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Newsletter No. 15

Winter 2016

Al-FurqÄ n

Islamic Heritage Foundation

Glorious Past, Brighter Future

Newsletter

Issue No. 15

In this Issue:

Latest Visits Lectures Training Courses Symposia Publications Book Review Book Fairs Institution Winter 2016

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Newsletter No. 15

Winter 2016

Table of Contents Message from the Chairman ........................................................... 3 Latest Visits ............................................................................................ 4 Al-Furqān Lectures ............................................................................. 7

Al-Furqān

Islamic Heritage Foundation

“Introduction to Manuscript Editing”, by Dr Bashar Awwad Marouf.............................. 7 “The means (al-dharāi‘) and their role in creative juristic effort (ijtihād)”, by Professor Mohamed Salim El-Awa....................................................................... 8

Newsletter Issue No. 15, Winter 2016

“Medieval Muslims and Egyptian Hieroglyphs”, by Professor Okasha El-Daly ........................................................................................................................ 10

Training Courses .................................................................................. 12

Publisher:

The 10th Training Course on Editing: “Editing Manuscripts of Qurʾānic sciences: Fundamentals, Basics and Problems” ......................................................... 12

Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation

The 3rd Training Course on Codicology: “Arabic Codicology: The Islamic Manuscript Heritage in the El Escorial Collection”...................................................... 16 The 12th Training Course on the Philosophy of Islamic Law: “Objectives (Maqāṣid) of the Noble Qurʾān (2)”......................................................................... 17

Board of Directors

Symposia ................................................................................................. 20

Symposium under the title: “The Arts in Light of the Objectives (Maqāṣid) of Islamic Law......................................................................................................................... 20

Chairman

Publications ........................................................................................... 26

H.E. Ahmed Zaki Yamani

“Bughyat al-Ṭalab fī Tārīkh Ḥalab” (The History of Aleppo) by ʿUmar ibn Aḥmad ibn Hibat Allāh Kamāl al-Dīn ibn al-ʿAdīm (660 A.H. / 1262 C.E.), edited by al-Mahdi Eid al-Rawadieh.................................................................................................................. 26

Members Professor Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu Professor Mohamed Salim El-Awa Mr. Sharaf Yamani

“Kitāb al-Tajrīd fī Uṣūl al-Handasah” (Abridgement of the Elements of Geometry) by Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad al-Nasawī, edited by Dr Mustafa Mawaldi............... 26 “Tafsīr Gharīb al-Muwaṭṭaʾ” (Intepretation of Unfamiliar Words in Al-Muwaṭṭaʾ) by Aḥmad ibn ʿUmrān, known as al-Akhfash (d. before 250 A.H./ 864 C.E.), edited by Taha bin Ali Bousrih al-Tounisi and Aroua bint Mohamed al Mokhtar al Lafi...... 27 “Perspectives on the Methodologies of Critical Editing of Arabic Manuscripts” prepared by Bashar Awwad Marouf................................................................................. 27

Managing Director

“Editing Manuscripts of Qurʾānic Sciences: Fundamentals, Rules and Problems” ..... 28 “Editing Manuscripts on Literature & Language” ................................................... 28

Mr. Sali Shahsivari Address

“Objectives of the Noble Qurʾān” (1), edited by Mohamed Salim Elawa ............... 29 “Objectives of the Noble Qurʾān” (2), edited by Mohamed Salim Elawa ..................... 29 “Applying the Sharīʿah Objectives in the Daʿwah Sphere: Research Articles”, edited by Esam Ahmed El-Bashir................................................................................................. 30

22A Old Court Place

“Stem cell treatment: An Approach Based on the Philosophy of Islamic Law”, by Abdelghani Yahyaoui......................................................................................................... 30 “The Methodological Introduction to the Map of the Universal Objectives of Islamic Law in the Noble Qurʾān”, by Tayeb Berghout................................................... 30

London, W8 4PL England – UK

“The Objective of Justice in the Noble Qurʾān”, by Mohamed Salim Elawa................ 31 “The Objective of Reforming the Human Thinking from the Qurʾanic Perspective”, by Mohamed Awwam....................................................................................................... 31

Tel: +44 (0) 20 3130 1530 Fax: +44 (0) 20 7937 2540

“Arts and the objectives of Islamic law (Maqāṣid): The arts that serve Maqāṣid, and the Maqāṣid that serve the arts”, by Professor Noureddine Ben Mokhtar al-Khadimi ...................................................................................................... 32

Distributors of Al-Furqān Publications ....................................... 32 Book Review .......................................................................................... 33 Book Fairs ............................................................................................... 35 Institution ............................................................................................... 36

Email: info@al-furqan.com www.al-furqan.com

The threats facing academic and cultural institutions in the city of Tikrit Libraries and monuments in Tikrit By Professor Ẓamya’ Muhammad Abbas, Tikrit University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology.................................................................. 36

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Message From the Chairman Language”, and the proceedings of the 10th training course in the field of editing, under the title “Editing Manuscripts of Qurʾānic Sciences: Fundamentals, Rules and Problems”. As an utmost priority in the area of ​​improving the Maqāṣid studies, the Centre for the Study of the Philosophy of Islamic Law has continued to work tirelessly, as evidenced by the 12th training course under the title: “Objectives (Maqāṣid) of the Noble Qurʾān 2”, the second edition of the course organised in the city of Mohammedia, Morocco. A s ymposium was also held in Istanbul under the title: “The Arts in Light of the Objectives of Islamic Law”. The two events were attended by distinguished groups of scholars, researchers and artists. Professor Mohamed Salim El-Awa delivered an important lecture titled: “The means (al-dharāi‘) and t heir role in creative juristic effort (ijtihād)”, in the city of Mohammedia. In respect of its publications, the Maqasid Centre published and released the training course proceedings under the title: “Objectives of the Noble Qurʾān: Research Articles”, edited by Dr. Muhammad Salim El-Awa, in addition to the lecture, “Stem Cell Treatment: An Approach Based on the Philosophy of Islamic Law”, by Dr. Abdelghani Yahyaoui; the lecture, “The Methodological Introduction to the Map of the Universal Objectives of Islamic Law in the Noble Qurʾān”, by Dr. Tayeb Berghout; and the lecture, “Arts and Maqāṣid: The Arts that serve Maqāṣid, and the Maqāṣid that serve the Arts”, by Dr. Noureddine Khadmi. In addition to all these events and publications, the Foundation hosted numerous visits from institutions and individuals, as well as its participation in several international book fairs. In conclusion, Al-Furqān, in its 29th year has reached a stage of growth and maturity that has become a great source of pride. Although what we have achieved has been hard won, we should not be complacent. We are still at the start of a long journey, and our intention remains resolute in fulfilling our mission. We aspire to pioneering work and great achievements. Our motto is the saying of the Almighty: ﴾Say, ‘Take action! God will see your actions – as will His Messenger and the believers – and then you will be returned to Him who knows what is seen and unseen and He will tell you what you have been doing﴿. Indeed, Success is only from Allah. Praise be to Him in the beginning and at the end. Ahmad Zaki Yamani

I am pleased to present the 15th issue of the Newsletter of AlFurqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, to you, our esteemed readers, in order to keep you updated with the progress of the Foundation’s achievements and untiring effort over the past year and I pray that it will meet with your approval. For the Foundation, 2016 was a year replete with accomplishments, achievements, events and publications. It was also a year where we strove ever harder towards further success, both in the fields of heritage conservation and Maqāṣid studies. In this regard, the Centre for the Study of Islamic Manuscripts organised two training courses concerned with the sciences of the manuscript, which were attended by a large number of highly qualified experts. The first of such events was the training course on editing manuscripts was held in Rabat and was titled “Editing Manuscripts of Qurʾānic sciences: Fundamentals, Basics and Problems”, whilst the second dealt with Islamic Codicology and was held at the Library of El Escorial in Madrid, under the title: “Arabic Codicology: The Islamic Manuscript Heritage in the El Escorial Collection”. Cultural activities have become an essential and prominent feature of Al-Furqān’s work. In order to provide a platform of communication with scholars and specialists in the field of the Islamic heritage, the Manuscript Centre organised two lectures. The first, titled “Introduction to manuscript editing”, by Professor Bashar Awad Marouf, was held in Rabat; and the second was titled: “Medieval Muslims and Egyptian Hieroglyphs” by Dr Okasha ElDaly and delivered at the headquarters of the Foundation, in London. In the field of publications, the Manuscript Centre published the edited texts of Ibn al-ʿAdīm’s book “Bughyat al-Ṭalab fī Tārīkh Ḥalab: The History of Aleppo” in 12 volumes, edited by Dr. al-Mahdi Eid al-Rawadieh; the book “Kitāb alTajrīd fī Uṣūl al-Handasah: Abridgement of the Elements of Geometry by Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad al-Nasawī” edited by Dr. Moustafa Mawaldi; a book on fiqh and ḥadīth with the title “Tafsīr Gharībn al-Muwaṭṭaʾ (Interpretation of Unfamiliar Words in Al-Muwaṭṭaʾ) by al-Akhfash”, edited by Taha bin Ali Bousrih al-Tounisi and Aroua bint Mohamed al Mokhtar al Lafi; as well as the lecture titled “Perspectives on the Methodologies of Critical Editing of Arabic Manuscripts”, by Bashar Awad Marouf. With regard to conferences, the Centre published the proceedings of the 7th Conference on Islamic manuscripts under the title: “Editing Manuscripts on Literature and

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Latest Visits 24/3/2016 Meeting with Dr. Bachir Soualhi, Director of International Promotion & Scholarships at the International Islamic University Malaysia.

The main session of the visit consisted of the presentation of the Digital Library project by Mrs Karima Benaicha, Head of the Library & Online Database Department at Al-Furqān, with a particular focus on the collections of Islamic manuscripts that are available to browse in the Digital Portal and the digital World Map of Libraries, holding Islamic manuscripts from all around the world. The visit concluded with a small reception, during which, the students were able to ask the staff at Al-Furqān various questions about the physical library collections and Al-Furqān’s publications as they had a chance to browse the Digital Portal, under the guidance of the Head Librarian, Mrs Karima Benaicha.

19/4/2016 Visit from the European Institute for Human Sciences at Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, on 19 April 2016.

25/5/2016 The visit of the attendees to the training programme “Ottoman and Archival Studies in the United Kingdom”, organised by the London Centre for Social Studies (LCSS), on 25 May 2016.

On 19 April, Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation received a group of 20 master’s students from the European Institute for Human Sciences in Birmingham. The visit at Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation started with the welcoming words by Mr Sali Shahsivari, the Managing Director of Al-Furqān, who thanked the students and the representatives of the Institute for visiting the Foundation. This was followed by a brief film about the Foundation, which was displayed in order to provide the students with an overall understanding of the structure of the Foundation and its aims and activities.

The second edition of this 5-day training course consisted of visiting libraries and archives in the UK (these included the National Archives, the British Library, the Centre for Byzantine, Ottoman and Modern Greek Studies at the University of Birmingham, the Wellcome Library, Bodleian Libraries at Oxford University, the Keynes Library at Birkbeck University, the Ashmolean Museum, and the Library at Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation) holding material and research tools related to Ottoman studies. 4

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The participants on the training course were researchers, academics and postgraduate students from various countries, including Germany, Greece, Qatar, Sweden, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates and the United Kingdom. They were accompanied by the Director of the LCSS, Mr Ufuk Ucar.

Foundation, and wished them all the best with their research and academic projects. The visit continued with a small reception, during which the visitors were able to ask questions about the Library collections and Al-Furqān’s publications and activities; as they had a chance to browse the Digital Portal, under the guidance of the Head Librarian, Mrs Karima Benaicha.

The visit at Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation started with the welcoming words by Mrs Karima Benaicha, Head of the Library & Online database Department at Al-Furqān, who introduced the Foundation, its history and main activities, with particular focus on the Digital Library project. A brief film about AlFurqān Islamic Heritage Foundation was then displayed, in order to provide the participants with an overall understanding of the structure of the Foundation and its aims and activities. The visit continued with a presentation given by Ms Celeste Gianni, Library Assistant at the Foundation and Ph.D. candidate at SOAS University, titled “Exploring Research Tools for Searching Ottoman Sources at Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation”, which explained the library collections and the Digital Library in detail, with a particular focus on the Library Catalogue Collections of Islamic manuscripts and on other unique reference sources in the area of the Islamic written heritage. Participants were shown catalogues regarding collections of Ottoman materials in libraries around the world, as well as Al-Furqān’s publications in the field of Ottoman studies, and other relevant reference works held in the Library. In conclusion, Mr Sali Shahsivari, the Managing Director of Al-Furqān, thanked all the participants and the organiser for visiting the

27/5/2016 Meeting with Professor Konrad Hirschler.

14/6/2016 Meeting with Dr. Alba Fedeli, Honorary Fellow and collaborator of ITSEE.

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15/6/2016 Meeting with Mr Paul Ahmed Keeler.

21/9/2016 Visit to The Faculty for Islamic Studies at Sultan Mehmet Fatih University in Istanbul, and meeting with the Dean of the Faculty, Professor Ahmet Turan Arslan, to discuss mutual co-operation.

1/8/2016 Hosting the consultative meeting on the Al-Mizan initiative.

7/11/2016 A visit to the Sakip Sabanci Museum, by the attendees and participants of the Symposium titled: “The Arts in Light of the Objectives of Islamic Law�.

16/9/2016 Visit of Prof. Abdullah Ekhatib, Managing Editor of the Journal of The North for Humanities, Northern Border University, KSA.

