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the architecture journal

Albert Chandra | 514663 May 2013 David Lister and Michael Wu


Parametric Escapade Expression of Interest: Case for Innovation Framework for Discourse GC Prostho Museum Research Centre Smithsonian Institution Aritifical Architecture Tama Art University Library 7th International Strawberry Symposium Parametric Modelling Southern Cross Station AAMI Park Algorithmic Explorations Learning Outcomes Expression of Interest: Design Approach Structural Purism Case Study 1.0 Beijing National Stadium Case Study 2.0 King’s Cross Station West Concourse Technique: Development Technique: Prototypes Technique: Proposal Algorithmic Sketches Learning Outcomes Gateway Design Design Concept Tectonic Elements Final Model Algorithmic Sketches Learning Outcomes Bibliography

1 5 5 7 11 15 17 21 25 27 33 39 44 45 45 47 47 55 55 63 67 71 73 75 77 77 83 85 89 91 96



PARAMETRIC ESCAPADES “The psychogram, usually a drawing but sometimes a model, is the architect’s expression of emotion liberated form the rationalizing constraints that bind conventional architecture design processes.” – Ostwald and Chapman

I am very passionate about architecture and the materiality, functionality and creativity embedded in it. Architecture is a very challenging world, as it keep changing and evolving, and there is always something new to be learnt. I am obsessed with geometry, as it is very scientific and explainable. The first encounter I have had with parametric design was when I studied Interior Design in Singapore, where I learnt AutoCAD for the first time. Never in my life have I seen something with such precision, and having learnt manual drafting, AutoCAD was a revolutionary tool, as it cuts hours of manual labor and provide such detailed documentation drawings. With diminished interest in Interior Design as I found the course to be quite superficial, I moved to Melbourne and enrolled in Interior Architecture at Monash, where I got employed for model making and all-round services by a tutor, who introduced me to SketchUp. In the first year of Bachelor of Environments majoring in Architecture at the University of Melbourne, I learnt Rhinoceros as a required tool for Virtual Environments. Rhinoceros was very innovative, as having a little bit of background in 3Ds Max and SketchUp, I have never seen a three-dimensional modeling tool that allows multiple iterations that allows the object of the design to be pushed further.


FRAMEWORK FOR DISCOURSE “The study of visual culture ought not simply to reiterate the professional discourse of architecture-as-art, but make use of the critical approaches that have emerged over the past century.” – Richard Williams

Architecture has been an inescapable aspect in everyday life as it embodies the responses to the society’s requirements in creating structural methods in supporting the social, political and administrative relationships in the society.1 This is often presented by the architect as a way of generating discourse, engaging the public with the architecture itself. This is done with the hope to narrow the aperture between the non-initiates public and architecture, as the subject matter is often perceived as being exclusive in its perceptibility and linguistic approach to the public. Most of the time, public seem to be more interested in interpreting architecture as an artistic approach in assembling structure with hidden meaning embedded within, as art does sometimes. Art contains a certain degree of aesthetic appeal, which could be daunting to engage in as a discourse; it is sometimes arbitrary and abstract. This is not the case with architecture as it is purely functional and a result of good understanding of tectonics and structure. It is contextual, rational and under stable conditions it is both safe and efficient to rely on basic and explicit understandings based solely on the practical spatial experience, instead of implicitly

trying to understand architecture. While architecture is not art, for it is approachable and engaged in interactions generated its audience, it does not completely disregard the artistic approach conveyed in the idea that drives architecture. One could argue that a structure in itself is a beautiful and artful result of tectonics, one that derives from socio-political problem and solved through a wellarticulated algorithm. To be able to understand architecture as merely a structure, one must have the ability to critical approach and strip the architecture to its essence of structure, understanding the physical attributes that might be embedded in its structure and to state the intrinsic component of the structure.2 Architecture, as it sometimes presents itself as a whole, represents a response to the ever-changing structure of society, which involves the non-initiates public. Consequently, to say architecture is an art will be an understatement, though the appreciation of the structural understanding and the beauty of it can be regarded as an equal to how art is appreciated.

Richard Williams, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture: Definitions, Concepts and Contexts, ed. Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), p. 102. 2 ibid., p.116. 1



PROSTHO MUSEUM RESEARCH CENTER “The wooden lattice provides far more than a cosmetic solution. It functions as a structural device.” – Kengo Kuma

Architects: Location:

Structural engineer for the project, conducted a range of tests to check the strength of the system, and verified the toy’s adaptability to actual buildings. This architecture displays the possibility of creating Client: a universe by combining small units like toys with your own hands. The approach in structure and aesthetics embody the essence of modernism, resulting in a heavy and rigid structure with a certain The architecture is inspired from the system of degree of lightness to it. The lightness and softness Cidori, an old Japanese toy, which is an assembly of the gridded structure was achieved through its of wood sticks that has been passed on in Hida supporting structure, concealed behind the core Takayama, a small town in a mountain, where many wall. Inserted glass panel into the wooden frame skilled craftsmen still exist.1 It is evident that the created a system that looks like transparent wooden structure was assembled by the timber structure lattices running through continuously between the as its main element, and like Cidori, the structural interior and the exterior of the building.2 elements of the timber were joined with uniqueshaped joined. This can be seen as a structural The architecture embodies a certain sculptural celebration, for Japanese timber construction has quality in its form and mass, though the use of been highly regarded as a beautiful craft of art. The gridded structure allows the architecture to be structure can be extended merely by twisting the strong and rigid, while the use of materials allow sticks, without any nails or metal fittings, creating it to be soft and light. Inspired by a simple, yet a cubic grid that becomes the grid on its own for powerful idea, the structure had the possibility to be the showcase in the museum, while occupying the executed in a kitsch and distasteful manner, instead with the artful execution, it is articulated in a clever space. and elegant manner. 1 2

Kengo Kuma & Associates 2-294 Torii Matsu Machi, Kasugai-shi, Aichi Prefecture, Japan GC Corporation

GA Architect, Kengo Kuma 2006-2012, (Japan: ADA, 2012), p. 174. ibid., p.176.



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION “This courtyard is a gift to the entire nation, as well as the nation’s capital. It will enable the Smithsonian to expand its services to all visitors by creating a uniquely beautiful location for exciting events, special programs and quiet contemplation.” – Christian Samper

Architects: Foster + Partners Location: Washington DC, USA Client: Smithsonian Institution Collaborating Architect: Smith Group Inc.

