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Urban transport planing

PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY FOR: KAJANG - BANDAR BARU BANGI – PUTRAJAYA -BANDAR SERI PUTRA -

NILAI 3

PROF. IR. DR. RIZA ATIQ ABDULLAH OK RAHMAT

PREPARED BY:

ALAA.H.MOUSA

P71081

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Contents 1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 5 1.1 Objectives ............................................................................................................................................ 6 1.2 Scope of Study ................................................................................................................................... 6 1.3 Location of Study Area .................................................................................................................... 6 1.4 DEVELOPMENT CONTEXT:..................................................................................................... 7 2. Nilai 3 ...................................................................................................................................................... 8 3. Bangi, Malaysia ................................................................................................................................. 10 3.1 Problems of Bangi: ........................................................................................................................ 11 3.1.1 Bus stop Condition ..................................................................................................................... 11 3.1.2 UKM Commuter: ........................................................................................................................ 12 4. KAJANG CITY: ............................................................................................................................... 13 4.1 Existing Situation in Kajang ....................................................................................................... 14 4.2 Transportation in kajang: ............................................................................................................. 15 4.3 KTM Kajang .................................................................................................................................... 16 4.3.1 Bus Station in Pusat Hentian Kajang .................................................................................... 17 4.3.2 Bus Stop Condition .................................................................................................................... 17 4.4 Taxi Terminal in Kajang Town .................................................................................................. 17 5. Putrajaya, Malaysia .......................................................................................................................... 18 5.1 Transportation in putujaya ........................................................................................................... 20 5.1.1 Overview on Putrajaya transportation .................................................................................. 21 5.1.2 Putrajaya project now an eyesore (Monorail Suspension Bridge)................................ 21 5.2 Western Transport Terminal or Putrajaya Central in Presint 7 ......................................... 25 5.2.1 Western Transport Terminal .................................................................................................... 25 5.2.2 Bus Services Condition ............................................................................................................. 25 5.3 Putrajaya Central ............................................................................................................................ 25 6. Bandar Seri Putra, Malaysia .......................................................................................................... 26 6.1 Existence situation: ........................................................................................................................ 26 7. Rapid KL ............................................................................................................................................. 27 7.1.1 Bus Stop......................................................................................................................................... 28 7.1.2 Passenger comfort....................................................................................................................... 28 7.2 Bus Operation Design: .................................................................................................................. 28 8. PRT ....................................................................................................................................................... 30 3


9. TRAINS ............................................................................................................................................... 30 9.1 MRT ................................................................................................................................................... 31 9.2 LRT .................................................................................................................................................... 32 9.3 KTM commuter .............................................................................................................................. 33 9.3.1 The expansion of route .............................................................................................................. 34 10. TRAFFIC CALCULATIONS FORMULAS ......................................................................... 35 10.1 Network and Model Details ...................................................................................................... 36 10.2 Establishing OD Traffic Model Calibration & Validation ............................................... 37 11. THE STUDY METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................. 38 11.1 TRIP ................................................................................................................................................. 39 11.2 TRIP DISTRIBUTION .............................................................................................................. 40 11.3 Modal Choice ................................................................................................................................ 43 11.4 Matrix Development ................................................................................................................... 43 11.5 MODAL CHOICE ....................................................................................................................... 44 12. EXISTING SITUATIONS AND PROBLEMS .................................................................... 45 12.1 PUBLIC TRANSPORT ............................................................................................................. 48 12.2 ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE .................................................................................................. 51 12.3 NON-MOTORISED TRANSPORT ...................................................................................... 52 12.4 Determine Suitable Mode of Public Transport .................................................................... 53 14. Long Term Transportation Plans ............................................................................................... 57 15. Proposed Physical Development................................................................................................ 59 15.1Proposal for MRT Line ............................................................................................................... 59 15.2 Proposal for Enhanced Bus and Taxi Services ................................................................. 62 16. POLICY DEVELOPMENT ....................................................................................................... 67 17. TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT ................................................................ 68

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1. Introduction Transport plays a major role in urban development by providing access for people to education, markets, employment, recreation, health care and other key service. Increasing number of vehicles on road is generated traffic congestion, parking problems, air pollution (acidification, smog), noise, greenhouse gas emissions and road accidents. For these reasons, public transport system is a one solution that can implement in urban development areas to reduce road congestion and travel times, air pollution, and energy and oil consumption, all of which benefit both riders and non-riders alike. Good public transport system also give impact to communities economic in the areas and offer location advantages to businesses and individuals choosing to work or live in them. There are many potential lines or corridors for public transportation sector in Selangor. One of the rapidly growing and highly potential lines is the Kajang – Bangi – Putrajaya – Bandar Sri Putra - Nilai zone. A successful and effective implementation of a public transportation line of Kajang – Bangi – Putrajaya - Bandar Seri Putra - Nilai corridor will support the growth and spread of development in these five rapidly developing and geographically important towns. In this corridor, the main problem is traffic congestion and less of public transport service. It happened due the increasing a number of private vehicle trips generated by residents especially in morning and evening. A planning of public transport line connecting at these towns is hoped to alleviate the problem, providing better productivity and shorter travel time for its users. This study will view and present the suitability and sustainability of public transportation system in the corridor. Therefore it‟s required to study public transport demand and requirement in 2020 for these cities, which will be done by: 1. Project review 2. Urban transportation study 3. Urban Public transportation 4. Solutions of urban transportation problems 5. ITS 6. Financial analysis 5


1.1 Objectives The main objectives of this study are; i. To study public transport demand for short term and long term period in Kajang –Bangi – Putrajaya – Bandar Seri Putra – Nilai corridor. ii. To determine the most desired line for public transport between the zones that connecting the corridor. iii. To propose the suitable and sustainable public transportation system in the corridor.

1.2 Scope of Study Basically the scope of study involves the following works; i. Preliminary Study: Set objectives, decide the study area, collect existing data and information (structure plan, land use plan, population, traffic volume and etc.). ii. Auditing Existing Situation: Evaluating existing physical and transport situation, traffic survey, identify problems at study area. iii. Action Plan: Planning for short-term period (less than 3 years), low cost of implementation. iv. Long Term Plan: Planning for next 20 years, high cost of implementation. v. Cost Estimation: Cost estimation for action plan and long-term plan.

1.3 Location of Study Area Five main zones: Kajang – Bangi – Putrajaya – Bandar Seri Putra – Nilai were selected as a location area of this study and these towns are connected each other‟s. The background for each zone is described in following paragraph. The Figure 1 below showed the location of study area.

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1.4 DEVELOPMENT CONTEXT: The area of the specific region that is going to be constructed has been defined and physical development is to proceed at a rate in line with the aspirations of Vision 2020. Land use projections at future time horizons will be the basis of future public transport pattern in term of origin and destination of movement. The corridor currently forms a zone of mixed density and different form of land usage. These corridors have developed zone of residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional and others. However for this study only residential and commercial will be considered for calculate the demand. We will introduce each zone briefly

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2. Nilai 3 Nilai 3 is a town located in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Due to its proximity, and connection through the KTM to Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya, and Kuala Lumpur International Airport, it is a rapidly growing town; d evelopment projects can be seen as one drives around Nilai. Area of Nilai reach to (165ha) which represents the countryâ€&#x;s largest wholesale center, there are some areas try to establish same concept. But it is not easy to link the success of Nilai-3Malaysia. Apparently, hard work from the management and state government linkage is accomplished in the city. They have done a great job in developing it. But, still have some free lands to be developed in the future. Nilai 3 is considered as one stop center by the local people to shop for carpets, curtains and fabrics for clothes.

Nilai3 One-stop destination of wholesale, tourist and shopping paradise that offers a wide variety of goods and items at very attractive and competitive prices Recently, they completed some rows of shop named Istanbul near the first entrance junction. There are about 40 new stores built. This is additional good news for tourist. Nilai 3 wholesale centre is undoubtedly

nilai 3 wholesale 8


This is additional good news for tourist. After completed these shops, some portion reduces size of the unoccupied land. We do believe in the near future there will be some more shops to be build by developer. This is to cope with the people coming to this place especially weekends and public holidays.

Nilai-3-pasar-borong

Nilai has become a popular shopping town with the establishment of several major shopping malls such as Nilai 3 Wholesale Centre, Nilai Square, Mydin, Giant Hypermarket and Tesco Hypermarket.