Dr Ahmed Mustafa & Mr Ahmed Paul Keeler during the visit

A group picture taken at the entrance of the museum

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Al-Furqān Lectures Lecture on «Introduction to Manuscript Editing» by Dr Bashar Awwad Marouf

Part of the audience

The aim of this lecture was to provide a comprehensive, complete and concise picture on the science of editing and its practices. Professor Bashar presented the most important criteria that the editor has to take into account, including: the basic requirements for starting the editing work (most importantly, knowledge of the Islamic culture and specialisation in the field of editing); the methods for gathering manuscript copies and for selecting the most suitable and reliable ones; the practices for unifying a copy by using modern orthography; the standards for organising and punctuating the text content; the rules for adding comments to the text; and the guidelines for creating indices and bibliographies; as well as an explanation on the methodology followed for the critical edition of the text. Professor Bashar finally explained that the fundamental aim of the critical edition is to be able to reconstruct the text that was written by the author and approved by him as being the final version. The lecture was followed by numerous questions from the specialised scholars and students in regard to the issues covered by Professor Bashar.

Dr Bashar Awwad Marouf

The Centre for the Study of Islamic Manuscripts at AlFurqān Islamic Heritage Foundation organised a public lecture entitled “Introduction to Manuscript Editing”, delivered by Prof. Bashar Awwad Marouf and introduced by Mr. Mohamed Drioueche, Head of the Projects & Publications Department at Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation. The lecture took place on Wednesday 2nd March 2016, in the Conference Hall at Dar al-Hadith alHassania Institute (Rabat, Morocco). The lecture was organised in the margin of the 10th Training Course on Critical Edition, titled “Editing Manuscripts on Qurʾānic sciences: Fundamentals, Basics and Problems”, organised by the Manuscript Centre at Al-Furqān, in partnership with Dar al-Hadith al-Hassania Institute (Rabat, Morocco), which took place from 29th February until 5th March 2016, at Dar al-Hadith al-Hassania Institute (Rabat, Morocco).

The lecture was organised in the margin of the 10th Training Course on Critical Edition

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Professor El-Awa dwelt on the term “means” (aldharāi‘), explaining its lexical semantics, which revolve around “mean”, “way”, and “path”. He then moved on to explain its significance based on usage by legal theorists (al-uṣūliyyūn). He mentioned that this was of two types: the first is “blocking the means (sadd al-dharāi‘)”, which he defined in the statement: “[normally] allowed means that are disallowed, where they would lead to the prohibited; whether disliked (makrūh) or unlawful (ḥarām)”. This is because legal theorists judge means according to the objectives (maqāṣid) achieved. Professor El-Awa gave examples for some of the means that are permitted in principle, but then prohibited considering the outcomes they may lead to. For example, entry of servants and young persons into family sleeping quarters during rest times, as articulated in the Qur’ān: “O you who believe, let those whom your right hands possess and those who have not [yet] reached puberty among you ask permission of you [before entering] at three times: before the dawn prayer and when you put aside your clothing [for rest] at noon and after the night prayer. [These are] three times of privacy for you. There is no blame upon you nor upon them beyond these [periods]…” [al-Nūr 58]. Indeed, entry to sleeping quarters is allowed in principle, but has been prohibited during these specific times, as it may lead to corruption. This corruption may be disliked (makrūh), yet the Qur’ān prohibited it by prohibiting the means leading to it. The lecturer also provided examples of blocking the means in some contracts, where the contract may be allowed in terms of form, but may be prohibited if it results in usury. Professor El-Awa also added that some acts may be permissible (mubāḥah) or recommended (mandūbah) in principle, such as insulting the

Lecture on «The means (al-dharāi‘) and their role in creative juristic effort (ijtihād)» by Professor Mohamed Salim El-Awa

Part of the lecture

The lecture titled “The means (al-dharāi‘) and their role in creative juristic effort (ijtihād)” was delivered by Professor Mohamed Salim ElAwa, on Monday 2 May 2016, at Avanti Hotel in Mohammedia, Morocco. The lecture was organised by the Centre for the Study of the Philosophy of Islamic Law at Al-Furqān, in co-operation with Association Espace Cadres and the Maqasid Research & Studies Centre. The event was chaired by Professor Ahmed alRaissouni, who praised the importance of the topic and the eminence of the lecturer. Professor El-Awa then started his lecture by defining the precepts and evidential basis attached to the legal theory origin of means (al-dharāi‘). He also addressed the practices in its juristic application, and discussed the pioneering status of the Mālikī school of jurisprudence in adopting creative juristic effort (ijtihād) using means (al-dharāi‘). Indeed, he posed an important question regarding whether this had remained limited to the Mālikī school, or had become generalised to all areas of jurisprudence. Professor El-Awa emphasised that the idea of means (al-dharāi‘) exists in the Revelation texts, where means (al-dharāi‘) is principally a legislative matter. He based his argument on the submissions by Imām Ibn alQayyim in his text “A‘lām al-muwaqi‘īn”, in which he included comprehensive classical proof for the idea of means (al-dharāi‘), giving 99 examples from the Noble Qur’ān, Prophetic tradition (Sunnah), and consensus (ijmā‘), to form justification for the use of means (al-dharāi‘) as an approach in creative juristic effort (ijtihād).

Part of the audience

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idols, which undermines their status and gravity in people’s hearts. However, the Qur’ān prohibits this, because it may be taken as an excuse to insult God: “And do not insult those they invoke other than Allah, lest they insult Allah in enmity without knowledge…” [al-An‘ām 108]. Similarly, from the Prophetic tradition: “it is the gravest of major sins for a person to insult his parents”. It was said: O’ Messenger of Allah how can a person insult his parents? He responded “the person insults the father of the other, who responds by insulting this person’s father”. In addition, there are other examples mentioned in the Prophetic tradition that emphasise the idea of consideration of the means. Indeed, Imām Ibn al-Qayyim considered means as one quarter of religious responsibility (al-taklīf). Subsequently, Professor El-Awa moved to the second type of means, which is “opening the means (fatḥ al-dharāi‘)”. He explained that these were means that led to what is required. He emphasised that it is obligatory to adopt those means that lead to achieving the obligation (al-wājib), while it is recommended to adopt those means that lead to the recommended (al-mandūb), and it is permissible to adopt those means that lead to the permissible (al-mubāḥ). Among those examples presented by the lecturer, was the matter of having sight of the private parts. Indeed, having sight of the private parts of other persons was prohibited in principle, but given the ratio legis (al-‘illah) of the need for diagnosis and treatment to preserve life, this ruling changed. The lecturer indicated that many legal theorists have employed the means intimately connected to closing (al-sadd), as these lead to wrongdoing; however, this is a matter of juristic disputation (khilāf). In contrast, opening the means (fatḥ al-dharāi‘) has not caused any significant

A group picture taken at the end of the lecture

disagreement. Professor El-Awa emphasised that means may be opened as they may be closed. These are covered by five rules, in consideration of what they may lead to, in terms of interests (maṣāliḥ) or evils (mafāsid). In this instance, he mentioned the rule that: it is recommended (mandūb) to close the mean that results in something disliked (makrūh), and it is disliked to open it. Having defined and set the evidential foundation, and also provided examples of means, the lecturer moved on to discuss means in terms of legal theory (uṣūl al-fiqh). He discussed the classification by legal theorists of the means among those evidences over which there is disagreement. Professor ElAwa criticised the consideration of means as evidence (dalīl) or principle (aṣl), arguing that means were a ruling (ḥukm), whose evidence is the concrete interest (al-maṣlaḥah al-muḥaqqaqah) rather than the baseless interest (al-maṣlaḥah almutawahhamah). Therefore, he proposed at the end of his lecture that the means be referred back to those books of rules (qawā‘id) and objectives (maqāṣid), because these represent the area in which the means are located. Following the conclusion of the lecture, the audience had the opportunity to interact with the lecturer. The majority of questions revolved around the necessity of establishing rules for the means. In responding to the audience’s questions, Professor El-Awa explained that such rules were a matter of creative juristic effort (ijtihād), and many were linked to time-dependent issues, which would then change with the changing times, place, and customs. Professor El-Awa concluded his answers by reflecting on women’s issues that have been negatively addressed due to the miss-application of closing the means (sadd al-dharāi‘). He emphasised that the means must not be raised as an obstacle to women, preventing them from realising their civilisational role.

Dr Jamila Tilout’s contribution during the Q&A session

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Lecture on «Medieval Muslims and Egyptian Hieroglyphs» by Professor Okasha El-Daly

Within its series of Lectures on Islamic Heritage, Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation organised a public lecture titled “Medieval Muslims and Egyptian Hieroglyphs’’, delivered by the renowned Egyptologist, Professor Okasha El-Daly. The lecture took place on Wednesday, 11 May 2016, at Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation’s headquarters in London.

Professor Okasha El-Daly delivering his lecture

they did in their study of ancient Egypt without them; however, they rarely mention the Arabic sources as the main reference for their studies. Medieval Muslims had first-hand knowledge of ancient Egypt and were often impressed by its great monuments dotting the landscape of the Nile Valley, many of which were still intact and displaying remarkable hieroglyphic texts in original colours. The extensive medieval Muslim writing in Arabic left us enough materials to make a valid interpretatio Arabica of ancient Egypt. The impetus for medieval Muslim scholars to study ancient Egypt and its scripts led them to many successful attempts to decipher hieroglyphs, having realised that it had an alphabet a thousand years before Champollion. Professor El-Daly showed several examples of these attempts during his lecture, including the Kitāb al-Iklīl min Ansāb al-Yaman wa-Akhbār Ḥimyar by Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan al-Hamadānī (d. 334 A.H./945 A.D.), the first work in the field of palaeography, where

Mr Sharaf Yamani welcoming the guests

After the welcoming words delivered by Mr Sharaf Yamani, Member of the Board of Directors of Al-Furqān, the lecture was introduced by Mrs Karima Benaicha, head of the Library and Online Database Department at the Foundation. The keynote speaker, Professor Okasha El-Daly, engaged the audience in a discussion around a much neglected area in the history of Egyptology, namely the representation and study of ancient Egypt in medieval Arabic sources. In his lecture, Professor El-Daly demonstrated the potential that these Arabic sources have, in order to fill the gap between the classical Greek and Latin sources and the later European studies on ancient Egypt. According to Professor El-Daly, Egyptology is a field of study that is widely thought to be European in origin, despite the significant contribution of medieval Arabic sources. The first European scholars of ancient Egypt were aware of some of these sources and learned Arabic in order to access them. Indeed, they could not achieve what

Mrs Karima Benaicha, head of the Library and Online Database Department at the Foundation chaired the event

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al-Hamadānī copied several ancient scripts and translated them, including Egyptian hieroglyphics. The medieval Muslim understanding of ancient Egyptian sciences, architecture and religion was truly sophisticated, as they interpreted both form and function of the pyramids, temples, and the role of magic, the nature of royal cults, animal cults and holy sites. Thus, learning the ancient Egyptian language and deciphering hieroglyphs was of great importance for Muslim scholars. On one hand, understanding how to decipher hieroglyphs could provide a practical system for encrypting secret messages; on the other hand, understanding the meaning of the hieroglyphs could bring to light scientific and philosophical knowledge that these texts conveyed.

Part of the audience

Other medieval Muslim scholars were interested in the philosophical knowledge enclosed in the ancient Egyptian texts. For example, the Sufi scholar Dhū al-Nūn al-Miṣrī (d. 246 A.H./860 A.D.) linked ancient Egypt to Sufism by studying the Egyptian texts for their philosophical value. In particular, thanks to Dhū al-Nūn, the Ancient Egyptian language was linked to the Coptic language and a great deal of similarities were found between these languages, so that it allowed for a major development in the field of hieroglyph interpretation and translation. Professor El-Daly is the first scholar who drew attention at the international level, towards the need for more scholarly work on the deeply understudied subject of Egyptology in medieval Arabic sources. The reasons that medieval Muslims had for studying ancient Egypt were various and often different from their European counterpart, and they could offer new and different perspectives to be studied and developed in the science of Egyptology.

Professor Okasha El-Daly addressing the audience

Professor El-Daly pointed out, for example, how ancient Egyptian medicine is still relevant today and how useful the study of Arabic sources could be to bring to light medical practices of ancient Egypt that were deciphered and adopted in later periods thanks to the studies of Muslim scholars. Many medieval Muslim scholars thought that Egypt was the land of science par excellence and were impressed by the many examples of different scientific mirabilia attributed to scientists of pre-Islamic Egypt. This is why they held in high esteem the famous Queen Cleopatra as a great scholar and philosopher, a significantly different narrative on this historical figure from its Western counterpart.

Professor Okasha El-Daly and Mr Sali Shahsivari

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Training courses manuscripts, as well as the study of canonical readings (al-qirā’āt) in Qur’ān manuscripts and the study of initial verses (āyāt) in a chapter (sūrah), Qur’ān numbering system, and pausal signs (‘alāmāt al-waqf) in Qur’ān manuscripts. Professor Alhamad then turned to the examination of decoration and illumination in Qur’ān manuscripts. He also presented examples of the position of contemporary researchers on studying Qur’ān manuscripts.

The Tenth Training Course on Editing: «Editing Manuscripts of Qurʾānic Sciences: Fundamentals, Basics and Problems»

Day 2: Tuesday, 1 March 2016 Morning Session: This session began with Dr Muhammad al-Tabarani’s lecture on “Proposals and views for a robust approach to editing manuscripts in the Qur’ānic and related sciences”, where Dr Muhammad Said Hinchi presented both lecturer and topic. Dr al-Tabarani drew the course delegates’ attention to a set of guidelines, including: • To properly verify the attribution of the manuscript to author. • To distinguish between copy and narration. • To verify the title and guarantee commitment to the author’s preferred title. • To gather and collate all extant manuscript copies without fail. • To add commentary only to resolve ambiguity and prevent misunderstanding, ensuring brevity and relevance. • To divide the text appropriately and establish numbering.

