Page 1

• BUILDING FORM

ORIEN UR TATIO BA N

• BUILDING MATERIALS SELECTION

a

N LA ND SCA PE

OPEN SPAC E HIGH URBA RAR N CHY CIRCU LATIO N

A.Latif Zakaria Adam; M.Sc.

• CONSTRUCTIO N METHODS

• DESIGN & PLANNING BYE-LAWS

ABST RACT 1 Urban pattern is considered a crucial baseline of both urban planning and urban design criteria. the plot, the block, the neighborhood, the town, and the city patterns, are decisive in urban expression through the following design and planning paradigms: Environment. Culture. Socioeconomic. Functional organization. The previous four paradigms are very comprehensive and multidisciplinary to each other in eventual urban space and building forms, in relation to open space hierarchy; traffic and pedestrian circulation paths.no doubt pattern in design and planning is considered in links, associated with plan configurations of an urban entity at a level. a vertical profile of any urban unit or an urban complex, i.e. building facades as vertical planes, more or less are logical respond of their configurations pattern. Lines; vertically and horizontally, nodes, intersections and parallelism, expressing an urban building in meanings derived from the functional and environmental criteria. This lay threshold of urban forms, are associated with urban age, urban culture and urban sociology. All are conceptualized as an urban pattern output. No doubt the matter is realistic in real estate’s input challenges of building materials and constructional techniques, but the environ-cultural, socioeconomic, functional organization are fundamentally pattern like. This paper is going to highlight in broad and specific, the previous four paradigms on urban design baseline with some emphasis on Khartoum town urban age. Analysis is expected on conceptualization and short previewing samples of the selected case of entitled nominated paper in focus criteria. TRACT: [Course title]


……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ‫بسم هللا الرحمن الرحيم‬ ‫ دلكم هللا ربكم ال اله اال هو‬101‫…بديع السموات واالرض انى يكون له ولد ولم تكن له صاحبة وخلق كل شى وهو بكل شى عليم‬ ‫ صدق هللا العظيم‬103 ‫ ال تدركه االبصار وهو يدرك االبصار وهو اللطيف الخبير‬102‫خلق كل شى فاعبدوه وهو على كل شى وكيل‬ ‫ الجزء السابع‬- ‫االنعام‬…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Article Title: Some Paradigms on Urban Pattern.1 BY: A.Latif Zakaria Adam; MSc. Arch. (U.of.K.). Africa Street. Gazira Block. Plot 69. Khartoum 1. (Aza Const.). alatifadam@yahoo.com. ‫ ماجستير‬- ‫ عبد اللطيف زكريا ادم‬:‫معمارى‬.‫ م‬,

Keywords: pattern-paradigms. Environment. Culture. Socioeconomic. Functional organization0.0.Abstract Urban pattern is considered a crucial baseline of both urban planning and urban design criteria. The plot, the block, the neighborhood, the town, and the city patterns, are decisive in urban expression through the following design and planning paradigms: Environment. Culture. Socioeconomic. Functional organization. The previous four paradigms are very comprehensive and multidisciplinary to each other in eventual urban space and building forms, in relation to open space hierarchy; traffic and pedestrian circulation paths.no doubt pattern in design and planning is considered in links, associated with plan configurations of an urban entity at a level. A vertical profile of any urban unit or an urban complex, i.e. building facades as vertical planes, more or less are logical respond of their configurations pattern. Lines; vertically and horizontally, nodes, intersections and parallelism, expressing an urban building in meanings derived from the functional and environmental criteria. This lay threshold of urban forms, are associated with urban age, urban culture and urban sociology. All are conceptualized as an urban pattern output. No doubt the matter is realistic in real estate’s input challenges of building materials and constructional techniques, but the environ-cultural, socioeconomic, functional organization are fundamentally pattern like. This paper is going to highlight in broad and specific, the previous four paradigms on urban design baseline with some emphasis on Khartoum town urban age. Analysis is expected on conceptualization and short previewing samples of the selected case of entitled nominated paper in focus criteria.

