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MADISON FOLKS, TOMOMI SEKI, RONI NEUER, AND DAVID LIBERTSON

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HIROSHIGE’S 53 STATIONS OF THE TOKAIDO

THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM & MARY President, W. Taylor Reveley III Provost, Michael Halleran, Ph.D. MUSEUM STAFF Aaron H. De Groft, Ph.D., Director & President John T. Spike, Ph.D., Assistant Director & Chief Curator Christina M. Carroll, Esq., Senior Associate Director: Institutional Advancement, PR & Outreach Thomas Barry, Security Terri Drake, Senior Accountant Anne Lee Foster, Associate Registrar Kevin Gilliam, Building Management & Exhibitions Orine Holloway, Housekeeping Cindy Lucas, Assistant to the Director Adriano Marinazzo, Scholar in Residence Danielle Moretti-Langholtz, Ph.D., Adjunct Curator of Native American Art Glenyss Nock, Security Melissa Parris, Head of Collections & Exhibition Management Amber Pfenning, Administrative Assistant Mary Grace Shore, Visitor Services Patrick Slebonick, Esq., Associate Director Sarah Tew, Assistant Registrar Ernest Wright, Security Larry Wright, Chief of Security

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 2015-2016 
Ray C. Stoner, Esq., W&M ’71 JD – Chair 
Robert S. Roberson, W&M ’73 MBA – Vice-Chair
 Sharon Muscarelle – Secretary
 Polly S. Bartlett, W&M ’62, ’89 MAED – Treasurer Betsy C. Anderson, W&M ’70 
Mari Ann Banks Stanley Barr, W&M, ’62, ’09 BCL
 David Brashear, W&M Hon. ’07
 P. Gray Bowditch, W&M ’09 JD 
TJ Cardwell
 David Crank, W&M ’82
 Ann J. Critchfield, W&M ’66
 Joseph French
 Carrie Garland, W&M ’90

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Thomas Gillman, W&M ’93 MBA 
Sarah O. Gunn, W&M ’87 MBA
 Betsy Hanlon, W&M ’76
 Jerry E. Howell Jane Kaplan, W&M ’56
 David Libertson, W&M ’09
 Rick Nahm
 Ann B. Milliman 
Todd Mooradian, Ph.D. Patrisia B. Owens, W&M ’62 Pamela G. Palmore, W&M ’68, MAED ’74 Frank Parrish
 Kathleen M. Ring, W&M Hon. ’15
 Christine C. Rowland, W&M ’67 Anna C. Sim, W&M 81
 Jane Y. Spurling, W&M ’69 Matthew R. Williams, W&M ’89 All rights reserved. Produced by the Muscarelle Museum of Art. HIROSHIGE’S 53 STATIONS OF THE TOKAIDO Exhibition dates: Muscarelle Museum of Art at The College of William & Mary February 4—August 21, 2016 © 2016 Muscarelle Museum of Art The College of William & Mary All rights reserved. Produced by the Muscarelle Museum of Art. ISBN 978-0-9968041-1-0


Introduction and Acknowledgements Utagawa Hiroshige (1797–1858) was the last great master of the Japanese ukiyo-e tradition (pictures of the floating world). He is best known for his landscapes and most specifically for his many sets of images of the fifty-three stations of the Tokaido trail (East Sea Circuit). This “road” linked the shogun’s capital, Edo, to the Imperial one, Kyoto, and was the main travel and transport artery of old Japan. Traveled as early as the 8th century, but specifically during the Edo period (1603–1868), the royals and nobles and other travelers along the trail made stops at the stations. The stations were government-controlled and provided stables, food, and lodging. For the first time ever, the most important sets of the fifty-three stations by Hiroshige are shown together: the Hoeido in 1833/34; the Kyoka, c. 1840; the Gyosho, c. 1842; the Tsutaya, c. 1850; and the Upright Tokaido in 1855. After the immense popularity of the first edition, the Hoeido, Hiroshige published over thirty different depictions of the stations over his lifetime. These five are the most important sets and while they depict the same stations, the scenes are wholly different and give distinct views and different vantage points. When seen together, whether by today’s audiences or by those who collected views and sets from across the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the images can be looked at panoramically, even viewed as something more timely and contemporary — like Google Earth. I would like to thank David Libertson, W&M class of 2009, Muscarelle Museum of Art Foundation Board member, and President of the Ronin Gallery and second-generation owner; and Roni and Herbert Libertson, Chairmen and Founders of the gallery. The Libertson family has been stalwart friends and supporters of the Muscarelle Museum of Art since David’s first days at the College of William & Mary in 2005. They have built the Muscarelle collection of Japanese woodblock prints to an amazing level and continue to support and strengthen the Museum through lending and curating this first-of-its-kind exhibition, which will travel nationally. I also want to thank and recognize Madison Folks for her eloquent prose, tireless research, and editing, and Tomomi Seki for the Japanese translations, research, and expertise. Our team here at the Muscarelle Museum of Art continues to amaze in all that they do to continue the teaching with the arts that began in 1779. The College of William & Mary was the first college in America to do so, and the Muscarelle Museum of Art continues that tradition by both hosting world-class exhibitions such as this one, and by expanding the experience through digital initiatives both in the gallery and beyond.

Aaron H. De Groft, Ph.D., W&M class of 1988 Director & President Muscarelle Museum of Art Muscarelle Museum of Art Foundation

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Master of Landscape, Poet of Travel: Hiroshige (1797-1858) M. Folks

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In the history of ukiyo-e, there is one name above all others

beautiful women), and musha-e (pictures of warriors). By the mid-

that evokes the tender, lyrical beauty of the Japanese landscape—

1820s, he had achieved moderate success as an illustrator. Later,

Hiroshige. Beloved the world over, Hiroshige’s inspired portraits of the

he designed kacho-e (bird-and-flower pictures) and early views of

natural world have earned him such epithets as the “poet of travel” and

Edo. Despite this burgeoning body of work, Hiroshige’s genius went

the “artist of rain.” He is renowned for his uncanny ability to capture

largely unnoticed until the release of the 53 Stations of the Tokaido

a place not merely in appearance, but also in mood and spirit. “In

in 1833. Little more is known about Hiroshige’s personal life, except

special atmospheric effects, such as moonlight, snow, mist, and rain,”

that he married twice—his first wife died young in 1838—and had one

remarked Ernest Fenollosa, “Hiroshige achieved a verity of effects

daughter, Tatsu, who would eventually marry his pupil, Shigenobu

such as neither Greek nor European has ever known.” His most well-

(Hiroshige II).

known landscape series – 53 Stations of the Tokaido (1833–1834),

One Hundred Famous Views of Edo (1856–1858), Famous Views

restrictions and unfettered travel became possible for large numbers

of the Sixty-Odd Provinces (1853–1856), and 36 Views of Mount

of people. As travel art swiftly gained popularity, Hiroshige became

Fuji (1858–1859) – stand as enduring testimony to the magic that

especially drawn to a subset of this genre known as meisho-e,

Hiroshige worked with water and light, rock and foam, cloud and cliff.

or pictures of famous places. Tracing back to the Heian period

With each of these works, he provides insight into the everyday life of

(794−1185), meisho-e were tied to waka poetry, pairing specific,

Japan’s citizens, creating a veritable microcosm of Edo-period life with

idealized landscapes with sentimental poetic verse. Edo’s artists shook

each print.

this stale, aristocratic conception of meisho for recognizable scenes of

contemporary Japan. These works were relatable to Edo’s burgeoning

Hiroshige was born Ando Tokutaro in 1797 in the city of Edo,

By the mid-19th century, the shogunate relaxed centuries-old

the seat of the ruling Tokugawa Shogunate, and the lively, flourishing

merchant class, inviting the viewer to capture a memory or revel in

hub of Japan’s merchant class. Historically, his family belonged to the

travel aspirations. As mid-century prohibitions forbade the depiction of

class of urban low-ranking samurai who served as firefighters in the

actors and courtesans, meisho-e ruled the woodblock print market.

community surrounding Edo Castle. Despite the apparent danger and

excitement of this familial role, the occupation actually afforded the

highway between the Imperial capital of Kyoto and the shogun’s

young Hiroshige with a great deal of free time, which he quickly filled

administrative capital of Edo. According to most scholars, Hiroshige

with the amateur study of art. It is said that a fellow fireman tutored him

traveled as part of an official delegation from Edo, delivering the

in the Kano style of painting. In his twelfth year, a double tragedy befell

shogun’s annual gift of horses to the emperor. Derived from Iijima

him: his father died, followed by his mother several months later. This

Kyoshin’s 1894 biography of Hiroshige, this account states that

sudden blow devastated the young artist, instilling a poignant sadness

Hiroshige set off on the Tokaido during the eighth month of 1832,

for the human condition. Following this loss, he assumed the name

returning to Edo by the ninth or tenth month of that year. The artist

“Juemon.”

was so inspired by his experience traversing the varied and beautiful

Though Hiroshige originally tried to join Utagawa Toyokuni’s

landscape of his homeland that he began to transform his numerous

studio, he was turned away. At the age of 15, Hiroshige entered the

travel sketches into designs for full-color prints immediately upon his

studio of the celebrated Utagawa Toyohiro and began formal artistic

return. These compositions became the incomparable 53 Stations of

study. Within a year, Hiroshige’s astounding progress earned him

the Tokaido, a series of 55 prints published by Hoeido between 1833

the privilege of using his master’s name. Combining the last part of

and 1834. As writer Yomo no Takimizu describes in the 1834 prologue

Toyohiro’s name with a character from his own, he began signing his

to the series: “the painter Hiroshige stopped over in many places and copied down everything he saw—mountains and ocean, fields and rivers, grasses and trees, and travelers on the road—without missing a thing. His paintings give one the impression that the scenes are spread before one’s own eyes and the feeling that one had been to the places in person.”

works “Hiroshige,” a signature destined to appear on some of the world’s masterpieces. He soon gave up his role in the fire department to focus entirely on painting and print design. In his early career, he produced yakusha-e (prints of Kabuki actors), bijin-ga (pictures of 6

In 1832, Hiroshige traveled the length of the Tokaido, the main


Celebrating the wanderlust of Edo-period Japan, many of the innovative

artists and many others, Hiroshige’s bold cropping of planes, dramatic

prints from this series are counted among Hiroshige’s most precious

truncation of objects, and exhilarating leaps of viewpoint heralded an

and significant masterpieces. The enormous popularity of this first 53

unprecedented approach to composition. By the end of the 19th century,

Stations of the Tokaido series drove Hiroshige to produce over 30

Japanese woodblock prints had revealed a new visual vocabulary

different interpretations of the famous highway, as well as many other

to Western artists that helped catalyze the aesthetic revolutions of

iconic meisho-e series, over the course of his career.

