos preços do álcool

7. temporary hike in the gasoline content aumento temporário no volume de gasolina

8. mixture sold at the pumps mistura vendida nas bombas

168


PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS

I / You / He / She / It / We / They

had been walking / giving

NEGATIVE STATEMENTS

I/ You / He / She / It/ We / They had not been walking / giving

Note: had not = hadn’t

QUESTIONS

Had

I/ You / He / She / It/ We / They been walking / giving?

USES OF THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Este tempo verbal indica que a ação em progressão num tempo passado é anterior a outra também no tempo passado. Basta você usar algo como ‘vinha ou estava acontecendo’ antes da outra ação no passado para ter, a meu ver, uma tradução bem clara desta construção verbal. Study these examples:

Philip had been working as a system analyst for some years when he changed course and decided to set up his own business. O Felipe estava trabalhando como analista de sistemas há alguns anos quando mudou de rumo e decidiu abrir o seu próprio negócio. 169


Prof. Silva had not been giving a lecture before coming to school. O Prof. Silva não estivera palestrando antes de vir para o colégio.

When the new manager took over, he changed some practices that had been going on in our firm for ages. Quando o novo gerente assumiu. ele mudou certas práticas que vinham acontecendo na nossa empresa há muito tempo.

I had been waiting for Dr. Sheldon for quite some time when she finally arrived at her office. Estava esperando pela Dra. Sheldon há bastante tempo quando ela finalmente chegou no seu consultório.

Had you been trying to contact me? Você estava tentando entrar em contato comigo?

TASK

É muito improvável que o past perfect continuous, seja o tempo verbal de maior incidência num texto em inglês. Therefore,

Escreva 5 exemplos pelo menos do texto de verbos extraídos do text 1 no past simple. _______________________________________________________

USAGE NOTES

A) hike (n.) (= aumento) [uso informal]

170


From text 1: “… in function of both the rise in alcohol prices and the temporary hike in the gasoline content of the gasoline-alcohol mixture sold at the pumps,… (L-16/18) … em função tanto do aumento dos preços do álcool e do aumento temporário do volume de gasolina nas misturas do álcool com gasolina vendidas nas bombas ...

Há seguramente uma dezena de outros verbos indicando aumentos e diminuições, altas e quedas, enfim para descrever os ups and downs dos índices, dos preços, lucros, cotações, etc.

B) Goods (n.) – (mercadorias, bens) – substantivo plural, as in durable goods – bens duráveis.

From text 1: “the result of a more abundant supply of agricultural goods” (L-10) o resultado de uma oferta mais abundante de produtos agrícolas

KEY WORDS

From text 1: “The Broad Consumer Price Index (IPCA) rose 0.21% in April…” (L-1) O Indice Geral de Preços ao Consumidor (IPCA) subiu 0,21% em abril

A) RISE OR RAISE?

Muitos alunos se confundem com relação aos verbos rise e raise.

a.1) rise (rose, risen)– verbo intransitivo, daí nada de passive voice.

171


Unemployment is rising all over the world. O desemprego está aumentando no mundo todo.

Inflation was rising at such alarming rates that a devaluation of our currency was inevitable. A inflação estava crescendo a taxas tão alarmantes que a desvalorização de nossa moeda era inevitável.

a.2) raise (r.v.) –verbo transitivo, pode aparecer na passive voice.

Raise your hand if you have any question. Levante a mão se você tiver uma pergunta.

“Taxes will not be raised in my administration’, said the president. Impostos não serão elevados no meu governo, declarou o presidente.

B) USED TO & BE USED TO

b.1) used to – (followed by infinitive) = costumava fazer algo

I used to play chess a lot when I was in College. Eu costumava jogar xadrez bastante quando estava na faculdade.

My wife used to smoke a few cigarettes a week. Then she got pregnant and quit smoking for good. Minha esposa costumava fumar alguns cigarros por semana. Aí ficou grávida e parou de fumar de vez.

172


b.2) be used to – (followed by the -ing form) = estar acostumado a fazer algo.

It took me a long time to get used to cold showers, but now I’m used to taking them even in the winter. Levei um bom tempo para me acostumar aos banhos frios, mas hoje estou acostumado a tomá-los até no inverno.

Dr. Dawson is used to sleeping just a few hours at night. A Dra. Dawson está acostumada a dormir umas poucas horas à noite.

WORD FORMS

THE SUFFIXES DIS- & DE-

From text 1: “According to the IBGE, the deceleration in April was mainly the result of a more abundant supply of agricultural goods…” (L-8/10) De acordo com o IBGE a desaceleração em abril foi principalmente resultado de uma oferta abundante de produtos agrícolas... Deceleration (n) é da mesma família de decelerate (r.v). Observe que o prefixo DE- é usado (e não DIS-). Aos substantivos em geral acrescenta-se o sufixo -ATION):

VERB/ NOUN

VERB

TRANSLATION

value

devalue

desvalorizar

form

deform

deformar

grade

degrade

degradar

moralize

demoralize

desmoralizar

inflate

deflate

esvaziar 173


Muitas vezes é comum se acrescentar o prefixo DIS- ao verbo para formar outro verbo com sentido oposto.

VERB

VERB

TRANSLATION

like

dislike

desgostar

cover

discover

descobrir

place

displace

deslocar

charge

discharge

descarregar

organize

disorganize

desorganizar

Como você vê não é para sair colocando DIS- diante de tudo quanto é verbo porque simplesmente não existem palavras como dismoralize*, disinflate*, etc.

VOCABULARY BUILD UP

Mini text 1: Emerging nations to redefine world economy (I) The board of directors of the World Bank has listed Brazil, alongside five other emerging economies, as the ones responsible for redefining the global economic framework in the near future. According to a report issued this Tuesday (17th) in Washington, by 2025, the economies of Brazil, China, India, Russia, Indonesia and South Korea will account for over half the global growth. "As economic power shifts, these successful economies will help drive growth in lower income countries through crossborder commercial and financial transactions," the document states. Although they will remain important to the global economy, advanced countries should only grow by 2.3% on average during the same period. "The fast rise of emerging economies has driven a shift whereby the centres of economic growth are distributed across developed and developing economies," said the World Bank's chief economist and vice president for Development Economies, Justin Yifu Lin. "It's a truly multipolar world." [Access 21.05.11] Agência Brasil*- *Translated by Gabriel Pomerancblum Visit: http://www2.anba.com.br/noticia_financas.kmf?cod=11907952 174


ANALYSIS OF MINI TEXT 1

1. Account for in “will account for over half the global growth” (L-5/6) means __________________________________________________

2. The modal verb should in “advanced countries should only grow” (L-10/11) is expressing recommendation. True or False? - ________

3. In “whereby the centres of economic growth” (L-12/13), the word whereby could be replaced by in accordance with which. True or False? __________________________________________________

4. Translate the following fragments:

a) global economic framework - _______________________________ b) As economic power shifts - _________________________________ c) will help drive growth - _____________________________________ d) in lower income countries - _________________________________ e) through crossborder transactions - ___________________________ f) by 2.3% on average - ______________________________________ g) has driven a shift - ________________________________________ h) It's a truly multipolar world - ________________________________

USAGE NOTES – CONFUSABLE WORDS

A) ECONOMIC / ECONOMICAL

175


From Mini text 1: “as the ones responsible for redefining the global economic framework in the near future” (L2/3) como aqueles responsáveis por redefinir o quadro econômico global num futuro próximo

A.1.) Economic (adj) – econômico, relativo à ciência econômica.

According to the Finance Minister there are some economic implications that some economists haven’t considered. De acordo com o Ministro da Fazenda há certas implicações econômicas que alguns economistas deixaram de levar em consideração.

A.2.) Economical – econômico/ a, que poupa mais

My wife is more economical than her sister. Minha mulher é mais econômica do que a irmã dela.

USAGE NOTES – BRITISH & AMERICAN SPELLING

From Mini text 1: “the centres of economic growth are distributed across developed and developing economies” (L-12/14) os centros de crescimento econômico estão distribuídos através das economias em desenvolvimento e as desenvolvidas

Observe que os britânicos escrevem centre, theatre, ...; enquanto que os norte-americanos grafam center, theater, .... Acredito que tal diferença ortográfica não deva ser um grande obstáculo a sua leitura. 176


Mini text 2: Emerging nations to redefine world economy (II)

In order to become established as a growth pole, however, Brazil must face challenges, such as improving access to education. "Human capital and ensuring access to education is a concern in some potential growth poles, particularly Brazil, India, and Indonesia," the report claims. "Minimizing educational gaps and ensuring access to education is crucial," claims the World Bank. To the World Bank, eventual measures adopted in Brazil should encourage domestic technological adaptation, innovation capacity and knowledge generation. According to the report, the shifts in economic and financial power balance will be reflected in sectors such as the investment market, mergers and acquisitions. "Emerging market multinationals are becoming a force in reshaping global industry, with rapidly expanding South-South investment and FDI inflows," said Lin. "International financial institutions need to adapt fast to keep up." [Access 21.05.11] - Agência Brasil*- *Translated by Gabriel Pomerancblum

Visit: http://www2.anba.com.br/noticia_financas.kmf?cod=11907952

ANALYSIS OF MINI TEXT 2

1. The discourse marker, however (L-1), is indicating _____________.

2. In: “Brazil must face challenges” (L-1/2), the modal verb must conveys the idea of _________________________________________

3. A locução such as (L-2) introduz ideia de _____________________

4. In: “Brazil should encourage” (L-7/8), the modal verb should conveys the idea of __________________________________________

177


5. Com que sentido é usado o phrasal verb keep up (L-15)? _______________________________________________________

6. Translate the following fragments:

a) as a growth pole - ________________________________________ b) eventual measures adopted - _______________________________ c) shifts in economic power balance - ___________________________ d) the investment market - ___________________________________ e) mergers and acquisitions -__________________________________ f) reshaping global industry - __________________________________

MODAL VERBS

a) MUST / HAVE TO

From mini text 2: “Brazil must face challenges” (L-1/2) O Brasil tem de enfrentar desafios

O modal verb must (or have to) pode ser usado para indicar algo qué obrigaório ou indispensável que faça. Study these examples:

You must study modal verbs if you want to read English texts more fluently. Vocês têm de estudar os verbos modais se desejarem ler textos em inglês com mais fluência. 178


Must you play your electric guitar so loudly? Você tem de tocar sua guitarra elétrica tão alto?