The inaugural session of the training course

An inaugural ceremony marked the first day of the 10th Training Course on Critical Edition, titled “Editing Manuscripts of Qurʾānic sciences: Fundamentals, Basics and Problems” organised by the Manuscript Centre at Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation in partnership with Dar alHadith al-Hassania Institute (Rabat, Morocco), where the course was held between the 29th of February and the 5th of March 2016. The ceremony began with a recitation from the Noble Qur’ān, followed by words of welcome from the organisers. Day 1: Monday, 29 February 2016: The course began with a lecture by Professor Bashar Awwad Marouf, on “Investigating attribution: alṬabarānī’s alleged exegesis text as an example”. The topic and lecturer were introduced by Professor Abdel Hamid Ashaq. Afternoon Session: This comprised a lecture by the eminent scholar, Professor Ghanim Qaddouri Alhamad, addressing “Muṣḥaf manuscripts: Aspects of interest, and the position on their research”. Dr Farida Zumurrud introduced both lecturer and topic. Professor Alhamad examined the importance of Qur’ān manuscripts or early Muṣḥaf copies, contrasting with the limited interest from manuscript practitioners, whether in cataloguing or research. He addressed the topics of palaeography, orthography, and vocalisation marks in Qur’ān

Part of the practical sessions in editing manuscripts

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Following Dr al-Tabarani’s lecture, Professor Ghanim Qaddouri Alhamad delivered another lecture entitled “Manuscripts of the Mashriqī tradition in the discipline of Qur’ān orthography: introduction and importance”. This lecture was introduced by Dr Farida Zumurrud. Professor Alhamad provided a historical presentation of the sources for the orthography of the very first Muṣḥaf, including an introduction and explanation of its importance. He provided three examples of relevant textbooks, namely Khaṭṭ al-Maṣāḥif by alKarmānī, al-Hijā’ fī rasm al-muṣḥaf by an unknown author, and Nathr al-marjān fī rasm naẓm al-Qur’ān by al-Ārkātī al-Hindī. Afternoon Session: This comprised two practical workshops; the first led by Professor Bashar Awwad Marouf, on “Editing manuscripts of Qurʾānic sciences: Fundamentals and basics”, with applied examples derived from his critical edition of the book, “al-Muḥallā” by Ibn Ḥazm al-Ẓāhirī.

The second workshop was led by Dr Muhammad al-Tabarani, focusing on practical examples of problems faced in the critical edition of Qur’ānic science manuscripts. The most prominent problems highlighted within the workshop by Dr al-Tabarani were: • Neglecting to divide the text appropriately. • Inappropriate commentary on the text. • Neglecting to explain archaic and challenging words. He also pointed to the problems related to books on numbering, including: • Neglecting vocalisation marks, especially at word endings. • Neglecting to refer to books dedicated to the art. Day 3: Wednesday, 2 March 2016 Morning Session: this began with the lecture by Dr Muhammad Jamil Mubarak on “Reading the manuscript given multiple possibilities, and the editor’s knowledge and culture”. This was introduced by Mr Sali Shahsivari. Dr Mubarak highlighted the weakness in the actuality of critical edition. He pointed in his lecture to matters revolving around: • The necessity of discerning the author’s methodology, and understanding his terminology. • The influence of the editor’s knowledge and culture on the quality of the manuscript edition. • Language as an essential mean for anyone wishing to enter the editing domain, especially in the Qur’ānic sciences • The necessity of comprehending the possible variants encountered within the text. The lecture of Dr Mubarak was followed by Dr Farida Zumurrud on “Subject bibliographies (Kashafāt)of exegesis textbooks: Concept, methodology, and purpose”. The lecturer was introduced by Dr Fatima Bousalama. Dr Zumurrud began by clarifying the concept of bibliography (al-kashāf) in language, common terminology, and specialist terminology in library and documentation science, as well as the terminology of critical edition. She then covered some terms used in the bibliographic domain, namely edition, ordering, classifying, and cataloguing. She also spoke of the methodology of building bibliographies of exegesis textbooks and presented the types of scientific bibliographies

Part of the audience

The main points emphasised by Professor Marouf in his lecture were: • Gathering and examining all extant copies, and selecting the most reliable. • Tracing the Prophetic traditions (Ḥadīth) cited back to original sources. • Clarifying the ambiguities in chains of narration (al-asānīd) in the glosses. • Indicating the author’s resources. • Paying attention to margin content, and including this in the glosses of the edited text. • Documenting the chain of narrators (al-takhrīj) and grade of the Prophetic traditions. 13

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for exegesis textbooks. Dr Zumurrud elaborated on the methodology of preparing a bibliography, defining its steps and enumerated the conditions and tools of bibliography creation by clarifying the most prominent obstacles to the practising bibliographers related to the extent of their ability to read, and comprehend the content of the exegesis text. Dr Zumurrud concluded her lecture by providing examples of bibliographic good practice. Afternoon Session: This comprised a practical workshop on “Gathering manuscript copies and methodology of examination”. This was designed by a number of specialised scholars, led by Dr Khalid Zahri. He used the manuscript “Tafsīr Sūrat al-Fātiḥah bi al-ishārah” by Shaykh ‘Abd alRaḥmān b. Muḥammad al-Fāsī as an example for practical application. The third day of the training course concluded with a public lecture by the eminent scholar, Professor Bashar Awwad Marouf, “Introduction to manuscript editing”, in which he presented the most important matters of concern to the editor.

by orientalists (Germans, French) were presented by Dr Zahri. Day 5: Friday, 4 March 2016 Morning Session: This comprised a lecture, titled “Treatment of Prophetic traditions (Ḥadīth) texts in editing manuscripts on exegesis and Qur’ānic sciences) delivered by Professor Bashar Awwad Marouf, and introduced by Dr Muhammad Said Hinchi. Professor Marouf discussed different types of exegesis and highlighted the relevance of Prophetic tradition (Ḥadīth) and other traditions (āthār) for the study of these texts. Professor Marouf concluded that applying the methodology of Ḥadīth scholars in the grading of narrators of Prophetic and other traditions, is specific to the Ḥadīth domain. In contrast, this is not applicable to the domain of canonical variant readings. The morning session continued with a lecture by Professor Ghanim Qaddouri Alhamad on “Manuscripts with unknown authors: Importance and treatment: Qur’ānic science texts as an example”. The lecturer and topic were introduced by Dr Ahmad al-Dubayyan. Professor Alhamad began his lecture by clarifying the concept of the unknown, whether relating to author or title, and emphasised the importance of the topic. He proceeded to limit the scope of his lecture to manuscripts with unknown author, addressing the position of cataloguers regarding manuscripts whose authors were unknown, evidenced by the amount of unknown manuscripts, amounting to a third, in al-Fihris al-Shāmil; he also spoke of the requirements of cataloguers, editors and researchers regarding manuscripts; finally, he proposed a practical example of how to treat a manuscript of unknown authorship.

Day 4: Thursday, 3 March 2016 Morning Session: the fourth day began with a lecture by Dr Tawfiq al-Abqari, titled “Editing the Qur’ān canonical readings text: Comprehension of authoritative link to origin and contexts of revelation”. The lecturer and topic were introduced by Dr Aziz al-Khatib. The lecture addressed three principal dimensions, including: primary methodological foundations for the areas of editing canonical reading texts; universal principles guiding to an ideal reading of the Qur’ān canonical reading text; finally, common mistakes affecting some editors of the canonical reading text. The lecture was followed by a practical workshop on reading the manuscript, and exploring script and symbols, led by a group of scholars and supervised by Dr Muhammad Said Hinchi. Afternoon Session: the course proceedings on the fourth day continued with two other workshops. The first covered the topic of emendation (taḥrīr), introducing vocalisation marks (ḍabṭ), and collation (muqābalah), led by the instructors including Dr Abdel Aali al-Mudabbar. The second workshop led by Dr Khalid Zahri, covered the topic of creating glosses and commentaries. The methods of developing glosses

The open discussion session held by a group of lecturers

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schools of edition”. This was introduced by Dr Abdel Majid Khayali. Dr al-Dubayyan explained the nature of edition by orientalists by drawing attention to key related matters, including: • The diverse motives of orientalists in studying and editing Arabic heritage. • The orientalists must be given due credit for the scientific research they undertook, especially that relating to critical edition. • The Arabs had by far preceded the orientalists in critical edition. • Contemporary Arabs had benefited from a number of books published on critical edition by the orientalists, well before eminent Arab editors had published their textbooks, such as Abdel Salam Harun, al-Munajjid, and others. Dr al-Dubayyan also drew attention to the influence of the Arabic language on the Torah and Bible and discussed the evolution of orientalism, and the interest in the East and its heritage. Afternoon Session: The training course ended with an open discussion led by a group of lecturers, including Professor Bashar Awwad Marouf, Dr Ghanim Qaddouri Alhamad, and Dr Khalid Zahri, and was chaired by Dr Abdel Hamid Ashaq. The researchers participating in this session were able to seek academic advice on those problems and issues they face in their research and critical editions. During the closing ceremony words of appreciation and gratitude were exchanged by the two course organising bodies, Professor Bashar Awwad Marouf, Fouad bin Houssaine Boulfaf and Dr Amal al-‘Ashmawi. The course certificates, as well as a special qualification from Professor Bashar Awwad Marouf, were given to the delegates.

Certificates were granted to those who attended the training course

Afternoon Session: This comprised a practical workshop on the topic of authorship and title verification. This was supervised by several scholars including Dr Fatima Bousalama. This was followed by another workshop dedicated to creating indices and bibliographies, again led by Dr Fatima Bousalama. Practical examples of creating indices and bibliographies were provided. Day 6: Saturday, 5 March 2016 Morning Session: This began with a lecture by the eminent scholar, Professor Bashar Awwad Marouf on “Methodologies for verification of Israelite narrations in books of exegesis”, introduced by Dr Abdel Aali al-Mudabbar. The key points of the lecture were: • A historical summary of the early beginnings of recording exegesis, the famous personas, and the early works to reach us. • Detailed discussion on the Israelite narration: differences between narrations from Jews and Christians; the disagreement among exegesis scholars in citing narrations from Jews and Christians; the opinions of exegesis scholars on the limits of admissibility of narrations transmitted by Jews and Christians; and treatment of those companions and their successors, who transmitted such narrations. • The duty of the editor in clarifying the level of the Israelite narrations, in terms of authenticity or otherwise. Professor Marouf concluded by noticing a lack of interest among editors to clarify the grade and distinguish Israelite narrations from fabricated narrations. The morning session ended with a lecture by Dr Ahmad al-Dubayyan on “The Arabic and orientalist

A group photo of all participants during the training course

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The Third Training Course on Codicology:

The practical sessions consisted of analysing and describing selected Arabic manuscripts found in the collection of the Royal Library of San Lorenzo Monastery in El Escorial, one of the most important collections of Arabic manuscripts in Europe, and the largest in Spain. Participants were divided into groups and given manuscripts to analyse in accordance with the elements studied in the morning theoretical sessions, i.e. type of paper, type of script, documentary notes, illuminations, etc. They were asked to present the findings of their analysis to the other participants and professors, under the guidance of Professor François Déroche and Professor Nuria Martínez-de-Castilla. The Arabic manuscript collection at the Royal Library in El Escorial, founded by Philip II around 1565, includes valuable volumes, such as the autograph copy of the Lubāb al-Muḥaṣṣal fī Uṣūl alDīn (Gist of the Compendium of the Principles of Theology) by Ibn Khaldūn in 752 A.H./1351 A.D., which was shown to the participants during one of the practical sessions in the Library; a copy of Kitāb al-Maqāmāt by al-Ḥarīrī, transcribed during the life of its author in 483 A.H./1090 A.D., and many other valuable titles. The Course started on Monday morning, 18 July, with the welcoming words of the Course Director, Professor Nuria Martínez-de-Castilla-Muñoz, the Course Co-ordinator, Mr Carlos Leo Roca, and the representative of Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, Ms Karima Benaicha, Head of the Library and Online Database Department, who thanked the participants and gave them a brief introduction on the Foundation’s main activities and centres.

«Arabic Codicology: The Islamic Manuscript Heritage in the El Escorial Collection»

The Centre for the Study of Islamic Manuscripts at Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, in co-operation with Fundación General de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, organised the third training course on codicology, titled “Arabic Codicology: The Islamic Manuscript Heritage in the El Escorial Collection”.

Professor Déroche and a group of participants at El Escorial Library

The course took place from the 18th to the 22nd of July 2016, at San Lorenzo de El Escorial (situated 45km north-west of the capital Madrid, Spain), within the framework of the Complutense University Summer Courses. The course was attended by 18 selected delegates coming from different countries (including Morocco, the United Kingdom, Lebanon, the United States of America, Spain, Tunisia, France, the Philippines, Denmark and Canada) and specialised in different subject areas involving research on Arabic manuscripts. This year, the course was taught by Professor François Déroche and Professor Nuria Martínez-de-Castilla-Muñoz (also Director of the Course). The Course was structured in theoretical and practical sessions. The theoretical sessions provided an overall introduction to the science of codicology of Islamic Manuscripts, with particular focus on the basic elements of a manuscript, including the material of the codex (whether paper, parchment or papyrus), the type of binding, the foliation and quires of the codex, as well as the types of script and the main elements of the paratext including the title page, the colophon and the documentary notes.