The Smithsonian Institution occupies the former United States Patent Building, described by Walt Whitman as ‘the noblest of Washington buildings’.1 Built between 1836 and 1867, the Patent Building is the finest example of Greek Revival architecture in the United States and a celebrated part of the capital’s urban fabric. The enclosure of the building’s grand central courtyard was prompted by a desire to transform the public’s experience of the Smithsonian’s galleries and create one of the largest event spaces in Washington.

galleries from the courtyard, and out of museum hours the space regularly hosts a variety of social events, including concerts and public performances. Designed to do ‘the most with the least’, the fluidform, fully glazed roof canopy develops structural and environmental themes first explored in the design of the roof of the Great Court at the British Museum, bathing the courtyard in daylight.

Structurally, the blob roof canopy is composed of three interconnected vaults that flow into one another through softly curved valleys. The design utilised parametric design to optmise the structural ability to hold the roof providing generous light to the courtyard. The double-glazed panels are set within a diagrid of structural fins, clad in acoustic material, which altogether form a rigid shell that needs to be supported by only eight columns. Visually, the roof is raised above the walls of the existing building, The courtyard forms the main centrepiece of the clearly articulating and celebrating the new and building’s long-term renovation program, including the old. The execution of the new structure is so the redesign of the galleries with contemporary immaculate; it adds elegance and formality to the interactive displays, the addition of a conservation civic space. laboratory, an auditorium and greatly increased exhibition space. Visitors can enter the surrounding 1

Russell Fortmeyer, Robert and Arlene Kodod Courtyard, (Architectural Record, 2008), < com/projects/bts/archives/museums/0803_Smithsonian/>, [accessed 20 March 2013].


ARTIFICIAL ARCHITECTURE “Digitally-driven design processes, characterised by dynamic, open-ended and unpredictable but consistent transformations of three-dimensional structures, are giving rise to new architectonic possibilities.” – Branko Kolarevic

Digital technologies are changing the face of architectural practices in its conceptual realm, computation, and digital architecture of typological and geometric space.1 Digitisation era in architecture has been going on for a few decades now, started with the establishment of computer-aided drawing (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), though it is now seen as an important aspect within the designing process. This changing aspect of architecture is opening opportunities to deal with constraints within the construction and exploration of a given project. Digital technology is seen as an apparatus that integrates conception and production of design space in unprecedented ways since the medieval times’ master builder2, for it allows exploration as a means of satisfying changing goals in a strongly problem-constraint space. It provides computational structure to support exploration, therefore optimising structural performance of a designed space. This allows constant iteration, multiple testings and changing of ideas as responses to constraints faced in a project, breaking the conventional boundaries of design processes and methods involved in design processes. This explains the changing relationship 1 2

between architecture and its means of production, which drives the digitally driven processes of thinking, design, fabrication and construction. While some examine this transformation as better way to progress in architecture production, others feel uneasy about the changing façade of architecture. It is seen as a tool that limits creativity and lessens the integrity that architecture embodies. While it cannot be denied that since the rise of digitisation in architecture, many has come forward with the ‘blobbified’ idea that tries to make architecture seems radical without having any technical and optimisation backup to its design process, the conservatives views can be seen as a rigid response to an ever-changing world that architecture is. The shift in architecture allows it to not be seen as convention of styles and aesthetics, but progression of structural optimisation that provides ranges of possibilities in variables, instead of stable process. It is an advantage that allows the exploration of options and increases productivity, while allowing multiple iterations and testing in optimising a project. This, as a result, generates the best outcome possible, which is expressed within the constricted parameters.

Branko Kolarevic, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, (London: Spon Press, 2003), p. 3. ibid., p. 4.



TAMA ART UNIVERSITY LIBRARY “A new place of arcade-like spaces, where soft mutual relations form by simply passing through.” – Toyo Ito

Architects: Toyo Ito & Associates Location: Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan Client: Tama Art University Collaborating Architect: Kajima Design

open space. The first floor features an all-purpose and gallery space available to hold various events and exhibitions as well as a theater area with a big screen. Open-plan approach can be seen throughout the spaces and the use of light allows the space to be meditative and confronting at the same time. While the exterior shows a rigid structure, inside, The university library is a three-storey library that it can be seen that the structure is very fluid, with plays a significant role in providing information, the arches intersecting, resulting in an uneven grid which contributes to art education and research structure, which supports the entire building. for students and faculty of Tama Art University. The overall scheme of the architectural approach seems There is no doubt, with this structural approach, to be very eclectic, with a mixture and reminiscent computation is definitely used to allow multiple of Roman architecture and modernism in Brutalist iteration in determining the most optimal structure style. Series of different sizes of arches defined the within the space that would accommodate facade and they maximizes opening on the building’s maximum light penetration and also maximum front, allowing maximum light to enter the library movement throughout the space. The building is a space, while the reinforced concrete facade and the fine example of a celebration of structure and the rigid rectangular structure confronts the nature that purity of materials, which has been presented in an unprecedented way that contrasts the modernist surrounds the site. exterior and post-modern interior. The library, as Ito Regarding the interior space, the entire first floor designed, is a place where everyone can discover slopes gently from the front entrance. Its exterior their style of interacting with knowledge as if they glass walls and large arches allow the contours of were walking through a forest or in a cave, a focal the natural environment surrounding the campus centre where a new sense of creativity begins to to extend into the interior creating an exhilaratingly spread.1 1

Marcus Fairs, Tama University Library by Toyo Ito, (Dezeen, 2007), < toyo-ito>, [accessed 25 March 2013].