Impressionism and Post-Impressionism. Following a visit to an exhibition

of Utamaro and Hiroshige prints in 1893, Pissaro wrote to his son,

In popular imagination, famous sites were closely associated

with tangible pleasures, such as the local gourmet and the beauty of

“Hiroshige is a marvelous Impressionist.”

the landscape. It was a genre whose traditional themes—the beauty

of the seasons and the daily tasks of common people—had always

techniques, and style of ukiyo-e. He was a stunningly prolific artist,

been close to Hiroshige’s artistic soul. Sales of Hiroshige’s landscapes,

producing over 5,000 unique print designs, more than 2,000 of which

already substantial, soared to unprecedented heights with the production

present scenic views and great roads of Edo-period Japan. Hiroshige’s

of these new travel and landscape series. His creative energy rarely

wholehearted discovery and celebration of travel reinvigorated the stuffy,

faltered, and Edo’s crowds continued to be thrilled by his deft touch and

sinophilic landscape genre. His ability to create designs that convey an

quick eye, his fresh intimate handling of the locale, and his affectionate

intimacy of the travel experience and a palpable atmosphere of each

treatment of subject matter. Through bold, daring compositions and

specific moment is unsurpassed.

dynamic explorations of perspective, Hiroshige incorporates Western

techniques of shadow and one-point perspective into his distinct pictorial

became a Buddhist monk at the age of 60. However, he produced his

style. Through the innovative use of cropping, diagonal compositions,

acclaimed series 100 Famous Views of Edo at this time, which was

and exaggerated perspective, he expresses not only the natural beauty

fully financed by a wealthy Buddhist priest. During the summer of 1858,

of Japan, but also the dynamism of the everyday lives of its citizens.

cholera raged through the streets of Edo; some say as many as 28,000

perished in its wake. In the midst of designing 36 Views of Mount Fuji,

In 1853, at the apex of Hiroshige’s artistic career, Commodore

Throughout his career, Hiroshige transformed the themes,

In 1856, after decades of popular success and acclaim, Hiroshige

Perry and his black ships sailed into the Edo Bay, heralding a new and

Hiroshige, too, fell victim to the illness. On the sixth day of the ninth lunar

momentous exchange of culture between East and West. The Tokugawa

month, he died. An accomplished poet, Hiroshige left the following lines

Shogunate decided to engage in foreign trade, ending over 250 years of

to mark his farewell: “Leaving my brush on the Azuma road, I go to see

sakoku, or closed country. New forms of Western art visuality intrigued

the famous sights / Of the Western Paradise.”

and inspired Japanese artists of the period while, simultaneously, Europe’s greatest artists derived fresh conceptions 
of space and form from Japanese woodblock prints. The influence of Japanese woodblock prints revitalized the art of Europe. Monet was entranced
 by Hiroshige’s

Illustration found on page 5: Toyokuni III. Memorial Portrait of Hiroshige. 1858. Published by Uwoya Eikichi (Uwoei). Biography and kyoka poem by Tenmei Rojin.

designs of the drum bridges at Meguro and Kameido Tenjin Shrine. The French master built a small version of the bridge in his own gardens, an addition featured in so many of his famous water lily paintings. Manet’s Ships at Sunset drew inspiration from the dynamic compositions of Hiroshige’s series Famous Views of the Sixty-Odd Provinces; Van Gogh owned numerous prints by Hiroshige and recreated several designs as paintings; Toulouse-Lautrec was fascinated by Hiroshige’s daring diagonal compositions and inventive use of perspective. For these 1 2 3

Though the venture began as a collaborative effort between Takenouchi Magohachi (Hoeido) and Tsuruya Kiemon, only 11 prints were released jointly. Hoeido alone published the remaining 44 designs. Kobayashi, Tadashi. Masterpieces of Landscape: Ukiyo-e Prints from the Honolulu Academy of Arts. Honolulu: Honolulu Academy of Arts, 2003. Print, 25. Forrer, Matthi, Juzo Suzuki, and Henry D. Smith. Hiroshige: Prints and Drawings. London: Royal Academy of Arts, Munich: Prestel, 1997. Print, 26.

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Adventure and Duty: The Tokaido

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Tracing the eastern coastline of Honshu, the Tokaido was

transportation, essential to the political stability of the Tokugawa

the most traveled highway in Japan. Translating to “East Sea

Shogunate and to the economic health of Edo. The road was

Circuit,” this 307-mile road functioned as the backbone of trade and

tactically designed for battle if someone were to disturb the peace,

communication until the arrival of railways during the Meiji period

simultaneously enabling the careful regulation of trade and travelers.

(1868–1912). By 1689, 53 distinct stations connected Edo, the seat

of the shogun and eastern capital, to Kyoto, the Imperial capital.

and established 53 yado, or post-stations (also known as shuku),

While principally developed for the administration of the provinces

one for every 2.131 ri (half a mile equals one ri). Each ri was denoted

and the transportation of goods during the Edo period (1603–1868),

with an ichirizuka, or distance marker, allowing travelers to chart their

the Tokaido brimmed with pilgrims and merchants, as well as official

progress, but also to facilitate the strict, government regulation of

envoys. Cutting across mountains and rivers, this artery of Edo-period

this thoroughfare. The shogunate appointed a tonya, a government-

Japan pulsed politics, folklore, artistic inspiration, and unstoppable

appointed official, to manage each post-station. These tonya

zeal for adventure.

coordinated service rentals, carefully monitored the transportation of

goods, and oversaw the inspection of all travelers. In between official

The first records of the Tokaido trace back to the Nara period

The Tokugawa Shogunate abolished the outdated toll system

(710–794), revealing the roots of the Tokaido’s early infrastructure

yado, travelers could rest at ai no shuku (unofficial rest stations) or

in the Taika Reforms of 645. These reforms established a standard

chaya (teahouses).

distance between each station, ordered the planting of trees to

increase travelers’ comfort, and limited the allowed number of horses.

or alternate residence duty. First issued in 1615, by 1642 this edict

By the Nara period, toll stations dotted the ancient road, generating

required all daimyo (regional lords) to spend a portion of each year in

governmental tax revenue from travelers. Though lodging was

the capital. The daimyo would parade to Edo with all manner of pomp

erected along the early Tokaido, these rest stations catered solely to

and circumstance. While the daimyo would be permitted to return to

government officials. By the Heian period (794–1185), more people

his feudal domain following his allotted service (often a period of six

took to the road as the infrastructure of the Tokaido became friendlier

months), his family would remain in Edo as collateral. If these implicit

to non-government travelers: temples designated a building on

hostages did not provide enough incentive for loyalty to the shogunate,

their compound as lodging for common travelers while local officials

sankin kotai deprived regional lords of the time or funds to stage a

received orders to attend to any travelers in distress.

coup. The biannual Tokaido journey kept the daimyo on the move

and the mandatory maintenance of two households, one in Edo and

As centuries of ancient feudal wars came to an end in 1603,

The majority of traffic on the Tokaido resulted from sankin kotai,

Japan entered an unprecedented period of peace and prosperity.

one in their home province, exercised a constant strain on the daimyo

The Tokugawa Shogunate moved the capital from Kyoto, home to the

finances. With between 250 and 280 daimyo flowing in and out of the

Imperial family, to Edo (present-day Tokyo). Surpassing one million

eastern capital year-round, these regional lords accounted for much of

residents, Edo, the eastern capital, became Japan’s largest city. With

the traffic on the Tokiado Road.

the establishment of the Tokugawa Shogunate, the Tokaido underwent

its most significant transformation until the completion of the Tokaido

attracted great numbers of merchants, monks, messengers, earnest

Railroad in 1889. The Shogunate replaced the collapsing system of

pilgrims, and adventurers. The average messenger could travel from

the eight ancient highways (Tokaido, Tosando, Hokurikudo, Sanindo,

Edo to Kyoto in 10 to 14 days, but if the message was more urgent,

Sanyodo, Nankaido, Saikaido, Gokinai) with the Gokaido Highway

the high-ranking senders could choose an express service. This relay

System. This series of five major highways included the Tokaido,

method took a total of approximately three days and 10 hours. Aside

Nakasendo (Kisokaido), Koshukaido, Nikkokaido, and the Oshukaido.

from these official couriers and a steady current of merchants pedaling

The Tokaido became the most vital channel of administration and

their goods, the Tokaido coursed with pilgrims. Though the popularity

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In addition to the obligatory daimyo processions, the Tokaido


of travel echoed through travel guides, novels, and woodblock prints,

services of most Tokaido lodgings. At many roadside accommodations,

travel for the sake of pleasure remained prohibited by the shogunate. As

waitresses doubled as prostitutes. While five stations of the Tokaido

pilgrimage was the only sanctioned form of travel for commoners, many

had no prostitutes, others, such as Yoshida, Goyu, and Akasaka, were

chonin (members of Edo’s newly emerged merchant class) visited Shinto

renowned for this particular type of hospitality. These meshimori onna,

shrines or Buddhist temples to satisfy their wanderlust. While certainly

or “meal-serving women” came under the scrutiny of the shogunate in

some of these pilgrimages were religiously motivated, many chonin

1659. The government banned prostitution in post-station inns, but this

traveled for pleasure under the pretense of pilgrimage. The Tokaido

decree had little effect on this booming business. Issuing edict after edict

promised local souvenirs, regional delicacies, and storied outlooks—all

until 1718, the shogunate finally conceded to a two-waitress allowance

of which were described in the popular guidebooks of the time. Familiar

for each inn and a tax on each additional meshimori onna. Though many

with these books, the Edo-period traveler would embark on his journey

dangers and pleasures could be found on the open road, the adventures

aware of the pleasures and dangers of the road ahead.

continued each evening in the Tokaido’s many inns.