Professor François Déroche with students during the workshops

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The Twelfth Training Course on the Philosophy of Islamic Law:

«Objectives (Maqāṣid) of the Noble Qurʾān»(2)

A group photo of all participants in front of El Escorial Library

The first lecture was delivered by Professor Nuria Martínez-de-Castilla-Muñoz, who introduced the history of the Arabic manuscript collection at the Royal Library of San Lorenzo Monastery in El Escorial. This was followed by general remarks on the whole collection of manuscripts at the Royal Library, by the Director of the Library, José Luis del Valle Merino. Professor François Déroche then continued with a lecture on writing surfaces (parchment and paper). The first day ended with a presentation titled “Al-Furqan Digital Library Portal: World Islamic manuscript collections, catalogues and written heritage resources” delivered by Ms Karima Benaicha. During the morning sessions of the following days of the Course, Professor François Déroche delivered lectures on the following topics: the basis of codex composition, inks and lay-out, Arabic palaeography, decoration of manuscripts, Arabic bindings, notes and colophons, and history of manuscripts. Professor Nuria Martínez-de-Castilla-Muñoz integrated the lectures with comments and remarks on each topic. In addition, Alison Ohta, curator at the Royal Asiatic Society and participant on the course, presented a paper on Mamluk bindings, during the session on bindings. The course ended on Friday 22 July, with the delivery of certificates to the participants. It was concluded with speeches by Professor Nuria Martínez-de-Castilla and Ms Karima Benaicha, who thanked the attendees for their active participation on the course and exchange of their experiences as researchers of the Islamic written heritage. She also thanked the Complutense University Summer Courses and the El Escorial Library for hosting the event for the third consecutive year.

The inaugural session of the training course

The training course on the philosophy of Islamic law addressing the “Objectives of the Noble Qurʾān” (Part 2) was held at Avanti Hotel in Mohammedia, Morocco, over the course of two days, 4 – 5 May 2016. The course was organised by the Centre for the Study of the Philosophy of Islamic Law at Al-Furqān, in partnership with the Maqasid Research & Studies Centre (Rabat), and the Department of Islamic Studies, Faculty of Letters & Humanities in Mohammedia. The inaugural session, chaired by Dr Nour al-Din al-Khadimi, began with a recitation from the Noble Qurʾān. Welcome speeches were then given by Dr Idris Mansuri, President of Mohammed V University in Casablanca, Dr Rachida Nafi’, Dean of the Faculty of Letters & Humanities (Mohammedia), Dr Ahmed al-Raissouni, Director of the Maqasid Research & Studies Centre, and Mr Sali Shahsivari, Managing Director of Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation. The Chair, Dr Nour al-Din al-Khadmi, also spoke on behalf of the lecturers. The session concluded with the award of memorial shields to the organisers by a delegation from Sri Lanka.

Part of one of the sessions

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around disputation over the concept of divine justice, while the issues around human justice received quite limited attention. Dr El-Awa then laid the evidential foundation for the objective of justice, as taken from the Noble Qurʾān. He clarified the concept, and gave examples. Furthermore, he discussed the sayings of knowledgeable scholars on the topic. In his comments, Dr al-Raissouni principally added key statements extracted from the Islamic heritage regarding the importance of the objective of justice in urbanisation (al-‘umrān), legislation (al-tashrī‘), wealth (al-amwāl), and others. The delegates were then given the opportunity to interact with the lecturers, and discuss the content of these first two lectures. Dr Mohamed Salim El-Awa then chaired the second session, which comprised a paper on: “The objective of preserving security in the Noble Qurʾān”. This was presented by Dr Abd al-Karim alHamidi, and commented upon by Dr Abd al-Nur Bazza. The lecturer substantiated the argument, by presenting evidence, that keeping the peace or assuring security was an objective of Islamic law. He explained that this was inclusive of the diverse aspects of human life, whether through religion, politics, governance, thought, sociology, etc. The second paper in this session, “Da‘wah objectives in the Noble Qurʾān”, was delivered by Dr Nour al-Din al-Khadimi, with commentary by Dr Ahmed Kafi. Dr al-Khadmi detailed the Qurʾānic perspective on Da‘wah or proselytising. He explained its aims, instruments, and objectives (maqāṣid) in the individual, collective, public or private spheres. The audience then discussed some of the points raised in the two papers and associated commentaries.

The event took place at the Avanti Hotel in Mohammedia, Morocco

The first session of the course, chaired by Mr Sali Shahsivari and consisting of two lectures, started immediately after the welcome speeches. The first lecture was prepared and delivered jointly by Dr Mohamed Salim El-Awa and Dr Ahmed alRaissouni. It was titled: “Why two courses on the objectives of the Noble Qurʾān, and what is the difference between the objectives of the Noble Qurʾān and the objectives of Islamic Law?” In their speech, the two lecturers linked this training course with its predecessor. They explained that the first course on the objectives of the Noble Qurʾān had focused on theoretical aspects, while the present one focused on other special elements. They also emphasised the pressing need for continued research into the objectives of the Noble Qurʾān, which could not be covered by one or more training courses. Indeed, drawing people’s attention to the ever-renewing facts of the Noble Qurʾān required expanded and continued treatment through similar training courses that open the horizons for research and reflection. Subsequently, distinction was made between Qurʾānic and legislative objectives. It was stressed that from the terminological perspective, the objectives of Islamic law represented a subset of the Noble Qurʾān objectives. Indeed, the objectives of Islamic law focused on the practicalities linked to application, while Qurʾānic objectives addressed both these practical points and other matters. The second lecture, “The objective of justice in the Noble Qurʾān”, was delivered by Dr Mohamed Salim El-Awa, with commentary by Dr Ahmed al-Raissouni. Dr El-Awa emphasised that the debate on the concept of justice in Islamic thought had been dominated by expanded treatment of theological issues. These revolved principally

Part of Dr. Mohammed Salim El-Awa’s lecture

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The first part of the third session was both delivery and commentary by Dr Umar Jadiyyah of Dr Ahmed Hasan Farhat’s paper, titled “The effect of the Qurʾān’s organisation in explaining the objectives of the Divine Names and Attributes”. Subsequently, “The objectives (maqāṣid) related to creed (‘aqīdah) in the Noble Qurʾān: a reading into the methodological and knowledge framework”, was delivered by Dr Moulay al-Moustafa al-Hind, with commentary by Dr Abd al-Azim al-Saghiri. The first day’s sessions concluded with discussion and exchange over the various topics raised in the papers and companion commentaries. The second day of the training course, Thursday 5 May, began with the fourth session, chaired by Dr Moulay Umar bin Hammad. The first paper, “The objective (maqṣad) of reform (iṣlāḥ) as derived from the Qurʾān”, was presented by Dr Zayd Bousha’ra, with commentary by Dr Wael al-Harithi. The second paper, titled “The edification (tarbiyah) objectives of stories in the Qurʾān: the story of Luqman al-Ḥakīm, as an example”, was delivered by Dr Ahmed Nasri, with commentary by Dr Jamilah Tilut. The fifth session, chaired by Dr al-Tuhami Majuri, comprised the paper: “A methodological introduction to the map of the universal objectives (al-maqāṣid al-kulliyyah) in the Noble Qurʾān”, by Dr al-Tayyib Barghouth, with commentary by Dr Mohamed Awwam. The sixth and final session, chaired by Dr al-Tayyib Bargouth, was an open discussion with a panel formed of Dr Mohamed Salim El-Awa, Dr Ahmed al-Raissouni, and Dr Nour al-Din Khadimi. These knowledgeable scholars made observations regarding some of the methodological aspects of the papers and commentaries, as well as answering questions from the participants. In particular, they urged the application of

A group photo of all the participants

diverse methodological approaches in the treatment of the papers. They also emphasised the need to modify university teaching, so that lessons in legal theory (uṣūl), jurisprudence (fiqh), and objectives of Islamic law (maqāṣid) would be more productive. The final session comprised speeches by the organising committees, the participating lecturers and participants. This was followed by the award of certificates, and statement of the course recommendations, including: The participants’ strong endorsement and petition for: • A third training course next year on the objectives of the Noble Qurʾān. • A training course on the objectives of the Prophetic tradition, so as to fully treat the explanation of the revelation. • A training course on the objectives of the family and edification (tarbiyah). • A training course on the jurisprudence (fiqh) of wealth (al-amwāl) and dealings/transactions (al-mu‘āmalāt). • A training course regarding the Prophetic practices. • Publication of an encyclopaedia on the objectives of the Noble Qurʾān. • Publication of an encyclopaedia on the terminology of objectives (maqāṣid), legislation (tashrī‘), and Qurʾān. • Workshops to reflect on the methodology for applying the objectives of the Qurʾān, and research into the means to stimulate them. • A periodical or journal specifically on objectives (maqāṣid). • Publication of distinguished papers as individual monographs. • Laying the foundation for the discipline of objectives of creed (‘aqīdah), on the basis of the Noble Qurʾān. • Opening the way and facilitating the participation of researchers in such training courses. • Regular training courses on the issues related to minorities in Asia.

Dr al-Khadimi presenting a certificate to one of the participants

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Symposia Symposium under the title: «The Arts in Light of the Objectives (Maqāṣid) of Islamic Law»

tanzīl), based on an inclusive vision, shying away from individual initiatives in favour of collective intellectual effort. He then articulated some observations relating to scholarly efforts in this domain. Dr Essam Albashir concluded by urging a shift in jurisprudence from recession to revival, in the treatment of the arts, in its Divine basis, moral essence, and human horizon. Subsequently, Dr Noureddine Khadimi presided over the first session, beginning with Dr Ahmed al-Raissouni’s paper titled “The arts issue in Maqāṣid-based reasoning through approaches of characterisation (takyīf) and employment (tawẓīf)”. In the paper, Dr al-Raissouni explained the concepts of characterisation (takyīf) and employment (tawẓīf), then presenting and analysing the spectrum of characterisations of the arts, as well as determining their identity, as follows:

H.E. Professor Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu welcomed the attendees

The Centre for the Study of the Philosophy of Islamic law at Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation organised a symposium titled “Arts in light of the Objectives (Maqāṣid) of Islamic Law”, on Saturday and Sunday, 5 - 6 November 2016, at Wyndham Grand Istanbul Europe Hotel.

the arts considered as: (i) amusement; (ii) crafts and livelihood; (iii) decoration and aesthetic performances; (iv) a form of depravity, hedonism, and sinfulness; (v) means; and (vi) a primordial human need – the last being the least addressed in scholarly work, despite being the most demanded in practice, considering that art is a need embedded in the human soul. After articulating these characterisations, he tackled the employment approaches documented in the past, explaining the diverse aims, including religious, national, social and psychological. Indeed, employment featured as a key element influencing the rulings on art. It follows that inappropriate employment of the arts resulted in rulings of prohibition; this is understood from the statements of erudite religious leaders, like Imām Mālik, Imām Aḥmad, and Imām al-Nawawī.

The Symposium opened with a recitation from the Noble Qur’ān, followed by a welcome speech delivered by H.E. Professor Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu, member of the Board of Directors at Al-Furqān Foundation. Professor İhsanoğlu elucidated the relationship between Islam and the arts, and the influence of other cultures on Islamic arts. He was followed by the speech of Mr Sali Shahsivari, Managing Director of AlFurqān Foundation who emphasised the importance of the subject of the arts, which had not received its deserved share of scholarship and research, due to its sensitivity. He also explained that the symposium’s significance lay in highlighting the importance of the arts from a Maqāṣid-based perspective. He then stressed the need of working towards promoting and utilising the objectives of Islamic law in the arts sphere, in addition to putting the arts in the service of Islamic law objectives. Following these opening speeches, Dr Essam Albashir gave a broad and comprehensive speech outlining the symposium. He began by mentioning the need to grant the question of arts due attention, given its importance and consequences, in terms of referral to principal sources (al-ta’ṣīl) or correct application (al-

Dr Mutaz Alkhatib commented on Dr Ahmed al-Raissouni’s paper

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Dr Mutaz Alkhatib commented on the paper. He began by saying that writings on the arts were active in the late 19th century. However, in the 20th century, the concept of art was granted an elevated value. He then moved on to speak about the arts domain in the present day, considering that art had ceased to be a quest for beauty, and became the pursuit of ideas. From this perspective, Dr Alkhatib called for the necessary awareness of such changes in concepts.

Dr Essam Talima

Dr Idham Mohammed Hanash delivered the second presentation of this session, on the topic of “Jurisprudence (fiqh) of beauty: The Maqāṣid of Islamic art from juristic characterisation (al-takyīf) to referral to principle sources of knowledge (al-ta’ṣīl)”. He began by speaking about art as a medium to the discipline of aesthetics. He explained that art was a human practice performed by anybody. He emphasised the need to consider art as an epistemological foundation within the realm of Islamic reasoning. Dr Idham proposed a Maqāṣidbased system composed of Divine objectives, which are: the epistemological essence of the sciences of logic, law, Islamic law, and jurisprudence; ethical objectives, which are: the epistemological essence of the disciplines of ethics, edification, and behaviour; and the aesthetic objectives, which are: the epistemological essence of the discipline of aesthetics and philosophy of art.

Dr Essam Talima commented on this paper, pointing to the importance of Prophetic tradition (Sunnah) in establishing the epistemological basis of art, and the relationship of politics to art. He then spoke of the necessity of indicating the backgrounds and rationale of the prohibition of some types of art, in order to understand jurisprudential characterisation (al-takyīf). Dr Fathi Hassan Malkawi presided over the second session, which began with the delivery by Mr Ayman Mohammed Adib of the paper, “Saving the primordial human nature (Fiṭrah)... The Maqāṣid sense as a social structure”, co-authored with Dr Mazen Hashem. Mr Adib emphasised the necessity of looking to the Qur’ān as a self-sustaining universe. He stressed the need for abandoning the approach of simplification, characterising the modernist era, away from the logic of simple formulae and dogmatic responses. Furthermore, Mr Adib explained that art is a tool for developing the senses through true engagement, such that it is transformed into a natural trait able to see Islam quite finely from this perspective, a nature that is drawn to beauty at each step, and detests profligacy as much as stagnation. Living with the Noble Qur’ān, living with art, and living with nature, are all interdependent elements that help the human being defend the remnants of the primordial human nature in himself, and to develop them in face of a materialist trend driving it to the abyss.