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3. Bangi, Malaysia Bandar Baru Bangi (literally translated from Malay to English as New Bangi Town) is a township - recently crowned as "Knowledge City" - situated in the district of Hulu Langat, in Selangor, Malaysia, named after the small town of Bangi situated further south. It is located between Kajang and Putrajaya (formerly Prang Besar) It is roughly situated between the towns of Kajang (9 kilometres away) and Putrajaya (formerly Prang Besar) (also 9 kilometres away) and is about 25 km away from the capital city, Kuala Lumpur. The planning for Bandar Baru Bangi is based in Structure Plan, Local and Action Area Plan, Town Centre Urban Plan and the Town Park Plan prepared by international teams led by Peter Verity of PDRc Architects and Urbanists for the State Planning Department and PKNS. Bandar Baru Bangi has education institutions, national institutions and agencies, corporate institutions, factories and industrial training centers. It also houses a five-star hotel, Hotel Equatorial with an 18-hole golf course the town is surrounded by palm oil estates; a Malaysian Palm Oil Board/UKM research station is also based close to the town. At present, public transportation in Bandar Baru Bangi still not satisfied because there is no bus or taxi terminal in the town, which mean there is no centralized for public transportation. Nowadays, bus terminal in Bandar Baru Bangi is sharing with Kajang town, which the location of it is at Hentian Kajang. There are a lot of bus stop have been provided in Bandar Baru Bangi for public facilities. The distance between each bus stop is around 300 meter.Bus cater in Bandar Baru Bangi are Rapid KL, Mini bus and University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) bus. As a result of absence of centralized for buses and taxis, many of the taxi drivers concentrated to get their passengers at shopping complex likes Warta and around the bus stop near Seksyen

Bangi Selangor 10


3.1 Problems of Bangi: Absence of bus stations and Taxi Terminal caused difficulty for residents of Bandar Baru Bangi to move to other destinations as well as no centralize for public transportation.

Mini bus and Taxi Terminal at Section 1

3.1.1 Bus stop Condition 

The facilities were damages for example the seats, lamps and bus stop roof. Some of the source is because of the vandalism.

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No lighting at night. This condition encourages crime to be happened.

Bus Stop Condition at Section 1, Bandar Baru Bangi

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3.1.2 UKM Commuter: One of the disadvantages of UKM commuter is the lack of parking places for the public due to the use of these places by taxi drivers who are waiting for passengers as well as it presence near residential centers has led to environmental noise pollution. The facilities at the UKM station were hopeless. There are no instructions on the places of buses or any alternative transportation.

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Parking spaces is too limited for public. It is because taxi drivers to wait for their passengers have used some of the parking area.

Taxis used car parking spaces 

Very near to the residential area. This situation makes noise pollution to environment.

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The facilities at the UKM station were hopeless. There were no directions on where are the buses or any alternative transportation.

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4. KAJANG CITY: Kajang was made the capital of one of Selangor's districts, Hulu Langat in the 1800s because of it being in the district's center. Now, it seems to be the center of Selangor itself. Seeing a boom in its recent population, the town is wasting no time in accommodating all. Along with regular housing projects, luxury ones were launched as well, most famously Country Heights, along with Jade Hills and the Twin Palms among others. The SILK Expressway is the main highway used to get from the main Kajang area to its many townships, most notably Cheras.Recreational and lifestyle facilities around the area include Stadium Kajang, the old Billion Shopping Centre and the more recent Metro Kajang, Metro Point, (complex) Kota Kajang and big retailers Giant, Tesco and Jusco. Medical assistance is provided by hospitals Kajang, Putrajaya and serdang and a handful of privately run clinics and medical centers. As for places of worship, The Masjid (Mosque) Kajang is a visual attraction as much as it serves as a place of prayer, made distinctive by its bright yellow paintwork and is particularly vibrant with religious activity. It also proves itself to be an educational hub with numerous primary, secondary and tertiary institutes. Kajang Township has transformed from its agricultural and tin based rural substantial economy into commercialized small and medium industries, service industries and has evolved into a commuter township. Due to slow and sluggish infrastructure development, problems like traffic jams, crimes, pollution, unscheduled development and lots of other deteriorations in quality of life have slowly encroached into their daily livelihood.

It is located 21 kilometers (13 mi) from of Malaysia's capital

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4.1 Existing Situation in Kajang All local governmentâ€&#x;s planning aimed to get the sustainable urban transport of the city. Transport is exists to support the achievement of other, wider, policy objectives, such as economic development, urban regeneration, and social inclusion and reduced levels of crime and disorder. It can also contribute towards improvements to health and fitness, and to raising educational standards. These factors all, ultimately, lead to improved quality of life for the people of Kajang and they are reflected in the objectives of this Local Transport Planning. The strategy for the City is focused on the creation of a transport network that enables These objectives to be realized; this means that thenetwork must be efficient, reliable,affordable, accessible and safe.Above all, it must provide a quality of experience that enhances everyday life and adds a significant dimension to the Cityâ€&#x;s local and national profile.In Kajang, there are two stations. Kajang train station or KTM Kajang, which is located in jalan Bukit and bus station in Pusat Hentian Kajang. Both of them have a special function as its name. Bus station in Pusat Hentian Kajang is provided only for one modal transport. There are many kinds of buses will transit here, such as RAPID KL bus mini (traveling inside the city), buses for the workers, buses for the long time journey (traveling intra the city) and so on.Separation of the station of modals transport will cause some problems in transportation. It will increase the level of air pollution and makes the people prefer to private vehicles than public transport.

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4.2 Transportation in kajang: Kajang is well connected with many major highway and expressway like Kajang Dispersal Link Expressway as a ring road of Kajang,Cheras Kajang Expressway (CKE,),North-South Expressway (NSE) (Malay: Lebuhraya Utara-Selatan) with Kajang exit and KajangSeremban Expressway (LEKAS, ) at the south of Kajang near Semenyih. Because the position of Kajang between three major city (Kuala Lumpur, Seremban and Putrajaya), this city is included in Klang Valley or Greater Kuala Lumpur. Public transports available in Kajang are bus, taxi, and train Transportation is an important to policy objectives, such as economic development, urban regeneration, and social inclusion and reduced levels of crime and disorder. It can also contribute towards improvements to health and fitness, and to raising educational standards. These factors all, ultimately, lead to improved quality of life for the people of Kajang and they are reflected in the objectives of this Local Transport Planning. The strategy for the City is focused on the creation of a transport network that enables these objectives to be realized; this means that the network must be efficient, reliable, affordable accessible and safe. Above all, it must provide a quality of experience that enhances everyday life and adds a significant dimension to the Cityâ€&#x;s local and national profile. In Kajang, there are two stations. Kajang train station or KTM Kajang, which is located in jalan Bukit and bus station in Pusat Hentian Kajang. Both of them have a special function as its name. Bus station in Pusat Hentian Kajang is provided only for one modal transport. There are many kinds of buses will transit here, such as RAPID KL bus mini (traveling inside the city), buses for the workers, and buses for the long time journey (traveling intra the city) and so on. Separation of the station of modals transport will cause some problems in transportation. It will increase the level of air pollution and makes the people prefer to private vehicles than public transport

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4.3 KTM Kajang

Kajang Rail Station

The station currently serves both the KTM Komuter and KTM Intercity train services. The current Kajang station inherits the original station's branch lines as well as responsibilities to manage railway switches, railway monitoring and goods delivery. As such, the station supports a number of railway staff. The station is also connected to sheds for railway maintenance vehicles, as well as a warehouse. The station contains three platforms: One (platform 1) assigned at a side platform connected directly to the station building and two (platforms 2 and 3) assigned on an island platform. The platforms are lined along a set of four main lines; three run between the two platforms, and one runs along the other side of the island platform. The line-adjoining platform 1 is an acceptance route, while the line aside it is a main route. The line along platform 2 could be used as a basic route for virtually any train service, while the platform 3 lines is only used periodically when another train occupies platform 2. 

No more space for parking area in Kajang rail station.

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Location of Kajang rail station is far from the highway and taxi station. So, it will cause the people prefer to private vehicles than public transport.

 Surrounding area of Kajang Rail Station is nearby the residential area. The noise pollution can disturb the residents who are living there 16


4.3.1 Bus Station in Pusat Hentian Kajang 

Actually no significant problems about the location of bus station

It is not easy for the passenger if they want to continue their travel by using the train. It will take more time to change from one modal transport to the others one. And of course, it will increase the travel cost. So, there is no choice for the passenger to choose more than one modals transport.

4.3.2 Bus Stop Condition 

There is one bus stop point located in the centre of Kajang Town. This bus stop situated in front of the shops and very near to the main road. This situation makes the road become crowded with the buses and also the taxis. At the same time, this bus stop point is the major source of traffic congested in Kajang town.

The condition is very poor because there are no seats for passengers used to wait for buses. The facilities are not provided well.

