Page 1


Alberto Olcese

Iuav University of Venice

n.268356

Faculty of Arts and Design

Tutor: Carlo Vinti

MA - Visual and Multimedia Communications

A.A. 2010 / 2011


THE TRAIT OF THE CITY NON-BRANDING IDENTITY FOR JERUSALEM


index

INTRODUction

pag.16

mark and the Generic City 1.1 origins 1.2 corporate identity AND city branding 1.3 the generic city image 1.4 I Love New York, IAMsterdam and the image culture 1.5 A non-cordinate image pag.34

why jerusalem pag.42

From italy to jerusalem pag.54

MUST KNOW ABOUT Jerusalem -


index

pag.58

pag.92

ZION. identity to differentiate JERUSALEM CITY OF RELIGION 5.1 Jews, Jerusalem

jerusalem today - city of religion, CITY OF WORKERS and CITY CAPITAL -6.1 holy city and archeology

and the identity 5.2 Hamakom, idealization and deconstruction of a myth. 5.3 Language, memory, signs and symbols in this path. 5.4 MODERN HEBREW AND FRANK RUEHL 5.5 Hertzl, Srulik and the land 5.6 Daily Myth

6.2 the visuals tools of the daily occupation in the public sphere 6.3 The stones of Jerusalem: the visual language of occupation 6.4 Musrara and the impossible CITY capital 6.5 Before Seam AND now Meah Sherim 6.6 Public space, private space, safety and the right of citinzenship

pag.164

JERUSALEM CITY OF FUTURE pag.168

CONCLUSION -


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introduction

introDUction

eng

The complexity of social dynamics around the idea of city, makes difficult to create a synthetic portrait.Express the trait needs an inclusive process, that analizes the peculiarities of the territory and the people who inhabit it. It seems to be vanished, the desire to immerse ourselves in a place to understand its essentials features, through the dialogue with the people who lives this daily reality. In this context have rich soil, phenomena as city branding, that often use the iconic element universally well known (statue, monument, new building...) purporting to sell the city. Jerusalem is the case study. A complex city to define, both from the geographical, socio-political and ideological point of view. Jews city, arab city and christian city; assembly place and collisions place, east and west; holy city and damned city; city built and city destroyed, city of future and enslaved of its past. In any city corners, History and memory meet and collide each other. Could a graphic sign summarize all the micro daily dynamics or the hystorical and socio-political background of this city?Risking to offer a virtual scenario in order to promote tourist and commercial activities? And using which kind of criteria? Bring together the image of Jerusalem and a static and immutable iconic symbol, for this unstable reality? The topic move its steps more from a formal and ethic analysis of this operation than from a critique based on economical and functional parameters. “Gli elementi mobili, e particolarmente la gente e le sue attività, sono in una città altrettanto importanti che gli elementi fisici fissi. Noi non siamo soltanto testimoni di questo spettacolo, ma siamo noi medesimi interpreti di esso, siamo sulla scena con gli altri attori. Spesso la nostra percezione della città non è distinta, ma piuttosto parziale, frammentaria, mista ad altre sensazioni. Praticamente ogni nostro senso è in gioco, e l’immagine è l’aggregato di tutti gli stimoli.” / Lynch Kevin, L’immagine della città, Venezia, Marsilio Editori, 1964

“Moving elements in a city, and in particular the people and their activities, are as important as the stationary physical parts. We are not simply observers of this spectacle, but are ourselves a part of it, on the stage with other participants. Most often our perception of the city is not sustained, but rather partial, fragmentary, mixed with other concerns. Nearly every sense is in operation, and the image is the composite of them all.”

In play there is a relation between viewer and environment, between those actors of the “scene” and the relation that they have and establish with the place. Select,manage and give meaning to what is seen in order to offer a personal image, contributing to create a city public vision that will represent its trait. “Sembra che per ogni città data esista un’immagine pubblica, che è la sovrapposizione di molte immagini individuali. O forse vi è una serie di immagini pubbliche, possedute ciascuna da un certo numero di cittadini. Tali immagini di gruppo sono indispensabili perchè un individuo possa agire con successo nel suo ambiente e possa collaborare con gli altri. Ciascuna immagine individuale è unica, ed ha alcuni contenuti che vengono comunicati raramente, o forse mai, eppure essa approssima l’immagine pubblica, che è più o meno rigorosa, più o meno comprensiva, in ambienti diversi.” / Lynch Kevin, L’immagine della città, Venezia, Marsilio Editori, 1964

eng

“There seems to be a public image of any given city which is the overlap of many individual images. Or perhaps there is a series of public images, each of these owned by some significant number of citizens. Such group images are necessary why an individual could operate successfully within his environment and cooperate with his fellows. Any individual picture is unique, and embodies some contents that are rarely or never spread, yet it approximates the public image, which, in different environments, is more or less inclusive, more or less rigorous .”

Voluntarily using as a linguistic starting point the term, trait, instead of the abuse one of identity,it has been taken a precise position, considering identity, in its negative meaning of limit to differentiate who is allowed or not to be part of a context or society, compared with a meaning who embodies local peculiarities and territorial proximity, that is close to the idea of trait.


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introduction

i “Gli elementi mobili, e particolarmente la gente e le sue attività, sono in una città altrettanto importanti che gli elementi fisici fissi. Noi non siamo soltanto testimoni di questo spettacolo, ma siamo noi medesimi interpreti di esso, siamo sulla scena con gli altri attori. Spesso la nostra percezione della città non è distinta, ma piuttosto parziale, frammentaria, mista ad altre sensazioni. Praticamente ogni nostro senso è in gioco, e l’immagine è l’aggregato di tutti gli stimoli.” i Thus by offering, all the visual tools to the viewer, in order to adapt his city image to the sudden changes of the reality who sorrounds it; having a panoramic perspective of the city and,consequently, a critical opinion about it, that is outside of the guided image that each one got, or it has been advertised. “ L’immagine dovrebbe essere preferibilmente aperta, adattabile al cambiamento, permettendo all’individuo di continuare ad investigare ed organizzare la realtà: dovrebbero esserci spazi vuoti, in cui egli possa estendere il disegno a suo piacere. Infine, dovrebbe essere in qualche misura comunicabile ad altri individui.” / Lynch Kevin, L’immagine della città, Venezia, Marsilio Editori, 1964 eng

“ The image should preferably be openended, adaptable to change, allowing the individual on continue investigating and organizing the reality: there should be blank spaces where he can extend the drawing for himself. Finally, it should be, in some measure, communicable to other individuals.”

The choice of Jerusalem, as borderline case, to highlight and show the impossibility to visually summarize the heterogeneous core that all the cities have. An analysis starting from a collection of informations, easily accessible from all the

countries; that continues as an historical research of the reasons behind the use of one image instead of another one to advertise the city; and later a period of dialogue and critical comparison with the territory aiming to bring out the peculiarities and the issues omitted from the official communication, through the use of the my skills. Goal is to give a new responsible visual reading of the relation between environment, history and urban policy in Jerusalem, proposing various and changeable contents. A designer who, through the collection and the sorting of information, proposes territorial visions in order to produce elements of discussion, through the final work. An atlas of visual suggestions, a package of pictures and evidences that it doesn't pretend to gain a final and conclusive form, by being aware of the mutability of the subject. “...il problema all’inizio di ogni cosa non è fare una comunicazione o un oggetto che comunichi in maniera esplicita, ma fare un oggetto di qualità, una comunicazione implicita che dica qualcosa del mondo, che faccia in modo che le cose siano diverse, che dica qualcosa contro il razzismo e la povertà e che dica anche qualcosa contro i contro. Questa è una posizione che ritengo molto importante per i designer.” / Lionni Pippo, La citta senza nome: segni e segnali nella metropoli moderna : atti del 1. Convegno internazionale di studio sull’immagine della città: Roma 27-28 ottobre 1994, Sala della Promoteca in Campidoglio. - Roma : De Luca, 1996

eng

“...the problem at the beginning of everything, is not do a communication or object that communicates in an explicit way, but produce an high quality object, an implicit communication, that says something about the world, that makes things different, that says something against racism and poverty, and that says even something against the against. This is a position that I believe is very important for the designers.”


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mark and the generic city

1. mark and the generic city 1.1 origins “Prima ancora di essere il contrassegno visibile di prodotti industriali e aziende commerciali, il marchio è stato un segno indelebile, impresso con ferro rovente sul corpo degli animali per attestarne la proprietà, o sulla pelle di uomini giudicati colpevoli di delitti infamanti, come elemento di stigma sociale. Oppure, ancora, come traccia visibile dell’appartenenza a una certa tribù, gruppo etnico, o comunità.” / Minestroni Laura, Il manuale della marca: consumatore cultura e società, Fausto Lupetti editore, 2005

eng

“Before being a visible sign of industrial products and of commercial firms, the mark was an indelible sign , impressed with scorching iron on the animals body to testify the property, or on men skin, as stigma element, of those judged guilty of ignominious crimes. Or else, as visible trace of membership to a certain tribe, ethnical group, or community.”

The physics connotation that the brand, originally, possessed, went through a radical change, till assume the role of corporate values bearer, instead of territorial peculiarities. It is not my aim to chronologically describe this process, but resume some key steps of this development like a wildfire, until arriving to this phenomenon that takes the name of city branding, who embodies in itself a series of tourist and commercials operations that rarely are connected with the real image of the place sold.

“Il termine marchio deriva dalla forma verbale marchiare e molte fonti individuano la sua origine etimologica nel francese antico ‘marchier’ (1190) e dal francone ‘markian’. I due termini significano ‘contrassegnare’. Marchiare è quindi, da sempre, apporre un segno su un bene al fine di indicare la proprietà, la qualità, la tipologia.” / Minestroni Laura, Il manuale della marca: consumatore cultura e società, Fausto Lupetti editore, 2005

eng

“ The term 'marchio' (mark), comes from the verb 'marchiare' and some sources locate its etymological origin, in the ancient french 'marchier' (1190) and from the franconian 'markian'. The two terms mean 'contrassegnare' (marking). 'Marchiare' (marking) is then, from all along, put a sign on a good, in order to indentify property, quality, typology.”

Property, quality and typology. Always a tangible relation between the object, the animal or anything else, would need, from the side of the owner or the producer, a graphic element to position itself in the world, returning an idea of production or, where necessary, of ownership. Undoubtely distinctive sign, connected to a commercial image, but, aiming to guarantee a synthesis of the quality and of the handwork in the production process. Not secondary use of brand is the one directly connected to the human being. In this historical period, many times, they have been verified case of body marks or on the clothing of specific people, in order to identify them in the society, or show


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mark and the generic city

i “Prima ancora di essere il contrassegno visibile di prodotti industriali e aziende commerciali, il marchio è stato un segno indelebile, impresso con ferro rovente sul corpo degli animali per attestarne la proprietà, o sulla pelle di uomini giudicati colpevoli di delitti infamanti, come elemento di stigma sociale. Oppure, ancora, come traccia visibile dell’appartenenza a una certa tribù, gruppo etnico, o comunità.” i

their social condition, religion or political tendency. If, in some cases, they belong to individual choices for showing to be part of a social group, in other cases they symbolize divisions and ghettizzazioni, compared to the main belief in a specific historical moment. All the situations shortly described till now, have in common the fact to be placed in a public space, even if not virgin in the use of graphic identity tools. Countries, Villages, Cities, Municipalities, States and any geographic area defined by borders o limits has a brand, or more properly emblem that at least certifies its connotation in the world, or in same cases simply a legislative reference for those who are the essential part of these reality: the inhabitants. We can then deduce that a symbol, an image, an icon and whatever else can be connected to a visual message has always features of identity, appropriation, differentiation and in some cases guarantee.

Until now, it seems that the commercial evolution of logo and the spreading or intrusiveness in each field of society that occured from the middle of the last century, it is not that a consequence of the industrial and technological development and an answer of the increasing request of communication in any aspect of the society.


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The point is to analize which one are the causes, necessities and interest that saw the decreasing of the relation productionbrand in order to promote the connubbio brand-consumer in which the visual element, it doesn't limit itself to function of description, but undertakes a role of communicator of scenarios and peculiarities, far from the product itself. The passage, for the brand, from the assuming of the role of quality guarantee in the eye of the viewer, to being the product's mask, more and more often without a direct relation with object and its function. “They began as a form not of exploitation, but of consumer protection. In pre-industrial days, people knew exactly what went into their meat pies and which butchers were trustworthy; once they moved to cities, they no longer did. A brand provided a guarantee of reliability and quality.” “Brands are the tools with which compaines seek to build and retain customer loyalty.” / Editors of the Economist, The case for brands, in "Looking Closer 4: critical writings on graphic design", Bierut Michel, Drenttel William and Heller Steven, New York, Allworth Press, 2002, p.61

1.2 CORPORATE IDENTITY AND CITY BRANDING “Warshavsky1, defines a logo as the visual characteristic of a group united by religious or national interests: Any symbol that a group adopts for itself as a means of identification and distinction is its “logo.” / Yuval Saar, in Haaretz, On the altar of the new gods, http://www.haaretz.com/news/ on-the-altar-of-the-new-gods-1.174397 What is usually defined with the word logo, is nothing else that the consequent connotation and naming that "marchio" has assumed during the industrial era. A term, more kind and clean to indicate the brutal act of marking that evokes immediately in the collective imaginary a cruel background. “Il logo è, insieme al nome, la prima forma di comunicazione della marca. Attraverso il logo la marca si svela, si rivela, inizia a dire di sé. ‘Logo’ viene dal greco logos, che significa parola. E’ una forma abbreviata per definire il ‘logotipo’ termine ormai in disuso che indica una rappresentanza grafica atta a indicare, in genere, un prodotto

o un marchio di fabbrica... ...E’ il marchio distintivo che lavora nel contesto del suo ambiente per evocare il brand nella mente del pubblico, partecipare all’esperienza visiva del consumatore e rinforzare questa esperienza in previsione del prossimo incontro.” / Minestroni Laura, Il manuale della marca: consumatore cultura e società, Fausto Lupetti editore, 2005

eng

Logo is, together with the name, the first form of communication of brand. Through the logo, brand reveals and discloses itself, it starts to tell something about itself. Logo comes from the Greek, logos, that mean word. It is an abbreviation to define logotype, term no longer in use, that indicates a graphic representation, that aims to show, usually, a product or firm... ...It is the distinctive mark who works in the context of its environment, for evoking the brand, in the audience mind, partecipate to the visual experience and reinforcing this experience with the forecast of the next encounter.

The development and the centralization of productive and economical dynamics around the idea of corporate, during the second half of the nineteenth century, introduces a radical change or in same cases the birth, of what we consider corporate industrial image, and the function of logos that till that moment were simply "marchi". Logo, took the role of reference point of that structure, centralizing around itself the economic and productive identity of the firm. In this context and in these necessities, born the idea of corporate identity. “Una corporate image è formata dalla totalità di immagini o idee o reputazioni di un’azienda nella mente delle persone che entrano in contatto con essa. (...) Una grande impresa possiede molti punti di contatto con vari gruppi di persone: edifici, fabbriche, prodotti, imballaggi, cancelleria, modulistica, veicoli, pubblicazioni e uniformi, insieme a tutti i generi comuni di attività promozionali. Queste cose sono viste da clienti, agenti, fornitori, uomini di finanza, azionisti, concorrenti, la stampa e il pubblico in generale cosi come dai dipendenti dell’azienda stessa.” / FHK Henrion e Parkin Alan, Design coordination and corporate image, Studio Vista, 1967.

eng

A corporate image is composed by the totality of company's images or ideas or reputations in the mind of people

Shmuel Warshavsky, Lalechet im Logo (Going with a Logo), Yedioth Ahronoth Publishing, Hemed Books, 167 pp.

1


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i “Branding is an act of marketing, not manufacturing, because it creates the comprehensive image of a lifestyle, rather than a product that addresses a specific need.” i who get in touch with it. A big corporate has many contacts points with various group of people: buildings, factories, products, packagings, stationery, set of form, vehicles, publications and uniforms, together with any kind of common promotionals activities. These things are seen by clients, agents, providers, business men, stockholders, competitors, press and audience in general as well as by the employees of the corporate itself.

As it's possible to notice, the primary purpose of visual synthesis of the peculiarities of the productive process, how was the "marchio" before the hystorical revolution, under went a radical change of its function getting into biggest marketing dynamics.

Massimo Vignelli (born 1931 in Milan, Italy), is an italian designer who has done work in a number of areas ranging from package design to furniture design to public signage to showroom design through Vignelli Associates, which he co-founded with his wife, Lella. He went on to study architecture at the Politecnico di Milano and later at the IUAV, Architecture University of Venice. Vignelli works firmly within the Modernist tradition, and focuses on simplicity through the use of basic geometric forms in all of his work.

2

Designers had an important role in this context and the passage from the graphic artist to the objective and scientific method of the new designers are the mirror of the time. “I camici danno un senso di unità. Mi piacevano - era come in un ospedale il senso di pulito, di ordine, di disciplina e unità. Rendevano l’intero ambiente impressionante, quasi come una clinica. La gente qui in America tende ad essere informale. Quindi era molto importante provare a uniformare ciò che poteva risultare soggettivo e portare in primo piano la disciplina.” / Vignelli Massimo, Unimark International: The Design of Business and the business of design, Lars Muller Publisher, 2009

eng

“The white coats give a sense of unity. I liked them – it was like in a hospital – the sense of clean, order, discipline and unity. They rendered the entire environment, almost as a clinic. People here in America, tends to be informal, this could appear subjective and bring in the foreground, discipline.”

The modernist approach of designers, here well shown by Massimo Vignelli 2, who they turn towards to the new structure of communication agency, then, no more authors, but bearer of the communicative message, has encouraged in the follow years to an increasing of logos in any sectors and fields of daily life. The visual violence originated by the quantity of those symbols, compared with the physical act of marking, has emptied out of contents these formals synthesis filling them of fakes values, in order be part of the routine of the collective imaginary. We assisted to the birth of presumed working specificities, all joined to the idea of being part of the branding galaxy or in a large scale to marketing area: brand strategist, brand consultant, trends setter etc. “Branding is an act of marketing, not manufacturing, because it creates the comprehensive image of a lifestyle, rather than a product that addresses a specific need.” / Yuval Saar, in Haaretz, On the altar of the new gods, http://www.haaretz.com/news/ on-the-altar-of-the-new-gods-1.174397 Target and Brand Name became the first two point of the daily business agenda


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and consequently designers the arms of those operations. The original properties of "marchio", identification, appropriation and differentiation and, in some cases, guarantee, are far from the product features, but central in the idea that the consumer has to have of the product. Necessary is no more a "marchio" of production guarantee, but a warrantee symbol of social images, in which reflecting the audience in the wider and more lasting way. “Fabbricare prodotti può richiedere l’uso di trapani, fornaci, martelli e simili, creare un marchio necessita di una serie di strumenti e materiali ben diversi. Richiede che il marchio possa estendersi senza limiti, la capacità di rinnovare di continuo la sua immagine pubblicitaria, e soprattutto di individuare nuovi spazi in cui far penetrare ciò che il marchio vuole rappresentare.” “L’idea di vendere l’audace messaggio di un marchio, invece di un prodotto, con le sue potenzialità di espansione apparentemente illimitate ha esaltato i responsabili delle aziende. Dopotutto se un marchio non era un prodotto, poteva essere qualsiasi cosa!” / Klein Naomi, No Logo, Milano, Baldini e Castoldi, 2001

eng

“The manufacturing of products can require the use of drill, hammer and similars, create a brand needs a series of tools and materials different. Requires that the brand will can extend itself without limits, the capacity to renew continuosly its advertising image, and, above all, detect new spaces, where insert what the brand wants to represent.” “The idea to sell the audacious message of a brand, instead of a product, with its apparently illimited growth potentials, has excited the company responsibles. After all, if a brand it was not a product, it could be anything else!”

A logic of collective design problem solving, dazzled from business benefits, that have seen, in the follow years, the proliferation of these symbols in any sector and ambit: from schools to sport, from university to cultural institutions, from museums to political campaigns until arriving to the presumed appropriation of the image of cities and countries. But is it possible to brand a city or a country? “Absolutely,” says Charles Wrench, Landor UK’s3 managing director. “Anything for which you can construct a mental inventory is a brand.” / Winfield-

i But is it possible to brand a city or a country? “Absolutely,” says Charles Wrench, Landor UK’s3 managing director. “Anything for which you can construct a mental inventory is a brand.” i Pfefferkorn Julia, THE BRANDING OF CITIES. Exploring City Branding and the Importance of Brand Image, MASTERS THESIS Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree in Master of Arts in Advertising Design at the Graduate School of Syracuse University, August 2005 Assuming as respectable some operations of visual synthesis, concerning for example sport or other recreational activities, I think that cannot be proposed a representation as this one about the territory and even more mirror itself to the city. “A logo appears in many guises: a signature is a kind of logo, so is a flag. The French flag, for example, or the flag of Saudi Arabia, are aesthetically pleasing symbols. One happens to be pure geometry, the other a combination of Arabic script, together with an elegant saber - two diametrically opposed visual concepts; yet both function effectively. Their appeal, however, is more than a matter of aesthetics. In battle, a flag can be a friend or foe. The ugliest flag is beautiful if it happens to be on your side. ‘ Beauty’, they say,’is in the eye of the beholder,’ in peace or in war, in flags or in logos. We all believe our flag the most beautiful; this tells us something about logos. Should a logo be self-explanatory? It is only by association with a product, a service, a business, or a corporation that a logo takes on any real meaning. It derives its meaning and usefulness from the quality of that which it symbolizes.” / Rand Paul, Logos, flags and escutcheons, in "Looking Closer": critical writings on graphic design, Bierut Michel, Drenttel William, Heller Steven, Holland DK, NewYork, Allworth Press, 1994, p.88 This careful remark, provided by one of the most important brands designer, encloses in itself some themes that avoid a moralistic critic of city branding:

Landor Associates is a San Francisco-based brand and creative design consultancy. Founded by Walter Landor and his wife Josephine in 1941, Landor pioneered many of the research, design and consulting methodologies that are now standard in the branding industry

3


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4 Paul Rand (born Peretz Rosenbaum, (August 15, 1914 — November 26, 1996) was an American graphic designer, best known for his corporate logo designs, including the logos for IBM, UPS, Enron, Westinghouse, ABC, and Steve Jobs’ NeXT. He was one of the originators of the Swiss Style of graphic design. Rand was educated at the Pratt Institute (1929–1932), Parsons The New School for Design (1932–33), and the Art Students League (1933–1934). From 1956 to 1969, and beginning again in 1974, Rand taught design at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. Rand was inducted into the New York Art Directors Club Hall of Fame in 1972. Rand died of cancer in 1996.

a signature is a kind of logo, so is a flag says Paul Rand4, and even more The French flag, for example, or the flag of Saudi Arabia, are aesthetically pleasing symbols.., in a certain sense good design if you compare it with the corporate standards, but Their appeal, however, is more than a matter of aesthetics. In battle, a flag can be a friend or foe. The ugliest flag is beautiful if it happens to be on your side. And here, the key point of the topic. It is only by association with a product, a service, a business, or a corporation that a logo takes on any real meaning. It derives its meaning and usefulness from the quality of that which it symbolizes.” First, countries, as well as cities, if analyzed from a the legal point of view, have already their visual synthesis that marks them in the world, flags or emblem. Secondly, the concept of appeal in a territorial contest is overloaded by an whole series of historical and socio-political issues that cannot be simply defined by a target analysis neither through figurative canons of absolute beauty. And then third, but not the least for importance, the relationship with the quality symbolized, that in the case of the places cannot prescind from being the context or even more the trait, that represents the soul of those areas, shaped and promoted by the people who inhabit, have inhabit or will inhabit those realities.

“The idea of defining a nation-state as a brand is cause for hesitation however. Branding is about possession and economic ownership both of which originate in the private domain and thus can be legally defined as private property. Yet the democratic state and its image are publicly owned; marketing and branding strategies in the name of the state contribute to a destabilization of social, political and ethical life in as much as these are encapsulated within the laws of economy by deploying brand culture in domains where branding may not be able to add value. Worldwide fantastically expensive communication efforts may be imaginative, but they routinely neglect both local realities and the public aspect that constitutes the social and political life of citizens. The imagination alone cannot establish identification. Brands are not enough since they are artificial.” “The idea of a nation-state’s citizens being the representatives of fixed and unchangeable national culture is obsolete in societies which are typified by their hybridization in terms of demos. The state is a gathering of strangers – people who have the uncommon in common.” / Evert Ypma and Daniel van der Velden, Nations Re-Nationalized, in "Volume 19", pag.116-117-118


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city of? Madrid Manila Melbourne city of

...

Memphis Mexico City Miami Milano Minneapolis Monterrey Montreal Moscow Mumbai

City of Melbourne - Brand Identity


mark and the generic city

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city of

...