The lecturer expanded on the explanation of beauty (al-ḥasan) as an objective, emphasising that it is a natural objective from among those objectives of the primordial human nature and creation, a rite of worship among those devoted to sincere monotheism (al-tawḥīd); a human endeavour among those relating to life, relationship, and urbanisation; and an aesthetic epistemological feature among those features of thought and construction. Hence, he defined the jurisprudence of beauty (al-ḥasan) as the Islamic epistemology of the philosophy of beauty. Moreover, he invited jurists to solicit the assistance of aesthetics experts and scholars in their fatwas.

Mr Wanis al-Mabrook commented upon the paper, commending its depth and novelty, yet criticising the concept of “structure”, as proposed in the paper. He recommended linking these issues to some of the thorny issues of the past, regarding rational judgement of beauty and ugliness. The second presentation of this session was on the topic of “The universal language of Islamic art” by Dr Minwer Thamir Elmeheid in which he highlighted the link of Islamic art to divine geometry based on the golden proportions. He indicated its manifestations

The symposium was attended by many esteemed scholars and researchers specialized on Maqāṣid

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in the phenomena of the universe and nature that were wisely created by God, as carriers of meaning, and signs evidencing God’s Majesty and awesome power. In his presentation, Dr Minwer alluded to the fact that in all civilisations the most perfect shape is the circle, because it is based on the matter of the centre and radiating to its surroundings. He explained that the circle appears in existence in different sizes and dimensions, both infinitely minute as well as infinitely large in breadth and depth.

Dr Recep Şentürk

Dr Heba Raouf Ezzat commented on this presentation, focusing on the higher foundations and concepts on which the paper was based, most prominently, the concept of primordial human nature, its manifestations and representations, as well as the concept of testimony (shahādah), creation, orbit, balance, and distribution.

Dr Ahmed clarified the development of calligraphy, and praised the role of Ibn Muqlah in developing and refining this discipline. He also studied the letters, stopping at the letter alif, and its relationship with the geometric dot. This was followed by a presentation by Dr Recep Şentürk, titled “The spirit of religious architecture: The example of Suleymaniye Mosque”. He clarified that the art of Islamic architecture contains all aspects of existence as well as metaphysical symbols, as embodied in the architectural heritage and combining beauty and symbolism. From this viewpoint, the architectural historical object has a symbolic and internalised existence, underlying the image witnessed by the naked eye and symbolic language bearing different meanings.

Dr Heba dwelt on the concept of expansion and its association with the universe, asking whether the universe was indeed expanding. She also posed the question on the relationship of the geometric proportions with the science of inheritance. Dr Heba also pondered over some examples that clarify the relationship between art and geometric proportions in architecture, represented by the Noble Ka‘bah.

Dr Şentürk studied the example of the Suleymaniye Mosque to review these aesthetic meanings and the reflection of Sufi symbols on the architectural elements of Ottoman mosques. This was based on the writings of the architect - Mimar Sinan - of the Suleymaniye Mosque, through which he arrived at the Ottoman architectural philosophy with its origin in pure Islamic Sufism. This brings this architectural form into a harmonious relationship with the heritage of the past, while seeking to integrate and complement the present.

Dr Heba Raouf Ezzat presided over the third of the Symposium’s sessions, which began with a presentation by Dr Ahmed Moustafa titled “The objectives of Islamic law (Sharī‘ah) and geometry of letters as receptacles of Divine immanence”. Dr Ahmed dwelt on the science of calligraphy, emphasising that this is the primary art of Islam. He evidenced this in that Islam’s Book to all mankind was in Arabic. Furthermore, he clarified the importance of geometric laws, considering these as Divine.

Dr Omar Jadia commenting on one of the papers

Dr Heba Raouf Ezzat commented on Dr Minwer Elmeheid’s presentation

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context in which these values and expressions are articulated. He concluded that Islamic arts may be defined as: “values and their expression, through the vision of Islam, to benefit mankind, in context, with beauty and creativity”. He then moved on to speak about the role of Islamic law texts and objectives in elevating the arts, while dwelling upon the dialectic of the arts and objectives of Islamic law. He concluded that the arts may be classified as improvements (taḥsīniyyah) on one hand, and needs (ḥājiyyah) on the other. He also alluded to the fact that the arts may also be considered as matters of necessity (ḍarūriyyah) in some instances.

Dr Ibrahim Elbayomi Ghanem

Dr Ibrahim Elbayomi Ghanem commented upon this paper. He commended its high level and depth, and pondered over the state of architecture today, and why such artistic greatness had waned. He also reflected upon the philosophy of Mimar Sinan. On the second day of the Symposium, Dr Essam Albashir presided over the fourth session. The session’s first paper was titled “Arts and the objectives of Islamic law (Maqāṣid): The arts that serve Maqāṣid, and the Maqāṣid that serve the arts” by Dr Noureddine Khadimi. He began by emphasising that the sphere of Islamic knowledge had not risen to the level of sufficient grasp of the question of the arts, in terms of its wide concept, components, and related elements. Moreover, in the sphere of Islamic activism (Da‘wah), artistic performance had not reached the level to respond to its requirements and challenges. In addition, in the sphere of the Islamic society, the integrated artistic and cultural project had yet to be articulated. Dr al-Khadimi emphasised the necessity of establishing the arts policy of the state, similar to health, development, security, and other policies. He also recommended interest in the issue of the arts as one of the vital and sovereign matters of state.

Dr Seif al-Din Abdul Fattah participating in the debate

This paper was commented upon by Dr Abdelmajid al-Najjar, who explained that enjoying beauty is a need ingrained within the primordial human nature, and indeed, the Qur’ān denounces those who forbid aesthetic enjoyment. Dr al-Najjar pointed to a number of positive aspects within the paper, including the broadening of the concept of art, to include both emotive and moral beauty. He also indicated that the paper had expanded on the matter of the art serving Islamic law objectives, while falling short on the matter of Islamic law objectives serving the arts, in addition to the limited referencing of both Qur’ān and prophetic tradition, as well as the absence of discussion on historical experience to build upon.

Following this introduction, Dr al-Khadimi proposed a broad conceptualisation of the arts; one inclusive of values and meanings, as well as the form of their expression, and subsequently the

The second presentation in the session was titled “The problematic relationship of the fine arts with the objectives (Maqāṣid) of Islamic law” by Dr Ibrahim Albayomi Ghanem. In this paper, Dr Ghanem emphasised that the problematic issue of the arts is complex, with dimensions in application, practice, and behaviour. He emphasised that the arts are an original element within the Islamic vision of

Dr Noureddine Alkhadimi

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objective of monotheism (Tawḥīd) in Islamic art: The theory of Ismā’īl al-Fārūqī” was delivered by Dr Fathi al-Malkawi. In the presentation, he explained the employment of Islamic law objectives, and the instances when it had suffered misunderstanding due to improper employment. He revealed some of the consequences of this matter on the issue of the arts in Islamic thought and Islamic practice. Dr al-Malkawi presented Ismā’īl al-Fārūqī as an important model of novel juristic effort (ijtihād) on the arts question. Indeed, al-Fārūqī emphasised the role of monotheism (tawḥīd) in framing Islamic art, as part of his project of “reforming Islamic knowledge”. In this respect, Dr al-Malkawi highlighted a number of the aspects of distinction in al-Fārūqī’s treatment of the arts question.

Mr Ahmed Keeler highlighted the rise and decline of Modern Arts

life, and that they are neither complementary nor emergent. He proposed the founding of fine arts faculties in the Islamic universities, in order to break the secularism practised by Islamists themselves. He also suggested benefitting from some of the main theories prevailing in the West.

Dr Raed Okasha commented on this presentation by focusing on the idea of frame of reference and its role within al-Fārūqī’s theory related to the art adhering to Islamic practice. In addition, Dr Okasha distinguished between the artistic discourse on art, which is the area of distinction of Lamyā’ al-Fārūqī, and the epistemological discourse on art, as the area of distinction of Ismā’īl al-Fārūqī.

Dr Hasan Jaber commented upon this paper, highlighting points of ambiguity in some areas. Furthermore, he questioned whether there was Islamic art and human art. He postulated that the definition of art is connected to the human spirit. He also explained that Islamic law objectives are linked to values embedded within the human spirit, as these are part of God’s creation of the human being. It is this, in his opinion, that lends weight to the human character of the arts. He concluded by saying that there is a common criterion for aesthetic judgement amongst mankind. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the rules for human art to confront shared challenges.

This was followed by the presentation by Dr Wasfy Ashur Abu Zayd titled “Al- Qaraḍāwī’s opinions on the arts: An inductive, analytical, Maqāṣid-based reading”. In the paper, Dr Abu Zayd followed up and applied induction to the work of Shaykh Yusuf alQaradawi on the issue of the arts within his different writings. He presented some of the artistic works produced by Shaykh al-Qaradawi in the domain of the arts, namely plays and poetry. He then explored a number of issues related to the arts in the writings and literature of Shaykh al-Qaradawi, moving on to analyse his opinions and the extent these are governed by Islamic law objectives in the issue of the arts.

During the fifth session of the symposium, presided over by Dr Recep Şentürk, the paper titled “Modern art and Islam” was delivered by Mr Ahmed Paul Keeler, in which he spoke of the history and development of art. He explained the dominance of the humanist perspective of the world, which came as a substitute for the perspective of the sacred, as was the case in Christianity. He then presented the trend in the development of art, that documented the cruelty, chaos, and brutality that swept the world during the last century, and the elevation of man from the human to the divine space. In the sixth session presided over by Dr Ahmed alRaissouni, the paper titled “Manifestations of the

Part of the audience

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o Seeking to publish a promotional guide to the different types of known arts and their historical background, and linking this to examples and names of workers in our Islamic heritage — if any. ● Calling for future specialist symposia to discuss the most prominent and influential contemporary arts, alongside experts in these. ● Proposing the establishment of fine arts faculties in Islamic universities. ● Establishing study curricula in the arts from the perspective of Islamic law objectives. ● Holding meetings and workshops on the philosophy and objectives of architecture. ● Publishing a simplified promotional booklet on the Maqāṣid, architectural and aesthetic content, for the benefit of architecture and fine arts faculties. ● Launching a project of an encyclopaedia on the jurisprudence of the arts, as a source for a syllabus to be proposed to universities, ministries, and knowledge institutions. ● The addition of a chapter “jurisprudence of the arts” to be taught within the subject of “Islamic jurisprudence” at faculties of Islamic law. ● Forming a diverse team to formulate a strategy in the arts domains from the perspective of Islamic law objectives, including the obligatory referral to original sources, and proposing work plans for promotion and operationalisation. ● Enabling imams, orators, Islamic callers, thought leaders, and others in Europe to benefit from the outcomes of the Symposium. ● Petitioning all regional and international organisations and bodies to protect heritage in general, and arts heritage in particular, in light of the indiscriminate targeting of Arab urban centres. The Symposium activities ended on Sunday evening, 6 November 2016, with an evening of artistic performances. All praise is to God through Whose Bounty good works are complete.

Dr Hanash participating in the open disscussion

This paper was commented upon by Dr Essam Albashir, who opined that the title did not reflect the content, because the paper addressed the art of Imam al-Qaradawi and his opinions on art. He proposed the following title “The arts in the view of Shaykh al-Qaradawi: vision and application”. Dr Albashir was also critical of the paper, emphasising the predominance of the descriptive, and the absence of analysis and criticism. After the symposium presentations were completed, an open session was convened, with a panel comprising: Dr Ahmed al-Raissouni, Dr Essam Albashir, and Dr Ibrahim Albayomi Ghanem, in which the level, subject matter, and current relevance of the symposium was commended. This was followed by a final session, where the concluding speech was given by Mr Sali Shahsivari, Managing Director of Al-Furqān Foundation, and then a speech from the Organising Committee, delivered by Mr Mohamed Drioueche, followed by a reading of the Symposium recommendations. The recommendations included: ● Convening another symposium on the same topic, so as to secure full treatment of the subject matter. ● Stimulating the means of moving from a jurisprudence based on referral to principal sources (ta’sīl) to a jurisprudence of grasping the initiative and characterisation, using different means, including: o Launching a website or magazine on Islamic arts in order to encourage research in the art domains. o Establishing an award for innovation and Islamic arts. o Contributing to the issue of fatwas based on Maqāṣid criteria to assist arts practitioners.

A group photo of all participants taken on the final day of the Symposium

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Recent Publications days of his life during his residence in Cairo. Within the study prepared by the editor, we find notes stating that this represents only one third of the book; later copies have been used to help making choices, resolving the problematic elements, and filling the gaps wherever text was absent.