Whether a powerful daimyo or a humble pilgrim, all travelers were

While novels and guidebooks, and paintings and prints extolled

encouraged to stay off the road at night. Though local leaders patrolled

the adventures of life on the road long before the Hoeido Tokaido (1833–

the area surrounding their station, travelers were vulnerable to bandits

1834), Ando Hiroshige’s 55-piece set of woodblock prints captures the

after sunset. Lodging could be found at each station and adhered to a

wondrous sights, as well as the flow of culture, goods, and policies as

strict hierarchy: honjin housed government officials and regional lords,

never before. With a lyricism of color and form, a palpable warmth, and

waki-honjin hosted members of official processions, and hatagoya

an intimate sympathy to the human experience, Hiroshige presents the

provided accommodation for common travelers. Daimyo did not pay

beautiful and the treacherous world of the Tokaido Road. Through the

for their stay, but were expected to bestow a generous gift on each

fives series in this catalogue—the Hoeido, Kyoka, Gyosho, Tsutaya,

honjin, such as all-new tatami (straw mats). Hatagoya varied widely in

and Upright—the Tokaido bursts to life. Through changing seasons and

character. For instance, designated Naniwa-ko inns were lodgings run

viewpoints, Hiroshige guides the viewer through each station, each a

by the Association of Naniwa (the association of Osaka innkeepers).

veritable microcosm of Japanese culture, as they journey from Edo’s

Offering set fees and a reputation for safety, these inns provided

Nihonbashi to Sanjo Ohashi in Kyoto.

trusted security from the dangers of the road, but did not offer the extra

1

Jenkins, Donald. The Floating World Revisited. Honolulu: Portland Art Museum and University of Hawai'i, 1993. Print, 7.

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INTERPRETATIONS: HIROSHIGE’S 53 STATIONS OF THE TOKAIDO The immense popularity of the Hoeido Tokaido in 1833–1834 led Hiroshige to publish over three-dozen different depictions of the stations of the Tokaido during his lifetime. This exhibition considers five of the most significant sets, including the famed Hoeido Tokaido. Though all the series in this catalogue bear the title 53 Stations of the Tokaido, these series are wholly distinct: Each series presents a unique view of the Tokaido journey. Considered together, these five sets reveal a near-panoramic understanding of each station from Edo to Kyoto.

Hoeido Tokaido (Tokaido Gojusan Tsugi no uchi, 1833–1834) Publisher: Takenouchi Magohachi (Hoeido) Format: Oban yoko-e Number of Prints: 55

Hiroshige’s first and premier visual journey along the Tokaido Road, published during the first month of Tempo 5 (1834), it is also known as the

Great Tokaido. 11 prints in this series were collaboratively published by Tsuruya Kiemon (Senkakudo) and Takenouchi Magohachi (Hoeido). 44 prints were published by Hoeido.

Kyoka Tokaido (Tokaido Gojūsan Tsugi, c.1840)

Publisher: Sanoya Kihei (kikakudo) Format: Chuban yoko-e, bound

Number of prints: 56 with title page

Designed in the chuban format, each Kyoka Tokaido print is imprinted with a kyoka, or comic poem. While most of the 53 Stations of the Tokaido sets include 55 prints, the Kyoka Tokaido contains 56, as to include the Imperial Palace in Kyoto. Gyosho Tokaido (Tokaido Gojūsan Tsugi, c.1842) Publisher: Ezakiya Tatsuzo (Sengyokudo), Format: Aiban yoko-e Number of Prints: 55

This series takes its name from the particular script used in the cartouche: gyosho, an informal, cursive style of script. Tsutaya Tokaido (Tokaido Gojūsan Tsugi no uchi, c. 1850)

Publisher: Tsutaya Kichizo (Koeido) Format: Chuban yoko-e, bound Number of Prints: 54

In this series, Hiroshige combines Shimada Station and Kanaya Station into one composition. Upright Tokaido (Gojūsan-tsugi Meisho Zue, 1855) Publisher: Tsutaya Kichizo (Koeido) Format: Oban tate-e

Number of Prints: 55

The 53 Stations of the Tokaido, set in a vertical orientation, is known as the Upright Tokaido. The set is known for its plentiful views of rivers and the sea.

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Nihonbashi

Hoeido

In each of Hiroshige’s Tokaido series, the journey begins

Hoeido Tokaido with a portrait of urbanity and an introduction to

at Nihonbashi, the “Bridge of Japan.” Located in the center

the primary patron of the Tokaido. In the foreground, merchants

of Edo, Nihonbashi marked entrance to, or exit from, Edo,

tout their goods in straw baskets, reading the official edicts

the Eastern capital of Japan. All roads were measured from

shaded beneath a small roof to the far left. To the right, two

this wooden bridge. As the home to ruling government, the

dogs are oblivious to the approaching procession, lightening

Tokugawa Shogunate, Edo was the political and commercial

the mood as they sniff each other. Against the rosy blush

center during the Edo period (1603–1868). Due to the

of morning, the procession crosses Nihonbashi, led by the

alternate-attendance policy of sankin kotai, the Tokaido flowed

rustling, distinctive keyari (plumed long spears) of a daimyo

with lavish processions of regional lords and their entourages.

(regional lord). All of Hiroshige’s other 53 Stations of the

Whether headed to Edo to serve their civil duty or making their

Tokaido series focus on the “Bridge of Japan” from different

way back to their home region, the processions would indicate

angles, emphasizing its height, length, and centrality in the

their rank through their extravagance. Hiroshige opens the

booming Metropolis of Edo.

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Kyoka

Upright

Tsutaya

Gyosho 15


Shinagawa

Hoeido

As the first shukuba machi (post-station town) on the Tokaido,

period ancestors. In the Hoeido Tokaido, a daimyo’s (regional

a mere four-and-a-half miles from Nihonbashi, Shinagawa

lord) procession disappears about the bend in the road as

brimmed with both exhausted travelers near journey’s end

the peach-colored sky signals the dawn. Forced to move

and bright-eyed adventurers fresh from Edo. This seaside

aside in reverence, common travelers wait on the edge of the

station, the first built along the Tokaido, boasted myriad

road, eager to return to the open-air shops and beckoning

entertainment, popular teahouses, and many restaurants

waitresses. Though bright sails bobbed in the clear blue of Edo

to satisfy the overwhelming foot traffic that passed through.

Bay during Hiroshige’s time, this bay was reclaimed during the

Modern Shinagawa celebrates its legacy each September

19th century and became part of Tokyo.

with a winding parade of residents dressed as their Edo-

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Kyoka

Upright

Tsutaya

Gyosho 17


Kawasaki

Hoeido

The Tokaido was no easy stroll through the countryside.

more affordable option: what appears to be a roughly made raft.

Kawasaki posed the first challenge of the journey. Five-and-

The Upright print depicts the early Edo-period bridge across

a-half miles from Shinagawa, the traveler had to cross the

the Tama River, but by Hiroshige’s time, this bridge had been

Tama River to reach this station. As travelers could not wade

destroyed by storms multiple times and ultimately never rebuilt.

across, they were required to hire boatmen. They could choose

In all but the Hoeido series, Hiroshige portrays sailboats,

from a range of prices and qualities of experience. In the

revealing the depth of this bay-feeding body of water. In

Hoeido depiction of Kawasaki, passengers, likely pilgrims and

addition to the river crossing, Kawasaki station was an exciting

waitresses—ride a wooden boat to the other side. Laden with

stop for Kabuki enthusiasts, as the area was associated with

packages, a horse and traveler wait to take the Rokugo ferry to

popular Kabuki characters Shirai Gonpachi and Nitta Yoshioki.

continue on their journey to Edo. Samurai did not have to pay

Today, the village of Kawasaki is a booming city in Kanagawa

for the ferry. On the far shore, we see a less desirable, though

Prefecture.

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Kyoka

Upright

Tsutaya

Gyosho 19


Kanagawa

Hoeido

As ships recede beyond the horizon in the Hoeido Kanagawa

Millard Fillmore’s invitation to establish trade and diplomatic

Station, two-story teahouses look out upon the seemingly

relations with the U.S., Perry left with his demands unmet and a

infinite ocean from their high perch. Proprietors physically pull

promise to return in a year’s time. Wary of the Western world’s

in their clients, afraid that affordable prices, delicious food, or

propensity for gunboat diplomacy, the Tokugawa Shogunate

nice atmosphere will provide insufficient incentive for passing

decided to engage in foreign trade upon Perry’s return in 1854,

travelers. Hugging the coastline, Kanagawa was five-and-a-

ending over 250 years of sakoku (closed country). Today, this

half miles from Kawasaki and known for its stunning, cliff-top

bay belongs to reclaimed land of Yokohama. The majority of

views overlooking Edo Bay. In 1853, Commodore Perry’s

Kanagawa’s historical character was destroyed in the Great

“black ships” docked in this scenic bay. Bearing President

Kanto Earthquake of 1923.

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Hodogaya

Hoeido

Less than three miles from Kanagawa, the town of Hodogaya

series, Hiroshige depicts one such kago crossing the short

was originally three distinct post-stations. In 1597, the

wooden Katabira Bridge into the Shinmachibashi neighborhood

Tokugawa Shogunate consolidated these rural villages into a

of Hodogaya. Wooded hills and the low rice fields of Totsuka

single country town, but retained one of the original bridges as

stretch into the horizon, while in town, a sign on the riverside

the official station entrance. As the 307-mile journey from Edo

restaurant boasts soba, or buckwheat noodles, to hungry

to Kyoto could be arduous on foot, wealthy travelers often hired

travelers.

kago (palanquin) attendants to ease their journey. In the Hoeido

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Totsuka

Hoeido

If one set off from Edo early in the morning, he or she would

These inns sprung up as safe havens for travelers, offering set

reach Totsuka by nightfall. When Commodore Perry arrived

fees but no luxuries. While many waitresses would double as

in Kanagawa, many frightened residents fled to Totsuka. At

prostitutes, the women of naniwako establishments did not offer

the intersection of three roads–the old Kamakura Kaido, the

these “extra services.” In the Hoeido Totsuka Station, signs

Atsugi Kaido, and the Tokaido—this station town was home to

hang from the eaves bearing the names of the groups staying

a wealth of inns. Today, this station is part of Yokohama. The

there. Hiroshige’s traveler mounts his horse as he waves to the

particular structure depicted in the Hoeido series belongs to

woman. The next morning, the traveler could wake well rested

a special nation-wide union of travel lodgings called naniwa-

and set down the pine-lined path to Fujisawa.

ko (Association of Naniwa, association of Osaka innkeepers).