They must be more punctual from now on. Eles têm de ser mais pontuais de agora em diante.

B) SHOULD / OUGHT TO

From mini text 2: “Brazil should encourage domestic technological adaptation” (L-7/8) O Brasil deve encorajar adaptações tecnológicas internas

O modal verb should (or ought to) pode ser usado para indicar o que aconselhável que se faça. Study these examples:

You should review all our units before taking an exam. Vocês devem revisar nossas unidades antes de fazer uma prova.

You shouldn’t sleep so late if you want to do your job well tomorrow. Você não deveria dormir tão tarde se quiser fazer um bom trabalho amanhã.

Should your supervisor be so demanding? O seu supervisor deveria ser tão exigente.

179


JUST FOR FUN PICTURE TEST

Our bus was overcrowded this morning. We were [a) packed / b) wrapped] like sardines.

FLASHBACK!

Dialogue Practice – Complete with the missing verb forms:

S1: Did you wear a suit and tie at the office yesterday? S2: No, I didn’t. Yesterday I ______ sth I had never ______ in my life. S1: Oh, really! What did you ______? S2: I ______ a tux.

EXERCISES

I. Use the appropriate words to complete the sentences.

1. Paulo comes from Brazil. He’s _____________. 2. Hans is from Germany. He’s _______________. 3. Conchita is from Spain. She’s ________________. 4. Giuseppe comes from Italy. He’s _______________. 5. Cheng is from China. He’s __________________. 6. Julio comes from Peru. He’s ______________. 7. Margot comes from France. She’s ______________. 180


8. Consuelo comes from Mexico. She’s ______________. 9. Larson comes from Sweden. He’s ______________. 10. Jean Claude comes from Belgium. He’s _____________.

II. Fill in the blanks with the past tense of the IRREGULAR VERBS in parentheses.

1. My wife and I ________ to Recife last year. (FLY) _________________________________________________________

2. We ________ back all the way from Pernambuco to Rio. (DRIVE) _________________________________________________________

3. I ______ the subway to work this morning. (TAKE) _________________________________________________________

4. The child _________ his glass of milk. (DRINK) _________________________________________________________

5. They _____ about 5 min at the bank and then got in the car. (SPEND) _________________________________________________________

181


III. Use three of the words in the box to complete the sentences.

A. CONSUMER / CONSUMPTION / CONSUMERISM / CONSUMED

a) The ___________ of genetically modified products is increasing. _______________________________________________________ b) After the approval of the ___________ statute, we feel more protected when we buy something. _______________________________________________________ c) In our modern society, where _________ is widespread, we need to discipline ourselves in order not to buy superfluous goods. _______________________________________________________

B. ECONOMICAL / ECONOMIC / ECONOMICS / ECONOMY

a) Her new car is more __________ than the one she had last year. _______________________________________________________ b) I studied ____________ when was at college. _______________________________________________________ c) The Finance Minister will address the nation. In his speech he will talk about our current ______________ problems. _______________________________________________________

182


IV. Choose the better alternative in brackets:

Mini text: Half an hour could save your sight

Many thousands of people in the UK today have an eye disease they donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know they have. You [1. a) could / b) must] be one of them. By the time you notice that your vision is affected, it [2. a) ought to / b) may] be too late to save your sight. Just a thirty-minute eye test [3. a) must / b) could] save your sight. Eye tests can [4. a) pick up / b) take up] certain eye diseases before you notice the effect on your sight. Early treatment can often prevent your sight from getting worse. Not all eye diseases are treatable, but some of the most common are. You [5. a) should / b) ought] treat an eye test like a regular check-up with your doctor or dentist. An eye test isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t just about getting glasses - it is a vital health check for your eyes. (Excerpt from a leaflet, also available in Braille, tape, disk and in Welsh. Other languages are also available) - Please call us for details. Royal National Institute for the Blind, 224 Great Portland Street, London Wi N 6AA

183


12ª AULA UNIT 12

Text 1: No to price control

The failure of the wheat crop in Northern Europe, the United States and a few other countries, the stagnation of maize production worldwide and the rising consumption brought about by the recovery of the world economy have lowered global inventories of these products, and caused a hike in the prices of commodities, which should remain high throughout the year. Soy is selling for U$ 12.5 to 13.5/bushel, maize, from 5.5 to 6.5, and wheat, from 6.5 to 7-5/bushel. To Eugênio Stefanelo, a Rural Economy professor at the Federal University of the State of Paraná, it was exactly this situation that has caused a fact seldom seen in Brazil. Despite the weather phenomenon known as La Nina, the crop was large and prices are high, generating significant profit to soy and maize growers. The same does not hold true of wheat, because the mills are importing due to the low exchange rate and the low-interest financing. This scenario of high prices should remain for most of the year, and will depend on how the second maize crop in Brazil and the soy and maize crops in the US will fare. In case the outputs are normal, then prices should drop somewhat as soon as the United States crop enters the market, but growers should still profit. "If the crop fails, then all hell will break loose, because prices may climb even further," Stefanelo warns.

(By Joel dos Santos Guimarães - Translated by Gabriel Pomerancblum) Visit: http://www2.anba.com.br/noticia_imprimir.kmf?cod=11776849

Vocabulary Study (Vocabulário de Apoio)

1. The failure of the wheat crop in Northern Europe O fracasso da colheita de trigo no norte da Europa

184


2. the stagnation of maize production worldwide a estagnação da produção de milho no mundo todo

3. the rising consumption o consumo crescente

4. have lowered global inventories of these products reduziram os estoques globais desses produtos

5. which (prices) should remain high throughout the year os quais devem permanecer altos ao longo do ano

6. significant profit to soy and maize growers lucro significativo para plantadores de soja e milho

7. The same does not hold true of wheat o mesmo não é verdadeiro quanto ao trigo

8. the mills are importing due to the low exchange rate os moinhos estão importando devido à baixa taxa de câmbio

9. and the low-interest financing e os baixos juros para financiamento

10. In case the outputs are normal caso as produções sejam normais 185


ANALYSIS OF TEXT 1

1. Neste pequeno trecho há belos exemplos de discourse markers. Diga o que cada um deles está indicando:

a) Despite (L-10) - _________________________________________ b) because (L-13) - ________________________________________ c) In case (L-17) - _________________________________________ d) If (L-19) - _________________________________________ e) as soon as (L-18) - ______________________________________ f) then (L-19) - _______________________________________

2. In: “caused a hike in the prices of commodities” (L-4/5) a melhor tradução para commodities é comodidades. True or False? _______

3. For sure, você já desenvolveu um sexto sentido para as function words fundamentais. In the fragment: “this situation that has caused a fact seldom seen in Brazil” (L-9/10), seldom means ______________

4. In the fragment “This scenario of high prices” (L-15) the word scenario must be translated by ‘situação’. True or False? _________

5. Certamente você já sabe o significado da palavra some (alguns, algumas). Now, in the fragment: “prices should drop somewhat” (L-18) what does somewhat mean? _________________________________

6. In the fragment “but growers should still profit” (L-19), the word still (ainda) could be replaced with yet, without changing the meaning intended by the author. True or False?

186


7. In the fragment “because prices may climb even further” (L-20) - (porque os preços podem subir ainda mais), o modal verb may poderia ser substituído por might. True or False? ____________________

GRAMMAR TIPS - IF CLAUSES

From text 1: "If the crop fails, then all hell will break loose” (L-18/19) Se a colheita fracassar, então uma confusão infernal se instalará

There are three main patterns of if-clauses in English Há três formas principais de orações condicionais em inglês:

IF CLAUSES – 1st PATTERN

What will you do if sby does this or that? [Verb tense in main clause: future / Verb tense in ifclause: Present simple]

If you decide to buy that car, it will cost you a fortune. Se você decidir comprar aquele carro vai-lhe custar uma fortuna.