No seats for waiting the buses

Bus stop is too close with shops

Narrow road and variable width from the main intersection

4.4 Taxi Terminal in Kajang Town -

The location of taxi terminal is not strategic because it is located in the middle of town and makes traffic congested

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5. Putrajaya, Malaysia Putrajaya is a planned city, located 25km south of Kuala Lumpur that serves as the federal administrative center of Malaysia. The seat of government was shifted in 1999 from Kuala Lumpur to Putrajaya, due to the overcrowding and congestion in the Kuala Lumpur areas. Putrajaya has often been called the “intelligent garden city� because of its commitment to the preservation of nature. 70% of its landscape consists of gardens, lakes and parks. There are 13 different gardens ranging from botanical to wetland and the main landscape consists of a 600-hectre man-made lake. There are 8 bridges within Putrajaya and two of the notable bridges include Putra Bridge, which was inspired by the famous Khaju Bridge in Isfahan, Iran and the Seri Wawasan Bridge, which is a modern cable-stayed bridge 1. What is the size of Putrajaya? A. The size of Putrajaya is 4,931 hectares (one third the size of Kuala Lumpur) 2. How many precincts are there in Putrajaya? A. The entire of Putrajaya is divided into 20 precincts. 3. Who is the developer of Putrajaya? A. Putrajaya Holdings Sdn Bhd is the company entrusted to develop the Putrajaya project. The company was incorporated on October 19, 1995. 4. Who are Putrajaya Holdings' shareholders? A.Petroliam Nasional Berhad (PETRONAS) is the majority shareholder with 64.4%, Khazanah Nasional Berhad has a 15.6% and Kumpulan Wang Amanah Negara, the national trust fund (registered as Sharikat Nominee Bumiputera Sdn Bhd) with 20%. 5. Who manages the city of Putrajaya? A.Perbadanan Putrajaya is the local authority which administers and manages Putrajaya. As local planning authority, Perbadanan Putrajaya is responsible for formulating and implementing planning and development control policies and urban design guidelines to fulfill the vision and objectives of Putrajaya 18


6. What is the population of Putrajaya? A. The current population (working and living) is about 75,000. Nevertheless, Kuala Lumpur remains as Malaysia's national capital and also as the commercial and financial centre. Putrajaya was the brainchild of a former Prime Minister Tun Dr Mahathir Mohammad who was in power then. In 2001, Putrajaya was made a Federal Territory, increasing the number of federal territories to three. Kuala Lumpur and Labuan are the other two.

Putra mosque Putra Mosque is one of the most beautiful mosques in Malaysia. Located on Lake Putra Jaya in Kuala Lumpur synthetic and can accommodate more than 15 thousand worshipers, it has been completed in the year 1999. Just an hour's drive from Kuala Lumpur city center, Very cool, is located on a lake characterized calm.

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perbadanan putrajaya Named after the first Malaysian Prime Minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra the city is situated within the Multimedia Super Corridor, beside the also newly developed Cyberjaya. The development started in 1995 and today major landmarks are completed and the population is expected to grow in the relatively new city

5.1 Transportation in putujaya Putrajaya Central is the main public transportation hub of Putrajaya. It is a smaller version of Puduraya Station in Kuala Lumpur. Located at the west side of Putrajaya, this is the place where public transportation from other parts of Selangor stops. The Express Rail Link that links KLIA to KL Central has a station here . If you prefer to take buses which are very much cheaper compared to the ERL, the two major bus companies that are operating here are Rapid KL and Nadi Putra. Rapid KL takes passengers from outside of Putrajaya from places such as Bandar Utama, Serdang and Cyberjaya whereas Nadi Putra routes are confined to within Putrajaya. The Monorail project that was supposed to link the various parts of this new township has been put on hold due to the slowdown of the economy.

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5.1.1 Overview on Putrajaya transportation Putra Komuter station is a Malaysian commuter train halts in Kuala Lumpur named in part after the Putra World Trade Centre located nearby. The halt forms part of a common KTM Komuter railway line shared by both the RawangSeremban Route and the Sentul-Port Klang Route. The halt is also the northernmost station in the KTM Komuter network where trains from both the Rawang-Seremban Route and the Sentul-Port Klang Route stop.

Precincts of putrajaya

Various modes of public transport are available in Putrajaya such as bus, taxi and ERL. Depot Bus or Terminal Bas and Teksi is located in Precinct 1, Putrajaya. It is design to serve as transportation hub for busses and taxi. Feeding to the hub, there are taxi services and Putrajaya Bus services called Nadi Putra.

5.1.2 Putrajaya project now an eyesore (Monorail Suspension Bridge) Monorail Suspension Bridge is one of the many bridges in Putrajaya, Malaysia. It was built to link several important landmarks in the Putrajaya area like the Putrajaya Convention Centre, Putra Mosque and the Government Administrative Complex in Parcel E. The bridge's main span has a length of approximately 240m and width of 10m. Putrajaya Holding Sdn owns it. Bhd. And was designed by PJS International Sdn. Bhd.

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Going nowhere: The structure referred to cynically as the “suspended suspension bridge.”

IT'S BEEN four years since the Putrajaya Monorail project ground to a halt and there may be some light at the end of the tunnel yet. The Federal Territories Ministry has instructed the Putrajaya Corpo-ration to appoint an independent consultant to conduct a study on the project‟s viability. Sources say if the advantages outweigh the disadvantages, then it should be all systems go. Otherwise, the RM400mil project would be scrapped. Whatever the outcome, authorities should acknowledge that the basic framework is now an eyesore. Something needs to be done about the rusting steel fittings and ugly concrete pillars with wire protrusions, one observer said. Tourists, too, often ask if Putra-jaya has another bridge under construction in reference to the elevated track built across the Putrajaya Lake. One dignitary cynically re-ferred to the structure as the “suspended suspension bridge” and as a new tourist attraction The elevated track was 90% complete when the project stalled in 2004 because the Government had not approved further funding.

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In the balance: The bridge spanning the Putrajaya Lake is almost complete.

MTrans Monorail Sdn Bhd (MTrans) was appointed to finish the project within 30 months. The plan was to have two monorail lines with a total length of 20km, divided into 13.2km for Line 1 and 6.8km for Line 2. A total of 26 stations were planned, including stops at the Putra Mosque, Education Ministry, Putrajaya Hospital, the Putrajaya International Convention Centre, Alamanda, Precinct 9 and Precinct 14. Phase 1 of the project with 9km of track line is ready with a 4km underground tunnel originally designed to have seven stations. The Putra Bridge is a three-tiered bridge with a monorail and service tunnel on the lower deck and a pedestrian walkway on the upper deck. The stalled project has often been described as the missing link of the public transport system designed for the federal administrative capital. Seven park-and-ride facilities were designed to complement the monorail service to allow public servants and visitors to travel freely within Putrajaya.

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Still in place: Wire protrusions and scaffolding can still be seen adorning the ugly concrete pillars.

The monorail was also designed to integrate with the ERL service. The Core Island, where the main government offices are located, can only offer parking for 30% of the vehicles travelling to the ministries and lack of space is now a common problem. An efficient internal bus service should be able to address this. When the monorail idea was mooted, critics said Putrajaya did not require the system as much as Subang, Puchong and other densely populated or fast-growing areas. The population of Putrajaya, at 55,000, did not warrant the service, they argued. Even if the authorities are adopting a wait-and-see attitude, the public wants justification to be made for the spending of public funds The project halted in 2004 because the government had not approved further funding. The stalled project has often been described as the missing link of the public transport system designed for the federal administrative capital. The Ministry of the Federal Territories instructed the Putrajaya Corporation to appoint an independent consultant to conduct a study on the projectâ€&#x;s viability

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5.2 Western Transport Terminal or Putrajaya Central in Presint 7 Western Transport Terminal (WTT) is located on the west part of Putrajaya in Precinct 7. From WTT public can easily reach the Putrajaya Hospital, Putrajaya Police Headquarters and the Precinct 9 Affordable Homes (Pangsapuri Putra Harmoni).

5.2.1 Western Transport Terminal WTT is design to serve as a transportation Hub for Putrajaya and is currently serving Express Rail Link (ERL) to KL International Airport (KLIA) in the south and Kuala Lumpur in the North. Feeding to the Hub, there are taxi services and Putrajaya Bus services called Nadi Putra. Nadi Putra reaches WTT every 15 minutes during the peak hours and every 30 minutes during off peak hours starting from 6.52 am and the last bus is at 10.50 pm.

5.2.2 Bus Services Condition 

The intracity bus company operates only 14 buses to transport passengers from residential areas in the periphery to offices and commercial centers in the core area. Generally, these buses have poor service frequency with an average of 2 per hour, even during the morning and afternoon peak periods. The buses are of standard high-floor design with no provision for the disabled and elderly. With limited rolling stock, bus service has also been unreliable.