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mark and the generic city

1.3 the generic city image “I often feel as if I am becoming one of these global who can live almost anywhere in the world and who never knows where he will be living five or ten years from now. What is important to me, as to so many people with similar profiles, is, of course, adjacency to what I think of as cultural centers, good schools, as airport, and open land. What I desire, in other words, is sprawl with certain cultural centers and certain modes of government that provide school of nature. Yet I have the same relutance as most of us to call any of this sprawl. Some times ago, I got into an argument at a conference with a woman who by my standards lived in sprawl. Yet she protested vehemently and said, “I don’t live in sprawl. I know exactly what exit-ramp I take and when I get to my community there’s a Starbuck’s here and a Blockbuster there. My neighborhood has all the other things that make it into a real community. I do not live in sprawl.” This, I suppose, might be the motto for all of us who live in whatever is emerging in the postmetropolitan era that Edward Soja has outlined: I do not live in sprawl, sprawl is elsewhere, sprawl is everything beyond my immediate experience.” / Betsky Aaron, Make ourselves at home in sprawl, GUST, Ghent Urban Studies Team, POST-EX-SUB-DIS, "The urban condition: space, community and self in the contemporary metropolis", Rotterdam, 010 Publishers, 1999 Urban Sprawl5 , città diffusa or urban segregation are commonly perceived in a negative meaning, and, as we can notice from the words quoted upon, full of a negative feeling of shame from those who live these realities. The Postmetropolitan Era, that each of us must tackle, can be called to account, in a reflection on city branding as a contributory cause of its spreading. If are adopted Starbuck's6 and Blockbuster7 as points of reference, we can easily notice how this marketing operation, described in the previous paragraphs, is totally happened and coresponsible of that is the flattening of all the associative structures existing, for the benefit of a freedom of movement, that doesn't do anything else that move bodies in places at least similars. “Here are just a few of the evils that have been connected to the sprawling suburbanization that surrounds contemporary cities: social isolation(‘trapped’ suburban housewives, for example), the promotion

of poverty and injustice (through inaccessibility to jobs and resources), the destruction of community (as int ‘malling’ of suburban life), worsening public health (more asthma and obesity), increased flooding and soil erosion(too much cement), higher food prices and the end of small family farm (loss of agricultural land on the suburban fringe), the extinction of wildlife(as nature disappears), aesthetic degradation (as culture disappears, and global warming (car emissions again).” / Soya Edward W., Sprawl is no longer what it used to be, GUST, Ghent Urban Studies Team, POSTEX-SUB-DIS, "The urban condition: space, community and self in the contemporary metropolis", Rotterdam, 010 Publishers, 1999 In this list, Edward Soya groups together a series of connotations connected to the sprawl phenomenon, suggesting the problem between the lines. It has been created a mechanism in which, the citizens, metaphorically or not, are

Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a multifaceted concept, which includes the spreading outwards of a city and its suburbs to its outskirts to low-density and autodependent development on rural land, high segregation of uses, and various design features that encourage car dependency. The term urban sprawl generally has negative connotations due to the health, environmental and cultural issues associated with the phrase. Residents of sprawling neighbourhoods tend to emit more pollution per person and suffer more traffic fatalities. Sprawl is controversial, with supporters claiming that consumers prefer lower density neighborhoods and that sprawl does not necessarily increase traffic. /http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Urban_sprawl

5

i Here are just a few of the evils that have been connected to the sprawling suburbanization that surrounds contemporary cities: social isolation (‘trapped’ suburban housewives, for example), the promotion of poverty and injustice (through inaccessibility to jobs and resources), the destruction of community (as int ‘malling’ of suburban life), worsening public health (more asthma and obesity), increased flooding and soil erosion (too much cement), higher food prices and the end of small family farm (loss of agricultural land on the suburban fringe), the extinction of wildlife (as nature disappears), aesthetic degradation (as culture disappears, and global warming(car emissions again).” i


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Starbucks Corporation is an international coffee company and coffeehouse chain based in Seattle, Washington. Starbucks is the largest coffeehouse company in the world. The first Starbucks opened in Seattle, Washington, on March 30, 1971 by three partners: English teacher Jerry Baldwin, history teacher Zev Siegl, and writer Gordon Bowker. The three were inspired by entrepreneur Alfred Peet (whom they knew personally) to sell highquality coffee beans and equipment. The name is taken from Moby-Dick; after the name Pequod was rejected by the other cofounders. The company was instead named after the chief mate on the Pequod, Starbuck. / http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Starbucks

6

7 Blockbuster LLC, formerly Blockbuster Inc., is an Americanbased provider of home video and video game rental services, originally through video rental shops (both owned and franchised), later adding DVD-by-mail, streaming video on demand, and kiosks. The first Blockbuster store opened October 1985 in Dallas, Texas at the corner of Skillman and Northwest Highway. /http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Blockbuster_LLC

guided to the research of accessibility to places and goods, uprooting all the local peculiarities, that make people, part of a community. “E se questa omogeneizzazione apparentemente accidentale (e di solito compianta) fosse un processo intenzionale, un movimento cosciente dalla differenza alla similitudine? E se fossimo di fronte a un movimento di liberazione planetario: “ Abbasso il carattere!”? Che cosa rimane una volta deposta l’identità? la Genericità? / Koolhaas Rem, Junkplace, Quodlibet, 2006 Here there is the heart of the matter.

eng

“What if this seemingly accidental – and usually regretted – homogenization were an intentional process, a conscious movement away from difference toward similarity? What if we are witnessing a global liberation movement: “down with the character!”? What is left after the identity is stripped? The Generic?

Here there is the heart of the matter. In the lack of characterizations, there is a quest for building these, in order to exit from the vagueness, in which, we have been trapped.Here there is the key of the birth of the citybranding spreading, more in a tourist way but not only; seek to emerge from this homologation, attracting in anyhow, licit or not, the most of the people and by using, then, the city, as a product. In order to do that, they are used all the marketing tools aiming to business. Government and city institution, know, how is difficult to measure benefits

i “E se questa omogeneizzazione apparentemente accidentale (e di solito compianta) fosse un processo intenzionale, un movimento cosciente dalla differenza alla similitudine? E se fossimo di fronte a un movimento di liberazione planetario: “ Abbasso il carattere!”? Che cosa rimane una volta deposta l’identità? la Genericità? i

coming from those branding campaigns, but waiting to quantify everything, they continue to promote it, at least for getting the guarantee to be part of the global space. A selection of places is assumed as model for the public image of the city. It is a known and repetitive sign, promoted by postcards, travel books, guided tours and whatever could be functional to shape the collective imagination through an idea of place, before having interacted directly with the reality. “Già fenomeni di neutralità estrema, oggi gli aereoporti sono tra gli elementi più singolari e caratteristici della Città Generica, il suo più forte veicolo di diversificazione. Devono esserlo,essendo tutto ciò che l’uomo comune tende a percepire di quella certa città. Come in una specie di potentissima presentazione di un profumo, i pannelli fotografici sulle pareti, le vegetazione, gli usi locali danno un primo, concentrato squarcio di identità locale (talvolta è anche l’ultimo). “In termini iconografico-funzionali l’aereoporto è un concentrato di iperlocale e iperplanetario: iperplanetario nel senso che ci si possono trovare beni che non sono disponibili nemmeno in città, iperlocale nel senso che qui si trovano cose che non si possono avere da nessun’altra parte.” / Koolhaas Rem, Junkplace, Quodlibet, 2006

eng

Already manifestations of ultimate neutrality,nowadays, the airports, are among the most singular characteristic elements of the Generic City, its strongest vehicle of differentiation. They have to be like that, being everything that the average person tends to perceive of a certain city. Like a drastic demonstration of parfume, photomurals, vegetation, local costumes give a first concentrated blast of the local identity (sometimes it is also the last). In iconographical-functional terms, the airport is a concentrate of both hyperlocal and hyper-global – hyper-global in the sense that you can get some goods there, that are not even available in the city, hyper-local in the sense that here you can find certain things that you cannot get nowhere else.

Rem Koolhass's theory, concerning the characteristic use that is done of a non-place like the airport, it testimony,as, in absurd, the structures that have created this communicative gap or in somehow have challenged these localisms, have assumed, the role of promotion and distribution of the new "city-product". But is not everything;


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those structures, as the others of the collective mobility, are one of the prerogatives at the basis of city-branding, because they show efficiency, that becomes strategic to attract new “users”. Deleting doubt and complexity, to convey an image that moves away from the crowded and stressfull daily life, that people live in the places from where they come from. “Good city must have the following: Offer attractive employment Not be unduly expensive in relation to wages. Provide good and affordable housing. Have reasonable public transportation. Have good schools and recreational-cultural attractions. Have a reasonable climate. / Winfield-Pfefferkorn Julia, “THE BRANDING OF CITIES. Exploring City Branding and the Importance of Brand Image”, MASTERS THESIS Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree in Master of Arts in Advertising Design at the Graduate School of Syracuse University, August 2005

From this list we can easily understand what is another prerogative of city-branding identifiable in the term "good". Everything has to offer a positive and successfull image without hesitations and spaces for doubt and negativity. Here we pick up another negative side of this operation: a process to delete everything is responsible of waverings in the client, who buys a new package of future life or simply holiday, and consequently the best one. Would be naive thinking that would be offered a negative image o at least wide enough to show even singularities, but when is talking about public space in which are moving citizen, is necessary to underline how are limited the scenarios shown.

Richard Florida (born 1957 in Newark, New Jersey) is an American urban studies theorist. Florida's theory asserts that metropolitan regions with high concentrations of technology workers, artists, musicians, lesbians and gay men, and a group he describes as "high bohemians", exhibit a higher level of economic development. Florida refers to these groups collectively as the "creative class." He posits that the creative class fosters an open, dynamic, personal and professional urban environment. This environment, in turn, attracts more creative people, as well as businesses and capital.

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“La Città Generica ha un clima più caldo del consueto... Il suo destino finale è di essere tropicale: clima migliore, gente più bella. E’ abitata da chi non ama abitare altrove... Il brutto tempo è praticamente l’unica ansia che incombe sulla Città Generica.” / Koolhaas Rem, Junkplace, Quodlibet, 2006

eng

“The Generic City has a warmer than usual climate... Its ultimate destiny is to be tropical – better climate, more beautiful people. It is inhabited by those who don't like to live elsewhere... Bad weather is, practically, the unique worry, that looms over the Generic City.”

At this stage clear are the social roles that play this game. The community of citizens is involved only if is functional to attract new similars; the language used is the one expected

by the audience and the iconography, alternates between the benefit from the past qualities, the use of the residual geography and the possible idea of future that doesn't include the current inhabitants. In most cases we assist to a repeated exhibition of architectural symbols, that, at least, they can be justified because they emerge per dimension in the generic city skyline. It seems almost impossible, that the unconscious purchaser of this communication campaign, maybe the inhabitans, invested on a product that it will not do anything else that causing its disappearance, or its progressive running down, in favour of new social groups, like Creative Class(Florida8 ) or others, that they will take for themselves all the socio-cultural heritage on sale. A sale without bar, and using the, more and more rare, locals singularities, in order to make them usable for commercial goals. The specificity is part of the whole, rather, is a attractive power toward the potential clients.

i “La Città Generica ha un clima più caldo del consueto... Il suo destino finale è di essere tropicale: clima migliore, gente più bella. E’ abitata da chi non ama abitare altrove...Il brutto tempo è praticamente l’unica ansia che incombe sulla Città Generica.” i


generic city identity

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mark and the generic city

houston

moscow

milano

paris

washington

tokyo

san francisco

barcelona


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atlanta

rotterdam

generic city identity

generic city generic city

generic city

A versatile brand adaptable to different places because disconnected to the context. The use of "Helvetica" typeface, to reinforce the neutrality of the message communicated and making the spreading easier.


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1.4 I Love New York, IAMsterdam and the image culture Analizing the experiences of the recent past is possible to notice how even the most known example of city branding, as the logo/slogan I love New York (1976) designed by Milton Graser, even if successfull, it started with the purpose of selling a reality far from the violent and criminal image that had the area of Manhattan at that time. In a certain sense, even this operation, hid the idea of disguising, through good qualities, all the negativities that belong to the urban landscape.

The lesson that it is possible to take out from the success of "I Amsterdam" is how there is a never appeased necessity of membership, but that doesn't need to create fake scenarios, but, rather, involve all the players. The act of taking pictures inside or next to this installation suggests a key question in the media scenario that surround us: is still possible to create guided images? How and how much? Trying to guide the observer in the grassland of photographic archives at our disposal? Different and noteworthy is "I Amsterdam (2005)" campaign, designed by Kesselskramer agency, that starts from a lack in the context in order to create a place of encounter. Looking for a geographical city centre, it was realized a permanent typographical installation, "I Amsterdam", in one of the most tourist entrance. It is a physical icon, and a declaration of belonging for citizens or everybody who would like to be part of the city without any exclusion. It is open to the city and it is even the image for any person who would like to demonstrate his sense of belonging, or simply using it as a snapshot.

Assumed as democratic, the access and the use of the majority of the so-called producers of images, both the cameras or the other digital devices, is impossible to understand how can be limited the number of possible representations and, least of all, to create one, logo, as unquestioned symbol of the presumed city values. Clever and contemporary, it seems finding a way to use this potential in a more influent way possible, by stimulating debate, and by using this medium for creating tools of local aggregation in order to really offer an honest image of the city.


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1.5 A non-cordinate image “World-Brands. Our modern media society demands branding strategies from organizations which cannot really be branded. Nowadays nations brand themselves, politicians try to be a brand and small enterprises succeed if they can established their brand No brand means no place, no name, no home, no nation and no identity. ...Branding is usually a very standardized process, conformist and very often uniform. ...One major disadvantage of nation-branding is that it very often excludes diversity, pluralism, complexity and democracy due to the monovisual, mono-causal and monolinguistic information and approaches needed in branding.” / Regula Stampfli, “Seeing Diversity? Seeing Democrazy? Seeing Multiplicity?”, in "Volume 19", pag.26-27-28-29

i “World-Brands. Our modern media society demands branding strategies from organizations which cannot really be branded. Nowadays nations brand themselves, politicians try to be a brand and small enterprises succeed if they can established their brand No brand means no place, no name, no home, no nation and no identity. ...Branding is usually a very standardized process, conformist and very often uniform. ...One major disadvantage of nationbranding is that it very often excludes diversity, pluralism, complexity and democracy due to the monovisual, mono-causal and mono-linguistic information and approaches needed in branding.” i

It would possible say, that the answer to the vagueness can only come from variety. Having analized the features of city branding; identified goals,the goals, the targets, almost illimited, and the tools, create ripetitive and guided images, conveying to the citizens simple pictures that already have in their mental personal archive; there is nothing else than support a redefinition of roles and a rehabilitation of a collective vision. Promote participation instead of the listening, information instead of the sale, pluralism instead of the monoculture, in short a form of communication, new, versatile, widespread and connected to the context; in a certain sense really problem solver. Not a moralistic call to the local values, but a search for the trait as point of intersection between local and global dynamics; analyzing the city and public space as a place where are developed single experiences, influenced by global process. Answering to the coordinate image with the non-cordinate image, not in a sense of collective chaos but in the promotion of pluralism, complexity, diversity, giving the tools for tracing a complete painting of the theatre where intervenes a moltitude of actors. A series of social dynamics, hard to visually synthesize in a graphic symbol.


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media monkey democracy

ANIMAL = HUMAN HUMAN = ANIMAL

MONKEY DEMOCRACY

ANIMAL COMMUNICATION = HUMAN COMMUNICATION

branding follows the monkey democracy. animal = human; human = animal; ANIMAL COMMUNICATION = HUMAN COMMUNICATION


mark and the generic city

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“Democratic nation branding treats its citizens as citizens and not merely as customers. Here lies a key to successful democratic communication: combining information, integration, representation and possibilities for action. Democratic nation branding combines information with education. Knowledge is still the best brand. Democratic nation branding uses non-conformist, non uniform, plural images. It tries to prevent humans being depicted as mere numbers. Democratic nation branding visualizes the postmodern ‘I am many’ of each citizen rather than visualizing milions of clichés. Democratic nation branding avoids stereotypes used in commercial branding.

Democratic nation branding makes a difference. It is not a sporting event or a marketplace, but a res publica. Democratic nation branding does not sell dreams, but possibilities and realities. Democratic nation branding works best if undertaken in combination with the public media sector, working together against the media’s bias against understanding. Democratic nation branding is aware of the new iconography, the power of images. And democratic nation branding doesn’t measure democracy, but considers what weight it gives to public discussion. / Regula Stampfli, Seeing Diversity? Seeing Democrazy? Seeing Multiplicity?, in "Volume 19", pag.26-27-28-29

media monkey democracy

Democratic nation branding shows a clear understanding between private and public, identity and representation.


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why jerusalem?

2. why jerusalem? “Racconta il diplomatico israeliano Gideon Rafael di un suo viaggio nel Congo belga, negli anni Cinquanta, quando si fermò in un villaggio per spedire delle cartoline e il commesso gli chiese stupito: ‘ A Gerusalemme le manda? Non sa che Gerusalemme non esiste, si trova in cielo?’ / Dusi Elena, Pieraccini Paolo, La Battaglia per Gerusalemme, "La battaglia per Gerusalemme", Quaderni speciali di Limes, gruppo editoriale l’Espresso, n.2, 2010, p.9

eng

“The israeli career diplomat, Gideon Rafael tells about a journey in the Belgian Congo, in the Fifties, when he stopped in a village to send some postcards and the suprised clerk asked him: Are you sending these to Jerusalem? Don’t you know that Jerusalem it doesn’t exist, is in the sky?”

This anedocte is partly an answer to most of the questions of my analysis. How we can notice, city-branding campaigns were not the first to convey the image of the city in people's mind, but they are the result of a collaection of stories about it, that people have handed down between themselves, using for any historical period the most useful way of communication. A subjective storytelling that lets space to other personal views, in some cases totally in contrast with the firsts, but usefull to totally describe, all the place's aspects. The first approach to a new reality often is the most honest and, immediately, allows to have a focus on the peculiarities of the new place or to doubt on the distorted idea got previously. Indeed when you enter in a routine dynamic, is possible to lose the sense of the place, becoming part of it. Why Jerusalem, is not only a question, but is it even an answer itself.

Why Jerusalem, it has been the favourite subject of conversation for any interlocutor, student or professor, religious believer or secular, local or not, before, during and after my stay in the city. Not because is a question that is not permitted, but the frequency and the astonishment of the answer encloses some key points of my thought: the inner and external image that the citizens have, the tourist image promoted abroad, Holy City, and at the same time the image hidden to the tourism, but that represents the daily life,it displaces from any business logic, and it is identifiable in the israeli-arab conflict. What a wonderful place his ideal Jerusalem would be! A beautiful city, with broad, clean streets and abundant shade; neat, attractive houses, with gardens and fountains of water; the climate delightful, and a perfect sky always looking down upon a lovely earth; everybody truthful and unselfish, sincere, thoughtful, and reverential; a place of great quiet and peace; a place where spiritual life was developed in its most symmetrical form and in the highest degree. No doubt this seems extravagant, but the writer, after having conversed with thousands of visitors to the Holy Land and asked what opinion they had previously formed of Jerusalem, feels that he has the strongest ground for asserting that in the minds of some, possibly of many, persons only the ideal city exists. / Merril Selah, Withing thy gates, O Jerusalem, "The Biblical World", Vol. 12, No. 5 (Nov., 1898), The University of Chicago Press, pp. 293-302,


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i “Racconta il diplomatico israeliano Gideon Rafael di un suo viaggio nel Congo belga, negli anni Cinquanta, quando si fermò in un villaggio per spedire delle cartoline e il commesso gli chiese stupito: ‘A Gerusalemme le manda? Non sa che Gerusalemme non esiste, si trova in cielo?’ i Ideal city, light years away from the everyday life as evidenced by the surprise in the question Why Jerusalem? The Edah HaChareidis, (lit. "Haredi Community"), also known as the Edah for short and popularly as the Badatz, is a prominent Orthodox Jewish communal organization based in Jerusalem, Israel. It represents a large section of the Ashkenazi Haredi community and provides facilities such as kashrus supervision, mikvas, an eruv and a rabbinical court. The Edah HaChareidis is viewed as a continuation of the former leaders of the Yishuv haYashan, and is well known for being strongly opposed to Zionism, which it condemns as heretical and opposed to Judaism.

9

But is known that easily a person can find what is in his wishes, normally, a clichè, and full of expectations that the fleeting time of a visit helps to strenghten, seeking for the image seen in an advertising coupon found in the travel agency. Is not possible, even if you want to mask it, limit Jerusalem to a unique point of view. Too many are the daily input; a plurality of point of view that portray the stories around this weird city-capital. The weekly calendar is deeply influenced by the religious context and those who doesn't feel part of those processes has the feeling to be trapped in it. They look for regularity, symbolized by the more and more western standards of the city of Tel Aviv. It's possible to register a migration flow, in majority young, towards the “new city” that increased the gap between the secular

population and religious groups who map the different neighbourhoods. “A Gerusalemme, città religiosa per eccellenza, dal tramonto del venerdì a quello del sabato proibito più che altrove lavorare, guidare, pagare, azionare apparecchi o interruttori elettrici. Girando in auto nei quartieri degli ortodossi, non è raro ricevere insulti o sassate.” “La lavorazione del silicio, che non permette interruzioni, si scontra con la legge del 1951 sulle ore di lavoro e di riposo, che prevede il riposo obbligatorio durante lo Shabbat e impone multe sia ai lavoratori che ai datori di lavoro. Il compromesso raggiunto dopo che l’azienda ha minacciato di chiudere i battenti ha del paradossale: i turni dello shabbat saranno coperti utilizzando solo lavoratori non ebrei.” Per i gruppi come Edah Haredith9 si è trattato di un successo....ultraortodossi militanti...eredi degli ebrei che vivevano a Gerusalemme prima della nascita dello stato di Israele e per i quali l’autorità dello Stato


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è subordinata a quella divina. Durante le loro manifestazioni, non esitano a sputare sui poliziotti chiamarli 'nazisti' o 'Gestapo sionista'. / Dusi Elena, Pieraccini Paolo, La Battaglia per Gerusalemme, "La battaglia per Gerusalemme", Quaderni speciali di Limes, gruppo editoriale l’Espresso, n.2, 2010, p.9

eng

“In Jerusalem, religious city par excellence, from the friday's sunset to the one on saturday, more than everywhere, is forbidden to work, to drive, to pay, to activate devices or electric switches. Driving a car, in the orthodox neighborhoods, is not rare getting invectives or stones.” “The silicon manufacturing, which is not possible to stop, crashes into the 1951 law for working hours and rest, that provides the obliged of day off during shabbat and dictates penalties both to the workers and to the employers. Paradoxal is the compromise achieved, after that an industry threatened to close: work shift during shabbat will be covered by using only not-jewish workers.” For groups like Edah Haredith it was a success...militant ultraorthodox...heirs of the jews who were living in Jerusalem before the birth of the State of Israel and for whom the authority of the State is subordinated to the divine one. During demonstrations, they don't hesitate to spit towards the policemen and to call them nazi or Zionist gestapo."

An eterogeneous city that is sold as a tourist package, including in it, some singularities. The "Old city" stands for representing, in a small scale, the dynamics of the entire city, but in the same time tells about a scenario un-bound to the reality; the voluntarily exotic zone where, the temporal adjective "Old", overcomes its historical value, assuming, the commercial and attractive one. Until here, probably, nothing strange, except that the standard mechanisms we attend, from our global observatory, here, are overturned. There is an attempt to hide, the true soul that composed this city, that is shown just in the exotic scenario of the Old City, a sort of cosmopolitan idillio that has no connection to the truth. If the tourist industry milestone, is the research of the extravagant and the local, it would have in Jerusalem, rich soil. In reality, in this case, there is the will to shown the normality, the proximity to the models from which the visitors come from, cleaning the official image from the informal quantity of private images that contribute to create its public image.

i “A Gerusalemme, città religiosa per eccellenza, dal tramonto del venerdì a quello del sabato é proibito più che altrove lavorare, guidare, pagare, azionare apparecchi o interruttori elettrici. Girando in auto nei quartieri degli ortodossi, non è raro ricevere insulti o sassate.” “La lavorazione del silicio, che non permette interruzioni, si scontra con la legge del 1951 sulle ore di lavoro e di riposo, che prevede il riposo obbligatorio durante lo shabbat e impone multe sia ai lavoratori che ai datori di lavoro. Il compromesso raggiunto dopo che l’azienda ha minacciato di chiudere i battenti ha del paradossale: i turni dello Shabbat saranno coperti utilizzando solo lavoratori non ebrei.” i Lo racconta il verbale di un rassegnato addetto delle Nazioni Unite incaricato di occuparsi dell’enclave del Monte Scopus, israeliana ma situata in territorio giordano: “un’azione internazionale è richiesta per la seguente ragione: l’alimentazione degli animali allo zoo del Monte Scopus presenta problemi unici alle Nazioni Unite, a Israele e alla Giordania. Una decisione va presa fra le seguenti ipotesi: a) verrà usato denaro ebraico per comprare asini arabi per nutrire il leone israeliano. b) un asino israeliano attraverserà il territorio giordano per nutrire il leone in questione. Poiché non è stato possibile trovare nessun’altra soluzione soddisfacente, le autorità giordane e israeliane hanno deciso di trasferire lo zoo.” / Dusi Elena, Pieraccini Paolo, La Battaglia per Gerusalemme, "La battaglia per Gerusalemme", Quaderni speciali di Limes, gruppo editoriale l’Espresso, n.2, 2010, p.9


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eng

A report of an unhopeful attendant of the United Nation, in charge to take care of the Israeli enclave of the Mount Scopus, located in the Jordanian territory, tells: “an international action is requested for the following reason: the nutrition of the animals of the Mount Scopus's Zoo, shows unique problems to United Nation, Israel and Jordan. A decision has to be made, between those hypothesis: a) it will be used jewish money, for buying arab donkeys for nourish the israeli lion. b) an israeli donkey, will go through the jordanian territory for nourish the lion.Since it was not possible find none satisfactory solution, the jordanian authorities and israelis have decided to transfer the zoo.

Too many issues for this city and here the rising of new buildings, bridges and new means of transport, in order to communicate, abroad, the possibility to peacefully reside in this territory, avant-garde compared with the context, having then the chances to be included in the global generic standard.

i Lo racconta il verbale di un rassegnato addetto delle Nazioni Unite incaricato di occuparsi dell’enclave del Monte Scopus, israeliana ma situata in territorio giordano: “un’azione internazionale è richiesta per la seguente ragione: l’alimentazione degli animali allo zoo del Monte Scopus presenta problemi unici alle Nazioni Unite, a Israele e alla Giordania. Una decisione va presa fra le seguenti ipotesi: a) verrà usato denaro ebraico per comprare asini arabi per nutrire il leone israeliano. b) un asino israeliano attraverserà il territorio giordano per nutrire il leone in questione. Poiché non è stato possibile trovare nessun’altra soluzione soddisfacente, le autorità giordane e israeliane hanno deciso di trasferirelo zoo.” i

Is it still possible thinking to create a unique public image, in the media context that surrounds us? Pretending to convey, this or that, image of the city, for attracting potentials consumers of Jerusalem as a product? Or maybe could be easier, usefull and less childish, to consider that the public image is influenced by the quantity of private images that daily are universally delivered? And reductive, as well as out of the time, pretend to propose a sort of censorship on this visual production? Even more in a reality as Jerusalem where the players are so many and various that is so difficult to control them. “Ciò che rende il problema di Gerusalemme tanto complesso è il fatto che l’attuale competizione nazionalistica per la città si svolge sullo sfondo di un’antica e sanguinosa competizione religiosa tra ebraismo, cristianesimo e islam. Per comprendere la profondità del conflitto nazionalistico bisogna afferrare il carattere di quello religioso.Per questo Gerusalemme è il simbolo di un conflitto che non ha eguali al mondo. Perchè come nessun altro conflitto al mondo racchiude in sé interessi, sentimenti, geopolitica e simbologia, in una dimensione atemporale.” / Umberto De Giovannangeli, Il negoziato impossibile, "La battaglia per Gerusalemme", Quaderni speciali di Limes, gruppo editoriale l’Espresso, n.2, 2010

eng

“What makes the Jerusalem issue so complex is the fact that, the current nationalistic dispute for the city, takes place on the background of an ancient and bloody religious competition between Judaism, Christianity and Islam. To understand how is deep this nationalistic conflict is necessary to grasp the meaning of the religious one. For this reason Jerusalem is the symbol of a conflict that has no equal in the world. Because, as none conflict in the world, encloses in itself, interest, feelings, geopolitic and simbology, in a timeless dimension.”