«Bughyat al-Ṭalab fī Tārīkh Ḥalab»

(The History of Aleppo)

by ʿUmar ibn Aḥmad ibn Hibat Allāh Kamāl al-Dīn ibn al-ʿAdīm (660 A.H. / 1262 C.E.) Edited by Al-Mahdi Eid al-Rawadieh

«Kitāb al-Tajrīd fī Uṣūl al-Handasah» (Abridgement of the Elements of Geometry) by Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad al-Nasawī Edited by Mustafa Mawaldi

The book at hand is distinguished in that it draws together a variety of disciplines in different fields of knowledge and the arts. Its main topic are the biographies of eminent personalities and intellectuals in the various scientific and humanistic sciences, as well as political figures and men of power with a connection to the region of Aleppo, whether by residence, or simply in transit. The book covers various fields of knowledge, including the religious sciences, narrations of Prophetic tradition (Ḥadīth), and works of literature, presented in prose or poetry. It features descriptions of towns and the countryside, especially the area situated to the north of the Levant, and it documents a long period of Islamic history. The benefit and importance of this book is apparent for historians, on the one hand, due to the originality of its content, and as a unique source of considerable information and accounts that are not found elsewhere; on the other hand, due to the methodology adopted in the criticism of narrations and texts to establish the correct information regarding events and facts. The author of this book, Kamāl al-Dīn Ibn al-‘Adīm, was among the most eminent historians of his time. Indeed, he is one of three aides, who contributed - directly and indirectly to the smuggling of manuscripts and their rescue from loss and damage following the events witnessed by the area during the Mongol invasion of the mid-seventh century Hijrī. Indeed, Ibn al-‘Adīm, Yāqūt al-Ḥamawī, and alWazīr Jamāl al-Dīn al-Qafṭiy, copied and included in their authored works long parts and numerous excerpts from books, literary works, and diaries - in the field of biographies especially - that were lost at the time; thus, they brought them back to light and informed the following generations of their subject matter and content. This edition benefited from the remnants of the author’s handwritten originals; namely, the copy that accompanied the author in the last

The work, Kitāb al-tajrīd fī uṣūl al-handasah, is one of the key heritage sources for students of geometrical sciences, especially since the contributions of its author, Abū al-Ḥasan ‘Alī b. Aḥmad al-Nasawī, have attracted special international recognition. The book lays the foundation for a practical geometry of Arab origin, covering discrete shapes (i.e. theories), which are independent from each other, leading to easy comprehension and assimilation. This geometry provides proofs in the domain of area and measurement, and establishes the roots of all principal human crafts. The work represents an important introduction leading to a more profound insight into the science of geometry, making it accessible to a wide range of people, while remaining simple enough for craftsmen. Al-Nasawī presented these forms using an approach defined by simplification, use of easy language, and comprehensible and robust proofs. The importance of the book is manifested in the methodology adopted by al-Nasawī in the presentation and flow of logically-connected scientific topics. Hence, he was able to construct a practical geometrical framework that served the aim for which the book was authored. In this work, al-Nasawī principally treated the topic of shapes composed of straight lines, and those theories related to the circle. He also covered the question of the circle, whether inscribed or circumscribed, in relation to regular shapes. In addition, he addressed the matter of proportion, applying the ratio theorem mainly to plane and three-dimentional Euclidean geometrical shapes, and others.

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support this by citing from the large number of Arab poetic verses retained in his memory. Despite the small size of this work, it has had a clear and beneficial effect on later scholars who applied themselves to explaining al-Muwaṭṭa’, particularly those from alMaghrib and al-Andalus, as well as their successors in the Eastern part of the Muslim world.

«Tafsīr Gharīb al-Muwaṭṭaʾ»

(Intepretation of Unfamiliar Words in Al-Muwaṭṭaʾ)

by Aḥmad ibn ʿUmrān, known as al-Akhfash (d. before 250 A.H./ 864 C.E.) Edited by Taha bin Ali Bousrih al-Tounisi and Aroua bint Mohamed al Mokhtar al Lafi

«Perspectives on the Methodologies of Critical Editing of Arabic Manuscripts» Prepared by Bashar Awwad Marouf

This important work is considered one of the first and oldest books that has offered a general explanation of “alMuwaṭṭa’”, in specifically addressing the obscure terms within. The erudite scholar, al-Akhfash, authored this explanatory text aligned to the prevailing culture of the time. In this, he was aided by his broad knowledge of the Qur’ān and Prophetic tradition (Sunnah), and mastery of the literary arts, namely language, poetry, etc. The importance of this book lies in the illustrious place alMuwaṭṭa’ occupies in the hearts of Muslims generally, and jurists and Ḥadīth scholars in particular. It is also due to the stature of Mālik b. Anas, author of al-Muwaṭṭa’, who is widely recognised as an eminent and outstanding scholar for his knowledge and memory of the traditions of God’s Messenger—God’s peace and blessing be upon him. In turn, the author of Tafsīr gharīb al-Muwaṭṭa’ is a unique personality, considered one of the most prominent scholars of his time. He is a master of syntax and language, faithful narrator of Prophetic tradition, and mostly famous for his commentary of al-Muwaṭṭa’. Tafsīr gharīb al-Muwaṭṭa’ comprises explanations of obscure terms from al-Muwaṭṭa’, which the author selected from the beginning of the text to the end. However, he did not adhere to the order of chapters of al-Muwaṭṭa’. He began with the chapter, Kitāb wuqūt al-ṣalāh, but followed that with Kitāb al-jāmi‘ then Kitāb al-ḥajj. Moreover, alAkhfash did not restrict himself to any specific narration (riwāyah) of al-Muwaṭṭa’, but sometimes discussed a term from the narration of Abū Mus‘ab al-Zuhrī, and at other times, from the narrations of Yaḥyā al-Laythī, or Ibn Bakīr. It is also apparent that Aḥmad b. ‘Umrān only explained those Prophetic traditions (Ḥadīth) in al-Muwaṭṭa’ where an obscure term appears. As such, he did not offer an explanation of the book in its entirety, but presented the word to be explained in the Prophetic tradition, then listed its different meanings, proving his explanation from Qur’ān verses and Prophetic traditions. He would sometimes

This book follows the lecture delivered by one of the major experts in the field of critical editing, Dr Bashar Awwad Marouf, on Wednesday, 2 March 2016, titled “Introduction to Editing Manuscripts”, within the framework of the Tenth Training Course on Editing, organised by Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, in cooperation with Dar alHadith al-Hassania Institute in Rabat. The fundamental premise for organising this lecture was to provide an integrated and comprehensive perspective on the process of editing, by offering an explanation of its most important steps. Dr Marouf presented the most important qualities to be expected in the editor, such as knowledge of the Islamic culture; proficiency in the subject of the edition; knowing how to gather manuscript copies, and selecting the most suitable and genuine ones; unifying orthography by applying contemporary writing norms; organising and emending the text content; clarifying the text with useful comments; and creating indices and bibliographies. The desired outcome should be to identify the true meaning of the text, namely to illustrate the author’s position, and deduce the essence of the content and merits of the text, while explaining the approach to the editing work, with the ultimate goal to represent at best what the author believed and wanted to transmit within the text at the end of his life. In addition to this lecture, the book includes concepts and thoughts from other lectures delivered by Dr Marouf in previous training courses and conferences, as reflected by the title of the book: “Perspectives on the Methodologies for Critical Editing of Arabic Manuscripts”. We hope that students, researchers, and experts in the critical editing of manuscripts will benefit from these important and useful lectures, as well as from Dr Marouf’s extensive experience in this field. 27

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• The Arabic and orientalist schools of edition. • Subject cataloguing of exegesis (tafsīr) textbooks: concept, methodology, and purpose.

«Editing Manuscripts of Qurʾānic Sciences:

Fundamentals, Rules and Problems» (Research Articles)

«Editing Manuscripts on Literature & Language» (Research Articles)

This book presents the proceedings of the 10th Training Course in the field of editing, titled “Editing Manuscripts of Qurʾānic Sciences: Fundamentals, Rules and Problems”, organised by the Centre for the Study of the Philosophy of Islamic Law at AlFurqān, in partnership with Dar al-Hadith al-Hassania Institute (Rabat, Morocco), that took place between 29 February and 5 March 2016, on the premises of Dar al-Hadith al-Hassania Institute in Rabat. In this book, the reader will find all the lectures delivered in the Training Course, addressing different aspects of critical edition, revolving around: • Editing manuscripts on the Qurʾānic sciences, considering the diversity of areas, multiple possibilities, and the editor’s knowledge and culture. • Editing the Qur’ānic text: comprehension of authoritative link to origin and contexts of revelation. • Proposals and views for a robust approach to editing manuscripts in the Qur’ānic and related sciences. • Muṣḥaf manuscripts: aspects of interest, and the position on their research. • Manuscripts of the Mashriqī tradition in the discipline of Qur’ān orthography: introduction and importance. • Investigating attribution: al-Ṭabarānī’s alleged exegesis text as an example. • Manuscripts with unknown authors; importance and treatment: Qur’ānic science texts as an example. • Treatment of Prophetic traditions (Ḥadīth) texts in editing manuscripts on exegesis and Qur’ānic sciences. • Methodologies for verification of Israelite narrations in books of exegesis.

This book contains the proceedings of the 7th Conference on Editing Islamic Manuscripts titled “Editing Manuscripts on Literature and Language”. This conference was organised by the Centre for the Study of Islamic Manuscripts, at Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, and convened at the Foundation’s headquarters in London on 25-26 November 2015. Within the conference themes, the papers addressed: the methodology of critical edition of poetry manuscripts; critical edition of Andalusian poetry manuscripts; problems of critically editing language manuscripts; critical edition of Arabic language manuscripts: Ibn Dahān’s explanation of al-Luma‘ fī al-‘Arabiyyah by Ibn Jinnī as an v; methodologies of authoring and editing language manuscripts: books on horses as an example; Maghribī critical editions of manuscripts in rhetoric (al-balāghah) and criticism (al-naqd): al-Manza‘ al-Badī‘ as an example; and the Būlāq publications on language and literature: an approach to critical edition. The conference secured the participation of around thirty highly qualified and expert delegates in the different disciplines from British and international higher education and heritage institutions. The lectures were presented by a group of leading scholars and critical editors from around the world. Their research and academic papers addressed the reality and aspirations of the manuscript editing movement in the area of literature and language. 28

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«Objectives of the Noble Qurʾān» (1)

savouring Qurʾānic meanings and delving into the profound depth of its universal concepts. Similarly, they will find a set of important organisational, scientific, and methodological recommendations.

(Research Articles)

Edited by Mohamed Salim Elawa

«Objectives of the Noble Qurʾān» (2)

(Research Articles)

Edited by Mohamed Salim Elawa

This book, “Objectives (Maqāṣid) of the Noble Qurʾān”, contains the proceedings of the specialised training course organised by the Centre for the Study of the Philosophy of Islamic Law at Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, in co-operation with the Maqasid Research & Studies Centre (Rabat), and the Faculty of Letters & Humanities Department of Islamic Studies, Mohammed V University (in Rabat), held at the end of May 2015, in Rabat –Morocco. The studies and reviews included in this book treat the different dimensions of the objectives of the Noble Qurʾān, with the emphasis on highlighting Qurʾānic knowledge and revealing its objectives, the need to consider its aims (al-ghāyāt), and an invitation to adopt a holistic perspective, beyond the piecemeal approach. It also addresses the most important methodological rules that structure the path of the scholar of exegesis in clarifying the intent of the Qurʾān, such as rules and techniques of causation (taʿlīl). The reader will also find a foundational perspective for an objectivebased exegesis of the Qurʾān, and case studies in Tafsīr al-Manār, and Tafsīr al-Taḥrīr wa alTanwīr, as attempts to establish an objectivebased law for reference in exegesis. The studies in the book are also diverse, discussing various fields, through the papers titled “The objectives of wealth in the Qurʾān”, “The objective of reforming human thinking”, and others. The reader will find at the end of the book a paper by Dr Ahmed al-Raissouni on the approach of broad contemplation in

This book presents the proceedings of the Second Training Course on “The Objectives of the Noble Qurʾān” organised by the Centre for the Study of the Philosophy of Islamic Law at Al-Furqān, which took place on Wednesday and Thursday, 4-5 May 2016, in the City of Mohammedia (Morocco), in partnership with the Maqāṣid Research & Studies Centre (Rabat), and the Department of Islamic Studies at the Faculty of Letters & Humanities - Hassan II University in Mohammedia. Within the book, the reader will find the papers and commentaries from the Training Course, which addressed several aspects of the objectives of the Noble Qurʾān’ that were not covered in the First Training Course. These revolved around the objective of justice (al-‘adl) and preserving security, as well as the proselytising (da‘wah), creed (‘aqīdah), and edification (tarbiyyah) objectives in the Noble Qurʾān. Furthermore, it addresses the effect of the Qurʾān’s organisation in explaining the objectives of the Divine Names and Attributes, and the objective of reform (iṣlāḥ) taken from the Qurʾān, as well as a methodological introduction to the map of the universal objectives of Islamic law in the Noble Qurʾān. The book concludes with statements by the organising committee and the Course’s recommendations. 29

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«Stem cell treatment: An Approach Based on the Philosophy of Islamic Law»

«Applying the Sharīʿah Objectives in the Daʿwah Sphere»

(Research Articles)

By Abdelghani Yahyaoui

Edited by Esam Ahmed El-Bashir

This book presents a maqāṣid–based field study that acquires significant importance, in addressing a highly technical medical question in the domain of contemporary issues linked to the preservation of self, combating disease, and preventing illness. This is the issue of stem cell treatment, as a topical matter in this time of revolutionary medical advances and rapid pace of scientific discovery. Indeed, jurists and researchers are required to clarify the rulings on these new developments (nawāzil) according to the objectives (maqāṣid) and rules of Islamic law (Sharī‘ah). In the study of this new development, Dr Yahyawi, in his maqāṣid-based study, addresses a problem of wide scope relating to the question: what is the position on stem cell treatment from the perspective of Islamic law? It also raises secondary questions relating to the sources of extraction of stem cells, such as artificial fertilisation and embryo storage, as well as the rulings on cloning and abortion. Indeed, is it permissible to extract stem cells from these sources? What then is the ruling on stem cell extraction from the umbilical cord, placenta, and bone marrow, and their use in the treatment of disease? What are the benefits (maṣāliḥ) secured, and what harms (mafāsid) result, from these types of treatment?

The book “Applying the Objectives of Islamic Law (Maqāṣid) in the Daʿwah Sphere” contains the proceedings of the specialised training course, organised by the Centre for the Study of the Philosophy of Islamic Law at Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, in cooperation with the Islamic Cultural Centre, held in London, in early September 2015. The book includes studies discussing the framework of daʿwah in the West in respect of philosophical, methodological, practical and theoretical approaches, based on the study of the objectives of Islamic law (Maqāṣid al-Sharīʿah). The lectures discuss the foundations, specifications, problems, and questions of daʿwah work, and the most important issues faced by preachers. This book presents a clear analysis of those issues and the possible effective measures. It also examines the horizons, aspirations, conceptions, and procedures of modern approaches and encourages attention to the development of community action that contributes to the success of daʿwah work. This study outlines the need for the application of maqāṣid in this domain for the benefit of the renewal of Islamic law and its development. Emphasis is given to the gradual and wise approach to daʿwah by promoting the values of purification, citizenship, mutual recognition of civilisations, peaceful co-existence, and human fraternal bonding. This approach to daʿwah—individual and collective— is subjected to a working method that is knowledgebased, objective and strategically planned. This method should secure positive outcomes, including the establishment of effective techniques, the renewal of the discourse on maqāṣid and the preventive response against personal bias and emotional reactions in order to shape the model for the expert preacher, competent speaker, proficient Imam, and good adviser. This figure should also aim to transmit to his/her community these ideas by communicating, where possible, in the native tongue of the people to which he/she relates, either for citizenship, residence, culture, and specific interests.

