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1- The first chapter is about the project’s identification and background; it is a study of the nature of the project,significance of the project, goals and objectives, the target group, the proposed functional framework and the general site. 2- The second chapter explains the nature of the project; it is a study of agriculture importance in jordan, it explains arid agriculture and defines the dry land farming. 3- The third chapter explains the site selection and analysis and is divided into two main categories: a. within the context of the Hashemite university on different scales ( meso scale, micro scale and local scale) including: - Environmental features -4-

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- Permeability - Robustness - Visual appropriateness - Site potientials and significance - Trees and plants in Jordan & in the Hashemite university. b. Going round Jordan related catigories: - Desert castles - Azraq wetlands - Assamra water treatment 4- The fourth chapter shows some cases collection relevant to the project whether at the local, national or international levels, analyzed to find out important relationships to help through the design process. 5- The fifth chapter is about the program and the spatial diagram explaining related functions and ratios accordingly. 6- The sixth chapter is about conceptual thinking, the nearest step for the design emergence, it includes conceptual drawings: plans, sections, elevations‌ explaining to different concepts.

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1.1 PROJECT TITLE 1.2 NATURE OF THE PROJECT, A BRIEF DEFINITION 1.3 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT 1.4 THE GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 1.5 THE TARGET GROUP & INTERESTED PARTIES 1.6 PROPOSED FUNCTIONAL FRAMEWORK 1.7 GENERAL SITE

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THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE IS AN INSTITUTION, THAT IS EDUCATIONAL PROJECT, IT EMPHASIZES THE INTEGRAL COMMUNICATION WITH EARTH, 'THE MAN AND NATURE THEORY', A BREADTH OF REQIRED AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE, NATURAL RESOURCE COURSE AND FIELD EXPERIENCES TO REINFORCE THE CONCEPT OF THE CRITICAL USE OF MINIMAL RESOURCES IN AGRICULTURE.

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The Goal: - to establish an agricultural college at the Hashemite university with special intrest in arid area’s agriculture. Objectives:  To use the minimal resources critically of the north east area of jodran to create successful agriculture  To provide opportunities for intensive education in the majors of applied agriculture in arid areas.  To accommodate modern technology in the fields of agriculture.

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THE TARGIT GROUP: 1- students of agriculture 2- researchers of sustainable development 3- the visitors of the scientific park.

INTERESTED PARTY ( IES):  the Hashemite university  ministry of agriculture  training schools and companies

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FIGURE 1.7: PROPOSED FUNCTIONAL FRAMEWORK

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The Hashemite University (HU) is the fifth state university in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. It is located on the outskirts of the city of Zarqa to the east of the capital Amman.. Al-Zarqa Governorate is the second most populated Governorate in the country.

WHY THE HASHEMITE UNIVERSITY? “The university was established to meet the particular needs and tackle the main concerns of this geographic area which are pollution, poverty, health-related issues of the Bedouin population, arid land and desertification� (The Hashemite University, Prof. Omar Shdeifat, GOOD ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE IN THE TOURIST ACCOMODATION SECTOR).

Agricultural solutions for the arid areas is a main concept needed to ensureThe vision of the Hashemite University.

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2.1 IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE 2.2 AGRICULTURE IN JORDAN 2.3 GENERAL FEATURES FOR AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENT 2.4 DRY LAND FARMING 2.5 ARID AGRICULTURE 2.6 THE HASHEMITE UNIVERSITY 2.7 NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS AND AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

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Water Sources: Jordan ultimately depends largely on rainfall. Other sources of water come from nonrenewable (fossil water) reservoirs – such as the Disi reservoir on the Jordanian-Saudi border – and treated wastewater (a trickle of actual needs). The Jordan and Yarmouk rivers are both major sources of surface water for Jordan, but both had become highly undependable due to upstream diversion and overpumping by Syria and Israel. The King Talal Dam is Jordan’s largest above-ground water reservoir. (ministry of water and irrigation)

SERVICE ECONOMY?!

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CROPS:

TECHNIQUES! Winter wheat is the typical crop although skilled dryland farmers sometimes grow corn, beans or even watermelons. Successful dryland farming is possible with as little as 9 inches (230 mm) of precipitation a year; higher rainfall increases the variety of crops. Native American tribes in the arid Southwest subsisted for hundreds of years on dryland farming in areas with less than 10 inches (250 mm) of rain.[citation needed] The choice of crop is influenced by the timing of the predominant rainfall in relation to the seasons. For example, winter wheat is more suited to regions with higher winter rainfall while areas with summer wet seasons may be more suited to summer growing crops such as sorghum, sunflowers or cotton. (MB, Agriculture in Australia )

timing of the predominant rainfall in relation to the seasons

SYSTEM:

Dryland farming is uniquely dependent on natural rainfall, which can leave the ground vulnerable to dust storms, particularly if poor farming techniques are used or if the storms strike at a particularly vulnerable time. The fact that a fallow period must be included in the crop rotation means that fields cannot always be protected by a cover crop, which might otherwise offer protection against erosion

ELEMETS:    

Capturing and Conservation of Moisture Effective Use of Available Moisture Soil Conservation Control of Input Costs

CONSERVATION EFFICIENCY

Dryland farming systems do not use irrigation but depend on precipitation to meet crop requirements . - 16 -


BECAUSE OF THE ARID AREA AT THE HASHEMITE UNIVERSITY SPECIAL TECHNIQUES SHOULD BE CONCIDERED AND PRACTICED IN AGRICULTURE. HERE IS A STUDY OF ARID AGRICULTURE AS A SUMMARY. Arid Land Agriculture is simplify defined by agricultural activity conducted at the area without enough water for irrigation and infertile soil.

Definition and Characteristic of Arid Land Agriculture

Preparing Drip Irrigation Line as The Characteristic of Arid Land Agriculture

Arid Land Agriculture is growing crop and horticulture plant in the arid area. Arid area has some characteristics, they are low precipitation (<250 - 300) mm/year, aridity index (Ratio of precipitation and evapotrans piration less than 0.2), no various vegetation (only shrubs, grass and small plant on scattered area), high temperature (average temperature on summer is +- 49 celcius degree), soil structure is sandy soil and high saltification which is caused by high evaporation and infiltration. CHARACTERISTICS: LOW PRECIPTATION

ARIDITY INDEX

NO VARIOUS VEGETATION

HIGH TEMPRETURE

SALTIFICATION - 17 -


AT THE HASHEMITE UNIVERSITY

PRODUCTION SELF- SUFFICIENCY:

OLIVE OIL

PLANT

EDUCATION COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE

ANIMAL

PRODUCTION

MILK DRIP IRREGATION >> MOST EFFICIENT WAY OF IRRIGATION IN ARID AREAS! CHARACTERISTICS:

RECYCLING WATER!

TAMARIX APHYLLA

LIGHT GOOD DRAINAGE

ALFAFA MILK

SAND

DEEP

THE HASHEMITE UNIVERSITY HA S TWO TYPES OF SOILS:

TYPES OF PLANT PRODUCTION IN ARID AREAS, IT JUST NEED SPECIAL TREATMENT!

TRITICUMDRUM HURDEUM VULGARE

VEGETABLES

‫ألفافا‬

T

‫أشجار األثل‬

y

‫القمح‬

p

‫الشعير‬

E

‫الخضراوات‬

S

IMPORTED Silt, sand & clay

ORIGINAL>> SANDY LOAM

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THE MAIN CORE MISSION >> TO MEET LOCAL NEEDS The Hashemite University (HU) is the fifth state university in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. It is located on the outskirts of the city of Zarqa to the east (about 45 minutes drive) of the capital Amman. Al-Zarqa Governorate is the second most populated Governorate in the country. The university was established to meet the particular needs and tackle the main concerns of this geographic area which are pollution, poverty, health-related issues of the Bedouin population, arid land and desertification. Another important factor in the establishment of HU is the fact that approximately seven thousand students from this area travel daily, by public transport, to Amman to attend classes at the University of Jordan. These considerations together called for the establishment of HU. The Royal Decree ordaining its establishment was issued In June, 1996. Since then, The Hashemite University has been working in support of higher education, scientific research and community service through providing the society with competent and qualified graduates and specialists in different fields and majors. Teaching at the University started at the outset of the Academic year 1995/1996, and the students were admitted to the three functioning faculties at the time. The university has grown in size, status and stature over these few years. The university now includes ten faculties, one institution, two deanships: The Deanship of Scientific Research and Higher studies and The Deanship of Students Affairs and four centers: The Computer Center, The Consultation and Community Service Center, The Center for Environmental Studies and The Academic Quality Assurance Center. The Hashemite University adopts the credit-hour system which is characterized by flexibility and the freedom of choice and variety it provides to students. Moreover; this system facilitates the interaction between students of different majors especially when they meet in selective courses chosen according to their personal tendencies and desires. ( The Hashemite University ,Prof. Omar Shdeifat)

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grazing lands, thereby increasing the livestock load on the semi-arid region. Overgrazing is also exacerbated by the wide use of water trucks to bring water to the animals grazing in the fields. On the one hand, this practice has increased the possibility of yearlong use of the native forage. On the other, over-plaguing the thin soil has caused the destabilization of soil structures and the loss of many soil-fixing organic materials. This damage makes these lands more vulnerable to other forces of erosion, such as run-off and wind. In summary, the main constraints to dry land farming in Jordan may be identified as:  

 

very shallow soils and poor organic matter; absence of effective soil and water conservation methods, resulting in an alarming degree of erosion; fragmentation of holdings; and highly variable precipitation (FAO, 1986).