TASK

I. Complete with the right form of the verbs in parentheses:

1. If you go to the movies with us, you ____________ (enjoy) the film. T: _______________________________________________________ 187


2. We will pass our exams if we __________ (study) hard. T: _______________________________________________________

3. If the guys do not come back soon, they ____________ (watch – neg.) the soccer game on TV. T: _______________________________________________________

4. If Gina does not hurry up, she ___________ (miss) her flight. T: _______________________________________________________

5. If Ron _____________ (earn) a lot of money, he won’t be able to pay for the trip. T: _______________________________________________________

IF CLAUSES – 2ND PATTERN

What would you do if sby did this or that? [Verb tense in main clause: conditional / Verb tense in if-clause: past simple]

If you bought that car, you would pay a fortune. Se você comprasse aquele carro pagaria uma fortuna.

188


TASK

II. Complete with the right form of the verbs in parentheses:

1. I would help you with your math problem if I _________ (know) how. T: _______________________________________________________

2. If he were at home he __________ (come) down to talk to you. T: _______________________________________________________

3. If John ____________ (study) harder, he might pass his exam. T: _______________________________________________________

4. If a burglar tried to break in I __________ (call) the police. T: _______________________________________________________

5. If I __________ (be) you I would buy that beach house. T: _______________________________________________________

IF CLAUSES â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 3RD PATTERN

What would you have done if sby. had done this or that? [Verb tense in main clause: conditional perfect / verb in if-clause: past perfect]

If you had bought that car, it would have cost you a fortune. Se vocĂŞ tivesse comprado aquele carro, teria custado uma fortuna. 189


Atenção! Algumas vezes pode ocorrer a omissão da conjunção ‘if’:

Had you invited me to the party, I would have been there to see you. Tivesse você me convidado para a festa e eu teria ido vê-la.

TASK

III. Complete with the right form of the verbs in parentheses:

1. Paul ________________ (pass) the test if he had studied a little harder. T: _______________________________________________________

2. If you had asked me to paint the garage wall, I _______________ (help) you out. T: _______________________________________________________

3. Had Jill told me about her party, I _______________ (drop) by. T: _______________________________________________________

4. You would have watched a good movie if you ______________ (go) with us. T: _______________________________________________________

5. If she _______________ (call / neg.) me up, I would have missed my English class. T: _______________________________________________________

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IF CLAUSES – OTHER PATTERNS

I. Use of Unless (if ... not)

Unless he had been informed, how could he have discovered the plan? Se não tivesse sido informado, como poderia ter descoberto o plano?

I won’t go to that nightclub unless Gilda goes with us. Não irei à boate a não ser que a Gilda vá.

II. Verb tense in if–clause: present simple / verb tense in main clause: imperative

If you happen to buy that car, drive carefully. Se acontecer de você comprar aquele carro dirija com cuidado.

Don’t eat so much chocolate if you want to lose weight. Não coma chocolate demais se quiser perder peso.

III. Should in if–clause/imperative in main clause

If you should need help, give me a call. Se precisar de ajuda ligue para mim.

NB: ‘If’ is often omitted in this case: Should you need help, give me a call. 191


IV. Present simple in both if–clause and main clause.

If you heat water, it boils. Se você esquentar a água ela ferve.

If I need any medicine, I call the nearest drugstore and they deliver it right away. Se eu preciso de algum remédio, eu telefone para a farmácia mais próxima e eles entregam imediatamente.

IF CLAUSES – IF EQUIVALENTS

Há palavras e expressões que funcionam como If “equivalents”

Supposing you had five minutes to spare, would you talk to me? (i.e. If you had ....) Supondo que você tenha cinco minutos livres, você falaria comigo? (Se você tivesse ...)

Provided (= On condition that) you follow my instructions, you may pass the test. (i.e. If you follow ...) Com a condição que você siga as minhas instruções você poderá passar na prova. (Se você seguir ...)

So long as we have Barbara baby-sitting for our son, we can go to the theater. (i.e. If we have ....) Desde que tenhamos a Bárbara tomando conta do nosso filho, podemos ir teatro. (Se tivermos...)

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TASK

Rewrite the sentences using the ‘if equivalents’ in bold:

1. If you need my help, you should see me at my office tomorrow. Supposing ____________________________________________ T: _______________________________________________________

2. If you had asked for Rose’s DVD, she might have lent it to you. Providing that ________________________________________ T: _______________________________________________________

3. If you hand in your term papers in time you may start phase II of our literature course. So long as ___________________________________________ T: _______________________________________________________

4. If Lisa does not go to the dance, I won’t go either. Unless ________________________________________________ T: _______________________________________________________

5. If she invites you to the baby shower, will you go? On the assumption that _________________________________ T: _______________________________________________________

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VOCABULARY BUILD UP

Mini text 1: No to price control

Complete the mini text with each the words below:

scarce barriers highlighting

hampering

wealthy

Much more effective than enforcing price control on commodities would be for the world to reduce trade __________ (1) on agricultural products, which would greatly stimulate an increase in production and price stabilisation. So says Stefanelo. __________ (2) that agriculture depends on the weather, the professor claims that countries could keep regulatory inventories, built during times of strong production, to place on the market in years of __________ (3) crops. "That would stabilise prices to growers and consumers alike," says Stefanelo. Instead, according to Stefanelo, the governments of __________ (4) nations are signalling with intentions to control commodities prices, in keeping with the "short-range vision" that will only benefit themselves. "Why don't they suggest controlling the services that they sell us, often subsidized in the country of origin, to stimulate local production and its export, biasing the international market and __________ (5) the development of agricultural production in other countries, such as Brazil and Argentina?"

(By Joel dos Santos Guimar達es - Translated by Gabriel Pomerancblum) Visit: http://www2.anba.com.br/noticia_imprimir.kmf?cod=11776849

194


BRIEF ANALYSIS OF MINI TEXT 1

1. In the fragment “Much more effective than enforcing price control on commodities” (L-1), what does enforcing mean? - ________________

2. In “agriculture depends on the weather” (L-5) the author could have used upon instead of on. True or False? - ___________________

3. As a discourse marker the word instead (L-10) could have been replaced with in contrast. True or False? - ___________________

4. A locução “in keeping with” (L-11/12) pode ser substituída por ‘in accordance with’. True or False? - ________________________

5. How can you translate the phrase “short-range vision” (L-12)? _______________________________________________________

Mini text 2: Ever alert

Choose the better alternative in brackets:

"To top it off, there are crop insurance [1. a) policies / b) politics], which developed countries have, whereas in Brazil the issue moves forward in slow and trouble-ridden fashion," says Stefanelo, who believes Brazil must remain alert to some [2. a) wealth /b) wealthy] countries' intentions of creating mechanisms that will [3. a) endanger / b) enable] control over commodities' prices. The thesis of commodity price control was presented by France, which backed down after contrary reactions from Brazil and Argentina. In fact, last week the French minister of Agriculture, Food, Fishery, Rural Affairs and Regional Development, Bruno Le Maire, [4. a) which / b) who] came to Brazil and met with the minister 195


of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply, Wagner Rossi, guaranteed that France does not stand for and will not issue a proposal of price control for commodities at the [5. a) upcoming / b) upgrading] meeting of the agricultural G20, due June 22nd and 2srd, in Paris, which will have food security as its main theme.

(By Joel dos Santos Guimarães - Translated by Gabriel Pomerancblum) Visit: http://www2.anba.com.br/noticia_imprimir.kmf?cod=11776849

BRIEF ANALYSIS OF MINI TEXT 2

1. In which sense is the expression to top it off (L-1) used by the author? ___________________________________________________

2. As a discourse marker what is the word whereas (L-2) indicating? ________________________________________________________

3. How can you translate the expression in bold: “the issue moves forward in slow and troubleridden fashion” (L-2/3)? ________________________________________________________

4. What does the phrasal verb back down (L-8) mean? ________________________________________________________

5. A locução In fact (L-9) pode ser substituída pelo advérbio actually, sem prejuízo do sentido do texto. True or False? - ______________

6. In the fragment “will not issue a proposal of price control for commodities” (L-13), what does the word issue mean? _____________

196


JUST FOR FUN

Um pouco de humor não faz mal a ninguém. Traduza as frases abaixo: As I said in one of my books: Flying is not my cup of tea.

Naturalmente a melhor tradução não é ‘voar não é minha xícara de chá’; e, sim: Voar não é a minha praia. Therefore, pequenas frases sobre ‘Medo de Voar’ vêm bem a calhar.

FEAR OF FLYING

Flight truths

1. Every take-off is optional. Every landing is mandatory. ________________________________________________________

2. The only time you have too much fuel is when you're on fire. ________________________________________________________

3. You start with a bag full of luck and an empty bag of experience. The trick is to fill the bag of experience before you empty the bag of luck. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

4. A "good" landing is one from which you can walk away. A "great" landing is one after which they can use the plane again. ________________________________________________________ 197


________________________________________________________

(Taken from CIO (December 1, 2000, p.46)

EXERCISES

I. Fill the correct past form of the irregular verbs in brackets.

1. Health authorities feared that the disease might have ________ to other continents. [SPREAD] ________________________________________________________

2. I really can’t open that window. It’s ____________. [STICK] ________________________________________________________

3. She died at the age of 102. And everyone can say that she always _______ to be happy in life. [STRIVE] ________________________________________________________

4. I haven’t ________ a present for my wife yet. I had better hurry up because her birthday is drawing near. [BUY] ________________________________________________________

5. I have _________ a few books in my life, but I still intend to write others. [WRITE] ________________________________________________________

198


II. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the FALSE FRIENDS in bold.

