Pushed into the present by delay 0.004 Hz examines an event that originates from a dispute between Serbia and Kosovo, which for several months in 2018, almost imperceptibly affected everyday life in an area of Europe comprising 25 nations. Due to the complex and unresolved political relations in which Kosovo and Serbia (and the Serbian minority in Kosovo) were – and continue to be – embroiled, there was a deficit of electrical power in the region from January to March 2018. This caused the mean electrical frequency in the entire Continental European Power System (from Istanbul to Santiago de Compostela, from Rome to Copenhagen) to decrease from 50 to 49.996 Hz. For the many electric clocks that keep time according to the frequency of the power grid, instead of quartz crystal, the 0.004 Hz drop resulted in a cumulative delay of 6 minutes over the 2-month period. The interesting thing is – almost ‘nobody’ noticed. This project embraces the event as an opportunity to encounter and contemplate the temporal gap – the cranny, loss of time, discontinuity, discrepancy, leap, disruption, fracture – or delay that disrupted the (measured) flow of time itself. The result is something that I would like to call an ecstatic interval: an interval that amplifies fuzzy and unstable relations between the understanding, measurement, representation and experience of temporality. It is a gap that also illuminates the invisible, involuntary and unexpected ‘shadow connectivity’ that the continent-wide electrical power grid enables between distant people, places, cultures, political spheres and everyday life. How does the shared grid connect political institutions in the Balkans to the kitchens and bedrooms of Denmark? How does this affect and inform the contemporary human condition and relations between experience, factuality, distance and visibility? How does it (trans)form the notion of territoriality, autonomy and statehood? And, what are the potential relations between this event and the poetic, philosophical and artistic articulations of the evasive, ephemeral and imperceptible? The ecstatic interval resonates throughout the whole spectrum of life, creating an awareness of what is being ruptured, as well as bringing into presence the voids and lags that emerge within the created rupture. These pluri-dimensional voids and lags in turn excite, illuminate, energize and amplify the usually opaque asynchronicities and nonlinearities – crannies and leaps that are inherent to temporality, becoming of matter, energy, society and everything else. This publication collects mostly found fragments that are indicative of the potential in, and are essential or tangential to, the ecstatic interval. Official announcements, news reports and interpretations of the frequency deviation described above are juxtaposed with articulations of the ecstatic interval across literature, art, theory, philosophy and science. This material is a zone of attraction, repulsion and resonance between unrelated facts and imaginaries, yielding uncanny relations and familiarities. Further, these unapparent entanglements are (past) traces of and (future) potentials for remote proximities between the real-life experiential event and seemingly unrelated speculative, poetic and artistic articulations that form further iterations of the ecstatic interval. The ecstatic interval comes into being between an abstract mental construction and a concrete event; or, between an echo of an event that has not taken place and a concrete event without an echo. Following Karen Barad’s thoughts on quantum theory, one could say that the echo and the event are entangled outside of the laws of temporal and spatial causality. That is, the echo precedes the event that might have caused the echo. The event and echo are not interconnected as “events separated in space and time.” Rather, in their iterative, intra-active process of becoming they form space, time and one another as “enfoldings of spacetimematterings.”1
Karen Barad, “Nature’s Queer Performativity*”, Kvinder, Køn & Forskning, no.1–2, (2012), 40.
Potisnjeni v sedanjost skozi zamudo 0,004 Hz raziskuje dogodek, ki izvira iz spora med Srbijo in Kosovom in ki je leta 2018 več mesecev skoraj neopazno zaznamoval vsakdanje življenje na območju 25 evropskih držav. Zaradi zapletenih in nerazrešenih političnih odnosov med Kosovom, Srbijo in srbsko manjšino na Kosovu je med januarjem in marcem 2018 v regiji prišlo do primanjkljaja električne energije. To je povzročilo, da se je povprečna frekvenca električnega toka v celotnem evropskem kontinentalnem omrežju (od Istanbula do Santiaga de Compostela in od Rima do Københavna) znižala s 50 na 49,996 Hz. Zaradi padca frekvence za 0,004 Hz so številne električne ure, ki merijo čas glede na frekvenco električnega omrežja, ne pa s pomočjo kvarčnih kristalov, v dveh mesecih zaostale za šest minut. Zanimivo je, da tega ni opazil skoraj ‘nihče’. Projekt sprejme ta dogodek kot dobrodošlo priložnost za razmislek in soočenje s časovno vrzeljo – režo, izgubo časa, nezveznostjo, diskrepanco, preskokom, motnjo, razpoko – oziroma zamudo, ki je prekinila (merjen) tok časa. Posledica tega je nekaj, kar bi rad poimenoval ekstatični interval: interval, ki poudari nejasne in nestabilne odnose med razumevanjem, merjenjem, predstavo in izkušnjo časovnosti. Ta vrzel hkrati tudi osvetli nevidno, nenamerno in nepričakovano »povezljivost v senci«, ki jo omogoča celinski prenosni električni sistem, in sicer med oddaljenimi ljudmi, kraji in kulturami ter med političnimi sferami in vsakdanjim življenjem. Kako skupno omrežje povezuje politične institucije na Balkanu s kuhinjami in spalnicami na Danskem? Kako to vpliva na sodobno človeško stanje, razmere in odnose med izkušnjo, dejanskostjo, razdaljo in vidnostjo? Na kakšen način (pre)oblikuje pojem teritorialnosti, avtonomije in državnosti? In kaj so potencialni odnosi med tem dogodkom in poetičnimi, filozofskimi in umetniškimi izrazi neulovljivega, efemernega in nezaznavnega? Ekstatični interval, katerega zven se širi skozi celoten spekter življenja, ustvari zavest o tem, v kar se zareže, in tako poudari prisotnost nastalih praznin in zaostankov, ki se porodijo v zadanih razpokah. Te pluridimenzionalne praznine in zaostanki vzburijo, osvetlijo, aktivirajo in okrepijo običajno neočitne asinhronosti in nelinearnosti – skrivne vrzeli in preskoke –, ki so lastni časovnosti in postajanju snovnosti, energije, družbe in vsega preostalega. Ta publikacija je izbor večinoma najdenih odlomkov, ki kažejo na potencial znotraj ekstatičnega intervala, ki so zanj bistveni ali pa se ga le dotikajo. Uradna obvestila in novinarska poročila o opisanem odklonu frekvence in njegove interpretacije so postavljeni ob artikulacije ekstatičnega intervala v literaturi, umetnosti, teoriji, filozofiji in znanosti. To gradivo je območje privlačnosti, odbojnosti in sozvena med nepovezanimi dejstvi in namišljenimi predstavami, ki poraja čudno navadne (angl. uncanny) odnose in sorodnosti. Nastali neočitni prepleti so (pretekle) sledi in (prihodnje) možnosti za oddaljene bližine med življenjsko izkustvenimi dogodki in dozdevno nepovezanimi spekulativnimi, poetičnimi in umetniškimi izrazi, ki tvorijo vnovične ponovitve ekstatičnega intervala. Ekstatični interval se porodi med abstraktno mentalno konstrukcijo in konkretnim dogodkom ali med odmevom dogodka, ki se ni zgodil, in konkretnim dogodkom brez odmeva. Po sledeh razmišljanja Karen Barad o kvantni teoriji bi lahko rekli, da sta odmev in dogodek prepletena zunaj zakonov časovne in prostorske vzročnosti. To pomeni, da je odmev, ki bi ga dogodek lahko povzročil, pred dogodkom. Dogodek in odmev nista povezana kot »dogodka, ločena v prostoru in času«, pač pa v svojem iterativnem intraaktivnem procesu postajanja tvorita prostor, čas in drug drugega kot “zavitja prostorčassnovljenj (angl. enfoldings of spacetimematterings)”.2
Karen Barad, “Nature’s Queer Performativity*”, Kvinder, Køn & Forskning, no.1–2, (2012), 40..
I don’t want to make too much of a little thing, but the quantum, this tiny disjuncture that exists in neither space nor time, torques the very nature of the relation between continuity and discontinuity to such a degree that the nature of change changes with each intra-action.3
The present is nothing other than this unlived element in everything that is lived. That which impedes access to the present is precisely the mass of what for some reason (its traumatic character, its excessive nearness) we have not managed to live. The attention to this “unlived” is the life of the contemporary. And to be contemporary means in this sense to return to a present where we have never been.4
Ibid., 40–41. Giorgio Agamben, “What Is Contemporary?”, in What Is an Apparatus? and Other Essays (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2009), 51–52.
European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity
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European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity
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Sërish Kosova fajtore për dështimin e kohës digjitale në BE 6-7 minutes
Më herët, Rrjeti Evropian i Operatorëve të Sistemit të Transmisionit të Energjisë Elektrike (ENTSO) ka kërcënuar Serbinë me sanksione në qoftë se nuk e zgjidh kontestin me Kosovën, për shkak se orët digjitale, të cilët sinkronizohen përmes rrjetit të frekuencave në të gjithë Evropën, sërish po vonohen. Në komunikatën e Rrjetit Energjetik të Serbisë, e cila i është përcjellë Radios Evropa e Lirë, thuhet se arsyeja e vonës së orëve digjitale është “marrja e paautorizuar e energjisë elektrike nga ana e kompanisë KOSTT (Operatorit të Sistemit, Transmisionit dhe Tregut të Energjisë Elektrike të Kosovës)”. “KOSTT-i nuk e ka mbajtur balancimin ndërmjet prodhimit dhe shpenzimit të energjisë elektrike në territorin e Kosovës, por pjesën e munguar për furnizimin e konsumatorëve, e ka marrë pa kompensim nga interkoneksioni ‘Evropa Kontinentale’do të thotë, nga të gjithë operatorët tjerë të transmisionit, të cilët e përbëjnë zonën e sinkronizuar, për të cilën po flasim”, ka thënë Rrjeti Energjetik i Serbisë. Serbia dhe Kosova janë pjesë të sistemit energjetik “Evropa Kontinentale” dhe sipas marrëveshjes, nga Kosova pritet që të balancojë energjinë elektrike dhe kërkesën në rrjetin e saj. Ndërkaq nga Serbia kërkohet që t’i ndihmojë Kosovës që ta vendosë atë balancim. Operatorit i Sistemit të Transmisionit dhe Tregut të Energjisë Elektrike të Kosovës (KOSTT), më herët i pati thënë Radios Evropa e Lirë se vonesa është pasojë e moszbatimit të marrëveshjes nga ana e Rrjetit Energjetik të Serbisë, për kyçjen e KOSTT-it në Rrjetin Evropian të Operatorëve të Sistemit të Transmisionit të Energjisë Elektrike. Ky institucion theksoi që moszbatimi i marrëveshjes e shkakton dëme financiare KOSTT-it, për shkak se “operatori serb vazhdon të fitojë milionat nga kapacitetet e lidhjeve kufitare të Kosovës me vendet fqinje“. Dushan Janjiq nga Forumi për Marrëdhënie Etnike në Beograd, thotë për Radion Evropa e Lirë se tash e disa dekada ekziston praktika që energjia elektrike nga Kosova, përmes Serbisë lëshohet vetëm në mbrëmje, sepse kinse nuk ka kapacitete. “Por, në fakt, atëherë bie çmimi i rrymës në
Etnike në Beograd, thotë për Radion Evropa e Lirë se tash e disa dekada ekziston praktika që energjia elektrike nga Kosova, përmes Serbisë lëshohet vetëm në mbrëmje, sepse kinse nuk ka kapacitete. “Por, në fakt, atëherë bie çmimi i rrymës në tregun botëror dhe pastaj, agjentët tonë e blejnë në transferim dhe në mëngjes e shesin. Po, një gjë e tillë, më pas e çrregullon balancën e energjisë së nevojshme në Evropë, varësisht nga madhësia e transaksionit. Bëhet fjalë për keqpërdorim të pronës shtetërore, sepse ky është sistem i transmisionit, si dhe për keqpërdorim të faktit që Kosova nuk ka mundësi tjetër, sepse ende nuk ka përfunduar largpërçuesi kah Shqipëria, që të hyjë në Evropë, përveç përmes Serbisë. Më pas, në atë rrjet që tashmë është i vjetërsuar, krijohet ajo diferenca në para”, tha Janjiq. Përderisa të dy shtetet e mohojnë përgjegjësinë, tashmë kjo është hera e dytë që po shkaktohen probleme me orët, të cilat punojnë me energji elektrike, siç janë ato në furrat me mikrovalë ose në radiot. Në fillim të muajit mars të këtij viti, orët ishin vonuar rreth 5 minuta në 25 shtete evropiane. Rrjeti evropian, në atë kohë pati deklaruar se devijimet vijnë në veçanti nga zona e Serbisë dhe e Kosovës, prej nga, për shkak të përplasjeve politike ndërmjet dy shteteve, shkon më pak energji elektrike në sistemin energjetik të kontinentit. Milovan Shuvakov, bashkëpunëtorë i lartë në Institutin për Fizikë në Beograd, duke folur për Radion Evropa e Lirë, shpjegon se për shkak të kësaj “vrime” në furnizimin e tregut evropian të energjetikës, frekuencat në rrjetin e energjetikës janë nën normalen prej 50 herc. Kjo sipas tij është edhe shkaktari i vonesave të orëve digjitale, madje deri në 6 minuta. “Në qoftë se do ta skiconim një grafikë të tensionit, ai shkon nga plusi në minus. Plusi dhe minusi ndryshojnë 50 herë gjatë një sekonde. Në praktikë, ata 50 herc nuk janë saktësisht aq dhe varësisht nga rrjeti, ata 50 herc, pak a shumë mund të tolerohen. Ajo për çfarë po flasim ne këtu është se ajo tolerancë është mjaft e vogël saqë disa prodhues të orëve e kanë shfrytëzuar pikërisht atë frekuencë që t’i kalibrojnë oscilatorët e orëve. Në qoftë se shkaktohet ndonjë ndryshim serioz i frekuencës në rrjet, atëherë oscilatorët e orëve punojnë më ngadalë ose më shpejtë”, sqaroi Shuvakov. Operatorët evropian kanë aktivizuar një program special për kompensim, i cili aktivizohet në mënyrë automatike, në momentin që devijimet e tejkalojnë kohëzgjatjen prej 60 sekondash. Marrë parasysh që një gjë e tillë nuk është zgjidhje afatgjate, nga Rrjeti Evropian i Operatorëve të Sistemit të Transmisionit të Energjisë Elektrike, kanë paralajmëruar mundësinë e sanksioneve ndaj Serbisë, në rast se nuk e zgjidh problemin me Kosovën. Por, Rrjeti Energjetik i Serbisë përmes komunikatës ka thënë se “KOSTT-i ka obligim të kryerjes së pavarur të rregullimit
Energjisë Elektrike, kanë paralajmëruar mundësinë e sanksioneve ndaj Serbisë, në rast se nuk e zgjidh problemin me Kosovën. Por, Rrjeti Energjetik i Serbisë përmes komunikatës ka thënë se “KOSTT-i ka obligim të kryerjes së pavarur të rregullimit të nën-zonës së saj, gjegjësisht që të balancojë konsumimet dhe prodhimet. Ndërkaq, Rrjeti Energjetik i Serbisë, është përgjegjës për zonën e vet kontrolluese, e cila përfshinë edhe nën-zonën e KOSTT-it”. Në komunikatë, gjithashtu thuhet se në funksion të zgjidhje së problemit kanë nxjerrë “një varg propozimesh” dhe se janë “në kontakt të përhershëm me Asociacionin e Rrjetin Evropian (ENTSO) dhe të gjitha institucionet relevante”. “Kur bëhet fjalë lidhur me deklaratat për sanksionet eventuale, theksojmë që sipas kontratave të vlefshme dhe marrëveshjeve, vendimet për nisjen e çfarëdo masave apo procedurave në kuadër të ENTSO-së, janë nën kompetencat e operatorëve të sistemeve të transmisioneve të vendeve evropiane dhe mund të realizohen vetëm pasi që vërtetohet dhe argumentohet gjendja faktike dhe përgjegjësia e drejtpërdrejtë”, thuhet në komunikatën e Rrjetit Energjetik të Serbisë. Ndonëse Asociacioni evropian i shpërndarësve të energjisë elektrike nuk potencon se çfarë sanksionesh mund të pasojnë, në faqen e tij të internetit thuhet se deri te zbatimi i sanksioneve mund të vijë në rast se ekziston “mungesë e qartë e vullnetit që problemi të zgjidhet”. Marrëveshje e Kosovës dhe Serbisë për Energjinë është arritur në vitin 2013, në nivelin e kryeministrave, por deri më sot ende nuk është zbatuar. http://www.gazetanewborn.co/serishkosova-fajtore-per-deshtimin-e-kohesdigjitale-ne-be/
BIRN VIEW ALL POSTS 3 minutes
06.03.2018 The Kosovo government has allocated a million euros to fund electricity used by Serb-majority municipalities in the north of balkaninsight.com the country while balkaninsight.com seeking a long-term balkaninsight.com solution to the non-payment issue.