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3.1 MESO SCALE 3.2 LOCAL SCALE 3.3 MICRO SCALE 3.4 TREE TYPES IN JORDAN AND THE HASHEMITE UNIVERSITY 3.5 DESERT CASTLES 3.6 AZRAQ WETLANDS 3.7 ASSAMRA WATER TREATMENT

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CHARACTARISTICS: 1- RAIN FALL 2- WIND SPEED 3- ANNUAL MEAN TEMPRETURE 4- SOLAR RADIATION

35

………………….... These maps show different segments of Jordan's climate accordingly locating the Hashemite university.

The solar energy potential in Jordan is enormous as it lies within the solar belt of the world with average solar radiation ranging between 5 and 7 wh/m2, which implies a potential of at least 1000 GWH/Y.

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3.2: LOCAL SCALE ANALYSIS, HISTORY OF THE PLACE, ZARQA CITY.. Circassia settlement

Jordan Hejaz Railway

1878

Syrian families migration

1918

1908 1902

Chechen and Circassian migrations They cause a difference in : a.Agriculture b. “crafts”

1914

1.Built a mosque and a school 2. Street planning 3. Fortification for the city by using a wall with 4 gates

1926

Military establishment - 24 36


3.2: LOCAL SCALE ANALYSIS, HISTORY OF THE PLACE, ZARQA CITY.. 1.Infrastructure 2. Domestic water supply 3. Education attention : a. Chechen school “ Qur’an study and writing “ 1_st official school . b. 1932 the

1928

1948-1976

1-Then the expansion start on the blanks of torrent 2-In the east side was there military camps. 3-In the southern side localize the factories because discover the Raw phosphate

1976-1980

Gulf war in the north-east localize the Petroleum Refinery

1980

1990-now a day

Establishment of the Hashemite university at 1995

Palestinians migrations caused cultural and economical diversity more.

Continued to expand (ecumenical services) - 25 -


Jerash

Irbid

Jaber The Hashemite University

The distance between Zarqa city center â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Hashemite University is 15 Km Old bus terminal

38 39

Mafraq

Zarqa Private university

New bus terminal

Accessibility? Amman

The distance between center of Ammanâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; Hashemite University is 40-45 Km

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40

Man-made Edge (Ring Road around HU)

The Site .

Man-made Edge ( Parking)

Man-made Edge (Main Road)

Natural Edge (Olive trees) Natural Edge

Man-made Edge (Main Road)

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4.1 BASQUE CULINARY CENTER 4.2 COLLEGES OF AGRICULTURE IN JORDAN 4.3 MUTAH UNIVERSITY- COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 4.4 JORDAN UNIVERSITY- COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE

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5.1 PROPOSED FUNCTIONAL FRAMEWORK 5.2 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SUGGESTED FUNCTIONS VIA BUBBLE DIAGRAMS 5.3 RATIOS OF FUNCTIONS ACCORDINGLY TO DIAGRAMS 5.4 RELATIONSHIPS STRENGTH TABLE 5.5 SPATIAL DIAGRAMS

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6.1 TWO DIFFERENT CONCEPTS CHOICE 6.2 DIAGRAMS EXPLAINING THE CONCEPT 6.3 ARCHITECTURAL SKETCHES.. PLANS, SECTIONS, ELEVATIONS, 3D’S. 6.4 THEORITECAL THINKING 6.5 DIAGRAMS EXPLAINING THE CONCEPT 6.6 ARCHITECTURAL SKETCHES.. PLANS, SECTIONS, ELEVATIONS, 3D’S.

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References: 1234-

Meijerink Gerdien and Roza Pim, The role of agriculture in economic development (BRESCIANI FABRIZIO & VALDES ALBERTO, THE ROLE OF AGRICULTURE IN POVERTY REDUCTION, BYOND FOOD PRODUCTION) LUTZ ERNST, AGRICULTURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT, PERSPECTIVES ON SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT. Irps H 1983. Results of reseach projects into flooring preferences of cattle. In Farm Animal Housing and Welfare Baxter SH, Baxter MR, MacCormack JAC (eds), 200-215. Marinus Nijhoff, The Hague, Netherlands.