1. By pretending that you’re studying hard, you won’t succeed. ________________________________________________________

2. Lucas had failed to pass his driving test twice before. He eventually succeeded. ________________________________________________________

3. Your help has been most invaluable. We wouldn’t have accomplished our task without you. ________________________________________________________

4. Many investors worldwide are worried about the volatile prices of commodities. ________________________________________________________

5. Prof. Sato’s lectures are usually boring and long. ________________________________________________________

III. Complete the sentences with one of the words below in order to form a phrasal verb with BRING.

From text 1: “the rising consumption brought about by the recovery of the world economy” (L-3/4) o consumo crescente provocado pela recuperação da economia mundial

FORWARD

OUT

ROUND

BACK

UP

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1. I always tell my students that I was born in Pará, but brought _____ in Rio de Janeiro. (reared, educated) ________________________________________________________

2. “Does the defense have any other piece of evidence to bring _______?”, the judge wanted to know. (produce, present) ________________________________________________________

3. Many of the Beatles’ songs bring ______ pleasant teenage memories. ________________________________________________________

4. My editor promised me that my new book will be brought ________ next year. (published) ________________________________________________________

5. Marjorie fainted, and we had a hard time trying to bring her _______. (help her regain consciousness) ________________________________________________________

200


13ª AULA UNIT 13

Text 1: Search for Brazilian literature

The Conexões - Mapeamento da Literatura Brasileira No Exterior (Connections - Mapping Brazilian Literature Abroad) project includes details on professionals who answered an extensive questionnaire regarding what authors they work with, what other areas of Brazilian culture they are interested in, the kind of work they develop regarding national literature and whether they are connected to research institutes, among other topics. "I believe that Lebanon is the country that presents the greatest chance (of having these professionals) as immigration from there to Brazil was very strong," said Claudiney Ferreira, the manager of the Audiovisual and Literature Nucleus at Itaú Cultural, who is also the idealizer of Conexões. "I believe it is the Arab nation in which we may have most people working with Brazilian literature," he pointed out. For the time being, professionals have already been found in Algeria, Morocco and in Lebanon itself, though operating outside their countries of origin.

(By Áurea Santos - Translated by Mark Ament) – [07.08.11] Visit: http://www2.anba.com.br/noticia_imprimir.kmf?cod=12219992

Vocabulary Study (Vocabulário de Apoio)

1. project includes details on professionals o projeto inclui detalhes sobre profissionais

2. who answered an extensive questionnaire que responderam um longo questionário

201


3. regarding what authors they work with relativamente aos autores com os quais trabalham

4. whether they are connected to research institutes se estão ligados a institutos de pesquisa

5. as immigration from there to Brazil was very strong visto que a imigração daquele país para o Brasil foi muito intensa

6. who is also the idealizer of Conexões que é também o idealizador do projeto Conexões

7. For the time being Por enquanto

8. though operating outside their countries of origin embora atuando for a de seus países de origem

GRAMMAR TIPS: PASSIVE VOICE

From text 1: “professionals have already been found in Algeria” (L-13/14) profissionais já foram encontrados na Argélia

Neste exemplo, in the active voice (AV), o autor teria escrito: (AV): We have already found professionals in Algeria. 202


Na formação da passive voice há uma regra de ouro – a golden rule - para a maioria dos casos: o verbo to be no mesmo tempo do verbo principal na voz ativa plus particípio passado do verbo principal.

Depois de fazer uma review of the main verb tenses, é lógico que o estudo da formação da passive voice se impõe. Não deixe de fazer os exercícios que proponho no final desta unidade.

Main verb in bold in the Present Simple AV:

They speak English in that store. Falam inglês naquela loja.

PV:

English is spoken in that store. O inglês é falado naquela loja.

Main verb inbold in the Present Continuous AV:

They are building a new bridge in my hometown. Estão construindo uma nova ponte na minha cidade natal.

PV:

A new bridge is being built in my hometown. Uma nova ponte está sendo construída na minha cidade natal.

Main verb in bold in the Past Simple AV:

The hurricane destroyed the whole town. O furacão destruiu a cidade inteira.

PV:

The whole town was destroyed by the hurricane. A cidade inteira foi destruída pelo furacão.

203


Main verb in the Past Continuous AV:

Thieves were robbing the central bank. Ladrões estavam roubando o banco central.

PV:

The central bank was being robbed by thieves. O banco central estava sendo roubado.

Main verb in bold in the Future Simple AV:

We will send you the receipt by mail. Enviaremos o recibo para você por correspondência.

PV:

You will be sent the receipt by mail. O recibo será enviado para você por correspondência.

Main verb in bold in the Future Perfect Simple AV:

We will have sent you the info by tomorrow. Teremos enviado as informações para você amanhã.

PV:

You will have been sent the info by tomorrow. As informações já terão sido enviadas para você amanhã.

Main verb in bold in the Present Perfect Simple AV:

I have done my reading already. Já fiz a minha leitura.

PV:

My reading has been done already. Meu trabalho já foi feito.

204


Main verb in bold in the Past Perfect Simple AV:

She had written the report already when I met her. Ela já havia escrito o relatório quando a encontrei.

PV:

The report had been written already when I met her. O relatório já havia sido escrito quando a encontrei.

Modal verb + infinitive of main verb AV:

You must clean your room immediately. Você tem de limpar seu quarto imediatamente.

PV:

Your room must be cleaned immediately. Seu quarto tem de ser limpo imediatamente.

WORD FORMS

From text 1: “who answered an extensive questionnaire regarding what authors they work with” (L-3/4) que responderam a um extensor questionário com relação a quais autores com quem trabalham

“who is also the idealizer of Conexões.” (L-11) que é também o idealizador do projeto ‘Conexões’

Tivesse o nosso curso 30 unidades, e eu, for sure, continuaria falando deste ou daquele prefixo ou sufixo da língua inglesa. Quer me parecer que já ficou mais do que evidenciado como os main affixes do inglês ajudam na sua vocabulary build up.

205


As I said before, você deve estudar certas palavras in families. Nos exemplos acima, in boldface, você tem authors (autores) e idealizer (idealizador). What about the corresponding verbs forms? Ou seja, como se diz autorizar & idealizar em inglês? Em ambos os casos, será usado o sufixo –IZE um dos principais na formação de verbos ingleses. Study the following examples:

A) THE SUFFIX -IZE

NOUN

VERB

TRANSLATION

Apology

apologize

pedir desculpas

capital

capitalize

capitalizar, escrever c/ maiúsculas

memory

memorize

memorizar

emphasis

emphasize

enfatizar

summary

summarize

resumir, sumarizar

B) THE SUFFIX -ATE

Aproveitando o embalo, vamos falar sobre os outros sufixoS formadores de verbos do inglês. Perhaps the most frequent seja o sufixo –ATE, que é uma verdadeira fonte de inspiração para criativos alunos e alunas brasileiros inventarem vocábulos do tipo embromate, occupate, esnobate, etc. Procure anotar exemplos válidos com este sufixo:

206


NOUN

VERB

TRANSLATION

education

educate

educar

calculus

calculate

calcular

fascination

fascinate

fascinar

regulation

regulate

regular, ajustar

origin

originate

originar

C) THE SUFFIX -EN

Outro sufixo formador de muitos verbos inglese é –EN. Passe a anotar alguns exemplos com essa terminação.

ADJECTIVE

VERB

TRANSLATION

fat

fatten

engordar

dark

darken

escurecer

hard

harden

endurecer

wide

widen

alargar, ampliar

207


D) THE SUFFIX –(I)FY

Finalmente, vamos falar do sufixo –FY que também merece sua atenção. Study these examples:

NOUN

VERB

TRANSLATION

identity

identify

identificar

beauty

beautify

embelezar, enfeitar

just

justify

justificar

unit

unify

unificar

peace

pacify

pacificar

Obviously, não será possível estudar todos os prefixes & suffixes do inglês, porém, na próxima unidade apresentarei um resumo dos main affixes que, acredito, será de grande valia para você. Just wait!