5.3 Putrajaya Central 

The Express Rail System (ERL) and the Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB) rail commuter system provide intercity rail services. However, both systems can at best be described as inadequate. For example, the KLIA Transit service provided by the ERL stops at a station quite far from the city center, forcing passengers to take transfer bus rides.

There are not many facilities provided yet such as restaurants and shops.

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6. Bandar Seri Putra, Malaysia Bandar Seri Putra (formerly Bandar Putra Mahkota) is a new township in Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. This township is developed by UM Land Berhad. Located about --km from Kuala Lumpur and --km from Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) It is accessible via a Putra Mahkota Interchange EXIT 213 of the North-South Expressway Southern Route.

Near the townships is Bukit Mahkota and Nilai Industrial Park at Negeri Sembilan side

6.1 Existence situation: 1-Limit in transport facilities 1- Wide range of area without any service 2- Limitation in public transportation

masjid al-azhar

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7. Rapid KL Rangkaian Pengangkutan Integrasi Deras Sdn Bhd (RapidKL) is the company tasked with providing an integrated public transport system in the Klang Valley incorporating rail and bus services. Today, RapidKL operates 165 bus routes within the Klang Valley, which consist of 10 City Bus routes, 87 Local Bus routes, 65 Trunk Bus routes and 3 Express Bus routes. We currently have 11 bus depots spreading across the Klang Valley and over one thousand buses in operation. Everyday RapidKL transport over 192,000 passengers. To continuously encourage the use of public transport and to provide services to the general public, RapidKL is also continuously studying new bus routes with the arrival of more new buses. Because there is no centralized for buses and taxis, many of the taxi drivers concentrated to get their passengers at shopping complex likes Warta and around the bus stop near Seksyen 1. It happened because of the places attraction where near the residential area and pasar malam. The RAPIDKL bus network, which is divided into 6 main areas, namely: • Area 1: Kuala Lumpur City Centre • Area 2: Kepong, Selayang, Batu Caves, Gombak, Sentul • Area 3: WangsaMaju, Hulu Klang, Keramat, Ampang, Pandan • Area 4: Cheras, Hulu Langat, Kajang, Putrajaya, Serdang • Area 5: Klang, Shah Alam Selatan, Subang Jaya, JlnKlang Lama, Puchong • Area 6: Shah Alam Utara, Subang, Damansara, PJ Utara, Bangsar Service pattern • Service major activity centers such as office buildings, school and hospital. • Population density > 30 Serve at least 90% of the residents. • Space routes at about 0.75 km in urban area and 1.5 in sub-urban area.

7.1 Service Level •Service period: 6 am-12 pm •Headway: Peak: 5 minutes

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7.1.1 Bus Stop •CBD: 5 -7 stops / km, sub-urban: 1 - 3 stops /km

7.1.2 Passenger comfort •Passenger shelter •Route and destination sign •Driver courtesy

7.2 Bus Operation Design: The frequency = f=n/N

Where: •n = Demand for service (passengers / hr) •N = Maximum number of passengers per bus • Usually the minimum headway is set in multiples of 7.5 or 10 minutes for the sake of coordination.

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8. PRT •Speed – up to 30 km/hr •2 – 4 couches per train •Capacity – up to 10,000 passengers / hr / direction •Rail – 1000 gauge or monorail •Headway ≥ 90 s •Suitable for intra-city travel

9. TRAINS It is obvious by which reason this part of transportation id the most important one, It can inferred that because of below results: 

High percentage of users

Fuel consumption

Low effect on environment contamination

Low cost

Better traffic condition

This part of transportation commonly has been paid more attention in compare to others Introduce of two train types used in urban transportation 

MRT

LRT

KTM komuter

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9.1 MRT The Mass Rapid Transit is a proposed 3-line 150 km Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) system in the Klang Valley/Greater KL conurbation which envisages a Wheel and Spoke concept comprising two northeast- southwest radial lines and one circle line looping around Kuala Lumpur city. Klang Valley MRT will not only significantly increase the current inadequate rail network but will also serve to integrate the existing rail networks and expectantly alleviate the severe traffic congestion in the Greater KL metropolitan area the proposal was announced in June 2010 and was approved by the government of Malaysia in December 2010. Construction of the first line is targeted to commence in July 2011. The project also represents one of the economic entry point project identified for the Greater Kuala Lumpur/Klang Valley National Key Economic Area under the Economic Transformation Programmed.

Speed Couches Capacity Acceleration Rail Suitable Sub-station:

Up to 100 km/hr 4 – 12 couches per train Couches 22m x 3.1 m Up to 80,000 passengers /hr / direction Deceleration _ 1.2 m/s 2 1435mm gauge Headway _ 120 s Suitable for radial movement For high density and high plot ratio 3 – 5 km spacing

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Inside MRT

9.2 LRT Light rail transit (LRT) is used for urban public transport and some special use such as transporting passengers between airport buildings. There is one high-speed railway line with two high-speed train services linking Kuala Lumpur with the Kuala Lumpur international airport. The sole monorail line in the country is also used for public transport in Kuala Lumpur while the only funicular railway line is in benang.

Up to 40 km/hr 2 – 6 couches per train Up to 40,000 passengers / Capacity hr / direction Acceleration / Deceleration _ 1.2 m/s 2 1000 or 1435mm gauge Rail 120 s Headway Suitable for radial movement For high density and high plot Suitable ratio area

Speed

Sub-station

Sub-station: 3 – 5 km spacing

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9.3 KTM commuter KTM Commuter is an electrified commuter train service operated by Keretapi Tanah MelayuBerhad. It was first introduced in 1995 to cater especially to commuters in Kuala Lumpur and the surrounding suburban areas and is a popular mode of transport for commuters working in Kuala Lumpur, as they can travel to the city without being caught in traffic congestion. Coaches are modern and air-conditioned. For those who drive to the stations/halts, 'Park & Ride' facilities are provided at a nominal KTM Komuter is currently the most profitable passenger service offered by KTMB, contributing RM84.63 million to group revenue in 2006, higher than KTM InterCity's profit of 70.94 million in the same year. According to the Ministry of Transport Malaysia 2008 Statistics, the annual ridership for KTM Commuter was 36,557 million of passengers.

No. of stations

46

Type

Regional rail

Line length

173 km

Service Area

Klang-Kuala Lumpur-Sentul/Tanjung Malim-RawangKuala Lumpur-Seremban

Ticketing

TnG, Store Value Ticket & Monthly Pass

Operational Mode

With driver

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9.3.1 The expansion of route The new Tanjung Malim railway station will become the new terminus of the KTM Komuter network Besides new stations, additional plans were made to extend the Komuter network outwards from it original route 

The 179 km (111 mi) Rawang-Ipoh electrification and double-tracking project will ultimately allow the KTM Komuter service to be extended to Tanjung Malim on the Selangor-Perak border, nearly 100 kilometers (62 mi) from Kuala Lumpur. The project has suffered several delays due several reasons, but has seen limited revitalisation. The first phase of the extension, which includes 22 kilometers (14 mi) of rebuilt railway lines and three new stations became operational when a shuttle service from the Rawang stations was launched on April 21, 2007.The service was extended to Kuala Kubu Bharu on January 5, 2008.. Shuttle service to Tanjung Malim and Ipoh will begin by December 2008.

A 7.2 km (4 mi), four-station extension from the Sentul station to Batu Caves has been approved. The project - which will cost RM515 million - will include electrification, double tracking and refitting the existing old track, signalling, communications, as well as construction of new stations at Sentul, Batu Cantonment, Batu Village, Taman Wahyu and Batu Caves. Site possession was given to contractor YTL Corporation Berhad on November 17, 2006, and the project is to be completed by April 2010. The Sentul station is part of the Sentul Raya masterplan development under YTL.

KTMB also plans to extend 8.5 km (5 mi) Komuter services to Senawang and Sungai Gadut, Negeri Sembilan. Construction is expected to complete by 2011. This will be part of the Seremban-Gemas line

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10. TRAFFIC CALCULATIONS FORMULAS General The methodology employed in the execution of the model development portion of this study has closely followed the guideline contained in the Manual for the Preparation of Urban Transport Plans in Malaysia (HPU- 1995). The computer traffic model was developed using the EMME/2 software. The model was initially developed was for private vehicles and also to allow for movements of passengers by public transport modes. The project is a green field site and currently has very low levels of public transport service. Never the-less overall policy for the MSC plans a high usage of public transport and an efficient network is envisaged. In order to develop the traffic model, a number of data items were required. These included data on the highway inventory and vehicle movement flows and patterns. The following data was input to the EMME/2 traffic model.  Network inventory;  Junction layouts;  Link capacities;  Volume delay functions;  Vehicle volume counts. (For comparison of model assigned traffic) The model developed will enable testing for the impact of changes in the highway configuration and forecast future year flows on all new and existing links.