“The design pushes towards a non architecture; a state beyond simply building and construction.” – DADA Architectural Design + Planning

Architects: Location: Architect of Record:

the massing is broken down via the use of multiple shells and canted glass curtain walls with random frit patterns, allowing the scale of the architecture to become fluid and inviting. The shells tessellate into diagrammatic grids with progressively scaled windows, upon which white frits fade towards the The international event, which took place in 2012 centre, obscuring the frames and further advancing in Beijing, sees the first Asian nation that host the the sense of abstraction, thus achieves a sense of prestigious event, held every four years. DADA scale and differentiation akin to natural textures. designed the entire complex of 50,000 sqm, located in an agricultural area renowned for its long tradition The parametric modelling allows the architecture of strawberry cultivation and production. The event to achieve a high degree of sustainability, using a provides a forum for horticultural scientists and combination of passive and active environmental makers of strawberry products to exchange ideas control systems. Green measures include and foster collaboration. geothermal heating and cooling systems, rainwater collection system for greywater recycling, use of The vast complex comprised of a Training Centre, solatubes which pipe multidirectional sunlight like a Convention Centre, and Factory. The fundamental fibre optic, and operable windows covering over 30% objectives were to fulfil the program, while of facade areas to naturally ventilate most interior forming an iconic presence towards the highway, spaces. The design tool also helps to maintain the and to infuse a unifying, engaging language upon ability to incorporate a certain degree of structural the normally plain facades found on factory and morality that defines form rather than solely convention centre building types.1 The boxy form is supporting the whole structure, giving a delicate wrapped with a series of white curvilinear SRC shell and elegant form and finish to the building, without structures that refer both to the organic form and being too literal in its form interpretation. texture of a strawberry. Using computation system 1

DADA Architectural Design Changping, Beijing, China ZJHJ

ArchDaily, 7th International Strawberry Symposium / DADA Architectural Design + Planning, (ArchDaily, 2012), <http://>, [accessed 31 Mar 2013].


ALGORITHMIC MODELLING “Language is what we say; design and making is what we do. Computers are sumply a medium for this ancient enterprise” – Robert Woodbury

Parametric models, by their nature, are series of dynamic iterations made to answer the archetypal design questions of infinite probabilities and possibilities.1 It occupies algorithm, as a set of parametric language to translate design intentions into a medium of three-dimensional canvas. Parametric design, as a tool, offers a new approach to architecture based on advanced computational design techniques. As any other shifting aspects in architecture, as an ever-changing framework, parametric design has made the designers turning towards this new method of designing buildings as a way to work with parameters that constrict the design processes. Patrik Schumacher, in his Parametricist Manifesto, remarked, “As a style, parametricism is marked by its aims, ambitions, methodological principles, and evaluative criteria, as well as by its characteristic formal repertoire”2. He claimed that parametric is part of architectural style’s progression, just like modernism and post-modernism were, and as a result there is a negligence of rigid geometric forms in the celebration of the animate, dynamic and interactive new primitives. Although there are some

valid points in Patrik Schumachers’s Parametricist Manifesto regarding the flexibility that parametric offers, his interpretation of parametric modelling as a style is driving architecture to edge of being perceived as an art and a superficial matter, which undermines architecture itself. He forgot to account the important of algorithm within parametric modelling, which is the main component in the system that provides finite procedure that is governed by precise instructions of the designers. Algorithmic procedure within the programming allows the virtual model to be built and works as update algorithm in its own right.3 Parametric modelling has to be understood as an unconventional way that changes design systems; it is neither style, nor a movement, as it is only a tool, which architects utilise to execute a design intent. It occupies series of structured systems that allow the study of space and the testing of structural integrity within a more flexible environment, yet constrained in algorithmic systems that control the threedimensional virtual study model.

Robert Woodbury, Elements of Parametric Design, (London: Routledge, 2010), p. 36. Karen Cilento, Parametricist Manifesto / Patrik Schumacher, (ArchDaily, 2010), <> [accessed 31 Mar 2013]. 3 Robert Woodbury, Elements of Parametric Design, p. 30. 1 2


SOUTHERN CROSS STATION “That active agency is a fundamental characteristic of four interrelated domains: the human subject, the environment and the complex of spatial and material organisation.” – Michael Hensel

Architects: Location: Client: Developer:

Grimshaw Architects Melbourne, Australia Leighton Constructors Civic Nexus and the Southern Cross Collaborating Architect: Jackson Architecture Structural Consultant: Winward Structures Services Consultant: Lincolne Scott Site Area: 60,000 sqm

The new Southern Cross Station has claim to being a major new urban landmark in Melbourne despite the unenviable political tag of world-class icon. It is part of the Commonwealth Games experience and provides a symbol of Victoria’s growth in the national and international arenas.

track and signalling works. The key generators for the station’s design were practical performance, ease of passenger circulation and an improved working environment for staff with sheltered, highquality ticketing, baggage-handling, and waiting services.1 These are all equipped with comfortable seating, lighting and passenger information display systems. The design focus of Southern Cross Station is the dune-like roof that covers an entire city block. The soaring roof’s form plays a crucial role as part of the environmental envelope ensuring that it is symbol of sustainable architecture developed in response to the hot external climate and the internal need for diesel extraction and ambient cooling via natural ventilation. It allows excellent visual connection form the Collins Street Concourse through to the Bourke Street Bridge Concourse and engages Spencer Street with the use of an expansive glazed facade. Advanced pedestrian flow modeling integrated with the redesign of the concourse and pedestrian paths complements the visual connection by promoting seamless passenger transfer and interchange.

Grimshaw Architects was appointed to work in collaboration with Jackson Architecture on the immense reorganisation and expansion of Southern Cross Station. The redevelopment includes a major office building on Collins Street and a retail plaza serving the Central Business District’s west end, as well as the transport interchange and associated The web message also contains an endorsement 1

Hamish Lyon, From the archives: Southern Cross Station, (Australian Design Review, 2009), <http://www.australian>, [accessed 30 March 2013].



of the modernist tenet that certain materials are functionally appropriate, and therefore it embodies the idea of beauty. Grimshaw has taken his personal vision from its London epicentre and applied it to the urban landscape of Melbourne. In this case, the figure of the great 19th century station hall has been transformed from a single arched or vaulted span into a dynamic and undulating surface of peaks and troughs. The project also operates within the contextual imagery of global transportation hubs, which raises the issue of whether the project is intellectually grounded in its Melbourne context or a generic or international ideology. The undulating terrain of the roof is a remarkable spectacle, as it has become the emblematic image for the project. Yet it is the interior of this terrain, which was the generative condition. The lumps and bumps response to a passive ventilation system to deal with the emission of diesel fumes from the trains. The project team investigated alternate models in order to prevent the emissions from remaining trapped within the stationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s roof.2 The mogul forms, combined with ventilation hoods at the peaks, were developed in parallel with the prevailing wind conditions to produce the final articulation of the roofscape. The nominal misalignment of the roofâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s primary geometry from the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s grid is the recognisable outcome of this empirical research. The interior hall is also defined by the serpentine steel structure designed to allow each of the module spans to be erected incrementally while the station remained operational. As a counter point to the subdued colors of the ceiling and structure there are two bright orange pods, raised on tapering steel legs. These pods provide a necessary break in the monumental scale of the station hall and generate a secondary landscape under the ever present roofscape. The design encapsulates the essence of structural optimisation and the performative architecture that helps maximising the performance of the building. Evidently from the outcome of the design, it takes the interdisciplinary aspect of the design into account, constraining the development of the project to meet all the conditions within the constraints of the surrounding environments. Hamish Lyon, From the archives: Southern Cross Station, (Australian Design Review, 2009), <http://www.australian>, [accessed 30 March 2013]. 3 ibid. 2