1

This Article is Submitted for Publication Approval on Journal of Building And Road Research :ISSN 18585018


. SOCIOECONOMIC

ENVIRONMENT

ttern Paradigms URBAN PATTERN

CULTURE

FUNCTIONAL ORGONIZATION

pattern selection criterion or criteria. This emphasizes recent methods pattern articulation themes; broadly on: Grid iron pattern hierarchy. FIG.4: el Deuom & its Vicinity...  Concentric pattern hierarchy. FIG. 5:.el Khartoum 1& 2

Both hierarchies’ are perceptual on fig. 2: Pattern of Perception. Climate the central theme of physical environmental analysis of urban design and planning, motivates

cultural expression by an urban designer or planner besides modern ways in a way that culture and technology, previously IN handicrafts express environmental challenges. Colonial architecture in Sudan had a great contribution in this respect in specific constructional methods adopted.

2

Sketches by the Author


Open spaces and road system hierarchy in definitions of building forms and facades techniques at urban levels are nouns and verbs of 4 paradigmatic pattern Demonstrations deemed to urban design trends.

In language guide, a paradigm means a pattern system, or clauses in arrangement. A pattern itself means logical arrangement of entities, intitutively or in geometrical shapes logic. In specific, the historical terminology for a “Pattern� means a decorative piece of fine or applied art in a repetition of a geometrical 3

Reviewed from; Heim; (Heim n.d.) Source: left bottom drawing by Portoghesi in The Dynamics f Architectural Form; Heim. Top left image and wright side image: THE Metros and Metropolis of Nyala Town 4


shape (s), in design logic at least emphasized by visual rhythm for an output on targets of an objective in endless design criteria. Recently polyhedral geometry forms a basic design elements in students’ works worldwide in schools of architecture. A lot of polyhedral shapes are found naturally in different bonds of all matter states and specifically in bio-chemical nature. See collage on FIG. 1 below. This collage previews basic design work on polyhedral approach done by a group of architectural careers in philosophy of image grammar rather than words grammar in world of architecture, planning, and urban design in specific. The collage reveals shaping the space through elementary basic design techniques. 5 polyhedral patterns on this collage: please take a visual rotation counter clockwise start from, hand finger pattern mid left collage; mid right picture view as well and read the following patterns. •Human hand-fingers pattern of symmetry in basic design. •A chemical bond pattern of mineral soda lite polyhedral. •Solid volume pattern out of periodic surfaces dodecagon polyhedral. •Tangled 10- triangle pattern repetition for a basic design polyhedral. •Computer draft for sphere polyhedral. The collage on FIG.:2reveals a symbolic abstract that the pattern unit in any basic design approach is an endless abstract for design work in architecture and urban design and far possible in urban planning too for perception and FIG 2 -conceptualization of shaping the -space for human design purposes; like the fundamental triple of architecture, urban design, and urban planning.


(Fig.2: Collage of polyhedral Pattern Selection5)

3. Articulation. Urban pattern, means logical arrangement of urban entities on urban design and planning rules subject to all measurement criteria. Thus from decorative art in basic definition of pattern, the term is elaborated to include sophisticated logical Arrangement in urban buildings design of: neighborhoods, communities, towns and cities in different scales from metropolitan hinter; FIG.3 over leaf up- to recent mega cities. These outlines mean idiomatic pattern in standard terminology of regular pattern concept, subject to multi-disciplinary articulations rather than intuitive clustering of rural- urban influx at poor metropolitan hinter, however this true in urban history that most of entire world urbanism based on metropolitan intuition, which IS mainly Metros& Metropolis towards urbanization. Nevertheless, on this paper profile, according to standard ground articulation let us take the following patterns of articulation: • The metros pattern hierarchy. • The metropolis pattern hierarchy. • The metropolitan pattern hierarchy. Each pattern of the previous 3 paradigms includes Subsidiary patterns like in followings:  Intuitive pattern.  Analytical pattern.  Loop cluster pattern.  Geometrical pattern.  Functional pattern.  Transactional pattern.  Endless list for these subsidiaries to include the major articulation pattern of the main previous paradigms. For final form pattern output in architecture, urban design, and urban planning for satisfaction of human needs functionally and expressing human values meaningfully on purposes of objectives. In urban Below on FIG. 3: The Metros Pattern of Nyala Town; represents a rural -urban concept, paradigmatically on local Sudanese cultural & socioeconomic motivation towards rural- urban housing development in Metropolis concept outlines the conceptual configuration of urban input & output done in a research for sustainable urban growth concept around Nyala at,” Dar Fur Region-Sudan.6 “Khartoum Town at its early stage of foundation was alike in concept. See FIG. 3: The Metros of Nyala Town below. Planning and design literature, and in language guide; metros; metropolis; and metropolitan, previously mentioned are described in the following sense: Metros,” subway system in a city, e.g. Paris”. Metropolis, “the chief city of a country, or a capital city. “. Metropolitan, “belonging to forming part of a mother country as a distinguished selection, like metropolitan New York. Which never has an urban sustainability in rural-urban cut exceeds 2 weektime “. This plan configuration in metros pattern reveals: Rural sustainability in mixed farming with basic rural services, “water supply, for rural villages cluster in radial road system hierarchy.