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Fujisawa

Hoeido

Whether driven by religious devotion or simply seeking an

Hoeido Tokaido, Hiroshige nestles Yugyoji into the distant

excuse for adventure, pilgrimage was one the most common

mountains, while in the immediate foreground, a torii (Shinto

reasons for travel in Edo-period Japan. Four miles from Totsuka

gate) invites pilgrims to the shrine. A torii marks the threshold

Station, Fujisawa satisfied both Buddhist and Shinto pilgrims

between the secular world and spiritual realm. Several of

alike. Established in 1325, Yugyoji was one of busiest centers

Hiroshige’s interpretations of Fujisawa portray a torii, though

for Buddhist worship on the Tokaido. Shinto followers flocked

the temple only appears in the Hoeido set. Together, the five

to Enoshima Benten Shrine to pay their respects to Benten,

53 Stations of the Tokaido series capture Fujisawa at different

one of the seven Japanese Gods of Fortune. The steady flow

times of day.

of visitors to these sites allowed Fujisawa to flourish. In the

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Hiratsuka

Hoeido

Slightly more than seven miles from Fujisawa, Hiratsuka lay in

(courier) races down Nawate road in the Hoeido rendition,

a wide, open plain. While Hiroshige took many liberties in his

a package slung over his shoulder. A continuous relay of

Tokaido portraits, he accurately captures the vastness of the

messengers could cover all 307 miles of the highway in 90

landscape at this station. Between the shadowed hill and the

hours, switching runners at each of the 53 stations. This service

rocky Mt. Koma, the snowy tip of Mt. Fuji peeks through in the

was most frequently used to transmit official messages and

Hoeido rendition of Hiratsuka. Lined by the pine colonnade

packages between the Imperial Court and the ruling Tokugawa

so characteristic to the Tokaido journey, the road zigzags

Shogunate.

through the marshy outskirts of the post-station. A hikyaku

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Oiso

Hoeido

On the road, a sudden shift in the weather could turn the

In 1604, Shogun Ieyasu ordered that a pine and hackberry

journey into an unpleasant trudge. As sheets of rain drench

colonnade be planted to provide shade for travelers. Poems

the Oiso Station in the Hoeido Tokaido, Hiroshige reveals his

composed about Oiso assume a mournful tone, echoing a

incredible talent for capturing mood and atmosphere. Soggy

romantic tragedy that happened at this station. Hiroshige joins

travelers brave the rain with waxed umbrellas and straw capes.

this literary tradition. He casts his composition in threatening

The coastal village disappears around the curve of a hillside,

darkness and inscribing “Rain of Tora� on the Hoeido print

promising warmth and shelter, while in the distance, fishermen

of this station, alluding to the tears of the heartbroken Tora

brave the downpour at sea. Slightly more than a one-and-

Gozen. Today, Oiso belongs to the Naka district in Kanagawa

a-half-mile walk from Hiratsuka, Oiso rests on Sagami Bay.

Prefecture and is a popular summer destination.

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Odawara

Hoeido

Since the construction of Odawara Castle by the daimyo

of this very personal service. The wealthiest traveler is depicted

(regional lord) Hojo Soun in 1496, Odawara was a commercial

in his kago (palanquin), held aloft by a large group of men,

and cultural center along the Tokaido. At the entrance to

which allowed the distinguished traveler to remain dry. Heading

Hakone Pass, this station revealed the imminent peril. Jagged

towards the opposite bank, a passenger rides upon a small raft

peaks, sparse trees, and dramatic shadows presaged the

carried by four men. Finally, Hiroshige presents the economy

rugged nature and harrowing incline of the mountains. Located

package on the near shore, where two travelers cross the river

nine miles from Oiso, Odawara faced travelers with its own

on the shoulders of swimmers. In each image of Odawara

obstacle: another river crossing. While Kawasaki Station

Station, Hiroshige focuses on the width of this river, presenting

provided a ferry, options weren’t quite so plush outside

ships being pulled into the bay in the Upright Tokaido and the

Odawara. The currents of the Sakawa could only be crossed

two chuban series. Just as Odawara was a flourishing castle

with the help of waders that carried travelers across. In the

town in Hiroshige’s time, today it is large, modern city.

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Hakone

Hoeido

Hakone Station confronted travelers with the most grueling, and

ransom situations. This famous barrier still stands today. In the

Odawara, Hakone Pass was rife with bandits and treacherous

of mountains that roll before the white Fuji. The mountain

potentially dangerous, part of the Tokaido. A nine-mile trip from terrain. Despite this danger and difficultly, the journey through the mountains rewarded travelers with beautiful outlooks and onsen (hot springs) along the way. In 1618, the Tokugawa Shogunate took advantage of this natural topography and

established a government barrier on the shore of Lake Hakone. All travelers were inspected at this major checkpoint; in fact, it

was easier for a commoner to pass through than a member the

samurai class. Through the preclusion of weapon transport, the

shogunate aimed to prevent revolt. These barriers also blocked the passage of samurai-class women to prevent hostage and 34

Hoeido Tokaido, Lake Hakone rests far below a distant mosaic peaks are rocky and steep, dramatized in yellow, gray, blue, brown, and green, while pine trees instill a sense of scale.

With Hiroshige’s colorful depiction of the mountains, it is easy to miss the narrow procession of yellow hats and blue coats

cutting through the pass, dwarfed by the mountains. Several of the four other Tokaido sets portray night travel, complete

with immense flickering torches, while another depicts the rest station on the far side of the checkpoint.


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Mishima

Hoeido

As the western entrance to Hakone Pass, Mishima bustled with

quiet, dreamlike quality of a daybreak departure from Mishima.

Mishima was the only station in Izu Province and home to a

one in a kago (palanquin), get an early start to their journey.

activity every season. Located eight miles from Hakone Station, famous Shinto shrine. In 1180, Minamoto no Yoritomo, while

in exile, declared his intention to turn against the government

at this shrine. Following his success and the establishment of a shogunate at Kamakura, the Minamoto clan regarded this

shrine with special reverence. Mishima is also known as the “Capital of Water,� referencing the water that flows from Mt. Fuji into town. In the Hoeido series, Hiroshige captures the

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Vibrant against the morning mist, a traveler on horseback and

Shadows drift through the fog settled on the sleeping town. The hazy torii (gate) to the right indicates the entrance to Mishima Shrine, marking the threshold between the secular world and

spiritual realm. A torii does not appear in every interpretation of

Mishima. Instead, Hiroshige emphasizes populous and bustling nature of this station, from a delicate snow scene, to a lively, riverside afternoon.


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Numazu

Hoeido

The moon hangs low in the sky, silver and full over Numazu

Shinto shrine on Shikoku Island. In some festivals, the guide

in the Hoeido Tokaido. Travelers journey between the guiding

of the procession would wear this mask, for the deity Saruta-

pines, hugging the curve of the Kano River. The town ahead

hiko looked like a tengu. Located three-and-a-half miles from

appears sleepy, like the travelers themselves as they near their

Mishima, the castle town of Numazu was famous for the

resting place at twilight. Behind the child and guardian, a lone

Forest of a Thousand Pines. Just above Numazu, the Kise

traveler carries a tengu mask on his back. Distinguishable by

River joins the Kano River, which flows to the sea. In his five

the red skin and long nose, a tengu is a mythical creature and

interpretations of this station, Hiroshige considers the town from

a powerful guardian of the mountains. This unusual baggage

varying distances, but always includes a glimpse of the famed

identifies this traveler as a pilgrim en route to Konpira, a

pine grove on the seashore.

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Hara

Hoeido

A three-and-a-half mile trip from Numazu, the small town of

through the rice fields, two female travelers glance back

Hara was known for its breathtaking views of Mt. Fuji. Each

at their companion, likely a porter for hire. As it was rare

print of this station captures the imminence of Japan’s most

and dangerous for women to travel by themselves during

sacred mountain. Hiroshige conveys the magnitude of this

Hiroshige’s time, a male companion would usually accompany

view as he defies compositional conventions: breaking through

women on their journeys. The women seem to be talking to

the border of the Hoeido, Gyosho, and Upright interpretations

him, one holding her pipe outstretched, the other resting her

of Hara, Mt. Fuji cannot be contained within the scene. As a

hat on her walking stick. Many scholars believe these figures

snowy Fuji crests above the gray Hakone Mountains in the

are mitate images (literally, “likened,” layered imagery of well-

Hoeido Hara Station, the blushing sky welcomes dawn upon

known myth or history, often to a humorous effect) referencing

the small post town on the coast of the Suruga Bay. A pair

the famed Chushingura.

of herons rests in a seemingly endless rice field. Trekking

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Yoshiwara

Hoeido

Elevated above the rice patties, the twisting, pine-lined Tokaido

left. Due to this view, Yoshiwara Station was commonly known

disappears into the distance of the Hoeido interpretation of

as “Left-Fuji.� Seven miles from Hara, Yoshiwara Station was

Yoshiwara Station. Ordered by the Tokugawa Shogunate,

originally located farther southeast. Washed away by a tsunami

these trees were intended to increase the comfort of travel;

in 1680, the station was built farther inland in 1682. Hiroshige

providing shade on scorching afternoons and enhancing the

offers no hints of this past, concentrating instead on the beauty

scenic quality of the journey. The pines also served a military

of the pines and the unique view of Mt. Fuji. Today, Yoshiwara

purpose as they provided defense in the otherwise wide-open

Station is part of Fuji, Shizuoka Prefecture. Each October and

plain. To the left of the path, Mt. Fuji appears not snow-topped

November, the Yoshiwara-juku Festival celebrates the history of

as before, but a rich red-brown. This was the one time during

this station town.

the journey from Edo to Kyoto that Mt. Fuji would appear to the

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Kanbara

Hoeido

The mountain village of Kanbara appears dark and chilly as the

imagination. The Hoeido depiction of this station is considered

snowy night quickly falls. Footprints dot the ankle-deep snow,

one of the masterpieces of the series. This post-town assumes

only to be filled with fresh flakes. Hunched and heads bowed,

new character in each of the five Tokaido series presented,

travelers battle the wind. All is muffled in the final moments

blending real and invented elements for compositional or

of dusk. Yet, scholars agree that Hiroshige passed through

atmospheric effect. In Hiroshige’s own words, “though there are

Kanbara during the summer. What’s more, as part of modern

many things that I have abbreviated, the composition is exactly

Shimizu, this region is very temperate and even smallest of

like a true reflection of the scenery, so those who cannot travel

snowfall is rare. In Hiroshige’s five renditions of this station, he

can find some pleasure in them.”

presents not the Kanbara of his travels, but the Kanbara of his

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Yui

Hoeido

At the top-left corner of the Hoeido Yui Station, travelers

was built for the 1655 visit from the Korean embassy. While

navigate the precariously steep cliff, yet two have paused at

Hiroshige would have passed this scenic outlook on his way to

this famed overlook. The pair takes in the beauty of Suruga

Yui, during the early Edo period, travelers were required to wait

Bay. The elevation reduces fishing boats to dark lines on the

on the cliff until the tide receded in order to proceed to Okitsu

water while distant sails echo the snowy peak of Mt. Fuji.

on the beach. The other Tokaido series capture aspects of

The view from Satta Pass was considered one of the most

coastal life. Today, this area is known for a small type of shrimp

wonderful views of the Tokaido Road. Two miles from Kanbara,

known as sakura ebi.