AAMI PARK “Victorians love their sport and AAMI Park is the latest addition to a first-class suite of sporting infrastructure that is the envy of any city in the world.” – James Merlino

Architects: Location: Client: Structural Consultant: Services Consultant: Landscape Consultant: Traffic: Builder: Project Manager:

Arup, have created a design that optimises the performance of the structure. Rather than separate roof, walls and supports, the structure has been designed to serve as each. Termed the ’bioframe’ for its ability to support various and evolving functions, the structure is a lightweight steel design draws upon the principles of the structural efficiencies of the Buckminster Fuller geodesic dome which uses 50% less steel than a traditional cantilever.1 The AAMI Park roof design extrapolates these principles to achieve a highly efficient structure that utilises multiple load paths to share load and ensure that AAMI Park continues the strong architectural each element of the roof contributes to the carrying lineage of Melbourne and Olympic Parks evidenced of load to the supports. Each of the 3D shells uses since 1956 by the Myer Music Bowl and Olympic the combination of three structural systems to Pool Complex, and later by Rod Laver Arena and produce the lightweight structure. the Melbourne Cricket Ground. It addresses the functional brief for the provision of hosting world- Critical to the stadium is the whole-event experience class rectangular football codes, providing a it offers, thus the desire to provide the perfect 31,000 stadium for rectangular pitch games, including seating bowl, with most seats positioned in the Soccer, Rugby League, Rugby Union and American preferred east and west flanks, providing excellent, Football, an elite training centre with additional undistracted sightlines and proximity to the action. recovery facilities, office accommodation for elite This, and the minimisation of the roof pile to the sporting teams, and medical facilities which service north to allow maximum sunlight on to the turf, drove the form of the concrete seating bowl and in the greater precinct. turn the bioframe. 1

Cox Architecture Melbourne, Australia Leighton Constructors Arup Norman Disney & Young Land Design Partnership GTA Grocon Major Projects Victoria

World Archtecture News, Fever Pitch: Cox Completes New World-Class Multi-Use Sports Stadium in Melbourne, (World Architecture News, 2010), < upload_id=14329>, [accessed 31 March 2013].



The roof design, which is the significance part of the design, was measurement of its stiffness, and the estimation of effective member lengths. Traditional code methods for the latter could not be used, as it was difficult to estimate points of member restraint. A second order buckling analysis was used both to measure the effective length of the system for each load case and to come up with a set of forces for member design. Parametric modelling was used extensively throughout the project to define the roof structure because of its ability to test alternative geometric configurations, and to accommodate the final preset geometry for fabrication and construction purposes. During concept stage, initial studies of the roof and shell geometries were undertaken with Cox Architects and RMIT Universityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Spatial Information Architecture Laboratory, using a combination of Catia models and 3D CAD.2 Parametric modelling enabled revised geometry to be speedily generated and imported into the structural analysis model to study the structural geometric efficiencies. The parametric modelling software created the centreline wireframe models that were used by the structural engineering design team and by Cox Architects for coordination and approval. Project documentation and steelwork drawings were generated from the parametric geometry, after input into Bentley structural software. The parametric model was also used to make allowance for the self-weight deflection of the structural steelwork at the front edge of the roof. The contractor used this preset model as the primary set-out for the roof geometry, and this information was then used to prepare the steelwork shop detail drawings, and for steelwork fabrication. The functions of AAMI Park are linked to the precinct, city and parkland, providing a stadium that is easily accessed by spectators and well used by elite players and their clubs. Subsequently AAMI Park provides Melbourne with a stadium that is functioning every day of the week, representing a move forward by the city to provide residents and visitors alike with a world-class facility that embodies a pioneering approach to public architecture and in turn public life.


David J. Brown, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;AAMI Park, Melbourneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, The Arup Journal, 45 (2010), 3-15 (p. 8).



ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS Grasshopper allows a wide range of exploration and virtual interaction with the three-dimensional model. The tutorial videos presented infinite possibilities offered by the modelling tool, and throughout the exploration of the parametric modelling, the research of the material was extended to the detailing of the represented models due to curiosity of making the model looks buildable and more realistic. As it is an algorithm-based modelling program, everything can be broken down into scientific and in some cases, mathematical explanation. The tool is also very efficient in identifying problems occurred during the modelling process, and as it is a scriptbased program, the problem can quickly be traced and solved. The algorithmic sketches the left hand side of the page demonstrate the structural optimisation characteristics that can be achieved by parametric modelling, as seen in the projects discussed throughout the journal. It allows the structure to be controlled by control points, which allow testing of the efficiency of the structure to support itself through different plugin, and to be presented in its pure structural form, without being rigid and heavy, but instead, soft and fluid.



The design for the Wyndham City Gateway Design Project will take a strong structural approach inspired by the case studies presented in the journal. Structural approach allows for optimisation and innovation as it is a vast world that keeps evolving, which provides infinite possibility. Structure embodies practicality and embraces utilitarianism. It also allows architecture to be sculptural in its form and exciting in its existence, which will enhance the physical environment visually. The design of the Wyndham City Gateway sees an innovative architecture that will inspire and enrich the city, in compliance to the Wyndham Cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s program to upgrade the image of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s conditions, streetscapes and open spaces. The approach for the project is significant as a way to present architecture as what it is, and to make an architecture that is true to material. The gateway will hopefully be a place-making of Wyndham City and be accessible and beneficial to the community and road users. The experience, so far, on learning architectural computing theoretically has been an eye-opening experience, for the simplest understanding of the

program being used purely as a tool and no more than to fulfil its purpose as a tool is still debated heavily in architectural world. Practically, learning grasshopper as part of the subject this semester has been pretty challenging, as personally, I am not an autodidact so it takes some time to be able to comprehend the possibilities that the tool offers. However further experimentation with the tool does help a lot in understanding how the programming tool works. The knowledge of the new programming tool would have advanced the past projects, in terms of productivity and efficiency. Also it would have presented the past projects with many exciting algorithmic probabilities, optimising the project aesthetically and structurally.