Easy to realize that create a tourist brand for this reality, cannot and doesn't want to be inclusive of all these features and problematics. It tends to embody a private connotation, an "una tantum" choice, decided by the political wing who has the power in a certain period and that will contribute, only, to sell a fake and partisan product, increasing the distorted perception of the city


Working Days

gap between working days and shabbat days

38 why jerusalem?


39 why jerusalem?

gap between working days and shabbat days

Shabbat Days


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why jerusalem?

Last but not for importance, is the bizarre idea to be the carrier of uniqueness in which the zionist11 movement identifies Jerusalem, "The Place", fostering, on the other side, commercial operations, which are the result of generic parameters, typical of the urban degeneration of western capitals.. Here are the motivations for a careful analysis and, an as much open as possible, description of this reality, in order to give a further contribute to the creation of a public image that has to be a quantitative and qualitative collection of private images. Important to do that, be part of the place, living the reality for a certain period, in order to establish a relation between observer

and environment, and even create a pattern and a reflection based on key points usefull to convey, clearly, the trait. This is the path that I have brought forward after five months of my staying in Jerusalem, focusing my work, on the gap between the tourist image of the city, Holy City and the daily incongruity with this public image conveyed outside. Jerusalem from Italy, starting point of this path; Jerusalem city of religion, zionist dream achieved, and desire for the three main monotheistic religions; Jerusalem city of daily exchanges between workers; Jerusalem city capital of the jewish state and consequently of a selective identity; Jerusalem city of future or how this idea is molded.

Zionism is the political movement that is implementing the national liberation of the Jewish people. It is based on the assertion that the Jewish people, like any other people, has the right to self-determination; Jews have a right to a national home in their historic homeland. Zionism has made a reality of the "impossible" project of restoration of the Jewish people to our homeland, after nearly 2,000 years of exile.Zionism became a political movement with the first Zionist congress in 1897, organized by Theodor Herzl. The conference turned an intellectual "movement," scattered around Europe, into a political force, and provided a clear goal: the achievement of a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine.

11

JERUSALEM RELIGIOUS WEEK

Shabbat. Even though this is the seventh day of every week (counting from Sunday), and there are over 50 such days each year, Shabbat is a holy day - and even one of the most important holy days in Judaism. In fact, apart from the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur,) Shabbat is the holiest day for Jews, and is the only one mentioned in the Ten Commandments. The observance of Shabbat has always been central to the Jewish people’s experience and existence, at least until recent generations. A well-known saying states that more than the Jewish people have kept Shabbat, Shabbat has kept the Jewish people. According to ancient Jewish tradition, Shabbat has a clear connection to the creation of the world: on the seventh day God rested (“Shabbat,” in Hebrew) from the work of creation, so this is a holy day for men, and they, too, are to rest from productive work. The idea of Shabbat - one day sanctified for rest after six days of toil - is one of the important contributions of Judaism to world culture. In the Jewish calendar, the days are counted from the sunset of one day until sunset the following day. Shabbat therefore begins on Friday evening, called Erev Shabbat, and ends on Saturday evening, called Motsa’ei Shabbat. http://www.goisrael.com/Tourism_ Ita/Tourist+Information/Jewish+Themes/Shabbat. htm

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WORKING DAYS

jewish holy days

- shabbat

no israeli busses (egged) in west jerusalem no group taxi (sherut) forbidden entrance by car in orthodox jews neighboorhood (meah sherim) closed shops, bar, post office, institutional from friday night

(around 5pm)

offices, school, university, mahane yehouda market western wall’s prayer day on friday night

muslim holy days closed some shops and market in east jerusalem, sometimes just for the prayer time. jum’ah’s prayer day at friday noon on al aqsa mosque in the temple mount forbidden entrance at the temple mount during the prayer time.

Jerusalem religious week calendar


why jerusalem?

39 Melakhot Jewish law (halakha), especially the Talmud Tractate Shabbat, identifies thirtynine categories of activity prohibited on Shabbat (or thirty-nine melakhot), and clarifies many questions surrounding the application of the biblical prohibitions. Many of these activities are also prohibited on the Jewish holidays listed in the Torah, although there are significant exceptions permitting carrying and preparing food under specific circumstances. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

Planting Plowing Reaping Gathering Threshing/Extraction Winnowing Sorting/Purification Grinding Sifting Kneading/amalgamation Cooking/Baking Shearing Scouring/Laundering Beating/Combing wool Dyeing Spinning Warping Making two loops Weaving Separating two threads Tying Untying Sewing Tearing Trapping Slaughtering Flaying/Skinning Curing/Preserving Smoothing Scoring Measured Cutting Writing Erasing Building Demolition Extinguishing a fire Igniting a fire Applying the finishing touch Transferring between domains

In Jerusalem, the UltraOrthodox Jews are the only one who observe these rules during Shabbat.In the event that a human life is in danger, a Jew is not only allowed, but required, to violate any Shabbat law that stands in the way of saving that person.

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from italy to jerusalem

3. from italy to jerusalem “L’uomo che viaggia e non conosce ancora la città che lo aspetta lungo la strada, si domanda come sarà la reggia, la caserma, il mulino, il teatro, il bazar. In ogni città dell’impero ogni edificio è differente e disposto in un diverso ordine: ma appena il forestiero arriva alla città sconosciuta e getta lo sguardo in mezzo a quella pigna di pagode e abbaini e fienili, seguendo il ghirigoro di canali orti immondezzai, subito distingue quali sono i palazzi dei principi, quali i templi dei grandi sacerdoti, la locanda, la prigione, la suburra. Così – dice qualcuno – conferma l’ipotesi che ogni uomo porta nella mente una città fatta soltanto di differenze, una città senza figure e senza forma, e le città particolari la riempono.” / Calvino Italo, Le città invisibili, Milano, Mondadori,2002

eng

“The traveller doesn't know yet the city who is waiting for him, asks himself, how will be the palace, the barrack, the mill, the theater, the bazar. In every city of the empire each building is different and placed in a different order: but as soon as the foreigner arrives to the unknown city, and glances at the middle of this pine cone of pagodas, and dormers and barns, following the serpentine of canals, gardens, rubbish dumps, immediately distinguishes what are the princes palaces, what are the temples of the great priests, the guesthouse, the prison, the slum. Thus – it says someone – confirms the hypothesis that each human being bring in his mind a city, made only by differences, a city, without figures and without shape, and filled by a series of personal cities”

Each person has in his mind an image of the place where is oriented, figment of a collection of singles images, that have been conveyed to him.

i “L’uomo che viaggia e non conosce ancora la città che lo aspetta lungo la strada, si domanda come sarà la reggia, la caserma, il mulino, il teatro, il bazar. In ogni città dell’impero ogni edificio è differente e disposto in un diverso ordine: ma appena il forestiero arriva alla città sconosciuta e getta lo sguardo in mezzo a quella pigna di pagode e abbaini e fienili, seguendo il ghirigoro di canali orti immondezzai, subito distingue quali sono i palazzi dei principi, quali i templi dei grandi sacerdoti, la locanda, la prigione, la suburra. Così – dice qualcuno – conferma l’ipotesi che ogni uomo porta nella mente una città fatta soltanto di differenze, una città senza figure e senza forma, e le città particolari la riempono.” i


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from italy to jerusalem

...the Dome of the Rock: this monument, initiated in 685 and completed in 692, set not only the visual but also the structural tone of the city as “a mosaic of religious, ethnic and linguistic communities within the unifying field of a broadly defined Islamic civilization: a civilization that drew its characteristic qualities as a social order from the overwhelmingly Muslim character of the population without restricting participation in that civilization to Muslims. By situating itself where it did, the Dome of the Rock completely redefined the “memory for the qualitative space upon which all religious rites and orientation are based”. This sense of qualitative space is particularly apt for the Dome of the Rock since “in Islamic architecture space is never divorced from form: it is not then provides a frame into which things are placed. Space is qualified by the forms that exist in it. A sacred center polarizes the spaces about it.” By incorporating the complex network of existing event and myth regarding the sacred center of its own location (Mount Moriah as the earth’scnavel and place of Adam’s creation and death; the rock where Abraham brought Isaac to be sacrificed: the area of the temple of Solomon and the Holy of Holies; the spot from which Muhammad ascended to heaven), the Dome shares the characteristic of a mode called “building the site.” / Ammiel Alcalay, “Jerusalem, The Islamic City”, Middle East Report, n. 182, Jerusalem and the Peace Agenda (May - Jun. 1993), Middle East Research and Information Project, pp.19-21

12

In the proclaimed "image-era", it supposes to deeply know the world, without have been citizens of none of the places of what have been narrated the bad habits and the virtues. The risk, in this sense, is to become promoters of indirect knowledges, that influence the decisions at the moment of choose a place for living, working or more simply spending a period of holidays. The starting point of this short visual analysis, from an empiric point of view, it's based on my own experience and can be similar to the one of most of the people. As we have seen before, actually, behind this, exist a tourist promoting organization, that uses different tools to convey the same kind of images.

By using mass ways of communication, not intended as negative meaning but simply numerical, is possible to understand how the most frequent iconography of Jerusalem ,shows an architecture as the Dome of the Rock12 that, even if is still in the middle of an historical and religious dispute, represents in the collective imagination a mosque, then the most holy place for the muslim world. Here we find the first breaking point between the daily reality, and the imagined one. It seems, at least bizarre, that the most frequent image of Jerusalem, city capital of the jewish state, is an element with a strong arab simbolism. Could be seen as an openness toward a minority, a sort of respectful gesture, actually, hides only an operation that could be included in the city branding process, that doesn't care often to religious and social aspects but is just interested in business. A catty, but not that much, visual analysis, could support this theory, referring it to the physical difficulty of covering or delete, such a big element to the city skyline. Another important topic to understand the political and institutional choices, is through a look at the main routes of the tour operators, that include in themselves, a series of routes that give appeal to the journey. Exotic but not too much, historic and funny, religious and secular, sea and mountains, desert but with water, safety by perceiving the unsafety. So, an everything and nothing, that aims to answer to the idea already present in the client. If this point is not annoying, is unfair and provocative to influence to the geography of the place through maps.

Erhard Reuwich, View of Jerusalem, from Breydenbach, Peregrinationes in Terram Sanctam


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from italy to jerusalem

dome of the rock

Scorel, The Entry of Christ into Jerusalem, central panel of Lochorst Triptych (detail), Utrecht, Centraal Museum


from italy to jerusalem

45

dome of the rock

Auguste Salzmann. Jerusalem, Walls of the Temple, General View of the East Side. 1856.


46

from italy to jerusalem

Checked that, in Jerusalem, the permeability and the non clear situation of borders make the geography, variable, it remains a position that I cannot find another way to define it otherwise that racial, the one that prompts to delete part of the territory, by all the public and the promotionals events. This plan gave a proof of itself, in the recent past, in occasion of the first international marathon of the city, the 25 march 2011.Analyzing the track of this competition, easily, is possible to notice the exclusion process that the arabs neighborhoods of East Jerusalem undergoes. Not that they had felt the need to be included in this sport event, rather the needs, as we will see, are others, but it represents the top of a series of subtle exclusion proce-

dures that the municipality and the national institutions lead in order to preserve the safety of athletes and the success of the event. By avoiding to start an historical and social dispute, about causes and elements who brought to this situation, what i'm observing as a designer, is how have been used those artefacts, bearing to them external meanings, disconnected to their direct function. It comes out a professional thought, about how, indirectly or not, the role of the designer of these artefacts, is subjected or not to the customer and, in this case, by conveying, an indirect message of exclusion, simply following the idea behind this competition.


from italy to jerusalem

David's tower and the Old City walls as symbols of the competition.

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from italy to jerusalem

interwiew with

DAN REISINGER 1/06/2011, TEL AVIV, ISRAEL EL AL, airline israeli national company

George Him (19001982). After studying religious history (Moscow, Berlin and Bonn), Him went for four years to the Staatliche Akademie für Graphische Künsten und Buchwerbe in Leipzig. Worked freelance for a while in Germany and started a unique, complementary partnership with Jan Lewitt. The two created a wonderful children's book, Lokomotywa. They left Poland in 1937 for London. When their work was shown by Lund-Humphries, many advertising commissions followed. During WW2 Lewitt and Him designed posters for ROSPA, the GPO and the Londonbased Polish Ministry of Information. By late 1942 they were concentrating on children's books, posters and murals for war factory canteens. After the war they designed murals for the Festival of Britain (1951) and the Guinness Festival Clock. The poster for American Overseas Airlines is typical for their joint output. Their work was exhibited in Jerusalem, TelAviv, New York and Philadelphia. / http://www.a-g-i.org/ ?lid=1951&tmpl=images

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i “...when they bought the boeing aircraft in 1972-1973, the managing director at that time wanted to create El Al image; he asked two people from different part one, from london and one from Amsterdam…George Him13, to be the consultant art director, and Otto Treuman14 from Holland and they design the logo with the two squares. They introduce the hebrew and english logo different…I started to work with El Al at that time and I was junior designer… When the jumbo was commissioned, they made a competition between Otto Treuman and myself; I didn’t like the old one, it didn’t work well, this two squares... and I created the new logo. It had an equal heavy hebrew english, readable in hebrew readable in english in one word, one line…it fitted much better to the aircraft… and then I redesigned the entire corporate identity of El Al… ...it was a time in which El Al was the window of Israel to the world... we have to look that we are advanced… we are humanistic…that we care about the people about the passengers… and then when the terrorism start


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from italy to jerusalem

Otto Treumann (1919-2001) is regarded as a major pioneer in the modernization of graphic design in the Netherlands. Premised on Swiss typography and the Bauhaus, Treumann’s oeuvre is distinguished by an easy-to-read combination of visual elements and an iconoclastic treatment of colour. These benefit from his wide knowledge of printing techniques acquired during the Second World War when he forged documents for the resistance. He enjoyed a special relationship with industrial clients, invariably achieving top quality and innovation in the arena where economics meets culture. His work has proved eminently suitable for house styles and logos, including those for Wolters Noordhoff the publishers, the Kröller-Müller Museum, the Royal Institute of Dutch Architects and El Al Airlines. He also designed posters for the Industries Fair in Utrecht, the Rotterdam Ahoy’ and Tattoo in Delft. / www.010.nl/catalogue/ book.php?id=312

14

to doing act…the El Al presence in the city was unsafety…the safety became number 1 number 2 and number 3 consideration...safety of the terrorism and of course safety of the aircraft…. high quality production…those beautiful El Al offices closed…the political situation influenced this situation… I was lucky to start my career abroad (Brussels, London..), I was looking how the biggest company were working, I wanted in Israel to have the similar values…why we should have less goods then 'Air France' or 'Swissair'... search for aesthetically and humanitarian values…I thinks it’s important for every country how it present itself to the population of the world…the text in the logo was like a bridge…you can read from the left you can read from the right…El Al was the only bridge I reach the world…first color was gold and black…later on i changed light blue …it was a demand to put the flag to be the flag part of the logo…because 'Arkia' (another company…) called themselves the israeli airline…so they El Al wanted to strength the national career.” i

George Him e Otto Treumann, 1963

Dan Reisinger, 1971


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from italy to jerusalem

The description by the israeli graphic designer, Dan Reisinger, includes another variable to the image that people can have regarding a place: the use of means of transport as windows to the world for the states. El Al, as airline israeli national company, in a corporate identity vision, is bearer, direclty or undirectly, of values, with the unique goal of including the israeli reality, in the global scene. Here, another time, there is an important lack of consideration for the minority communities that live the territory, but justified with the idea to identify the company with the jewish state. Excluding the regular promotional channels, institutional or not, exist other ways, useful to have an idea of the place to reach.

Dan Reisinger, Jerusalem, part of a series of posters for EL AL,1971

Dan Reisinger, El Al corporate identity

Even being mainly a tool of personal research without scientific value, the collection of daily newspapers, books, magazines and, now, online info, about the reality that you are going to deal with, it seems a good exercise to analyse the recurring subjects. Contextualizing this action in the city of Jerusalem and in all the informations collected, easily they have been perceived the religious thematics, the ones related to the violence, to the conflict, or to the censorship, on what is possible to get informed by an european perspective or, specifically, the italian one. Criticizable, mainly because of the quantity of the similar tools that is possible to use, this operation includes in itself a range of truth, all connected with the facility to reach, through this artefacts, a good amount of people. Last but not for importance, is, the direct or indirect, relation, that we have with the population that we are going to relate with. This knowledge is personal and often could be influenced by external factors


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from italy to jerusalem

15 Menachem Mendel Schneerson (Mykolaiv, 5 aprile 1902 – Brooklyn, 12 giugno 1994) He studied mathematics, physics and philosophy in Berlin, Germany for five semesters from mid-1928 through 1930. He is known as the Lubavitcher Rebbe or just the Rebbe among his followers, was a prominent Hasidic rabbi who was the seventh and last Rebbe (Hasidic leader) of the ChabadLubavitch movement. He was fifth in a direct paternal line to the third Chabad-Lubavitch Rebbe, Menachem Mendel Schneersohn. In January 1951, a year after the death of his father-in-law, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn, he assumed the leadership of the Lubavitch movement. He led the movement until his death in 1994, greatly expanding its worldwide activities and founding a worldwide network of institutions to spread Orthodox Judaism among the Jewish people. These institutions include schools, kindergartens, synagogues, Chabad houses, and others, and are run under the auspices of Merkos L'Inyonei Chinuch, the educational branch of the Chabad movement. During his lifetime many of his followers had considered him to be the Jewish Messiah. Rabbi Schneerson placed a tremendous emphasis on outreach. He made great efforts to intensify this program of the Chabad movement, bringing Jews from all walks of life to adopt Torahobservant Judaism, and aggressively sought the expansion of the baal teshuva movement. Rabbi Schneerson never visited the State of Israel, where he had many admirers. However, many among Israel's top leadership made it a point to visit him and they were grandly received. / http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Menachem_ Mendel_Schneerson

that doesn't have to be related with the place where they come from: they are subjective, connected with personal taste and they not attest neither prove, nothing, about the future place, but they contribute to the birth of, mainly racials, bias. My experience, starting from Venice, in relation with Jerusalem, it could not be anything else than the Jewish Ghetto area, and here already a limited perspective of my destination. Particularly, is based on an historical and religious mistake, caused by the great attractive potential, that often, artefacts or images have in our mind. The poster of an old bearded man, having discovered later being Rabbi Lubavitcher15, is the visual connection that has accompained my trip to Jerusalem. The same poster found in a small shop in the ghetto area of Venice, appeared to my eyes in a huge quantity along the roads of Jerusalem when I arrived over there. Immediately I got a visual link between the two. I had found something related

to the two places. Cause of my guilty ignorance about Judaism, the popularity of this subject, has multiplied the simbolic value that he, actually, has in the Jewish community. Starting from my superficial mistake, I have the arrogance of thinking that, more or less directly, those visual links are responsible of the opinions that many persons have when, with an approximate documentation, they get closer to new destinations. This superficial approach to a reality as Jerusalem shows, first, how is ritual and simple convey guided informations, without promoting a spirit of criticism in the audience; secondly, wants to observe how the current multiplicity, and the uncertain quality of informations that we get passively, they are something that cannot be controlled, thus giving value to one of the key ideas of my theory: promote as much as possible a distribution of images of the city, in order to express the trait. Paying attention to the information sources and then accomplishing a political and critical act.


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from italy

ome of the r


Holy city 53

from italy to jerusalem

rock from italy

1


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must know about jerusalem

4. MUST KNOW ABOUT jerusalem 14 february 1947

The British government addresses the problem of the future of Palestine before the United Nations.

29 november 1947

The United Nations General Assembly adopts Resolutions 181 by a two-thirds majority. This resolution calls for dividing Palestine into a Jewish state and Arab state, with Jerusalem and Holy Places under “a special international regime.”According to the Resolution: “Free access to the Holy Places and religious buildings or sites and the free exercise of worship shall be secured in conformity with existing rights and subject to the requirements of public order and decorum.”

14 may 1948

Israel 's first prime minister, David Ben Gurion, announces the birth of the State of Israel. The Arab League declares war on the new state.

15 may 1948

Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon , and Iraq invade, launching the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.

24 february– 20 july 1949

Armistice agreements are signed between Israel and its Arab neighbors

1950

The Israeli president David Ben Gurion, moves the Knesset, Israeli parliament, and the ministries, to Jerusalem, answering to the UN proposal of internationalization of the city advanced in 9 december 1949. Jerusalem formally city capital of the State of Israel.

29 may 1964

In Jerusalem, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is created.

5 june 1967

The Six-Day War breaks out, and Israel occupies the Sinai, the Golan Heights, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, and East Jerusalem.

22 november 1967

The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopts Resolution 242, which recognizes the right of Israel to exist, as well as the right of “every State in the area...to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries.” The resolution also calls for the withdrawal of Israeli forces from the Occupied Territories as a condition for sustainable peace – essentially, the idea of “land for peace”.

30 july 1980

The Knesset issues the Basic Law, proclaiming the “complete and united” Jerusalem the capital of Israel.


must know about jerusalem

9 december 1987

The First Intifada erupts in the Gaza Strip and, over the next five years, will rage throughout the Palestinian territories

13 september 1993

In the presence of Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres and Mahmoud Abbas (Abu Mazen) sign the Oslo Accords (formally known as the “Declaration of Principles”) before Bill Clinton at the White House. Witnesses includes the U.S. Secretary of state, Warren Christopher, and the Russian minister of foreign affairs, Andrei Kozyrev.

4 november 1995

Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated in Tel Aviv by Yigal Amir, a religious nationalist extremist. Shimon Peres takes over as prime minister.

20 january 1996

General elections are held in the West Bank, Gaza, and in East Jerusalem. Yasser Arafat is elected president of the Palestinian Authority. His supporters carry two thirds of the seeats in the Legislative Council.

11-25 july 2000

Yasser Arafat and Ehud Barak enter negotiations at Camp David, under the leadership of President Bill Clinton. The negotiations end in failure, notably because of a major disagreement on Jerusalem.

28 september 2000

Ariel Sharon, who succeeded Netanyahu as Likud leader, visits the Esplanade of the Mosques, in Jerusalem, causing violent confrontations between Israelis and Palestinians to flare up throughout the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. This marks the beginning of the Second Intifada.

22 october 2000

In less than one month, 127 Palestinians and 8 Israelis have been killed by violence throughout Israel and the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. This marks the beginning of the Second Intifada. Ehud Barak officially stops the peace process.

november 2000

Ehud Barak approves the construction of a barrier along the Green Line in some northern and central regions of the West Bank, in order to prevent the passage of vehicles.

6 february 2001

Ariel Sharon is elected prime minister of Israel with 62,5 percent of the vote.

june 2001

Prime Minister Ariel Sharon creates a steering commitee, under the director of the National Security Council, Uzi Dayan, to form a plan to prevent Palestinian terrorists from infiltrating Israel. The first recommendations of the group are to be put into place as an extension of the plan studied under Barak.

december 2001

The Ministerial Commitee on National Security approves most of the wall project plans around the region of Jerusalem, also known as the “Jerusalem Envelope.”

march 2002

The “Jerusalem Envelope” is approved in its entirety by the Ministerial Committee on National Security.

14 april 2002

Sharon places the Ministry of Defense in charge of the construction of a separation barrier, officially designed to protect Israel from Palestinian terrorists. An administrative body for the “separation zone”, under the autority of the directorgeneral of the Ministry od Defense, is created. The army begins to requisition destroy a part of the Palestinian Authority headquarters.

14 august 2002

The first section of the wall is granted final governamental approval. It is to be completed by July 2003.

august 2003

The Israeli government gives the green light to the construction of a forty-twomile barrier in the Jerusalem region.

8 december 2003

The UN General Assembly requests that the International Court of Justice at The Hague (ICJ) review the legality of the barrier.

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must know about jerusalem

9 july 2004

The International Court of Justice at The Hague finds the wall illegal under international law, and calls upon Israel to dismantle it.

12 september 2005

Withdrawal of the Israeli army from the Gaza Strip.

10 october 2007

The president of the Palestinian Authority, Mahmoud Abbas, states that the future Palestinian State will cover an area of 3,856 square miles and will include most of the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Abbas adds that he is ready to accept territorial exchanges with Israel, which would involve 2 percent of the area of the West Bank.

4 september 2008

In an interview on Al Jazeera, Israeli defense minister Ehud Barak states that some Arab neighborhoods of East Jerusalem, along with neighboring villages, could become part of the Palestinian capital in a future peace agreement.

1 may 2009

A document released by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) states that 60,000 Palestinians out of 225,000 living in East Jerusalem face the possibility of their houses being demolished by the Israeli authorities. According to this document, only 13 percent of annexed East Jerusalem will be reserved for new construction for the Palestinians, while 35 percent of East Jerusalem has been expropriated for the construction of settlements to accomodate 195,000 Israelis.

23 september 2011

The president of the Palestinian Authority, Mahmoud Abbas(Abu Mazen) officially present to the 66th General Assembly of the UN, an official claim for recognition of the Palestinian State, respecting the boundaries establish in the 4 June 1967 agreement, with East Jerusalem as new city capital of the future State of Palestine.

Backmann RenĂŠ, A wall in Palestine, New York, Picador, 2010 Fraser Thomas G., Il conflitto arabo-israeliano, Bologna, Il Mulino, 2002 Ir Amin : http://www.ir-amim.org.il/eng/ Unrwa : http://www.unrwa.org/


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5. ZION. identity to differentiate JERUSALEM CITY OF RELIGION “Prima del 1980 nessun libro di storia parlava di identità; non sapendo dove si va si cerca di capire da dove si viene.” / lecture Maurice Aymard, Genova 10/11/2011

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“Before 1980, no book was talking about identity; ignoring where we are going, we try to understand, where we come from.”