Yui Station lies beyond this mountain pass. This elevated route

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Okitsu

Hoeido

Okitsu Station rested on the coast of Tago, where the Okitsu

raised eyebrows and an air of concern. This print not only

River flows into the bay. A six-mile journey from Yui, this

reveals Hiroshige’s penchant for humor, but also references

station was noted for the Forest of Miho (Miho-no-matsubara),

a composition from the 18th century book, Famous Places on

a seaside pine grove. In the Hoeido design for Okitsu, these

Tokaido Illustrated, by Kyoto artist Hara Arimasa. Borrowing

famous pines break the horizon behind a convoy of travelers.

elements of familiar compositions, such as these traveling

Wading through the calf-deep rivulet, both horse and man

sumo wrestlers, Hiroshige captures both the meisho (famous

bow beneath the weight of two sumo wrestlers. The wrestler

place) and echoes popular imagery surrounding that place.

in the open kago (palanquin) glances at his sagging seat with

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Ejiri

Hoeido

A short mile-and-a-half from Okitsu, Ejiri Station overlooks the

Dancing in the twilight, she retrieved her robe and returned to

mouth of the Okitsu River and the Forest of Miho. From this

heaven by the light of the moon. Today, the city of Shizuoka

elevated viewpoint, the traveler can see how far this famous

holds the Hagoromo Festival by the site of the old pine on the

pine grove extends into the water. Added to the UNESCO

second Saturday and Sunday of October each year. From the

World Heritage List in 2013, the Forest of Miho is the setting

high vantage point of the Hoeido Tokaido, Hiroshige reduces

for the legend of Hagoromo (The Feathered Robe). The tale

the town to shadowed roofs, focusing instead on the bay:

tells of a celestial being, so inspired by the beauty of the sandy

Sailboats bob by the shore, while larger sailboats drift towards

forest that she descended from the sky and hung her feathered

the sea, some reduced to mere sails in the distant mist. Today,

robe on a pine bough. As she bathed in the glistening water, the

this station is part of Shimizu, the largest port between Nagoya

fisherman Hakuryo spotted her and took her robe. Before he

and Yokohama.

would return it, he required her to perform a heavenly dance.

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Fuchu

Hoeido

A provincial capital since ancient times, Fuchu rests on the

Hiroshige captures a range of transportation options used to

the Tokugawa Shogunate, came to Fuchu to retire in 1607,

mountains rise from the riverbank, their enormity established by

bank of the Abe River. Though Tokugawa Ieyasu, founder of his castle had burned down by Hiroshige’s time. Yet, Fuchu remained a castle town, as home to Sunpu Castle, the

household of a regional lord. Located six miles southwest of

Ejiri station, Fuchu required travelers to cross the Abe River.

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ford this wide river in the Hoeido rendition of Fuchu Station. As

the dark trees in the distance, the village nearly blends into the

off-white plane. Today, Fuchu Station belongs to Shizuoka City.


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Mariko

Hoeido

An exciting aspect of travel was the opportunity to sample regional specialties, whether crafts or delicacies. Slightly more than three miles from Fuchu, Mariko Station was famous for tororojiru, a soup made from yamaimo paste. A yamaimo is a root

vegetable similar to the yam or potato. Matsuo Basho, the most famous haiku poet in Japan, celebrated this station both for its delicious broth and its natural beauty in his poem from 1691:

梅若菜丸子の宿のとろろ汁 “plum young-greens / Maruko’s post-town’s / yam porridge” In Hiroshige’s time, there would have been at least 15 shops selling this local specialty. Hiroshige emphasizes the renown of

the dish at this small station, depicting its consumption in each rendition of Mariko. In the Hoeido impression of Mariko Station,

a traveler departs at dawn as the waitress, baby strapped to her back, serves two hungry patrons this local delicacy. Beside the teahouse, the first buds of the plum blossom peak from their branches.

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Okabe

Hoeido

On the approach to Okabe Station, the Tokaido narrows,

a famous scene from a Kabuki drama, in which the blind man

cutting through Utsuno Mountain in the Hoeido Tokaido. Trees

Bunya is fatally betrayed by his travel companions. Kashibaya,

weathered trunks. As the mountain stream rushes below the

in Okabe in 1602. Though it burned down in 1834, the inn was

care at this notoriously dangerous, narrow mountain pass.

Important Cultural Property by the Japanese government, the

brave the steep hills and lush, dark ivy climbs to meet their

a hatago (a type of travel lodging that served food), was built

stone embankment, travelers were encouraged to take extra

rebuilt two years later and preserved through today. Named an

Their caution would be rewarded with a scenic outlook. A four-

Kashibaya became an archives museum in 2000.

and-a-half mile trek from Mariko, this station was the setting of

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Fujieda

Hoeido

Along the Tokaido Road, hired services would only take

the Okabe porters pass their cargo to the Fujieda workers.

people from one post-town to the next. At each station, the

Packages are unloaded from one horse to be added to the

traveler would have to hire a new horse or employ new porters.

next, and freshly hired porters test the weight of their burden

Government-run warehouses served as the backbone of the

and prepare for the trip. Kneeling upon the counter to the far

Tokaido. From weighing luggage and cargo to providing homes

right, the warehouse official tallies the fare due. Four miles from

to porters, these centers were essential to the regulation of

Okabe, Fujieda was a flourishing castle town of the Tanaka

hired help along the Tokaido. Hiroshige depicts one such

Domain. Located between the Abe and Oi rivers, this town was

warehouse in his Hoeido print of Fujieda Station. In the top-

a station on both the Tokaido and the Unuma Kaido, which ran

left corner, one can see two kago (palanquins) and a horse

to the salt lands of Sagara. In the other four 53 Stations of the

eating from a bucket. Diagonally spread across the foreground,

Tokaido sets, Hiroshige focuses on Fujieda’s two rivers.

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Shimada

Hoeido

Five miles southeast of Fujieda, Shimada Station sat on the

Sites by the Japanese government. The flow of travelers

at Shimada Station was determined by both the method of

to return to Fujieda to find lodging. While a bridge may seem

broad bank of the Oi River. The price of river crossing services transportation and the water level. These prices were not

regulated at each station, thus travelers were often forced to

pay exorbitant prices. During dry spells, the river dwindled to a shallow stream, yet heavy rain would transform the wide

Oi into raging rapids. Following rainy spells, travelers often

had to delay their journey in Shimada and wait for the river to

calm. Shimada prospered, brimming with inns. Some of these

buildings remain extant and are protected as National Historic

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could get so backed up at this station that they would have

like a simple solution, the Tokugawa Shogunate forbade the

construction of a bridge or implementation of ferry service at

Oi. The river’s difficult nature heightened Edo’s defenses. As people and goods flood the sandy bank, Hiroshige captures

the end of a rainy period in his Hoeido depiction of Shimada

Station. The Oi River crosses the top-left diagonally as travelers continue their journey to Kanaya.


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Kanaya

Hoeido

At the far bank of the Oi River, the village of Kanaya rests two

these mountains was of Hiroshige’s invention, likely for

or within a dry kago (palanquin), the traveler continues his or

the river crossing that spans the two stations. The majority of

miles from Shimada. Whether atop the shoulders of a porter her journey along a sprawling plain. In the Hoeido print, the town nearly disappears into the distant wooded mountains, visible only as orange and yellow rooftops. The height of

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compositional effect. Hiroshige dedicates most of the design to the procession has already made it to the far bank and some porters recline in the sand, resting from their labors. Today, Kanaya has merged with the city of Shimada.


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Nissaka

Hoeido

While all stations have their own stories, some tales are more mysterious than others. A large stone sits in the middle of the steep Sayononakayama Road to Nissaka. Popularly known

as the “night-weeping stone” (yonaki-ishi), the stone is said to

rest in the very spot that a murder was committed. Local legend tells that one night, a pregnant woman was traveling from

Nissaka to visit her husband in Kanaya when she was attacked and killed by bandits. Her blood fell upon the stone, causing it to weep for the woman. The tale states that Kannon, the

Buddhist goddess of mercy, took pity, appeared as a priest, and

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took the child into her care. Nursing him with mizuame (a clear, gooey candy), Kannon entrusted the child to the care of the

priests at Kyuenji Temple. When the boy grew up, he avenged his mother’s death. Today, Kyuenji Temple is associated

with the protection of women and infants. Portraying curious

travelers, Hiroshige captures the familiarity and popularity of local legends in the Hoeido Nissaka Station. As they stop to contemplate the night-weeping stone, the four-mile road to

Nissaka climbs with a stunning slope. This ascent was one of the three most physically challenging portions of the Tokaido.