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10.1 Network and Model Details The network structure is node and link based. The nodes were established as junctions, merging and diverging intersections, key traffic loading points on to the highway network and points of delay. A link is defined as the connection between two nodes to represent a road or highway, input with all its features, including, volume delay function, capacity and free flow speed. All nodes were allocated a unique number. Numbering was consecutive starting at 1 to 199 for zones and their centroid connectors. In total the model comprises 193 zones, covering the entire secondary and primary zones of study as shown in Figure 6.0 All other nodes on the link-node model were numbered 200 and above. The consultants regard the development of the MSC and its link with Kuala Lumpur, in particular, of major significance. The Land Use study indicates that the final population of the project zone may reach 2.5 million. As a means of comparison this reflects the population size of the Klang Valley in 1994. The quantum of travel between the MSC and all zones close to the area, including Shah Alam, Serdang, Kajang, Bangi, Nilai and Labu can be expected to be high. The presence of the airport in KLIA needs also to be taken into consideration as a major cause of change in the overall regional travel pattern.The approach used has taken full cognizance of the above matters by including these zones as part of the overall model, rather than providing amodel truncated at the entry points to the MSC. The value of the model will come into play in forecasting future year traffic pattern and providing for thefuture traffic demand.

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10.2 Establishing OD Traffic Model Calibration & Validation In this study, the double constrained gravity model (Danial, et al, 1997) was employed to distribute the generated trips using a range of the model parameter values, with the model in the form as follows: -

The synthesized O-D trip matrices from the gravity model were then assigned to the existing road network using equilibrium traffic assignment program (Danial, et al, 1997). The equilibrium traffic assignment was adopted due to its superiority over the all-or-nothing assignment, which was used in Maximization of Entropy adopted by Irving, et al, especially when there are parallel routes between an O-D pair. A simple iterative search procedure was employed with the numerical value of the gravity model parameter (a) being changed comparisons between the assigned traffic link volumes with actual site data were then undertaken. The (a) value corresponding to the minimum value of the objective function considered was taken as the appropriate solution. The objective function considered in this study was the sum of square differences between observed and assigned traffic link volumes. This function is frequently identified as ‘the sum of squares of errors’ (SSE) and it is written as:

37


11. THE STUDY METHODOLOGY The overall procedure adopted is shown in Figure 15 and the initial step involves evaluation of existing data and plans

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Trip Generation

11.1 TRIP

Trip Distribution

Modal Split

Trip Assignment

GENERATION: Land use projections at future time horizons will be the basis of future public transport pattern interim of origin and destination (O-D) of movement. The corridor currently forms a zone of mixed density and different form of land usage. These corridors have developed zone of residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional and others. Estimation of total production and attraction from one zone to another zones in this study area based on land use and socio-economic

ZONE

POPULATION

PUTRAJAYA KAJANG BANGI NILAI 3 BANDRE SERI PUTRA

76,300 566,800 119,900 4,992 87,636

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11.2 TRIP DISTRIBUTION The trip distribution is an estimation of trip distribution from the origin to others destination. This model will create matrix origin-destination trips, which is included in this study area. The production and attraction between each zone are calculated by multiply the current population with rate of expected growth. Besides, there are a few characteristics had been consider in calculating an expected production and attraction for these zones Double constrained gravity model was used to distribute the trips generated by each zone. The form of the gravity model used was as Follows:

POPULATION IN 2020 City

Population

Kajang

1,129,385

Bangi

238,908

Putrajaya

152,033

Bandar seri putra

174,620

Nilai 3

15,047

40


Modified

Production & Attraction City

Production Attraction

Kajang

564,692

903,508

Bangi

167,236

183,959

71,455

135,309

Putrajaya Bandar seri putra

99,534

130,965

Nilai 3

45,142

120,378

Total

948,059

1,474,119

Total average

1,211,089

City

Production

Attraction

Kajang

721,361

742,293

Bangi

213,634

151,135

Putrajaya

91,280

111,165

Bandar seri putra

127,148

107,597

Nilai 3

57,666

98,899

Total

1,211,089

1,211,089

Compute O-D trip matrix for the area Zone

Kajang Bangi

Kajang

442,132 130,939

Bangi

Putrajaya

Bandar seri putra

Nilai 3

Production

90,021

66,214

64,088

58,907

721,361

26,660

19,609

18,980

17,446

213,634

Putrajaya

55,947

11,391

8,379

8,110

7,454

91,280

Bandar seri putra

77,931

15,867

11,671

11,296

10,383

127,148

Nilai 3

35,344

7,196

5,293

5,123

4,709

57,666

151,135

111,165

98,899

1,211,089

Attraction

742,293

107,597

41


Based on the O-D Matrix, the summarized are shown in the Table above for both directions. The highest trip is from Bangi to Kajang (279,229) passengers/hr/direction.

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11.3 Modal Choice The total travel demand from one zone to another modal split for trips to an office building in the city centre will be very different to that in a sub urban area. Likewise the modal split of building in the vicinity of public transport network will not to be similar to a building far from the network. Provision of parking space can also alter the modal split. The current modal split can be determined by observing equivalent land use in the area based on observation and data collection by City Hall of Kuala Lumpur average modal split in Klang Valley Item

Land Use

Bus user %

car/van/jee p user %

m/cycle user %

1.

Government Office

27.6%

57.4%

15.0%

2.

Non-Government Office

48.0%

45.6%

6.4%

3.

Bank

49.9%

45.0%

5.1%

4.

Hotel

35.9%

60.1%

4.0%

5.

Shopping Centre

54.3%

40.7%

5.0%

6.

Bungalow House

12.1%

84.0%

3.9%

7.

Semi-Detached House

16.2%

79.4%

4.4%

8.

Link House

42.1%

48.5%

9.4%

9.

Condominium

13.7%

85.1%

1.2%

10.

Apartment

39.9%

45.0%

15.1%

11.

Flat

49.5%

28.3%

21.7%

11.4 Matrix Development The future year trip matrices were developed using population and employment growth factors for each zone derived from data on land use changes. Such data was taken from Structure Plan and Local Plan information supplied by the local planning authorities. The data related to changes in population, employment and commercial activity, together with the likely change in car ownership levels. 43


11.5 MODAL CHOICE Transport networks are Kajang, Bangi, Bandar Seri Putra, putrajaya, Nilai3, of the utmost importance in facilities is the movement of people within the city, provided that this means the capacity and efficiency of high-quality acceptable. To lead this cityâ€&#x;s position as an international commercial and financial center in Malaysia after Kuala Lumpur must be able to provide an efficient and equitable city structure, that is as far as possible, allows all members of the community equal accessibility to all areas and facilities so that everyone may enjoy the maximum benefits of city living. Although these cities have many means of public transport like buses, trains and taxis but there are some problems and deficiencies in the quality of services we offer, which will report in detail. Recently, reliance on private transport increased by 17% from the use of public transpor The shortfall is due to the use of public transport instead of private transport to the following reasons:

1. Increasing personal wealth and material improvement in the situation of citizen. 2. Inefficient public transport. 3. Comfort and luxury, which find use in private cars is better than public transport. 4. Lack of discipline time of arrival and departure of public transport. 5. Lack of public transportation in some regions, such as nilai3.

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12. EXISTING SITUATIONS AND PROBLEMS GENERAL: A) Traffic Management I. Existing Situation This smart traffic controlling system is able to effectively reduce traffic congestion. This system has been employed at main intersections around Bandar Baru Bangi and Kajang Town for the past few years. The smart traffic light uses a camera as a sensor that really sees the real traffic situation. The cameras placed on capture video images high positions and the images are processed in order to gauge the number of incoming vehicles, the length of the queue as well as to detect accidents. This means that the smart traffic system responds almost immediately every time there occurs a slight change in the traffic patterns. Using the total-disperse system does it and all the traffic lights at every intersection are all smart traffic lights. Thus, a fast response is achieved according to the traffic situation at a particular intersection. During peak periods, it distributes the green time according to the ratio length of the respective queue. It also priorities traffic flows accordingly. Test on site shows that the system is able to respond correctly within 120 seconds. Physically, the system consists of four basic components, namely the Smart Camera sensor for collecting traffic data, the Intelligent Controller for controlling traffic flows at an individual intersection, the Intelligent Coordinator for coordinating the timing of an individual controller with its neighbors and the Smart Traffic Advisor. Communication is based on wireless Local Area Network that links all local controllers.