GRAMMAR TIPS: SUPERLATIVES

From text 1: “… Lebanon is the country that presents the greatest chance” (L-8) O Líbano é o país que apresenta a maior chance

208


Study these cases:

1.1. O sufixo ‘est’ é usado para formar o superlativo de adjetivos ‘curtos’

easy

(the) easiest

o / a+ fácil

clean

(the) cleanest

o / a+ limpo/a

hot

(the) hottest

o / a+ quente

old

(the ) oldest

o / a+ velho/a

1.2. Com adjetivos ‘longos’ usa-se the most / the least + adj. para formar o superlativo.

the most / least difficult

o / a mais (menos) difícil

the most / least complicated

o / a mais (menos) complicado

the most / least economical

o /a mais (menos) econômico

1.3. Some irregular superlatives (Alguns superlativos irregulares)

good

the best

o /a melhor

bad

the worst

o/ a pior

little

the least

o/ a menos

much(many)

the most

o/a mais

209


JUST FOR FUN

1. A child's greatest period of growth is the month after you've purchased new school uniforms. _______________________________________________________ 2. Ladies first, pretty ladies sooner. _______________________________________________________ 3. You're getting old when you enjoy remembering things more than doing them. _______________________________________________________ 4. Saving is the best thing; especially when your parents have done it for you. _______________________________________________________ 5. What are the three fastest ways of communication? Telephone, Television, & Tell-a-woman. _______________________________________________________

VOCABULARY BUILD UP

Mini text 1: Search for Brazilian literature (II)

According to Ferreira, one of the main difficulties in finding these professionals in the Arab world is language. "We have noticed that some translators and researchers know Brazilian literature through the English version," he pointed out. Problems in internet connections have also been hindering the contact with these people. However, the project has also received support to find these professionals of national literature among the Arabs, including promotion by the Brazil-Lebanon Cultural Centre, an institute inaugurated in April this year, in the city of Beirut. The project has a blog, providing much of the information collected in the research. Published exclusively in Portuguese, Ferreira said he is already considering translating the site into English and Spanish. With the figures obtained in the questionnaire, Conex천es established a network that puts foreign professionals in contact with each other and with Brazilian authors. 210


(By Áurea Santos - Translated by Mark Ament) – [07.08.11] Visit: http://www2.anba.com.br/noticia_imprimir.kmf?cod=12219992

ANALYSIS OF MINI TEXT 1

1. In the fragment: “one of the main difficulties in finding these professionals” (L-1/2) the adjective main could have been replaced with principal. True or false? ________________________________

2. O phrasal verb pointed out (L-4) significa ____________________

3. In the fragment “have also been hindering the contact with these people” (L-4/5) o verbo hinder significa incentivar. True or false?

4. A palavra However (L-5), as a discourse marker, poderia ser substituída por likewise. True or false?

5. Ao invés da a palavra much (L-9) o autor poderia ter usado many sem prejuízo do sentido. True or false?

Mini text 2: Search for Brazilian literature (III)

Ever since the beginning of the project, there have already been meetings between both groups in São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Ouro Preto and Chicago, in the United States. In October, there should be another event, this time in Spain. For 2012, meetings are scheduled in France and Germany. The events, always promoted in Portuguese, include partnerships with local institutions and are open to the public. Ferreira said that many of the foreigners researched became interested in Brazilian literature as a way to know the country. "There are also older people who started with personal or political relations [with Brazil] and became interested in culture and literature," he revealed. 211


Among the difficulties found by these professionals is the fact that bilingual Portuguese dictionaries are, most of the times, edited using Portuguese from Portugal. "This may distort translation. It would be important for the translator to have dictionaries from Brazilian Portuguese to their language," pointed out Ferreira. Apart from the blog, the search for foreigners connected to Brazilian literature is also through social networks like Facebook and Twitter, as well as sending messages to people recommended by the writers or translators themselves.

(By Áurea Santos - Translated by Mark Ament) – [07.08.11] Visit: http://www2.anba.com.br/noticia_imprimir.kmf?cod=12219992

ANALYSIS OF MINI TEXT 1

1. In the fragment: “Ever since the beginning of the project” (L-1), the word ‘ever’ poderia ter sido omitida sem alteração do sentido pretendido pwelo autor do texto. True or False? ________________

2. In the fragment: “In October, there should be another event” (L-3/4), the modal verb should expressa recomendação. True or False? ______________________________________________________

3. In the fragment: "This may distort translation”, (L-13)what does the modal verb may indicate? ______________________________________________________

4. In the fragment: “is also through social networks like …” (L-17), the word in bold could have been replaced by ‘throughout’ without changing the meaning intended by the author. True or False? ______________

212


GRAMMAR TIPS: COMPARATIVES

From mini text 2: "There are also older people who started with personal or political relations Há também pessoas mais velhas que começaram com relações pessoais ou políticas

Vamos estudar as diversas formas de comparatives dos adjetivos e advérbios em inglês.

a) You use as + adj. / adv. + as to form the comparative of equality. In negative statements not as (so) + adj./ adv. + as is used.

as easy as (tão fácil quanto) as happy as (tão feliz quanto) as beautiful as (tão belo /a quanto)

as easily as (tão facilmente quanto) as happily as (tão felizmente quanto) as beautifully as (tão belamente quanto)

b) you use the suffix ...er to form the comparative of superiority of “short” adjectives and adverbs. Thus, ...

easier (than) (mais fácil que) cleaner (than) (mais limpo que) hotter (than) (mais quente que)

213


c) With ‘long’ adjectives and adverbs you use more + adj. + than to form the comparative of superiority and less + adj. + than to form the comparative of inferiority:

more (less ) difficult than more ( less ) complicated than more ( less ) economical than

more(less) easily than more(less) didactically than more(less) seriously than

d) A few adjectives may form the comparative in both ways:

common

commoner (than)

or

more(less) common (than)

simple

simpler (than)

or

more (less) simple (than)

e) Irregular comparatives: Both farther and further function as comparatives of the adjective or adverb far.

You should use farther to refer to distance.

Uncle Jason’s farm is farther south. A fazenda do Tio Jason é mais ao sul.

Further may be used to refer to distance as well, but unlike farther it may mean ‘more’, ‘additional’.

214


For further information please contact Mr. Denver. Para maiores informações entre em contato com o Sr. Denver.

Other irregular comparatives:

good (well) / better (than) bad (badly) / worse (than) little / less (than) much (many) / more (than)

f) The definite article is used before adjectives and adverbs in all double comparative constructions.

The harder I work, the greater my task seems to be. Quanto mais duro eu trabalho, maior parece ser a minha tarefa.

The sooner she leaves, the earlier she’ll get to the beach house. Quanto mais cedo ela partir mais cedo chegará à casa de praia.

g) repeated adjective and adverb forms:

It’s getting harder and harder (or more and more difficult) to pass College Entrance Exams. Está ficando cada vez mais difícil passar nos exames Vestibulares.

h) Last but not least, pay special attention to adjectives which are not qualified by more (than); in some dictionaries you’ll find the indication ‘no comparison’: Ideal, foreign, superior, illegal, main, original, 215


EXERCISES

I. Translate these sentences to practice with whatever, however, whoever, wherever, whichever, whenever.

1. Whoever wants to go camping must give his name at the office. _______________________________________________________

2. Let me read whichever magazine in English you have. _______________________________________________________

3. Whatever you say now itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s too late to convince her to go out with you. _______________________________________________________

4. They can answer the questions however they want. _______________________________________________________

5. That stupid dog follows me wherever I go. _______________________________________________________

6. Whenever my brotherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wife comes to visit me we have a heated argument about something. _______________________________________________________

7. However interesting this game may be you have to go to bed now. _______________________________________________________

216


8. Whoever smashed the neighborâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s window pane must tell me now. _______________________________________________________

9. Whichever way you choose, you wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t get there in time for the wedding. _______________________________________________________

10. Whenever she smiles at me the world becomes paradise. _______________________________________________________

II. COMARATIVES & SUPERLATIVES - Choose the best option:

1. Julia is beautiful, I agree. But Denise is ________. A) more beautiful. B) most beautiful. C) beautifully. D) much beautidul.

2. Of all the dresses I've seen so far, this one is ________. A) the nice. B) nicest. C) the nicest. D) most nice.

3. Don was __________ taller than his brother. A) more. B) like. 217


C) as. D) much.

4. This sandwich is bad, but that one is _______. A) worst. B) wurst. C) worse. D) badder.

5. Kaká was the _______ soccer player that year. A) better. B) best. C) most good. D) goodestr.

6. Silvia isn’t so short. She’s _______ tall as her cousin. A) that. B) even. C) as. D) more.

7. Teresopolis is far from Rio. But Poços de Caldas is even __________. A) further. B) farther. C) more far. D) farthest. 218


8. Neither of those three dictionaries is expensive. But that one is ________. A) the cheapest. B) the cheaper. C) much expensive. D) cheaper.

9. Those three bags are not heavy. But this one is ____________. A) light. B) the lighter. C) the lightest. D) more lighter.

10. The more I study English, _________ it becomes to learn it. A) easier. B) the easier. C) the easiest. D) much easy.

III. Change to Passive Voice

1. “I won’t raise taxes during my administration”, the president said. ...._______________________________________________________

2. They edit most bilingual Portuguese dictionaries using Portuguese from Portugal. ...._______________________________________________________ 219


3. The organizers send messages to people recommended by the writers. ...._______________________________________________________

4. They also contact many people to join the project. ...._______________________________________________________

5. These professionals found all sorts of difficulties to take part in the event. ...._______________________________________________________

220


14ª AULA UNIT 14

Text 1: Global population estimates reduced because of HIV/AIDS U.N. projections for 2050 lowered by 278 million due to epidemic

Deaths caused by the HIV/AIDS epidemic will reduce the world's population by 278 million below what it would have otherwise been in 2050, according to new projections from the U.N. Population Division. In the 2002 revision of the official U.N. population estimates released Feb 26, HIV/AIDS and a reduced number of projected births are cited as dual factors in a total decline in the revised estimate of 400 million. The increasing diversity of population dynamics among the countries and regions of the world is evident in the results of the 2002 Revision. Whereas today the population of the more developed regions of the world is rising at an annual rate of 0.25%, that of the less developed regions is increasing nearly six times as fast, at 1.46%, and the subset of the 49 least developed countries is experiencing even more rapid population growth (2.4% per year). Such differences, although somewhat dampened, will persist until 2050. By that time, the population of the more developed regions will have been declining for 20 years, whereas the population of the less developed regions will still be rising at an annual rate of 0.4%. More importantly, the population of the least developed countries will likely be rising at a robust annual rate of over 1.2% in 2045-2050.