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Kakegawa

Hoeido

Four miles west of Nissaka, Kakegawa prospered as a station

the secular world and the Shinto spiritual realm) in his other

stop and castle town. Built along an old salt route that traversed

Tokaido sets. Instead, he creates a sensitive portrait of the

Shinano Province, Kakegawa was the last Tokaido station

travel experience. From the left of the image, a kite soars in

for Shinto pilgrims headed to Akiba Shrine. This shrine was

the breeze, cresting the frame, echoed by a broken kite carried

a popular destination for pilgrims praying for the prevention

helplessly away by the wind. The tall Oike Bridge stretches

of fire. Travelers faced a 20-mile journey to Mt. Akiba, which

across the Nise River and away from Kakegawa Station as two

looms, dark and rugged, in the distance. Hiroshige does not

travelers peak over the edge, seemingly mocked by the child

allude to the shrine in the Hoeido Tokaido, despite its popularity

behind them. Beneath the trestles, peasants transplant rice in

and the presence of torii (gates marking the threshold of

the flooded field.

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Fukuroi

Hoeido

The village of Fukuroi was home to three important Buddhist

upon a station-marker, the roofs of the nearby village peak

temples: Hattasan Sonei-ji, Kasuisai, and Yusan-ji. This post-

out beyond the rolling fields. The road around Fukuroi was an

station was understandably popular among pilgrims. In each

uncomfortable journey during the summer months. Situated in

Fukuroi print, Hiroshige forgoes these religious sites, portraying

wide-open rice fields, there was no shelter from the sweltering

intimate portraits of travel on the outskirts of town.At the Hoeido

sun. Yet, during the winter, this area’s strong winds made for

Fukuroi Station, a group of travelers rests at a thatched,

perfect kite flying conditions. Hiroshige illustrates this local

roadside tea stall. The kettle hangs from a lone pine, and the

pastime in two of the other 53 Stations of the Tokaido sets,

stall’s proprietor stokes the smoky fire. As a small bird lands

filling the sky with kites.

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Mitsuke

Hoeido

Across the Tenryu River, Mitsuke was a three-mile journey

from Fukuroi. Situated exactly 60 ri (half a mile equals one ri)

from both Edo and Kyoto, this station was also called “Middle Town.” While the current of this river necessitated sturdy

boats as opposed to waders, its depth could stall travel in

inclement weather. Mitsuke, meaning “with a view,” takes its

name from the fact that Edo-bound travelers would catch their first glimpse of Mt. Fuji. At this post-station, travelers could

visit Mitsuke Tenjin Shrine or take the fork in the road to the

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Himekaido (Princess Road), a minor route. In each rendition of this station, Hiroshige emphasizes the width and challenging

nature of the Tenryu, or “Heaven Dragon,” River. In the Hoeido Mitsuke Station, well-formed boats dock upon an expansive sandbank as boats glide towards the distant morning mist.

Hiroshige depicts truncated ferries and expectant ferrymen in

the immediate foreground. This extreme close-up composition would come to fascinate Western Impressionists.


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Hamamatsu

Hoeido

A bustling town in the 19th century, Hamamatsu has become

travelers shake off the winter chill around a fire. Hiroshige

a large, modern city. Home to Tokugawa Ieyasu before he

reveals his particular appreciation for the quiet beauty of the

founded the Tokugawa Shogunate, this castle town was nine

quotidian: a woman with child strapped to her back, an off-

miles from riverside Mitsuke. In the Hoeido Tokaido, Hiroshige

duty porter enjoying his break, the warmth of the fire on chilly

once again favors the fringes rather than the town proper. A

fingers. Through each of the five 53 Stations of the Tokaido

few lone pines grow from the rice fields while the castle rises

sets, Hiroshige presents different views, varying seasons, and

above the distant town. On the edge of the Hamamatsu Station,

the changing weather of Hamamatsu.

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Maisaka

Hoeido

Located on the eastern shore of Lake Hamana, Maisaka was

broken.� Lake Hamana was once separate from the sea, but in

view of Imaki Point, extending into the sea with a white Mt.

separating land. Due to these connotations, betrothed female

a fishing village. This station was known for its wonderful Fuji breaking the horizon. In order to cross the mouth of

the lake, travelers had to take a ferry to Arai, such as those

floating through the Hoeido composition. Yellow sails raised in the bottom-right corner provide a sense of distance, an

understanding of Maisaka’s elevated viewpoint. Six miles from

Hamamatsu, the lake was also known as Imagiri, meaning “now

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1499, an earthquake and following tidal wave washed away the travelers treated this point with suspicion, some traveling along the north shore of the lake so as not to cross Imagiri. Today,

Maisaka is a popular tourist destination as well as favored by

fishermen or clam diggers. One honjin (inn reserved for daimyo and government officials) remains standing.


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Arai

Hoeido

While the journey along the Tokaido promised innumerable

the devastating earthquake and tsunami of 1707 caused the

Crossing Imagiri (where Hamana Lake meets the Pacific

the city of Kosai. In the Hoeido set, Hiroshige follows the course

excitements, the trip from Maisaka to Arai was not exhilarating. Ocean), passengers often slept through the two-mile ferry

ride to Lake Hamana’s western shore, a reality reflected in the cloaked travelers yawning and sleeping in Hiroshige’s Hoeido

series. Arai contained the second-most important government barrier and the only checkpoint that spanned both land and

sea. Like the barrier at Hakone, it served to regulate weapons transport and travel. Originally, Arai sat close to the coast, but

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station to move farther inland. Today, Arai Station belongs to

of a daimyo’s (regional lord) procession, banners and regalia blowing in the wind. Though travelers may have found this

stretch monotonous, Hiroshige captures the expansive beauty

of the water and distant pine-crowned capes. The barrier waits on the right of the far shore, whose main building still stands

today. Now a museum, this checkpoint housed a school during the Meiji period.


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Shirasuga (Shirasuka)

Hoeido

Four miles from Arai, Shirasuga sat atop Shiomi Hill during

Motomachi. Hiroshige would have visited Shirasuga on the

Hiroshige captures this original site overlooking the sea,

not a literal reality, but a poetic one. Amid lush and sweeping

Tokaido journey. Following the earthquake and tsunami of

the left slope. The sea remains a defining aspect of the

waves. The original location of this station is now modern

composition.

the early Edo period. In his Hoeido rendition of this station,

plateau, today known as Kosai. Once again, Hiroshige chooses

yet this is not the view he would have seen during his own

hills, a daimyo’s (regional lord) procession descends behind

1707, Shirasuga was relocated farther inland, as to avoid tidal

traveler’s experience, framed by the hills and centered in the

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Futagawa

Hoeido

Like Mariko, Futagawa Station’s reputation arose from a

approach one of the particularly famous shops, excited for the

regional delicacy. Following the two-mile trip from Shirasuga,

treat at the end of a rather long, monotonous walk. Hiroshige

travelers flocked to the teashops at Sarugababa, a sweeping,

was known to love sweets, so he was sure to include this

quiet plain on the edge of town. These shops specialized in

famous teahouse in the Gyosho Tokaido as well. Originally

kashiwamochi, sweet rice cakes enveloped in oak leaves.

positioned between Futagawa and Oiwa, the official station was

In each series of the 53 Stations of the Tokaido, Hiroshige

reestablished in Futagawa in 1644. An ai no shuku, or unofficial

emphasizes these sticky snacks, capturing the anticipation and

post-station, sprung up with Oiwa. Today, Futagawa Station is

excitement of sampling regional specialties. As pines dot the

part of Toyohashi.

hillside of the Hoeido print, a trio of female musicians eagerly

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Yoshida

Hoeido

Four miles northwest of Futagawa, Yoshida was a significant

Castle. Far below the scaffolding, the Toyo River flows, serene

the center of Yoshida domain, an important feudal holding.

several Tokaido stations to be known for its meshimori onna

and prosperous castle town. Yoshida Castle, built in 1505, was As a thriving port, this station was home to one of the few

bridges on the Tokaido. In the Hoeido depiction of Yoshida,

Hiroshige focuses on the castle scaffolding. Nimbly navigating such precarious heights, workers plaster and repair Yoshida

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and wide, running to the west of town. Yoshida was the first of

(meal-serving women), who often doubled as prostitutes. These women played a central role in the entertainment culture of the Tokaido and are discussed further at Goyu Station.


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Goyu

Hoeido

Nearly six miles northwest of Yoshida, Goyu was known for

shogunate forbid prostitution in inns along the Tokaido in 1659,

its determined waitresses. Competition was steep due to the

the policy made little impact on this booming industry. Despite

sheer number of restaurants and inns. As the Hoeido print

the public disregard for this law, the government continued to

reveals, these women had no qualms providing a certain

issue unheeded decrees until 1718. While the new policy did

brand of entertainment to attract customers. Hiroshige

not officially permit prostitution, it allowed each establishment

captures the variety of choices, stretching a line of businesses

to employ two meshimori onna, or “meal-serving women.” Each

to the horizon. In the open-air teahouse to the right of the

additional waitress would incur fines, effectively taxing inns on

composition, Hiroshige displays the name of the series,

each additional prostitute. Bypassed by the Tokaido Main Line

engraver, and printer, as well as “Ichiryusai,” one of Hiroshige’s

Railroad, today Goyu Station remains the closest to its original

own go (artist names). Inside the teahouse, “Takenouchi,” the

state of all the Tokaido post-stations.

name of the publisher, is emblazoned on the wall. While the

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Akasaka

Hoeido

While commercial romance could be found all along the

scene beneath the shadow of night. In the Hoeido Tokaido,

Tokaido, Akasaka Station was particularly known for its

Hiroshige presents, appropriately, a busy inn. As the sago

courtesans. A mile northwest of Goyu, travelers looked forward

palm cuts through the center of the composition, courtesans

to this center of entertainment. In one Edo-period song, a

apply their makeup before mirrors to the right, while a reclining

traveler questions “what would be the purpose of going back

customer awaits his tea to the left and another customer returns

and forth to Edo if there were no Goyu, Akasaka, and Yoshida?�

from the bath. The stretch of the road between Goyu and

These stations delighted in the world of the evening, the realm

Akasaka retains the pine trees that originally lined the Tokaido.

of fleeting earthly pleasures. In each of the five Tokaido sets,

Furthermore, Ohashi-ya, an Edo-period inn, still operates out of

Hiroshige focuses on this pleasure culture, playing out each

its 1716 structure.