STRUCTURAL PURISM “A box is a box is a box.” – Charles-Éduoard Jeanneret

A box is a box is a box describes Le Corbusier’s justification in his never-ending pursuit of cubism in his paintings and simple forms in his architectures, which explains that the use of forms in architecture does not have to represent or dictate anything, and that it exists for its own sake.1 Referring to one of Le Corbusier’s famous quotes, the design approach for the Wyndham City Gateway Project will explore the purity of structure’s existence as a piece of architecture. While structure is a broad subject to explore for the project, it is always true the material it is made of. This means there is an endless possibility of material exploration in defining the most appropriate way to construct the final structural design, which best delivers the ambiance and the composition conveyed in the design. Structure in its purity has no pretense, and that is the pursuit set for the project. Metal structure for example, without any covering or cladding, represents the qualities of metal as a substance. It corrodes, withstand tension forces and when alloyed with other type of metal, its original properties also changed. Using grasshopper, structural optimisation will be explored to minimize the use of materials and to analyse how the structure performs. Using plug1

ins definitons, such as LunchBox, Karamba and Kangaroo, structure definitions could be devised and parameterised, allowing flexible structural interpretation and sketch for the design outcome. The gateway is a reflection of the vast changing in the City of Wyndham and as a celebration of its growing social and economic developments. The design should cater the brief set for the gateway project and therefore it should provide a certain spatial experience quality for the road users and also people of Wyndham. The spatial experience will be further explored to define its quality of being a threshold that bridge Wyndham and Melbourne. The abstract quality in form will be explored to represent the celebration of intense movement in the highway and also to respond to the incredibly flat site. These considerations will set the parameters for the structure that is the gateway, and will define the structural shape and its performance as a gateway.

Peter Blake, The Master Builders, (London: The Camelot Press Ltd., 1960), p. 39.


BEIJING NATIONAL STADIUM “From beginning to end, I stayed with the project. I am committed to fostering relationships between a city and its architecture.” – Ai Wei Wei

Architects: Location: Artistic Consultant: Collaborating Team:

The stadium is unique from its look to its operating systems and construction; part of the reason it is such an intriguing building. The core building systems had to perfectly match the design symmetry and visual look of the stadium, while providing high Structural Design: quality, efficient operations to match the Beijing Olympics’ environmentally friendly theme. This bold and innovative design successfully combines aspects from China’s past and present, and is a The Beijing National Stadium is a defining piece of culture-defining landmark. The structure stands architecture for 21st Century China. Built for the dramatically on the relatively flat site, enhancing Beijing Olympic in 2008, Beijing National Stadium, Beijing’s skyline with its bold form. also famously known Bird’s Nest, is the epitome of structural purity in architecture. The Olympics have The pattern that defines the form and the bold ushered in a new era in Chinese construction history structure of the building is a result of structural and nothing symbolizes this better than the Bird’s intent conceived in the process of the design. Most Nest, with its dramatic visual impact and stylistic of the top part of the exterior of the building is cues that blend modern steel construction with panelised to provide shelter for the interior. Although forms found in nature. The design, which originated the structure is able to support its own dead load from the study of Chinese ceramics, implemented as well as withstanding an 8.0SR earthquake, it is steel beams in order to hide supports for the noticeable that the structural arrangement does retractable roof; giving the stadium the appearance not follow any sensible pattern, but combination of of a bird’s nest, hence the name.1 Leading Chinese crisscrossing pattern.2 artist Ai Weiwei was the artistic consultant on the project. Herzog and de Meuron Beijing, China Ai Weiwei China Architectural Design and Research Group Arup

Herzog & de Meuron, 226 National Stadium, (Herzog & de Meuron, 2010), < projects/complete-works/226-250/226-national-stadium.html>, (accessed 10 April 2013). 2 Arup, Beijing National Stadium (Bird’s Nest), (Arup, 2010), < Stadium.aspx>, [accessed 10 April 2013]. 1





As it has been discussed, Beijing National Stadium rationalised its structure through a random geodesic grid. The structure is analogically similar to the tread spun around a solid form to acquire the shape of its form. The form in the reverse engineering process is defined by series of curve vertically to acquire its defined surface, which then will be used as the main geometry. From that, the form is then populated by series of random points with Populate 3D, which generates random curves around the main form that are controllable with a slider. Trying to make sense of the structure too, geodesic parameter is used to define the form and is controllable by series of function and slider. As the number gets higher, it can clearly be seen how the defining curves get denser, thus define the bold form a lot better. Shifting the geodesic parameter allows the structure to not be monotonous and allowing some dynamic physical pattern. Combining the two definitions creates a rather random and complicated combination of curves, which at some stage simulates the random structure of Beijing National Stadium. The curves were piped, to represent its structural quality. The algorithmic exploration was done to mimic the structure and therefore, many iterations through manipulations of parameter values were applied on the algorithm to define the most suitable structure without compromising its form or even its ability to support itself. The four highlighted structures reflect the best outcome of the control points implementation in order to get the best out of the definitions, which defines the initial form without compromising its structural integrity. The definition had the potential to be pushed further by engaging different panel treatments, surface patterning and even tessellation technique, through the control points created earlier. Control points allow the structure to create a desired effect, internally and externally, thus it provides endless possibilities, in terms of forms, surfaces and spaces within the restrained programs.


KING’S CROSS STATION WEST CONCOURSE “The transformation of King’s Cross station by John McAslan + Partners (JMP) represents a compelling piece of place-making for London.” – John McAslan

Architects: Location: Client: Engineer: Contractor:

John McAslan + Partners London, England Network Rail Arup, TATA and Fourways Vinci, Kier, Carillion, Laing O’Rourke

The show-piece of the whole King’s Cross Station redevelopment is clearly the Western Concourse, Europe’s largest single span station structure and the heart of the development.1 But the overall project is far more complex: an extraordinary, collaborative effort that has delivered an internationally significant transport interchange, fit for the 21st century and beyond.It was opened just before the Olympic 2012, and thus marked the celebration in the spirit of sportsmanship through this masterpiece. The single span structure in the Western Concourse is a clear example of purism in structure. The envelope and roof structure are fully integrated, giving an elegant and natural form to the whole structure, also a modular, repetitive construction that helps optimising the fabrication and erection processes. The diagrid shell structure of the new concourse roof spans is supported by perimeter tree columns and a central funnel structure, making it structurally independent of the sensitive Grade I-listed Western Range building. The structure, finished in white powder coated finish, works as a blank canvas that allows the play of light, which is one of the important aspects of the structure.


