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RHET 201 Dr. Michael Gibson Alaa S Abdel Rahman 900101729

Journal Entries

Feb 19: For my paper, I’m supposed to find a topic that is important to me; something that I would want to learn more about on my own. The first topic that came to me was the ‘Kashmir Conflict’. I find it very interesting. I was in India in winter break, in New Delhi, and I was thinking of going to Kashmir because I saw pictures of it online and I thought it was beautiful. But friends in India have advised me not to because a lot of terrorist attacks happen there because of the conflict between India and Pakistan. I got to hear the side of the Indians on that topic but I think with more research I would be able to look at the facts and not be affected by any side. On the other hand, I’m afraid the topic might be too narrow for me. I’ll have to Google it for a while and then decide. I can’t think of any other topic though, this is the most interesting topic to me right now. I wrote a research paper last semester in my political science class, and I found the whole process very interesting and rewarding. I think that I focus on politics because it is what I’m interested in the most. But the problem is that in the last paper I did, my professor was the one who chose the topic, at the beginning I thought it was hard, but when I started my research I got more interested in the ropic.im also very interested in history but I don’t know what topic might be interesting enough. Feb 22: Today, I did a little research on the Kashmir conflict in order to decide whether or not this will be my research topic. In my research, I found out that there are two sides to the story of the conflict between Pakistan and India. It is a very interesting topic but I’m not really sure what ill be discussing in the paper. Maybe I could talk about what would be best for the people of Kashmir? Or what might happen in the future. I don’t know maybe I need to do more research in order to decide. Feb 26: I thought of a possible research question today in class. What do the people of Kashmir want? When I started my research, I notices how the only two sides talking are Pakistan and India but the voice of the people of Kashmir is not actually heard. If they speak up and say what they want, maybe that would bring an end to the conflict. Or is it not that simple? Maybe I can use the demonstrations in Kashmir that are happening right now and that are inspired by the Arab spring. Feb 29: Today I started searching for resources because I’ve been behind.im actually only looking for journal articles because I find them very helpful and full of information. I remember when I was doing a research paper for my political science class, I had over six journal articles to get information from and they were more than enough. Because I’m going to start my paper by


first introducing briefly the history behind the Kashmir conflict, I wanted to find an article that explained how and when the conflict started in the first place. March 2: Today I started to look for more resources I got three journal articles the last time I searched for resources, I read their summaries and thought they were good but I think they all discuss the same points. I wanted something that had a different point of view, also something that was not biased to Pakistan or India. So I found an article that discussed the Kashmir conflict from an international law point of view, because both countries could argue all they want but in the end it is the law that has the final word in this matter. March 8: I looked over some of the sources I have gathered for my papers and I realized that some of them talk about the same issues and doesn’t have a new pint to make. I decided therefore to add some videos to my research; maybe some interviews of the people of Kashmir or maybe even a documentary about the issue. March 13: I found a very good documentary named “pawns of paradise”. Apparently, this documentary was very popular and successful. It goes into detail about the hardships of the people of Kashmir, and discusses in depth their sufferings with terrorism in the region. It will also help me a lot in my presentation as it will make it more interesting for the audience. March 17: Today, I decided to prepare a little for my presentation. I don’t want to make it the usual power point presentation so I thought about starting the interview with a brief video and then maybe posting some pictures up while I talked about my paper instead of having just words up.


RHET 201 Dr. Michael Gibson Alaa S Abdel Rahman 900101729

Journal Entries (Updated)

Feb 19: For my paper, I’m supposed to find a topic that is important to me; something that I would want to learn more about on my own. The first topic that came to me was the ‘Kashmir Conflict’. I find it very interesting. I was in India in winter break, in New Delhi, and I was thinking of going to Kashmir because I saw pictures of it online and I thought it was beautiful. But friends in India have advised me not to because a lot of terrorist attacks happen there because of the conflict between India and Pakistan. I got to hear the side of the Indians on that topic but I think with more research I would be able to look at the facts and not be affected by any side. On the other hand, I’m afraid the topic might be too narrow for me. I’ll have to Google it for a while and then decide. I can’t think of any other topic though, this is the most interesting topic to me right now. I wrote a research paper last semester in my political science class, and I found the whole process very interesting and rewarding. I think that I focus on politics because it is what I’m interested in the most. But the problem is that in the last paper I did, my professor was the one who chose the topic, at the beginning I thought it was hard, but when I started my research I got more interested in the ropic.im also very interested in history but I don’t know what topic might be interesting enough. Feb 22: Today, I did a little research on the Kashmir conflict in order to decide whether or not this will be my research topic. In my research, I found out that there are two sides to the story of the conflict between Pakistan and India. It is a very interesting topic but I’m not really sure what I’ll be discussing in the paper. Maybe I could talk about what would be best for the people of Kashmir? Or what might happen in the future. I don’t know maybe I need to do more research in order to decide. Feb 26: I thought of a possible research question today in class. What do the people of Kashmir want? When I started my research, I notices how the only two sides talking are Pakistan and India but the voice of the people of Kashmir is not actually heard. If they speak up and say what they want, maybe that would bring an end to the conflict. Or is it not that simple? Maybe I can use the demonstrations in Kashmir that are happening right now and that are inspired by the Arab spring.