(Distributed by the Office of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State). Visit: http://state.gov/

Vocabulary Study (Vocabulário de Apoio)

1. number of projected births nº de nascimentos projetados

221


2. lower fertility levels níveis de fertilidade + baixos

3. arrest the current spread sustar a atual disseminação

4. somewhat slower reduction uma redução um tanto mais lenta

5. such dampened differences tais diferenças amenizadas

6. robust annual rate uma forte taxa anual

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

Remember our WH- words and the other interrogative pronouns? Here’s another exercise for you to practice them.

1. Why will the world’s population have been reduced by 278 million by 2050? It will have been reduced because of the deaths caused by the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

2. Which are the two factors cited in the U.N population estimates in a total decline of 400 million people? The dual factors cited in the revision are: HIV/AIDS and a reduced number of projected births. 222


3. What is happening to the population of the more developed regions of the world nowadays? Today it is rising at an annual rate of 0.25%.

4. How fast is the population increasing in the less developed regions of the globe? In the less developed regions it is increasing nearly six times as fast, at 1.46%.

5. How long will these differences persist? Although somewhat dampened, these differences will persist until 2050.

6. By 2050 what will have been happening to the population in the more developed regions of the world? By that time, the population of the more developed regions will have been declining for 20 years.

7. What will be happening to the population of the less developed regions then? According to projections, the population of the less developed regions will still be rising at an annual rate of 0.4%.

8. What about the population of the least developed countries in 2045-2050? It will likely be rising at a robust annual rate of over 1.2% by then.

PERFECT MODALS ALL TOGETHER

A) WILL + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE OF MAIN VERB

223


Actually, this is the future perfect simple, which tells us about an action that will be finished by a certain future date. Na verdade, este é o futuro perfeito simples, que nos fala de uma ação que estará terminada numa data futura.

By the end of this year Mr. Hill will have lived in Brazil for 35 years. No final deste ano o Sr. Hill terá vivido no Brasil por 35 anos.

A forma: will + have been + -ing form of main verb – future perfect continuous - também poderia ter sido usada.

Mr. Hill will have been living in Brazil for 40 years by December. O Sr. Hill terá vivido no Brasil por 40 anos no fim deste ano.

B) CAN HAVE / COULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE OF MAIN VERB (usado para expressar possibilidade no passado)

If you had phoned me, I could have dropped by to help you out. Se você tivesse me telefonado eu poderia ter ido aí para ajudá-lo.

What can/could have happened to my highlighter pens? O que pode / poderia ter acontecido com minhas canetas marca-texto?

C) MUST HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE OF MAIN VERB (usado para expressar probabilidade no passado)

Look how tanned Linda is! She must have stayed a long time in the sun. 224


Veja como a Linda está bronzeada! Deve ter ficado no sol um tempão.

NB: In the neg. can’t have + past part. of main verb should be used. Bob’s car is still in the garage. He can’t have left for work yet.

D) MAY / MIGHT HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE OF MAIN VERB (usado para expressar possibilidade no passado)

The police believe Derrick may have killed his wife. A polícia acredita que Derrick pode ter assassinado a esposa dele.

If you had invited Jean to the party, she might have shown up. Se você tivesse convidado a Jean para a festa ela podia ter vindo.

Joshua might not have left if you had been more polite to him. Joshua poderia não ter partido se você tivesse sido mais gentil com ele.

E) SHOULD HAVE AND OUGHT TO HAVE (usados para expressar ações que se esperava acontecessem no passado mas que não aconteceram)

My secretary is late for work today. She should have (or ought to have) gotten here half an hour ago. Minha secretária está atrasada pro trabalho hoje; ela já deveria ter chegado há meia hora.

Shouldn’t they have finished their lessons by now?

225


Eles já não deveriam ter terminado suas lições?

F) WOULD HAVE +PAST PARTICIPLE OF MAIN VERB In if-clauses (past unreal situations)

We would have visited you but we didn’t know where you lived. Nos teríamos visitado você, mas não sabíamos onde você morava.

I would have invited you to the party if I had known you were in town. Teria convidado você para a festa se tivesse sabido que você estava na cidade.

You would have met Alice if you had gone to the show. Você teria encontrado a Alice se tivesse ido ao show.

ANALYSIS OF TEXT 1

1. Traduza o título do text 1 sem consultar nenhum dicionário, depois compare com a minha versão. _______________________________________________________

2. How can you translate the fragment in bold: “below what it would have otherwise been in 2050,” (L-2/3)? _______________________________________________________

3. Escreva o único exemplo de future perfect continuous construction do text 1. _______________________________________________________

226


4. Quantos exemplos de estruturas no future simple você consegue encontrar no text 1? _______________________________________________________

5. Quantos exemplos de estruturas no future continuous você consegue encontrar no text 1? _______________________________________________________

6. Quantos exemplos de estruturas no present continuous você consegue encontrar no text 1? _______________________________________________________

7. In the fragment: “Such differences, although somewhat dampened, will persist until 2050” (L-12/13), the word in bold is indicating addition. True or False? _______________________________________________________

8. O que a palavra whereas (L-15), as a discourse marker, está indicando? _______________________________________________________

227


PRACTICING PERFECT MODALS

Estude os mini-diálogos a seguir e escreva o que estão indicando os perfect modal auxiliaries in bold:

(S1 = stands for speaker one / S2 = stands for speaker two)

-IS1: “I painted the door of my garage all by myself.” S2: “I could have helped you.” ___________________________________

-IIS1: “Jill failed to pass her exam.” S2: “She should have studied harder.” ___________________________________

-IIIS1: “Debby’s room lights are out.” S2: “She must have gone to sleep already.” ___________________________________

-IVS1: “Have you seen ‘Diamonds are Forever”?” S2: “If it’s a 007 movie, I must have seen it.” ___________________________________ 228


-VS1: “Did it rain last night?” S2: “It may have rained.” ___________________________________

-VIS1: “Has Janet called yet?” S2: “Not yet. I’m afraid we will have left for Canada when she does. ___________________________________

-VIIS1: “Would you have helped me with my studies if I’d asked you?” S2: “I certainly might have helped you gladly.” ___________________________________

VOCABULARY BUILD UP

Complete the mini text with the words below:

Mini text 1: Global population estimates reduced … HIV/AIDS (II)

increase

conclusions

ensuring

average

subject

The 2002 Revision confirms key __________ (1) from previous revisions. Despite the lower fertility levels projected and the increased mortality risks to which some populations will be __________ (2), the population of the world is expected to increase by 2.6 billion during the next 47 years, from 6.3 billion today to 8.9 billion in 2050. However, the realization of these 229


projections is contingent on __________ (3) that couples have access to family planning and that efforts to arrest the current spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic are successful in reducing its growth momentum. The potential for considerable population ________ (4) remains high. According to the results of the 2002 Revision, if fertility were to remain constant in all countries at current levels, the total population of the globe could more than double by 2050, reaching 12.8 billion. Even a somewhat slower reduction of fertility than that projected in the medium variant would result in additional billions of people. Thus, if women were to have, on _________ (5), about half a child more than according to the medium variant, world population might rise to 10.6 billion in 2050 as projected in the high variant.

Visit: http://state.gov/

BRIEF ANALYSIS OF MINI TEXT 1

1. As discourse markers, these words are indicating: a) despite ( L-2) - _________________________________________ b) However (L-5) - ________________________________________ c) if (L-11) - ______________________________________________ d) Thus (L-15) - ___________________________________________

2. What are these modal verbs indicating? a) could ( L-12) - _________________________________________ b) might ( L-16) - _________________________________________

3. Translate the following fragments: a) the realization of these projections is contingent on (L-6) _______________________________________________________ b) efforts to arrest the current spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic (L-7/8) _______________________________________________________ 230


c) Even a somewhat slower reduction of fertility (L-13) _______________________________________________________

DISCOURSE MARKERS

Indicando adição, acréscimo AND, again, besides, in addition, also, further, furthermore, moreover …

Indicando oposição / contraste BUT, after all, despite, in spite of, on the other hand, nevertheless, whereas, while, however, on the contrary, yet, notwithstanding, although, still, instead, in contrast …

Indicando resultado / conseqüência SO, accordingly, as a result, because of this, consequently, naturally, on this account, hence, for this reason, therefore, thus …

Indicando passagem do tempo THEN, after a short (long) time, lately, temporarily, while, after a while, presently, afterward, recently, thereafter, at last, since, eventually …

Indicando seqüência ou enumeração FIRST, first of all, second, secondly, third, thirdly, in the 1st place, in the 2nd place, then, finally, next, last …

Indicando exemplificação FOR EXAMPLE, for instance, incidentally, indeed, in fact, in other words, in particular, namely, particularly, specifically, such as, that is …

231


Indicando comparação ou semelhanças LIKEWISE, in a like manner, in the same way, similarly …

Indicando condição ou hipótese IF, unless, on condition that, provided that, supposing that, whether …

Indicando ênfase INDEED, in fact, as a matter of fact, actually …

Indicando conclusão ou para resumir IN SUM, in summary, to summarize, in brief, in short, to conclude, in conclusion, on the whole …

Indicando certeza ou para assegurar algo OF COURSE, for sure, undoubtedly, without any doubt, obviously, naturally, it goes without saying, needless to say, definitely

Because I believe that practice makes perfect, do this exercise in order to practice this essential topic one more time:

Choose the best option:

1. __________ the heavy rain, the boys continued playing soccer.