Christopher Henry, In Progress: King’s Cross Station / John McAslan + Partners, (ArchDaily, 2011), <http://www.>, (accessed 15 April 2013).





Case study 2.0 presents the re-engineering of Kingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Cross West Concourse redevelopment in various iterations that changes its structural interpretation while trying to maintain its structural integrity. The outcome ranging from a simple truss structure, to a quite complex panelled double-truss structure. The double truss structure was experimented with to understand the structural complexity that the case study 2.0 presented. The Kingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Cross West Concourse structure shows an elegant execution of massive steel components. The scale of the project does not interdict the fluid movement that it expresses in the free flowing, yet restrained curves, which tried to be portrayed in the re-engineering process, though it did not work for a few testings. The initial re-modelling saw the simple structure being tested through manipulating the grid distribution and the type of structures used, e.g. hexagonal grid, diagrid, and so on. This process made the structure appears more rigid and flimsy compared to the case study model. The next process took the model to a more rigid and structured form with double truss structure, comprised of rectangular grid and double-braced structure on top. This simulates a rather complex structure while managed to maintain its ability to appear soft and fluid, which were the qualities that wanted to be pursue for the development of the gateway project. Panelling the structure was also thought for the design and evident from some of the latest iterations as a way to provide a spatial quality, through providing sun shading and also to enhance the formal structure of the gateway as a whole. This is done by populating the whole structure with a pyramid-like geometry, with the flexible height in response to the sun-lit that is controlled by manipulating the parameter slider. The technique explore will be taken further in juxtaposition with the form proposed for the site, as the technique will not able to perform as expected when presented with a high tangent curve; this sets a new parameter for the next level of technique development stage.

s Structure


m Monumentality


C Contrast in Space


F Fluidity


F Feasibility



The case studies present structural qualities that are not just aesthetically pleasing, but also act as the skin of the buildings. This was done by having two layers of structural members: the lower structure acts to provide structural support, while the upper structure acts to provide shelter by supporting panels that are enclosing the whole building. The idea of double structure will be explored for the finalised approach, as it is thought to provide a complex structure, which enhances the aesthetics of the structure as a whole.

Monumentality will be investigated through controlling the scale of the form in its axis and then analysing its proportion as a form on the site. Fluidity assesses how the form moves through the space, which will eventually affect its existence in the space through contrasting the form with the landscape.

Contrast in space will see the dynamic movement of the form affecting the perception of the gateway by the users, which will be done through series The next stage of the design process is to further of reforming the original form of the preliminary develop the design approach technique based design. on a few criteria that has been described briefly in the design intention. The technique, which is The series of matrix representing the technique, ruled by: structural aesthetic, monumentality, produced during the development would be able fluidity and its contrast in space, will be explored to inform the preliminary approach for the project. through manipulation of form and parameters. As many of the iterations overlap and interact in its objectives, the matrix would be narrowed down to Structural aesthetic explores different types of several working iterations using the main parameter structure and examines how it works with form in the project, feasibility. A few iterations will be created that conforms to the site, as different chosen which will represent the final approach to types structure have different ability in translating the gateway design project. the main structural form visually.

65 s




















66 c






















The initial exploration of the structure during the design process saw the consideration of space truss as a way of creating a complex structure, shown in the prototyped models. This was done in order to achieve a certain degree of structural aesthetic quality, and as a way of recreating the structure of case study explored earlier. Another reason of why the space truss approach was taken it to reiterate the discourse of structural beauty and engaging the society through the appreciation of how everything comes together as an art. Further discussion picks up on the honesty of the structure, as the top layer does not actually work as an acting structure and more of a skin/cladding representation. This contradicts with the discourse generated earlier in the journal, as the discourse express concern about over-complication in structure. Another problem arose over the feasibility issues due to the scale of the project and the material choice of steel hollow section as the main material for the project. It is therefore decided to continue the design process in an â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;honestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; approach by using a single layer configuration that really works as the acting structural member, as a way to deal with dishonest structure and feasibility issues.



Connection details were explored as part of fabrication and assembly technique. Through several fabrication methods, it is decided that the finish would be detailed in a precise manner, providing sleek and tailored look to the finalised gateway design. This approached is illustrated by two types of assembly details on the far left side of the page. Although the explored connections were expressed in a linear joint and not in a curvy manner as shown in the prototyped models, the concept of the sleek and clean finish is still applicable and therefore the explored connections posses similar technique. Through prototyping technique, it is realised that the feasibility also limits the connection technique, as custom steel casting would have cost more than the budget for the project. The cost could be reduced by limiting the amount of nodes by reducing the amount of grids controlling the structure, nonetheless this budget limitation brought the technique to another stage of rethinking materials for the project. This could potentially alter the feel of the structure, as using timber or concrete for the project would have impacted the site differently.



The technique explored so far has taken into consideration how the form that defines the structure will sit on the site. Through the technique development, we have limited ourselves to a few criteria that would be the parameter for the design project.

including the city as part of its outer suburbs that continues to develop. The design is accomplishing the conceptual achievement in its significance to the community of Wyndham as a way to celebrate the significant social and economic developments of the City of Wyndham, reflected in the dynamic and fluid form of the structure. Technical excellence is The gateway calls for a design that functions on achieved through the close relationship between a variety of and our approach through structure engineering excellence, artistic approach and as the overarching design driver is thought to be architectural excellence in the execution of the appropriate for the project. The design will morph structure as a whole. The gateway maintained its from the ground, to form the abstract structure that visual attributes without compromising its ability to will contrast the site in its fluidity. The monumental support the acting structural members. quality it portrays in its scale will create a visuallypleasing and sculptural form for the users and the The drawbacks that might arise from the commission City of Wyndham with the flat landscape as the of the project might be the tight budget for the project backdrop of the structural artwork. The spatial and the lack of community involvement. The limited experience will be achieved through a gradually cost can be seen as a parameter that challenge the sloping cantilevered form of the structure that is design to be humanised and contextualised, instead stretched over the site. This will create a dramatic of some state of the art project that lacks interaction experience as the road users drive through the with the community. The lack of community gateway at the speed of 100kmh. involvement during the design might incur a lack of belonging of the gateway, thus being rejected as a The gateway will be a threshold that bridges the part of the City of Wyndham. Though it can be solved City of Melbourne and the City of Wyndham, which by involving the community through social forum to instead of secluding Wyndham out of Melbourne, create a discourse around the design project.