Kosovo Govt to Pay 1m Kosovo Govt to Pay Pay |1m 1m Kosovo Govt to for Serbs’ Electricity for Serbs’ Serbs’ Electricity || for Electricity Balkan Insight Balkan Insight Insight Balkan balkaninsight.com BIRN VIEW ALL POSTS balkaninsight.com 3BIRN minutesVIEW ALL POSTS BIRN VIEW ALL POSTS
Kosovo Govt to Pay a 1m The Kosovo government hasPay allocated1m Kosovo Govt to The Kosovo Kosovo government has allocated allocated a| for Serbs’ Electricity million euros to fund electricity used by The government has for Serbs’ Electricity |a of million euros to fund electricity used by Serb-majority municipalities in the north million euros Insight to fund electricity used by Balkan Serb-majority municipalities in the north of the country while seeking a long-term Balkan Insight 3 minutes 3 minutes
Serb-majority municipalities in the north of the country while seeking long-term solution to the non-payment issue. North Mitrovica. Photo: Kallxo.com the country while seeking aa long-term BIRN VIEW ALL POSTS solution to the non-payment issue. BIRN VIEW ALL POSTS solution to the non-payment issue. The government in Pristina decided on 3 minutes 3 minutes
Monday to allocate one million euros to Kosovo’s Transmission, System and Market The Kosovo governmenthas hasallocated allocated The Kosovo government a a Operator, KOSTT public energy company to million euros to fund electricity used million euros to fund electricity used byby cover the energy expenditure of SerbSerb-majority municipalitiesinin the north Serb-majority municipalities the north of of majority municipalities in athe north of the the country whileseeking seeking long-term country while a long-term country. solution tothe thenon-payment non-paymentissue. issue. solution to However, a solution still needs to be found to cover the full cost of the electricity used by the Serb-majority municipalities, which do not pay Pristina for their supplies. North Mitrovica. Photo: Kallxo.com Prime Ramush said the NorthMinister Mitrovica. Photo:Haradinaj Kallxo.com North Mitrovica. Photo: Kallxo.com The government in Pristina decided on one-million-euro allocation was necessary so The government in Pristina decided on Monday to allocate one million euros The government in be Pristina that KOSTT would able todecided join theonto Monday to to allocate one one million million euros to Kosovo’s Transmission, Systemeuros and Market Monday allocate to European network of transmission Kosovo’s Transmission, System and Market Operator, KOSTT public energy company to Kosovo’s Transmission, System and Market operators. Operator, KOSTT public energy company to cover the energy expenditure of SerbOperator, KOSTT public energy company to “It is a temporary decision but as such saves cover the energy expenditure of Serbmajority in theof north cover the municipalities energy expenditure Serb-of the our network functionality and enables majority municipalities in the north ofus theto country. majority municipalities in the north of the North Mitrovica. Photo: Kallxo.com remain at the table to gain our right to country. North Mitrovica. Photo: Kallxo.com country. However, solution still needs to beoffound to become anaoperator in the network The government in Pristina decided on However, a solution still needs to be be found to cover the full cost of the electricity used However, a solution still to found The government inone Pristina decided on by to transmission operators inneeds Europe,” Prime Monday to allocate million euros to cover the full cost of the electricity used by the Serb-majority municipalities, which do cover the full cost Haradinaj ofone theSystem electricity used Minister Ramush said. Monday to allocate million euros toby Kosovo’s Transmission, and Market the Serb-majority Serb-majority municipalities, which do do not pay Pristina for their supplies.which the municipalities, Kosovo’s Transmission, System and Market Operator, KOSTT public energy to Since thePristina end of the Kosovo warcompany in 1999, the not pay for their supplies. not pay Pristina for their Haradinaj supplies. 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European network of cover the full cost of the electricity used by to other areas of Kosovo had a percentage However, a solution still needs to be found operators. operators. “ItSerb-majority is ato temporary decision butthe aswhich such saves the municipalities, doby added their bills to pay for north’s cover the full cost of the electricity used “Itpay isnetwork aPristina temporary decision butenables as such such saves saves our functionality and us to not for their supplies. “It is a temporary decision but as electricity. the Serb-majority municipalities, which do our network functionality and enables us to remain at thefunctionality table to gainand ourenables right to us to our network Prime Minister Ramush Haradinaj saidOffice the not pay Pristina for their supplies. In December, the Energy Regulator’s remain at the table to gain our right to becomeat anthe operator the our network of remain table toingain to so one-million-euro allocation was right necessary announced that electricity bills will be become an operator in the network of Prime Minister Ramush Haradinaj said the transmission operators in Europe,” Prime become an would operator in thetonetwork that KOSTT able join theof will no reduced by 3.5operators perbe cent as consumers transmission in Europe,” Prime Minister Ramush Haradinaj said. one-million-euro allocation was necessary transmission operators in Europe,” Prime so European network of of transmission more cover the cost the four Minister Ramush Haradinaj said. that KOSTT would be able tosaid. join Minister Haradinaj Since theRamush end ofpower the Kosovo inthe 1999,for the operators. municipalities’ as theywar have done European network ofKosovo transmission Since the end of the war in 1999, the four northern Serb-majority municipalities Since the19end of the Kosovo in 1999, the the years. “It is past a temporary decision butwar as such saves operators. four northern Serb-majority municipalities have not paid Pristina for their energy four northern Serb-majority our network functionality andmunicipalities enables us to Pristina and Belgrade signed anenergy agreement have not paid Pristina for their their consumption. have not paid Pristina for energy “It is a temporary decision but as such saves remain at the table to gain our right to on energy in 2015 which obliges Kosovo to consumption. consumption. To network make forpublic the in shortfall, people our functionality and enables become anup operator the network of from allow Serbia’s energy company tous to To make up for the shortfall, people from other areas of Kosovo had a percentage remain at the table to gain our right to transmission operators in Europe,” Prime To make up for thecompany shortfall,within peopleKosovo. from establish a supply other areas areas of Kosovo Kosovo had percentage added to their bills to the north’s become an operator inpay thefor of Minister Ramush Haradinaj said. other of had aanetwork percentage But thistocompany has not yet been registered added their bills to pay for the north’s electricity. transmission operators infor Europe,” Prime added toend their bills Kosovo to pay the Since the of innorth’s 1999, the and licensed bythe the relevantwar institutions in electricity. Minister Ramush Haradinaj said. electricity. In December, the Energy Regulator’s Office four northern Serb-majority municipalities Kosovo, which is impeding the In December, December, the Energy Regulator’s Office announced electricity bills will beOffice have not Pristina for their energy In the Regulator’s implementation ofEnergy the agreement. Since thepaid endthat of the Kosovo war in 1999, the announced that electricity bills will be reduced by that 3.5 per cent as bills consumers will no consumption. announced electricity will be four northern Serb-majority municipalities “They have applied three four timeswill so no reduced by 3.5 3.5 per per cent asorfour consumers more cover the costcent of the reduced by as consumers will no have not paid Pristina for their energy To make up for the shortfall, people from far… but are violating the agreement, which more cover cover the the cost cost of ofas the fourhave done for municipalities’ power they more the four consumption. other areas of Kosovo had arespect percentage says the company should Kosovo’s municipalities’ power as they have done for for the past 19 years. municipalities’ power as they have done added their bills to pay for the north’s laws,”toKosovo’s outgoing Minister for
electricity. In December, the Energy Regulator’s Office announced that electricity bills will be reduced by 3.5 per cent as consumers will no more cover the cost of the four municipalities’ power as they have done for the past 19 years. Pristina and Belgrade signed an agreement on energy in 2015 which obliges Kosovo to allow Serbia’s public energy company to establish a supply company within Kosovo. But this company has not yet been registered and licensed by the relevant institutions in Kosovo, which is impeding the implementation of the agreement. “They have applied three or four times so far… but are violating the agreement, which says the company should respect Kosovo’s laws,” Kosovo’s outgoing Minister for Dialogue Edita Tahiri told BIRN last August. “When it submits its application, the company… has failed to write in its statute that it is operating in Kosovo,” she added. Minister of Economic Development Valdrin Lluka said last year that the average costs of the Serb-majority municipalities’ energy was 8.7-8.9 million euros per annum. However he said the cost in 2017 was “a little bit higher, almost around 9.5 and maybe by the end of the year it will be 10 million euros in total”. Read more: https://balkaninsight.com/2018/03/06/ government-pays-a-million-euroSerbia and Kosovo Reach Four Key for-electricity-bills-in-northernAgreements kosovo-03-06-2018/
07.03.2018 in.reuters.com in.reuters.com
Serbia, Kosovo power Serbia, grid rowKosovo delays power grid row delays European clocks European clocks
Fatos Bytyci Fatos Bytyci 3-4 minutes 3-4 minutes
SARAJEVO, March 7 (Reuters) - European SARAJEVO, March 7 (Reuters) - European power grid lobby ENTSO-E urged Serbia and power grid lobby ENTSO-E Serbia Kosovo to urgently resolve aurged dispute over and Kosovo to urgently resolve a dispute over their power grid, which has affected the their power grid, which has affected broader European network, causing the some broaderclocks European causing digital on thenetwork, continent to losesome time. digital clocks on the continent to lose time. The grid shared by Serbia and its former The grid shared and to itsEurope’s former province Kosovoby is Serbia connected province Kosovo is voltage connected to Europe’s synchronized high power network. synchronized high voltage power network. ENTSO-E, which represents European ENTSO-E, which represents European electricity transmission operators, said the electricity transmission said the continental network hadoperators, lost 113 gigawattcontinental network hadsince lost mid-January 113 gigawatthours (GWh) of energy hours (GWh) of energy since mid-January because Kosovo had been using more because Kosovo been using more electricity than ithad generates. Serbia, which is electricity than it generates. Serbia,grid, which is responsible for balancing Kosovo’s had responsible for ENTSO-E balancing said. Kosovo’s grid, had failed to do so, failed to do so, ENTSO-E said. The loss of energy had meant that electric The loss of are energy had by meant that electric clocks that steered the frequency of clocks thatsystem, are steered by than the frequency of the power rather by a quartz the power system, rather than bybehind, a quartz crystal, to lag nearly six minutes crystal, to lag nearly six minutes behind, ENTSO-E said. ENTSO-E said. Many digital clocks, such as those in alarm Many digital such as those inuse alarm clocks and in clocks, ovens or microwaves, the clocks and in ovens or microwaves, use the frequency of the power grid to keep time. frequency of the powerwhen grid to time. The problem emerges thekeep frequency The problem emerges when the drops over a sustained period offrequency time. drops over a sustained period of time. ENTSO-E said the European network’s ENTSO-E said the European frequency had deviated from network’s its standard of frequency had to deviated its standard 50 Hertz (Hz) 49.996from Hz since mid- of 50 Hertz resulting (Hz) to 49.996 since midJanuary, in 113Hz gigawatt-hours January, in 113 gigawatt-hours (GWh) ofresulting lost energy, although it had (GWh) of to lost although it had appeared beenergy, returning to normal on appeared to be returning to normal on Tuesday. Tuesday. “Deviation stopped yesterday after Kosovo “Deviation stopped Kosovo took some steps butyesterday it will takeafter some time to tookthe some steps but to it will take some time to get system back normal,” ENTSO-E get the system Susanne back to normal,” spokeswoman Nies toldENTSO-E Reuters. spokeswoman Susanne Nies told Reuters. She said the risk could remain if there is no She said solution the risk could if there is no political to theremain problem. political solution to the problem. The political dispute centres mainly on The political dispute mainly on regulatory issues andcentres a row between Serbia regulatory and operation. a row between and Kosovoissues over grid It is Serbia further and Kosovo over grid operation. It is further complicated by the fact that Belgrade still complicated by the Kosovo. fact that Belgrade still does not recognise does not recognise Kosovo. “We will try to fix the technicalities by the “Weof will tryweek to fixbut thethe technicalities thewill end this question ofby who end of this week but loss the question who will compensate for this has to beof answered,” compensate Nies said. for this loss has to be answered,” Nies said. ENTSO-E urged European governments and ENTSO-E urged European governments and policymakers to take swift action and exert policymakers to takeand swift action exertthe pressure on Kosovo Serbia toand resolve pressure on Kosovo and Serbia integration to resolve the issue, which is also hampering of