Feb 29: Today I started searching for resources because I’ve been behind.im actually only looking for journal articles because I find them very helpful and full of information. I remember when I was doing a research paper for my political science class, I had over six journal articles to get information from and they were more than enough. Because I’m going to start my paper by first introducing briefly the history behind the Kashmir conflict, I wanted to find an article that explained how and when the conflict started in the first place. March 2: Today I started to look for more resources I got three journal articles the last time I searched for resources, I read their summaries and thought they were good but I think they all discuss the same points. I wanted something that had a different point of view, also something that was not biased to Pakistan or India. So I found an article that discussed the Kashmir conflict from an international law point of view, because both countries could argue all they want but in the end it is the law that has the final word in this matter. March 8: I looked over some of the sources I have gathered for my papers and I realized that some of them talk about the same issues and doesn’t have a new pint to make. I decided therefore to add some videos to my research; maybe some interviews of the people of Kashmir or maybe even a documentary about the issue. March 13: I found a very good documentary named “pawns of paradise”. Apparently, this documentary was very popular and successful. It goes into detail about the hardships of the people of Kashmir, and discusses in depth their sufferings with terrorism in the region. It will also help me a lot in my presentation as it will make it more interesting for the audience. March 17: Today, I decided to prepare a little for my presentation. I don’t want to make it the usual power point presentation so I thought about starting the interview with a brief video and then maybe posting some pictures up while I talked about my paper instead of having just words up. March 20: I’m trying to search for the documentary “pawns of paradise” online but I can only find the trailer. Watching this video would’ve been very enriching because it actually shows the hardships of the people of Kashmir. The articles I have been reading are informative, but they only deal with numbers and statistics; this video would have helped me to actually see the sufferings of those people that I’ve been reading about. I have seen Kashmir’s in India before, but I’ve only seen those who are well off and have their own businesses. March 26: I like the Idea of using a documentary as a source in my research process instead of only using journal articles. So today I thought maybe I can find a documentary other than “pawns of paradise” that would be available for me to watch online. I came


across this documentary called “the killing of Kashmir”, I started to watch it but then I discovered that it won’t help me a lot in my research as it discusses only one story of one family and follows it till the end of the film. This might help me a little, but I need something more general that discusses generally what all the people of Kashmir want. March 30: Today I finished reading the article that discusses the role of International Law in the Kashmir conflict. It first starts out by stating how the situation got to where it is today considering the 1947 partition and the unilateral decisions of both India and Pakistan that have caused them to move further away from agreement. It then foes on to argue that negotiations and International Law offer the best opportunity for a solution to that conflict, but also argues that it would need both India and Pakistan. This will help me in concluding my paper or the process of search in itself as it offers a solution and a possible end the conflict I have been discussing though out the paper. But the problem about this solution is that, it offers a settlement for both the Indians and the Pakistanis but fails to address the Kashmir’s. April 4: Today I read “Kashmir the Unanswered Question” and “Kashmir, caught in the middle”. Although the title of the latter article suggests that it focuses more on Kashmir and its people, like the first article, it in fact discusses the conflict going on between Pakistan and India and speaks of the consequences that it would bring on the whole region as both countries posses nuclear weapons. Those two articles might be helpful in the beginning of my paper but I need something that focuses more on Kashmir and its people rather than India and Pakistan. April 8: I’m starting to get a little frustrated with my search because everything I have read so far does not have what I’m looking for which is “what do the people of Kashmir want?” it is very strange how it is known as the Kashmir conflict and yet, none of the articles I have read so far are concerned with Kashmir and its people but are rather concerned with India, Pakistan, and a solution that would please them both. April 13: I took a long break from my search to clear my mind and to look at the articles I’ve gathered from a different perspective. I started reading the article “Kashmir is bleeding” and was very happy to find out that it does, even if so briefly, tell what the people of Kashmir want. It talks about how Kashmir’s today still want self-determination and the opportunity to choose between India and Pakistan. But most importantly, it point out that the people of Kashmir want independence which neither India not Pakistan would allow.


Alaa S. Abdel Rahman

REHT 201-23 Professor Michael Gibson Spring 2012


Cover Letter My paper tells the story of my search; it starts from when I didn’t know what to write about till the very end when I knew all about the Kashmir Conflict. I wanted my portfolio to follow the same theme and to have the same organization as my paper. I organized it in the same way I wrote my paper; for instance, I put my final draft first so that people can see the end result. But then, after the final draft I put everything in the order that they were done by. Journal entries went first, and then the annotated bibliography and then the drafts. At the end I put the conversation I had with the Indian intern which was the last phase of my search; I wanted to conclude with a reflection I wrote on what he had to say about the conflict to show how my views have changed .throughout my search

We have all written research papers before, but the I-search paper is different. What I like about professor’s Gibson classes in general is that it forces you not to procrastinate and leave things till the last minute. He makes us go through the process of writing slowly so we can do our best in everything we are supposed to do. This I-search class did that too, but in a way that documented out every step in what we have achieved in the course. I personally enjoyed the experience and I hope that it will go on for other students to enjoy it as well. You don’t only learn about the topic of your research, but you also learn about the process in itself and how every small thing in your process is .important and will help with the greater outcome