II. PROBLEM In spite of the traffic management measures to ease the traffic flows especially in city center, that cannot continue to do if the traffic demands still growing, because traffic management measures alone cannot effectively increase existing road capacity levels.

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B) Transport Modal Share I. Existing Situation The institutional structure responsible for urban transportation within Malaysia and more specifically, KAJANG, BANGI, BANDAR SERI PUTRA, PUTRAJAYA, NILAI3 and are divided between federal departments and City Hall Kajang, Bangi, Bandar Seri Putra, PUTRAJAYA, Nilai3 The Transport Department is entrusted with wide ranging coordination and administrative functions for the planning of urban transport in an effective manner. The Federal Government deals more with nationwide transportation plans, policy guidelines and matters concerning overall transport administration and planning. Private sector involvement in the provision of transport infrastructure has expanded from the original role of bus and taxi transport operations to toll road construction and the implementation, operation And maintenance of the commuter, light rapid transit (LRT) and people mover rapid transit (PRT) systems. PROBLEM Lack of high-efficiency of transport in the year that found citizens of transport in private, leading to an increase in traffic congestion

C) Travel Demand I. Existing Situation Because of luxury and the high personal income there was increasing in number of private transport vehicles of cars and motorcycles, which led to a traffic jam, especially in intersections at peak hours at after noon time. In addition to increasing in number of visitors to the centers of, Kajang, Bangi, Bandar Seri Putra, to eliminate their daily needs of purchase, working and the educational purposes of teaching and studying in schools and universities. So these streets could not accommodate this traffic density and increasing in the number of daily trips.Increasing in numbers of daily trips from and to these cities led to a traffic jam especially in the center, and driving in speed resulted traffic accidents in streets and intersections especially at the traffic peak in crowds and the maximum capacity . 46


II. PROBLEM Crowding in the city streets during the peak hours D) Transportation Institutional Framework I. Existing Situation Public institutions and the role of the private sector group of organizations and departments of transportation in Malaysia, specifically in Kajang, Bangi, Bandar Seri Putra, Bukit Mahkota, Nilai3 and Nilai, these departments directly interesting for the urban transport planning in these cities to improve and develop more efficient and effective for the present and future and improve the existing deal and the Federal Government policies and issues concerning the management of public transport, planning and introduction of private sector to build roads that implementation of fees, operation and maintenance and increasing the use of bus transport and taxis.

II. PROBLEM In some instances there were overlaps and duplication in functions of the responsible agencies of the transportation networks in KAJANG, BANGI, BANDAR SERI PUTRA, PUTRAJAYA NILAI3, which has led to conflicting policies and programmers. And that has made it more difficult to determine policies for public and private transportation, which are consistent.

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12.1 PUBLIC TRANSPORT

A) Rail - Based Public Transport

I. Existing Situation Last yearâ€&#x;s train transportation become a significant way of public transport between Kajang, Bangi, Bandar Seri Putra, Bukit Mahkota, Nilai3 and Nilai,in addition to KL Sentral station in the capital Kuala Lumpur and the international airport (KLIA), to save money and time and to short the long distance in a short time comparing with other transportation ways . II.PROBLEM Rail station has been encouraged form the government, but the optimal usage had not be achieved due to: 1-Inefficient facilities at stations including car and motorcycle parking 2- Poor support services and service coverage.

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B) Bus Services I. Existing Situation Many of companies operating in the area like ((Rapid KL, Bus Mini,Road Liner)) to support the public transport by buses between each of (OUR AREAS) and connect them with capital Kuala Lumpur. These companies do operating daily flights contribute to these trips to provide transport for the citizens of the areas mention most of these trips launched from the town of Kajang . II. PROBLEM There are improvements in the existing bus system and infrastructure is still lacking a lot: 1. The existence of these types of buses to lack the basic means of comfort and safety, such as the Mini Bus. 2. Lack of key stations model For example, the absence of a bus station in Kajang and model Bangi such as the plant Kajang . 3. The stations of stops somewhat acceptable, but must be doing Maintenance because of the impact of negative climate and the need to provide protection for people from the rain stations.

C. Taxi: I. Existing Situation Since not all people have private cars, so they need taxis to carry them from place to other in a private way without crowding in buses, and to save time if you see the time is more important than money, but the problem is at peak periods and during bad weather, and because of the variety of drivers nationalities and origins, mode taxicabs become unreliable. II. PROBLEM There is no shortage of taxis, but the problem is at peak periods and during bad weather, and because of the variety of driverâ€&#x;s nationalities and origins taxis became unreliable.

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3) Private transportation: A Private car: the high personal income lead to increasing the number of private cars, which led to a traffic jam, especially in intersections at peak hours at after noon time, and increasing the number of daily trips which also cause a traffic jam especially in the center, and driving in speed resulted traffic accidents in streets and intersections especially at the traffic peak in crowds and the maximum capacity.

II. Existing Situation: The demand for cars and also for cars parking has increased in our areas that we study because of the growth of population and also because of urban development in this area. This growth together with the increase in density and intensity of developments such, as residential, industrial and commercial land uses, make the existing parking guidelines and parking standards for all Malaysian cities obsolete. As parking demand and parking requirements change very fast, this study looks into the approaches and methods which have been used in other cities in their works in revising their parking guidelines and standards to suit the current situation. II. PROBLEM The flexibility afforded by private transport, and the low parking charges encourages commuters to continue to use private transport into the city center. The low cost of longterm parking in the city center together with the abundance of parking spaces and the flexibility of movement associated with car transport, has made car transport the preferred forms facility for traveling. B) Motorcycles I. Existing Situation The second mean of private transportation that is preferred to use is motorcycle, because it is the cheapest mean of transport; moreover, it has economic usage of fuel. It is preferred by two types of users, by the young's groups, and by the lower income groups. II. PROBLEM There is 52% of accidents involve motorcycles, which is higher than all other ways of transport. The motorcycles contribute significantly to noise and air pollution, and that is harmful for air and climate and the human health 50


12.2 ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE A road is an identifiable route, way or path between places. Roads are typically smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel, though they need not be, and historically many roads were simply recognizable routes without any formal construction or maintenance. Malaysia has 98, 721 km of roadway, of which more than 80,000 km is paved. The country has an extensive road system. Excellent local and long distance bus, cabs, and tourist coach services function throughout the Malaysia. The interurban North-South Expressway, New Klang Valley Expressway (NKVE) and the Federal Highway Route 2 (FHR2) are the biggest road transportation infrastructure in Peninsula Malaysia. Expressways, which span more than 1,000 km, connect major industrial hubs and urban centres starting from Bukit Kayu Hitam in the northern Kedah State to Johor Bahru in the state of Johor

I. Existing Situation Based on the Ministry of Transportâ€&#x;s statistics, the share of road transport of passengers comprises 64.8% by private car and 30.0% by bus, as compared to 4.7% by rail transport and 0.5% by air transport. The road transport also moved 303 million tons of goods or an overwhelming 96.4% of total trips. The transportation infrastructure during the Seventh Plan period focused on capacity expansion to ensure the availability of facilities to meet demand. For the Eighth Plan period, emphasis was given to increasing the capacity and accessibility in less developed areas while in urban areas, the focus was to enhance efficiency and improve public transport services. In the Ninth Malaysia Plan, PWD has so far been allocated RM9.6 billion for the construction of new roads. The Government is concentrating on developing integrated public transport system further. Buses, cabs, trains, and airplanes form the major transportation modes. To enhance the quality, reliability, and efficiency of the bus and cab services, many measures have been taken, like merging of transport companies, and proviso of supporting amenities like terminals, signage, depots, and route information system. The construction, usage, and maintenance of expressways are subject to Federal Roads Act, 1984. The expressways are known as high-speed routes with at least two lanes in each 51


direction. Majority of expressways are limited-access expressways. The electronic toll collection systems, Smart TAG and Touch „n Go, have been made mandatory on all expressways since 2004. Other electronic payment systems that were used earlier by other highway operators were stopped to standardize the electronic payment method. II. PROBLEM The development of major roads in (OUR AREAS), has not always fully observed road classification requirements. In addition, some roads have assumed functions for which they were not originally designed such as residential roads that have become trunk roads due to ill-considered road connections. These anomalies have presented difficulties in the design and management of the overall road network. Plot ratios for commercial spaces within the City Centre have progressively increased over the years and created increased pressure on the road network.