«The Methodological Introduction to the

Map of the Universal Objectives of Islamic Law in the Noble Qurʾān» By Tayeb Berghout

This key lecture proposes important approaches, renewal (tajdīd) initiatives, and serious reflections on the appropriate methodology of engaging with the 30

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objectives of the Noble Qurʾān. In his submission, the lecturer argues that the need is quite pressing, and the time ripe, for establishing the jurisprudence (fiqh) of universal objectives (al-maqāṣid al-kulliyyah) of the Noble Qurān; one distinct from the prevailing piecemeal juristic treatment. He presents the reader with an essential introductory map labelled, “features of the integrated, universal methodological framework” with balanced dimensions, included within the concept of “the straight path” (al-ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm). The author / lecturer describes it as the correct knowledge and practical evidence that guide human action on Earth towards self-consistency, social harmony, and an integration of civilisation and creation, to secure the highest levels of ideological and moral originality, practical effectiveness, functional integration, and maximum, exemplary, historical trajectory. The lecturer emphasises that the Noble Qurʾān will not regain its central position within ourselves, nor have the broad, deep, balanced, and effective influence, without us being able to extract this universal map of the laws of creation drawn for human life, as well as our interaction with it, in comprehensive, deep, and balanced terms, including synchronising our entire life in light of its requirements. This map incorporates the majority of human actions, including: the space of establishing awareness of the objective of the existence of mankind and the universe, and the systems of universal laws organising the movement of human vicegerency on Earth, and the systems of subjugating universal laws of creation, as well as the systems of universal protection for civilisation. The lecturer emphasises that the study and extraction of the universal objectives of the Noble Qurʾān will lead us to identify the reality of this map, far from the emotional, and admonitory trend, on the one hand, and the piecemeal, introverted approach, that is steeped in contradiction.

2016 (26-27 Rajab 1437H). The course was jointly organised by the Centre for the Study of the Philosophy of Islamic Law (London), the Maqasid Research & Studies Centre (Rabat), and the Department of Islamic Studies, Faculty of Letters & Humanities in Mohammedia. The content of this coherent lecture, addressing a topic of singular importance, includes a comprehensive definition of justice, justice from the Qur’ān text, achieving justice through prohibition of injustice, justice in the stories and parables within the Qur’ān, and justice according to the learned scholars. Despite the time restrictions of the course programme, Professor El-Awa skilfully presented the key elements of the topic, and discussed the different facets. He did the topic justice, presenting it in a systematic and consistent formulation, both organised and robust; a clear indication of a massive scientific effort.

«The Objective of Reforming the Human Thinking from the Qurʾanic Perspective» By Mohamed Awwam

The importance of this valuable lecture, “The objective of reforming human thinking from the Qurʾānic perspective”, lies in that it reveals the objective of the Qur’ān in reforming the intellect, as an Islamic legal demand, and original Qur’ānic purpose. The lecture was delivered by Dr Mohammed Awwam within the specialised training course titled “Objectives of the Noble Qur’ān”, organised by the Centre for the Study of the Philosophy of Islamic Law, and held in Rabat - Morocco. The lecture addressed the approaches and outcomes of this reform, through the many issues from diverse contexts raised in the Qur’ān. Another related objective was to instil robust scientific thinking in the Muslim, where evidence and argumentation (al-istidlāl) serve as a unique basis for making choices. The Noble Qur’ān granted thinking great prominence, and addressed this matter as the highest priority, given it is a means to an end, and foundation on which to build. Indeed, without reforming thinking, then life cannot be changed for the better. Therefore, the lecture focused on the following areas of enquiry: reforming human thinking through knowledge, reading, evidencing, and argumentation, exercising evidenced argument and honest debate, invitation to consider and reflect, checking and validating reports, and teaching the proper approach to contrasting and balancing (al-muwāzanah).

«The Objective of Justice in the Noble Qurʾān» By Mohamed Salim Elawa

This important and engaging lecture focused on a highly significant issue centred on the most important objective in the Noble Qur’ān. The lecture was delivered by Professor Mohamed Salim El-Awa as part of the proceedings of the 2nd training course on “The objectives of the Noble Qur’ān” held in Mohammedia (Morocco) on 4-5 May 31

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Newsletter No. 15

Winter 2016

Distributors of Al-Furqān’s Publications

«Arts and the objectives of

Islamic law (Maqāṣid): The arts that serve Maqāṣid, and the Maqāṣid that serve the arts»

Purchase Online at: The Foundation’s website: www.al-furqan.com At: www.amazon.co.uk (find “Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation”) Purchase in Store at: United Kingdom: Al-Furqān Headquarters 22A Old Court Place London, W8 4PL United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 20 3130 1530 Fax: +44 (0) 20 7937 2540 E-mail: info@al-furqan.com

By Noureddine Ben Mokhtar al-Khadimi

This important lecture addresses a fundamental and critical contemporary topic, namely the “alternative arts”. These are described as alternative because the underlying intention is to establish arts based on an Islamic frame of reference, through competence and integrity, a comprehensive concept, genuine resolution, and insightful authority. The goal is to benefit people, revive aesthetics, and exercise creativity, while appropriately considering the context, but without excluding other arts. Furthermore, alternative arts are founded on noble values, diverse forms of expression, human dimensions, functional goals, and interconnected knowledge domains. Islamic law texts (nuṣūṣ) and objectives (maqāṣid) are the foundation of these alternative arts, within an inclusive theoretical reading, and a framework of application of rulings (aḥkām) with their associated Islamic textual basis and objectives. Such rulings are deployed to reality, using a measured approach that premeditates the consequences of actions, determining the effective cause, acting within the realm of what is possible, and securing people’s interests. The application of the alternative arts in reality requires preparation in establishing a deep awareness of these arts, and correcting the understanding of their importance, types, and role in refining human emotions, reinforcing values, affirming the truth, doing good, achieving entertainment, and establishing decoration and beauty, as the essence of the arts, and its renewed civilizational context. In addition, awareness is built through education and training, while providing society with individuals possessing skilled artistic expertise, as well as projects, resources, institutions, and areas of knowledge, within the framework of the alternative arts. Arts scholars’ and Muslim jurists’ circles, and all those concerned should come together to establish a system for these new alternative arts. This should be based on an innovative vision, with reference to the principal sources of religion, by incorporating literary links and objective agreements. Indeed, the outcome is to institute what fulfils the Muslim nation’s role as witness, and secures the interests of people, world peace, human mutual knowledge, and revives the duty of the moment, while highlighting the fine qualities of Islam in an appealing and qualitative manner.

Egypt: Al-Furqān Cairo Office 20 Ibrahim Nagy St., Zaker Hussain Road Nasr City 11528 Cairo - Egypt Tel: + (202) 24721609 Fax: + (202) 24721609 E-mail: cairo.office@al-furqan.com Dār al-Salām Publisher 40, Corner at Ahmed About El-Ola Nour El-Deen Bahgat streets Nasr City - Egypt Tel: + (202) 22873246 Fax: + (202) 22741750 E-mail: info@dar-alsalam.com Wahba Library 14, El-Gomhoreya st. Cairo - Egypt Tel: + (202) 23682155 E-mail: publisher_sultan@yahoo.com Dar El Kalema Library 16, Mahmoud Bassiouny st. Nasr City – Egypt Tel.: (202) 25798414 Zahrāʾ al-Sharq Library 116, Mohamed Farid st. Cairo – Egypt Tel.: (202) 23913859 Layla Library 39, Qasr al-Nil st. Cairo – Egypt Tel.: (202) 23959747 Saudi Arabia: Al-Furqān Jeddah Office 69, Mohy el-deen Nazer street Al-Hamra District, Jeddah Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Tel: + 966 (0) 26670522 E-mail: info@al-furqan.com

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Newsletter No. 15

Winter 2016

Book review The Fihrist of al-Nadīm (Second edition)

by Abū al-Faraj Muḥammad Ibn Isḥāq A critical edition by Ayman Fuʾād Sayyid

Review by Devin Stewart Three years before his death in 990 CE, the Iraqi bookseller Abu al-Faraj Muḥammad b. Ishaq, known as Ibn al-Nadīm, completed his only surviving work. In the Fihrist, or catalogue, he attempted to provide historical, bibliographical surveys of writing in Arabic in the main scholarly fields of his day. To read the resulting work is to have direct access to the libraries and bookshops of tenth-century Baghdad, something that makes the Fihrist one of the most important works produced in the medieval Islamic world. In addition to bibliographies of individual authors and lists of books in the various subfields of the sciences, the Fihrist includes scores of priceless anecdotes, historical accounts, and tidbits of information that are found nowhere else.

The Fihrist of al-Nadīm in its second edition consists of four volumes

The Fihrist also documents the rise and development of the Islamic religious sciences, including Qur’anic studies, theology, law, and mysticism, up until the late tenth century CE. His work preserves material on the rationalist Muʿtazilah school of theology that is preserved nowhere else, including an account, where the Muʿtazilī doctrine goes back, not just to Wāṣil b. ʿAṭāʾ (d. 748), who is often credited with founding the movement, but further back to the Prophet, and to the angel Gabriel himself! The Fihrist includes one of the most important accounts of the trial and execution of the famed mystic martyr Manṣūr al-Ḥallāj (d. 922), as well as the most extensive bibliography of his works. He also includes crucial information on Islamic legal schools that thrived in the late ninth and tenth centuries but subsequently died out, including the Dāwūdī or Ẓāhirī madhhab, founded by Dāwūd b. ʿAlī b. Khalaf al-Iṣbahānī (d. 884), and the Jarīrī madhhab, founded by Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (d. 923), who is now better known as a

The Fihrist is without doubt the most important single source on the translation movement centered in Abbasid Baghdad, which began in the second half of the eighth century and continued until c. 1000 C.E. Ibn al-Nadim provides crucial information on translators, their patrons, and the process of translation of scientific works from Greek, Persian, and Sanskrit, bringing out in particular the key role played by Middle Eastern Christian translators, who translated works from Greek into Syriac and Syriac into Arabic, as well as Greek directly into Arabic. He also provides crucial information on the works that were translated in the fields of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, medicine, logic, and philosophy. Ibn al-Nadim reports a dream that the Caliph al-Maʾmun (813-833) had about Aristotle, the supposed impetus for the translation movement and the establishment of al-Maʾmun’s library and research institute, the Bayt al-Hikmah. 33

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historian and commentator on the Qur’an. The Fihrist represents a substantial chronicle of the rise of the Islamic sciences, because in every one of these fields, as in the scientific fields, many of the early, seminal works have been lost. Ibn al-Nadīm had access to individual comprehensive bibliographies of scholars such as al-Kindī (d. C. 873), the first major philosopher to write in Arabic, the famed litterateur and theologian al-Jāḥiẓ (d. 868-69), the doctor Abū Bakr al-Rāzī (d. 925), and others, when only a fraction of their works have survived. In addition, he provides rare anecdotes, such as a Nestorian priest’s account of China, Cambodia, and other lands of Southeast Asia after returning from a seven-year mission, Abū Bakr al-Rāzī’s account of a Chinese doctor’s use of shorthand to record the works of Galen in record time, Abū Dulaf ’s (fl. mid-10th c.) account of temples in Sind and India, Ibn Shahrām’s (fl. 10th c.) description of an ancient temple in Anatolia and so on. The Fihrist also contains one of the earliest recorded mentions of the frame tale of the 1001 nights, with the story of Shahriyar and Shahrazad, along with the statement that the work was translated from a Persian work entitled Hezar Afsan (One Thousand Tales), as well as one of the earliest mentions of a collection of anecdotes about Juḥā, the famed fool or wise fool of Arab folklore.

Ibn al-Nadīm’s ecumenical interests make the Fihrist a valuable source for the history of religions

Ibn al-Nadīm’s ecumenical interests make the Fihrist a valuable source for the history of religions, including not only Judaism and Christianity, but also the religions of the Sabians, the Manichaens, and the Marcionites, as well as Hinduism and Buddhism. The scripts of all nations, romances of the Arabs, Persians, Indians, and Greeks, manuals on perfumes, gems, cookery, treatises on alchemy and the occult sciences also appear`–little escapes Ibn al-Nadīm’s interest or attention. In addition, through the organisation and presentation of his material, Ibn al-Nadīm conveys his own views about the history and development of the various fields of inquiry that he records and about the interrelationships between those fields. His work thus is far more than a reference work for book titles. It is a crucial document recording the historical transmission of knowledge from Late Antiquity to the medieval Islamic world and a systematic taxonomy of human knowledge.

Al-Furqan’s edition includes pictures in high definition of the original manuscript

The Fihrist is without doubt the most important single source on the translation movement centered in Abbasid Baghdad

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Winter 2016

Book Fairs libraries, manuscript studies, bibliographic works, studies on maqāṣid, as well as proceedings of AlFurqān’s academic conferences, symposia, training courses and lectures.

Al-Furqān’s participation in book fairs

Casablanca International Book Fair

Like the previous years, Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation continued its tradition of participating in international book fairs.

Algiers International Book Fair

During this year (2016), Al-Furqān Foundation took part in four international book fairs, as following: 1. Morocco (Casablanca) International Book Fair (sixth participation): from 10th until 22nd February 2016. 2. Algeria (Algiers) International Book Fair (third participation): from 26th October until 5th November 2016. 3. U.A.E (Sharjah) International Book Fair (sixth participation): from 2nd until 12th November 2016.