end of this week but the question of who will compensate for this loss has to be answered,” Nies said. ENTSO-E urged European governments and policymakers to take swift action and exert pressure on Kosovo and Serbia to resolve the issue, which is also hampering integration of the western Balkans energy market required by the European Union. “These actions need to address the political side of this issue,” ENTSO-E said in a statement. The grid operators in Serbia and Kosovo were not immediately available to comment. Kosovo seceded from Serbia in 2008. Both states want to join the European Union but Brussels says they must normalize relations to forge closer ties with the bloc. Serbia and Kosovo signed an agreement on operating their power grid in 2015. However, it has not been implemented yet as they cannot agree on power distribution in Kosovo amid conflicting claims about ownership of the grid, built when they were both part of Yugoslavia. (Writing by Maja Zuvela; Editing by Susan Fenton) https://in.reuters.com/article/ serbia-kosovo-energy/serbia-kosovopower-grid-row-delays-european-clocksdw.com idINL5N1QP2FF
Evropski satovi kasne dw.com zbog Srbije i Kosova | DW | 07.03.2018 Evropski satovi kasne zbog Srbije i Kosova | 3-4 minutes DW | 07.03.2018
Deutsche Welle (www.dw.com)
Mnogi satovi irom Evrope kasne zbog toga
Deutsche Welle (www.dw.com) to je frekvencija u strujnoj mre i ve neko
vreme ispod 3-4 minutes
normalnih 50 herca – uzrok tome je, kako javljaju nema ki mediji, spor Srbije i Kosova. Mnogi satovi irom Evrope kasne zbog toga nisu mogli „Oni hroni nou kasne to jekoji frekvencija strujnoj mre i ve da neko dobiju ispod bolju vest kao izgovor: u itavoj vreme normalnih 50 herca – uzrok Evropije,radio-satovi, i satovi na ki mediji, spor tome kako javljajukao nema mikrotalasnim Srbije i Kosova.pe nicama i poretima, kasne – ukoliko su priklju eni na strujnu mre u“, nisu mogli da „Oni koji hroni no kasne pi e Frankfurter algemajne cajtung. dobiju boljuiznosi vest kao u itavoja pet izgovor: do est minuta, „Ka njenje Evropi radio-satovi, kao i satovi na za to je verovatno e se i pove avati. Razlog i poretima,trkasne mikrotalasnim pe nicama to od sredine januara na evropskom i tu – ukoliko su priklju na strujnukako mre je u“,to struje postoji rupa u eni snabdevanju, e Frankfurter algemajne cajtung. pi u utorak u Briselu saop tilo evropsko „Ka njenje iznosi pet do aest minuta, a Udru enje strujnih mre Entsoe. Zbog e se i pove avati.izme Razlog za to jei verovatno kog konflikta u Srbije stalnog politi to od sredine januara na evropskom tr i tu Kosova odatle te e manje struje u struje postoji rupa kako eno je to na koju je priklju kontinentalnu mre uusnabdevanju, evropsko u u Briselu saop 25utorak zemalja od Turske dotilo Holandije.“ Udru enje strujnih mre a Entsoe. Zbog „Pri tome se radi o nekoliko stalnog politi kogsamo konflikta izme ustotina Srbije i prekid u snabdevanju megavata – zbog manje struje u Kosova odatle te eega ke posledice. ina e nema te mre u na koju„Sistemski je priklju eno kontinentalnu mre a nije ugro ena“,do rekao je jedan 25 zemalja od Turske Holandije.“ predstavnik Nema ke agencije za mre e. „Pri tome se radi samo o nekoliko stotina Struja iz Srbije i sa Kosova nije toliko va na egada prekid megavata zbog totalnog da bi zbog–nje moglo do e udosnabdevanju ina e nema te kejeposledice. prekida, re eno u Entsoeu.„Sistemski U industriji a nije ugro je zbog jedanoscilacija mre nije poznato da jeena“, bilo rekao smetnji predstavnik agencije za mre e. u frekvenciji,Nema pa ni ukealuminijumskoj Struja iz Srbije i sa iKosova toliko va na industriji, koja tro mnogonije struje, nema da bi zbog da do e do totalnog indicija za nje takomoglo ne to.“ prekida, re eno je u Entsoeu. U industriji „No,poznato te oscilacije dovoljne poremete nije da jesu bilo smetnjidazbog oscilacija satove. Mnogipa satovi nemaju interni takt, niti u frekvenciji, ni u aluminijumskoj dobijaju dobijaju takt preko ve nema industriji, koja tro iradio-veze, mnogo struje, potrebnezaimpulse strujne mre e. Ta indicija tako neizto.“ frekvencija iznosi 50 herca – 50 oscilacija u „No, te oscilacije dovoljnepokazuje da poremete sekundi. Posle 50su oscilacija, se satove.a Mnogi satovi nemaju takt, niti sekunda. Kada nema interni dovoljno struje, slede dobijaju dobijaju takt preko radio-veze, ve frekvencija spada ispod 50 herca, pa je zato e. Ta I zato potrebne impulse iz strujne e vremena. za 50 oscilacija potrebno vi mre frekvencija iznosi 50 herca – 50 oscilacija u
satove. Mnogi satovi nemaju interni takt, niti dobijaju takt preko radio-veze, ve dobijaju potrebne impulse iz strujne mre e. Ta frekvencija iznosi 50 herca – 50 oscilacija u sekundi. Posle 50 oscilacija, pokazuje se slede a sekunda. Kada nema dovoljno struje, frekvencija spada ispod 50 herca, pa je zato za 50 oscilacija potrebno vi e vremena. I zato satovi kasne.“ „To se i ina e stalno de ava. Frekvencija strujne mre e nikada nije stabilna. Vlasnici mre a obi no odmah reaguju kada frekvencija pre e 50 herca ili padne ispod te vrednosti i prilago avaju snabdevanje strujom toj situaciji. Prema evropskim pravilima, to treba da se de va i na samom Balkanu. Ali, tamo se od sredine januara ni ta nije desilo, jer Kosovo skladi ti premalo struje a Srbija odbija da popuni tu rupu. Nema ka ne mo e tek tako da prisko i i sama stavi na raspolaganje vi e struje.“ „Od sredine januara, frekvencija strujne mre e u Evropi iznosi 49,996 umesto 50 herca. I zato satovi iz dana u dan sve vi e kasne. Entsoe je izrazio optimizam u pogledu daljeg razvoja situacije i o ekuje da e se situacija stabilizovati jo ove nedelje.“ „Odlu uju i korak e biti da se nastala rupa nadoknadi. Onaj ko sada odlu i da ru no podesi satove, za nekoliko nedelja e mo da ponovo imati problem – oni e uriti, tako da e oni koji hroni no kasne kona no stizati na vreme.“ pigel onlajn citira Jutu Hanson sa Tehni kog univerziteta u Darm tatu koja ka e da na podru ju Srbije, Crne Gore i Makedonije nema ravnote e u strujnoj mre i, a to tehni ki zna i da se na du e vreme padovi u toj zoni izjedna avaju strujom iz evropske mre e“. Priredio Sa a Boji itajte nas i preko DW-aplikacije za Android
stanje bi lahko trajal nekaj tednov Kot poudarjajo v zdru enju, tovrstnega primera v preteklosti e ni bilo, deviacije pa se morajo nemudoma kon ati. »Odgovoriti je treba na vpra anje, kdo bo kompenziral to izgubo,« so zapisali. ENTSO-E skupaj z nacionalnimi operaterji trenutno i e morebitne tehni ne mo nosti za re itev nastale zagate. Hkrati pa v zdru enju pozivajo evropske in nacionalne politi ne voditelje, naj zagotovijo re itev za politi no stran problema. Kot e dodajajo, je ure mogo e na pravilno vrednost nastaviti ro no, vendar jih bo v tem primeru potrebno ponovno resetirati, ko bo sistem okreval na normalno frekvenco. e uporabniki ne storijo ni esar, se bodo ure »popravile« same, ko se bo stanje v sistemu normaliziralo. Zdru enje ob tem navaja, da bodo odmike od normalnega stanja predvidoma popravili v tem tednu, nato pa bo potrebno nadoknaditi manjkajo o energijo. »Povratek sistema na normalno stanje bi lahko trajal nekaj tednov,« so e dodali. https://www.dnevnik.si/1042803952/svet/ vam-zaostaja-ura-kriv-zna-biti-spormed-srbijo-in-kosovom
Satovi u čitavoj balkans.aljazeera.net balkans.aljazeera.net Evropi kasne Satovi u čitavoj Satovi u čitavoj Satovi uspora čitavoj zbog Srbije Evropi kasne Evropi kasne zbog Evropi kasne izbog Kosova | zbog spora Srbije spora Srbije spora i iElektrična KosovaSrbije | iKosova Kosova | | Električna Električna Električna energija, Srbija, energija, Srbija, energija, Srbija, energija, Srbija, Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo 4-4 minutes 4-4 minutes
4-4 minutes Vam zaostaja ura? Kriv Satovi širom Evrope kasne jer je Satovi širom u Evrope strujnojkasne mrežijer većje zna biti spor med Srbijo frekvencija frekvencija uispod strujnoj mreži već neko vreme uobičajenih Satovi širom Evrope kasne jer je neko vreme ispod uobičajenih 50 herca, a osnovni razlog in Kosovom frekvencija u strujnoj mreži već 2-3 minutes
Kot pojasnjujejo v zdru enju ENTSO-E, je elektroenergetski sistem celinske Evrope veliko sinhronizirano obmo je, ki se razteza od panije do Tur ije in od Poljske do Nizozemske. Obsega 25 dr av, vklju no s Slovenijo. Standardizirana frekvenca elektri nega omre ja v obmo ju je 50 hercev, a se obmo je e od sredine januarja soo a s stalnimi odmiki od te frekvence. Povpre na frekvenca v evropskem sistemu od sredine januarja do danes je okoli 49,996 herca. Za odstopanja je kriv primanjkljaj v proizvodnji elektri ne energije; trenutno primanjkuje okoli 113 gigavatnih ur elektrike. V ENTSO-E so s prstom pokazali na Kosovo in Srbijo oz. »politi na nesoglasja med srbskimi in kosovskimi oblastmi«. Zmanj anje povpre ne frekvence prizadene tiste elektri ne ure, ki se ravnajo po frekvenci elektroenergetskega sistema. Te ure trenutno zaostajajo za est minut.
Povratek sistema na normalno stanje bi lahko trajal nekaj tednov Kot poudarjajo v zdru enju, tovrstnega primera v preteklosti e ni bilo, deviacije pa se morajo nemudoma kon ati. »Odgovoriti je treba na vpra anje, kdo bo kompenziral to izgubo,« so zapisali.
50 herca,poremećenog a osnovni razlog njihovog rada je njihovog poremećenog rada je spor Srbije i Kosova, prenose neko vreme ispod uobičajenih spor Srbije i Kosova, prenose evropski mediji. 50 herca, a osnovni razlog evropski mediji. Kašnjenje iznosi između pet i njihovog poremećenog rada je Kašnjenje izmeđućepet šest minutaiznosi i verovatno se i spor Srbije i Kosova, šest minuta i verovatno povećavati. Razlog tome će je se prenose povećavati. tome je činjenica da Razlog od polovine evropski mediji. činjenicanadaevropskom od polovine januara tržištu januara na evropskom struje postoji "rupa" u tržištu Kašnjenje iznosi između pet i struje postoji a"rupa" snabdevanju, to je uuutorak u snabdevanju, a to je u utorak u Briselu objavilo evropsko šest minuta i verovatno će se Briselu objavilo evropsko Udruženje strujnih mreža povećavati. Razlog tome je ENTSO-E, preneo jemreža Dojče Vele. Udruženje strujnih ENTSO-E, preneo je Dojče Vele. činjenica da od polovine Zbog političkog sukoba između januara na evropskom Srbije i Kosova odande Zbog političkog sukobastiže između tržištu manje struje u kontinentalnu Srbije i Kosova odande stiže struje postoji "rupa" u mrežu kojuu je priključeno 25 manje na struje kontinentalnu snabdevanju, u utorak u zemalja odkoju Turske doa to je 25 mrežu na je priključeno Holandije. Briselu zemalja od objavilo Turske do evropsko Holandije. Udruženje strujnih mreža Pad frekvencije uzrok ENTSO-E, preneo kašnjenja Pad frekvencije uzrok je Dojče Vele. kašnjenja U celoj Evropi kasne svisukoba satovi Zbog političkog između priključeni na strujnu mrežu: U celoj Evropi kasne svi satovi Srbije i Kosova odande stiže radiosatovi, satovi na mrežu: priključeni na strujnu mikrotalasnim rernama, oni na radiosatovi, satovi na kontinentalnu manje struje u šporetima... mikrotalasnim rernama, oni na mrežu na koju je priključeno 25 šporetima... Struja iz Srbije nijedo zemalja odi Kosova Turske toliko da bi se dogodio Strujavažna iz Srbije i Kosova nije Holandije. potpuni prekid toliko važna da ubisnabdevanju, se dogodio rekla je portparolka ENTSO-Epotpuni prekid u snabdevanju, a Kler ističući ENTSO-Ekako nije rekla jeKami, portparolka Pad frekvencije uzrok reč samo o tehničkom već inije o a Kler Kami, ističući kako "političkom problemu između kašnjenja reč samo o tehničkom već i o
zemalja od Turske do Holandije. Pad frekvencije uzrok kašnjenja U celoj Evropi kasne svi satovi priključeni na strujnu mrežu: radiosatovi, satovi na mikrotalasnim rernama, oni na šporetima... Struja iz Srbije i Kosova nije toliko važna da bi se dogodio potpuni prekid u snabdevanju, rekla je portparolka ENTSO-Ea Kler Kami, ističući kako nije reč samo o tehničkom već i o "političkom problemu između Srbije i Kosova". "Nema opasnosti kada je reč o bezbednosti snabdevanja, reč je o kvalitetu frekvencije strujne mreže", rekla je Kami za AFP. "Ovakve oscilacije mogu poremetiti rad satova. Mnogi među njima nemaju interni takt, niti ga dobivaju putem radioveze, već im potrebni impulsi stižu iz strujne mreže. Ta frekvencija iznosi 50 herca – 50 oscilacija u sekundi. Nakon 50 oscilacija pokazuje se sledeća sekunda. Kad nema dovoljno struje, frekvencija pada ispod 50 herca, pa je zato za 50 oscilacija potrebno više vremena. Zbog toga satovi kasne", pojasnila je. Frekvencija strujne mreže nikad nije stabilna. Vlasnici mreža obično odmah reaguju kad frekvencija pređe 50 herca ili padne ispod te vrednosti te prilagođavaju snabdevanje strujom takvoj situaciji. Prema evropskim pravilima, tako bi trebalo da bude i na Balkanu, no tu se od sredine januara ne događa ništa jer Kosovo skladišti premalo struje, a Srbija odbija da popuni "rupu". EMS: 'Kriva prištinska kompanija' Elektromreža Srbije (EMS) saopštila je da je do problema došlo zbog odstupanja od programa rada KOSTT-a,
Frekvencija strujne mreže nikad Elektromreža Srbije nije stabilna. Vlasnici mreža(EMS) saopštila jereaguju da je do obično odmah kad problema frekvencija pređe 50 herca ili od došlo zbog odstupanja padne ispod te vrednosti te programa rada KOSTT-a, prilagođavaju snabdevanje prištinske koja strujom takvojkompanije situaciji.
upravlja prenosnim sistemom Prema evropskim pravilima, na Kosovu. tako bi trebalo da bude i na Balkanu, no tu se od sredine januara ne događa Srbije ništa jer navodi Elektromreža Kosovo skladišti premalo struje, je tačna činjenica da je a Srbija odbija da popuni sistemska frekvenca u "rupu".
kontinentalnoj Evropi bila
EMS: 'Kriva prištinska umanjena zbog nedostatka kompanija'
od 113 gigavat-časova električne energije Srbije (EMS) Elektromreža
saopštila je da je do problema došlo zbog odstupanja od "Uzrok ovom nedostatku je programa rada KOSTT-a, konstantno odstupanje KOSTTprištinske kompanije koja upravlja prenosnim sistemom a od programa rada u periodu na Kosovu.