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Alaa Abdel Rahman Professor Michael Gibson RHET 201 I-Search Paper Final Draft 900101729

Kashmir conflict Introduction: For my paper, I was supposed to find a topic that was important to me; something that I would have wanted to learn more about on my own. The first topic that came to me was the ‘Kashmir Conflict’ which I found very interesting. I was in India in winter break, in New Delhi, and I had thought about going to Kashmir because I had seen pictures of it online and found it beautiful. But friends in India had advised me not to because a lot of terrorist attacks happen there in response to the conflict between India and Pakistan. I asked an Indian friend, who was studying Political Science at Delhi University, what she knew about the conflict. She told me the history of it and I was very interested to find out more ever since. I got to hear the side of the Indians on that topic but I thought with more research I would be able to look at the facts and not be affected by any side. On the other hand, I was afraid that if I do choose this topic it might be too narrow for me. I had to Google it for a while in order to decide because I couldn’t think of any other topic, that was the most interesting topic to me then. I had written a research paper the previous


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semester in my political science class, and I found the whole process very interesting and rewarding. I thought that I needed to focus on politics because it was what I was interested in the most; but the problem was that in the last paper I did, my professor was the one who chose the topic. At the beginning I thought that it would be restricting if the topic had been chosen for me, but when I started my research I got more interested in the topic. I was also very interested in history but I didn’t know what topic might be interesting enough. Later on, I started to do a little research on the Kashmir conflict in order to decide whether or not it will be my research topic. During my research, I found out that there were two sides to the story of the conflict between Pakistan and India. It was a very interesting approach but I was not really sure what I would be discussing in the paper. I thought that maybe I could talk about what would be best for the people of Kashmir? Or what might happen in the future. Either way, I needed to do more research in order to decide. In class, I had thought of a possible research question: What do the people of Kashmir want? When I started my research, I noticed how the only two sides talking are Pakistan and India but the voice of the people of Kashmir was not actually heard. If they speak up and say what they want, maybe that would bring an end to the conflict. Or is it not that simple? I thought maybe I could use the demonstrations in Kashmir that were happening at that time and that were inspired by the Arab spring to show that there is another side to this conflict. I then started to search for resources because I had been behind; I was actually only looking for journal articles because I found them very helpful and full of reliable information. I remembered again when I was doing the research paper


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for my political science class, I had over six journal articles to get information from and they were more than enough. Because I was going to start my paper by first introducing briefly the history behind the Kashmir conflict, I wanted to find an article that explained how and when the conflict started in the first place. The Story of my Search: After a while I started to look for more resources; I had gotten three journal articles the last time I searched for resources, I read their summaries and thought they were good but I thought they all discussed the same points. I wanted something that had a different point of view, also something that was not biased to Pakistan or India. So I found an article that discussed the Kashmir conflict from an International Law point of view, because both countries could argue all they want but in the end it is the law that has the final word in this matter. I began to look over some of the sources I had gathered for my paper and I realized that most of them talked about the same issues and don’t have a new point to make. I decided to add some videos to my research; some interviews of the people of Kashmir and even a documentary about the issue. During the process of my search, I found a very good documentary named “pawns of paradise”. Apparently, this documentary was very popular and successful; it goes into detail about the hardships of the people of Kashmir, and discusses in depth their sufferings with terrorism in the region. I then tried to search for the documentary “pawns of paradise” online but I could only find the trailer. Watching this video would’ve been very enriching because it actually shows the hardships of the people of Kashmir. The articles I had been reading


Abdel Rahman 4

were informative, but they only dealt with numbers and statistics; this video would have helped me to actually see the sufferings of those people that I’ve been reading about. I had seen Kashmir people in India before, but I’ve only seen those who were well off and had their own businesses; I did not see those who were suffering, living in fear every day. Because I liked the Idea of using a documentary as a source in my research process instead of only using journal articles, I thought maybe I could find a documentary other than “pawns of paradise” that would be available for me to watch online. I came across a documentary called “the killing of Kashmir”, I started to watch it but then I discovered that it won’t help me a lot in my research as it discussed only one story of one family and followed it till the end of the film. This might have helped me a little, but I needed something more general that discussed generally what all the people of Kashmir want. A few days later, I finished reading the article that discussed the role of International Law in the Kashmir conflict. It first started out by stating how the situation got to where it is today considering the 1947 partition and the unilateral decisions of both India and Pakistan that have caused them to move further away from agreement. It then moved on to argue that negotiations and International Law offer the best opportunity for a solution to that conflict, but also argued that it would need both India and Pakistan. I thought this would help me in concluding my paper or the process of research in itself as it offered a solution and a possible end the conflict that I have been discussing throughout the paper. But the problem about this solution was that, it offered a settlement for both the Indians and the Pakistanis but failed to address the Kashmir’s. Then, I read “Kashmir the Unanswered Question” and “Kashmir, caught in the middle”. Although the title of the latter article suggested that it focused more on Kashmir and its people, like the first