5 6

Source: shaping Space: A Polyhedral Approach; Marjorie Seneschal And George Fleck(Editors) MSc. Thesis; A.Latif Zakaria Adam: The Genesis of el Fur Architecture 1998(Univ. of Khartoum.)


(FIG. 3: The Metros Metropolis of Nyala7.) Extreme parameter Of the pattern view. • Sub-regional center for trade marketing. See Subsequent circular ring. •Light industrial processing factories. See left side picture view. • Metropolis hinter center. See center circle of the configuration pattern. • Urban output configuration indicator of metropolis in urban forum @ Nyala regional center. See the pentagonal shape left bottom of the pattern picture view, which indicates new urban. This pattern in its concept predicts Garden City approach of Ebenezer Howard. The neo- developed rational urban Pattern hierarchy at Nyala is a low scale of Garden City concept of a town sustainability.

7

MSc Thesis: The Genesis of El Fur Architecture,1998 University of Khartoum.


(FIG. 48: The Metropolis of Khartoum Town –el Deuom & its Vicinity-..)

Development by Red Bricks Plot Area= 200m2

el Amarat

el Amarat

On FIG.4: The Metropolis Pattern of Khartoum Town- at el Deuom Vicinity-. It reveals Original Mud Banglow the urban Sustainability of Plot Area= 200m2 Khartoum town on Focus of the Main residential vicinity southwards the core City of minor Khartoum established by Anglo-Egyptian regime by Kitchener Basha 18 89. EL Deuom east–centerPlan of el represents the core residential Deuom and its vicinity area for the local, who worked at FIG.4 -the railway station and light Development by Reinforced industry north-west. Most of ConcretePlot Area= 200m2 them are migrants and immigrants of rural u-an influx Khart.2 towards Khartoum town for both trade& cultural links after Gazira Board Scheme establishment by the British. It was temporary dwellings of Khart.2 1998mud and straw that residential Khartoum. Later developed on replanted community in Awareness of open space and road system Hierarchy By Ali Nadim on MacLaine’s plan approach as an extension for Kitchener plan foundation. The Dwelling authorized on 100sq. m. plot for two rooms verandah, kitchen and a pit latrine, all are Khart.2 built of mud and roofed with native materials. Time by time the residents develop their dwellings. First; red bricks fair facing, locally called, (Gishra). Then galvanized iron sheeting on load bearing one and half brick walls with

el Amarat

Adobe bricks inside and red bricks fair face in (FIG.5: The Metropolis Pattern of Khartoum Town- at Khartoum 1-2. & el Amarat Vicinity-) Bond outside. Load bearing of one half red brick walls roofed with jack arching. Recently frame structural concrete multi story house units and even block. Of flats are replacing the previous in a very rapid urban change. All previous stages had and have been and are being done on the same 100 sq. M. plot area within the same provision of open space and road system hierarchy. No doubt this reveals the adequacy of planning work then to cope.

8

Drawing and photography by the author.