The historical use and the connotation of the term identity, despite having an history relatively recent, has been used and abused, in different shapes, already in the past. If in the visual communication field, the call for identity, means a design based on social value and in dialogue with the territory, in a socio-political context has

the goal to establish parameters to allow people or not, on taking part to a movement or ideology. In simple terms, defining who is in or out of the society and the political ideology of the time. It is easy to associate this idea, to all the nationalistic structures, and consequently, racists, along all the history, who have used the term identity as a tool for aggregation and mass discrimination. “I believe that one may have more than one identity. I think that identity is a product of membership in some imagined community of which the nation is one. I think that phenomenologically it is a sort of a temporary ensemble of both uncritically leared as well as critically adopted mental and bodily dispositions and sensibilities, thus images,


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i “I believe that one may have more than one identity. I think that identity is a product of membership in some imagined community of which the nation is one. I think that phenomenologically it is a sort of a temporary ensemble of both uncritically leared as well as critically adopted mental and bodily dispositions and sensibilities, thus images, beliefs, feelings, emotions, body postures, facial expressions, and movements, many of these connected in patterns that are not necessarily at the forefront of one’s awareness of oneself. i

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beliefs, feelings, emotions, body postures, facial expressions, and movements, many of these connected in patterns that are not necessarily at the forefront of one’s awareness of oneself. What one is aware of as being a part of an identity is probably a function of a pragmatic necessity in either a deliberative context or a context of differences.� / Bat Amir Bar On, Meditations on National Identity, "Hypatia", Vol. 9, n.2, Feminism and Peace (Spring, 1994), Indiana University Press, pp. 40-62 Established the identity as a way to be part of a group and having awareness of themselves, this reason doesn't exclude the chance to partecipate to more than one reality. The elements that influenced the participation are personals and consequently far from the idea of uniqueness that often is referring to the term identity.

5.1 Jews, Jerusalem and the identity One of the most persecuted population of the history, The Jews, is the proof of how can be temporal and changeable the use and the value attributed to the term identity. A migrant population into the seek for a location, having been bounced and, violently, expelled many times, because out of the social canon usefull to be part of a physical place. Identified under the term, Diaspora16, the dispersion of a population, that was, already internally fragmented in a multitude of communities and then of identities. In this situation the research of a physical place where settle themselves, and the dream of a land for express their idea of community. Jerusalem, or better Zion17, as existential goal and the construction of a Jewish state as dream that accompanies the daily life of this community until 1948. This legitimate necessity and, in a certain sense, wish of freedom, has had to deal with the communities who were living the idealized lands, that they felt themselves, at the same time, part of a community: groups of people without an institutional recognition as State, but with the human relation with the place, that it was nothing else that the identitarian desire and aim that the Jewish community was looking for. We can look to an overturning of the relation with the term identity: from strong existential limit of research into tool

for creating a sense of community that aims, itself to exclude other social groups. My thought has not intend to historically judge the events, but to put a reflection on which communication tools were and are still usefull to create and identify Jerusalem, as the top goal of the zionist project of a Jewish State and key point of exclusion of the so called "others". A paradoxal dynamic in between the escape from "ghettizazioni" and persecutions, to the realization of a freedom myth, that in order to be done, had to relate with social exclusion phenomena, no more suffered but promoted. It was none other than Israel's founding father, David Ben-Gurion18, who depicted them as "A mob and human dust, without language, without education, without roots and without being absorbed in tradition and the nation's vision. "The survivors, aware of this hostile climate but eager to start a new life and become part of the Zionist dream, were easily convinced that dismembering was their only healthy option. It was rather common to believe, as one survivor expressed it upon his arrival in Palestine in 1947, that especially those "who have lived through this dark period in Europe [and] experienced on our flash great atrocities . . . must forget the past, start toward a new future, and heal our soul from the bottom up - simply be born again." / Ne'eman Arad Giulie, Israel and the Shoah. A tale of multivarious taboo, "New German Critique", No. 90, Taboo, Trauma, Holocaust (Autumn, 2003), New German Critique, pp. 5-26

17 Zionism is a form of nationalism of Jews and Jewish culture that supports a Jewish nation state in territory defined as the Land of Israel. The term "Zionism" itself is derived from the word Zion (Hebrew: Tzi-yon), referring to Jerusalem. Zion is a hill near Jerusalem (now in the city), widely symbolizing the Land of Israel. Throughout eastern Europe at the time, there were numerous grassroots groups promoting the national resettlement of the Jews in what was termed their "ancestral homeland", as well as the revitalization and cultivation of Hebrew. These groups were collectively called the "Lovers of Zion." The first use of the term is attributed to the Austrian Nathan Birnbaum, founder of a nationalist Jewish students' movement Kadimah, who used the term in his journal Selbstemanzipation (Self Emancipation) . / http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Zionism


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i It was none other than Israel's founding father, David Ben-Gurion18, who depicted them as "A mob and human dust, without language, without education, without roots and without being absorbed in tradition and the nation's vision. "The survivors, aware of this hostile climate but eager to start a new life and become part of the Zionist dream, were easily convinced that dismembering was their only healthy option. It was rather common to believe, as one survivor expressed it upon his arrival in Palestine in 1947, that especially those "who have lived through this dark period in Europe [and] experienced on our flash great atrocities . . . must forget the past, start toward a new future, and heal our soul from the bottom up simply be born again." i

16 The Jewish diaspora (or simply the Diaspora) is the English term used to describe the Galut (Yiddish: 'Golus'), or 'exile', of the Jews from the region of the Kingdom of Judah and Roman Judaea and later emigration from wider Eretz Israel. There is little doubt that the term "diaspora" itself originated to describe the Jewish condition. The word is from the Greek dispersion and appears in the Ancient Greek translation of the Old Testament known as the Septuagint: thou shalt be a diaspora (or dispersion) in all kingdoms of the earth. The rejection of life in the Diaspora is a central assumption in all currents of Zionism. underlying this attitude was the feeling that the Diaspora restricted the full growth of Jewish national life. It was argued that the dynamics of the diaspora which were affected by persecution, numerous subsequent exiles, as well as political and economic conditions created a new Jewish awareness of the World, and a new awareness of the Jews by the World. / http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Jewish_diaspora

David Ben-Gurion (Płosk, 16 ottobre 1886 – Sde Boker, 1º dicembre 1973) it was an israeli politican. The main founder and the first Prime Minister of Israel. / http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/David_Ben-Gurion

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The New State of Israel, Greeting card David Tartakover, David Ben Gurion commemorative poster, 1979


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5.2 Hamakom, idealization and deconstruction of a myth. “Hamakom – 'the place' – has a twofold meaning. On the one hand, it refers to a specific stretch of land on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean where modern Israel is located. On the other hand, it is an idea, a voice, a thought in relation to which the tangible place, as its earthly manifestation, is secondary. Place as idea resists the human tendency to restrict and bind it to mere corporeal place. This duality epitomizes a paradoxical Judaine notion: 'place' is a land in which to 'dwell securely': yet 'Place' (Makom) is also the name of God” / Gurevitch Zali and Aran Gideon, The Land of Israel: Myth and Phenomenon, in "Reshaping the Past: Jewish History and the Historians", Studies in Contemporary Jewry, 1994. The Zionist ideology of re-establish, repatriate and reconnect the Jewish population with the original homeland, "the Place", as each myths, it needed to be realized. This passage between dream and reality goes through the unification of a community through the curdling in a identitary meaning. The zionist re-establishing of the Jewish identity, spreaded all over the world, went through three key points summarized in the slogan: One People, One Nation, One Language. How we can notice, the exclusivity of the message, "One", closes the doors on the participation of those who don't recognize themselves or are not identifiable in the guidelines. “..State of Israel was the God e Zionism was the way.” / Yulie Cohen Gerstel, Zion My Land, documentary, 57 minutes, colour, 2004 This simple equivalence, actually, clashed physically into the realities present on the territory. It needed of an identitarian process, in a certain sense comparable to all that caused the pilgrimage of the jewish population before. “The Place stands not only between Israelis and their Arab Neighbors, but between Israelis and themselves.” “Against this background, Zionism was revolutionary insofar as it constituted an attempt to transform the meaning of

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the Land of Israel (Zion) from a metaphysical, magical and ritualistic entity to an earthly totality, from a symbolic entity into a concrete reality as Jews left the diaspora and settled as a people in the place. In other words, the Zionist revolution was an attempt to reunite the place with the Place. The Zionist avant garde, the pioners (haluzim), who ascended to the Land of Israel, not only left one place to go to another but left one phase of Jewish history for another. / Gurevitch Zali and Aran Gideon, The Land of Israel: Myth and Phenomenon, in "Reshaping the Past: Jewish History and the Historians", Studies in Contemporary Jewry, 1994.

i “Hamakom – 'the place' – has a twofold meaning. On the one hand, it refers to a specific stretch of land on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean where modern Israel is located. On the other hand, it is an idea, a voice, a thought in relation to which the tangible place, as its earthly manifestation, is secondary. Place as idea resists the human tendency to restrict and bind it to mere corporeal place. This duality epitomizes a paradoxical Judaine notion: 'place' is a land in which to 'dwell securely': yet 'Place' (Makom) is also the name of God” i This transformation as we can see, cannot be included only in a territorial conquest based on the different conception of nature of this land, between the new Israelis and the local Palestinians, but it was an zionist ideological legitimation, that has used the presence of the jewish pioneers in the territory as a concrete tool of connection to the land, parallell with the goal to be carrier and builder of the idea of "The Place", in which Jerusalem is the symbol. A Judaic religious re-establishment, that passed by the reunification between the Book (Bible), the people and the land.


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i “The Place stands not only between Israelis and their Arab Neighbors, but between Israelis and themselves.” “Against this background, Zionism was revolutionary insofar as it constituted an attempt to transform the meaning of the Land of Israel (Zion) from a metaphysical, magical and ritualistic entity to an earthly totality, from a symbolic entity into a concrete reality as Jews left the diaspora and settled as a people in the place. In other words, the Zionist revolution was an attempt to reunite the place with the Place. i

“Israel is thus a site of contraddiction and ambivalence. Jews are assigned and confined to their place as 'Am haarez – people of the Land. Yet the very attachment to the land is permised on their definition as 'Am hasefer – people of th Book. The predominance of the Book as a source of authority has caused the denigration of 'Am haarez, such that the term generally refers either to

"The voice of the thruth"

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the stratum of uneducatec Jews, or else to pagans.... ...these two sources – Land and Book – constitute potent and contradictory sites of Jewish identity. The history of the Jewish people seems to reflect this ambivalence, wavering as it does between place and placelessness, Land and Book.” / Gurevitch Zali and Aran Gideon, The Land of Israel: Myth and Phenomenon, in "Reshaping the Past: Jewish History and the Historians", Studies in Contemporary Jewry, 1994. Thus we notice, how, even in a so identitarian project, the differences between communities and, in a certain sense, the different identities, is so emphasized to differentiate who has the right to be part of this new social pattern. The Israeli reality today and the jewish in general, is the example of how the identitarian value is wide and reinforced, only, in presence to the goal of exclusion or conquest, how was the creation, and nowadays is the legitimation of the state of Israel. “Beyond it, however, there is a broader sense of place common to all Israelis that is known as 'the Land' (Haarez). The Land, as an object of reflection for Israelis and as a means to converse with their past – with the Book – is not mere territory but rather the 'we' of a people with a common fate and perhaps even a common mission.” / Gurevitch Zali and Aran Gideon, The Land of Israel: Myth and Phenomenon, in "Reshaping the Past: Jewish History and the Historians", Studies in Contemporary Jewry, 1994. The “We” embodies in itself the presence of “They”. In a few words, this desire to fix a limit in the society, and realize the myth of Jerusalem, as unique city capital of the Jewish population. The objectification of the myth needs, besides the physical presence, even to insert itself in the daily life and to shape it, through a promoting apparatus, that produces, a methodical and repetitive use of symbols, icons, language and even, a series of artefacts, in every aspect of the society.


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i “Beyond it, however, there is a broader sense of place common to all Israelis that is known as 'the Land' (Haarez). The Land, as an object of reflection for Israelis and as a means to converse with their past – with the Book – is not mere territory but rather the 'We' of a people with a common fate and, perhaps, even a common mission.” i

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JERUSALEM OF GOLD by Naomi Shemer

The mountain air is clear as water The scent of pines around Is carried on the breeze of twilight, And tinkling bells resound. The trees and stones there softly slumber, A dream enfolds them all. So solitary lies the city, And at its heart - a wall.

jerusalem of gold

Oh, Jerusalem of gold, and of light and of bronze, I am the lute for all your songs. The wells ran dry of all their water, Forlorn the market square, The Temple Mount dark and deserted, In the Old City there. And in the caverns in the mountain, The winds howl to and fro, And no-one takes the Dead Sea highway, That leads through Jericho. Oh, Jerusalem of gold, and of light and of bronze, I am the lute for all your songs. But as I sing to you, my city, And you with crowns adorn, I am the least of all your children, Of all the poets born. Your name will scorch my lips for ever, Like a seraph's kiss, I'm told,


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If I forget thee, golden city, Jerusalem of gold.

Oh, Jerusalem of gold, and of light and of bronze, I am the lute for all your songs.

The wells are filled again with water, The square with joyous crowd, On the Temple Mount within the City, The shofar rings out loud.

Oh, Jerusalem of gold, and of light and of bronze, I am the lute for all your songs.

translation from the hebrew language: http://www.jerusalemofgold.co.il/

Jerusalem of Gold "Jerusalem of Gold" is a popular Israeli song written by Naomi Shemer in 1967. The original song described the Jewish people's 2000-year longing to return to Jerusalem; Shemer added a final verse after the Six-Day War to celebrate Jerusalem's re-unification, after 19 years of Jordanian occupation. Naomi Shemer wrote the original song for the Israeli Music Festival, held on 15 May 1967, the night after Israel's nineteenth Independence Day. She chose the then-unknown Shuli Nathan to sing the song. Some of the song's melody is based on a Basque lullaby, Pello Joxepe (Foolish Joseph), composed by Juan Francisco Petriarena 'Xenpelar' (18351869), which Shemer had heard in a performance by singer/songwriter Paco Iba単ez, who visited Israel in 1962 and sang this song to a group that included Naomi Shemer and Nehama Hendel. Shemer said she had unconsciously based some of her melody on the lullaby, and had felt very bad when she found realised she had. Iba単ez was asked how he felt when he heard Shemer had based some of the melody on Pello Joxepe. He replied by saying that he was "glad it helped in some way" and that he was not angry and did not perceive it as plagiarism. At that time, the Old City was still occupied by Jordan and under Jordanian rule. Only three weeks after the song was published, the Six-Day War broke out. The song was the battle cry and morale booster of the Israeli troops. Shemer even sang it for them before the war and festival, making them among the first in the world to hear it. On 7 June, the Israel Defense Forces liberated the eastern part of Jerusalem and the Old City from the Jordanians. When Shemer heard the paratroopers singing "Jerusalem of Gold" at the Western Wall, she wrote the final verse, reversing the phrases of lamentation found in the second verse. / http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerusalem_of_Gold

jerusalem of gold

Within the caverns in the mountains A thousand suns will glow, We'll take the Dead Sea road together, That runs through Jericho.


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Hatikvah - National Anthem

hativka

- israeli national anthem

Kol od balevav p'nimah Nefesh Yehudi homiyah Ulfa'atey mizrach kadimah Ayin l'tzion tzofiyah Od lo avdah tikvatenu Hatikvah bat shnot alpayim L'hiyot am chofshi b'artzenu Eretz Tzion v'Yerushalayim transliteration from the hebrew language


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The Hope

As long as in the heart, within, A Jewish soul still yearns, And onward, towards the ends of the east, An eye still gazes toward Zion;

HaTikvah, (HaTiq'vah, lit. The Hope) is the national anthem of Israel. Its lyrics are adapted from a poem written by Naphtali Herz Imber, a secular Jew from the city of Złoczów, province of Galicia, Austro-Hungarian Empire, (today, Zolochiv, Ukraine), who moved to the Land of Israel in the early 1880s. The anthem's theme reflects the nearly 2000-year-old hope of the Jewish people to return to the Land of Israel - their ancient homeland - and to restore it and reclaim it as a sovereign nation. Published in Imber's first book, Barkai (lit. "Morning Star"), the poem was subsequently adopted as the anthem of Hovevei Zion and later of the Zionist Movement at the First Zionist Congress in 1897. The text was later revised by the settlers of Rishon LeZion, subsequently undergoing a number of other changes. When the State of Israel was established in 1948, Hatikvah was unofficially proclaimed the national anthem. However, it did not officially become the national anthem until November 2004, when it was sanctioned by the Knesset in an amendment to the Flag and Coat-of-Arms Law (now renamed the Flag, Coat-of-Arms, and National Anthem Law). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hatikvah

- israeli national anthem

the last two lines have to be repeated two times.

hativka

Our hope is not yet lost, The hope of two thousand years, To be a free people in our land, The land of Zion and Jerusalem


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5.3 Language, memory, signs and symbols in this path. “On the one hand, they were to return to the place in the ordinary sense of creating a natural habitat, establishing agriculture, a military force, a language and a political administration; on the other hand, this place in the ordinary sense also had to be reconstructed as the Place in the sense of the fulfillment of an idea.� / Gurevitch Zali and Aran Gideon, The Land of Israel: Myth and Phenomenon, in "Reshaping the Past: Jewish History and the Historians", Studies in Contemporary Jewry, 1994. In any national identity feeling, the sense of membership to a state or a group, needs icons, both to use as propaganda or just simbolism. Indeed is not possible to measure it, only by a territorial conquest, but even and mainly, following a series of demonstrations of political adherence through symbols and recurring images. From a careful observation of the visual archive developed parallel to the birth of the state of Israel, we can find some of those thematics that frequently are used, more or less institutionally, in order to communcate and spread the idea. Primary role in this context assumes, The Place, maximum point of this idealization, consequently, Jerusalem, the location established to be the capital, not simply of the state but of this population. In the collective imaginary as Holy City, even if is not exclusively jewish, represent the direct connection, through the naming Zion, with the holy book. Ideal representation always landing place for this population. A double faced Jerusalem: from one side metaphysical place, from the other one settlement on a fragile territory. Symbolized by the Judaism iconic elements as the Western Wall, the city of David, the Mount of Olives and the Walls of the Old City, and moulded by the use of iconic elements as the David's Star, Lion and Menorah, particularly, in institutional scenarios or in those disconnected to the jewish world. The instable landing in Jerusalem, has the ambition to achieve an ideological fixed point and religious, that sets a limit in this pilgrimage, and in this way it was, visually, shown.

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i " The same applies to Jerusalem, a city, an idea, an entire history, and of course a specifiable geographical locale often typified by a photograph of the Dome of the Rock, the city walls, and the surrounding houses seen from the Mount of Olives; it too is overdetermined when it comes to memory, as well as all sorts of invented histories and traditions, all of them emanating from it, but most of them in conflict with each other. This conflict is intensified by Jerusalem's mythological-as opposed to actual geographical-location, in which landscape, buildings, streets, and the like are overlain and, I would say, even covered entirely with symbolic associations totally obscuring the existential reality of what as a city and real place Jerusalem is." i

" The same applies to Jerusalem, a city, an idea, an entire history, and of course a specifiable geographical locale often typified by a photograph of the Dome of the Rock, the city walls, and the surrounding houses seen from the Mount of Olives; it too is overdetermined when it comes to memory, as well as all sorts of invented histories and traditions, all of them emanating from it, but most of them in conflict with each other. This conflict is intensified by Jerusalem's mythological-as opposed to actual geographical-location, in which landscape, buildings, streets, and the like are overlain and, I would say, even covered entirely with symbolic associations totally obscuring the existential reality of what as a city and real place Jerusalem is." / Said Edward, Invention, Memory, Place, "Critical Inquiry", Vol. 26, No. 2 (Winter, 2000), The University of Chicago Press, pp. 175-192 The problem, in this sense, is the extreme presence of myth, that diverts attention from the everyday life of a place, lived and used by the inhabitants, even from those, arabs, who have been "invited", in a manner of speaking, to move away, to let space to the incoming myth. There is in this case a conflict of narration, in which the city history, and even more concerning a city icon as Jerusalem, is contested between, two memories, that even if, chronologically parallels, never coincide. For Palestinians 1948 is remembered as the year of the nakba19, or catastrophe, when 750,000 of us who were living theretwo-thirds of the population- were driven out, our property taken, hundreds of villages destroyed, an entire society obliterated. For Israelis and many Jews throughout the world 1998 was the fiftieth anniversary of Israel's independence and establishment, a miraculous story of recovery after the Holocaust, of democracy, of making the desert bloom, and so on. Thus, two totally different characterizations of a recollected event have been constructed. What has long struck me about this radical irreconcilability at the origin of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict is that it is routinely excluded from considerations of related subjects concerning ethnic or collective memory, geographical analysis, and political reflection. / Said Edward, Invention, Memory, Place, "Critical Inquiry", Vol. 26, No. 2 (Winter, 2000), The University of Chicago Press, pp. 175-192


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The fabrication of traditions is a method to influence the collective memory, shaping the past in a thin way, masking, in a functional way, the opinion of someone else. Memory is not history, can be modified, not always is authentic. In order to convey this message the impact of iconographies is fundamental to give a shape to the storytelling. As an experienced journalist, Herzl was well aware of the significant role of photography and documentation in promoting the Zionist cause. In a letter dated June 3, 1895 to Jewish philanthropist Baron de Hirsch, Herzl writes that before anything is done on behalf of the establishment of the Jewish state, there should come “enormous propaganda, publicizing the cause through newspapers, books, pamphlets, speeches, lectures, poems.� / Tartakover David, The face is familiar, http://www.haaretz.com/weekend/magazine/the-face-is-familiar-1.287861

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i For Palestinians 1948 is remembered as the year of the nakba19, or catastrophe, when 750,000 of us who were living there-two-thirds of the population were driven out, our property taken, hundreds of villages destroyed, an entire society obliterated. For Israelis and many Jews throughout the world 1998 was thefiftieth anniversary of Israel's independence and establishment, a miraculous story of recovery after the Holocaust, of democracy, of making the desert bloom, and so on. Thus, two totally different characterizations of a recollected event have been constructed. i


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19 Also al-Nakba, an arabic term pronounced an-nakba, meaning cataclysm or calamity. It is the term usually used by Palestinians to refer to the 1948 ArabIsraeli War. The term nakba was coined by Constantine Zurayk, a professor of history at the American University of Beirut, in his 1948 book Ma'nat al-Nakba (The Meaning of Disaster). Together with Naji Ali's Hanzala (thebarefoot kid always drawn in rear view), and the symbolic key of the house in Palestine carried by so many Palestinian refugees, the nakba is perhaps the most important symbol of Palestinian discourse. Nakba Day (May 15) is considered an important day in Palestinian calendar, and is traditionally observed as a time to learn about the history of Palestine and to remember the event. / Malkit Shoshan, Atlas of the conflict Israel Palestine, Rotterdam, 010 Publisher, 2010

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63rd Nakba Day Poster

Indipendence Days Posters - Airport David Ben Gurion

David Tartakover, Indipendence Day Poster Proposal, 1977


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jerusalem emblem

1949 - 2111

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the members of the commitee decided the symbols: ...the wall in it stands for the city of jerusalem, or for the wailing wall,

...and that the li keeps guard of the

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jerusalem emblem

1949 - 2111

“Jerusalem e past / fut

ion e wall

...while the olive branches stands for peace.

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5.4 Modern Hebrew and Frank Ruehl Usefull tool to do that is the language. If the starting point was the achievement and the location in "The Place", and, as we mentioned before, Jerusalem as nucleo, necessary was the hebrew language, which, assuming the role of official spoken language, it becomes, geographically located, for the rest of the world. I segni fondamentali, per qualunque operazione di comunicazione visiva, sono quelli alfabetici, con i quali si fanno parole, senza le quali non si comunica. Questi segni, per essere visibili, non possono fare a meno di avere una forma; e questa forma non può fare a meno di avere una storia. / Lussu Giovanni, Parole, Parole, Parole, La citta senza nome: segni e segnali nella metropoli moderna : atti del 1. Convegno internazionale di studio sull'immagine della città : Roma 27-28 ottobre 1994, Sala della Promoteca in Campidoglio. - Roma : De Luca, 1996

eng

The foundamental signs, for any visual communication's procedure, are the alphabetic, with which are made the words, without which, it is impossible to communicate. These signs, to be visible, cannot avoid to have a shape; and this shape cannot avoid to have an history.

If the new vehicular language was the "Modern Hebrew", review of the old Ivrit, by the linguist Eliezer Ben Yehuda20, the shape used to spread it, was the "Frank Ruehl" typeface. Frank Ruehl was designed by two germans, Raphael Frank, a professional cantor, and the writer Otto Ruehl, based on an italian letterpress, from the sixteenth century, and on letters designed with calligraphic nib. Its final version appears exactly 100 years later, in 1910, and continue to dominate the printing world still today. Most of the books and the newspapers uses Frank Ruehl, that remains one of the most readable hebrew fonts. A font is not a factor who contribute to influence history, but in this case is carrier of uniqueness that has contributed to give to the language an identitarian value. Typography is the visual appearance of the language.

i Israeliness. Perhaps the simplest example of my sense of an awareness of my Jewish-Israeliness in a context of difference has to do with language... ...Reading a text in English in my apartment, I do something that I began doing in elementary school in Israel when I began studying English. But in Israel, if and when I step into the JewishIsraeli public, I step into a mostly IsraeliHebrew-speaking space...I pronounce some words and word combinations as an Israeli-Hebrew speaker, my speech sometimes follows the grammatical rules of Hebrew or is peppered with Hebrew words; and I speak according to a version of the Jewish-Israeli public rules of communication and conversation. I am aware of my accent and of its being an Israeli-Hebrew speaker's accent that does not fit well into the AmericanEnglish-speaking space though others may just be aware of my foreignness. And being aware of my Israeli-Hebrew speaker's accent, I am there by aware of my Jewish-Israeliness. i If the language represented one of the three zionist identitarian guidelines, the jewish population, having an high level of identification in its linguistic and alphabetical uniqueness, consequently, identifies itself in the most used typeface. Israeliness.Perhaps the simplest example of my sense of an awareness of my JewishIsraeliness in a context of difference has to do with language...Reading a text in En-


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ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

‫אבגדהוזחטיכלמנסעפצקרשת‬

Eliezer Ben - Yehuda ( 7 January 1858 – 16 December 1922) was a Jewish lexicographer and newspaper editor. He was the driving spirit behind the revival of the Hebrew language in the modern era. Ben-Yehuda was a major figure in the establishment of the Committee of the Hebrew Language (Va'ad HaLashon), later the Academy of the Hebrew Language, an organization that still exists today. He was the author of the first modern Hebrew dictionary and became known as the "reviver" of the Hebrew language, despite opposition to some of the words he coined. Many of these words have become part and parcel of the language but others — some 2,000 words — never caught on. His word for "tomato," for instance, was badura, but Hebrew speakers today use the word agvania. http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Eliezer_Ben-Yehuda

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glish in my apartment, I do something that I began doing in elementary school in Israel when I began studying English. But in Israel, if and when I step into the Jewish-Israeli public, I step into a mostly Israeli- Hebrew-speaking space... ...I pronounce some words and word combinations as an Israeli-Hebrew speaker, my speech sometimes follows the grammatical rules of Hebrew or is peppered with Hebrew words; and I speak according to a version of the Jewish-Israeli public rules of communication and conversation. I am aware of my accent and of its being an Israeli-Hebrew speaker's accent that does not fit well into the American-Englishspeaking space though others may just be aware of my foreignness. And being aware of my Israeli-Hebrew speaker's accent, I am there by aware of my Jewish-Israeliness. / Bat Amir Bar On, Meditations on National Identity, "Hypatia", Vol. 9, n.2, Feminism and Peace (Spring, 1994), Indiana University Press, pp. 40-62

Zvi Narkiss, Eliezer Ben Yehuda, 25 Novembre 1959


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alef bet, vet gimel dalet he vav zayin het

frank ruehl

tet yod kaf lamed mem nun samek ayin pe, fe tsadi qof resh shin sin tav

Modern Hebrew alphabet script, in 'Frank Ruehl'.