Abdel Rahman 5

article, it in fact discussed the conflict going on between Pakistan and India and spoke of the consequences that it would bring on the whole region as both countries posses nuclear weapons. Those two articles might have been helpful for introducing the conflict but I needed something that focused more on Kashmir and its people rather than India and Pakistan. I started to get a little frustrated with my search because everything I had read so far did not have what I was looking for which was “what do the people of Kashmir want?” it is very strange how it is known as the Kashmir conflict and yet, none of the articles I had read so far were concerned with Kashmir and its people but were rather concerned with India, Pakistan, and a solution that would please them both. I took a long break from my search to clear my mind and to look at the articles I’ve gathered from a different perspective. I started reading the article “Kashmir is bleeding” and was very happy to find out that it does, even if so briefly, tell what the people of Kashmir want. It talks about how Kashmir people today still want self-determination and the opportunity to choose between India and Pakistan. But most importantly, it point out that the people of Kashmir want independence which neither India not Pakistan would allow. What I Found: Kashmir is known for its extravagant beauty, amazing landscape, and wealth of historical remains; a heaven on earth is what they call it. But apart from its beauty, there is also a strategic importance to Kashmir as it is situated between China, India, and Pakistan and acts as a buffer between the three. It is also surrounded by mountain ranges and is very hard to access which makes it a great battlefield.


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The Middle East was not the only region left divided and in ruins by Britain; when the British ended their rule in India in 1947, two new nations were formed, India and Pakistan. 562 princely states were left to decide between India and Pakistan, most states with the majority of Hindus acceded to India while most states with the majority of Muslims acceded to Pakistan. The situation in Kashmir, however, was more complicated as it had a majority of Muslims but was ruled by Hindu ruler. The conflict started when the Hindu ruler decided to accede to India, claiming that he was threatened by Pakistan and was seeking India’s protection. Of course, Pakistan rejects that claim. A war erupted later between the two, they were both claiming that Kashmir was part of their land and had rights to it. The brief war of 1947-48 resulted in the division of Kashmir into Pakistan and India administered territories. A ceasefire line was agreed upon under UN supervision which was later called the “line of control�. This dispute has been going on for more than 60 years; for more than 60 the Kashmir people have been forced to live their daily lives in fear and in terror with a huge military presence and ongoing militia operations. According to International Law, because Kashmir people are ethnically and religiously distinct from Indians, and because they are discriminated by the Indian government by having their basic rights of voting taken away from them, they therefore have the right to self-determination. This means that they have the right to form their own state to look out for their own interests as they have been abused and suppressed by those who currently rule them. Pakistan has offered to hold a plebiscite in order to let the Kashmir people decide on their fate, but India refuses. The Indian government claims that Pakistan has not yet


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fulfilled the necessary pre-requisite for the plebiscite which is the complete withdrawal of Pakistani troops from the territory. Because none of the nuclear-possessing countries would compromise, they are stuck in this situation that leaves the Kashmir people as the only victims. On the international stage, it is believed that this conflict might be solved through bilateral agreements between the two countries, but this ‘solution’ fails to address the Kashmir people. As a result of my search, I have come to the conclusion that the Kashmir people want self-determination and independence, they want to be heard, they want the opportunity to choose. But of course, because India and Pakistan have their own interests in mind, they will never allow for this to happen. Reflection: First time I heard of Kashmir, was in my history class. My professor was talking about imperialism and its ruins, he then briefly mentioned Kashmir saying that it is a dangerous part of India. What he said caught my attention because I was going to India the following week. When I went to India, people always talked about how beautiful Kashmir is and my friends and I wanted to go see it but we were warned by friends and family not to go there. At the time, I knew nothing about the causes of the conflict or the history behind it, so I asked my Indian friend and she gave me a brief history. I was still not satisfied and wanted to know more about the conflict and went back home to Egypt with a lot of questions in mind. When in class professor Gibson said we would choose our own topic, I immediately thought of Kashmir. I then asked my uncle if he thought it would a good topic and he agreed saying that it would be very interesting. He also gave me his opinion on the matter, telling me that Pakistan had rights to Kashmir.


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I went on with my research with a non-biased mindset and tried to figure out what was best for the Kashmir people. After doing my research, I asked an Indian intern in Egypt via Whatsapp what he thought of the Kashmir Conflict; I felt like I could now see clearly and determine whether or not what he was saying was reasonable. I compared both the conversations I have with my two Indian friends; the first conversation seemed to be less biased towards India and very much objective, but the second one seemed very biased and centered around the interests of India. I thought about this and came to the conclusion that my own views had changed since the first conversation because I now had more knowledge about the issue and was able to determine the biased. I honestly do not know if by being part of India Kashmir would be better off but I am certain that if they gain their independence, they will have a sense of belonging, there would be incentives for them to work and strive for their own independent, self-determined state.