The plan is mainly focused onto el Deuom residential area for its challenging rationally urban development on original planning pattern. Around this core inner city of Khartoum 2nd class residential area like Khartoum 3., “grid iron “ 1st class residential area like Khartoum 2, “ lovely suburban like with composite pattern of concentric curvilinear north east community and grid iron, south-west vicinities of this community. Both in optimum orientation -direction suits environmental themes of daylighting factor and natural ventilation as well. “ . El Amarat was planned in early Sixth decade of 20th century for 1st class residential area in simple grid iron pattern. Look at on FIG.4 & FIG.5: The Metropolis of Khartoum Town. No doubt the greater Khartoum in its entire sprawl including Khartoum; Omdurman; and Khartoum north FIG.5 are a metropolitan of decisive urban sustainability challenges beside the strong rural-urban FIG.6 socioeconomic link. Urban quality, urban ratio, urban input, urban output, plan sprawl, urban facilities, and urban services. All in urban planning and design criteria subject to feedback FIG 6: The Metropolitan Pattern of Greater Khartoum. Analysis for better urban age of Khartoum capital city. Both natural and man- made pattern are at a genuine selected feature almost unique; but in lack of certain policies in sprawl layout, which is rather expensive in a waste of urban inputs associated with rather poor urban outputs. Some of all, is a waste of not well studied Real Estate. All get the matter in serious critique comparativeness and comparison of sustainable urban development worldwide. See FIG.6,

(FIG.6: Greater Khartoum Town9)

9

Sudan, Survey Departmen.t


4. Environmental Challenges: 10 Natural environment in architecture and planning, and eventually its effects on physical environment of an urban scape, is mainly climatological awareness in building, orientation, building form selection, in consistency of building elements:, “roofs, facades, floors, doors and windows to emphasize environmental protection through constructional techniques, and building material selection. This scientific techniques approach in urban planning and design along urban ages have been associated with environmental perception in cultural motivations of urban designers and planners abilities in expressing their pre -conceives and motivations in paradigmatic patterns and building styles suit their cultural identities. See FIG.7, FIG.8 & FIG.9, respectively overleaf. So environmental functionalism and transaction emerge each other in theory of satisfaction and comfortability of human spatial needs, as well the expression of meanings and values artistically in massive world of architecture. 4.1 Orientation Overall in priorities of urban planning and design, is the theme of configuration of building orientation. Optimizing this environmental theme, saves a lot in design feedback analysis that might elaborate severe expensive land and building costs. An elegant urban pattern in orientation, means adequacy in environmental variables and factors influences our urban FIG.7: Urban Open Space Hierarchy. Physical Environment. Eventually urban planning and design trends will cope in function and transaction in feasible cost grants meaningfully.

FIG.711 4.2 Open Space Hierarchy. Open space hierarchy is the planning theme enables well tackling of urban design techniques; In relation to landscape, pathways, landmarks, nodes, edges, and planes. Environmental perception at urban scape depends mainly on open space quality. Loft space ratio to build up filling of an urban space determines the paradigmatic pattern of an urban community. National identity in urbanism; prĂŠcises a city forum, sub groups town, parks, community, at block levels as well in consider of an international character subsides a tourism level the urban paradigmatic mutual pattern is highly featured. See FIG.7; below. 4.3 Urban Circulation.

10 11

Design with Climate. Author’s diagrammatic analysis.


Urban circulation is the central axis of a town or a city in achieving urban convenience for both mechanical and pedestrian movement through the town paths and nodes. Avoidance of intersections among either or both in nodes justifications in time- direction scale or road system constructional techniques in optimization; however renovation and preservation challenges might versus, beside cost constrains, especially in under developed towns and cities like Greater Khartoum. FIG.8: elaborates a diagrammatic analysis for an urban corner in a multi-level cross junction proposal on its relevant probabilities, encountered : (25 traffic states- 5 lanes @ solid angle direction. 5 multilevel over or down takes, or both down & up). FIG.8.a; FIG.8.b., shows an intution by the author for traffic soultion @ XJunction; below. FIG.8.a12

FIG.8.b

13

4.4 Urban landscape. Urbanism is associated with harshness of hard topology, however it could be intimate by soft -scape. Landscape design and its features of side road and side street plantation with selected trees and flowers.