‫א‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ך‬/‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬/‫מ‬ ‫ן‬/ ‫נ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ף‬/‫פ‬ ‫ץ‬/‫ע‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫שׁ‬ ‫שׂ‬ ‫ת‬

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‫א‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬ ‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ך‬/‫ב‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬/‫מ‬ ‫ן‬/ ‫נ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫צ‬ ‫ף‬/‫פ‬ ‫ץ‬/‫ע‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫שׁ‬ ‫שׂ‬ ‫ת‬

O.Wallish, Haleranon, 19 June 1963, 100th anniversary of Hebrew press in Eretz-Israel


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‫מנסעפצקרשת‬ ‫אבגדהוזחטיכל‬ ‫מנסעפצקרשת‬ ‫אבגדהוזחטיכל‬ Frank Ruehl Medium 82 pt / 84 pt

The use of Frank Ruehl in the daily newspaper "Haaretz"

frank ruehl

Frank Ruehl Bold 82 pt / 84 pt


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5.5 Hertzl, Srulik and the land The process of identification, regarding place and language, mentioned before in the jewish storytelling, can bring back towards two simbolic icons: the image of the well educated leader, symbolized by the bearded face of Theodor Hertzl21, promoter of zionist doctrine, and the Srulik22, caricature of the Sabra23, Israel jewish born, inhabitant of lands already in the past and that physically has contributed to make, reality, what it was myth, before 1948. On July 15, 1896, Herzl wrote in his diary: “I have seen and heard how the legend of my personality is forming. The nation is excitable. Masses have no clear vision. It seems to me that their idea is already vague. Light mist is rising up around me that might turn into a pillar of cloud for me to walk in.” He added, referring to his diary: “What I am writing down just now is perhaps of the utmost interest in these books: how my legend is being born.” / The face is familiar, David Tartakover http://www.haaretz.com/weekend/magazine/the-face-is-familiar-1.287861 It's difficult to know if it was his awareness or arrogance, but the diffusion of the national hero portrait, Hertzl, was a common phenomenon in the ideology of the national movement and it is still used during the events of social aggregation along the streets of Jerusalem, like national festivities or religious. This image covers public and private spaces and brings the past into present. The image of Herzl’s handsome portrait, with his well-groomed beard as the prominent identifying mark, constitute the visual expression of the legend. Herzl’s portrait became the most widespread and recognizable symbol of the national movement. This is demonstrated by the anecdote told by German Jewish satirist Sammy Gronemann: During a festive dinner held by Sir Francis Montefiore on the occasion of the Fourth Zionist Congress in London (1900) a British official said to David Wolffsohn: “I guess the publicity of Zion wholly depends on your president’s beauty. Had Herzl cut his beard, he would have put an end to Zionism.” And Wolffsohn calmly replied: “This may well be so, but Zionism would rise again.” / The face is familiar, David Tartakover, http://www.haaretz.

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com/weekend/magazine/the-face-is-familiar-1.287861 At the good face of Hertzl, proud, and widespread in many artistic expressions, is opposed the young Srulik. He doesn't refer straight to a person, but more to the idea of the typical sabra child. The best-known caricature of the Sabra first appeared 1956 in the daily Maariv. Drawn by the illustrator and caricaturist Dosh (Kariel Gardosh), it earned the symbolic name “Srulik” (little Israeli). Srulik, who featured several Sabra characteristics... / Almog Oz, The Sabra Genome in the Israeli Mentality , http://www. tikkun.org/article.php/Oz-SabraGenome Already from the name, Little Israeli, simbolizes the consideration of the social group that he personifies. “The symbol selected by the first nativeborn generation as their mataphoric selfimage was the sabra, the prickly fruit of the cactus plant. It was intended as the symbol of the new Hebrew tribe, a reflection of perfect integration in the landscape:

Theodor Herzl (May 2, 1860 – July 3, 1904), born Benjamin Ze’ev Herzl ( lit. "Visionary of the State") was an Austro-Hungarian journalist and the father of modern political Zionism and in effect the State of Israel.

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Srulik is an illustrated character who symbolized Israel. The character was first drawn in 1956 by the cartoonist Kariel Gardosh, known by his pen name Dosh, a Holocaust survivor who made Aliyah, migration, to Israel from Hungary, and appeared for many years in cartoons that were published in the newspaper Maariv. Yosef Lapid, Dosh's colleague on the editorial board of Maariv, said that Srulik symbolizes Israel just as Marianne is the symbol of France and Uncle Sam, symbolizes the United States.

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i On July 15, 1896, Herzl wrote in his diary: “I have seen and heard how the legend of my personality is forming. The nation is excitable. Masses have no clear vision. It seems to me that their idea is already vague. Light mist is rising up around me that might turn into a pillar of cloud for me to walk in.” He added, referring to his diary: “What I am writing down just now is perhaps of the utmost interest in these books: how my legend is being born.” i


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i During a festive dinner held by Sir Francis Montefiore on the occasion of the Fourth Zionist Congress in London (1900) a British official said to David Wolffsohn: “I guess the publicity of Zion wholly depends on your president’s beauty. Had Herzl cut his beard, he would have put an end to Zionism.” And Wolffsohn calmly replied: “This may well be so, but Zionism would rise again.” i Sabra is a term used to describe a Jew born in Israeli territory; the term is also usually inclusive of Jews born duringthe period of the establishment of the state of Israel. The word "sabra" is Arabic and Hebrew. Immigrants to Palestine began using it in the early 1930s, according to the The Dictionary of Slang (Hebrew) written by Israeli Rubik Rozental. The allusion is to a tenacious, thorny desert plant with a thick hide that conceals a sweet, softer interior, suggesting that even though the Israeli Sabra are rough and masculine on the outside, they are delicate and sensitive on the inside. / http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Sabra_%28person%29

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Oded Ezer, Sketch for school newspaper, 1987 - 1990


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Shamir's Brothers, Dr.Theodor Herzl, 14 August 1951

David Tartakover, Herzl in Profile, 1979

a dusty, unimposing plant with pungenttasting fruit which, despite its hardiness, neither dominate nor adorns the landscape.” / Gurevitch Zali and Aran Gideon, The Land of Israel: Myth and Phenomenon, in "Reshaping the Past: Jewish History and the Historians", Studies in Contemporary Jewry, 1994 Idealization of the hand labor and of the territorial defense, in contrast with the traditional jewish emphasis of the intellectual results, "the sabra", played a fundamental role in the establishment and identification with the territory. Active demonstrations of that were, excluded the military actions of Palmach24 army, military local organization, sleep and eat in the fields, or climbing mountains,

24 Palmach, an acronym for “Pelugot Hamahatz,” meaning striking force, was established as part of the Haganah on May 19, 1941, due to fears of a German invasion of Palestine. Like the kibbutz movement, the Palmach promoted the values of mutual responsibility, assistance, sacrifice and contribution to the greater good. In fact, Palmach bases were situated on kibbutzim, so members of the Palmach were responsible for their agricultural tasks as well as their military training exercises. This social framework created by the Palmach was considered to be the core of the Sabra, or native born Israeli. / http://www. jewishvirtuallibrary. org/jsource/History/ Palmach.html


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in an idea of conquest and approaching to the knowledge of the land. Quickly undermined by the triumph of Zionist mythology, it has been questioned by the author itself of the 1964:

i The best-known caricature of the Sabra first appeared 1956 in the daily Maariv. Drawn by the illustrator and caricaturist Dosh (Kariel Gardosh), it earned the symbolic name “Srulik” (little Israeli). Srulik, who featured several Sabra characteristics... i

Sabra legend says that the Jews born in Israel were called Sabra because, as the fruit of Sabra plant, their fate was both sweet and sour.

...Dosh published a book titled What Happened? In the introduction Dosh revealed his worries over Srulik’s coming of age: What am I to do about Srulik in the coming years? Should he remain an eternal child, or should I “mature” him, with the passage of time? Actually—and I hope my readers have noticed—”Srulik” has already grown up a bit since I began using him, many years ago, as a symbol of the state. He’s taller now, his neck and legs are longer, his gaze has intensified and he has become—I suppose—smarter. Perhaps, one or two years remain for Srulik as a child before the contrast between his age and the state of Israel’s age become too extreme. That day will of course come, and the decision will have to be made. What will it be? I admit, I would like to keep Srulik as he is now—a little kid, naïve and daring. He’ll keep wearing shorts, won’t grow a mustache, his voice won’t break, he won’t get married or leave home, and we’ll always be able to sit him on our lap so he can tell


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us stories. / Almog Oz, The Sabra Genome in the Israeli Mentality, http://www.tikkun. org/article.php/Oz-SabraGenome The regression of Srulik and of the myth of Sabra, result of kibbutz25, moshav26 and rural life, real connection between People and The Land, compared to the continuos celebrity of Theodor Hertzl's iconography, is the mirror of two situations: again the predominance of an exclusive identity towards a minority used, until necessary to the fulfillment of the Israeli dream, and, in the second place, the quickly advancing of secular values in jewish society, where, Tel Aviv, represents the top and the faster approach to the western standard, including merits and faults. “Tel Aviv, built on sand, hails what is earthly in the local sense of the word, a totally of the modern, secular all-Israeli here and now – open to the West, a world center oriented toward and like other world centers, a place among places... ...a new form of 'being in place'. As such, it works against inner resistances manifested most strongly in Jerusalem, where schisms are dramatized – if not brutalized – between Jews and Arabs, religious and secular, Ashkenazie27 and Sephardie28 Jews, ' Green Line'29 Israel and the territories, present and past. The mere thirty-five miles between the two cities link two poles constituting what may be metaphorically described as the high-voltage cable of Israeli contemporary culture.” / Gurevitch Zali and Aran Gideon, The Land of Israel: Myth and Phenomenon, in "Reshaping the Past: Jewish History and the Historians", Studies in Contemporary Jewry, 1994.

Since 1910, 280 kibbutzim have been established in the semidesert Negev, in the hill country, on the coastal plain, and were joined by immigrants from diverse countries of origin. Kibbutz architects have been asked to provide specific answers for diverse hues of social relationships, which have found expression in distinctive versions of overall settlement planning, of the connection with the landscape, of the placement and design of the public buildings, the residential and the production zones, and of the relations among them. The kibbutz is a single undivided space, throughout which many daily functions, usually associated with the domestic sphere are dispersed, and in which there are no fences or private plots. It contains all the dimensions of life and is collectively owned by all the members. The focus of social interaction in a kibbutz life is the large central lawn with the public facilities, the dining hall, and the culture house situated around it like a forum or agora. / The Israeli Pavillon to the 12th International architecture exhibition at the Venice Biennale

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David Tartakover, And if..., 1980


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Moshav (plural moshavim, lit.settlement, village) is a type of Israeli town or settlement, in particular a type of cooperative agricultural community of individual farms pioneered by the Labour Zionists during the second aliyah (wave of Jewish immigration during the early 20th century). A resident or a member of a moshav can be called a "moshavnik". The moshavim are similar to kibbutzim with an emphasis on community labor. They were designed as part of the Zionist state-building program following the Yishuv ("settlement") in the British Mandate of Palestine during the 20th century, but contrary to the collective kibbutzim, farms in a moshav tended to be individually owned but of fixed and equal size. Workers produced crops and goods on their properties through individual and/or pooled labour and resources and used profit and foodstuffs to provide for themselves. Moshavim are governed by an elected council. Support of the community was done through a special tax; it was equal for all households of the community, thus creating a system where good farmers were better off than bad ones, unlike in the communal kibbutzim where all members enjoyed the same living standard. The most common are: Moshav ovdim, a workers cooperative settlement. This is the more numerous (405) type and relies on cooperative purchasing of supplies and marketing of produce; the family or household is, however, the basic unit of production and consumption. Moshav shitufi, a collective smallholder's settlement that combines the economic features of a kibbutz with the social features of a moshav. Farming is done collectively and profits are shared equally. This form is closer to the collectivity of the kibbutz. Unlike the moshav ovdim, land is not allotted to households or individuals, but is collectively worked. / http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Moshav

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i What am I to do about Srulik in the coming years? Should he remain an eternal child, or should I “mature” him, with the passage of time? Actually - and I hope my readers have noticed- "Srulik” has already grown up a bit since I began using him, many years ago, as a symbol of the state. He’s taller now, his neck and legs are longer, his gaze has intensified and he has become I suppose - smarter. Perhaps, one or two years remain for Srulik as a child before the contrast between his age and the State of Israel’s age become too extreme. That day will of course come, and the decision will have to be made. What will it be? I admit, I would like to keep Srulik as he is now - a little kid, naïve and daring. He’ll keep wearing shorts, won’t grow a mustache, his voice won’t break, he won’t get married or leave home, and we’ll always be able to sit him on our lap so he can tell us stories. i

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5.6 daily myth Having been established some key points, there is only to verify, features and issues, that Jerusalem, city capital and symbol of the Jewish State of Israel, preserves, suffers and promotes. Which influence have, the iconographies, that are repeated, as integral part of the decorations in public and private buildings, during nationalistic events; and the huge daily production of artefacts and emblems, attempting to guide, the image of the city sold abroad. Analyze and reflect on how, indirectly, suggestions on the walls of the city, in the citizen faces and in the names given to places and public institutions, show a various scenario, and from that, understand, which and how many are, spaces that minorities are able to take to themselves in a nationalistic scenario and, consequently, who tends to the exclusion.

- idenitty to differentiate A Sephardi Jew is a Jew descended from, or who follows the customs and traditions followed by, Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal) before their expulsion in the late 15th century. The name comes from Sepharad a Biblical location.This was probably the "Saparda" mentioned in Persian inscriptions: the location of that is disputed, but may have been Sardis in Asia Minor. "Sepharad" was identified by later Jews as the Iberian Peninsula, and still means "Spain" in modern Hebrew.

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Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim, are the Jews descended from the medieval Jewish communities along the Rhine in Germany from Alsace in the south to the Rhineland in the north. Ashkenaz is the medieval Hebrew name for this region and thus for Germany. Thus, Ashkenazim or Ashkenazi Jews are literally "German Jews." Later, Jews from Western and Central Europe came to be called "Ashkenaz" because the main centers of Jewish learning were located in Germany. In Israel, the term Ashkenazi is now used in ways that have nothing to do with its original meaning; it is often applied to all Jews of European background living in Israel.

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Being in a city considered holy, and the dream for the three main monotheistic religions; going to the research of visuals signs, that would suggest the presence of other possible narrations, blurred by the national identity, in order to completely communicate the various aspects that compose together the trait of the city.

Magen David Adom (MADA) is Israel's national emergency medical, disaster, ambulance and blood bank service. The name means "Red Star of David". Since June 2006, Magen David Adom has been officially recognized by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) as the national aid society of the state of Israel under the Geneva Conventions, and a member of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. In case of war MADA becomes component of the Israeli Army.


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After the cessation of hostilties between the Arab countries and Israel in 1948, an armistice agreement was signed in 1949. The agreement delineated the borders of each party and designated the no man's land between them according to the location of their prospective armies. This line demarcated the borders between israel and the west bank and gaza strip as recognised by the international community. It is worth mentioning that Israel does not specify the boundaries of its state. Although the line later became known as the Green Line, its proper nameis the 1949 Armistice Line. / Malkit Shoshan, Atlas of the conflict Israel - Palestine, Rotterdam, 010 Publisher, 2010

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daily myth

Video-art installation Indipendence Day, 2011, Yafo Street, Jerusalem


the star of david

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the star of david

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lo the d


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jerusalem today

- city of religion, city of workers and city capital

6. jerusalem today - city of religion, CITY OF WORKERS and CITY CAPITAL "Qualunque cosa possa accadere ad una città, nel corso della sua storia, e per quanto radicalmente possano cambiare, nel corso degli anni o dei secoli, la sua struttura e il suo aspetto, c'è un tratto che resta costante: la città è uno spazio in cui ci sono, e si muovono a stretto contatto, degli stranieri. Essendo una componente fissa della vita urbana, l'onnipresenza degli stranieri, così visibili e talmente vicini, aggiunge una notevole dose di inquietudine alle aspirazioni e occupazioni degli abitanti delle città. Questa presenza, impossibile da evitare se non per pochissimo tempo, è una fonte inesauribile di ansia e di latente, e spesso manifesta, aggressività. / Bauman Zygmunt, Fiducia e paura nella città, Milano, Bruno Mondadori, 2005

eng

"Anything that can happen to a city, during its history, how radically could change during years and centuries, its structure and its aspect, there is a sign

that stays constant: the city is a place where there are and there move in close contact, foreigners. Being a fixed element of urban life, the omnipresence of foreigners, so visible and so close, adds a remarkable dose of unease to the ambitions and occupation of the city inhabitants. This presence, impossible to avoid if not for a short time, is an unlimited source of anxiety and latent, and, often, shows aggressivity.”

The uncertain legal status of Jerusalem, unified capital of the state of Israel since 1967, still waiting for international acceptance, because of the palestinian claim regarding east Jerusalem, is the example of how this difficult cohabitation between foreigners, it damages the daily relationships and the management of the public space. If the maintenance of differences, in a private space, is for giving safety to the inhabitants; in a public space, provokes the restriction of personal movement, with


jerusalem today

- city of religion, city of workers and city capital

i "Qualunque cosa possa accadere ad una città, nel corso della sua storia, e per quanto radicalmente possano cambiare, nel corso degli anni o dei secoli, la sua struttura e il suo aspetto, c'è un tratto che resta costante: la città è uno spazio in cui ci sono, e si muovono a stretto contatto, degli stranieri." i the unique goal of preserving the right distance to the foreigner variable, that embodies stereotyped judgements. The voluntarily curtailment of public space, except for areas, that are shared by the same groups of people, draws a strict mapping of Jerusalem where clear is the feeling to be part, in each neighborhood, of a rigorous typology of citizen. The main reason of this separation is religion, and the mobility restrictions are easily identifiable through signs and habits that each area strictly preserves. In this context, however, the unknown “other” has two aspects: the other, and in some cases, the enemy, that has to be excluded, and the neighbour, someone with whom being forced to relate. "...la comprensione reciproca si ottiene con una fusione d'orizzonti; orizzonti cognitivi, che vengono tracciati e allargati accumulando esperienze di vita. La fusione che una comprensione reciproca richiede, non può che essere la conseguenza di un'esperienza

condivisa; e non si può certo pensare di condividere un'esperienza senza condividere uno spazio." / Bauman Zygmunt, Fiducia e paura nella città, Milano, Bruno Mondadori, 2005

eng

“..the mutual understanding, is obtained by a fusion of horizons; cognitive horizons, that are traced and enlarged by the storing of life experiences. The fusion, that a mutual understanding required, cannot be other else than the consequence of a shared experience; and it's impossible to think of sharing an experience without sharing a space.”

The missing experience is the moment of sharing the space, which needs an effort of dialogue between the parties. This lack, imply the necessity to draw, even, and often, ideally, more or less marked, boundaries. Jerusalem, infinite place of border, is the mirror of how, there is always an inside and an outside in these physical divisions,

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and the one, who establishes, who is in and who is out, is simply, who, in somehow, has, in a certain moment, power and advantage to create criteria to define the participation. The reduction of public spaces, allows the strengthening and the hardening of private positions that, in the israeli city capital, become radically political or religious. It's easy to feel this atmosphere, walking along the streets of Jerusalem or having not the possibility to achieve some places. Jerusalem, holy city for two of the three monotheistic religions (Judaism and Christianity) and third city after Mecca and Medina for the Islamic community, is victim of this sacrality. Although it is the image conveyed abroad, it represents, above all, the main limit for the daily life. “Come scrive lo storico Bernard Wasserstein: 'arabi ed ebrei abitano quartieri diversi, parlano lingue diverse, frequentano scuole diverse, leggono giornali diversi, guardano in tv programmi diversi, rispettano feste diverse e tifano per squadre diverse. In un sondaggio, il 70% degli ebrei ha ammesso di non aver mai messo piede in un quartiere arabo, eccezion fatta per la Città Vecchia'.” / Dusi Elena, Pieraccini Paolo, La Battaglia per Gerusalemme, "La battaglia per Gerusalemme", Quaderni speciali di Limes, gruppo editoriale l'Espresso, n.2, 2010, p.9

eng

“ As the historian Bernard Wasserstein writes: ' arabs and jews inhabit different neighborhoods, speak different language, attend different schools, read different newspapers, watch different tv shows, follow different holydays and support different teams. In a poll, the 70% of jews have admitted to have never been in a arab neighborhood, except the Old City”


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9/05/2011

no tanks

- poster installation

how long did it last IN ...

BAB ez-Zahra LOCATION: bab ez-zahra east jerusalem arab neighbourhood NO TANKS - ONE WEEK POSTER INSTALLATION


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6.1 holy city and archeology “Oltre alla religione infatti non esistono buone ragioni per cui Gerusalemme debba avere l'importanza che ha. Il suolo non è fertile, non si trova lungo vie commerciali, non ha risorse naturali. Quando Theodor Herzl – il fondatore del sionismo – la visitò per la prima volta nel 1898 fu disgustato da spazzatura, mosche e cattivo odore. E nel 1918, arrivato alla guida di un commissione sionista, il futuro primo presidente di Israele Chaim Weizmann descrisse il quartiere ebraico della Città Vecchia così: Nient'altro che sporco e infezioni. Povertà indescrivibile, ostinata ignoranza e fanatismo.” “Fu dopo la battaglia del 1948 che la posizione di Israele cambiò. E quando le nazioni unite il 9 dicembre 1949 approvarono una proposta di internazionalizzazione della città, Ben Gurion reagì alla sua maniera, con veemenza, e decise da un giorno all'altro di spostare la Knesset e diversi ministeri a Gerusalemme.” / Dusi Elena, Pieraccini Paolo, La Battaglia per Gerusalemme, "La battaglia per Gerusalemme", Quaderni speciali di Limes, gruppo editoriale l'Espresso, n.2, 2010, p.9

eng

“Other than religion, indeed, doesn't exist good reasons because Jerusalem has to have the importance that has. The ground is not fertile, he is not in the trading routes, he has no natural resources. When Theodor Hertzl – the zionism founder – visited it, for the first time, in 1898, he was disgusted by rubbish, flies and bad smell. And in 1918, the future first president of Israel Chaim Weizmanm, being arrived at the helm of a zionist commission, describes, in this way, the jewish quarter of the old city: 'Nothing else than dirty and infections, obstinate ignorance and zealotry.” “It was after the 1948 battle, that the position of Israel, changed. And when the United Nations, the 9 december 1949, approved the proposal of the city internationalization, Ben Gurion, reacted in his own way, vehemently, and decided, from a day to another one, to transfer the Knesset, and some ministries, to Jerusalem.”

Difficult to be against the words pronounced by Theodor Hertzl in his first approach to Jerusalem; it's important, on the other hand, consider how, the act of the president David Ben Gurion, has been simbolic, both politically and geographically for this city.

Considering from this moment together religion, politics, geography, we assist to daily actions, that aim to increase the gap between the various communities. These choices, are promoted by who is charge to establish who can, and cannot, take part on the public sphere; in this case the Jewish state. This religious identification in the jewish state, establishes some limits. First, the religious frictions are mainly political divisions and everything is, legitimately or not, connected to religion is an excuse for conflict and consequently exclusion. Second, that, it doesn't exist city capital of the Jewish state without that, all the citizens who compose it, are jewish people being part of the jewish state. This second thought, that could be obvious, turns around the daily dynamics in Jerusalem that contribute to make, more identitarian and unique, this feeling of citizenship, by limiting the public space or moving away those, who, in this scenario, assume the role of foreigners. Here, a science as archaelogy, becomes politics instead of historical, reduced to expansionist goals; every simbolic place becomes source of argument (Temple Mount); radical groups, the way to make space private, through a territorial mapping, more and more aggressive. “La battaglia per Gerusalemme non è, dunque, comprensibile se non si precorre l'intera geografia della città, la geografia storica che ha cambiato, con i decenni, la trama urbana. La battaglia sulle case, sulle tracce lasciate sul terreno dai testi sacri, la battaglia sulle strade, sulla toponomastica, persino sui percorsi del tram, non si comprende in tutta la sua importanza esplosiva se non si percorre la città e – a un tempo – se non si rintracciano le memorie identitarie.” / Caridi Paola, Musrara, centro diviso del mondo, "La battaglia per Gerusalemme", Quaderni speciali di Limes, gruppo editoriale l'Espresso, n.2, 2010, p.123 eng

“The battle of Jerusalem is not comprensible, without going through the entire geography of the city, the historical geography who changed the urban plot, during the decades. The battle on the houses, on the traces let on the ground by the holy books, the battle on the roads, on toponymy, even on the tram's routes, that cannot be understood in its explosive importance, if you don't go through the city and – to a time – if are not retrieved the identitarian memories.”


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i “La battaglia per Gerusalemme non è, dunque, comprensibile se non si precorre l'intera geografia della città, la geografia storica che ha cambiato, con i decenni, la trama urbana. La battaglia sulle case, sulle tracce lasciate sul terreno dai testi sacri, la battaglia sulle strade, sulla toponomastica, persino sui percorsi del tram, non si comprende in tutta la sua importanza esplosiva se non si percorre la città e – a un tempo – se non si rintracciano le memorie identitarie.” i

The image of the city widespread abroad in this sense, is identitarian and, being like that, is partial and subjective. The problem is to promote the real trait of the city and analyze which are the daily communication tools, that contribute to shape the collective imaginary, seeking to spread, even in those who are actively part of the city, a sort of recurring visual themes, in order to offer a distorted perception. Secondly push for the emerge of the multiplicity and the multiculturalism, by showing the existence of visual resistances, that increase their symbols in order to reply to the mainstream message.