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Works Cited Akthar, Nasreen. "A response to 'the Kashmir conflict'." International Journal on World Peace 27.1 (2010): 45+. Gale Biography In Context. Web. 29 Feb. 2012. Arpita Anant (2009): Identity and Conflict: Perspectives from the Kashmir Valley, Strategic Analysis, 33:5, 760-773 Cohen, Stephen Philip. India, Pakistan and Kashmir. Journal of strategic studies 25.4 01 Dec 2002: 32-60. Taylor & Francis. 02 Mar 2012. Farrell, Brian. The role of international law in the Kashmir conflict. Penn State international law review 21.2 01 Jan 2003: 293. Dickinson School of Law of the Pennsylvania State University. 02 Mar 2012. Ganguly, S. Kashmir, caught in the middle. Bulletin of the atomic scientists 59.4 01 Jul 2003: 25-28. Atomic Scientists of Chicago. 04 Mar 2012. Hewitt, Vernon. Kashmir: The unanswered question. History today 47.9 01 Sep 1997: 60. s.n. 04 Mar 2012. Indurthy, Rathnam. The Kashmir conflict: why it defies solution. International journal on world peace 27.1 29 Feb 2


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Mohan, Anand. The historical roots of the Kashmir conflict. Studies in conflict and terrorism 15.4 31 Oct 1992: 283. Crane Russak. 02 Mar 2012.


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Annotated Bibliography

Akthar, Nasreen. "A response to 'the Kashmir conflict'." International Journal on World Peace 27.1 (2010): 45+. Gale Biography In Context. Web. 29 Feb. 2012. This article explains about the history of Kashmir in an attempt to understand the Kashmir conflict itself. It doesn’t view the problem as merely a dispute over a territory between India and Pakistan, but rather sees that the root of this conflict lies in the history of Kashmir. This article is going to help me in my research as I will be first explaining the history behind this conflict in my paper. Arpita Anant (2009): Identity and Conflict: Perspectives from the Kashmir Valley, Strategic Analysis, 33:5, 760-773 This article tries to illustrate that identity is important in the Kashmir conflict, and bases its argument on interviews with people from Kashmir. It also argues that the government needs to address those issues of identity in order to help bring peace to Kashmir. This article will help me try to make the voices of the people of Kashmir heard. Cohen, Stephen Philip. India, Pakistan and Kashmir. Journal of strategic studies 25.4 01 Dec 2002: 32-60. Taylor & Francis. 02 Mar 2012. This article also talks about the history of the conflict and the dangers that it might bring in the future. It discusses the strengths of India and how it is a major Asian power being taken back by the 50 year conflict with Pakistan. It goes into depth in the relationship


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between India and Pakistan and discusses the hardships that encounter India in its fight for Kashmir. Farrell, Brian. The role of international law in the Kashmir conflict. Penn State international law review 21.2 01 Jan 2003: 293. Dickinson School of Law of the Pennsylvania State University. 02 Mar 2012. This article discusses the genisis of the Kashmir conflict and examins the history of British India. It then offers a solution to this conflict under International Law. This article will help me in my paper in a way that it would bring concrete facts and laws that would determine a solution for this problems rather than mere theories and predictions. Ganguly, S. Kashmir, caught in the middle. Bulletin of the atomic scientists 59.4 01 Jul 2003: 25-28. Atomic Scientists of Chicago. 04 Mar 2012. This article focuses on Kashmir problems rather than on India or Pakistan and discussed further the concerns of the Kashmir’s. It even mentions an American role in that conflict. It’s very helpful because the focus of my paper is the Kashmiri people themselves not the Indians of the Pakistanis. Hewitt, Vernon. Kashmir: The unanswered question. History today 47.9 01 Sep 1997: 60. s.n. 04 Mar 2012. This article also focuses on the history behind the Kashmir Conflict and states mere facts rather than opinions. It is unbiased and very straightforward. It will help my paper become more objective.


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Works Cited

Akthar, Nasreen. "A response to 'the Kashmir conflict'." International Journal on World Peace 27.1 (2010): 45+. Gale Biography In Context. Web. 29 Feb. 2012. Arpita Anant (2009): Identity and Conflict: Perspectives from the Kashmir Valley, Strategic Analysis, 33:5, 760-773 Cohen, Stephen Philip. India, Pakistan and Kashmir. Journal of strategic studies 25.4 01 Dec 2002: 32-60. Taylor & Francis. 02 Mar 2012. Farrell, Brian. The role of international law in the Kashmir conflict. Penn State international law review 21.2 01 Jan 2003: 293. Dickinson School of Law of the Pennsylvania State University. 02 Mar 2012. Ganguly, S. Kashmir, caught in the middle. Bulletin of the atomic scientists 59.4 01 Jul 2003: 25-28. Atomic Scientists of Chicago. 04 Mar 2012. Hewitt, Vernon. Kashmir: The unanswered question. History today 47.9 01 Sep 1997: 60. s.n. 04 Mar 2012. Indurthy, Rathnam. The Kashmir conflict: why it defies solution. International journal on world peace 27.1 29 Feb 2


Mohan, Anand. The historical roots of the Kashmir conflict. Studies in conflict and terrorism 15.4 31 Oct 1992: 283. Crane Russak. 02 Mar 2012.