12 13

Sketch by the author Sketch by the author


Gardens and parks within the open space hierarchy. A consideration pronounces the urban topological quality in convenience of urban occupants at -psychophysical satisfaction in beauty. See FIG. 9 4.5 Building Form. Any town or a city is a functional organization of building complexes in rules of architecture and urban design based rationally on urban planning themes. The transaction of beauty in urban forms is challenging for all architects; and urban designers in a configuration of urban plan Description, ‘Node, edge, plane, and volumetric mass “. Theories worked out classically by Pythagoras, Plato, Dec art, Kasper Mung, and recently in urban age by Le Corbusier, “cubism ‘and Picasso. “The 4th dimension. “For instance in short cut, still baselines of elementary urban design theories. Form perception on an urban configuration complex underdeveloped on desktop or laptop is the matter of team work sharing of different specialists of urban design and planning forum for: -comprehensive mutual results of input and output of predefined objectives. Urban design, well like in architectural design in form perception, through ,”nodes, lines, planes to precise a solids and voids repetition in in musical term of visual rhythm that you feel balance and dynamism, mobility, harmony and contrast tuning, rational modular, ‘ le Corbusier; “ or as it was on design state, it is in real estate. Building styles of Post Modernism influenced by environmental challenges and machine constructional techniques of building elements, never get out of Casper Mung’s theory of plane folds and similarities as shown on FIG.0: center. 4.6 Construction Methods. 14 The construction in architecture and urban design is really the decisive output of the design challenges in materialistic feasible transaction Of architectural beauty fantasy that the matter is recorded in manuscript of an urban age. A building style is mainly or by itself is a constructional method achievement in the world of architecture and eventually onto urban design trends. Urban constructional techniques are in direct links to real estate power in all liabilities of building technology and constructional management in constructional industry. Programing in time scale and allocation of building industry resources, machine and man power for successfulness of any urban constructional project. Cost management and budgetary control in time scale is fatal, otherwise the matter is Risky. Machine line and handcrafted-lines, in emergence enables urban design diversity. Rather than the machine pro-type monotony argued by the conservative urban designers. 4.7 Building Materials Selection. The process input for constructional output nominates building materials processing and manufacture. This processing is mainly environmental research for environmental protection in economic feasibility. Materials a and construction in building .Towns are dual emergence subject to continuous building research experiments to suits urban design challenges and needs. Building materials processing and manufacture almost a matter of hydration and dehydration of a substance of soils, plants, steel, or petrochemical; like bricks making, wood and timber seasoning, steel casting, petrochemical polymers,

14

Barry; Building Construction Textbook.


fiber and resins for a purpose of constructional elements production in site or factory processed, respectively. Flexibility and swiftness are needed in urban construction industry. The challenges of preselection or order of a selection according to design and project nature gets the selection criteria. Manufacture specification codes are crucial for granted consistency of building regulations. 4.8 Design and Planning bye-laws. An urban pattern means in idiomatic terminology, “regular in regulations. ‘. If this pattern is topologically regular object (s), must have regulations to sound its morphological theme in human purposes and hazards restriction whether natural or man-made. Design and planning bye-laws verify goals of urban design sustainability in human protection and safety control. Standard themes in terms of specifications and Codes of practice argued and issued by building regulations councils and institutes must be of respect of urban design contributors among its multi-disciplinary. This clause of bye-laws lack a little bit in Sudanese urban industry, but possibly to be refreshed and take led for better urban age of Khartoum town, or greater Khartoum. Urban design and planning forums, possibly to elaborates issues for better in legislation draft subject to approval by Sudanese architects counc.il on foundation proposal. See;

•BUILDING FORM

•CONSTRUCTION METHODS

ORIENTATION

URBAN LANDSCAPE

•BUILDING MATERIALS SELECTION

OPEN SPACE HIGH RARCHY

URBAN CIRCULATION

•DESIGN & PLANNING BYELAWS

FIG.915 : The Panoramic Views of Paradigmatic Pattern style @ Entire Khartoum.