6.2 the visuals tools of the daily occupation in the public sphere " Si riverberano su di loro le belle parole di Madeleine Bunting, una giornalista britannica molto saggia. In definitiva - le idee - lo spirito della città è formato dall'accumularsi di minuscole interazioni quotidiane con l'autista dell'autobus, gli altri pendolari, il giornalaio, le cameriere dei caffè, e dalle poche parole, dai cenni di saluto, dai premurosi piccoli gesti che spianano gli aspri spigoli della vita urbana." / Bauman Zygmunt,

Fiducia e paura nella città, Milano, Bruno Mondadori, 2005

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“ The nice words by Madeleine Bunting, a very wise british journalist, are reverberated on them, Ultimately – ideas – the spirit of the city is done by the gathering of minuscole daily interactions with the bus driver, the other commuters, the newsagent, the coffee's waitresses, and by the few words, the greetings, by the small thoughtful gestures, that smooth the bitter edges of the urban life.”

Limit the public space means limiting those daily interactions. Despite all those institutional efforts on this side, Jerusalem, being an historical migration place, lives of those, encounters and fights, and they cannot be completely controlled. After the 1948-49 war, and the formal announcement, of Jerusalem city capital of the new Jewish state, the city started to be divided between the eastern part and the western. This division, that until the 1967 was even political, the western part, under the Israeli control, and the eastern, under the Jordanian one, concerned the whole social, economical, cultural and urbanistic development. While a part, west, was going close to the western world standards, the other one remained backward. This unilateral development spiral is not and it was not enough to shape homogeneously the image of the city, on the contrary contributed to amplify differences. But if , as we said before, is in the public space that grow up differences and the consideration of the “social other” as foreigner, even if in his own land, have been necessary, some sophisticated operations, directly influent in the daily flow of life. If the military colonization, the territorial expropriation, and the political ejections, done by the jewish majority through the architectural colonization of east Jerusalem, are the violent expression of this process, not less important is the cultural action organized, using, any influent sphere of the public life, to underline the right identitarian direction to take. Following the original excuse, and, consequently, the objective untruth of the zionist slogan “ a land without people for a people without land”, it has been built a general experiment of manipulation of the community daily life.

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Arab Neighboorhood

CHRISTIAN Neighboorhood

Batei Hornstein Batei Munkatch Batei Nijtin Batei Rand Batei Ungarin Bayit Vegan Beit Yisrael Bukharim Ezrat Torah Geula Givat Mordechai Givat Moshe Givat Shaul Har Nof r David (City of David) Kerem Avraham Kiryat Belz Kiryat Moshe Kiryat Sanz Kiryat Shomrei Emunim Machanayim Mattersdorf yat Mattersdorf Meah Sherim Mekor Baruch Nachalat Ya’akov Neve Yaakov Ramot Polin Ramat Shlomo Sanhedria Sanhedria Murhevet chunat Achua Sha’arei Hesed Shaarei Chesed Shikun Chabad Shmuel Hanavi Tel Arza Unsdorf Zikhron Yosef Givay Beit Hakerem Yefeh Nof Mei Nefto’ah

01 Al Bustan 02 Al-Issawiya 03 American Colony 04 Armenian quarter - old city 05 Ash-Sheikh Sad 06 At-Tur (Mount of Olives) 07 Bab A Zahara 08 Beit Hanina 09 Beit Safafa 10 Jabel Mukaber 11 Kafr’Aqab 12 Muristan 13 Muslim quarter - old city 14 Ras al-Amud 15 Sheikh Jarrah 16 Shuafat 17 Shuafat Refugee Camp 18 Silwan 19 Sur Baher 20 Tantor 21 Umm Tuba 22 Wadi Al-Joz 23 Wadi Qadum 24 Sharafat 25 Rawdat El-Zuhur 26 Khirbet Beit Sahur 27 Abu Tor 28 Umm Lison 29 Arab Es-Sowahira 30 Hizma 31 Anata

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Tel Aviv 63 km << egged bus israeli

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second series of the new sheqel icons

20 NIS Portrait of Moshe Sharett; picture of the ceremony of the unfurling of the Israeli flag at the UN building on May 12, 1949; text from the speech given by Sharett on that occasion. 50 NIS Portrait of Shmuel Yosef Agnon; picture of Agnon's study and personal library. Text from the acceptance address given by Agnon when he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1966. 200 NIS Portrait of Itzhak Ben-Zvi; picture of the interior of the wooden structure which served as the President's residence; text from the speech given by Ben-Zvi at the first assembly of the Yemenite community held at his residence in 1953.

200 NIS - New Israeli Shekel

http://www.bankisrael.gov.il/catal/eng/cat_all_eng.htm?series_num=10


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The calendar, is almost totally influenced by the jewish annual timetable, and is possible to verify this from the use and the working schedule of public transport, institutional offices, schools, until the direct entry in private life, with the closing of shops and places of entertainment during holydays, forcing personal liberty. Together with the closing of shops and the restriction of the mobility, there is a campaign of historical memory and territorial mapping, in order to bring the past into present with the desire to influence future generations. The promotion of the exclusive identity is fostered, first, by the use mainly of the hebrew language, secondly, and consequently, with the naming of public spaces with references coming from the jewish history and, in institutional buildings, with a series of icons, like David star, menorah, Jerusalem's lion and many other semiotic meanings in order to offer a model toward the viewer's eyes. A massive use of products, from food packaging to souvenir, until kids toys, for convey the feeling of membership. " As "commemorations of loss," the labels of some kosher packaged foods are "prone to idealizations" of the past. It is important to note here that, while all kosher foods refer directly to Judaism, the religion, the marketing for some kosher packaged foods also may represent Jewishness, the culture; that is to say, Judaica. When Judaica is one of its ingredients, the consumption of kosher packaged foods is not merely a physiological act, it is a semiological one as well: the consumption of Jewish signifiers. While the consumption of kosher foods is a code of conduct, the packages of kosher foods and their advertisements are themselves a code, a signal which announces identity through an accumulation of signs. Traditional customs, beliefs, values, language, and even memories comprised the field of usable material for the marketing of some kosher products. / Weiss Elliot, Packaging Jewishness: Novelty and tradition in kosher food packaging, "Design Issues", Vol. 20, No. 1 (Winter, 2004), The MIT Press, pp. 48-61,

i "As 'commemorations of loss', the labels of some kosher packaged foods are 'prone to idealizations' of the past. It is important to note here that, while all kosher foods refer directly to Judaism, the religion, the marketing for some kosher packaged foods also may represent Jewishness, the culture; that is to say, Judaica. When Judaica is one of its ingredients, the consumption of kosher packaged foods is not merely a physiological act, it is a semiological one as well: the consumption of Jewish signifiers. While the consumption of kosher foods is a code of conduct, the packages of kosher foods and their advertisements are themselves a code, a signal which announces identity through an accumulation of signs. Traditional customs, beliefs, values, language, and even memories comprised the field of usable material for the marketing of some kosher products. i


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1.Asher Zvi Hirsch Ginsberg 2.Aaron David Gordon 3.Max Nordan 4.Sir Moses Haim Montefiore 5.Menachem Ussishkin 6.Henrietta Szold 7.Theodor Herzl 8.Eliezer Ben Yehuda 9.Hayyim Nahman Bialik 10.Abraham Isaac 9

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11.Martin Mordechai Buber 12.Aaron Aaronson 13.Shaul Tchernichovsky 14.Chaim Weizman 15.Alexander Zaid 16.Ze'ev Jabotinsky 17.Joseph Trumpeldor 18.Pinhas Rutenberg 19.Elyahu Golon 20.Eliyahu David Bedesh 19

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“I view no flag as holy, and therefore for me any flag will always be, a symbol and nothing more.”

“...I am aware of the potentially negative and dangerous implications of marking objects and symbols sacred and sanctified. As far as I am concerned only human life can, or should be regarded as holy.” Yitzak Yoresh*

*Y.Y. , The Flag of Israel: variations on the theme, Jerusalem, Avigail & Yitzhak Yoresh, 1988

Flags of Jerusalem, Postcards Series


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i "... Ma gli occhi rapiti da queste meravigliose viste, vengono ora attratti da un qualcosa di nuovo, di inaspettato: sui molti tetti nei dintorni si notano numerose bandiere. Bandiere blu e bianche, con la centro una stella di David: il vessillo ufficiale dello Stato d'Israele. Che cosa ci fanno sugli edifici arabi lì intorno? La risposta risiede in una serie di rapporti stilati da organizzazioni pacifiste israeliane, quali Peace Now o Ir Amin (La città dei popoli), che monitorano la progressiva appropriazione di immobili nei quartieri arabi di Gerusalemme Est da parte delle organizzazionistudentesche affilliate alle scuole talmudiche nazionaliste...al fine di incoraggiare la penetrazione ebraica nel cuore dei quartieri arabi di Gerusalemme, ovvero di portare ebrei ad abitare all'interno di aree a maggioranza araba.” i Looking at the nationalistic motto One Nation, One Place and One Language, clear is the conspicuous use of the israeli flags in order to identify the possessed places, in a scenario, comparable with the american landing on the moon; at the same time a mapping who includes private spaces, like houses, shops and whatever, in which, the spectators, can memorized and make identifiable the object itself. An accurate analysis of these mechanisms, could suggest a question regarding the not relevant difference of this process, compared to the one that happens in the rest of world city capitals or in the simbolic places for a certain population. The problem, not secondary, here, is connected to the actors who are playing in this territory.

All these dynamics take place under the background of a palestinian and arab community that don't recognize itself in these symbols or this iconography, and, legitimately, thinks to have the right of being not conform with the identity promoted. “Il panorama che si ammira dal tetto dell'ospizio(Austriaco) è spettacolare: i mercati brulicanti di persone e la Spianata delle Moschee; la cupola d'oro che custodisce la pietra del sacrificio di Isacco; la grigia cupola di al-Aqsa e, appena oltre le mura della Città Vecchia, il Monte di Sion e la Dormizione; a oriente, il Monte degli Ulivi e l'Orto del Getsemani. Ma gli occhi rapiti da queste meravigliose viste, vengono ora attratti da un qualcosa di nuovo, di inaspettato: sui molti tetti nei dintorni si notano numerose bandiere. Bandiere blu e bianche, con la centro una stella di David: il vessillo ufficiale dello Stato d'Israele. Che cosa ci fanno sugli edifici arabi lì intorno?La risposta risiede in una serie di rapporti stilati da organizzazioni pacifiste israeliane, quali Peace Now o Ir Amin (La città dei popoli), che monitorano la progressiva appropriazioni di immobili nei quartieri arabi di Gerusalemme Est da parte delle organizzazioni studentesche affilliate alle scuole talmudiche nazionaliste...al fine di incoraggiare la penetrazione ebraica nel cuore dei quartieri arabi di Gerusalemme, ovvero di portare ebrei ad abitare all'interno di aree a maggioranza araba” / Rubinstein Danny, La capitale impossibile, "La battaglia per Gerusalemme", Quaderni speciali di Limes, gruppo editoriale l'Espresso, n.2, 2010, p.109

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“ The panorama that is possible to admire from the roof of the hospice is extraordinary: the markets crawling with people and the Temple Mount; the gold dome that guards the stone of Isaac sacrifice; the grey dome of Al Aqsa, and immediately beyond, the Old City Walls, the Zion Mount and the Dormizione; towards east, the Mount of Olives and the Gestmani garden. But the eyes enraptured by these wonderfull views, are now attracted by something new, unexpected: upon many roofs around, can be observed numerous flags. Blu and white flags, with a David's Star in the centre: the official emblem of the State of Israel. What do they do upon the arabs buildings around? The answer is in a series of reports produced by pacifist Israeli organizations, as Peace Now or Ir-Amin, that supervise the progressive appropriation of houses, in the arabs neighborhoods of East

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Jerusalem by the student organizations affiliated to the nationalistic talmudic schools... ...aiming to encourage the jewish penetration in the heart of Jerusalem, or rather in order to bring jews to inhabit inside the areas with an arab majority.â&#x20AC;?

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Ghettizzataâ&#x20AC;? in the eastern side of the city, poor and without the same social and urban services, of the rest of the city, it is never involved and included in the development of the western side, even if it provides, through municipality taxes, a relevant contribute to the Jewish state machine. In the difficulties to maintain an objective position and, partly, not even searching for it, I want to underline how, in this scenario, reappears the contrast between public and private space, crucial in this reality. If the image of private space, and consequently, not influent on a communicative level, it is let to a free will, something different happens in public space, main spot of the conflict. There is a spasmodic fight to conquer public space, mostly, already won, from the jewish majority. They are used all the tools for limiting and mapping the public space or, even, turning it, to the role of private property. The daily actions of propaganda and the visual influences of the social dynamics in society, take place parallel to politic archeology operations, in which, this science is used for the appropriation of lands, through the use of sacral books as proof of their property. In this context the arab population of East Jerusalem follows another social daily calendar, struggling with the identitarian dictats coming from the authorities. The claim for East Jerusalem, as capital of the future palestinian state, and the resistance, is expressed, even in this case, through the use of recurring and strong symbols and icons in which, the Dome of the Rock and the palestinian flag, are the main subjects. The exhibition's place, one more time, are, markets, aggregation places, like bar, or, the last public space remained. The public transport, busses who link the villages in East Jerusalem to main cities in the West Bank, acquire a powerfull meaning. Consciously not used, for choice and safety, by the Jewish population, and, in an certain sense, symbol of uniqueness, they are the moving tool of the arab community, and, thank to their routes, they help the sense of membership to a community

in opposition to the declared division policy. They assume, despite, in some cases, the low quality, a simbolic and territorial mapping value, in a temporary borders situation. Relevant phenomenon is the massive production of posters, that, as many liberation movements, the palestinians use, to democratically show their symbols, idols and, in same cases, ambiguous radical characters. In the lack of a national tv network and in the poverty of media, there is a going back to the affichiste function of manifestos, using public space even as artistic window. Lacking a national television service or reliable print press operations in their own Diaspora, the Palestinians developed a vibrant poster press in compensation. The resulting visual record is not only a unique national treasure it is also a compelling educational resource, one that tells the story of contemporary Palestine, and the wider Middle East, from the perspective of the artists. / Dan Walsh, Statehood In Mind, "Print Magazine", January/February 2001 The myth of the united capital of Jewish state, as we can notice, remains idealized. The consequence is a quantitative process of appropriation of the public sphere, in order to create, the biggest private zone possible; this time, not property of a single person, but of a State, using, as much visual tools as possible.

Hisham Muhsin


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i Lacking a national television service or reliable print press operations in their own Diaspora, the Palestinians developed a vibrant poster press in compensation. The resulting visual record is not only a unique national treasure it is also a compelling educational resource, one that tells the story of contemporary Palestine, and the wider Middle East, from the perspective of the artists. i

Bashir Abu-Rabla

Dganit Berest

Asad Azi

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6.3 The stones of Jerusalem: i the visual language of occupation "... veniva imposto l'uso di vari tipi Una sezione del piano del 1968 era dedicata alla discussione di un'ordinanza municipale del periodo britannico, un decreto pubblicato dal primo governatore militare della città, Ronald Storrs... Nell'ordinanza veniva imposto l'uso di vari tipi di pietra calcarea, nota collettivamente e colloquialmente come “ Pietra di Gerusalemme”, come unico materiale consentito per i muri esterni della città. “Il valore dell'impressione visiva proiettata dalla pietra” è di trasmettere “messaggi emozionali che stimolano altre sensazioni nel profondo della nostra memoria collettiva, producendo (nel contesto delle nuove costruzioni) forti associazioni con l'antica Città Santa di Gerusalemme”. Per Storrs, la pietra incarnava la tradizione biblica: “ Gerusalemme è letteralmente una città costruita sulla roccia. Da quella roccia, per tremila anni è stata estratta questa pietra bianca, morbida da tagliare, ma che seccandosi indurisce e con il tempo acquista un colore grigio-azzurro o ambrato. Di questa pietra sono fatti i saldi muri e gli archi tondi e acuti che hanno conservato nei secoli una tradizione sacra e senza tempo.” / Weizman Eyal, Architettura dell'occupazione: spazio politico e controllo territoriale in Palestina e Israele, Milano, Bruno Mondadori, 2009

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Part of the 1968's plan it was dedicated to the discussion of a municipality ordinance, of the british period, a decree published by the first military governor of the city, Ronald Storrs... In the ordinance it was imposed the use of various kind of chalky stone, known collectively, and conversationally, as “ Stone of Jerusalem”, as unique material allowed for the external walls of the city. “ The value of the visual impression projected by the stone is to convey emotional messages that stimulate other sensations in the deep of our collective memory, producing strong associations (in the context of new building) with the old Holy city of Jerusalem.” For Stoor, the stone embodied the biblical tradition: 'Jerusalem is literally a city built on the rock. From this rock, for three thousand years it was mined this white stone, soft to cut, but that by drying out becomes hard and with the time passing, gains a grey-cyan or amber color. Of this stone are made the strong walls and the rounded and spiky arcs, that have preserved during the centuries a sacred and timeless tradition.”

di pietra calcarea, nota collettivamente e colloquialmente come 'Pietra di Gerusalemme', come unico materiale consentito per i muri esterni della città. 'Il valore dell'impressione visiva proiettata dalla pietra' è di trasmettere messaggi emozionali che stimolano altre sensazioni nel profondo della nostra memoria collettiva, producendo (nel contesto delle nuove costruzioni) forti associazioni con l'antica Città Santa di Gerusalemme”. i Symbol of private property, the stone, in this context, is the element from which is possible to visualize the idea of possession of the Israeli government. The stones, in this conflict, are protagonists: if from one side as defense tools, thrown from the arab population, starting from the first Intifada2, against the Israeli army, on the other side, are the physical instrument of occupation and territorial mapping. The white stone, that already in the past took the name of Jerusalem's stone, temporarily symbolizes the arrival point of the Jewish occupation in the Jerusalem skyline. Sold, in the brochures, as, “precious stone, mined by the holy mountains of Jerusalem, a beautiful natural masterpiece”, despite its origins are in West Bank caves, is the visual tool to easily check the limit of Jerusalem urbanization. Nell'introduzione a Israele costruisce (1977): per Karmi “la ricerca dell'identità nazionale deve essere condotta attraverso l'architettura” “Proprio come non abbiamo creato la lingua ebraica dal niente, ma l'abbiamo costruita sulle basi della lingua che parlavamo duemila anni fa...allo stesso modo non stiamo iniziando (a costruire edifici) da un foglio di carta bianco” / Weizman Eyal, Architettura dell'occupazione: spazio politico e controllo territoriale in Palestina e Israele, Milano, Bruno Mondadori, 2009

Intifada is can Arabic word which literally means "shaking off ", though it is popularly translated into English as "uprising" or "resistance" or "rebellion". The First Intifada (also known as simply the "Intifada" was a Palestinian uprising against the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian Territories, which lasted from December 1987 to 1993. The uprising began in the Jabalia refugee camp and quickly spread throughout Gaza, the West Bank and East Jerusalem. The Second Intifada, also known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada was the second Palestinian uprising, a period of intensified Palestinian– Israeli violence, which began in late September 2000. "Al-Aqsa" is the name of a mosque, constructed in the 8th century AD at the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, a location considered the holiest site in Judaism and third holiest in Islam. / http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Intifada

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i “la ricerca dell'identità nazionale deve essere condotta attraverso l'architettura” “Proprio come non abbiamo creato la lingua ebraica dal niente, ma l'abbiamo costruita sulle basi della lingua che parlavamo duemila anni fa...allo stesso modo non stiamo iniziando (a costruire edifici) da un foglio di carta bianco” i

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“...the pursuit of the national identity should be done through architecture” “How we didn’t create the Hebrew language from nothing, but we built it based on the language spoken two thousand years ago...on the same way, we are not starting (building) from a white paper sheet.”

As referred by Eyal Weizman, architecture assumes the meaning of language and the white stone the tool to spread it abroad. In the idea of One Place, first point of the nationalistic ideology, architecture is the expansionist instrument, even more in Jerusalem, to exclude the arabs minorities, in order to extend, expropriating lands and, illegaly building up, the boundaries of the jewish presence in the territory. From the Urban plan of the 1968: “Il valore e la funzione della costruzione edilizia non vanno misurati solo secondo un sistema di valori architettonici il cui scopo è rivelare i metodi di costruzione nell'aspetto di un edificio, ma anche secondo una valutazione di tipo culturale, che vede gli edifici come portatori di messaggi emozionali, riferiti all'immagine della città. E' con questi valori culturali che dobbiamo bilanciare il peso dei costi (ulteriori) di costruzione...ciò giustifica, ancora oggi, il bisogno di preservare

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la continuità del rivestimento in pietra quale materiale che incarna l'aspetto della città” / Weizman Eyal, Architettura dell'occupazione: spazio politico e controllo territoriale in Palestina e Israele, Milano, Bruno Mondadori, 2009

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“The value and the function of the building construction, are not only be measured by a system of architectural value, his goal is to reveal the method of construction in the aspect of a building, but even based on a cultural evaluation, that considers buildings as bearer of emotional messages referred to the image of the city. It is with this cultural values that we have to balance the impact of construction costs (further)...this justifies, even today, the need of preserving the continuity of the stone covering as material that embodies the city aspect.”

If those buildings are carriers of emotional messages, easy is, metaphorically trace a separation line between what is part, or not, like the gradually crumbling palestinians buildings, to the visual identity of the city. Another time an esclusive identity, but in this case worsened by the racial drawing of create an homogeneous visual pattern. Più di un terzo del territorio annesso è stato confiscato ai proprietari palestinesi per stabilire ed estendere nuovi sobborghi ebraici, con il pretesto di soddisfare una “pubblica necessità”. L'uso del termine pubblico rivela più di qualsiasi altra cosa il pregiudizio politico del governo: il “pubblico” a cui venivano imposte le espropriazioni ha sempre compreso anche i palestinesi; il “pubblico” che ha goduto dei frutti delle espropriazioni è sempre stato composto solo ed esclusivamente da ebrei. / Weizman Eyal, Architettura dell'occupazione: spazio politico e controllo territoriale in Palestina e Israele, Milano, Bruno Mondadori, 2009

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More than a third of the territory annexed, it was confiscated to the palestinian owners for establishing and extending new jewish suburbs, with the pretext to satisfy a public necessity'. The use of the term 'public', reveals, more than anything else, the political bias of the government: the 'public', towards who were imposed the expropriations, has always included even the palestinians; the 'public' that enjoyed of the expropriations is always composed only and exclusively by the jews.

i I quartieri di Ramat Eshkol e French Hill, a nord della Città Vecchia, sono stati disposti in modo da formare un arco allungato che separa il quartiere palestinese di Shufat dalla parte palestinese della Città Vecchia e dal quartiere di Sheikh Jarrah, che prima comprendeva un'area urbana continua. La posizione e la forma dei nuovi quartieri sono state ideate non solo come pratica destinazione per la popolazione ebraica, ma anche come mezzi per impedire che Gerusalemme funzioni da città palestinese e per rendere più dura la vita ai palestinesi della città. i E1 (derived from “East 1”) is a term applied by the Ministry of Housing to an area located just east of the Jerusalem municipal boundary, on the hills between Ma’aleh Adummim and Jerusalem. It lies north of the Jerusalem-Ma’aleh Adummim road and edges the Palestinian towns of Anata, Abu Dis, Azariya and A-Zayim. E1, which covers some 12,000 dunams (12 sq. kilometers), is part of the planning area of Ma'aleh Adummim. The main artery between the northern and southern West Bank runs through E1. The development plan for E1 includes the transfer of the West Bank (Judea & Samaria) Police Headquarters from its present location, and the construction of at least 3,500 residential units, a large commercial center, and more. Plans for the E1 area make no reference whatsoever to the local Palestinian population. http://www.ir-amim.org. il/Eng/?CategoryID=180

Ma'aleh Adummim is an Israeli settlement and a city in the West Bank, seven kilometers from Jerusalem. Ma'ale Adumim achieved city status in 1991. In 2011, the population was 39,000. Ma'ale Adumim is the third largest Israeli settlement in the West Bank after Modi'in Illit, and Beitar Illit. The city is located along Highway 1, which connects it to Jerusalem and the Tel Aviv area. The international community considers Israeli settlements illegal under international law, but the Israeli government disputes this. / http:/en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Ma%27ale_ Adumim


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This "one-way" idea of public, that overturns more to an idea of private, hides a huge plan of social inequality and divisions, oriented to distribute in a patchy way the public resources and the services, with the plan to realize, even visually, a mapping of territorial limits where these resources are addressed. Using the visual impact of the architecture, preventing to offer an heterogeneous image of Jerusalem, how is and how was in the past, and, thwarting, the identitarian ambitions of the arab part of the city. I quartieri di Ramat Eshkol e French Hill, a nord della Città Vecchia, sono stati disposti in modo da formare un arco allungato che separa il quartiere palestinese di Shufat dalla parte palestinese della Città Vecchia e dal quartiere di Sheikh Jarrah, che prima comprendeva un'area urbana continua. La posizione e la forma dei nuovi quartieri sono state ideate non solo come pratica destinazione per la popolazione ebraica, ma anche come mezzi per impedire che Gerusalemme funzioni da città palestinese e per rendere più dura la vita ai palestinesi della città. / Weizman Eyal, Architettura dell'occupazione: spazio politico e controllo territoriale in Palestina e Israele, Milano, Bruno Mondadori, 2009

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The neighbourhoods of Ramat Eshkol and French Hill, to the north of the Old City, are placed in order to form an prolonged arc that divides the palestinian neighborhood of Shufat from the palestinian side of the Old City and from the neighborhood of Sheikh Jarah, that before consisted in a continuos urban area. “The position and the shape of the new neighboorhoods, were planned not only as a practical destination for the jewish population but also as way to avoid that Jerusalem works as a Palestinian city and to make harder the life for the palestinians of the city.”

The stone is the face of Jerusalem, and acquires a simbolic value in any position is located. In the case of the Western Wall, the semantic meaning, overcomes the material one. The metaphysical value compensates for the scanty aesthetic appeal.