A) Instead

B) Despite

C) However

D) Regardless

___________________________________________________________ 232


2. It was a shiny race car; _______ it was too heavy to reach competitive speeds.

a) meanwhile b) therefore c) however

d) in short

___________________________________________________________

3. Bobâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the best applicant and he has lots of experience; _________ she has good contacts in this area.

a) furthermore b) whereas c) as well as

d) on the other hand

___________________________________________________________

4. __________ he had a headache, he decided not to go out with us.

a) Because

b) Due to

c) Hence

d) As a result

___________________________________________________________

5. My wife needed some cash, __________ she went to the bank.

a) so

b) next

c) then d) likewise ___________________________________________________________

233


6. Yes, I know where the CCBB is; __________, I was there the other day.

a) likewise

b) meanwhile

c) in fact

d) that is

___________________________________________________________

7. My wife and I will buy the apartment ___________ we can get financing at decent interest rates.

a) unless

b) provided

c) nevertheless d) thus ___________________________________________________________

8. There is one factor that outweighs all the others; __________, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s near my office.

a) namely

b) e.g.

c) accordingly d) even though ___________________________________________________________

9. The witness appeared calm, ______________ there was something in his speech that made us suspicious.

a) moreover

b) therefore

c) despite

d) yet

___________________________________________________________

234


10. I was taking a quick shower; __________, my wife was doing her nails in the living room.

a) in the end

b) meanwhile

c) though

d) that is

___________________________________________________________

AFFIXES – A SUMMARY

From text 1: “will reduce the world's population by” (L-1/2) reduzirá a população do mundo em

“according to new projections from the U.N. Population Division” (L-3) de acordo com as novas projeções da Divisão de Populações da ONU

“a reduced number of projected births are cited” (L-5) um número reduzido de nascimentos projetados é citado

“a total decline in the revised estimate of 400 million” (L-6) um declínio total na estimativa revisada de 400 milhões

Quanto mais familiarizado você estiver com os vários affixes (prefixes /suffixes) mais facilidade terá em decoding novos significados, e mais fluentemente você conseguirá ler e estará aumentando o seu vocabulary power. Aqui estão alguns dos principais affixes do inglês para você consultar sempre que houver necessidade.

235


1) PREFIXES

Anti

as in:

anti-war

manifestação contra a guerra

Auto

as in:

autobiography

autobiografia

Dis

as in:

disconnect

desconectar

En

as in:

enlarge

ampliar

Il

as in:

illegal

ilegal

Im

as in

impatient

impaciente

In

as in:

indecent

indecente, indigno

Inter

as in

interdependent interdependente

Ir

as in

irrelevant

irelevante

Mid

as in:

mid-way

a meio caminho

Mis

as in

misinterpret

interpretar mal

Multi

as in

multinational

multinacional

Non

as in

nonsmoking

não fumante

Out

as in

outlive

viver mais que

Over

as in

overweight

obeso, acima do peso

Pre

as in:

pre-test

pré teste

Pro

as in:

pro-abortion

posição em favor do aborto

Semi

as in:

semicircle

semicírculo

Un

as in

unwrap

desembrulhar

Under as in:

undernourished subnutrido

236


2) SUFFIXES

Formadores de verbos

-ate

as in:

estimate

estimar

-en

as in:

blacken

escurecer

-fy

as in:

certify

certificar

-ize

as in:

liberalize

liberar

Formadores de advérbios

-ly

as in

sincerely

sinceramente

-ward(s)

as in:

toward(s)

em direção a

-wise

as in:

clockwise

no sentido horário

Formadores de substantivos

-age

as in:

marriage

casamento

-ance

as in

attendance

presença

-ence

as in

independence

independência

-er

as in

hunter

caçador

-hood

as in:

childhood

infância

-ician

as in:

statistician

estatístico

-ics

as in:

statistics

estatística

-ish

as in:

childish

infantil

-ism

as in:

fanaticism

fanatismo 237


-ist

as in:

physicist

físico

-ity

as in:

brutality

brutalidade

-ment

as in:

improvement

melhoria

-ness

as in:

happiness

felicidade

-or

as in:

survivor

sobrevivente

-ship

as in:

friendship

amizade

-sis

as in:

synthesis

síntese

-tion

as in:

attention

atenção

Formadores de adjetivos

-able

as in:

reliable

confiável

-al

as in:

cultural

cultural

-an

as in

American

americano

-ation

as in:

explanation

explicação

-ed*

as in

experienced

experiente

-ee

as in

trainee

estagíário/a, treinando

-ful

as in:

grateful

grato/a, agradecido/a

-ible

as in:

responsible

responbsável

-ic

as in:

classic

clássico

-ive

as in:

responsive

responsivo/a

-less

as in:

careless

-ly

as in:

friendly

-ous

as in:

ambitious

ambicioso/a

-y

as in:

rainy

chuvoso

descuidado amigável

238


JUST FOR FUN

A Joke

A man was telling his neighbour, "I just bought a new hearing aid. It cost me $4,000, but it's state of the art." "What kind is it?" "Twelve thirty."

PRACTICING PHRASAL VERBS In the following substitution drill you will find a question in “A” where one fragment in bold type has been underlined; in “B”, you have a blank space to be completed with a separable two-word verb. Follow the model:

Model

A. Why did they cancel the show? B. They called it off because of the storm.

1. A. Were the major’s orders to explode the bridge? B. Yes, they were to _______ it _______.”

2. A.

Has your doctor told you to stop smoking?

B. Yes, she’s ordered me to ______ it _______.

3. A. Did the surgeon amputate Ted’s arm? B. No, he didn’t have to _____ it ______. 239


4. A.

Did you understand what she wrote?

B. No, I just couldn’t ______ it ______.

5. A. Did the firefighters extinguish the blaze? B. Yes, they managed to _____ it ______.

6. A. Has Lys discovered the solution to the riddle? B. Yes, she has ________ it ____.

7. A. Did the judge reject the prisoner’s appeal? B. Yes, he _______ it ______.

8. A.

Did Brian select the red ties?

B. Yes, he _______ them ______.

9. A.

Has Rick tested the new racing car?

B. Yes, he has ________ it _____ already.

10. A. Did the C.B.F. postpone the soccer game? B. Yes, C.B F. ________ it _____ till Monday.

11. A. Did you extinguish the lights before leaving? B. Of course, I ______ them ____.

12. A. Have you disposed of those old baskets? B. Yes, I’ve ______ them ______. 240


13. A. Is the scientist doing the experiment? B. Yes, he’s _______ it _____.

14. A. Did you remove your hat when you entered the temple? B. Yes, I remembered to ______ it _____.

15. A. Was the book returned in due time? B. Yes, I _____ it _____ last week.

16. A. Have they reduced the local police force? B. Yes, they have ______ it _______.

17. A. Do you think Linus invented the story? B. I’m sure he _______ it ________.

18. A. Shouldn’t you consider it more carefully before you buy it? B. Yes, I should ________ it _____ very carefully.

19. A. Did you phone your parents last Sunday? B. Yes, I ______ them ____.

20. A. Should I continue studying phrasal verbs? B. Absolutely. I think you should ______ it ____.

241


ANSWERS: PHRASAL VERBS

Model:

A. Why did they cancel the show? B. They called it off because of the storm.

1. A. Were the major’s orders to explode the bridge? B. Yes, they were to blow it up.

2. A.

Has your doctor told you to stop smoking?

B. Yes, she’s ordered me to give it up.

3. A. Did the surgeon amputate Ted’s arm? B. No, he didn’t have to cut it off.

4. A.

Did you understand what she wrote?

B. No, I just couldn’t make it out.

5. A. Did the firefighters extinguish the blaze? B. Yes, they managed to put it out.

6. A. Has Lys discovered the solution to the riddle? B. Yes, she has found it out.

242


7. A. Did the judge reject the prisoner’s appeal? B. Yes, he turned it down.

8. A.

Did Brian select the red ties?

B. Yes, he picked them out.

9. A.

Has Rick tested the new racing car?