5. Legend of Environmental Analysis. Interior environment of a building is subject to climatic analysis for convenient living for occupants to perform lifeways in different building types. In this legend a précised preview on 3 themes of environmental variables as well climatic factors are discussed in highlight of any urban entity or a building

15

Author’s camera.


complex in context to urban design and planning exterior on environmental effects simultaneously to these three themes of subsequent interior effect.  Interior light urban environment.  Interior sound urban environment.  Interior thermal urban environment. Interior Light Environment. This context based on daylight illumination of urban complexes, like shopping centers, hospitals, colleges, laboratories, etc. where this theme of daylight control is of importance. Deeply relative to orientation, opening types, system shading devise, beside construction techniques and building materials, including colors and textures selection of an urban complex in terms of: Roofs Floors .Curtain walls, facades, blinders and curtains patterns. Previously mentioned, in control of daylight factor, (DF) components of; sky component; externally, reflected component; internally reflected component. In relation to reflection factors of roofs, facades externally and eventually through window-types in adequacy of glare elimination to determine standard mode day light lumens for an urban complex interior in design approach requirements. Interior Sound Environment.

INTE RIOR THERMAL ENVIRONMENT

.

FIG.10: Interior Environment.

INTERIOR SOUND ENVIRON MENT.

INTERIOR LIGHT ENVIRONMENT

.

Sound level of interior enclosures and semi.-enclosure at convenient decibel level in avoidance of urban nuisances created by routine urban life is the matter of consideration. No doubt functional distribution of urban complexes besides building orientation save a lot of money spent on techniques of construction and selection of expensive building materials, on 2nd term selection of materials and constructional techniques for urban complexes on audio levels requirement is a priority must be subject to acoustic criteria in function and feasibility. FIG.1016 Interior Thermal Environment.

Architectural design and environmental research control, almost ends with thermal control in building for comfortability of occupants. At urban design trends, the matter is serious for all building types, since the urban environment severe subject to micro-climatic hazards of ozone depletion due to excessive heat rise and carbon oxides production out of car machine engines beside solar rates conditions. The matter in its 1st resolution is deemed to plant cover in urban landscape criteria. Materials specification and codes for construction methods in continuous building research is the 5 matter. 0 LIGHT

THERMAL

SOUND

CategoryChart 1 Category 2 Title

16

Author’s diagrammatic analysis.

As the three environmental variables of interior, light, sound, and thermal are illustrated on intersection mapping. Intersection area, rose like on, FIG.10 shows the mutual Liabilities of the triple variables.


FIG.111718 Interior Environment mutual intersection coincides category 2 on FIG: 11. For the triple series light in blue. Sound in grey. Thermal in orange for mutual comfortability for triple variables Light, sound, and thermal for interior urban environment of decisive consider in respect of urban design trends of essentials. Series:-The blue series stands for light interior environment.-The orange series stand for thermal interior environment.-The grey series stands for sound interior environment. Categories:-Category 1; over to comfortability value for triple series.-Category 2; required comfortability value for triple series.-Category 3; under to comfortability value for triple series. 6. Cultural Challenges: In language guide; the idiom, “culture “is defined as mind or manners cultivation through artistic and intellectual activities. Thus arts and other manifestations of human intellectual achievements regarded collectively, also is defined as refined understanding of intellectual achievement of a particular time or people of the same identity, or any other human link, or otherwise improvement by mental and physical applications deemed to terminology of, “civilization “ as an eventual expressing of culture. And urbanism is the greatest expression of civilization in urban age concept. This paradigm of culture in urban planning and design is associated with certain urban society in expressing its identity through pattern selection at different levels of urban design and planning; discussed before starting from plot level, block level, community level, town level, and city level. Cultural expression not in itself as a paradigm but in mutual to other paradigms, like environment, socioeconomically and or urban functional organization at a level of urban design and planning. Modernism abstracted all previous cultures then to international style, now is termed “global style “in entire post-modernism .urbanization and urbanism cut short cultural motivation to world style. However monotony of repetition in association with this concept makes some urban planners and designers to rethink in revivalism to express their local identities in composite concept to global style. Since culture is an expression why not we express cultural manifestation in urban 17

n.d. adam, a. latif zakaria. 2008. "architects 3rd scientific conference." Edited by conerece scientific comittee. abstracts. Khartoum: the Sudanese instiue of architects. 14-24. Heim. n.d. "The Dynamics of Architectural Form.." n.d. n.d. adam, a. latif zakaria. 2008. "architects 3rd scientific conference." Edited by conerece scientific comittee. abstracts. Khartoum: the Sudanese instiue of architects. 14-24. Heim. n.d. "The Dynamics of Architectural Form.." n.d. 18