Annotated Bibliography

Akthar, Nasreen. "A response to 'the Kashmir conflict'." International Journal on World Peace 27.1 (2010): 45+. Gale Biography In Context. Web. 29 Feb. 2012. This article explains about the history of Kashmir in an attempt to understand the Kashmir conflict itself. It doesn’t view the problem as merely a dispute over a territory between India and Pakistan, but rather sees that the root of this conflict lies in the history of Kashmir. This article is going to help me in my research as I will be first explaining the history behind this conflict in my paper. Arpita Anant (2009): Identity and Conflict: Perspectives from the Kashmir Valley, Strategic Analysis, 33:5, 760-773 This article tries to illustrate that identity is important in the Kashmir conflict, and bases its argument on interviews with people from Kashmir. It also argues that the government needs to address those issues of identity in order to help bring peace to Kashmir. This article will help me try to make the voices of the people of Kashmir heard. Cohen, Stephen Philip. India, Pakistan and Kashmir. Journal of strategic studies 25.4 01 Dec 2002: 32-60. Taylor & Francis. 02 Mar 2012. This article also talks about the history of the conflict and the dangers that it might bring in the future. It discusses the strengths of India and how it is a major Asian power being taken back by the 50 year conflict with Pakistan. It goes into depth in the relationship


between India and Pakistan and discusses the hardships that encounter India in its fight for Kashmir. Farrell, Brian. The role of international law in the Kashmir conflict. Penn State international law review 21.2 01 Jan 2003: 293. Dickinson School of Law of the Pennsylvania State University. 02 Mar 2012. This article discusses the genisis of the Kashmir conflict and examins the history of British India. It then offers a solution to this conflict under International Law. This article will help me in my paper in a way that it would bring concrete facts and laws that would determine a solution for this problems rather than mere theories and predictions. Ganguly, S. Kashmir, caught in the middle. Bulletin of the atomic scientists 59.4 01 Jul 2003: 25-28. Atomic Scientists of Chicago. 04 Mar 2012. This article focuses on Kashmir problems rather than on India or Pakistan and discussed further the concerns of the Kashmir’s. It even mentions an American role in that conflict. It’s very helpful because the focus of my paper is the Kashmiri people themselves not the Indians of the Pakistanis. Hewitt, Vernon. Kashmir: The unanswered question. History today 47.9 01 Sep 1997: 60. s.n. 04 Mar 2012. This article also focuses on the history behind the Kashmir Conflict and states mere facts rather than opinions. It is unbiased and very straightforward. It will help my paper become more objective.


Indurthy, Rathnam. The Kashmir conflict: why it defies solution. International journal on world peace 27.1 29 Feb 2 This article goes on to explain how the Kashmir conflict is the major cause of tension between India and Pakistan. It describes the conflict and how it started with the British partition and how it is very difficult to come with a solution. The author lists eleven possible solutions to the conflict but then goes on to explain that non of them are acceptable to both sides. He concludes that the continuation of the status quo is more likely than peace. Mohan, Anand. The historical roots of the Kashmir conflict. Studies in conflict and terrorism 15.4 31 Oct 1992: 283. Crane Russak. 02 Mar 2012. This article discusses the history of the Kashmir conflict itself and tries to bring to light certain details that have been ignored by other writers. This article is going to help me in my paper because it has the historical view that I need in making my paper objective and without bias.


What Do the People of Kashmir Want? Alaa Saleh


Pawns of Paradise ¨

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5SmZjuu3byg


Brief History


RHET 201 Dr. Michael Gibson Alaa S Abdel Rahman I-Search Paper First Draft 900101729

Kashmir conflict

For my paper, I was supposed to find a topic that is important to me; something that I would want to learn more about on my own. The first topic that came to me was the ‘Kashmir Conflict’. I found it very interesting. I was in India in winter break, in New Delhi, and I was thought of going to Kashmir because I saw pictures of it online and I thought it was beautiful. But friends in India have advised me not to because a lot of terrorist attacks happen there because of the conflict between India and Pakistan. I got to hear the side of the Indians on that topic but I thought with more research I would be able to look at the facts and not be affected by any side. On the other hand, I was afraid the topic might be too narrow for me. I had to Google it for a while in order to decide. I couldn’t think of any other topic though, that was the most interesting topic to me then. I had written a research paper the previous semester in my political science class, and I found the whole process very interesting and rewarding. I thought that I needed to focus on politics because it was what I was interested in the most. But the problem was that in the last paper I did, my professor was the one who chose the topic, at the beginning I thought it was hard, but when I started my research I got more interested in the topic. I was also very interested in history but I didn’t know what topic might be interesting enough. Later on, I started to do a little research on the Kashmir conflict in order to decide whether or not it will be my research topic. In my research, I found out that there were two sides to the story of the conflict between Pakistan and India. It was a very interesting topic but I was not really sure what I would be discussing in the paper. I thought that maybe I could talk about what would be best for the people of Kashmir? Or what might happen in the future. I thought I needed to do more research in order to decide. In class, I had thought of a possible research question: What do the people of Kashmir want? When I started my research, I noticed how the only two sides talking are Pakistan and India but the voice of the people of Kashmir was not actually heard. If they speak up and say what they want, maybe that would bring an end to the conflict. Or is it