januar–februar 2018. KOSTT je
permanentno Elektromreža Srbijeneovlašćeno navodi da je tačna činjenica da je preuzimao neugovorenu sistemska frekvenca u električnu energiju kontinentalnoj Evropi bilaiz sinhrone oblasti 'Kontinentalna umanjena zbog nedostatka od Evropa'", 113 gigavat-časova električne objašnjava EMS. energije Ističuovom da ovakvim "Uzrok nedostatkuponašanjem je konstantno odstupanje KOSTTKOSTT krši norme i standarde a od programa rada u periodu operativnog rada u sinhronoj januar–februar 2018. KOSTT je oblasti "Kontinentalna Evropa", permanentno neovlašćeno preuzimao neugovorenu a takođe krši i svoju obavezu električnu energiju iz sinhrone samostalnog vršenja regulacije oblasti 'Kontinentalna Evropa'", svoje podoblasti, tj. balansiranja objašnjava EMS. potrošnje i proizvodnje unutar
Ističu da ovakvim ponašanjem kontrolne oblasti EMS-a. KOSTT krši norme i standarde operativnog rada u sinhronoj oblasti "Kontinentalna Evropa", "Budući da je EMS a. d. a takođe krši i svoju obavezu odgovoran za svoju kontrolnu samostalnog vršenja regulacije oblast, koja uključuje i svoje podoblasti, tj. balansiranja potrošnje i proizvodnje unutar podoblast KOSTT, svi resursi kontrolne oblasti EMS-a.
kompanije usmereni su ka
brzomda i efikasnom "Budući je EMS a. d. rešenju ovog odgovoran za kontrolnu problema. svoju Predstavnici oblast, koja uključuje i kompanije su u podoblast KOSTT, svineprekidnoj resursi komunikaciji sasu relevantnim kompanije usmereni ka brzom i efikasnomurešenju ovog institucijama zemlji i problema. Predstavnici inostranstvu, koje su uredno i kompanije su u neprekidnoj pravovremeno obaveštavane o komunikaciji sa relevantnim institucijama u zemljisituacije. i svim aspektima inostranstvu, koje su uredno i Dodatno, posle pravovremeno obaveštavane o pritisaka relevantnih svim aspektima situacije. Dodatno, posle institucija KOSTT je od 3. marta pritisaka relevantnih prestao sa neovlašćenim institucija KOSTT je od 3. marta preuzimanjem električne prestao sa neovlašćenim preuzimanjem energije, paelektrične je povećanje energije, pa je povećanje odstupanja sinhronog vremena odstupanja sinhronog vremena zaustavljeno", u saopštenju zaustavljeno", piše upiše saopštenju Elektromreže Srbije. Elektromreže Srbije. Izvor: Agencije i Al Jazeera
Izvor: Agencije i Al Jazeera
Debati Kosovë-Serbi ngadalëson orët e Europës 2 minutes
Jeni vonë për punë dhe fajësoni orën elektronike mbi komodinë? Mbase arsyeja e vërtetë e gabimit të orës, e rrjedhimisht edhe e vonesës suaj, është një nga debatet mes Kosovës dhe Serbisë, që ka prekur rrjetin elektrik të Europës. “Entsoe”, organizmi që përfaqëson operatorët e transmetimit të elektricitetit në 25 vende europiane, tha se orët elektronike janë ngadalësuar me 6 minuta që prej fillimit të janarit. Orët e kaldajave qendrore dhe orët e furrave elektrike janë prekur gjithashtu, por jo kompjuterat apo telefonat celularë. Vendet, nga Spanja në Turqi dhe nga Polonia në Holandë, janë pjesë e një zone të madhe të Europës, të lidhur bashkë në një rrjet elektrik që operon me një frekuencë të sinkronizuar. Kjo frekuencë rregullon edhe matjen e kohës në pajisje të caktuara, si ato që përmendëm. Gjatë periudhës së krizës, Kosova nuk gjeneroi elektricitet të mjaftueshëm për të plotësuar nevojat e saj. Sipas “Entsoe”, Serbia është e detyruar ligjërisht që të plotësojë nevojat e Kosovës, që të mbajë të stabilizuar rrjetin europian. Por, me që Kosova dhe Serbia janë angazhuar në një debat të fortë për këtë çështje, përfshirë shumë të tjera që prej shpalljes së Pavarësisë, Serbia nuk plotësoi nevojat energjetike të Kosovës. Dështimi për të ndërhyrë në kohë solli ndryshimin e frekuencës së rrjetit, që preku orët elektronike. Vende të tjera që humbën rezerva si pasojë, tashmë po kërkojnë kompensim. “Entsoe” tha se ndryshimi i frekuencës u ndal të martën, kur Kosova gjeneroi energjinë që i duhet, por do të duhet kohë dhe energji shtesë që ajo të stabilizohet në të gjithë Europën. Top Channel http://top-channel.tv/2018/03/07/ debati-kosove-serbi-ngadaleson-oret-eeuropes/
Clocks Slow in Europe? Blame Kosovo-Serbia Row By Valerie Hopkins and Richard Pérez-Peña 5-6 minutes
The National Assembly building in Belgrade, Serbia, last month. A dispute between Serbia and Kosovo has disrupted the electric power grid for most of Europe, making certain kinds of clocks run slow.Credit...Andrej Isakovic/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images PRISTINA, Kosovo — Physicists tell us that time expands and contracts because of relativity. Poets and philosophers tell us that time alters with love and age. And, across Europe, microwave ovens tell us that time changes with tussles between Balkan nations. A dispute between Serbia and Kosovo has disrupted the electric power grid for most of the Continent, making certain kinds of clocks — many of those on ovens, in heating systems and on radios — run up to six minutes slow. It is one of the stranger examples of technology binding together far-flung parts of the world, and one quirky effect of more than two decades of conflict in the former Yugoslavia. The slowdown began in mid-January, and since then clocks in 25 countries, from Poland to Portugal and Denmark to Turkey, have lost time. The fluctuation in the power supply is infinitesimally small — not nearly enough to make a meaningful difference for most powered devices — and if it were a brief disturbance, the effect on clocks might be too little to worry about. But millions of people run the risk of showing up late for work or missing appointments. The organization that runs the continental grid, the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity, disclosed the problem on Tuesday, saying that it had never seen anything like it before. It announced on Thursday that it had reached an agreement with Serb and Kosovar authorities to end the disruption, for now. It offered no further details. But the group cautioned that it would take some time to fully stabilize the grid after seven weeks of volatility, and that a longterm solution was still needed to prevent similar problems in the future. “Misbehavior of both countries” caused the disturbance, Susanne Nies, a spokeswoman for the system operators’ group, said in an interview. “There are some ongoing conflicts that urgently need to be resolved so that we never face such a situation again.” In technical terms, power systems in Europe, and much of Asia and Africa, run on
“Misbehavior of both countries” caused the European clocks slowed disturbance, Susanne Nies, a spokeswoman European clocks slowed for the system operators’ group, said in an by Serbia-Kosovo power interview. “There are some ongoing conflicts by Serbia-Kosovo power euractiv.com that urgently need to be resolved so that we grid row never face such a situation again.” grid row In technical terms, power systems in Europe, EURACTIV.com withclocks AFP European slowed and much of Asia and Africa, run on with AFP alternating current at 50 hertz, meaning that EURACTIV.com 5-6 minutes by Serbia-Kosovo power the flow of electricity changes directions 50 5-6 minutes times per second. (In the United States and 1. Home grid row most of the Americas, the standard is 60 1. Home hertz.) 2. News News Because of the disruption in the Balkans, the 2. EURACTIV.com 3. Global Europe with AFP grid for most of Europe has run since 5-6 minutesEurope 3. Global January at an average of 49.996 hertz. 4. Enlargement (Britain, Ireland, Norway, Sweden and the 4. Enlargement 5. clocks slowed by Serbia-Kosovo 1. European Home nations of the former Soviet Union, which 5. European power gridclocks row slowed by Serbia-Kosovo are not as tightly linked to the continental 2. News power grid row system, have not been affected.) 3. Global Europe Most clocks tell time using internal mechanisms or, like cellphones, get the time 4. Enlargement from a radio signal, and those have been fine. But clocks that measure time by that 5. European clocks slowed by Serbia-Kosovo alternating current have been fooled by the power grid row drop in frequency. Major systems like train networks and nuclear reactors were not affected. The problem began when a power plant in Kosovo, a former province of Serbia, went Alarm clocks like these have been running down for repairs, causing a shortfall in the severalclocks minutes [Wirecutter] Alarm likelate these have been running power supply. Serbia, which still controls minutes [Wirecutter] Kosovo’s transmission system, has refused to several European powerlate operators called yesterday make up the difference, despite an (7 March) power for an end to a row between Serbia European operators called yesterday agreement to do so. and Kosovo continent’s (7 March) forthat an has end sapped to a rowthe between Serbia electricity grid and electronic clocks and Kosovo that hascaused sapped the continent’s But the roots of their dispute run much to run several minutes late. electricity gridlike and caused electronic clocks deeper. Alarm clocks these have been running to run several minutes late.operators several minutes late [Wirecutter] The Brussels-based power They fought a war in Kosovo, whose association ENTSO-E said operators “political The Brussels-based power population is mostly ethnic Albanian and European power operators called yesterday disagreements” Balkan association ENTSO-E “political Muslim, in 1998 and 1999; it ended only (7 March) for anbetween end tosaid athe row between Serbia neighbours caused athe decrease in the disagreements” Balkan after a NATO bombing campaign forced and Kosovo have thatbetween has sapped the continent’s electric frequency incaused the acontinental neighbours have caused decrease innetwork the Serbia to withdraw its forces. Kosovo became electricity grid and electronic clocks since electric frequency in thelate. continental network largely autonomous, and it declared to runmid-January. several minutes since mid-January. independence in 2008. “The decrease in frequency average is The Brussels-based power operators affecting also those electric clocks that “The decrease in frequency average is are The European Union has brokered association ENTSO-E said “political steered byalso thethose frequency of the power affecting electric clocks thatsystem are negotiations for years to normalize relations disagreements” between the Balkan and not by by the ahave quartz crystal,” it said in steered frequency the power system between the two countries, but many ethnic neighbours caused aofdecrease in athe statement. and not frequency by a quartzincrystal,” it said innetwork a Serbs in the northern part of the country — electric the continental statement. and many of their allies in Serbia — do not since mid-January. Clocks for radio alarms, ovens and heating recognize the authority of the Kosovo system currently, it said,ovens “show a delay Clocks for radio and heating “The decrease inalarms, frequency average is of government. close tocurrently, six minutes” in European countries, system it electric said, “show a delay of affecting also those clocks that are including close to by sixBelgium. minutes” in European countries, That includes refusing to pay for electricity steered the frequency of the power system supplied by the Kosovo utility, costing it tens including and not byBelgium. aisquartz it said a “ENTSO-E urgingcrystal,” European and in national of millions of dollars per year. Under a 2015 statement. is urging governments and policy makersand to take swift “ENTSO-E European national agreement that was supposed to ensure a action,” it said. “The political disagreements governments and policy makers to take swift Clocks for radio alarms, ovens and heating reliable flow of power across the border, opposing Serbian and“show Kosovar action,” itthe said. “The political disagreements system currently, it said, a delay of Belgrade, the Serbian capital, created authorities have led to the observed opposing the Serbian and Kosovar close to six minutes” in European countries, companies to supply ethnic Serbs who electricity impact.” authorities have led to the observed including Belgium. wanted to pay their bills to a Serb utility. electricity impact.” Kosovo energy expertEuropean Agron Dida AFP “ENTSO-E is urging andtold national But a paperwork dispute has kept the new that Serbia has prevented Kosovo, whose Kosovo energy expert Agron Dida told AFP governments and policy makers to take swift companies from being registered in Kosovo, decade-old independence it refuses to that Serbia has prevented Kosovo, whose action,” it said. “The political disagreements and each country has accused the other of recognise, from importing cheaper decade-old independence itthe refuses to opposing the Serbian and Kosovar being the obstruction. energy it needs neighbouring Albania. recognise, from importing the cheaper authorities havefrom led to the observed energy itblackmails needs from neighbouring Serbian officials declined to comment this electricity impact.” “Serbia the optimisationAlbania. of the week, instead referring to a report they regional energy system,” Dida said. “It is “Serbia blackmails the optimisation of AFP the Kosovo energy expert Agron Dida told released in November that blamed Kosovo. possible that this creates Dida problems and regional energy system,” said.whose “It is that Serbia has prevented Kosovo, negatively the whole possible that this creates problems According to Kosovo officials, documents for affects decade-old independence it electricity refusesand to infrom Europe.” affects negatively the wholethe electricity the companies do not recognize the existence network recognise, importing cheaper network in Europe.” of their country. To them, the underlying energy itelectrical needs from neighbouring Albania. Serbia’s power grid company EMS problem is that Serbia’s state-owned utility, AD blamed the missing power on Kosovo Serbia’s electrical power grid company EMS “Serbia blackmails the optimisation of the EPS, owns and profits from much of “uninterruptedly withdrawing, in Kosovo an“It is AD blamed the missing power on regional energy system,” Dida said. Kosovo’s grid. unauthorised manner, uncontracted electric “uninterruptedly withdrawing, in anand possible that this creates problems from the synchronised European unauthorised manner, uncontracted “By biding time, they are getting richer,” said energy” affects negatively the whole electricityelectric grid. energy” the synchronised European Fadil Ismajli, a former head of Kosovo’s networkfrom in Europe.” power company, which he said is running out grid. EMS AD, which ispower taskedgrid withcompany balancing the electrical EMS of money. “All this time, we were patient; we Serbia’s Kosovo grid, said “haspower committed all itsthe EMS AD, which isittasked with balancing AD blamed the missing on Kosovo wanted to solve this problem at the table.” resources to resolving this issueininan a all swift Kosovo grid, said withdrawing, it “has committed its “uninterruptedly and efficient manner.” resources to resolving issue in a swift Whether Europe’s clocks will lose more time unauthorised manner,this uncontracted electric and efficient before that happens is unclear. energy” frommanner.” the synchronised European The statement added that Kosovo operator grid. KOSTT had “ceased, of March its The statement addedas that Kosovo3,operator Something went wrong. Please try again https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/08/ unauthorised power withdrawal.” KOSTT had “ceased, as of March 3, its the later. EMS AD, which is tasked with balancing world/europe/kosovo-serbia-clocksAca Markovic, special advisor for theall Energy unauthorised power withdrawal.” Kosovo grid, said it “has committed its Agency of to Serbia, told advisor AFP thatfor EMS AD had europe.html Aca Markovic, special Energy resources resolving this issue inthe a swift covered Kosovo’s energy needs for a while Agency of Serbia, told AFP that EMS AD had and efficient manner.” but had to stop because the costs its covered Kosovo’s energyofneeds for aand while The statement that operator breach oftorules. but had stopadded because of Kosovo the costs and its KOSTT had “ceased, as of March 3, its breach of rules. In Pristina, KOSTT director Kadri unauthorised powerdeputy withdrawal.” Kadriu said that thedeputy problem was inKadri northern In KOSTT director AcaPristina, Markovic, special advisor for the Energy Kosovo, an area populated with some 40,000 Kadriu said that the problem was in Agency of Serbia, told AFP that EMSnorthern AD had minority Serbs refuse to recognise the Kosovo, an areawho populated with some 40,000 covered Kosovo’s energy needs for a while ethnic Albanian authorities. minority Serbs who refuse to recognise the but had to stop because of the costs and its ethnic authorities. breachAlbanian ofisrules. “KOSTT supplying the north of Kosovo
Agency of Serbia, told AFP that EMS AD had covered Kosovo’s energy needs for a while but had to stop because of the costs and its breach of rules. In Pristina, KOSTT deputy director Kadri Kadriu said that the problem was in northern Kosovo, an area populated with some 40,000 minority Serbs who refuse to recognise the ethnic Albanian authorities. “KOSTT is supplying the north of Kosovo with electricity and it is considered as a loss… so the production-spending balance has been deviated causing an imbalance of the system,” Kadriu said in a statement. Serbia has refused to recognise its former breakaway province since it declared independence in 2008 and tries to block its attempt to join UN and various international organisations, including ENTSO-E. Both are seeking to join the European Union. https://www.euractiv.com/section/
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Serbian transmission For more than two decades we system have provided free, independent, multilingual reporting operator (TSO) Elektromre a on the European Union. We continue to believe in Europe, and we hope you do too.that Srbije (EMS) announced Your financial support at this critical Kosovo’s* transmission system time will allow our network of newsrooms across Europe to continue operator KOSTT has ceased their work when Europe needs it most. unauthorized Support EURACTIVpower Media Network for Europe and CONTRIBUTE today. withdrawal, which had caused system frequency deviation in the Continental European (CE) Power System since midJanuary 2018. According to EMS’ statement issued yesterday, KOSTT stopped these illegal activities on March 3, after it faced pressure exerted by relevant institutions and that deviations have consequently ended. EMS’ statement was released after the European network of transmission system operators for electricity (ENTSO-E) on Tuesday, March 6, revealed that the CE Power System has been experiencing a continuous system frequency deviation from the mean value of 50 Hz since mid-January 2018. The CE Power System is a large synchronized area stretching from Spain to Turkey and
operators for electricity (ENTSO-E) on Tuesday, March 6, revealed that the CE Power System has been experiencing a continuous system frequency deviation from the mean value of 50 Hz since mid-January 2018. The CE Power System is a large synchronized area stretching from Spain to Turkey and from Poland to the Netherlands, bringing together 25 countries. ENTSO-E said that the power deviations are originating from the control area called Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro (SMM block) and specifically Kosovo* and Serbia. “The power deviations have led to a slight decrease in the electric frequency average. This average frequency deviation, that has never happened in any similar way in the CE Power System, must cease. The missing energy amounts currently to 113 GWh. The question of who will compensate for this loss has to be answered,” the association of the European TSOs said in a statement. ENTSO-E noted that the decrease in frequency average is also affecting those electric clocks that are steered by the frequency of the power system and not by a quartz crystal: they show currently a delay of close to six minutes. EMS: KOSTT violating norms of CE Power System Serbian transmission system operator EMS confirmed the drop of system frequency in CE. “This missing energy was caused by KOSTT’s continuous deviation from the Control Program, in the period January-February 2018. KOSTT was constantly withdrawing, in an unauthorized manner, uncontracted electric energy from the CE synchronous area,” EMS said. Serbian transmission system operator underlined that KOSTT has been, with such behavior, violating norms and standards of the operational work in the CE synchronous area, and has also been in breach of its obligation of independently performing the control of its subarea (load and production balancing) within EMS’ control area. S is in charge of “Bearing in mind that balancing its control area, which includes the KOSTT subarea, EMS has committed all its resources to resolving this issue in a swift and efficient manner. Representatives of EMS are constantly in communication with the relevant local and foreign stakeholders and organizations, who have been regularly and in a timely manner provided with information about all aspects of the current situation,” EMS said in a statement. KOSTT: Serbs are not paying power bills KOSTT deputy director KadriKadriu, according to media reports, said that the problem was in northern Kosovo*, an area inhabited with some 40,000 Serbs who refuse to pay power bills to Kosovo* authorities. “KOSTT is supplying the north of Kosovo* with electricity and it is considered as a loss… so the production-spending balance has been deviated causing an imbalance of the system,” Kadriu said in a statement, the media reported. ENTSO-E: Political side of issue must be addressed ENTSO-E noted that it is exploring all technical options to address the deviation issue with the concerned TSOs. “As there is also a political dimension with impact on the functioning of the electricity system, ENTSO-E is urging European and national governments and policy makers to take swift action. These actions need to address the political side of this issue,
technical options to address the deviation issue with the concerned TSOs. “As there is also a political dimension with impact on the functioning of the electricity system, ENTSO-E is urging European and national governments and policy makers to take swift action. These actions need to address the political side of this issue, supporting ENTSO-E’s and the TSOs’ actions to deliver a technical solution,” ENTSO-E said. ( * This designation is without prejudice to positions on status and is in line with UNSCR 1244/99 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo declaration of independence.)