Below are series of algorithmic sketches, resulted from the same definitions and manipulated through the control points within its curves. The main form is controlled by series of curves, from which the lofted surface is derived. The lofted surface acts as the geometry that controls the final structural intent, which then plugged into LunchBox to help generating a structural input. The matrix demonstrates the ability to control the outcome of the design through manipulating the very form and the definitions that define the structure, thus providing several iterations for the final outcome. The iterations then give the sense of what is possible and what is not, to be further developed as the changing structure of the design intent. The changing of the structure affects the spatial experience, one of the design criteria that we explored throughout the preconceived idea of the design approach.




Design Intent




Technique Development



The feedback on the technique proposal raised some feasibility issues for the project, which took us back to reconsidering the development of the project. This may potentially affect the developed form of the structure, but the design intention will be kept and incorporated for the further development of the rethinking process. Exposure to theoretical research and case studies has been immensely beneficial and effective in allowing open discussion of the projectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s possibilities. It shows the shifting in using computation and parametric modeling as a way of capturing the development of the project, almost as effective as a conventional sketchbook and pen design process. This allows documentation development through iterations, reiterations, and documentation process in between, as it shown in our own Technique: Development section of the journal. It also allow prototyping to be extremely efficient, as show in the Technique: Prototype section, as it was made through 3D Printing and can quickly demonstrate physical attributes of the design, the limitation in form and tangent curves that control the model. The Technique: Proposal allows the design project

to be incorporative and comprehensive, in terms of providing our better understanding of the design as a whole and the project as part of the community. It also shows that with the intent set, we can achieve the design through parametric modeling, shown in the Algorithmic Sketches section of the journal. The whole Part B of the journal has allowed us, as a group, to rethink our design intentions that conform to the site. And while some of them have elaborated further through the development process, some intent is still remained unsolved. This is where the next part should pick up the project, to resolving the unresolved issues from the previous part, while keeping the integrity of the final design intent. We do realise that there is no an end to this design process, as it will keep developing and evolving further. But what we do understand and sure about is that it will reach a point, where it is able to achieve the design objectives that we have set for the project.

Design Brief



Reverse Engineering


Design Approach • Innovation • Spatial Experience • Community



Tectonic Element



Design Outcome


gateway project design concept “There is a powerful need for symbolism, and that means the architecture must have something that appeals to the human heart.” – Kenzo Tange

The design brief for the Western Gateway Design Project is asking for a design that enriches the municipality, thus creating a focal point that encourages a sense of pride within the local community. The design is to be an exciting installation, achieved through a high degree of spatial quality and innovation. Using steel construction as our initial design approach in creating a fluid and abstract structure, we were faced by the feasibility issue of keeping the cost of the structure sensibly within the budget.

engineered timber, which mimics the gridshell structure seen in Weald and Downland Open Air Museum by Buro Happold. This is seen as the innovative proposal as we are proposing something that has never been done using the furtherdeveloped gridshell technique. The self-supporting structure is founded by a form-finding process to determine the placement of the design on site A, seen on page 82 (01), which could potentially affect the users and provide the spatial quality intended for the site. The form is also informed by its unique site, being bound by the inbound and outbound freeway Departing from the feedback, we pushed the design from and to Wyndham, Melbourne and Geelong. approach further with a different type of structure The structure will be a celebration of the speed while trying keep the embodiment of the initial design and infrastructure of Wyndham and throughout the intent. This is done through parametric design, structure’s lifespan, it is expected that its abstract where different possibility is explored. We have form will define the structure to be an everlasting art departed from using LunchBox as our structural installation that symbolizes the social and cultural modelling tool, as we felt it is too restricting and development within the local City of Wyndham. does not offer much flexibility in prefabricated system that we are pursuing for a cost-efficient and The technique explored using for the structure easy assembly of the structure. Parametric design is not purely gridshell, as the form is much more will enable the model to be prefabricated through complicated that what gridshell structural form detailing the joint and connection of the model. would normally be. Therefore, we will be using four layers of engineered timber as the structural We are proposing a four-layer grid structure of members that would hold the entire structure in form






and the structure would be anchored down to the ground on both ends and in the middle part, where the grid structure meets the ground for structural support.

timber object (02), but as they go underneath it, the whole structure would create a spatial quality as it is entangled into the grid structure that gives a sense of space using the intricate shadow play (03).

The four layers structural members approach was proposed not just to provide stability the whole structure, but it also adds a sense of complexity to the structure, making it aesthetically pleasing and provide a different sensibility as the users move around the design. This was done through the form-finding process, where we proposed to have a gradually changing form that will eventually create a more continuous spatial effect as a response to the speed that the users will travel at, 100km/h. When users approach the structure, the whole installation would look as if it is a massive and bulky

We are proposing engineered timber for its longevity consideration, as the material chosen ages well under extreme weathering condition and also for its structural strength. Structurally, there are several configuration on how the structural members would sit on top of each other, but we have decided to lay each members on its long section profile due to moment of inertia consideration, which would help the structure to resist any load applied to them a lot better than if it is laid on its short section profile.







tectonic elements

The tectonics element of the structure is a crucial point that determines the ability of the design to be constructed using the proposed method. The construction of the structure is proposed to be prefabricated for an efficient assembly, in terms of time, labour and cost. The joint can be detailed using parametric design, using several scripting methods to allocate the intersections of the four members, where the connectors would be detailed. Following this method, we constructed a 1:50 scaled model using boxboard and timber veneer. While the boxboard model failed to hold the form of the structure due to inflexibility of the material, the timber veneer model is a successful testing model that showcases the flexibility of the material as well as the successful joint details, using pins to represent the connectors. Proceeding from this success, we then intended to make a 1:10 scaled model that would show further details of the connection at each joints. The detailed model was carried out solely by Matthew Chai, exploring the joint using plywood and nut and bolts as connectors.

members of the structure, which resulted in a rigid connection that allows rotational movement at the joint (01). Then further exploration of the joint shows the movement allowance to be excessive, and therefore for the final assembly, we proposed the use of three aluminum plates with five bolt and nut fixings, that will hold the members in place, giving it a firmer fixing while still allowing contraction and compression movements of each members (02).