B. Yes, he has tried it out already.

10. A. Did the C.B.F. postpone the soccer game? B. Yes, C.B F. put it off till Monday.

11. A. Did you extinguish the lights before leaving? B. Of course, I turned them off.

12. A. Have you disposed of those old baskets? B. Yes, I’ve thrown them away.

13. A. Is the scientist doing the experiment? B. Yes, he’s carrying it out.

14. A. Did you remove your hat when you entered the temple? B. Yes, I remembered to take it off.

15. A. Was the book returned in due time? B. Yes, I gave it back last week. 243


16. A. Have they reduced the local police force? B. Yes, they have cut it down.

17. A. Do you think Linus invented the story? B. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m sure he made it up.

18. A. Shouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t you consider it more carefully before you buy it? B. Yes, I should think it over very carefully.

19. A. Did you phone your parents last Sunday? B. Yes, I called them up.

20. A. Should I continue studying phrasal verbs? B. Absolutely. I think you should keep it up.

244


15ª AULA UNIT 15

FINAL QUIZ

Part I - Choose the better alternative in brackets:

1. [a) Besides / b) Beside] English, my secretary speaks Spanish. ________________________________________________________

2. We are going to buy that beach house [a) unless / b) if] we can get good financing rates. ________________________________________________________

3. Perhaps as a result of globalization, unemployment in the world has been [a) raising / b) rising]. ________________________________________________________

4. S1: “How [a) long / b) much] will it take till we get to our hotel?” S2: “About 2 hours.” ________________________________________________________

5. I’m sorry, boss. I’m a little late because I [a) overslept / b) non-slept] today. ________________________________________________________

6. How [a) often / b) frequent] do you have your hair cut? ________________________________________________________ 245


7. S1: “How many times have you been there?” S2: “A [a) little / b) few]] times.” ________________________________________________________

8. We don’t go to the theater every Sunday any more, but we [a) used to / b) had been using to]. ________________________________________________________

9. The police [a) is / b) are] still investigating the Central Bank robbery. ________________________________________________________

10. On the day of your exam you’re supposed to choose the correct answer [a) between / b) among] five options. ________________________________________________________

11. [a) Eventually / b) Lately] he managed to pass his driving test, after he’d failed it 3 times. ________________________________________________________

12. Joan can’t [a) make / b) do] the cake without the recipe. ________________________________________________________

13. Everybody at the office is working [a) hardly / b) hard] right now. ________________________________________________________

246


14. If you donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t feel well you [a) should / b) ought] to see your doctor. ________________________________________________________

15. Brandon is an accountant on [a) who / b) whom] we can depend. ________________________________________________________

16. [a) However / b) Although] Milton is a talented musician I think he needs more practice. ________________________________________________________

17. Gordon went to the bank in order to [a) do / b) make] a deposit. ________________________________________________________

18. On Dec. 31, New Year's Eve, guests dress up in [(a) costume / b) custom] for the parties? ________________________________________________________

19. If you decide to go the Festival, [a) giving / b) give] me a call. ________________________________________________________

20. [a) Nowadays / b) For now] more and more people are subscribing to cable TV. ________________________________________________________

21. Luisa hardly [a) even / b) ever] wears a costume at Carnival. ________________________________________________________

22. [a) By the way / b) In the way] have you read Joâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s latest book? ________________________________________________________ 247


23. I met Celia [a) on / b) in] my way to the bank. ________________________________________________________

24. On second thought, I believe we [a) had / b) would] better enroll for the Basic English Course. ________________________________________________________

25. Jake has a modern sports car, but he wants [a) other/b) another]. ________________________________________________________

26. Practically non-existent 20 years ago, mobile phones are [a) anywhere / b) everywhere]. ________________________________________________________

27. The freckle-faced girl and the absent-minded boy [a) boosted / b) bumped] into each other and fell down on the ground. ________________________________________________________

28. [a) Although / b) In spite of] her efforts, she did not succeed in passing the exam. ________________________________________________________

29. This celebration is telecast live on news [a) canals / b) channels] across the nation. ________________________________________________________

30. Mr. Park has promised to [a) raise / b) rise] our salaries. ________________________________________________________

248


31. S1; “Do you really have to go now?” S2:”Yes, I [a) must / b) may]. ________________________________________________________

32. [a) In / On] the other hand, they might accept my application and hire me. ________________________________________________________

33. You [a) ought / b) should] be more careful after this. ________________________________________________________

34. Dr. Salk wouldn’t have [a) discovered / b) invented] the vaccine, otherwise. ________________________________________________________

35. Columbus [a) discovered / b) invented] America in 1492. ________________________________________________________

36. That judge has a solid reputation of being extremely [a) impartial/ b) non-partial]. ________________________________________________________

37. Scientists fear that in the near future the disease may have [a) spreading / b) spread] to other continents. ________________________________________________________

38. Joanne speaks English [a) better / b) best] than her sister. ________________________________________________________

249


39. The exam was not so difficult this time. If I had studied harder, I [a) would / b) will] have passed. ________________________________________________________

40. Listen! Somebody [a) plays / b) is playing] the violin now. ________________________________________________________

41. She has been living in Ipanema for years; [a) however / b) therefore] she should know where that street is. ________________________________________________________

42. Are you sure you’re making a [a) sensitive / b) sensible] decision. I mean, is it clearly the best solution for you? ________________________________________________________

43. You haven’t pronounced my name correctly. You’ve [a) mis- / b) dis-] pronounced it. ________________________________________________________

44. It’s not that I have to work such long hours; actually, I [a) must not / b) don’t have to], but I just enjoy it. _________________________________________________________

45. [a) Can / b) May] you read Chinese? I don’t understand a word. _________________________________________________________

46. Fred [a) grew up /b) brought up] to be a six-foot tall basketball player. _________________________________________________________

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47. [a) Should / b) If] my niece call again, tell her I’m gone. _________________________________________________________

48. Mr. Reeve is in a meeting. He [a) may not have been / b) should not be] disturbed now. _________________________________________________________

49. “What do you think I should do, Marian?” “If I [a) were / b) was] you, I’d call Harry up.” _________________________________________________________

50. [a) Despite / b) In spite] the rumors about the politician’s involvement in the scandal no official statement was released. _________________________________________________________

51. I [a) might visit / b) might have visited] your brother in the hospital yesterday if you had told me about his operation. _________________________________________________________

52. You’ve made a big mistake. You should not [a) have / b) had] woken up the dog. Now he’s going to bark all night. _________________________________________________________

53. When I was a teenager I [a) used to / b) was to] collect stamps, but now I collect coins. _________________________________________________________

54. This classroom is [a) more wider / b) narrower] than the other one. _________________________________________________________ 251


55. Shirley has had splitting headaches for weeks. [Therefore / b) Moreover] she should see a doctor. _________________________________________________________

56. How many people [a) attended / b) assisted] the mass on Sunday? _________________________________________________________

57. His wallet was [a) robbed / b) stolen] during his visit to the Museum of Modern Art. _________________________________________________________

58. The president was forced to take some [a) impopular / b) unpopular] decisions. _________________________________________________________

59. An estimated 40% of U.S. productivity growth between 1995 / 2002 has been [a) contributed / b) attributed] to information technology. _________________________________________________________

60. As yet I [a) hadn't been / b) haven't been] to the movies this month, so let's go tomorrow. _________________________________________________________

Part II - Read the following mini texts and then choose the better alternative in brackets:

I. Ireland is easily the [61. a) poorest / b) poorer] country in rich north-west Europe. [62.a) Their / b) Its] gross domestic product is a mere 64% of the European Community average. [63. a) Thus / b) Yet] in the mid-1970s it [64. a) set / b) brought] out to build a welfare state as generous [65. a) than / b) as] Britain's. (Source: The Economist - ICMS (SP) / 1997)

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II. What makes this sort of motor so popular? One reason is its efficiency. Figures show that it is [66. a) too / b) much] more efficient than steam engines, or petrol engines. It is simple to work; it does not [67. a) shake / b) shaken] it is fairly silent: it has few moving parts, and [68. a) instead / b) therefore] gets little wear and tear, It [69. a) must / b) can] be easily started1 speeded up, slowed down and stopped. In fact for [70. a) very / b) most] purposes it is ideal. [Electric Motors - FUNDAÇÃO JOÃO GOULART /CET /RIO / 2002]

III. Globalization is [71. a) among / b) between] the most hotly debated issues on political agendas today. The discussion, [72. a) although / b) however], tends to be fragmented, with views often polarized along political or geographic lines. Some blame globalization for exacerbating [73. a) unemployment / b) non-employment] and poverty; [74. a) another / b) others] see it as a way of solving such problems. Attention and research concentrate on markets and perceived economic gains or losses [75. a) rather / b) instead] than on the impact of globalization on the life and work of people, their families and their societies. This [76. a) fault / b) lack] of consensus makes it harder to develop [77. a) policies / b) politics] at national and international levels. The [78. a) inadequate / b) inadequacy] focus on the human side of globalization creates a [79. a) gain / b) gap] in understanding the forces of change and how people react to them. Such knowledge is necessary [80. a) unless / b) if] appropriate policy responses are to be developed. [Globalization, Work and Changes]- (ESAF / AFMT / 2003)

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Apostila de Inglês Básico