theguardian.com theguardian.com theguardian.com
European clocks lose European clocks six minutes after lose six minutes dispute sapsafter power from electricity grid dispute saps power from electricity grid Guardian staff and agencies Guardian staff and agencies 7-8 minutes
7-8 minutes Guardian staff and agencies 7-8 minutes A row between
A row between Kosovo and Serbia is draining energy from the continent’s 25-nation A row between andclocks Serbiatoisfall draining system, causingKosovo electronic energy from the continent’s 25-nation behind system, causing electronic clocks to fall behind
The The problem problem has has affected affected devices devices such such as as radio radio alarms and oven clocks that depend on the alarms and oven clocks that depend on the power power The problem has affected devices such as radio system’s system’s frequency frequency to to keep keep time. time. Photograph: Photograph: D. D. alarms and oven clocks that depend on the power Hurst Hurst // Alamy/Alamy Alamy/Alamy system’s frequency to keep time. Photograph: D. Europeans who have been arriving late to Hurst / Alamy/Alamy
work or school in recent weeks have more than just the badhave weather blame.late Theto real Europeans who beento arriving work orisschool in recent weeks reason an unprecedented lag have in themore than just theelectricity bad weather blame. The real continent’s gridto that is causing some to run too slowly. reasonclocks is an unprecedented lag in the continent’s electricity is causing The problem is causedgrid by athat political dispute some clocks to run too slowly. between Serbia and Kosovo that is sapping a The problem a political dispute small amountisofcaused energyby from the local grid, causing domino effect across 25-a betweenaSerbia and Kosovo thatEurope’s is sapping nation synchronized high voltage power small amount of energy from the local grid, causing aspanning domino effect across Europe’s network the continent from 25nation synchronized high voltage power Portugal to Poland and Greece to Germany. network spanning thegrid continent from urged The European power lobby group Portugal to Poland and Greece to Germany. the two Balkan countries to resolve the The European power grid lobby group urged dispute. the two Balkan countries to resolve the “Since the European system is dispute. interconnected ... when there is an imbalance somewhere the frequency slightly drops,” “Since the European system is interconnected ... when there is an imbalance said Claire Camus, a spokeswoman for the somewhereNetwork the frequency slightly drops,” European of Transmission System Operators Electricity (ENTSO-E). said Clairefor Camus, a spokeswoman for the European Network of Transmission Systemof The continental network had lost 113GWh Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E). energy since mid-January because Kosovo The been continental network had lost 113GWh of had using more electricity than it Serbia, which isbecause responsible for generates. energy since mid-January Kosovo balancing Kosovo’s grid, had failed had been using more electricity thantoitdo so, Serbia, which is responsible for generates. said. ENTSO-E balancing Kosovo’s grid, had failed to do so, The Brussels-based organisation added that ENTSO-E said. “this average frequency deviation, that has never happened in any similar way in the The Brussels-based organisation added that “this averageEuropean frequencypower deviation, thatmust has Continental system, never happened in any similar way in the cease”. Continental European power standard system, must The deviation from Europe’s 50Hz cease”. frequency has been enough to cause electric The deviation from Europe’s standard 50Hz clocks that keep time by the power system’s frequency has been enough to cause frequency, rather than built-in quartzelectric
“this average frequency deviation, that has never happened in any similar way in the Continental European power system, must cease”. The deviation from Europe’s standard 50Hz frequency has been enough to cause electric clocks that keep time by the power system’s frequency, rather than built-in quartz crystals, to fall behind by about six minutes since mid-January. The problem mostly affects radio alarms, oven clocks or clocks used to program heating systems. ENTSO-E said it was working on a technical solution that could bring the system back to normal within “a few weeks”, but urged European authorities and national governments to address the political problem at the heart of the issue. “This is beyond the technical world. Now there needs to be an agreement between Serbia and Kosovo about this lack of energy in the Kosovo system. You need to solve it politically and then technically,” Camus said. The friction between Serbia and Kosovo is part of a broader dispute that goes back almost 20 years. Since the war in Kosovo ended in 1999, the Serb-dominated north of Kosovo that remains loyal to Belgrade has not paid the Kosovo government for the energy it consumes. A 2015 agreement was meant to resolve the dispute, but Serbia has blocked its implementation. Serbia’s power operator, EMS, blamed the problem on Kosovo, claiming that in January and February the country “was withdrawing, in an unauthorized manner, uncontracted electric energy from the continental Europe synchronous area”. rtvslo.si Kadri Kadriu, deputy manager of Kosovo’s grid operator, acknowledged that electricity from elsewhere was diverted to the Serb Zaradi spora med minority in the north, but said consumers there had notin paid for their electricity, Srbijo Kosovom causing considerable financial burden to the company. zaostajajo ure po Evropi https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/ News is under threat ... K. S.| 8. marec 2018 ob 07:19 mar/08/european-clocks-lose-sixminutes-dispute-power-electricity-grid 2-3just minutes … when we need it the most. Millions of
readers around the world are flocking to the Guardian in search of honest, authoritative, Oglas fact-based reporting that can help them understand the biggest challenge we have faced in our lifetime. But at this crucial rtvslo.si moment, news organisations are facing an unprecedented existential challenge. As businesses everywhere feel the pinch, the Zaradi spora med advertising revenue that has long helped sustain our journalism continues to Srbijo in Kosovom plummet. We need your help to fill the gap. You’ve read 210 articles What's this? We zaostajajo pomany Evropi would like to remindure you how Guardian articles you've enjoyed on this device. we2018 continue showing you this? K. S.| 8. Can marec ob 07:19 Yes, that's OK No, opt me out Please note 2-3 ava se nana samo na digitalne ure.in in Teminutes you cannot undoathis action or opt back Foto: Reuters the last six months. We believe every one of Oglas us deserves equal na access quality news and re to itev. Nujna je politi measured explanation. So, unlike many enju Kot pojasnjujejo Evropskem zdru to others, we made av different choice: keep sistemskihjournalism operaterjev elektroenergetskega Guardian open for all, regardless ja (ENTSO-E), je elektroenergetski omre of where they live or what they can afford to sistem celinske veliko sinhronizirano pay. This wouldEvrope not be possible without je, ki se razteza od panije do Tur ije obmo financial contributions from our readers, in odnow Poljske do Nizozemske. Obsega who support our work from 180 25 no s Slovenijo. dr av, vklju countries around the world. nega Standardizirana frekvenca elektri We have upheld our editorial independence ja v obmo ju je 50 hercev, a se omre in the face of the disintegration of traditional obmo – je with e odsocial sredine januarjagiving soo arise s to media platforms stalnimi odmiki od frekvence.unstoppable Povpre na misinformation, theteseemingly frekvenca v evropskem sistemu od sredine rise of big tech and independent voices being januarja do danes je okoli 49,996 herca. squashed by commercial ownership. The ava se nana samo nameans digitalne Te Za odstopanja jeakriv primanjkljaj v ure. Guardian’s independence we can set Foto: Reuters energije; trenutno proizvodnji elektri our own agenda andne voice our own opinions. primanjkuje okoli 113re gigavatnih ur elektrike. Our journalism is na free from commercial and itev. Nujna je politi V ENTSO-E so s prstom pokazali na Kosovo political bias – never influenced by Kot pojasnjujejo v Evropskem zdru enju nesoglasja med in Srbijo oz. "politiornashareholders. billionaire owners This sistemskih operaterjev elektroenergetskega srbskimi in kosovskimi oblastmi". makes different. Itje means we can jaus(ENTSO-E), elektroenergetski omre challenge thepovpre powerful fear and give anje ne without frekvence prizadene Zmanj celinske sistem Evrope veliko sinhronizirano a voice to those less heard. nerazteza ure, ki od se ravnajo tiste elektri je, ki se panije po do frekvenci Tur ije obmo elektroenergetskega sistema. Te ure we trenutno Reader financial support has meant in od Poljske do Nizozemske. Obsega 25can
omre Oglas ja (ENTSO-E), je elektroenergetski sistem celinske Evrope veliko sinhronizirano obmo je, ki se razteza od panije do Tur ije in od Poljske do Nizozemske. Obsega 25 dr av, vklju no s Slovenijo. Standardizirana frekvenca elektri nega omre ja v obmo ju je 50 hercev, a se obmo je e od sredine januarja soo a s stalnimi odmiki od te frekvence. Povpre na frekvenca v evropskem sistemu od sredine januarja do danes je okoli 49,996 herca. Za odstopanja je kriv primanjkljaj v proizvodnji elektri ne energije; trenutno primanjkuje okoli 113 gigavatnih ur elektrike. V ENTSO-E so s prstom pokazali na Kosovo ava seoz. nana a samo na digitalne ure. TeSrbijo na nesoglasja med in "politi Foto: Reuters srbskimi in kosovskimi oblastmi". nane refrekvence itev. Nujna anje je politi povpre prizadene Zmanj ki se ravnajo po frekvenci tiste elektri ne ure, enju Kot pojasnjujejo v Evropskem zdru elektroenergetskega sistema. Te ure trenutno sistemskih operaterjev elektroenergetskega zaostajajo za est minut. je elektroenergetski omre ja (ENTSO-E), sistem celinske Evrope veliko sinhronizirano Predlagajo ro no ponastavitev je, ki se razteza do Tur ije obmo enju,panije tovrstnega Kot poudarjajo v zdru od in od Poljske do Nizozemske. Obsega 25 pa e ni bilo, deviacije primera v preteklosti av, vklju no s Slovenijo. dr morajo se nemudoma kon ati. "Odgovoriti je treba na vpra anje, kdo boelektri kompenziral nega to Standardizirana frekvenca izgubo," zapisali. ju je 50 hercev, a se omre ja vsoobmo obmo je eskupaj od sredine januarja soo as ENTSO-E z nacionalnimi operaterji stalnimi odmiki od te frekvence. na tehni nePovpre mo nosti trenutno i e morebitne frekvenca v evropskem sistemu od sredine za re itev nastale zagate. Hkrati pa v januarja danes jeevropske okoli 49,996 herca. zdru enjudopozivajo in nacionalne ne voditelje, najprimanjkljaj zagotovijo rev itev za politi Za odstopanja je kriv politi no stran problema. ne energije; trenutno proizvodnji elektri primanjkuje okoli 113 elektrike. mogo e naur pravilno Kot e dodajajo, je uregigavatnih V ENTSO-E so s prstom na bo Kosovo vendar jih v tem vrednost nastaviti ro no,pokazali na nesoglasja in Srbijo treba oz. "politi primeru ponovno resetirati, med ko bo srbskimi in kosovskimi oblastmi". sistem okreval na normalno frekvenco. e uporabniki storijone nifrekvence esar, se bodo ure povpre prizadene Zmanj anjene "popravile" stanje po v sistemu ne ure,kokisesebo ravnajo frekvenci tiste elektri same, normaliziralo. elektroenergetskega sistema. Te ure trenutno est minut. zaostajajo enje za ob tem navaja, da bodo odmike od Zdru normalnega popravili v ponastavitev Predlagajostanja ro nopredvidoma tem tednu, natovpa bo treba Kot poudarjajo zdru enju, nadomestiti tovrstnega o energijo. "Vrnitev napa manjkajo e ni bilo,sistema deviacije primera v preteklosti normalno stanje bi lahko nekaj se morajo nemudoma kontrajala ati. "Odgovoriti je e dodali. tednov," anje, kdo bo kompenziral to treba na so vpra izgubo," so zapisali. https://www.rtvslo.si/svet/zaradiENTSO-E skupaj z nacionalnimi operaterji spora-med-srbijo-in-kosovomtrenutno i e morebitne tehni ne mo nosti zaostajajo-ure-po-evropi/448180 za re itev nastale zagate. Hkrati pa v zdru enju pozivajo evropske in nacionalne politi ne voditelje, naj zagotovijo re itev za politi no stran problema. Kot e dodajajo, je ure mogo e na pravilno dw.com vrednost nastaviti ro no, vendar jih bo v tem primeru treba ponovno resetirati, ko bo dw.com dw.com sistem okreval na normalno frekvenco. e Nemac e senipobrinuti esar, se bodo ure uporabniki ne storijo "popravile" same, ko se bo stanje v sistemu za ta no e vreme | DW | Nemac e se pobrinuti pobrinuti normaliziralo. Nemac se enje ob tem navaja, da bodo odmike Zdru 09.03.2018 no vreme DW za ta ta no za vreme || DW || vod normalnega stanja predvidoma popravili tem tednu, nato pa bo treba nadomestiti 09.03.2018 09.03.2018 o energijo. "Vrnitev sistema na manjkajoWelle Deutsche (www.dw.com) normalno stanje bi lahko trajala nekaj 4-5 minutes dodali. tednov," so e (www.dw.com) Deutsche Welle Welle (www.dw.com) Deutsche