not that simple? I thought maybe I could use the demonstrations in Kashmir that were happening at that time and that were inspired by the Arab spring. I then started to search for resources because I had been behind. And was actually only looking for journal articles because I found them very helpful and full of information. I remembered again when I was doing the research paper for my political science class, I had over six journal articles to get information from and they were more than enough. Because I was going to start my paper by first introducing briefly the history behind the Kashmir conflict, I wanted to find an article that explained how and when the conflict started in the first place. After a while I started to look for more resources I had gotten three journal articles the last time I searched for resources, I read their summaries and thought they were good but I thought they all discussed the same points. I wanted something that had a different point of view, also something that was not biased to Pakistan or India. So I found an article that discussed the Kashmir conflict from an international law point of view, because both countries could argue all they want but in the end it is the law that has the final word in this matter. I began to look over some of the sources I had gathered for my papers and I realized that some of them talk about the same issues and don’t have a new pint to make. I decided therefore to add some videos to my research; some interviews of the people of Kashmir and even a documentary about the issue. During the process of my search, I found a very good documentary named “pawns of paradise�. Apparently, this documentary was very popular and successful. It goes into detail about the hardships of the people of Kashmir, and discusses in depth their sufferings with terrorism in the region.


RHET 201 Dr. Michael Gibson Alaa S Abdel Rahman I-Search Paper Second Draft 900101729

Kashmir conflict

For my paper, I was supposed to find a topic that is important to me; something that I would want to learn more about on my own. The first topic that came to me was the ‘Kashmir Conflict’. I found it very interesting. I was in India in winter break, in New Delhi, and I was thought of going to Kashmir because I saw pictures of it online and I thought it was beautiful. But friends in India have advised me not to because a lot of terrorist attacks happen there because of the conflict between India and Pakistan. I got to hear the side of the Indians on that topic but I thought with more research I would be able to look at the facts and not be affected by any side. On the other hand, I was afraid the topic might be too narrow for me. I had to Google it for a while in order to decide. I couldn’t think of any other topic though, that was the most interesting topic to me then. I had written a research paper the previous semester in my political science class, and I found the whole process very interesting and rewarding. I thought that I needed to focus on politics because it was what I was interested in the most. But the problem was that in


the last paper I did, my professor was the one who chose the topic, at the beginning I thought it was hard, but when I started my research I got more interested in the topic. I was also very interested in history but I didn’t know what topic might be interesting enough. Later on, I started to do a little research on the Kashmir conflict in order to decide whether or not it will be my research topic. In my research, I found out that there were two sides to the story of the conflict between Pakistan and India. It was a very interesting topic but I was not really sure what I would be discussing in the paper. I thought that maybe I could talk about what would be best for the people of Kashmir? Or what might happen in the future. I thought I needed to do more research in order to decide. In class, I had thought of a possible research question: What do the people of Kashmir want? When I started my research, I noticed how the only two sides talking are Pakistan and India but the voice of the people of Kashmir was not actually heard. If they speak up and say what they want, maybe that would bring an end to the conflict. Or is it not that simple? I thought maybe I could use the demonstrations in Kashmir that were happening at that time and that were inspired by the Arab spring. I then started to search for resources because I had been behind. And was actually only looking for journal articles because I found them very helpful and full of information. I remembered again when I was doing the research paper for my political science class, I had over six journal articles to get information from and they were more than enough. Because I was going to start my paper by first introducing briefly the history behind the Kashmir conflict, I wanted to find an article that explained how and when the conflict started in the first place.


After a while I started to look for more resources I had gotten three journal articles the last time I searched for resources, I read their summaries and thought they were good but I thought they all discussed the same points. I wanted something that had a different point of view, also something that was not biased to Pakistan or India. So I found an article that discussed the Kashmir conflict from an international law point of view, because both countries could argue all they want but in the end it is the law that has the final word in this matter. I began to look over some of the sources I had gathered for my papers and I realized that some of them talk about the same issues and don’t have a new pint to make. I decided therefore to add some videos to my research; some interviews of the people of Kashmir and even a documentary about the issue. During the process of my search, I found a very good documentary named “pawns of paradise”. Apparently, this documentary was very popular and successful. It goes into detail about the hardships of the people of Kashmir, and discusses in depth their sufferings with terrorism in the region. I then tried to search for the documentary “pawns of paradise” online but I could only find the trailer. Watching this video would’ve been very enriching because it actually shows the hardships of the people of Kashmir. The articles I had been reading were informative, but they only dealt with numbers and statistics; this video would have helped me to actually see the sufferings of those people that I’ve been reading about. I had seen Kashmir’s in India before, but I’ve only seen those who were well off and had their own businesses. Because I liked the Idea of using a documentary as a source in my research process instead of only using journal articles, I thought maybe I could find a documentary other than “pawns of paradise” that would be available for me to watch