12.3 NON-MOTORISED TRANSPORT Non-motorized transport (NMT, also called active transport and human powered transport) refers to walking, cycling, and variants such as wheelchair, scooter and handcart use. it includes both utilitarian and recreational travel activity, plus stationary uses of pedestrian environments such as standing on sidewalks and sitting at bus stops. Pedestrian I. Existing Situation A major deficiency, especially in the City Centre, is the lack of pedestrian linkages. Activities such as unlicensed hawkers and vendors encroach into pedestrian walkways while some buildings do not permit public access across their property boundaries thus, leaving little or no space for pedestrian movement. In recent years, there has been a gradual improvement in the provision of pedestrian linkages in newer buildings but the shortcomings of earlier development remain. Similarly, not many buildings provide pedestrians with proper protection from the sun and rain. II. PROBLEM Areas in this study lack alleyways and walk ways and the lack of awnings for infantry, such as protection from rain. Because of the tropical climate 52


B) Bicycles Existing Situation The bicycle, cycle, or bike is a pedal-driven, human-powered vehicle with two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. Cycle ways have, for some time, been incorporated into new housing estates and Recreational areas. Despite the relatively flat terrain our cities, cycling as a convenient means of transport is under-utilized partly due to local climatic conditions. There are also, however, some shortcomings in the existing cycle way network which contribute to the underutilization of bicycles.

II. PROBLEM Opportunities exist for bicycle transport in providing connections to public transport services and short distance local travel. Other cities have utilised their roads, rail and open space corridors to create a comprehensive local area cycle way network. Bicycles ways in housing estates suffer from under usage, misuse (illegal parking) and poor maintenance.

12.4 Determine Suitable Mode of Public Transport To determine the most suitable mode of public transport for the Kajang-Bangi-PutrajayaBandar Seri Putra-Nilai corridor, we have to consider the following aspects of model choice. a. Trip purpose and clientele Most transportation modes can make a reasonable claim to be able to satisfy all trip purposes within a community. Whether these claims are justifiable or not is a different matter altogether. There are, however, modes that respond best to selected situations. These usually include Para transit and various high-technology modes (Shuttles and district services) With respect to user groups, the options are more complicated, because different people tend to have differing expectations. These range from placing comfort first to emphasizing affordability.

53


b. Geographic coverage and accessibility The more capital-intensive modes, such as rail-based transport, best serve concentrated corridors. Door-to-door accessibility has to be added by feeder services. Nonetheless, the accessibility of the former has to rather course, e.g not able to reach many dispersed points directly because if a mode attempts to reach a lot of dispersed points, it will not be able to provide rapid transit due to the number of stops that will have to be made. Ironically, to a large extent, this criterion explains the popularity of the automobile.

c. Carrying capacity Transportation modes available today differ greatly in their capacity to do heir main function, that is to carry people. The fundamental and critical selection task is choosing a proper mode to respond to estimate demand volumes. Low volumes would only require street

d. Speed Time distances, not physical distances, are of the main concern to passengers. It matters not to the passengers what is the maximum speed attainable by a particular mode of public transport mode, but rather the total tie taken from the origin to the destination and the inconveniences of transfers along the way. This is also influenced by the fact that the time spent commuting from one place to another is often seen as unproductive and tiresome. The private automobile is a formidable competitor in this aspect, except on truly congested roads.

e. Passenger Environment In a prosperous society, such as the one that generally can be found in Bandar Baru Bangi, personal comfort and convenience features are very significant to passengers. Most passengers will not tolerate inferior conditions in public transport facilities. The vital features are smoothness of the ride, privacy (or at least some distance to other passengers), sanitation, climate control, seating availability, and visual quality and anything else that registers through human senses. The challenge here to public transportation is to measure up to what private automobiles provide in terms of passenger environment. 54


f. Reliability Life in cities demands punctuality. Delays in traffic and travel are on acceptable in rare occurrences. There are modes that are more immune to traffic overload and bad weather (rail-based, mostly) and there are others that are vulnerable to urban disruptions, e.g. bad weather and congestion.

g. Safety and Security City citizens are well sensitizing towards issues of personal safety and security, albeit for good reasons. There are modes of public transport that are perceived to be more Susceptible to crime and physical breakdown as compared to others

h. Conservation of the Natural Environment and Fuel The attention paid lately to the quality of air and water around the concerns and us with natural resource depletion enter in the planning and design of many public transport systems. Generally speaking, passengers feel a certain degree of satisfaction if they are able to contribute towards environment and resource conservation in their choice of transportation mode. In short, low occupancy vehicles are damaging to the environment.

i. Achievement of a Superior Built Environment It is expected that major transportation systems that significantly enhance the accessibility of specific areas or corridors will generate a positive effect on land use and distribution of activities. This means that public transportation has the potential to for organizing the urban pattern of a town or city, e.g. concept of Transit Oriented Development (TOD). j. Costs The costs associated with transportation improvements and management can be broken down to right-of-way acquisition, construction of the road or channel and associated facilities, purchase of rolling stock and also operation and maintenance expenses. Nothing is cheap, but some modes require massive capital investment, while others consume large amounts of resources to keep it running. These costs are the life-or-death of any transportation project. 55


k. Image Transportation systems and services are the public face of a community. Everybody comes in contact with them and they are usually the first thing that a visitor from the outside experiences. They are elements of civic pride in most instances and show the seriousness given to the creation of a livable and sustainable community. l. High Capacity and Low Space Utilization Operations are compact; passengers are concentrated into cars, which move fast in trains consisting of many cars, one after another. No other service can transport as many passengers in a given time (80,000 passengers/hr/direction).

13. Suggestion for the development of transport in the study area: Due to the estimated production and attraction for future demand in 2020 we suggest apply some strategies like: 1. Dissuasion. Although automobile circulation is permitted, regulations and physical planning impede it. For instance, parking space can be severely limited and speed bumps placed to force speed reduction this is also an attempt to encourage public transport and reduce accidents. 2. Prohibition of downtown circulation. Automobile circulation is forbidden in the downtown area during most of the day but deliveries are permitted during the night. This strategy can help in protecting the character and the physical infrastructures of an historical city. They do however, like most policies, have inadvertent consequences. If restrict movement in a particular region or a particular time, people simply either will change their way (i.e. walk through another) or change the time of their departure and this strategy will help reduce traffic congestion in these areas 3. Provide an efficient Tollgate to provide a smooth traffic flow and avoids traffic jam at Toll Gate, it confers the potential advantage of congestion mitigation and revenue generation. Most evidence prove that drivers are willing to stand additional toll costs for the convenience of using a car, especially for commuting since it is linked With their main source of income 4. We suggest construct HOV lanes. High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes insure that vehicles with 2 or more passengers (buses, vans, carpool, etc.) Have a lane of its own that can reduce congested lane, particularly during peak hours. 56


14. Long Term Transportation Plans Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) as a Proposal to Cope With the Future Demand Based on the modeling of future transport demand by year 2020 calculated above, the suitable public transport proposal for corridor of Kajang, Bangi, Putrajaya, Bandar Seri Putra and Nilai3 is

Mass Rapid Transit (MRT)  Speed up to 100 km/hr.  Couches 4-12 couches per train, Couches 22m x 3.1 m  Capacity up to 80,000 passengers /hr / direction  Acceleration /deceleration _ 1.2 m/sec/2  Rail 1435 mm gauge Headway _ 120 sec  Suitable for radial movement for high density and high plot ratio  Sub-station: 3-5 km spacing MRT/BRT Benefits (a) High capacity and low space utilization, which capacity up to 80,000 passengers / hour / direction. (b) Efficiency of urban patterns; where stations can act as development hubs/nodes, enhancing and increasing the value of the land around it. (c) Avoidance of surface congestion; because it is fully grade separated and exclusive right of way, therefore can avoid any road congestion thus reducing travel time greatly. (d) Efficiency of energy usage. (e) Increase environment quality standards, including air quality and emission standards. (f) Safety and reliability (g) BRT cheapest because can use normal road

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To calculate possible range of head way (h) for MRT: Since:

Where: Cp = Theoretical passenger line capacity assume= (279,229) passengers/hr. Îą = guide way utilization factor (0.6) = Load factor (0.9)

n = vehicle per train S = Maximum passenger per vehicle h = headway in second. 279,229= 3600*0.9*0.75*n*250 h SO: h =21.7*(n) N

h

1

21.7

2

43.4

3

65.1

4

86.8

5

108.5

6

130.2

7

151.9

8

173.6

9

195.3

10

217

Max No of Couches: 10(veh/train) 58


15. Proposed Physical Development Proposed MRT Based on the calculation and diagrammatic of O – D matrix, We propose for the new MRT line to be of double-line configuration with 10 stations for Connected to Putrajaya from Kajang, Bandar Baru Bangi, Bandar Seri Putra and Nilai. For Kajang, Batang Benar and Nilai, the new connection network with existing KTM must be take into consideration to make sure this line viable and interconnected. And Bandar seri putra to niali 3 the new connection with BRT as in Figure below

15. 1Proposal for MRT Line The Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems.