Kosova zbog kojeg elektri ni satovi u Evropi kasne. On je za FAZ potvrdio da e po etkom slede e nedelje otputovati u obe zemlje. Planirani su razgovori sa premijerkom Srbije Anom Brnabi i efom vlade Kosova Ramu om Haradinajem.“ „Tepfera je pozvala me unarodna energetska zajednica Enerd i komjuniti u Be u, kojoj, pored balkanskih zemalja, pripada i Evropska komisija. lanovi su se obavezali da svoju energetsku politiku saobraze evropskom pravu. U decembru je nema ka vlada zamolila Centar za posredovanje u sporovima Energetske zajednice da se posveti konfliktu koji ve dugo tinja. Tu glavnu re vodi nema ko Ministarstvo za razvojnu pomo (BMZ).“ „Kosovo e se uskoro pobrinuti da oscilacije frekvencije prestanu, obe ava Dirk Bu le, zamenik direktora Energetske zajednice. To zna i da distributer KOSTT ne e vi e bez ugovornog osnova vu i struju iz evropske mre e, ve e je – kao i ranije – kupovati na Kosovu ili u inostranstvu i u dovoljnoj meri isporu ivati preko granica.“ „No, otklanjanje manjka u snabdevanju strujom ne menja ni ta na bedi koja ima mnogo uzroka. Za razliku od koncerna drugih balkanskih zemalja, KOSTT nije lan u evropskom savezu elektrodistribucija Entso-E. To je tako jer Kosovo nisu priznale neke zemlje, na primer Srbija i zemlje EU poput panije ili Rumunije. Kosovo nema sopstvenu regulatornu zonu, to jest, mre u u kojoj distributeri moraju da minimiraju oscilacije. Kosovo je lan regulatorne zone SMM koju ine lanovi Entso-E Srbija, Makedonija i Crna Gora. Srbija je kao najva nija zemlja dosad odbijala da smiri oscilacije sa Kosova, zbog ega su one osetne i napolju.“ „Beograd iz politi kih i finansijskih razloga nema interesa da Kosovo postane samostalna regulatorna zona. Jer, do sada su Srbi ubirali novac od prodaje vi ka struje Albaniji, Makedoniji ili Crnoj Gori, a ta dobit bi zapravo trebalo da ide nadle nom operateru, a to je KOSTT, ka e zamenik direktora Energetske zajednice Dirk Bu le.“ „Ote avaju e je i to to KOSTT snabdeva strujom i sever Kosova, koji za to ne pla a. Ostatak zemlje je dugo pla ao i taj deo, ali Ustavni sud je to pro le godine zabranio. Bu le ka e da gubici zbog neubiranja novca od prenosa vi ka struje za KOSTT iznose 9,5 miliona evra godi nje, a gubici na Severu Kosova iznose 7 do 19 miliona evra, zbog ega je KOSTT na ivici propasti.“ Mnogo jednostavnije obja njenje i re enje situacije nudi list Vajblinger krajscajtung: „Satovi ponovo rade ta no“ „Uskoro e ljudi u Evropi ponovo mo i da se pouzdaju u svoje elektri ne satove (...) razlog je bio jedan politi ki spor na Balkanu. Jedan distributer na Kosovu zbog politi kih nesuglasica sa Srbijom nije ispunjavao svoje obaveze. No, srpski operater Elektromre a Srbije (EMS) sada je dao znak za prestanak opasnosti. Od 3. marta, Kosovo se ponovo pridr ava standarda, re eno je u jednoj izjavi.“ Priredio Sa a Boji itajte nas i preko DW-aplikacije za Android
4-5 minutes Vest o ka njenju velikog broja elektri nih 4-5 minutes satova u Evropi zbog spora Srbije i Kosova je nema kih kao objavljena u ve ini Vestkuriozitet ka njenju njenju velikog broja broja elektri nih Vest oo ka velikog elektri nih lo vreme i daii Kosova se listova. sada zbog je do spora satova uuAli Evropi zbog spora Srbije Kosova je satova Evropi Srbije je preduzmu konkretni koraci. ini nema nema kih kih kao kuriozitet kuriozitet objavljena ve ini kao objavljena uu ve https://www.dw.com/sr/nemac-će-selo vremeda da seteluje listova.biAli Ali sadaNemac je do do lo vreme ii da listova. sada je „Kako jedan trebalo nase preduzmu konkretni koraci. preduzmu konkretni koraci. objavljenog u listu pobrinuti-za-tačno-vreme/a-42903322 satove“ – naslov je lanka Frankfurter algemajne cajtung teluje U „Kako bi bi jedan jedan Nemac Nemac trebalo trebalo da na na (FAZ). teluje „Kako da njava: „Zbog strujnog kratkom uvodu se obja lanka objavljenog listu satove“ – naslov je satove“ – naslov je lanka objavljenog uu listu spora izme u Kosova i Srbije, u itavoj Frankfurter algemajne cajtung (FAZ). U U Frankfurter algemajne cajtung (FAZ). Evropi kasne satovi. Izanjava: toga je„Zbog jedanstrujnog vrlo njava: „Zbog strujnog kratkom uvodu se obja obja kratkom uvodu se ki problem. Sada bi trebalo da politi spora izme izme Kosova Srbije, itavoj uu Kosova ii Srbije, uu itavoj spora i nema ki ministar.“ posreduje jedan biv Evropi kasne satovi. Iza toga je jedan vrlo Evropi kasne satovi. Iza toga je jedan vrlo ki problem. problem. Sada bi bisatovi trebalokasne da zbog ki Sada trebalo da politi jo : Evropski -politi pro itajte nema ki ki ministar.“ ministar.“ posreduje jedan biv biv ii nema posreduje jedan Srbije i Kosova itajte joki::ministar Evropskizasatovi satovi kasne zbog proi itajte -- pro Evropski kasne zbog nemajo za titu ivotne „Biv Srbije ii Kosova Kosova Srbije sredine Klaus Tepfer (CDU) trebalo bi da zagladi spor oko struje izme Srbije i nema ki ministar ministar za za zautitu titu ivotne „Biv ii nema ki za ivotne „Biv nitrebalo satovi ubi Kosova elektri sredine zbog Klauskojeg Tepfer (CDU) trebalo biEvropi da sredine Klaus Tepfer (CDU) da kasne. je oko za potvrdio e poii etkom u Srbije Srbije zagladiOn spor okoFAZ struje izme uda zagladi spor struje izme e nedelje otputovati u zemlje. slede niobe satovi Evropi Kosova zbog kojeg kojeg elektri ni Kosova zbog elektri satovi uu Evropi Planirani sa premijerkom Srbije kasne. On Onsu je razgovori za FAZ FAZ potvrdio potvrdio da ee po po etkom etkom kasne. je za da efom vlade Kosova Anom nedeljeiotputovati otputovati obe zemlje. slede eeBrnabi slede nedelje uu obe zemlje. Ramu omsu Haradinajem.“ Planirani su razgovori sa sa premijerkom premijerkom Srbije Srbije Planirani razgovori i efom vlade Kosova Anom Brnabi i efom vlade Kosova Anom Brnabi „Tepfera je pozvala me unarodna energetska Ramu om omEnerd Haradinajem.“ Haradinajem.“ Ramu i komjuniti u Be u, kojoj, zajednica
Ngadalësohen orët me 6 dnevnik.si minuta - Konflikti Kosovë-Serbi çorodit Ure zaostajajo zaradi akrepat në Europë Balkana SCAN 2-3 minutes Scan RTV 2-3 minutes
Në shtëpitë tona, orët digjitale, pra ato që ushqehen drejtpërdrejtë nga rryma elektrike, e që në pjesën dërrmuese janë orët e integruara në pajisjet elektroshtëpiake apo në radiot e zgjimit, gjatë kohëve të fundit janë ngadalësuar, me rreth 6 minuta. Shkaktari i këtij fenomeni të çuditshëm është konflikti Kosovë-Serbi. Arsyeja është sa banale, aq edhe komplekse. Në Europë, frekuenca e rrymës elektrike është në 50 hertz dhe çdo anomali me këtë frekuencë, që për rrjedhojë furnizon edhe pajisjet e orëve digjitale, ka sjellë ngadalësimin e minutave.
Ka qenë vetë operatori europian i rrjeteve të transmetimit që ka njoftuar këtë, duke shtuar se nuk e ka parë diçka të tillë kurrë më parë. Rrjeti i përbashkët i energjisë mes Kosovës dhe Serbisë, bashkëngjitet me voltazhin e lartë të rrjetit europian. Kosova së fundmi ka konsumuar më shumë energji seç ka gjeneruar dhe Sebria që është përgjegjëse për ta rregulluar diçka të tillë ka dështuar. Kjo ka bërë që frekuenca normale prej 50 hertz të ulet në 49.996 hertz, çka përkthehet në një humbje prej 113 gigavatësh, duke ngadalësuar akrepat. Në thelb, konflikti mes dy vendeve është edhe më i gjerë. Serbët e Kosovës dhe pjesa e veriut të vendit, kryesisht Mitrovica veriore, kanë refuzuar gjithmonë ta paguajnë energjinë elektrike. Këtë gjë e kanë bërë autoritetet kosovare deri në fund të vitit të kaluar. Pra, që prej janarit të këtij viti, veriu i Kosovës nuk e paguan energjinë elektrike. Madje, ka zëra se, është rritur ndjeshëm aktiviteti i mining, pra prodhimit të Bitcoin në këtë pjesë të Kosovës duke shfrytëzuar energjinë elektrike falas, çka ka rritur ndjeshëm konsumin e energjisë. Roel Korkuti/SCAN *Material i përgatitur nga portali SCAN. Ripublikimi mund të bëhet vetëm kundrejt citimit të autorësisë dhe burimit origjinal. http://www.scan-tv.com/ngadalesohenoret-me-6-minuta-konflikti-kosoveserbi-corodit-akrepat-ne-europe/
Ker se Kosovo in Srbija vse od leta 1999 ne moreta dogovoriti o dobavi in pla ilu elektrike za severni del Kosova s prevladujo im srbskim prebivalstvom, zdaj te ave neto nih ur ob utijo v celotni Evropi. Kosovske oblasti so se lanskega decembra odlo ile, da elektri ni odjemalci v nesrbskih predelih Kosova ne bodo ve pla evali elektrike za tiri srbske ob ine. Po ocenah kosovskih oblasti njihov dolg do Pri tine zna a e 140 milijonov evrov. A politi na odlo itev prekinitve pla ila elektrike srbskim ob inam je o itno imela povsem prakti ne posledice za vso Evropo. Do te av v evropskih distribucijskih omre jih je pri lo takoj za to odlo itvijo. Od januarja namre v kar 25 evropskih dr avah zaznavajo te ave v fluktuaciji frekvence elektri nega omre ja. Ta bi sicer morala zna ati standardnih 50 hertzov, a je trenutno nekoliko ni ja, ker se v elektri no omre je na obmo ju SrbijeKosova in rne gore ne napaja zadostna koli ina elektrike, s katero se oskrbuje tudi Kosovo. Nastali deficit v tamkaj nji elektri ni oskrbi je bil kompenziran tako, da se je elektrika rpala iz drugih delov evropskega elektri nega omre ja, kar je povzro ilo fluktuacijo v frekvenci omre ja. Evropsko zdru enje elektrodistributerjev je Kosovo in Srbijo opozorilo, naj im prej razre ita vpra anje elektri ne oskrbe, saj ima to vpliv na celotno evropsko omre je. Kosovska vlada je zdaj o itno pripravljena opustiti namero, da ne bi ve pla evala elektri nih ra unov za srbske ob ine. Milijon evrov so za pokritje teh stro kov pred dnevi e namenili svojemu elektrodistributerju, ki mu je sicer grozila izklju itev iz evropskega distribucijskega sistema. Aleš Gaube https://www.dnevnik.si/1042814222
UPDATE 1-Kosovo finds temporary fix for energy glitch slowing Europe's clocks Reuters Editorial 4-5 minutes
(Adds German negotiator in Pristina) By Fatos Bytyci and Maja Zuvela PRISTINA/SARAJEVO, March 13 (Reuters) - Kosovo has found a short-term fix for a gap in Europe’s power grid which has slowed electric timers across much of the continent, but officials warned on Tuesday the problem may re-emerge unless a network row with Serbia is resolved for good. European grid lobby ENTSO-E said last week the continental European network had been short of 113 gigawatt-hours of energy because Kosovo had taken more power than it produced while Serbia, which is in charge of balancing Kosovo’s grid, had failed to fill
but warned onaTuesday mayofficials re-emerge unless networkthe rowproblem with may re-emerge unless a network row with Serbia is resolved for good. Serbia is resolved for good. European grid lobby ENTSO-E said last week European grid lobby ENTSO-E saidhad lastbeen week the continental European network the continental European network had been short of 113 gigawatt-hours of energy short of 113 gigawatt-hours of energy because Kosovo had taken more power than because Kosovo takenwhich moreispower than it produced whilehad Serbia, in charge it Serbia, which is in charge ofproduced balancingwhile Kosovo’s grid, had failed to fill of Kosovo’s grid, hadand failed to fill thebalancing gap between mid-January March 7. the gap between mid-January and March 7. As a result, the European network’s As a result,had thedeviated European network’s frequency from its standard of frequency had to deviated its standard of 50 Hertz (Hz) 49.996from Hz and some 50 Hertzclocks, (Hz) to 49.996byHz some of electric steered theand frequency electric clocks, steered bythan the frequency the power system rather by a quartzof the power system rathersix than by a quartz crystal, have lost nearly minutes. crystal, have lost nearly six minutes. “We have already returned 20 percent of the “We have already returned 20 percent of the missing energy and that energy will have to missing energy and thatend energy willmonth,” have toa be compensated by the of this be compensated by theofficial end oftold thisReuters month,”on a senior Kosovo energy senior Kosovo energy official told Reuters on condition of anonymity. condition of anonymity. He said the government had allocated 1 He said euros the government hadto allocated 1 million ($1.2 million) buy electricity million euros ($1.2 million) to buy to compensate for the shortfall andelectricity avoid any to compensate forinthe shortfall and avoid any similar problems future. similar problems in future. But ENTSO-E, the association of European But gridENTSO-E, operators, the saidassociation the countryofofEuropean 1.8 million grid operators, saidbetween the country of 1.8 million people might need 4.5 million and people might needtobetween 4.5 million 5.6 million euros compensate for the and 5.6 million euros to compensate for the shortfall. shortfall. “If there is no more money then we will have “If no moreagain,” moneythe then we will have thethere sameissituation Kosovo official the same situation again,” the Kosovo official warned. warned. DEAL MUST BE REACHED DEAL MUST BE REACHED Kosovo seceded from Serbia in 2008. Kosovo seceded Serbia to in recognise 2008. Belgrade, which from still refuses Belgrade, which stilltorefuses to recognise Kosovo, committed normalise relations Kosovo, committed relations with Pristina, key toto itsnormalise progress towards with Pristina, keymembership. to its progressBut towards European Union little European Union But little progress has beenmembership. made. progress has been made. A spokeswoman for ENTSO-E said a deal A spokeswoman deal must be reached for andENTSO-E the energysaid putaback must be system reachedtoand the energy put back into the restore the frequency. into the system to restore the frequency. “The outstanding point, as to avoid any “The outstanding point, aslegal to avoid any repetition, is that several energy issues repetition, is thatand several legal energy between Kosovo Serbia have to beissues set. between Kosovo are andongoing Serbia have to be set. The discussions and involve us The ongoing involvethe us fromdiscussions a technical are side, but alsoand of course from a technical side, but also of course the European Commission,” Susanne Nies said. European Commission,” Susanne Nies said. Kosovo Prime Minister Ramush Haradinaj Kosovo Primemediator MinisterKlaus Ramush Haradinaj met German Toepfer on met German mediator Klaus on Tuesday to seek a solution to Toepfer the energy Tuesday to seek a solution to the energy dispute with Serbia. dispute with Serbia. “The Kosovo government will try to resolve “The Kosovo government willthis tryisto resolve the energy problem because the energy problem because this is hampering the economic development of the hampering the economic development the country,” Haradinaj said in a statementofafter country,” Haradinaj said in a statement after the meeting. the meeting. Officials say the problem emerged after a Officials say the problem emerged to after Pristina court ruling in December endaa Pristina ruling in December to endofa practice court by which Kosovars living south practice which living higher south of the Riverby Ibar hadKosovars been receiving bills the River Ibar had been receiving higher to compensate for power consumption bybills to compensate for power consumption by not Serbs in the north of the country, who do Serbs in the northinstitutions of the country, do to not recognise Kosovo andwho refuse recognise Kosovo institutions pay the Kosovo grid operator. and refuse to pay the Kosovo grid operator. Following the court decision, Kosovo’s Following the court decision, Kosovo’s energy regulator ordered its grid operator energy ordered its44 grid operator KOSTTregulator to trim the tariff by percent. KOSTT trim tariff 44 percent. “KOSTTtodid notthe have theby legal and financial “KOSTT not have the legal and financial ability todid assume the obligation to further ability to assume thepower obligation toto further cover the losses for supply the cover the part,” losses itfor power supply to the northern told Reuters. northern part,” it told Reuters. Another senior energy official said. “We had Another seniortoenergy official said.to “We had two solutions: cut the electricity people, two solutions: tocompanies cut the electricity to people, hospitals, water and trigger hospitals, water by companies trigger violent protests Serbs, orand sit down and violent protests by Serbs, or sit and down and watch. We decided to sit down watch.” watch. We decided to sit down and watch.” Official figures show the uncollected debt Official figurestoshow debt now amounts overthe 140uncollected million euros. now amounts to over 140 million euros. Serbia’s grid operator, EMS, has obstructed Serbia’s grid operator, EMS,a has obstructed KOSTT’s efforts to become full-fledged KOSTT’s to become a full-fledged ENTSO-Eefforts member though KOSTT says all ENTSO-E member though KOSTT says all requirements have been met. requirements have been met. Both countries in 2015 signed an agreement Both countries in 2015 on operating their grids,signed but it an hasagreement never on operating but have it hasconflicting never been enacted.their The grids, two sides been The two sides have conflicting claimsenacted. about ownership of the power grid in claims ofpart the power grid in Kosovo,about built ownership when it was of Serbia. Kosovo, built when it was part of Serbia. KOSTT says the row cost it 9.6 million euros