We realized that using engineered timber as the main component means that the structure has to be broken down into a modular component as a way to accommodate for the material sizes restrictions and also for efficient assembly on site, as the site is a unique one that requires fast and efficient construction. Thus, we have explored the joint for the modular component. Using lounge and groove technique, the members will be slotted and screwed together (03). Timber sleeves are added to hold the connection together, creating a rigid joint and adding structural strength to the structure. We deliberately chose to connect the components on its arms to avoid weakening the whole structure at its main At scale 1:10, we explore the pin joint, using a single nodes that are connecting the four members. bolt and nut fixings, to pin point the four structural



final model

The final model comprised of the form model and several testing models at various scales. The form model at 1:500 is made by 3D printing machine is to show how the structure sits on the flat landscape and how the design interacts with the adjacent infrastructures of inbound and outbound road from and to Wyndham. The section model at 1:50 shows a small part of the whole structure, made using timber veneer. It was nested and numbered from the three-dimensional model, then sent to fabrication to be laser cut and manually fabricated with pins as connectors. The joint models, at 1:10, show three different explorations of connection types. They were made of pre-laminated plywood, stuck together to achieve the desired thickness and curved with strings to control its form and bending. Two of the models explore the joint at its node, where four structural members meet and they are connected with nut and bolts and three steel plates to hold the structure in its position. The other one shows the connection of the members along the arms using tongue and groove system and engineered timber plate supports to control the movement of the structural member.





algorithmic sketches

Algorithmic sketches explore the computation throughout the final design process using the final form for the design and go into further details of the main algorithm that controls the structure. Algorithmic sketches (01) explored the monumentality exploration during the form-finding process, as a way to explore the effect the structure will have on the site, visually and spatially. The form was stretched on its three axes to emphasise its proportion, which at the end, we decided to go with a well-proportioned structure, as it will create a more uniform impact on the site. Algorithmic sketches (02) explored the process of synthetising the structures, those are perpendicular and diagonal to the main structure. The perpendicular components were made by flipping the points that are controlling the main structural component. The diagonal bracing was made through an algorithmic process, using the same distributed points as the main rectangular grid structure. Below is the algorithm used to synthesise the diagonal structural member, which flips and reverses the extrapolated points, then shifting them to create a diagonal relationship between the points. The shifted points are then connected using the interpolated curve algorithm, which required cleaning of he unused points prior to lofting the diagonal bracing, that plays a crucial part in strengthening the whole structure.


learning outcomes “Architecture should speak of its time and place, but yearn for timelessness.” – Frank Gehry

Throughout the entire Expression of Interest process, the design argument for the proposal has been challenged by the design brief set for the project by the City of Wyndham. The process in the formatting and reasoning the approach has been informed by the brief. It sets a room for the project growth, which was translated into boundless possibilities offered by the available digital technology. Through the engagement of digital technology of Rhinoceros and Grasshopper, the efficiency of the design development process has been enhanced and controlled in a way that makes the outcome of the project varies between each groups. The limitless outcome depends on the problems within the brief that will be discussed by each group, which in our case, we focused on the innovation of structure.

based on our intrinsic approach, which was quite restricting and therefore abandoned afterwards. In the end, we decided that we need something that offers more flexibility in its structural component, as the form we are using was quite unusual. Though, we had quite an enjoyable experience with the design tool, as it generates different types of structure within a short time to give a basic idea of how the structure will work.

Throughout the process, we have explored various three-dimensional media; such as parametric modeling tool and digital fabrication of laser cut and three-dimensional printing. While threedimensional printing, which was manufactured from the designed parametric model, was an exciting experience, though it did not clearly show After deciding our main focus for the project, we the design intent due to its scale and its production then focused on generating a variety of design method. We ended up using the three-dimensional possibilities within our design focus. This was done printed model as a way to show the form of the through the reverse engineering processes for the whole design, as we thought it is not possible to projects that have explored the same approach physically build the entire design model. as the one we wanted to apply, which were Beijing National Stadium and King’s Cross Station West A lot of thought has been put into considering the Concourse Redevelopment. LunchBox plug-in was relationship between the structure within its space explored quite a lot throughout this process as it was and the air surrounding it inclusively as a way to



provide a spatial quality. This has been considered to strengthen our argument towards the proposal, as it is asking for a high-degree of spatial quality through innovation.

Materiality also need to be considered, as from the testing, it is shown that steel would work better, but there is a possibility to use timber with a careful calculation. Though, the diagonal bracing is shown to help the structure by minimising the structural During the final presentation, we received some displacement, reducing it to only 30cm, which is feedback regarding the viability of the gridshell within a considerable displacement range of 20structure. To address this issue, we consulted with 90cm. one of Alberto Pugnaleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s graduate student, Tom Nelson, in calculating the viability of our structure To improve the structure, we have proposed several using Karamba, which is a fully embedded plug-in alterations that we thought might be beneficial to for the 3D modeling tool Rhinoceros in parametric the structure, as well as the design. The form might environment of Grasshopper. This makes it easy to need to be altered to give a uniform distribution combine parameterized geometric models, finite of anchor points, thus giving more controls to the element calculation and optimization algorithms. cantilevered structure. The section profile might need to be considered as well, as it might help to Using Karamba, we found out as our structure is reduce the cost and to eliminate unused component generated within a linear curve, it lacks horizontal within the structure. Further exploration using anchor pointâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s distribution and therefore it has Karamba will also need to be done, as the analytical some structural problems with displacement of tool provide a very accurate structural outcome 2,000cm. All the structure rendered in yellow shows using different testing algorithms that focused on the steady structure close to the anchor points as the structural integrity of the design. they are being held in position, while the structure rendered in magenta and green has the potential Overall, I thought we have made a strong argument to fail, due to instability as it is cantilevering to far for the Western Gateway Design Project proposal off from the main anchor points. It is an easy option through generating discourse and structural to provide a column supporting the cantilevered innovation. If the project is to go forward, structural components, but it will compromise the aesthetic engineer will definitely need to be engaged to value of the design. provide a detailed overview and suggestions on the changes that needed to be done for the structure to The structural issues also lay within the section be able to support itself. profile proposed, as it is deemed to be excessive for the gridshell structure we are proposing.

“We shape our buildings; thereafter they shape us.” – Winston Churchill



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CFI_514663_Albert Chandra  
CFI_514663_Albert Chandra  

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