Author’s diagrammatic analysis. ID SIGN; A. latif Zakaria Adam


design and planning trends in emergence with modernism? Some identities around the world had done this composite concept in their contribution like the Far East architecture of the Chinese and Japanese for instance with emphasis of climate and cultural traditions. E.G. see FIG. 0 left. Also the arabesque style in Middle East of Arab countries in expressing their previous contribution in urban age in revival. African seems strong in expressing their identity contribution in their indigenous villages of mud and straw in meaningful cultural expression in wait to get mutual with modern style in motivation of environ-cultural themes of indigenous vernacular to form and to express modern styles. See FIG. 0 right before leaf

7. Socioeconomic Challenges: Habitat programmers thought well the term socioeconomic to be one word in link with urbanization where the extended family of the pre metros settlement is overtaken by familyism the core of the urban society in contribution to urban input and output in sense of urban economization. life ways get the urban family entertain through urban facilities like shopping ,sports and other leisure of entertainment of kid gardens and family parks .and to build the town input and output have to be dual in concept of socioeconomic in feedback analysis of Chicago school of urban design and Harvard university contribution in urban design trends. Cities founded on industrial revolution and matrix trade influx like rural urban influx, or otherwise the city state is going to lose its basic financial resources. On the other hand municipality role in tax input and service provision output is the matter related to urban state economic policies and strategies towards capital budgetary control of all possible financial resources in restriction of bye-laws in right constitutions of urban forum for better urban design and planning forum. Planning and design in urban field socioeconomically is a compromised theory for both capitalism and socialism theorems in respect. However the overall city of a country whether a socialist or capitalist is called a “capital “. Thus real estate is the perfect answer. See FIG.0 top 8. Functional Organization Challenges: This the mutual output of both urban planning and design trends that all urban complexes are functionally organized upon all themes in comprehensive measurement criteria. The building complex is an adequate, in an adequate plot, part on an adequate block, part of an adequate neighborhood of a well-built community in socioeconomic wale fare, forming a self- sufficient and sustainable urbanism @ anytime anywhere. Read with FIG.9. Before leaf. Functional organization in urban planning optimizes rational results in urban design characters. Functional organization means adequate urbanism by itself. The following themes of adequacy expresses functional organization broadly: 

Planning patterns paradigmatically in definition of articulation.

Environ-cultural expression at planning level associated with themes pre -mentioned in,” environmental challenges. FIG.7”.

Priorities deemed to zoning in adequate system organization of urban circulation network.

Water supply.

Power supply.

Refused disposal. Rainwater exclusion.


Planning by-laws.

.At urban design level  

Open space hierarchy pattern. Urban landscape pattern.

 

Day and artificial lighting system. Transfer and communications modes.

Building regulations.

On conclusion, “functional organization “paradigm in urban design and planning patterns is the optimum output task pane that the matter is true in all measurement criteria of urban focus references. 0.1. References:  

Building construction text book; Barry. The architect’s data; Neufert “Ernest.”

 

The dynamics of architectural form; Heim. Lighting; Hopkinson.

  

MSc thesis ;( MIT.) Gamal M. Hamid, 1986: Rationalizing Urban. MSc thesis ;( U.of.K.) A.Latif Zakaria Adam, 1998: the Genesis of el Fur Architecture. Online Articles: urban design & planning.

Shaping Space: A Polyhedral Approach; Marjorie Seneschal And George Fleck(Editors).

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Abstract. Urban pattern is considered a crucial baseline of both urban planning and urban design criteria. The plot, the block, the neighbo...

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