ENTSO-E member though KOSTT says all requirements have been met. Both countries in 2015 signed an agreement on operating their grids, but it has never been enacted. The two sides have conflicting claims about ownership of the power grid in Kosovo, built when it was part of Serbia. KOSTT says the row cost it 9.6 million euros in 2017, as EMS continues to benefit from the allocation of capacity from Kosovo’s interconnectors with neighbouring countries. EMS declined to comment. ($1 = 0.8123 euros) (Writing by Maja Zuvela; Editing by Ivana Sekularac, Dale Hudson and Adrian Croft) https://in.reuters.com/article/ serbia-kosovo-energy/update-1-kosovofinds-temporary-fix-for-energy-glitchslowing-europes-clocks-idINL8N1QV6C8
03.04.2018 phys.org phys.org
Europe's Europe's clocks clocks 'back 'back on time' after electricity on time' after electricity grid grid fixed fixed (Update) (Update) 4-5 minutes 4-5 minutes
The power operators association ENTSO-E The ENTSO-E said power in earlyoperators March a association row between Serbia said in early had March a rowthe between and Kosovo affected grid's Serbia electric and Kosovo had mid-January affected the grid's electric frequency since and caused frequency since alarms, mid-January clocks for radio ovensand andcaused heating clocks fortoradio alarms,minutes ovens and systems run several lateheating systems to run several minutes late Europe's digital clocks are "back on time" Europe's digitaloperators clocks arecompensated "back on time" after its power for a after its power operators compensated for a shortfall in the continent's electricity grid shortfall inathe continent's electricity grid because of row between Serbia and Kosovo, because of a row Serbia and Kosovo, the operators saidbetween Tuesday. the operators said Tuesday. The power operators association ENTSO-E The association ENTSO-E said power in earlyoperators March the row had affected the said early March the row had affected the grid'sinelectric frequency since mid-January grid's electric frequency since mid-January and caused clocks for radio alarms, ovens and fortoradio alarms,minutes ovens and caused heatingclocks systems run several and late.heating systems to run several minutes late. "The Continental Europe transmission "The Continental Europe out transmission system operators carried a collective system operators carried out collective compensation programme to arestore the compensation programme to restore the situation back to normal," Brussels-based situation normal," ENTSO-Eback said to Tuesday in aBrussels-based statement. ENTSO-E said Tuesday in a statement. "The digital clocks geared by electric "The digital clocks electric frequency are now geared back onby time," it added. frequency are now back on time," it added. ENTSO-E said it will "continue to support all ENTSO-E will "continue to support parties" in said a biditto achieve a lasting end to all parties" in a bid to achieve a lasting end to the energy dispute between Serbia and the energy dispute between Serbia and Kosovo. Kosovo. Serbia's electrical power grid company EMS Serbia's electrical power grid EMS AD, tasked with balancing thecompany Kosovo grid, AD, tasked with balancing the Kosovo grid, blamed the missing power on Kosovo blamed the missing on Kosovo withdrawing withoutpower permission withdrawing without "uncontracted" energypermission from the "uncontracted" energy from synchronised European grid.the synchronised European grid. Kosovo operator KOSTT complained of an Kosovo operator of an "imbalance in theKOSTT system"complained when it supplied "imbalance when it supplied electricity atina the losssystem" to minority Serbs in electricity at a losswho to minority in the northern Kosovo refuse toSerbs recognise northern Kosovoauthorities. who refuse to recognise the ethnic Albanian ethnic Albanian authorities. Serbia has refused to recognise its former Serbia has refused recognise its former breakaway provincetosince it declared breakaway province since declared independence in 2008 andittries to block its independence 2008 triesinternational to block its attempt to joinin UN andand various attempt to join UN and various international
"imbalance in the system" when it supplied electricity at a loss to minority Serbs in northern Kosovo who refuse to recognise the ethnic Albanian authorities. Serbia has refused to recognise its former breakaway province since it declared independence in 2008 and tries to block its attempt to join UN and various international organisations, including ENTSO-E. Both are seeking to join the European Union. https://phys.org/news/2018-04-european-
© 2018 AFP grid-lag-clocks.html Citation: Europe's clocks 'back on time' after electricity grid fixed (Update) (2018, April 3) retrieved 5 June 2020 from https://phys.org/news/2018-04-europeangrid-lag-clocks.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart dw.com from any fair dealing for the purpose of dw.com private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Evropski satovi ure Evropski satovi ure | zbog Srbije i Kosova zbog i Kosova | DW | Srbije 04.04.2018 DW | 04.04.2018 Deutsche Welle (www.dw.com) Deutsche Welle (www.dw.com) 4 minutes 4 minutes
Satovi koji dobijaju takt iz strujne mre e kasnili koji su udobijaju Evropi zbog problema izmee u Satovi takt iz strujne mre eno,u Srbije Kosova. Sada je to skoro sreizme kasnilii su u Evropi zbog problema pi e tampa na nema kom. Ali nisre tu nije Srbije i Kosova. Sada je to skoro eno,kraj ure. „problemima prvog sada nemasveta“– kom. Ali ni satovi tu nije kraj pi e tampa na „problemima prvog sveta“– sada satovi „ vajcarski satovi nisu ta ni. Posebno oniure. koji su ugrasatovi eni u nisu porete, naPosebno iji rad uti ta ni. onie „ vajcarski frekvencija strujnoj mrena i“, pi e listuti e u porete, iji rad koji su ugranaeni Argauer i dodaje: „Frekvencija frekvencijacajtung na strujnoj mre i“, pi e list je zapravo stabilna, zai to se brine evropski je Argauer cajtung dodaje: „Frekvencija e odnos ponude i sistem koji reguli za zapravo stabilna, to se brine evropski ukoliko strujna mre ia ispadne potra nje. e odnos ponude sistem kojiAli reguli sat na poretu iz takta, onda ina e pouzdan nje. Ali iukoliko strujna mre a ispadne potra an na i ljude odjednom prestaje bude ta sat e pouzdan poretu iz takta, onda i ina da spre ava daprestaje pravovremeno svoje odjednom da bude napuste ta an i ljude domove bi stigli na voz, autobus ili avakako da pravovremeno napuste svoje spre tramvaj.“ domove kako bi stigli na voz, autobus ili tramvaj.“ - pro itajte jo : Evropski satovi kasne zbog Srbije Kosova jo : Evropski satovi kasne zbog - pro iitajte Srbije i Kosova a da je ta evropska strujna mre a, List podse u koju je uklju vajcarska, od januara a daena je tai evropska strujna mre a, List podse dokoju marta ispalaena iz takta i da je krivac za to i vajcarska, od januara u je uklju u Srbije i Kosova. spor izmeispala do marta iz takta i da je„Zbog krivactoga za toto svoj deo struje, nastali Kosovo nijeuisporu Srbije iilo Kosova. „Zbog toga to spor izme su problemi. Srpski ilo proizvo a istruje, struje nastali su taj Kosovo nije isporu svoj deo e. Mogliasu. Ali nisu. I problem mogli da reproizvo i struje su taj su problemi. Srpski tako je, ne samodanareBalkanu, problem mogli e. Moglive su. uAliitavoj nisu. I kontinentalnoj tako je, ne samoEvropi na Balkanu, ve u itavoj strujna frekvencija pala na ispod 50 herca. kontinentalnoj Evropi Posledica je bila da pala je takozvano strujna frekvencija na ispod strujno 50 herca. vreme kasnilo u odnosu na svetsko vreme.“ Posledica je bila da je takozvano strujno vreme kasnilo u odnosu Argauervreme.“ cajtung Problem je sada re en, pinae svetsko iProblem prenosi je izjavu vajcarske cajtung sadaportparolke re en, pi e Argauer Svisgrid, koja ka e da su ielektrodistribucije prenosi izjavu portparolke vajcarske „evropski partneri brzo prisko ili ka u pomo e da su elektrodistribucije Svisgrid, koja pove av i partneri poslednjih sedmica „evropski brzo priskokoli ili uinu pomo listsedmica podse akoli i da inu na struje.“ pove av ivajcarski poslednjih internet stranici Svisgrida, struje.“ vajcarski list podseu arealnom i da na se prati koliki je strujni vremenustranici mo e daSvisgrida, internet u realnom napon. U mo ponedeljak je tokom dana bio e da se prati koliki je strujni vremenu e je dana strujno vidno 50 herca,jeuve napon.preko U ponedeljak tokom biovreme za svetskim tekuve okoe deset sekundi. je strujno vreme vidno preko kaskalo 50 herca, za kaskaloKo tekjeoko deset sekundi. Alisvetskim eto i tu nevolje. zbog ka njenja ru no sat –Ko tome sat sada uri. Ali etopodesio i tu nevolje. je zbog ka njenja ure itavih esturi. minuta Njihovi satovi sada ru no podesio sat – tome sat sada jer su zvani nici hteliure da ubrzanjem itavih est takta minuta Njihovi satovi sada njenje. Totakta se automatski jer su zvani nadoknade nici hteli dakaubrzanjem odnosi i na satove na mikrotalasnim automatski nadoknade ka njenje. To se nicama, ili radio-satove starije generacije. pe odnosi i na satove na mikrotalasnim nicama, ili radio-satove starije generacije. pe - pro itajte jo : Nemac e se pobrinuti za ta no vreme itajte jo : Nemac e se pobrinuti za - pro ta nopri vreme „Jer poreme aju frekvencije mo e nastati a teta na velikim industrijskim ve aju frekvencije mo e nastati „Jer pri poreme ma elektri ni industrijskim generatori evropskih teta na velikim ve ainama, eni da elektrodistribucija tako pode evropskih ma inama, elektri su ni generatori automatski i neodlo reaguju enipromenu da elektrodistribucija suno tako pode na (…) Zbog slabe napona, kako pi e Svisgrid. automatski i neodlo no reaguju na promenu frekvencije prethodnih sedmica (…) nije Zbogbilo slabe napona, kako pi e Svisgrid. tete u vajcarskim industrijskim pogonima. frekvencije prethodnih sedmica nije bilo Zato da poneki radnik zakasnio na tete je u mo vajcarskim industrijskim pogonima. posao.“ Zato je mo da poneki radnik zakasnio na posao.“ Vi e novca za povratnike u Srbiju
automatski i neodlo no reaguju na promenu napona, kako pi e Svisgrid. (…) Zbog slabe frekvencije prethodnih sedmica nije bilo tete u vajcarskim industrijskim pogonima. Zato je mo da poneki radnik zakasnio na posao.“ Vi e novca za povratnike u Srbiju Minhenski Zidoj e cajtung pi e o povratni kom programu za migrante koji predla e nema ki ministar za razvojnu pomo Gerd Miler. Program nazvan „Perspektiva domovina“ trebalo bi da bude znatno pro iren. Za njega e ubudu e biti izdvajano 500 miliona evra godi nje. Ministar Miler smatra da je to mnogo povoljnije nego da se boravak u Nema koj finansira boravak ljudi koji nemaju anse za azil. „Do sada je za program koji je pokrenut u martu 2017. godine bilo predvi eno samo 150 miliona evra. On bi trebalo da pomogne migrantima da ponovo stanu na noge po povratku u mati nu zemlju: savetovanjem ili programima za kolovanje i zapo ljavanje. Pove anje fonda za povratak migranata u domovinu odnosi se na Albaniju, Srbiju, Kosovo, Tunis, Maroko, Ganu, Senegal, Nigeriju, Irak, Afganistan i Egipat“, dodaje Zidoj e cajtung. priredio Boris Rabrenovi itajte nas i preko DW-aplikacije za Android https://www.dw.com/sr/evropski-satovi%C5%BEure-zbog-srbije-i-kosova/ a-43246553
05.04.2018 energycouncil.com.au energycouncil.com.au
In Search of Lost Time In Search of Lost Time by Carl Kitchen by Carl Kitchen 8-9 minutes 8-9 minutes
An energy dispute in the Balkans has caused An energy the Balkans has caused millions ofdispute electricin clocks across Europe to millions of six electric clocks across Europe to lag almost minutes. lag almost six minutes. The Continental European (CE) Power The Continental (CE)Spain Power System spans 25European nations from to System 25 nations to Turkey,spans and from Polandfrom to theSpain Netherlands Turkey, andThe from Poland to on theaNetherlands (Figure 1). system runs (Figure 1). Thefrequency, system runs on a and synchronised so supply synchronised frequency, so supplytoand demand can cause the frequency slightly demand can cause the frequency to slightly rise and fall. rise and fall. Figure 1: The five permanent regional groups Figure 1: The five permanent regional groups based on the synchronous areas based on the synchronous areas