5- ‫دائرة اإلحصاءات العامة‬ 6- Good Environmental Performance In The Tourist Accommodation Sector. 7- Ministry of agriculture , Jordan 8- Jordan university, Mutah university & THE HASHEMITE UNIVERSITY. 9- 2010 architecture competition annual 3. 10- SOME DRAWINGS AND SKETCHES WERE ORIGANELLY PHOTOS THAT I HAVE TAKEN DURING SITE VISITS. 11- AGA KHAN PROGRAM FOR ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE 12- SARACEN STRONGHOLDS AD 630-1050 13- THE MIDDLE EAST AND CENTRAL ASIA 14- http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/327/ 15- http://www.atlastours.net/jordan/qasr_al_hallabat.html 16- IN SITE PREESENTED INFORMATION IT IS THE WORK OF JORDAINAN AND FORIGN RESEARCHERS. 17- TREES AND PLANTS IN JORDAN AND THE MIDDLE EAST, KAMEL MHADEN. 18- http://www.aridzonetrees.com/ 19- http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa 20- http://aces.nmsu.edu/about_college.html

21- http://www.behance.net/gallery/New-Mexico-State-University-Master-Plan/229140

22- http://masterplan.nmsu.edu/documents/NMSU%20BOT%205-12-06%20Refined/NMSU%20BOT%20refinements5-12-

06%20_files/v3_document.htm 23- http://www.reefnet.gov.sy/reef/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=512:2008-08-09-10-2511&catid=57:engineering&Itemid=150 24- http://labanimals.awionline.org/pubs/cq02/Cq-cow.html 25- http://www.mutah.edu.jo/index.php/en/agri.html 26- http://www.uaex.edu/Other_Areas/publications/PDF/MP239.pdf 27- http://labanimals.awionline.org/pubs/cq02/Cq-cow.html

28- http://www.e-architect.co.uk/mexico/agriculture_museum.htm 29- http://www.archdaily.com/225857/park-agricultural-heritage-museum-vamvakidis-simos-tzortzis-antonis-zapantiotis-fotis/ 30- 4th International Crop Science Congress September 2004 31- Crop Science Society of America 32- P. Koohafkan and B.A. Stewart, Water and Cereals in Drylands published by The Food and Agriculture Organization

of the United

Nations and earthscan

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33- Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture â&#x20AC;&#x201C; dry farming 34- Alazraq wetlands in south Jordan 35- Jordan castles: Qasr Amra, Qasr Al-Hallabat, Qasr Al-Harana 36- http://www.reefnet.gov.sy 37- . http://outofthedepths.blogspot.com/2011/02/spiritual-meaning-of-trees.html 38- http://aridlandagriculture.blogspot.com/2012/11/definition-and-characteristic-of-arid.html 39- http://www.aaas.org/international/ehn/waterpop/jordan.htm 40- Text, Ch. 15, desertification in Ch. 16, pp. 333-334. 41- Hammond, A.L. 1990. World resources, 1990-91. Oxford University Press, New York. Ch. 1. 42- Tivy, 1992. Chs. 12,13. 43- ^ "Dust Storm in Eastern Washington : Image of the Day". earthobservatory.nasa.gov. Retrieved 44- http://www.agwaterconservation.colostate.edu/faqs_dryland_cropping_systems.aspx 45- Salibi,

2009-10-10

Kamal S. The Modern History of Jordan (1998).

46- Teller,

Matthew. The Rough Guide to Jordan (4th ed., 2009). 47- Robins, Philip. A History of Jordan (2004) "King Abdullah II Official Website | Profile". Kingabdullah.jo. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 49- Jordanâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Concluding Statement for the 2006 Article IV Consultation and Fourth Post-Program Monitoring Discussions, International Monetary Fund, 28 November 2006. Retrieved 3 June 2008. 50- http://www.mcdonough.com/writings/buildings_like_trees.htm 48-

51- he

nry Gilbert, Dryland Farming: January 1982-December 1990 (Beltsville, Md.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library, 1991. 52- m ary W. M. Hargraves, Dry Farming in the Northern Great Plains: Years of Readjustment, 1920-1990 (Lawrence: University of Kansas, 1993. 53- o klahoma State Board of Agriculture, Report (Guthrie, Okla.: N. p., 1908). 54- Dr. John A. Widstoe,Ph.D. Dry-Farming, A System Of Agriculture For Countries Under A Low Rainfall (NY: The MacMillian Company, 1911). 55- Victor Squires and Philip Tow, Dryland Farming: A Systems Approach - An Analysis of Dryland Agriculture in Australia (Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1991. 56- smith, C. Henry (1981). Smith's Story of the Mennonites. Newton, Kansas: Faith and Life Press. 57- malcolm, Bill; Sale, Peter"; Egan, Adrian (1996). Agriculture in Australia - An Introduction. Australia:

Oxford University Press.

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The College Of Agriculture  

It is my graduation project thesis in Architecture bachelor degree, the theoretical background that precedes design emergence.

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