Mass Rapid Tran MRT as shown in Figure is suitable for radial movement. It can be used for high density and high plot ratio area. The characteristics of the MRT are stated in Table below:

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Speed Couches Capacity Acceleration Rail Suitable Sub-station:

Up to 100 km/hr 4 – 12 couches per train Couches 22m x 3.1 m Up to 80,000 passengers /hr / direction Deceleration _ 1.2 m/s 2 1435mm gauge Headway _ 120 s Suitable for radial movement For high density and high plot ratio 3 – 5 km spacing

i. MRT can provide sample passenger capacity for most corridors in the study area. It has a high capacity and would be able to carry up to 80,000 passengers / hr / direction ii. Minimal passenger waiting times because service is frequent and predictable; ideally, service at least during peak periods is so frequent that passengers feel no need to refer to timetables or to time their arrival at stations. At other times of day, service should be on time and preferably at easily remembered. iii. R e d u c i n g the road or surface congestion because it has vehicle floors level with station platforms. Therefore travel times of passenger are reduced greatly as compared to those who travel by taking road-based public transport. iv. The consumption energy required is as low as possible to maintain motion due to the small friction generated by the MRT’s steel wheels rolling on the steel track by using the normal technology. v. O n the other hand, MRT also minimal the stopped time. It stops only at dedicated stations, more widely spaced than local bus stops. It will lead to reduction of travel time. As little time as possible is lost due to stopped time at stations, traffic signals, or other traffic conflicts. Stopped time at stations can be minimized by collecting fares on station platforms rather than as passengers enter vehicles, by providing station platforms level with car floors, for rapid entry and exit

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vi. U s e s traffic signal priority or preemption and other traffic and operations management methods and technologies to provide on-time, predictable arrival times with minimal delay; vii. P r o v i d e s a smooth, quiet ride at average speeds often competitive with travel by private car; viii. N o air pollution are produced since MRT operated by using DC electrical power source.

There are 6 MRT stations are proposed in the transport network in Kajang - Bandar Baru Bangi – Putrajaya - Bandar Seri Putra - Nilai 3 and one in semenyih to be centerd for all study area . A station is proposed for each area as revealed in Figures. The proposed station is located by considering the land use of the area. The location should be nearby to the commercial area, shopping area and residential area. It also closes with other mode of public transport such as bus, taxi and commuter

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15.2 Proposal for Enhanced Bus and Taxi Services To enhanced bus and taxi services to accelerate modal shift, following are the service to upgrade and comfort the user: a) Increase the Number of Buses and Taxis More buses and taxis have to be provided to overcome the rapid growth of development. b) Increase the Trip Frequency The routes provide access to and between many rail stations for thousands of passengers everyday should have to cover more area. The trip frequency rate has to be increased in order to reduce their travel time. c) Location of the Bus Stand and Taxi Stand Location of the terminal must be easy to access by passenger. For example, recommended to nearby the commercial area, shopping centre and institution area. d) Bus Lane We proposed lane restricted to buses. Generally, it is use to speed up public transport that would be otherwise held up by traffic congestion. Often taxis and high occupancy vehicles or motorcycles may use bus lane as well, though these uses can be controversial since they can reduce the capacity of the bus lane for its originally intended function. Bus lanes are a central part of bus rapid transit. Some area in Kuala Lumpur already has the bus lane. However, the road marking is not effective and certain road users did not aware the existence of the lane. Therefore, we recommend proposing better road marking bus lane as indicate in Figure.

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Bus lane proposed

e) Bus and Taxis Facilities Bus and taxis should provide with air-conditioner in order to comfort the user. f) Feeder Bus Feeder bus services and taxi are required in each MRT terminal to picks up and delivers passengers to a rail rapid transit station or express-bus stop or terminal to others area. Purpose of the feeder bus services and taxi service is for the convenience of passengers using MRT rail networks.

The integrated fare system should be offered to allow

passengers who use integrated smart ticketing management to enjoy the free feeder bus. For example, the NadiPutra buses as shown in figure provide the feeder bus services for commuting with Putrajaya and Cyberjayaâ€&#x;s Persiaran Multimedia. Therefore, we proposed to apply the same service in Kajang, Bangi, Bandar Seri Putra and Nilai 3.

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Nadi Putra feeder bus g) Upgrade Design of the Bus Stand and Taxi Stand From our observation, both of the bus services and taxi service in the study area have to be upgraded. However, we proposed to build a new bus and taxi terminal in certain area like Bandar Seri Putra and Nilai 3 because this area did not have any public transport terminal. Table below indicated our proposal. A proper design has to be suggested to provide a comfortable and safe environment to the waiting passenger. The bus and taxi stand should be able to protect passenger from weather and unexpected incident like proposing covered walkway and rail as shown in Figure Zone

Bus Stand

Bus Terminal

Kajang

Upgrade

Upgrade (1 number of bus terminal)

Bandar Baru Bangi

Upgrade

-

Bandar Seri Putra

-

Nilai3

Proposed new (1 number of bus terminal) Proposed new (1 number of bus terminal)

Nilai 3

-

Table Proposal for Bus Terminal and Bus Stand 64


Upgrade Buses and Taxi Stand h) Electronic Information of Signage and Timetable To upgrade the signage visibility size in order to ease the user like proposes electronic information system as shown in Figure. Furthermore, information board must provide more information regarding the timetable and location of the bus or taxi

Electronic Information Systems

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i) Park and Ride Park and facilities are car parks with connections to public transport that allow commuters and other people wishing to travel into city centre to leave their vehicles and transfer to a bus, rail system (rapid transit, light rail or commuter rail) for the rest of their trip. The vehicle is stored in the car park during the day and retrieved when the owner returns. From our observation, all rail station should offers park and ride facilities as shown in Figure. However, their service can be upgraded by accommodate with a ticket machine offering integrated fare. Most facilities provide services such as passenger waiting areas and toilets. Travel information, such as leaflets and posters, may be provided. At larger facilities, extra services such as a travel office, food shop, car wash, cafeteria, other shops and services may be provided. These are often encouraged by municipal operators to improve the attraction of using park and ride.

Park and Ride

Park and ride schemes are often marketed as a way to avoid the difficulties and cost of parking within the city centre and it is assumed impact in reducing congestion. It also allows commuters to avoid the stress of driving a congested part of their journey. Park and ride facilities may suit commuters with alternative fuel vehicles, which often have reduced range.

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16. POLICY DEVELOPMENT There are several proposal policy updates that we would like to suggest for the interest of the public transport in the Kajang - Bandar Baru Bangi - Putrajaya - Bandar Seri Putra - Nilai 3 corridor and also to the public transport fraternity as a whole which includes as per below: (a) Public transport to be given great priority for the benefit of the economy, environment, health, education and welfare of the Malaysian citizen. (b) Strong financial and law support from the government for public transport usage. Encourage citizen to use public transport by providing excellent public transport Facility. (c) Limit and discourage public vehicles dependency (e.g. via increasing parking Fare, limit-parking area) (d) Provide performance incentives to outstanding and efficient public Transport operators. (e) Make special lane for the public transport operation to provide for efficient

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17. TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT We would like to propose for several traffic management plans in which can assist to: (a) Shorten travel time. (b) Reduce traffic congestion. (c) Promote uniform traffic flow. (d) Manage matters on traffic safety problems. (e) Increase efficiency of overall traffic management operation. (f) Better disseminate of traffic information. (g) Assist to organize on better travel planning (e.g. choice of routes, modes and schedules). (h) Improve emergency assistance for motorists and commuters. (i) Improves utilization of available road capacity. (j) Manage safety and security along construction zone areas and special occasion events. (k) Long term transport planning. (l) Improve quality of life. By that, we would therefore like to suggest on the followings traffic management development, which includes (a) Utilizing Intelligent Traffic Information System (ITIS) for the Kajang - Bandar Baru Bangi - Putrajaya - Bandar Seri Putra - Nilai 3 corridor. This includes adaptation of the traffic management

system and travelerâ€&#x;s

information

system.

Traffic

management system detects traffic congestion whilst the travelerâ€&#x;s information system provide real time travel database. This includes Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) surveillance cameras to monitor traffic situation and Variable Message Signs (VMS) boards for traffic information dissemination along major roads.

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(b) Deployment of traffic management officers at certain areas for a certain time of period. This can be use to manage traffic conflicts at certain situations and fend of traffic offenders where necessary.

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70


Urban transportation project