Sharjah International Book Fair

4. Doha International Book Fair (fourth participation): from 31stNovember until 10th December 2016. During these book fairs, the Foundation showcased its various publications within its three fields of interest, i.e. the manuscripts field, the field of maqāṣid, and the field of studies on Makkah and Madinah. Its publications consist of more than 170 titles in around 290 volumes, including catalogues of collections of Islamic manuscripts in leading

Doha International Book Fair

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Winter 2016

Institution The threats facing academic and cultural institutions in the city of Tikrit

large numbers of specialist scientific books, thus facilitating a substantial core collection from which to speedily start.1

- Libraries and monuments in Tikrit -

Tikrit University – Salah Uddin Provincial Centre – contains more than 677 different scientific and intellectual manuscripts. These cover Qurʾānic sciences, Ḥadīth sciences, theology, language and linguistic sciences, philosophy, arts, astronomy, mathematics and others. In addition, it contains manuscripts concerned with studies of Sufi rituals and prayers as well as manuscripts in both the Turkish and Kurdish languages.

By Professor Ẓamya’ Muhammad Abbas Tikrit University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology

A comprehensive catalogue of contents was compiled by Muhammad Fadil al-Samarrai, Abd alQadir Rasul and Abd al-Latif Barzinji and published in 1987 as an in-house University publication. This catalogue included many important manuscripts which were lost, including but not limited to: The entrance to Tikrit University’s Centre for research

1- Ḥall Mushkilāt al-Qurʾān, Anonym. Questions and answers related to the Qurʾān, MSS no. 116. 180 ff; 2- Risālah fī Faḍl al-Qurʾān, Ahmad ibn Ḥajar alHaythami (d. 974/1567), MSS no.1, 17 ff. 3- Risālah al-Fuqahāʾ fī Ḍabṭ Rasm al-Muṣḥaf alImām, al-Shaykh ‘Abd al-Wahhāb al-Zinjāni (d. 655/1257), MSS no. 1-275, 24 ff. 4- Fatḥ al-Majīd fī ʿIlm al-Tajwīd, Muḥammad alBarzanjī, d. 1254-1838 MSS no. 4-360, 15 ff. 5- Al-Nāsikh wa al-Mansūkh, ʿAbd al-Qādir alBaghdādī al-Isfrāyīnī (d. 429 H), MSS no.112, printed in Istanbul, 1290 6- Tafsīr of Sūrah “Qul yā ayyuha al-Kāfirūn”, Jalāl alDīn al-Dānī, MSS no. 3-202 7- Al-Arbaʿūn Ḥadīthan, al-Birkūrī (d. 981 / 1573), MSS no. 2-145, 4 ff. 8- Awṣāf al-Nabī wa Khawāṣuh, Anonym, MSS no. 11-275, 10 ff. 9- Shihāb al-Akhbār, Al-Quḍāʿī (d.454/1062), MSS no. 8-275, 75 ff.

The events through which Iraq has passed, during the first Gulf War, the US-British occupation in 2003 and beyond, have had devastating consequences on some of Iraq’s cultural institutions and its civilisational heritage. There is visible evidence of looting, bombing and deliberate vandalism throughout cities in Iraq - including the city of Tikrit, whose museums, artefacts, manuscripts and libraries were specifically targeted. The biggest threat to Tikrit’s legacy and heritage were the events that took place after 2003, namely the demolition of the museum of civilisation and all associated religious artefacts & shrines, in addition to the targeting of libraries, museums, documentation and archiving centres. These were looted, burned and totally decimated. Amongst the most prominent academic and cultural institutions which were affected are: Firstly: Manuscripts belonging to Tikrit University’s central library  The central library was inaugurated at the same time as the establishment of Tikrit University in 1987. This coincided with the Iraqi government’s decree to dissolve the Academic Research Council, which in turn enabled the acquisition of

1 Samir Midhat Sa’id, Qiyyās Jawdat Khadmāt al-Maktabāt al-Jāmiʿiyyah: dirāsat ʿalá Khadmāt al-Maktabah al-Markazīyyah Jāmiʿat Tikrit (Quality assessment of university libraries services: a study of services provided by the University of Tikrit Central Library) in Majallat Jāmiʿat Tikrit lil-ʿUlūm al-Insānīyah (Bulletin of Takrit University for Human Studies), Vol.44, pt. 2, March 2007.

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Secondly: The Salah al-Dīn Provincial Centre for Documentation and Heritage This is one of Tikrit University’s prominent research centers, established in 1992 following a decree by the leadership of the former Revolutionary Council, which also coincided with the establishment of the Mosul Centre for Documentation – chiefly concerned with collating documentation connected to the heritage of the Salah al-Din Province as well as of any affiliated district or province from the 19th and early 20th centuries. This Centre contained many bronze and wooden artifacts, ancient coins, household items and utensils, musical instruments and photographic equipment. The Centre received hundreds of documents from provincial administrative units, some dating back to 1921. These documents consist of administrative correspondence, personal letters and manuscripts belonging to civil servants. Most prominent amongst these is a document outlining a covenant between the people of Tikrit and King Faysal I in 1921, when the Iraqi government was first established. In addition, it also housed collections which were gifts from local residents, craftspeople and local industries comprising of traditional household utensils. Many of these ancient documents and coins were looted and many of those remaining were ruined. Manuscripts pertaining to the Allusi family that were in the centre were also looted , including the family tree depicting the family’s genealogy and other documents which had been obtained from the IRCICA centre for documentation that related to the city’s history.

10- Itmām al-Dirāyah bi Sharḥ al-Niqāyah, AlSuyūṭī (911/1505). MSS no. 3-145 11- Sharḥ ʿIqd al-Durar, al-Shaykh Maʿrūf alNawdahī (d. 1254); MSS no. 114 12- Sharḥ Naẓm al-Laʾālī fī al-Farāiḍ by al-Jaʿbarī (d. 772/ 1332), explained by Sibṭ al-Mārdīnī (826912), MSS no. 40, 198ff. 13- Ghunyat Dhawī al-Aḥkām fī Bughyat Durar alḤukkām, Abū al-Ikhlāṣ Al-Sharnablānī al-Ḥanafi (d.944/1069), MSS no. 747 14- Masāʾl al-Khilāf bayna al-Imāmayn Abū Ḥanīfah wa al-Shāfʿī, al-Shaykh ʿAbd al-Raḥman al-ʿAzbānī, MSS no.2-463; 88ff 15- Sharḥ al-Durar fī Asmāʾ Ahl Badr, al-Shaykh Maʿrūf al-Nawdahī, MSS no 2-393, 28 ff. 16- Dhāt al-Shifā fī Sīrat al-Muṣṭafa, Muhammad ibn al-Jazrī (d. 833/1429) 17- Dalīl al-Τālibīn li Kalām al-Naḥawiyyīn, alShaykh Marʿī ibn Yūsuf al-Maqdisī (d. 1033 H), MSS no. 1-39; 61 ff. 2

Thirdly: Tikrit Province’s central public library The central public library in Tikrit governorate was established in 1950, and it is the oldest intellectual landmark in the governorate, containing more than 18,000 printed books, the majority of which are rare and old prints; some of which were printed at the start of the last century. One of the librarians remembers that it also housed rare manuscripts, referring to links between this library and the University of Cairo library detailing mutual copying and lending of rare archival material. Most of its books were gathered as a result of gifts bequeathed by scholars and prominent local dignitaries who donated their own personal collections in order to enhance its acquisitions in all branches of knowledge. The library was a meeting place for the city’s intellectuals and a place they could be proud of and where they could congregate freely. However, it has suffered from neglect in recent times.3

The entrance to Tikrit University’s Central Library

These manuscripts were lost between 1987 and 1991, after the first Gulf War. No more than 20 manuscripts remain, and are currently preserved in the Centre for Iraqi Manuscripts in Baghdad. They have been there since 1998 as a result of a ministerial decree at the time, which stipulated that the Centre of Iraqi Manuscripts should be a repository to hold documents and manuscripts in trust, until such time when the security situation improves. This is in order to protect them from the looting, smuggling and destruction which has already befallen most other manuscripts. 2 Rashid al-Kilani, The Manuscripts of the University of Tikrit Central Library, Salah al-Din governorate, Academic Research Council.

3 Lu’yy Muhammad ‘Abd al-Qadir, a library employee, Iraq Voice, Radio/ Salah al-Din 2015-10-07 19:17:14

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The governorate began to build a large public library in the city centre in 2014, but it was destroyed after Daesh’s invasion.

Fourthly: The 2003 shelling of the City Museum of Civilisation The Tikrit City Museum of Civilisation – inaugurated in 2002 - was subjected to shelling, blasting and demolition, after which it was totally obliterated without trace, upon entry of the American occupation of Iraq in 2003. No visible traces remain. Fifthly: Heritage, artefacts and civilisational landmarks under threat Researchers confirm that the most ancient of human settlements to be discovered by archeologists and field workers is the Iraqi settlement of Tell al-Sawan (5500 – 5000 BC), which is situated 12 km south of Samarra, within the administrative borders of Tikrit city.

Baiji district (Ibn Nadim) library prior to the invasion

The district libraries are no less important than the central library, amongst which are the libraries of Shirqat and al-Daur districts. The most prominent of these is the Baiji district library (known as the Ibn al-Nadim Library) which was established in 1955 and contained 400 books. It contained the rarest of publications, some of which date back to the late 19th Century. It was a resource centre for local students of higher education. As the years went by, the library was further provided with diverse scientific books until it grew to house 10,000 books of the highest caliber. After the invasion of Daesh in 2014, the library was threatened, looted, then totally burnt.

1) Tikrit Citadel: The citadel was built on a remote cliff in a position fortified by the river’s water flow; and was surrounded by a fence. Its foundations remained stable until the late sixties of the last century, when they were subjected to demolition and removal. This site has been of continued strategic military significance in Iraq from Akkadia, Assyrian and Babylonian times, through to reigns, such as the Roman and Sasanian Empires, which influenced Iraq. Small sections of the citadel’s wall and towers remain, situated on an ancient and elevated hill top of great height overlooking the Tigris River. 2) The demolition of the Green Church: Archaeological evidence indicates that the city’s first emergence can be traced to religious factors, based on cuneiforms which mention supplications/prayers traceable to the 16th Century BC, in documentation discovered in both Sbar and Warqaʾa. The city continued to be a civilisational settlement and a religious centre – from the most ancient of times right up to the present day. It was the home of the nomadic Aramaic tribe Ituʾa. Then it was populated by Arab tribes who had earlier converted to Christianity, during its emergence at the time of Nestorian missionaries – until the Islamic conquest, when it was under Roman rule. It was then liberated and Islam began to spread from 16 AH / 637 AD. Despite the above, Tikrit remained one of the important centers of Christianity until 1164 AD, when its position in this regard was challenged by the city of Mosul, whence

Baiji district (Ibn Nadim) library following Daesh attacks

Baiji district (Ibn Nadim) library following Daesh attacks

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was transferred the seat of Ephraim Jacobi. Several churches and monasteries were built in this city, the most prominent of which was the Green Church. The remnants of these monasteries remained until recent times, on various sites, until they were demolished, when Daesh entered the city in the middle of 2014. The most famous of these was the Green church, which traces its origins right back to the ʿAbbasid era, and is considered to have been one of the most ancient and beautiful churches in the world, containing the remains of many Christian scholars and clergy.

which is one of the most important architectural landmarks and ʿAbbasid antiquities that were characteristic of Tikrit prior to Daesh’s entry. The building is thus named because it contains the remains of forty martyrs who were martyred in the liberation of Tikrit during the reign of the Caliph ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb, amongst whom were Junādah al-Ghifārī, of the Caliph ʿUmar, may Allah be pleased with them both. Ancient mosques are highly regarded in Iraq, especially their plaster & brick niches (miḥrāb) which are considered to be unique amongst the miḥrābs in Iraq – and the Archaeology Directorate has been responsible for their renovation since 1964.

3) The loss of antiquities and artifacts The oldest of finds identified in Tikrit date back to the mid-third millennium BC, and specifically to the Akkadian era, as the Swedish orientalist Ark Hanson came across a collection of various objects alongside the castle ditch in Tel al-Khasfa (in the middle of Old Tikrit). These included a cylindrical seal, pottery pieces and artefacts of various shapes and sizes dating back to two coinciding epochs in the middle of the second millennium BC – the Kashi and the Assyrian.

The forty shrine prior to its destruction in 2014

As for the antiquities that are visible to the eye glass, metal and pottery pots have been discovered in the hills and areas that constitute historical sites around Tikrit. Similarly, broken wooden, bone and clay utensils as well as jars, containers and other utensils were found. Seals from the Assyrian and Babylonian eras were also found, but we do not know of their provenance after they were extracted.

The forty shrine after its destruction in 2014

5) The destruction of the shrine of Muhammad al-Durri in the city of Dur The shrine of Imam Muḥammad al-Durrī ibn Imām Mūsá al-Kaẓim in the Dur governorate/ Salah Uddin Province.

4) The destruction of Islamic antiquities in the form of shrines:

The shrine’s history can be traced back over 700 years. It was built during the ʿAbbasid era and was identified by the unique architectural style of its dome. It was subjected to demolition and destruction by Daesh in September 2014.

Amongst the most important shrines that were affected by destruction and ruin is the masjid or mazār (shrine) of Arbaʿīn (The Forty Shrine), 39

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Al-Furqān

Islamic Heritage Foundation Glorious Past, Brighter Future

The entrance of Al-Furqān headquarters - London Address: 22A Old Court Place London, W8 4PL England – UK

Tel: +44 (0) 20 3130 1530 Fax: +44 (0) 20 7937 2540

Email: info@al-furqan.com Website: www.al-furqan.com

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