online. I came across a documentary called “the killing of Kashmir”, I started to watch it but then I discovered that it won’t help me a lot in my research as it discusses only one story of one family and follows it till the end of the film. This might have helped me a little, but I needed something more general that discussed generally what all the people of Kashmir want. A few days later, I finished reading the article that discussed the role of International Law in the Kashmir conflict. It first started out by stating how the situation got to where it is today considering the 1947 partition and the unilateral decisions of both India and Pakistan that have caused them to move further away from agreement. It then moved on to argue that negotiations and International Law offer the best opportunity for a solution to that conflict, but also argued that it would need both India and Pakistan. I thought this would help me in concluding my paper or the process of research in itself as it offers a solution and a possible end the conflict that I have been discussing throughout the paper. But the problem about this solution was that, it offered a settlement for both the Indians and the Pakistanis but failed to address the Kashmir’s. Then, I read “Kashmir the Unanswered Question” and “Kashmir, caught in the middle”. Although the title of the latter article suggested that it focused more on Kashmir and its people, like the first article, it in fact discussed the conflict going on between Pakistan and India and spoke of the consequences that it would bring on the whole region as both countries posses nuclear weapons. Those two articles might have been helpful for introducing the conflict but I needed something that focused more on Kashmir and its people rather than India and Pakistan.


I started to get a little frustrated with my search because everything I had read so far did not have what I was looking for which was “what do the people of Kashmir want?” it is very strange how it is known as the Kashmir conflict and yet, none of the articles I had read so far were concerned with Kashmir and its people but were rather concerned with India, Pakistan, and a solution that would please them both. I took a long break from my search to clear my mind and to look at the articles I’ve gathered from a different perspective. I started reading the article “Kashmir is bleeding” and was very happy to find out that it does, even if so briefly, tell what the people of Kashmir want. It talks about how Kashmir’s today still want self-determination and the opportunity to choose between India and Pakistan. But most importantly, it point out that the people of Kashmir want independence which neither India not Pakistan would allow.


Five decades after the collapse of the British colonial empire in south Asia, the indo-Pakistani dispute over Kashmir continues... Could there be a second war between india and pakistan? Might that war involve nuclear weapons? More than 50,000 people have died in Kashmir since the beginning of the dispute...more than all four indo-Pakistani wars combined Pakistani leader reiterated his country's commitment to the Kashmir cause saying," Kashmir runs in our blood." Neither India nor Pakistan has been willing to allow Kashmiris to vote for Indian or Pakistani rule or for independence This article makes the conflict seem as a religious conflict while it's not. It's a conflict about identity and whether the Kashmiris see themselves as Indians, pakistanis, or merely Kashmiris.


My Conversation with an Indian Intern on the Kashmir Conflict

What are you views on the Kashmir conflict? The level of change that can be made by politicians in India and the amount that is being made can only be shamefully compared. Kashmir people want their own state, but it’s not in their best interests as Pakistan will try to dominate and overcome. It has always been a part of India, so Pakistan has infiltrated and now has an area termed as POK. That area should be given to them and forgotten. The battle should end before more unnecessary deaths. But the majorities in Kashmir are Muslims right? Why don’t India and Pakistan let them choose? Yes. 80 percent They should be given a chance to be heard, I’ve read that India won’t even hold the plebiscite. They want a sovereign state Yes I read that too As I mentioned Pakistan will then attack them to get the territory. That’s what they’ve been trying cine 1937. So, won’t it be in best interest to call a ceasefire and let it be as it is right now? I don’t think that’s in their best interest, no offense but India is assuming that the Kashmir’s favor India over Pakistan which I highly doubt. I mean, I know that the Kashmir’s want their own state but if they had to favor one side I believe they would favor Pakistan. Yes. I know they would favor Pakistan too. But I personally feel it won’t be in their best interests. Pakistan’s economy is shit. It’s not about power or having a decent economy; it’s about feeling like you belong. This is what I think anyways. They’re not able to govern their own area properly so getting this new region might not help. That what the Indian government is thinking. And still, the emotional quotient counts for a lot, but we have to be practical too right? Okay, so this means that you approve of Iraq and Afghanistan


As in? As in: interfering in the internal affairs of a state on the claim that it is not ‘capable’ of handling its own affairs by itself. Done by USA? Yes, how is the situation in Kashmir different? Yes. But Kashmir has been part of our country forever. We surely don’t want anything bad happening to it. Other states speaking of what is in its best interest but the voices of its own people are not heard. We’re definitely doing as much as we can. I know that but they are culturally, ethnically and religiously distinct from you so they have the right of self-determination. The situation there is very inflammatory, the militants keep attacking the place so as to force it to become a sovereign and prove that the Indian government is doing nothing. They have the right to form their own state with their own conditions and standards. I agree, but not necessarily an entirely sovereign state. I have friends from Kashmir in my college, we talk about the situation there and they’re also not sure what are in their best interests. It’s a very fluid concept. Presently terrorism and fear is rampant and giving them their sovereignty might not improve the situation. I understand your views about the ethnic and cultural disparities prevalent in India but that how India is seen on the global stage; an amalgamation of multiple languages, cultures and traditions but still with long standing unity. That what defines India and keeps it going in this 21st century. I personally wouldn’t want Kashmir to be takes away from India. It’s called the heaven or Jannat as its termed in Hindi. There?


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