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Fujikawa

Hoeido

As commoners bow, a daimyo (regional lord) approaches

the eigth month in the lunar calendar. This occasion happened

Fujikawa Station in the Hoeido Tokaido. The procession of

to coincide with the date Tokugawa Ieyasu took control of Edo

innumerable yellow hats fills the road, its members likely tired

Castle in 1590. An understandably significant date for the

from the seven-mile trek from Akasaka. The decorative, white

shogunate, the shogun would observe this occasion with a gift

paper fluttering from each horse suggests their special purpose:

of horses for the emperor. According to many scholars, it was in

gifts from the shogun to the emperor. In celebration of the rice

one such procession that Hiroshige traveled the Tokaido.

harvest, it was customary to exchange gifts on the first day of

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Okazaki

Hoeido

At Okazaki Station, the traveler encountered the longest bridge in Edo-period Japan,Yahagibashi. The bridge crossed the

Yahagi River and purportedly measured 1,248 feet. Okazaki was a wealthy castle town in Hiroshige’s era, located nearly

four miles from Fujikawa. Though the castle sits to the left of the bridge in the Hoeido rendition, today the Okazaki Castle

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sits to the right of Yahagibashi, suggesting that the bridge

was moved at some point in time. As a regional lord and his

entourage make their way across the Yahagi River, the castle rises above lush pine boughs. The mountains that loom gray and blue in the distance are one of Hiroshige’s imagined elements.


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Chiryu

Hoeido

While a popular destination for Shinto pilgrims year-round,

horses grazing outside of town. Chiryu’s poetic importance

every year. Eight-and-a-half miles from Okazaki, Chiryu hosted

Tale of Ise, the famed “eight-part bridge” zigzagged through

Chiryu became a commercial hub from April 25 through May 5 a spring horse market of about 500 horses in the pastures

outside of town. Hiroshige would not have seen the event in full swing, as he passed through Chiryu during the summer

months. Nevertheless, Hiroshige alludes to this famous market in his Hoeido series, depicting Chiryu Station through the

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traces back to the Heian period. Immortalized in the classic

Chiryu’s many kakitsubata (Japanese irises). Though the bridge was no more than ruins by the time Hiroshige arrived, it is

significant that Hiroshige chooses to portray scenes that would

resonate with the common Edo-period viewer, rather than recall classic tropes.


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Narumi

Hoeido

Though some stations were known for their edible delights,

both towns used the name “Arimatsu.� Hiroshige beautifully

others became famous for their mastery of a particular craft.

captures the intricate designs and vivid colors of this local craft

Roughly six miles northwest of Chiryu, Narumi Station, as

in the Upright Tokaido. Rendered in his distinctive truncated

well as the neighboring town of Arimatsu, promised exquisite

foreground, long strips of crimson, rose, white, and myriad

tie-dyed fabrics. These specific textiles were often used to

blues flutter from their drying stand. Marks of the publisher,

make yukata, a light kimono worn both in the summer and after

Takenouchi Magohachi (Hoeido), and of Hiroshige are rendered

a bath. While the cartouche on the Hoeido print states that

in white upon the storefront. Fabric stores continue to operate

the cloth for sale is from Arimatsu, it is likely that fabric from

in Narumi today.

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Miya

Hoeido

Three-and-a-quarter miles from Narumi, Miya was a popular

people together. In Hiroshige’s other depictions of Miya Station,

home to Atsuta Shrine, a significant Shinto center and home

shrine, marking the boundary between the everyday world and

station for Shinto pilgrims. Translating to “shrine,” Miya was to one of three divine symbols of the Imperial throne: the

Kusanagi-no-tsurugi (the Sacred Sword of the Emperor). Atsuta Shrine hosted several festivals throughout the year. In the

Hoeido series, Hiroshige depicts the Horse Driving Festival

(Uma-oi Shinji). Devotees chase horses towing unseen festival carts across the composition. This evening festival was one of

many celebrations that both gave thanks to deities and brought

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bright and bold torii (gates) herald the entrance to the famous the spiritual realm. From Miya, the traveler was faced with a

choice: to follow the Sayakaido, the Minoji (minor connecting road to the Nakasendo), or continue along the Tokaido. As a hub of religious activity and the intersections of three official

roads, Miya was the most prosperous town between Edo and Kyoto. Today, the post-station has become Atsuta, a large suburb of Nagoya.


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Kuwana

Hoeido

The Kiso Three Rivers (the Kiso River, the Ibi River, and the

comprised of many small shrines dedicated to the goddess

from Miya, the travelers could return to sea or cross all three

Station, the sea is not as calm as Hiroshige often portrays

Nagara River) meet in Ise Bay at Kuwana. To reach this station rivers in succession. Most chose to sail nearly 15 miles across

Ise Bay to this prosperous castle town. Kuwana Station thrived, promising travelers a regional specialty of broiled clams and proper rest. Southwest of Kuwana, the Ise Grand Shrines

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Amaterasu Omikami. In the Hoeido rendition of Kuwana

it, but instead catches the light of dusk in the white crests of

each wave. Ships bob on the pleasant waves, moored in the foreground. Though Kuwana’s famous castle is gone today, part of the stone wall remains intact.


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Yokkaichi

Hoeido

Meaning “fourth-day fourth-day market,” Yokkaichi was

Aloft winding tributaries in the low land bordering Ise Bay, these

of Kuwana. It earned this name from its regular markets,

his mastery of nature’s subtleties. As one nears the right edge

a thriving market town and port seven miles southwest

traditionally held on the fourth of each month. Very few traces of the early town remain today, as Yokkaichi was largely destroyed during World War II. In the Hoeido composition, travelers cross the Mie River on a series of tiny bridges just outside of town.

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travelers battle the wind. Once again, Hiroshige demonstrates of the composition, a straw cape whips in the wind; to the left,

another traveler lurches after his hat, carried off by the powerful gust.


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Ishiyakushi

Hoeido

Six miles south of Yokkaichi, Ishiyakushi Station grew around

9th century. There are works attributed to this popular priest

its Buddhist temple. In the quiet of the countryside, this temple

throughout Japan. In most cases, as in this one, the myth is no

was home to the statue of Yakushi Buddha. A guardian against

more than myth. Hiroshige captures Ishiyakushi Station from

misfortune, this statue drew many worshippers from the

different viewpoints and seasons in his five Tokaido series. In

surrounding area during the Edo period. Legends state that

each, his brush affectionately traces the lines of daily life in the

Kobo Daishi, the leader of the Shingon sect of Buddhism in

country. Today, Ishiyakushi Station is part of Suzuka City.

Japan, carved this particular depiction from natural rock in the

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Shono

Hoeido

Though the smallest and least populous station on the Tokaido,

through shades of gray. The stormy scene bursts to life in the

Tokaido. Barely two miles from Ishiyakushi, Shono served

sheets, two travelers flee to the shelter of the town. Heads

Shono Station was immortalized through Hiroshige’s Hoeido

Hiroshige less as an opportunity to capture physical reality and more as an opportunity for compositional exploration. Each of the five renditions considers a different aspect of Edo-period

life with a fresh perspective, from the rice festival in the Upright set to the iconic rainstorm of the Hoeido series. Despite the imagined landscape of each scene, the experiences are

tangible. The Hoeido depiction of Shono, known as “Sudden Shower,” is one of the most iconic designs in ukiyo-e. The viewer can feel the power of the wind as it bends each

bough and understand the menacing darkness of the sky 104

intersection of diagonals. As rain descends in heavy, insistent lowered, they brace their respective hat and umbrella against the torrent. Four other travelers continue their ascent. While

one runs ahead, straw cape pulled high on his shoulders, two

porters carry a kago (palanquin). As the kago’s covering whips in the storm, one catches just a glimpse of the passenger

within. Today, Shono belongs to Suzuka in Mie Prefecture. In 1998, the city established an archives museum in an original

honjin (lodging for government officials and other high-ranking individuals).


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Kameyama

Hoeido

Kameyama was a castle town, a four-and-a-half-mile trip from

reveals a lone tower and wooden gate as the strenuous ascent

Shono. Hiroshige focuses on this 16th-century castle, from

from town assures the traveler and viewer alike that something

its stunning stone wall to its elegant eaves. In the Hoeido

wonderful is waiting at the top. Against the rosy sky, the town

Tokaido, Hiroshige takes advantage of its hilltop location,

of Kameyama rests, quiet beneath the fresh snow, punctuated

dramatizing the snowy ascent of a daimyo (regional lord) and

by a trail of half-hidden travelers. Today, many buildings from

his entourage, perhaps returning home from Edo. Hiroshige

Kameyama Station are within the modern city of Kameyama.

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Seki

Hoeido

Seki was an important intersection and bustling town. This

standing today. Important guests would have been welcomed

travelers to follow the path to Yamato Province, branch off to

Hoeido print, he plays on this practice, depicting a variation of

station sat at the crossroads of three major highways, allowing the Grand Ise Shrines, or continue to Kyoto. Three miles west of Kameyama, Seki was also home to the third government

barrier on the Tokaido Road. In the Hoeido series, Hiroshige titles Seki Station “Early Departure from the Main Fortress,” depicting a daimyo (regional lord) preparing to leave one

of Seki’s two fortresses. One of the fortress gates remains

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by their mon (crest), displayed about the fortress. In Hiroshige’s his family crest upon each piece of fabric pieces and several lanterns. A man holds a lantern by the entrance gate that

reads “hi.” Hiroshige focuses on the pomp and circumstance of government lodgings at Seki. Today, many of the original

buildings have been preserved from Seki Station, which is now the center of the modern town of Seki.


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Sakanoshita

Hoeido

Sakanoshita sat at the entrance to Suzuka Pass, nearly four

As he reached the view, the great Kano school painter realized

views, the area around this station drew visitors as early as the

face of such impressive natural beauty. In the Hoeido series,

miles from the activity of Seki. Boasting stunning mountain

Muromachi period. Though the station was originally located farther northwest, it was washed away in 1650 and rebuilt in

its current location. Sakanoshita was particularly known for its

breathtaking view of Mt. Fudesute (meaning, Mount “Throwing

Away the Brush”). This storied peak received its title when artist Kano Motonobu (1476−1559) attempted to capture its beauty.

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that his efforts were futile and tossed away his brush in the

Hiroshige portrays a modest teahouse perfectly situated to take in this famous mountain. Though its natural beauty stunned

generations of visitors, Suzaka Pass was too steep for railroads and without rail traffic, Sakanoshita Station declined during the Meiji Period.