6.4 Musrara and the impossible CITY capital “Un altro caso molto rappresentativo, riguarda lo spazio che si trova di fronte alla Porta di Damasco: un triangolo che ha per primo lato la Porta di Damasco, la più bella e imponente della Città Vecchia, per secondo la parte araba del quartiere Musrara e per terzo la strada d'accesso alla parte ebraica di Musrara, il passaggio usato dal pubblico ultraortodosso che si reca regolarmente al Muro Occidentale e in altri luoghi santi della Città Vecchia. Uno spazio che io considero luogo ideale d'incontro fra tutte le componenti culturali, religiose e sociali di Gerusalemme. Il simbolo di una convivenza che ponga tutti sullo stesso piano. Un luogo al quale chiunque possa accedere dai suoi quartieri di origine. Anche le condizioni topografiche e dei trasporti (la vicinanza di una linea di treno leggero di prossima apertura e una vecchia stazione di autobus che può essere ripristinata) sono favorevoli alla realizzazione di questo spazio unitario. L'obiettivo è produrre un modello funzionale e simbolico di convivenza in questa città che potrebbe diventare capitale di due Stati, conservando però alcune aree in cui la vita quotidiana possa scorrere in comune.” / ABD Al-Qàdir Sinàn, Le tribulazioni di un urbanista urbano a Gerusalemme Est, "La battaglia per Gerusalemme", Quaderni speciali di Limes, gruppo editoriale l'Espresso, n.2, 2010,p.117

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“Another very representative case, concerns the space that is in front of the Damascus Gate: a triangle that has in the first side, the Damascus Gate, the most beautiful and imposing of the Old City, second, the arab part of the neighborhood Musrara and in the third side, the access road to the jewish part of Musrara, the passage used by the ultraorthodox audience that goes regularly to the Western Wall and in the other holy places in the Old City. A space that I consider ideal place of encounter between all the cultural, religious and social components of Jerusalem. The symbol of a cohabitation that put everybody at the same level. A place to whom anyone can access from their origin neighborhoods. The goal is to produce a functional and symbolic model of convivence, in this city that can become capital of two State, preserving yet some areas in which the daily life can flow in common.


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i "...un triangolo che ha per primo lato la Porta di Damasco, la piĂš bella e imponente della CittĂ Vecchia, per secondo la parte araba del quartiere Musrara e per terzo la strada d'accesso alla parte ebraica di Musrara, il passaggio usato dal pubblico ultraortodosso che si reca regolarmente al Muro Occidentale e in altri luoghi santi della CittĂ  Vecchia. Uno spazio che io considero luogo ideale d'incontro fra tutte le componenti culturali, religiose e sociali di Gerusalemme. Il simbolo di una convivenza che ponga tutti sullo stesso piano." i

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Morasha

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When we talk about public space, in Jerusalem, considering it as place of exchange and dialogue that visually expresses the history of the place and of the on going conflict, we can report to the area described above. Non idyllic place, as in "Sinan 'ABD AlQadir's" intentions, but, certainly, place, where is possible to mirror the dispute. Place of encounters and fights, intentional, but, mainly, necessary, between the palestinians residents in East Jerusalem, the crowd of tourists that gets out from the Old city or takes a look to Damascus Gate, and the ultraorthodox jewish communities, that quickly move together toward the Western Wall area, using the faster way possible, from their hermetic neighborhood, of Meah Sherim. In the background the road 1, one of the crucial borders of this conflict; a boundary, now, more simbolic than real, because of the Jewish expansionist policy. Even if the historical events seem distant, here, is where are concentrated all dynamics and disputes between the israeli community and the arab one. The rails, of the new metro train, maintain a continuity, between what was the past border and the current separations; from an Israeli side, integrated in the westernization of the country, to a palestinian one, that is defending its location, but not so much united in order to push away the neighbour's identitarian pretensions.

6.5 Before Seam now Meah Sherim “Doveva essere una linea tracciata per separare le appena nate Forze di difesa israeliane dalla Legione giordana, che da mesi si combattevano per le strade di Gerusalemme. Un cessate il fuoco, la linea del fronte, una terra di nessuno, un di qua e un di là. Moshe Dayan e Abdullah al-Tall tracciarono a matita quella lunga ferita che tagliava da nord a sud Gerusalemme tra le rovine di una casa di Musrara, uno dei più ricchi quartieri borghesi di Gerusalemme, tra i primi costruiti fuori dalle antiche mura di Solimano il Grande, a testimoniare che quell'agglomerato urbano aveva deciso di trasformarsi in una vera città contemporanea. Da allora, da quel 30 novembre 1948, Musrara non sarebbe stata più la stessa. E neanche Gerusalemme.” “Le linee furono tracciate su una cartina

i “Doveva essere una linea tracciata per separare le appena nate Forze di difesa israeliane dalla Legione giordana, che da mesi si combattevano per le strade di Gerusalemme. Un cessate il fuoco, la linea del fronte, una terra di nessuno, un di qua e un di là. Moshe Dayan e Abdullah al-Tall tracciarono a matita quella lunga ferita che tagliava da nord a sud Gerusalemme tra le rovine di una casa di Musrara, uno dei più ricchi quartieri borghesi di Gerusalemme, tra i primi costruiti fuori dalle antiche mura di Solimano il Grande, a testimoniare che quell'agglomerato urbano aveva deciso di trasformarsi in una vera città contemporanea. Da allora, da quel 30 novembre 1948, Musrara non sarebbe stata più la stessa. E neanche Gerusalemme.” i della Palestina mandataria su scala 1:20.000. Moshe Dayan tracciò la linea del fronte israeliana con una matita grassa di color verde, mentre Abdullah al-Tall, marcò il suo fronte con una rossa. Le matite grasse composero linee di 3-4 millimetri di larghezza. Tracciate su una mappa la cui scala era 1:20.000, quelle rappresentavano pezzi di terra larghi dai sessanta agli ottanti metri.” “Musrara, invece, era nata dai benestanti palestinesi, cristiani e musulmani, appena fuori dalla Porta Nuova, in balia dunque di una dimensione nuova, aperta verso la campagna e i villaggi dell'anello attorno a Gerusalemme che alla città fornivano il sostentamento.” “E nelle case di Musrara piccoli caseggiati a tre piani, anonimi e grigi, con l'andare degli anni i sefarditi sono stati sostituiti dagli ultraortodossi migrati dalla vicina


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enclave Mea Sherim, colpita dalla carenza di case. Col risultato che Musrara, oggi, assomiglia a un'appendice del quartiere più ortodosso della città, senza più alcun legame con la storia passata o addirittura recente del quartiere, che invece i mizharim avevano.” / Caridi Paola, Musrara, centro diviso del mondo, "La battaglia per Gerusalemme", Quaderni speciali di Limes, gruppo editoriale l'Espresso, n.2, 2010, p.123

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“It was supposed to be a line drawn to separate, the just born Israeli Defense Forces, to the Jordanian Legion, that were fighting since months on the Jerusalem roads. A cease fire, the line in front of a no man's land, an here and there. Moshe Dayan and Abdullah al-Tall had drawn by pencil this long wound, that cutted Jerusalem from north to the south, between the ruins of an house of Musrara, one of the richest bourgeois neighborhood of Jerusalem, one of the first built out of Suleiman The Great's ancient walls, to prove that this urban agglomeration had decided to transform itself in a real contemporary city. Ever since, this 30 november 1948, Musrara, would never be the same again. And neither Jerusalem.” “The lines were drawn on a map of the mandatary Palestine on scale 1:20.000. Moshe Dayan had drawn the line of the Israeli side, with a fleshy green pencil, whereas Abdullah al-Tall, had marked his side, with a red one. The two fleshy pencils had marked lines wide 3 or 4 millimiters. Being drawn on a map on 1:20.000 scale they represented pieces of land large from sixty to eighty meters.” “Musrara, on the contrary, was born by the palestinians, christians and muslims well off, immediately out of the New Gate, embodied a new dimension, open towards the countryside and the villages of the ring around Jerusalem that provided sustenance to the city .” “And in Musrara's houses, small apartments with three floor , impersonal and greys, with the passing of the years, the sephardics were replaced by the ultraorthodox, migrated from the nearby enclave of Meah Shearim, affected by the lack of housing. The result is that, now, Musrara,looks like an appendix of the most ultraorthodox neighborhood of the city, without any connections with the past or even recent history of the neighborhood, that on the contrary the mizharim had.”

The image of pencils that draw boundaries, is now replaced with the metro tracks on the ground, that, going through the road n.1 until the northern israeli settlements nearby Ramallah, tracks a new line, in order to make impossible, or at least difficult, a future division of the city.

Of the wealthy, palestinians, christians and muslims,not even the shadow, replaced by the conservative and ultraorthodox enclave of Meah Shearim. If on the one hand it preserves the grey and anonymous structure of some old building of "Musrara", on the other hand it represents the extreme privatization of space that, fosters, the Judaization of Jerusalem, despite this zone demonstrates, through the inhabitans, a disapproval to the zionist ideas. Inhabited, in majority, by the Haredi community, is functional to reinforce the religious and ideological bridles in a borderline place as Jerusalem. Assiduous supporters of Torah's dogmas, that fills their everydays life, and they follow in all the aspects, represent the unicum, piece of history and religion that is sold as exotic by the tourist offices (tour of Meah Shearim). Important don't forget the demographic aspect, more and more it significative, for facing the arab neighbour: the ultraorthodox birth rate, indeed, is above the national average and is usefull to the nationalistic goal of defending the community, from arab population growth, and consequently, for them (ultraorthodox) to get benefits from the Israeli State (exemption to the military service etc..). The private space is at the maximum levels; ratified by the non existent interaction, and by the verbal insult toward those, mainly tourists, pass through their neighborhood. One more time, the walls as simbolic and protective tool, through the use of Pashekevils. By refusing technology, for religious belief, they use these wall posters, as mean of communication between the various rabbinic communities, conveying the message, in Yiddish language, old hebrew, in order to maintain a certain distance from the sorroundings. The simbolic emphasis, in this case, reduces at the minimum levels the interactions between people, and the location, on the separation line, today virtual, but in the past, real, contributes to build around this neighborhood, the extremist role, perfectly fembodied of dividing communities.

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State of Israel - Official Emblem


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"As you leave the town centre of Jerusalem and stroll north into the Charedi neighbourhoods, the wall-towall posters, white with black ink, covering the building facades are perhaps the most salient feature. These pashkevilim are the main means of mass communication in the Charedi world. A pashkevil may announce the release of a new scholarly work or a lecture by a great sage, but to the outsider, pashkevilim are associated with the denunciation of some fixture of modern life, like mixed seating on busses or the use of mobile phones. Pashkevil entered Hebrew from the Yiddish. However, the word dates back to 16th-century Italy, where a man named Pasquino used to post satirical notices for public consumption. In a world that does not use the internet on a large scale and reads only its own newspapers, the pashkevil is a huge media and polemical tool." http://www.thejc. com/judaism/jewish-words/ pashkevil

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6.6 Public space, private space, safety and the right of citinzenship The audio message pronounced by the commandant of the Israeli army Motta Gur “The temple Mount is in our hands! The temple Mount is in our hands!”, at the helm of the first israeli forces that entered and conquered the Western Wall, during the Six-day war, is the most meaningful and well known case, of how, in Jerusalem the appropriation of private space compared with anywhere else, can become essential to the diffusion of an identitarian position. If this one was a resounding historical event, daily life is full of visuals suggestions in this sense.

i “ Temple Mount is in our hands! Temple Mount is in our hands!” i

1967 The worries about the safety of the region, are, at the base of some dynamics that establish the presence of movements restrictions and the necessity of borders. If the architectural structure is, as described before, planned, less understandable is how are limited inside these frameworks, all the domestics private spaces. “...i balconi elemento tipico dei condomini mediterranei, erano assenti. Le sbarre di sicurezza alle piccole finestre facevano pensare a prigioni.” / Amiri Suad, Murad Murad, Milano, Giangiacomo Feltrinelli Editore, 2009

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“...the balconies, typical element of the mediterranean buildings, were absent. The safety bars of the small windows let to think at prisons.”

The massive use of security check systems, different kind of lockings and bars, even in the top floor windows, are not justified by a real need of safety, but rather are the mirror of a modest attitude to the opening, toward the neighbour and the fear around the unknown that accompanies it. Turning the topic from a domestic sphere to the public sphere, the scenario doesn't change, on the contrary, is emphasized by


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i “...i balconi elemento tipico dei condomini mediterranei, erano assenti. Le sbarre di sicurezza alle piccole finestre facevano pensare a prigioni.” i

dell'occupazione: spazio politico e controllo territoriale in Palestina e Israele, Milano, Bruno Mondadori, 2009

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Even the shops and coffee entrances, usually, require the check of the identity document. The check points, physical barriers equiped with staff (the systems of control are no more considered appropriated, compared with the intensity and immediacy of the threat), are available to purchase by any generic customer and they are presented in the world market as israeli innovations.

Selling on the global market these technological innovations proves the technological development, but is more interesting the request and, consequently, the massive use that is done in all the fields of society. Schools, bars, banks, post officies, malls, institutional or not buildings; almost all the structures with whom is possible to interact are checked. If the Jerusalem routine, contributes to lose the entity of this discomfort, the first daily approach, gives a sense of anxiety and sometimes, contributes to extend the sense of unsafety instead of, guarantee safety. Other discomfort, in this case about the right of citizenship and the humanitarian issue, is the one that involves the separation wall, of which Jerusalem is one of the two side, and the check points along the barrier. “Il posto di controllo si prende tutto quello che un uomo ha, tutte le sue energie, il suo tempo, i suoi nervi...è il caos, è dentro e fuori della legge, funziona con razionalità e metodo attraverso l'ordine e il disordine.” / Weizman Eyal, Architettura dell'occupazione: spazio politico e controllo territoriale in Palestina e Israele, Milano, Bruno Mondadori, 2009 two main factors: the systems of control that is possible to meet in the daily life and the separation wall to the West Bank, with its involvements. Persino l'ingresso nei negozi e nei caffè di solito richiede il controllo del documento d'identità. I sistemi di sorveglianza, barriere fisiche dotate di personale (gli strumenti di vigilanza elettronica da soli non sono più considerati appropriati di fronte all'intensità e immediatezza della minaccia), sono disponibili per l'acquisto da parte del pubblico generico e vengono presentati sul mercato mondiale come “innovazioni” israeliane. / Weizman Eyal, Architettura

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“ The check point captures everything that a human being has, all his energies, his time, his nerves...is the chaos, is inside and out of law, works with rationality and method, through order and disorder.”

The aspect on what i'm interested to think about, is not the functionality and legality of the wall, but much more what it means daily. It divides not only the space but even the time, manages mobility, main element of worry for the israeli government, and

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last but not the least, it doesn't separate two enemies, but actually two members of the same community(palestinian) in a biggest plan to divide an idea of population. Again a majority, who uses any tool for being predominant, by including in itself, even the minorities, who are part of the trait of the territory and community. The check points and the wall, as image and face of that intent; the daily green cards and the blue ones, that allow to be permanent resident in Jerusalem, the bureaucratic weapons. The public space, the desire and the tool to extend the biggest national private space;

the safety, the tool and justification for each act; the foreigner, as rival, union element around the idea of imagining a future ownership of that. Fences, bars and any closed structure has his inside and outside; Jerusalem is a puzzle built, on these inside and these outside. Despite that one of the two sides has more power, it needs the other one to be legitimated. In this context what is commonly called identity, and, in this analysis, I prefer define as trait, is the image of the conflict and of this dispute, in which, more or less consciously, both are identified together.


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i Fences, bars and any closed structure has his inside and his outside; Jerusalem is a puzzle built, on this inside and outside. Despite that one of the two sides has more power, it needs the other one to be legitimated. i

Check point and Separation Wall between Jerusalem and Bethlehem.

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show me...

You have family in Israel? For nearly twenty-five years I've heard this question each time I've shown my passport to security at Ben-Gurion Airport, in Tel Aviv. For nearly twenty-five years I've answered, " No, I don't have any family in Israel." "But your name..." "My name comes from eastern France." "You have friend in Israel?" Yes, I have friends in Israel. I also have friends in that 'country to come', Palestine. Through a quarter of a century , one has time to make a lot of friends and some enemies - in this corner of the Middle East where people have so much trouble living together." / Backmann RenĂŠ, A wall in Palestine, New York, Picador, 2010

ID blue card for arabs residents in Jerusalem, that allow to live and overnight stay in the city.


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Entrance permit form for the State of Israel

show me...

Shalom, We extend a warm welcome to you and hope that you will enjoy your stay and visit some of the many interesting biblical and historical sites.


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7. Jerusalem CITY OF FUTURE “Tel Aviv e Gerusalemme incarnano due modi differenti di vivere e raccontare la storia di questo Stato. Il baricentro di Gerusalemme è nel passato e questa sua lunga storia esercita su di essa un grande peso; Tel Aviv, invece, non ha passato, non ha storia, non impone obblighi.” “...io abito a Tel Aviv soprattutto perché non è Gerusalemme.” “Quando a Tel Aviv chiedi: 'Che ore sono?', ricevi l'informazione che cerchi; a Gerusalemme, se chiedi alla persona sbagliata rischi risposte come: ' è ora che ti penti e ritorni sulla via del Signore!', oppure 'è ora di porre fine all'occupazione dei Territori Palestinesi!', o ancora ' è ora che la stampa di sinistra la smetta di attaccare sempre il governo!'. C'è sempre un passato o un contesto o un simbolo che impedisce il vero e intimo incontro e confronto con il presente, sulla base di una semplice e sana interazione tra persone.” / Etgar Keret, Tel Aviv e Gerusalemme, le due anime di Israele, "La battaglia per Gerusalemme", Quaderni speciali di Limes, gruppo editoriale l'Espresso, n.2, 2010, p.85

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“Tel Aviv and Jerusalem embody two different ways of living and of telling the history of the State. The barycentre of Jerusalem is in the past and this long history wields, in itself, a great onus; Tel Aviv, on the contrary, has no past, no History, it doesn't impose duties.” “I live in Tel Aviv mainly because is not Jerusalem.”” When in Tel Aviv you ask: what time is it ? you get the information you need; in Jerusalem, if you ask to the wrong person you risk answers like: ‘It’s time that you regret and come back to the God’s way!,

or "it’s time to end the occupation of the Palestinian Territories!", or again "it’s time that the leftist press cease to always accuse the government!”

The words of the writer Etgar Keret, describe a true scenario, and, common, in the debate with the new israeli generations. The sentence, “I live in Tel Aviv mainly because is not Jerusalem”, embodies, part of the answers to the queries regarding the future of the Israeli city capital, and about the urban and social transformations on going. Jerusalem as a symbol, is more and more supplanted by Jerusalem as a city and place of exchanges. The lenght and polarization of the conflict has compromised all the social structures, and the exhaustion felt by Keret, is the feeling of a generation, who doesn't want to lose the best years of his youth looking for a place in one of these, ideological or religious organizations, present in the holy city. Place of friction and, even of internal conflicts, with the ultraorthodox, protagonists of the scene, through the occupation of new pieces of lands, and the palestinian resistant, that tries to strongly preserve, the few places remained. Despite this reality, the daily efforts to appear different, going closer to the secular and the cosmopolitan Tel Aviv, in order get appeal toward the new generations. Suddenly, the birth, in the western part, of new buildings, architectural solutions that aim to assume an iconographical value, as the new Calatrava's bridge, between two of the main routes, Jaffa Street and Herzl


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i “Quando a Tel Aviv chiedi: 'Che ore sono?', ricevi l'informazione che cerchi; a Gerusalemme, se chiedi alla persona sbagliata rischi risposte come: 'è ora che ti penti e ritorni sulla via del Signore!', oppure 'è ora di porre fine all'occupazione dei Territori Palestinesi!', o ancora' è ora che la stampa di sinistra la smetta di attaccare sempre il governo!'. C'è sempre un passato o un contesto o un simbolo che impedisce il vero e intimo incontro e confronto con il presente, sulla base di una semplice e sana interazione tra persone.” i

Tartakover David, Buy Produce of Israel, 1983

Road, and, at the same time, on the way to and from Tel Aviv, as hypothetical global link. Without forgetting the new metro of the city, reason for why the bridge was designed and built; and at the end the linguistic americanization in the names choices for clubs and entertainment places. All these phenomena are intended to debase and reduce of the greatness of Jerusalem as a symbol. Too important is the meaning of this city to only imagine, a future based on the Tel Aviv scenario. The trait of Jerusalem, sometimes unfortunately, is destined to be influenced and mainly identified in the conflict, in the people who inhabit the city and in those who are born here and have molded their identity on the conflict and the fear toward the foreigner. The presence of religious radical movements reinforces this hypothesis and the main risk is when this element become routine. What I want to underline, is that behind any private closing, any defensive wall, any check point, there is a human being, and the attempt to homologate him in an homogeneous mass, or in a wing rather than another one, is the first step for the end of the city trait.


new building jerusalem

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jerusalem city of future


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8. conclusion The non synthetic trait of cities, and the variety of characters involved, obliges to design a portray as much open and versatile as possible, excluding firstly, one-way visions or selective images. “The fact is that the polyphony we are able to produce by combining more than one point o view in the same discourse – in other words, a sort of buzz, an undertone, a basso continuo – is what comes closest to the sense of contemporary urban space... ...to succeed in conveying, throught the montage of precise views, a sensation that is vague overall and for this very reason interesting and reflective of the urban condition.” “But this buzz, the sum of each attempt to gauge the urban condition, requires great rigor. Rigor in the choice of views and places; rigor in the montage, in the succession, and above all in the selection of the points of view. / Boeri Stefano, On some paradoxes in the Relationship between Photography and the Contemporary City, GUST, Ghent Urban Studies Team, POST-EX-SUB-DIS, "The urban condition: space, community and self in the contemporary metropolis", Rotterdam, 010 Publishers, 1999 This analysis requires, on one hand, accurate visual choices, on the other hand, a deep observation in order to promote the heterogeneous and polycentrics aspects of the urban reality. Being, all of us, actors and spectators of the city, we personally contribute to the creation and widespread of its image. What happen, usually, is that all the dynamics around the tourist industry, produce an uniform and homogeneous perspective of places, through the repetition of the same urban scenarios and consequently producing a quantity of pictures oriented to select just some spots as symbols for expressing the city features. “The “tourist gaze” is made up of a multitude of such symbols and, according to Urry,

tourism consists of the consistent gathering of such symbols.Urry maintains that places visited by tourists are visually consumed and as such used up, that is, truly devalued. The tourism industry meets this need for visually recognizable signs and landmarks with postcards, travel guides and sightseeing tours: sightseeing tours of cities, for example, focus on familiar. The communicated image of the city is thus restricted to images shaped in advance and disseminated by the media.” / Regina Bittner, The spectator's city, in "Volume 19", pag.20-21-22-23 Evident is how the choice, the use and the consumption of tourist images in Jerusalem, embodies, as we mentioned before, precise political selections intended to reduce, complexities and issues, in order to offer to the spectator or the next consumer, a series of identifiable images that can guide his visit and his opinion. In this sense, the image conveyed, is, out of doubt, limited and identitarian, in the negative meaning of exclusion. Express the trait of the city, and specially concerning Jerusalem, it means overturn this point of view; highlight the complexity, promote the contraddictions and the marginalities, stimulating in the gaze of the viewer the curiosity towards the places, the places of life, that cannot ignore the daily issues, traffic, noises, stress and the precarious and unstable condition with whom the minority has to deal with. Not by offering solutions, but encouraging and making dialogue easier; promoting ways of participation to the debate and the diffusion of problematics. “E' anche possibile educare l'osservatore. Brown nota come un labirinto apparisse come un problema initerrotto a soggetti richiesti di aggirarvisi bendati. Ripetendo l'esperienza, alcune parti del sistema, particolarmente l'inizio e la fine divenivano familiari ed acquisivano carattere di locali-


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tà. Alla fine, quando essi riuscirono a percorrere il labirinto senza errore, l'intero sistema sembrò divenire per loro una unica località.” / Lynch Kevin, L'immagine della città, Venezia, Marsilio Editori, 1964

eng

term used by the israeli graphic designer David Tartakover to define his working process.

30

“You may also train the observer. Brown remarks, that a maze through which subjects were asked to move blindfolded, it seemed to them at first to be an unbroken problem. By repeating the experience, some parts of the system, particularly the beginning and end, became familiar and they assumed the character of localities. Finally, when they succeded in traverse the maze without error, the whole system seemed to had become for them a unique locality.”

Collect images and edit them, in order to organize groups of images that complete each other and contribute to offer to the audience a critical point of view, as well as a significant amount. “Every job should have something to say, rather than just looking good. Indeed, looking good might be the worst result, as the subjective and challenging stand out.” “‘Collecting images is not enough’, says Van Toorn, ‘editing is needed to produce meaning.’ / Jan Van Toorn, Collecting images is not enough. How democratic is it? http://blog.eyemagazine.com/?p=170 Thus, an image of a certain place can change from an observer to an other one. The role of a designer is supported by being a citizen, or local designer 30; he is oriented to find and distinguish, the hidden, or less evident, shapes, in the crowd of our cities; by highlighting and spreading them, in the broader way possible, to produce meaning. Not a specific professionality, but a collaborative role that makes use of other knowledges in order to have the necessary skills to read and show the subtle dynamics of the urban space. Acquire a series of knowledges, do research, and select thematics, producing a final work in order to communicate, in the better way, the topics. Not feeling ashamed, to use the tools coming from the tourist industry, for promoting differences, but use these to create a puzzle of unknown images, in order to bring them to the surface. My research is my personal contribute to the spread of a critical image of Jerusalem,

that can envisage the biggest number of variables possible and biggest number of actors in play. It doesn't pretends to be, an ending project, as endless and unlimited is the structure of that or any other city. The goal sought, and that a civic designer has to pursue, is to make visible what is invisible, or not evident, offering a breaking perspective. Versatile, compared with the tourist image regularly advertised, and open to changes and implementations, by those who will have new or updated contents. Demonstrate with this work, done in context, for some reasons extreme as Jerusalem is, how this process can be repeated and developed in the daily life, even and mainly where, apparently don't seem to be present marginalization phenomena. Suggesting then, an analysis method and a process, aimed to bring in surface all dynamics that create marginality, by conditioning any kind of limit's line, usefull just for those who propose it. Offer the critical tools and, the knowledge, of these environments of the public space, in those who cannot interact, because of physical or social distance, directly with these places. Consequently, stimulate participation, combine informations and points of view, give a true perspective of the events, by showing a group of single images that contribute to create the public image of any city. “Benchè nei suoi grandi lineamenti essa possa mantenersi stabile per qualche tempo, nei dettagli essa cambia senza posa. I controlli a cui la sua crescita e la sua forma sono suscettibili sono soltanto parziali. Non vi è alcun risultato finale, solo una successione continua di farsi” / Lynch Kevin, L'immagine della città, Venezia, Marsilio Editori, 1964

eng

“While it could be stable in its general outlines for a certain time, it is ever changing in the details. Only partials are the controls that can be exercised over its growth and its form. There is no final result, only a continuous succession on being.”


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http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/ http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=11 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=23 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=27 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=31 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=34 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=37 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=41 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=44 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=48 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=52 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=55 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=60 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=63 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=66 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=70 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=75 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=80 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=84 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=87 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=91 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=96 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=101 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=104 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=108 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=115 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=117 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=133 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=137 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=140 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=143 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=154 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=159 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=162

http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=168 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=172 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=175 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=181 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=186 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=190 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=195 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=199 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=204 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=208 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=213 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=216 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=219 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=223 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=229 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=233 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=236 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=240 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=243 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=246 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=249 http://www.thetraitofthecity.org/?p=254


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E

R

U

S

A

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E

M

d-

J

l

i

look at the star of david!

n

i

3/05/2011

u

g “It’s the most unfriendly icon. Six edges willing to punch everyone.Very narrow edges!”