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Tsuchiyama

Hoeido

Four-and-a-half miles across Suzuka Pass, Tsuchiyama

of travelers, while the river rages from azure depths to crisp

was known for the beauty of its incessant rain. Hiroshige

white rapids. Tsuchiyama was also home to the Tamura Myojin

recognizes this particular beauty in the Hoeido Tokaido,

Shrine, dedicated to the memory of the famous 8th-century

soaking a daimyo’s (regional lord) procession on its way into

writer Sakanoue no Tamuramaro. Like Sakanoshita, the steep,

town. While likely a landscape of Hiroshige’s own invention,

rugged nature of Suzuka Pass prohibited railroad access,

the atmosphere is faithful to Tsuchiyama. Rain pours from

and consequently decreased the flow of travelers through

an unseen sky; unrelenting torrents strike the bowed heads

Tsuchiyama.

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Minakuchi

Hoeido

At Minakuchi Station, the Tokaido descends from the mountains

she removes the green skin of the gourd, cutting the white

station was famous for kanpyo (dried gourd shavings). Kanpyo

right, a second woman hangs these ribbons of gourd to dry.

onto the Kansai Plain. A six-mile journey from Tsuchiyama, this were made from calabash, a type of gourd, and used in many Edo-period dishes. Harvested between July and September,

the gourds would be shaved into one long, thin strip and dried in the late summer sun. Hiroshige illustrates this seasonal

practice in the Hoeido series. In the bottom-left corner of the

print, a woman kneels before a low table. Shoulders hunched,

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flesh into the delicate strips that will become kanpyo. To her To the left, a third woman waits with a fresh gourd in hand as

her baby peeks over her shoulder. Near the thatched roofs of

town, another woman hangs the calabash strips like garlands

along the fence. Hiroshige evokes this microcosm of life in rural Japan with warmth and nuance.


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Ishibe

Hoeido

Five miles west of Minakuchi, Ishibe was a very desolate

Mekawa presents a busy porter station. Though the trees and

station. Travelers could enjoy rice wine, rice boiled with leafy

mountains are Hiroshige’s personal additions, this composition

vegetables, and baked bean curd with bean paste at the

was inspired by Hara Arimasa’s Famous Places on the

roadside restaurant, but Ishibe offered little else to the traveler.

Tokaido, Illustrated. As in the Hoeido print for Okitsu Station,

A day’s journey from Kyoto, Ishibe is now part of modern

Hiroshige borrows elements of familiar compositions to capture

Konan. In the Hoeido Tokaido, Hiroshige depicts not Ishibe, but

both the meisho (famous place) and the popular imagery

the village of Mekawa. Located between Ishibe and Kusatsu,

surrounding that place.

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Kusatsu

Hoeido

Six miles from quiet Ishibe Station, Kusatsu roared with activity.

forward to delicious ubagamochi rice cakes, the local specialty.

This station continually brimmed with travelers from both the

Hiroshige depicts a vendor of these treats in the Hoeido

Tokaido and the Nakasendo, a large highway that ran through

Tokaido. As porters labor beneath their kago (palanquins) in the

the mountains between Edo and Kyoto. These two major

foreground, a roadside restaurant teems with eager customers

highways merged Kusatsu and Kyoto. On the banks of the

in the background. Customers fill the large, open-front space,

Kusatsu River, this station developed into a modern city. Among

enjoying their rice cakes, resting up before their heading off to

the many amusements of this busy station, travelers could look

Otsu Station.

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Otsu

Hoeido

Situated on the southwestern shore of Lake Biwa, Ostu was

Temple, though it has long gone dry. Otsu Station was home

the last station on the Tokaido before Kyoto. The parade of

to many shrines and temples, known for its natural beauty and

oxcarts and bustle of the post-station in the Hoeido Tokaido

otsu-e (folk pictures unique to this area). Located less than

herald the end of the Tokaido and one’s imminent arrival in the

seven miles from Kyoto, this port town was directly controlled

Imperial capital. To the far left of the composition, the wakimizu

by the Tokugawa Shogunate. While a strategic move in terms

(fountain of spring water) bubbles in front of Hashirii Tea

of travel and trade, it was also a political one, for it allowed the

House. Today, this natural fountain is preserved within Gesshin

shogunate to keep a close eye on the emperor.

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Kyoto

Hoeido

The traveler’s adventure begins and ends with a magnificent

family since 794. Though the Meiji Restoration of 1868 would

After 10 to 14 days travel from Edo, Sanjo Bridge would carry

Imperial line, during the Edo period, the emperor was symbolic,

bridge, no matter which direction one’s journey took them. the weary traveler across the expansive Kamo River and

into the Imperial capital. Less than seven miles from Otsu, Kyoto stretches across the far shore of the Kamo River. In

the distance, two important mountains tower over the Imperial capital: Mt. Higashi, dotted with shrines and temples, and Mt. Hiei, a key Buddhist center. Kyoto was home to the Imperial

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restore ruling power from the Tokugawa Shogunate to the

stripped of any political power. Even so, Kyoto remained a

commercial center and a haven for the arts. While the scene at Nihonbashi burst with excitement and the promise of

adventure, Hiroshige portrays the arrival in Kyoto in a calmer

manner. Kyoto welcomes the traveler to his or her destination with the sigh of accomplishment.


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Selected Bibliography Adams, Moni, Stephen Addiss. Tokaido: Adventures on the Road in Old Japan. Lawrence, Kan.: University of Kansas, Spencer Museum of Art, 1980. Print. Aitken, Geneviève. La Collection d’Estampes Japonaises De Claude Monet à Giverny. Lausanne: Bibliothèque des arts, 2003. Print.

Bicknell, Julian. Hiroshige in Tokyo: The Floating World of Edo. Pomegranate Art Books, 1994. Print. Forrer, Matthi, Juzo Suzuki, and Henry D. Smith. Hiroshige: Prints and Drawings. London: Royal Academy of Arts, Munich: Prestel, 1997. Print. Guth, Christine, M.E., Alicia Volk, Emiko Yamanashi, et al. Japan & Paris: Impressionism, Postimpressionism, and the Modern Era. Honolulu: Honolulu Academy of the Arts, 2004. Print. Hanada, Shinichi, Tadashi Kobayashi, and Reiko Ueda. 200thAnniversary of the Birth of Hiroshige Exhibition. Tokyo: The Mainichi Newspaper, 1996. Print. Henry D. Smith, Amy G Poster, Robert Buck, and the Brooklyn Museum of Art. Hiroshige: One Hundred Famous Views of Edo. New York: George Braziller Inc. 1986. Print. Hori, T. Tenpo Kaiho dochzu de tadoru Hiroshige no Tokaido gojusantsugi tabigeshiki. Tokyo: Jinbunsha. 1997. Print. Isaburo Oka. Hiroshige: Japan’s Great Landscape Artist. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1992. Print. Jenkins, Donald. The Floating World Revisited. Honolulu: Portland Art Museum and University of Hawai’i, 1993. Print. Kobayashi, Tadashi. Masterpieces of Landscape: Ukiyo-e Prints from the Honolulu Academy of Arts. Honolulu: Honolulu Academy of Arts, 2003. Print. Kondo, Ichitaro. Hiroshige’s Fifty-three Stages of the Tokaido. Heibonsha Ltd., Publisher, 1966. Print. Lane, Richard. Images from the Floating World: The Japanese Print: New Jersey: Chartwell, 1978. Print. Marije Jansen. Hiroshige’s Journey in the 60-odd Provinces. Amsterdam: Hotei Publishing, 2004. Print. Matsuo, Basho, and David Landis. Barnhill. Basho’s Haiku: Selected Poems by Matsuo Basho. Albany: State University of New York, 2004. Print. Michener, James A. Japanese Prints: From the Early Masters to the Modern. Tokyo: C.E. Tuttle, 1959. Print.

Michener, James A. The Floating World. New York: Random House, 1954. Print. Miura, Yoshiaki. “Shinagawa, a Gateway to Old and New Tokyo.” The Japan Times. The Japan Times, 30 Nov. 2014. Web. 27 Nov. 2015. Narazaki, Muneshige. Hiroshige: Famous Views. Tokyo: Kondansha International LTD, 1968. Print. Narazaki, Muneshige. The Japanese Print: Its Evolution and Essence. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1966. Print. Neuer, Roni, Herbert Libertson, and Susugu Yoshida. Ukiyo-e: 250 Years of Japanese Art. New York: Windward, 1979. Print. Rijksmuseum. Catalogue of the Van Gogh Museum’s Collection of Japanese Prints. Amsterdam: Zwolle: Van Gogh Museum; Waanders Publishers, 1991. Print. Statler, Oliver. Japanese Inn. New York: Random House, 1961. Print. Stewart, Basil. A Guide to Japanese Prints and Their Subject Matter. New York: Dover Publications, 1979. Print. Strange, Edward F. Hiroshige’s Woodblock Prints: A Guide. New York: Dover Publications, 1983. Print. Sugimoto, Ryuichi. Hiroshige Tokaido. Tokyo: Ukiyo-e Ota Memorial Museum, 1991. Print. Tadashi Kobayashi, Stephen Little, et al. Masterpieces of Landscape: Ukiyo-e Prints from the Honolulu Academy of Fine Arts. Tokyo: Kokusai Fine Art, 2003. Print. Traganou, Jilly. The Tokaido Road: Traveling and Representation in Edo and Meiji Japan. London: Routledge Curzon, 2004. Print. Vaporis, Constantine Nomikos. “The Road to Edo (and Back).” Tour of Duty: Samurai, Military Service in Edo, and the Culture of Early Modern Japan. University of Hawai’i Press, 2008. 36–61. Web. Weisberg, Gabriel P., et al. Japonisme: Japanese Influence on French Art, 18541910. Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art, 1975. Print. White, Julia M., Reiko Mochinaga Brandon, and Yoko Woodson. Hokusai and Hiroshige: Great Japanese Prints from the James A. Michener Collection, Honolulu Academy of Arts. San Francisco: Asian Art Museum of San Francisco in Association with the Honolulu Academy of Arts and University of Washington, Seattle and London, 1998. Print. Yoshida, Susugu. Tokaido Gojusantsugi. Tokyo: Shueisha, 1975. Print. Yoshida, Teruji. Ukiyoe Jiten. Tokyo: Gabundo, 1972. Print.

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Hiroshige's 53 Stations of the Tokaido  
Hiroshige's 53 Stations of the Tokaido  
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