4/05/2011

b

- Lahav Halevi -

2 0 1 1

9

3 5/05/2011

Jerusalem of gold posters

6/05/2011

Holy city Dome of the rock

7/05/2011

Western wall

8/05/2011

1

7

9/05/2011

how long did it last IN ...

ME’A SHe’ARIM LOCATION: me’a she’arim jerusalem Ultraorthodox jewish neighbournhood NO TANKS - ONE WEEK POSTER INSTALLATION

4


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the trait of the city

Nomi Ebraici Adonay Yir’eh Ari’el Betulah Derushah Ge’Hizayon Gilah ‘Ir David ‘Ir Ha’Elohim ‘Ir Ha’Emet ‘Ir Ha-Qodesh Yevus Yerushalaim Qir Qiryah ‘Alizah Qiryat Hanah David Qiryat Melekh Rav Qiryah Ne’emanah Kelilat Yofi Moriyah Neveh Tzedeq Oholivah Shalom Tziyyon Tzur Hamishor

Nomi Arabi al Quds Bayt al-Maqdis al-Balat Ilya *

e of

Jerusalem

Peopl

*

3/05/2011

Maronta Fabrizio, “Una Città Mille Nomi”, La battaglia per Gerusalemme, Quaderni speciali di Limes, gruppo editoriale l’Espresso, n.2, 2010, p.139

Yerushalaim

al Quds 4/05/2011

10

6

5/05/2011

6/05/2011

orthodox Jews Neighboorhood

Arab Neighboorhood

CHRISTIAN Neighboorhood

01 Batei Hornstein 02 Batei Munkatch 03 Batei Nijtin 04 Batei Rand 05 Batei Ungarin 06 Bayit Vegan 07 Beit Yisrael 08 Bukharim 09 Ezrat Torah 10 Geula 11 Givat Mordechai 12 Givat Moshe 13 Givat Shaul 14 Har Nof 15 Ir David (City of David) 16 Kerem Avraham 17 Kiryat Belz 18 Kiryat Moshe 19 Kiryat Sanz 20 Kiryat Shomrei Emunim 21 Machanayim 22 Mattersdorf Kiryat Mattersdorf 23 Meah Sherim 24 Mekor Baruch 25 Nachalat Ya’akov 26 Neve Yaakov 27 Ramot Polin 28 Ramat Shlomo 29 Sanhedria 30 Sanhedria Murhevet 31 Schunat Achua 32 Sha’arei Hesed 33 Shaarei Chesed 34 Shikun Chabad 35 Shmuel Hanavi 36 Tel Arza 37 Unsdorf 38 Zikhron Yosef 39 Givay Beit Hakerem 40 Yefeh Nof 41 Mei Nefto’ah

01 Al Bustan 02 Al-Issawiya 03 American Colony 04 Armenian quarter - old city 05 Ash-Sheikh Sad 06 At-Tur (Mount of Olives) 07 Bab A Zahara 08 Beit Hanina 09 Beit Safafa 10 Jabel Mukaber 11 Kafr’Aqab 12 Muristan 13 Muslim quarter - old city 14 Ras al-Amud 15 Sheikh Jarrah 16 Shuafat 17 Shuafat Refugee Camp 18 Silwan 19 Sur Baher 20 Tantor 21 Umm Tuba 22 Wadi Al-Joz 23 Wadi Qadum 24 Sharafat 25 Rawdat El-Zuhur 26 Khirbet Beit Sahur 27 Abu Tor 28 Umm Lison 29 Arab Es-Sowahira 30 Hizma 31 Anata

01 Christian quarter - old city

03

ATAROT

26

08

67

Beit Hanina

67

67 27

Neve Yaakov

NORTH Pisgat Ze’ev

Pisgat Ze’ev

30

Ramot Polin

67 72

28

Ramot

Ramat Shlomo

16

67

Shuafat

EAST Pisgat Ze’ev

souTh Pisgat Ze’ev

31 16

30

29 22

41

Mattersdorf Kiryat Mattersdorf

17

09

19

Kiryat Belz

37

mei nefto’ah

13 95

36

70

Ma’alot Dafna

94

16 90

Zikhron Yosef

43

Kiryat david ben gurion

Geula

32

75

01

Mamilla

11

Machane Yisrael

64

David’s Village (Mamilla)

13

62

JEWISH QUARTER Old City

CHRISTIAN QUARTER

Armenian Quarter OLD CITY

Komemiyut (Talbieh)

99

06 36

MOSKOVIA

26

Bayit VeGan

11

Kiryat (Ha)Yovel

69

38

Givat HaVeradim

14

Givat Oranim

48

79

GIVAT HANANYA

27

ABU TOR

10

NORTH Talpiot

khirbet beit sahur

Jabel Mukaber

85

85

09 24

12

East Talpiot Armon Hanatziv

Arnona - OLD TALPIOT

29

Beit Safafa

SHARAFAT

28

23

19

20

arab es-sowahira

Umm lison

Givat HaMatos

GIVAT CANADA

96

Nuf Zion

Talpiot

Talpiot industrial area

02

Rawdat el-zuhur

61

San Simon

Gonen (Katamonim)

Ir Ganim

92

01

Geulim (Bak’a)

Mekor Chayim

Givat Massuah

25

German Colony

26 19

Katamon Old Katamon

Holy Land Towers

27

31

18

Greek Colony

Ras al-Amud

Silwan

Rassco

33

85

22 30

21

74

24 Ramat Sharett

Kiryat Menachem

Wadi qadum

Ma’ale HaZeitim

City of David - Ir David

mishkenot sha’anamim

Givat Mordechai

Ramat Denya

71

23

41

Yemin Moshe

10

40

Kiryat Shmuel

18

93

At-Tur (Mount of Olives)

Quarter Muslim OLD CITY

Kiryat wolfsohn

39

Neve Sh’aanan

HAR HATZOFIM

06 MORASHA

Rehavia

89

60

Ramat Beit HaKerem

Ein Karem

91

Bab a Zahara

54

Compou

45

Sha’arei Hesed

100

07

Meah Shearim

nd

Neve Granot

Wadi al-Joz

American Colony

Beit Yisrael

07

23 Russian

GIVAY BEit hakerem

68

22

Kerem Avraham

44 39

Sheikh Jarrah

Zikhron Moshe

Machane Yehuda

77 Beit HaKerem

59

13

15 Shmuel haNavi

03 Mekor Baruch

38

Kiryat Moshe

06

Yefeh Nof

al-Issawiya

Kiryat Menachem

Sanhedria

42

Bukharim

35 24

18

40

02

38

Ramat Eshkol

Tel Arza

29 08

Kfar shaul

Har Nof

anata

Givat Shapira (French Hill)

tzameret habira

Shikun Chabad

Etz Chayim

10

14

97

gIVAT HAMIVTAR

Romema

14

Givat Shaul

Ezrat Torah

Kiryat Sanz

Unsdorf

Motza

76

98

Sanhedria Murhevet

Har Hotzvim

34

49

HIZMA

WEST Pisgat Ze’ev

posters

7/05/2011

Jews Neighboorhood

01 Givat Hananya 02 Arnica - Old Talpyot 03 Atarot 04 Baka 05 Beit David 06 Beit Hakerem 07 Beit Ya’akov 08 Botei Broide 09 Batei Rand 10 City of David - Ir David 11 David’s village (Mamilla) 12 East Talpyot Armon Hanatziv 13 Ein Karem 14 Etz Chayim 15 Kiryat Sanz 16 Givat Shaper (French Hill) 17 French Compound 18 German Colony 19 Geulim (Bak’a) 20 Gilo 21 Givat Massuah 22 Givat Oranim 23 Givat Hamatos 24 Givat Haveradim 25 Givat Ram 26 Greek Colony 27 Gonen (Katamonim) 28 Har Homa 29 Har Hotzvim 30 Holy land towers 31 Ir Ganim 32 Jebel Batan al-hawa (Har Hamashchit) 33 Katamon - old Katamon 34 Kfar David (Manilla) 35 Kiryat Haleum 36 Kiryat (ha)yovel 37 Kiryat Mattersdorf 38 Kiryat Menachem 39 Kiryat Shmuel 40 Komuniyut (Talbieh) 41 Ma’ale Hazeitim 42 Ma’alot Dafna 43 Machane Yehuda 44 Machane Yisrael 45 Mamilla 46 Manahat (malha) 47 Mazkeret Moshe 48 Mekor chayim 49 Motza 50 Mont Scopus 51 Mount of Olives 52 Mount Zion 53 Mishkenot Sha’ananim 54 Morasha 55 Nachlaot 56 Nachalat Shiv’a 57 Nachalat Shimon 58 Nayot 59 Neve Granot 60 Neve Sh’aanan 61 Nuf Zion 62 Jewish quarter - old city 63 Pat 64 Armenian quarter - old city 65 The Cardo 66 Moroccan quarter 67 North Pisgat ze’ev 67 Pisgat ze’ev 67 West Pisgat ze’ev 67 South Pisgat ze’ev 67 East Pisgat ze’ev 68 Ramat Beit Hakerem 69 Ramat Denya 70 Ramat Eshkol 71 Ramat Sharett 72 Ramot 73 Ras al-mud 74 Rassco 75 Rehavia 76 Romema 77 Russian compound 78 San Martin 79 San Simon 80 Sawahra al-arbiya 81 Sharafat 82 Shimon Hatzadik 83 Sur Baher 84 Talbiya 85 Talpiot 85 North Talpiot 85 Talpiot industrial area 86 Umm Tuba 87 Unsdorf 88 Yefeh Nof 89 Yemin Moshe 90 Zikhron Moshe 91 Har Hatzofim 92 Givat Canada 93 Moskovia 94 Kiryat David Ben Gurion 95 Kfar Shaul 96 Givat Ha’arba’a 97 Tzameret Habira 98 Givat Hamivtar 99 Mishkenot Sha’anamim 100 Kiryat Wolfsohn

Sur Baher

GIVAT HA’ARBA’A

Gilo

JErusalem religious map

21

Umm Tuba

8/05/2011

8

5 1949

2111

call for entries

how long did it last IN ...

new symbols new city...

+

MEKOR BARUCH LOCATION: mekor baruch JERUSALEM central bus station area NO TANKS - ONE WEEK POSTER INSTALLATION

the same process:

new logo for the capital of the new state of Israel: Jerusalem!

9/05/2011

+

2 +

4

“Jerusalem emblem” past / future

the members of the commitee decided the symbols: ...the wall in it stands for the city of jerusalem, or for the wailing wall,

...and that the lion keeps guard of the wall

+

...while the olive branches stands for peace.

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an new logo! image of the city is not fixed is changing. ...the dome of the rock it still will be there,

...the new Calatrava’s bridge, the new gate of Jerusalem,

+

...and the new fast train, that symbolize technology and modern era.

+


bibliography

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c

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articles

a 'ABD Al-Qàdir Sinàn, Le tribulazioni di un urbanista urbano a Gerusalemme Est, "La battaglia per Gerusalemme", Quaderni speciali di Limes, gruppo editoriale l'Espresso, n.2, 2010, p.117 Ammiel Alcalay, Jerusalem, The Islamic City, "Middle East Report", n. 182, Jerusalem and the Peace Agenda (May - Jun. 1993), Middle East Research and Information Project, pp.19-21

B Bat Amir Bar On, Meditations on National Identity, "Hypatia", Vol. 9, n.2, Feminism and Peace (Spring, 1994), Indiana University Press, pp. 40-62 Betsky Aaron, Make ourselves at home in sprawl, GUST, Ghent Urban Studies Team, POST-EX-SUB-DIS, "The urban condition: space, community and self in the contemporary metropolis", Rotterdam, 010 Publishers, 1999, Bittner Regina, The spectator's city, in "Architecture of Hope", Volume n.19, a project by ARCHIS+OMA+C-Lab., Stichting Archis, The Netherlands, 2009, p.20 Boeri Stefano, On some paradoxes in the Relationship between Photography and the Contemporary City, GUST, Ghent Urban Studies Team, POSTEX-SUB-DIS, "The urban condition: space, community and self in the contemporary metropolis", Rotterdam, 010 Publishers, 1999

C Caridi Paola, Musrara, centro diviso del mondo, "La battaglia per Gerusalemme", Quaderni speciali di Limes, gruppo editoriale l'Espresso, n.2, 2010, p.123

D De Giovannangeli Umberto, Il Negoziato Impossibile, "La battaglia per Gerusalemme", Quaderni speciali di Limes, gruppo editoriale l'Espresso, n.2, 2010, p.45 De Giovannangeli Umberto intervista Burg Avraham, Meno Celeste più Città. Il nostro stato non può essere ebraico, "La battaglia per Gerusalemme", Quaderni speciali di Limes, gruppo editoriale l'Espresso, n.2, 2010, p.67

De Giovannangeli Umberto intervista Nusseibeh Sari, Il fanatismo per i simboli diminuisce l'uomo, "La battaglia per Gerusalemme", Quaderni speciali di Limes, gruppo editoriale l'Espresso, n.2, 2010, p.81 Dusi Elena, Pieraccini Paolo, La Battaglia per Gerusalemme, La battaglia per Gerusalemme, Quaderni speciali di Limes, gruppo editoriale l'Espresso, n.2, 2010, p.9

G Gurevitch Zali and Aran Gideon, The Land of Israel: Myth and Phenomenon, in "Reshaping the Past: Jewish History and the Historians",' Studies in Contemporary Jewry, 1994.

K Keret Etgar, Tel Aviv e Gerusalemme, le due anime di Israele, "La battaglia per Gerusalemme", Quaderni speciali di Limes, gruppo editoriale l'Espresso, n.2, 2010, p.85 Klein Menachem La Gerusalemme Est Liberata, "La battaglia per Gerusalemme", Quaderni speciali di Limes, gruppo editoriale l'Espresso, n.2, 2010, p.29 Koolhass Rem, Bigness, "Domus n.764", Ottobre 1994, pag.87-90 Koolhass Rem, La città generica, "Domus n.791", Dicembre 1997, pag.3-12 Krystall Nathan, The De-Arabization of West Jerusalem 1947-50, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 27, n. 2 (Winter, 1998), pp. 5-22

L Lionni Pippo, La citta senza nome: segni e segnali nella metropoli moderna : atti del 1. Convegno internazionale di studio sull'immagine della citta : Roma 27-28 ottobre 1994, Sala della Promoteca in Campidoglio. - Roma : De Luca, [1996]. - 161 p. : ill. ; 30 cm Lussu Giovanni, Parole, Parole, Parole, "La citta senza nome: segni e segnali nella metropoli moderna" : atti del 1. Convegno internazionale di studio sull'immagine della città: Roma 27-28 ottobre 1994, Sala della Promoteca in Campidoglio. - Roma : De Luca, [1996]. - 161 p. : ill. ; 30 cm


articles

M Maronta Fabrizio, Una Città Mille Nomi, "La battaglia per Gerusalemme", Quaderni speciali di Limes, gruppo editoriale l'Espresso, n.2, 2010, p.139 Merril Selah, Within thy gates, O Jerusalem, "The Biblical World", Vol. 12, n. 5 (Nov. 1898), The University of Chicago Press, pp. 293-302

N Ne'eman Arad Giulie, Israel and the Shoah.A tale of multivarious taboo, "New German Critique", n.90, Taboo, Trauma, Holocaust (Autumn, 2003), New German Critique, pp. 5-26,

0 Oz Almog, The Sabra Genome in the Israeli Mentality, "Tikkun" (Israel at 60 – Special Issue), May-June http://www.tikkun.org/article.php/OzSabraGenome

R Rand Paul, “Logos, flags and escutcheons”, in Looking Closer: critical writings on graphic design, Bierut Michel, Drenttel William, Heller Steven, Holland DK, New York, Allworth Press, 1994, p.88 Riezebos Rik, City Branding Sense or Non sense, EURIB, european institute for brand management, EURIB white paper, February 2007, http://www.eurib.org/ en/knowledge-resource-centre/onlinerecource-centre/city-branding.html Rubinstein Danny, La capitale impossibile, "La battaglia per Gerusalemme", Quaderni speciali di Limes, gruppo editoriale l'Espresso, n.2, 2010, p.109

S Saar Yuval , Fonts of Wisdom http://www.haaretz.com/weekend/magazine/fonts-of-wisdom-1.315474 Saar Yuval, On the altar of the 'new gods' http://www.haaretz.com/news/on-thealtar-of-the-new-gods-1.174397 Said Edward , Invention, Memory, Place, "Critical Inquiry", Vol. 26, n.2 (Winter, 2000), The University of Chicago Press, pp. 175-192,

Soya Edward W., Sprawl is no longer what it used to be, GUST, Ghent Urban Studies Team, POST-EX-SUB-DIS, "The urban condition: space, community and self in the contemporary metropolis", Rotterdam, 010 Publishers, 1999 Stampfli Regula, Seeing diversity? Seeing democracy? Seeing multiplicity?, in Architecture of Hope, Volume n.19, a project by ARCHIS+OMA+C-Lab., Stichting Archis, The Netherlands, 2009, p.26

T Tartakover David, The face is familiar http://www.haaretz.com/weekend/magazine/the-face-is-familiar-1.287861

V Van Toorn Jan, Collecting images is not enough. How democratic is it? http://blog.eyemagazine.com/?p=170

W Walsh Dan, Statehood In Mind, "Print Magazine", January/February 2001, Weiss Elliot, Packaging Jewishness: Novelty and tradition in kosher food packaging, "Design Issues", Vol. 20, n. 1 (Winter, 2004), The MIT Press, pp. 48-61, Winfield-Pfefferkorn Julia, THE BRANDING OF CITIES. Exploring City Branding and the Importance of Brand Image, MASTERS THESIS Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree in Master of Arts in Advertising Design at the Graduate School of Syracuse University, August 2005

Y Ypma Evert and Van der Velden Daniel, Nations re-nationalized, in "Architecture of Hope", Volume n.19, a project by ARCHIS+OMA+C-Lab., Stichting Archis, The Netherlands, 2009, p.116


image credits

1. Animal's marking http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ en/6/6c/John_Riley_Banister_points_to_ the_changed_brand_on_a_stolen_animal. jpg Judenstern http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ commons/c/c9/Judenstern_JMW.jpg Jewish Ghetto http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ commons/0/05Judenstern_F%C3%BCr th_Schwabacherstr.jpg French football team http://world-cup-wallpaper.com/wpcontent/uploads/2011/03/France-nationalsoccer.jpg Girl with Saudi Arabian Flag http://tantaonews.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/XxjpbeE000966_20100923_ TPPFN1A001.jpg Melbourne city identity http://2.bp.blogspot. com/_1Uez6rdyeqs/TMTB-__xlVI/ AAAAAAAAADQ/00P8p8Hj1As/s1600/10 1015+city+of+Melbourne+brand.jpg Advertising images for airport - http://www.accenture-blogpodium.nl/ site/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/GB-BP0816-Accenture-dec-2010-005.jpg - http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/41/Changi_airport_ terminal_3zz.JPG Generic City Identity Screen shots from Google Earth I love New York merchandising http://nycfactory.info/gallery/ILOVENYHOODIES-GALLERY.jpg I Love New York Logo http://www.dadwagon.com/wp-content/ uploads/2010/01/i-love-new-york.png I AMsterdam http://livo.files.wordpress.com/2008/10/iamsterdam-foto.jpg

3. - Erhard Reuwich, View of Jerusalem, from Breydenbach, Peregrinationes in Terram Sanctam

- Scorel, The Entry of Christ into Je-rusalem, central panel of Lochorst Triptych( detail). Utrecht, Centraal Museum( photo:C entraal Museum) R.Marshall David, Carpaccio, Saint Stephen and the Topography of Jerusalem, The Art Bullettin vol.66, n.4 (december 1984), pp 610-620, College Art Association Daily newspapers and information material Jerusalem, Walls of the Temple Abigail Solomon-Godeau, A Photographer in Jerusalem, 1855: Auguste Salzmann and His Times, October, Vol. 18 (Autumn, 1981), p.91 Logo El Al, 1963 http://www.a-g-i. org/?lid=1951&tmpl=images Logo El Al, 1971 http://www.a-g-i. org/?lid=2139&tmpl=images El AL Corporate Identity AA.VV. , Graphic Design in Israel, Tel Aviv, commitee of the graphic designers association of Israel (gdai) p. 109 Jerusalem, series of posters for El Al AA.VV. , Dan Reisinger, The Life as Work, Beijing, 2001, p.32

5. Diaspora Arbel Rachel, Blue and White in Color. Visual Images of Zionism, 1897 – 1947, Bet Hatefutsoth, The Nahum Goldmann Museum of the Jewish Diaspora, Tel Aviv, 1996, p.40 The New State of Israel Arbel Rachel, Blue and White in Color. Visual Images of Zionism, 1897 – 1947, Bet Hatefutsoth, The Nahum Goldmann Museum of the Jewish Diaspora, Tel Aviv, 1996, p.132 Ben Gurion Poster Tartakover David, Produce in Israel, Jerusalem, The Dominio Press, 1984, p.12 Die stimme der Wahrheit Arbel Rachel, Blue and White in Color. Visual Images of Zionism, 1897 – 1947, Bet Hatefutsoth, The Nahum Goldmann Museum of the Jewish Diaspora, Tel Aviv, 1996, p.20


image credits

We march on... Arbel Rachel, Blue and White in Color. Visual Images of Zionism, 1897 – 1947, Bet Hatefutsoth, The Nahum Goldmann Museum of the Jewish Diaspora, Tel Aviv, 1996, p.45

map of Palestine Arbel Rachel, Blue and White in Color. Visual Images of Zionism, 1897 – 1947, Bet Hatefutsoth, The Nahum Goldmann Museum of the Jewish Diaspora, Tel Aviv, 1996, p.58

"Poster of the Zionist Federation of the Holocaust Survivors in Germany and the United Pioneering Youth. The Ghetto Fighters' House in Memory of Itzhak Katznelson, Kibbutz Lohamei Haghetaot" Arbel Rachel, Blue and White in Color. Visual Images of Zionism, 1897 – 1947, Bet Hatefutsoth, The Nahum Goldmann Museum of the Jewish Diaspora, Tel Aviv, 1996, pp 50-51

Zionist Soldiers Arbel Rachel, Blue and White in Color. Visual Images of Zionism, 1897 – 1947, Bet Hatefutsoth, The Nahum Goldmann Museum of the Jewish Diaspora, Tel Aviv, 1996, p.117

Land for the jewish commonwealth Land their goal Arbel Rachel, Blue and White in Color. Visual Images of Zionism, 1897 – 1947, Bet Hatefutsoth, The Nahum Goldmann Museum of the Jewish Diaspora, Tel Aviv, 1996 Herzl's Carpet Arbel Rachel, Blue and White in Color. Visual Images of Zionism, 1897 – 1947, Bet Hatefutsoth, The Nahum Goldmann Museum of the Jewish Diaspora, Tel Aviv, 1996, p.13 Posters with Israeli flags AAVV, Posters from the Zionism 2000 Collection, Beit Yehushua, Zionism 2000, 2008, p.99 Men with house in right side AAVV, Posters from the Zionism 2000 Collection, Beit Yehushua, Zionism 2000, 2008, p.112 The country of our future Hg. Günter Eisenhut, Franz Krausz 19051998, Pioneer of advertising art in Israel, Graz-Wien, 2005, Nausner & NausnerVerlag, p.54 Boat pag.71 Hg. Günter Eisenhut, Franz Krausz 19051998, Pioneer of advertising art in Israel, Graz-Wien, 2005, Nausner & NausnerVerlag. Terre Promise Arbel Rachel, Blue and White in Color. Visual Images of Zionism, 1897 – 1947, Bet Hatefutsoth, The Nahum Goldmann Museum of the Jewish Diaspora, Tel Aviv, 1996, p.74

Poster Indipendence Day 1977, proposal Tartakover David, Produce in Israel, Jerusalem, The Dominio Press, 1984, p.56 Zvi Narkiss, Ben Yehuda stamp Shamir's Brothers, The story of Israeli Stamps, Holliwood, Wilshire Book Company Edition, 1969, p.47 Herzl sketch Klanten Robert, Oded Ezer, The Typographer's Guide to the Galaxy, Berlin, Gestalten, 2009 Herzl immages Arbel Rachel, Blue and White in Color. Visual Images of Zionism, 1897 – 1947, Bet Hatefutsoth, The Nahum Goldmann Museum of the Jewish Diaspora, Tel Aviv, 1996, p.14-15-60 Herzl profile Tartakover David, Dankner Ammon, Where we were and what we did.An Israeli lexicon of the Fifties and Sixties, Jerusalem, Keter Publisher, 1996, p.62 Shamir's Brothers, dr. T. Herzl stamp Shamir's Brothers, The story of Israeli Stamps, Holliwood, Wilshire Book Company Edition, 1969, p.7 Srulik images Tartakover David, Dankner Ammon, Where we were and what we did.An Israeli lexicon of the Fifties and Sixties, Jerusalem, Keter Publisher, 1996, p.92-93

6. Palestinian Posters Venetia Porter, 35 years – 35 prints Har El Printers & Publishers. British Museum Reference No. 2009, Images courtesy of the British Museum, 2010.


image credits

7 Buy Produce of Israel, Poster Tartakover David, Produce in Israel, Jerusalem, The Dominio Press, 1984, p.60

all the others images are property by the author


main links, sources and archves

Ir Amin http://www.ir-amim.org.il/eng/ B'tselem http://www.btselem.org/ ICAHD http://www.icahd.org/ Bezalel Academy of Art & Design http://www.bezalel.ac.il/en/about/library/ Central Zionist Archives Zalman Shazar 4 Jerusalem 91000 http://www.zionistarchives.org.il/ZA/ pMainE.aspx Educational Bookshop The Stationer, Salah Eddin 22 The Books & CafĂŠ, Salah Eddin 19 Jerusalem 91540 http://www.educationalbookshop.com/ Intellect Books http://www.intellectbooks.co.il/ Israeli Poster Center King George Street 29 Jerusalem http://www.israeliposters.co.il/ The Book Gallery Schatz Street 6, Jerusalem 94267


thanks to

Adi Carlo Daniela David Elke Eran Francesca Gabriele Gila Jan Lahav Marta Oded Selene Silvio Yona


The Trait of the City.Non-Branding Identity for Jerusalem  

MA Graduation Project Visual and Multimedia Communications Degree IUAV - Arts and Design Faculty - Venice

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