Source: European transmissions system Source: European transmissions system operators operators From mid-January the CE Power System From mid-January the CE Power System experienced continuous frequency deviation, experienced frequency deviation, which led to continuous a decrease in the electric which led to a decrease electric frequency average fromin itsthe mean value of 50 frequency average from its mean value of 50 Hz to 49.996 Hz. While only a slight Hz to 49.996 Hz. While onlythe a slight deviation, it added up, and shortage had deviation, it added and the shortage a domino-effect on up, electric clocks acrosshad the acontinent. domino-effect on electric clocks across the continent. Non-quartz electric clocks keep time by Non-quartz electric clocksofkeep time by grid measuring the frequency the electric measuring the frequency the electric grid that is supplying the clockofpower. So they can that is supplying the clockdecreases power. So they can run late when frequency and fast run late when frequency decreases and many fast when frequency increases. Historically when frequency increases. Historically appliances – usually radio alarms, ovenmany and appliances – usually radio alarms, oven and central heating timers - used system central heating timers frequency to keep time,- used until system the advent of frequency to keep time, untildecades the advent cheap quartz clocks several ago of cheap quartz clocks several decades ago made system time redundant for consumers. made system time redundant consumers. Yet many interconnected gridsfor still attempt Yet many interconnected grids stilltoattempt to maintain accurate system time retain to maintain accurate time to retain legacy standards fromsystem that era - and this legacy standards from thatanera - and this European event provides interesting European event provides an system interesting example, not because of the time example, because the systemoftime deviation not itself, but asof a symptom the deviation itself, but as a symptom difficulty of coordinating actions inofathe power difficulty of coordinating actions in a power system that spans many countries. system that spans many countries. Pinpointing the deviation Pinpointing the deviation
In early March the association of the In early March the association ofoperators the European transmissions system – European system ENTSO-E transmissions – pinpointed that the operators continuous– ENTSO-E – pinpointed the continuous deviation had originatedthat from the Serbia, deviation had originated fromblock. the Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro Macedonia Montenegro Specifically and linking the issue block. to a political Specifically linking the issue to a political dispute between Serbia and Kosovo. dispute between Serbia and Kosovo. Kosovo had been using more electricity than Kosovo had been using more it generates. Serbia, which haselectricity a legal than it generates. Serbia, which has a legal requirement to stabilise Kosovo’s grid, did requirement to stabilise Kosovo’sdecrease grid, did not do so, causing the frequency not domid-January. so, causing the frequency decrease from ENTSO-E announced
deviation had originated from the Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro block. Specifically linking the issue to a political dispute between Serbia and Kosovo. Kosovo had been using more electricity than it generates. Serbia, which has a legal requirement to stabilise Kosovo’s grid, did not do so, causing the frequency decrease from mid-January. ENTSO-E announced that the missing energy amounted to 113GWh and “the question of who will compensate for this loss has to be answered.”[i] Kosovo’s power system was originally designed as part of an integrated Yugoslav generation, transmission, and distribution electricity system. Electricity consumption and peak demand in Kosovo grew over 90 per cent between 2000 and 2010, and peak demand in 2016 was around 1200 MWh. Kosovo has two lignite-fired thermal power plants, and a small hydropower plant (HPP). The two thermal power plants can produce up to 880 MW, and the hydropower plant produces an additional 35 MW (with capacity of over 60 MW when four other smaller HPPs are added)[ii]. A long-running dispute
ENTSO-E announced that the frequency deviation “that has never happened in a similar way in the CE Power System, must cease.” And while the association was working on a technical solution to the deviations, it urged “European and national governments and policy makers to take swift action … to address the political side of the issue.” [iii] Yet the dispute runs deep and has been complicated since the late 1990s when the former province of Kosovo seceded Serbia. Serbia has denied to recognise Kosovo since it declared independence in 2008. And since the war ended 19 years ago, four cities in northern Kosovo have remained loyal to Serbia and refuse to pay the Kosovo government for the energy that they use. The remaining Kosovo population has had to pay extra to make up for the short-fall. Late last year a Pristina court found that Kosovar customers would no longer be required to pay for the energy used by the four northern Serb-majority cities. Following this ruling the Kosovar government announced that customer bills would decrease by 3.5 per cent[iv] and the Kosovo energy regulator directed its electricity grid operator, KOSTT, to reduce its tariff by 44 per cent[v]. KOSTT told Reuters that it “did not have the legal and financial ability to assume the obligation to further cover the losses for power supply to the northern part”. With an energy official reported to say, “We had two solutions: to cut the electricity to people, hospitals, water companies and trigger violent protests by Serbs, or sit down and watch. We decided to sit down and watch.”[vi] A 2015 Kosovo-Serbia agreement – concerning grid operation regulation and to ensure a reliable flow of power across borders – was signed by both parties and intended to help resolve the dispute. The agreement has never been enacted due to differing claims about the ownership of the Kosovo power grid, which was built when it was a province of Serbia. KOSTT said the dispute cost it 9.6 million euros in 2017 because, it claims, Serbia’s electrical grid operator, EMS AD, benefits from the allocation of capacity from Kosovo’s interconnectors with neighbouring countries[vii]. Planning a solution
Serbian and Kosovar transmission system operators recently confirmed that the frequency deviation had stopped. ENTSO-E reassured Europeans that system time across the continent would correct as the grid returned to normal, which it estimated would take a few weeks. The association acknowledged that an end to
Serbian and Kosovar transmission system operators recently confirmed that the frequency deviation had stopped. ENTSO-E reassured Europeans that system time across the continent would correct as the grid returned to normal, which it estimated would take a few weeks. The association acknowledged that an end to the deviation is just the first step to resolving an unprecedented issue that has deep political roots. It still remains unclear who will pay for the loss of power. Some media reported that Serbia had prevented Kosovo from importing cheaper energy from neighbouring Albania[viii] and that Serbia’s electrical grid operator, EMS AD, had thwarted KOSTT’s attempts to become a full ENTSO-E member[ix]. While EMS AD has blamed the missing power on Kosovo "uninterruptedly withdrawing, in an unauthorised manner, uncontracted electric energy" from the power system in January and February[x]. The Kosovo government has reversed-course and allocated one million euros to cover the electricity used by the four northern Serbmajority cities while working to achieve a long-term solution. However ENTSO-E has said between 4.5 million and 5.6 million euros may be needed to compensate for the shortfall and a plan to return the missing energy into the system and “putting the situation back to normal” now has to be developed[xi]. The Kosovo Prime Minister’s office recently announced that Klaus Toepfer, an exGerman environment minister, has been sent to Pristina to mediate and help resolve the dispute[xii]. While ENTSO-E plans to work closely with the European Commission to find a long-term solution, warning that if no solution can be found at political level, a deviation risk could remain.[xiii] [i] ENTSO-E, Continuing frequency deviation in the Continental European Power System originating in Serbia/Kosovo: Political solution urgently needed in addition to technical [ii] Export.gov, Kosovo – Energy [iii] Politico, Serbia-Kosovo spat delays electric clocks in Europe [iv] Balkan Insight, Kosovo Govt to Pay 1m for Serbs’ Electricity [v] Reuters, UPDATE 1-Kosovo finds temporary fix for energy glitch slowing Europe's clocks [vi] Reuters, UPDATE 1-Kosovo finds temporary fix for energy glitch slowing Europe's clocks [vii] Reuters, UPDATE 1-Kosovo finds temporary fix for energy glitch slowing Europe's clocks [viii] Planet Energies, European clocks slowed by Serbia-Kosovo power grid row [ix] Reuters, UPDATE 1-Kosovo finds temporary fix for energy glitch slowing Europe's clocks [x] Planet Energies, European clocks slowed by Serbia-Kosovo power grid row [xi] ENTSO-E, Deviations affecting frequency in Continental Europe have ceased [xii] IBNA, Kosovo-Serbia dispute over electricity grid to be examined and possibly resolved by German official [xiii] ENTSO-E, Deviations affecting frequency in Continental Europe have ceased https://www.energycouncil.com.au/ analysis/in-search-of-lost-time/
Borba za reke Kosova: Ko su Srbi i Albanci koji se zajedno suprotstavljaju hidroelektranama 16 oktobar 2019
U maloj op tini trpce na jugu Kosova ve pet godina traje borba za reke. Sa jedne strane stoje investitori koji uz dozvole nadle nih ve nekoliko godina poku avaju da izgrade hidroelektrane. SaBorba druge, udru me Kosova: tani - Srbi i Albanci - koji ele da za eni reke Ko su Srbi i uvaju prirodu, uspomene ali i sopstvenu budu nost na ovim saAlbanci koji se zajedno suprotstavljaju prostorima.
Kako je do lo do udru ivanja Srba i Albanaca u etni ki 16 oktobar 2019 podeljenom Kosovu? Kako izgleda njihova borba? Dokle su spremni da idu?
U maloj op tini trpce na jugu Kosova ve pet godina traje borbaBBC za reke. Ekipa na srpskom posetila je op tinu trpce i razgovarala
saSa me tanima okupljenim oko zajedni kog cilja.nadle nih ve jedne strane stoje investitori koji uz dozvole nekoliko godina poku avaju da izgrade hidroelektrane.
Pripremili: Marija Jankovi i Stefan Veselinovi
The fight for the rivers of Kosovo: Who are Serbs and Albanians that united oppose hydroelectric power plants? In the small municipality of Štrpce in southern Kosovo, the fight for rivers has been ongoing for five years. On the one side, there are investors who, with the permission of the authorities, have been trying to build hydroelectric power plants already for several years. On the other side, there are united locals – Serbs and Albanians – who want to preserve nature and memories and above all secure their own future in this area. How did the unification of Serbs and Albanians in ethnically divided Kosovo come about? What does their struggle look like? How far are they willing to go? The BBC in Serbian team visited the municipality of Štrpce and talked to locals who share the common goal. By: Marija Janković i Stefan Veselinović
Sa druge, udru eni me tani - Srbi i Albanci - koji ele da https://www.bbc.com/serbian/lat/balkan-50063845?SThisFB&fbclid=IwAR3furs28r1LpIia sa uvaju prirodu, uspomene ali i sopstvenu budu nost na ovim prostorima. hJ4FA4I3bpBf5rSgrRq5wZbf_VSjjDwR1abH1FrjTh8 Kako je do lo do udru ivanja Srba i Albanaca u etni ki podeljenom Kosovu? Kako izgleda njihova borba? Dokle su spremni da idu? Ekipa BBC na srpskom posetila je op tinu trpce i razgovarala sa me tanima okupljenim oko zajedni kog cilja. Pripremili: Marija Jankovi i Stefan Veselinovi
discrepancy frequency lightning
domestic trouble waiting measure
kitchen remote proximity clocks
delay shadow connectivity
passive present territory
Infra-ordinary What speaks to us, seemingly, is always the big event, the untoward, the extra-ordinary: the front-page splash, the banner headlines. Railway trains only begin to exist when they are derailed, and the more passengers that are killed, the more the trains exist. (…) What’s really going on, what we’re experiencing, the rest, all the rest, where is it? How should we take account of, question, describe what happens every day and recurs every day: the banal, the quotidian, the obvious, the common, the ordinary, the infra-ordinary, the background noise, the habitual?5
Nikola Tesla demonstrated the concept of clocks synchronized by line power frequency at the 1893 Chicago World’s fair.
Geroges Perec, Species of Spaces and Other Pieces (New York: Penguin Books, 1997), 188.
What if the clocks would run slower all the time? Would we have? Would we have more time? Would there be more time?
What constitutes a quantum discontinuity? This discontinuity that queers our presumptions of continuity is neither the opposite of the continuous, nor continuous with it. Quantum “leaps” are not mere displacements in space through time, not from here-now to there-then, not when it is the rupture itself that helps constitute the here’s and now’s, and not once and for all. The point is not merely that something is here-now and then there-then without ever having been anywhere in between – that’s bad enough, of course – but that herenow, there-then have become unmoored: there’s no given place or time for them to be. Where and when do quantum leaps happen? If the nature of causality is troubled to such a degree that effect does not simply follow cause end over end in an unfolding of existence through time, how is it possible to orient oneself in space or in time? Can we even continue to presume that space and time are still “there”? This queer causality entails the disruption of dis/continuity, a disruption so destabilizing, so downright dizzying, that it is difficult to believe that it is that which makes for the stability of existence itself.6
Karen Barad, “Nature’s Queer Performativity*”, Kvinder, Køn & Forskning, no.1–2, (2012), 40.
II. SIMPLE THINGS Let us think about simple things. A person says: tomorrow, today, evening, Thursday, month, year, during the course of the week. We count the hours in a day. We point to their addition. Before we saw only half the day, now we have noticed the movement within the whole of the day. But when the next one comes, we begin counting the hours from the beginning. In truth, however, we do add a one to the number of days. But then 30 or 31 days go by. And the quantity turns into quality, it stops growing. The name of the month changes. In truth, we do act honestly as regards the years. But the addition of time differs from all other addition. One canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t compare three months gone by with three newly grown trees. The trees are present, their leaves glimmer dimly. Of months one cannot say the same with confidence. The names of minutes, seconds, hours, days, weeks and months distract us from even our superficial understanding of time. All these names are analogous to objects, or to concepts and measures of space. Therefore, a week gone by lies before us like a killed dear. This would be so, if only time helped out in counting space, if it were cooking the books. If time were a mirror image of objects. In reality, objects are feeble mirror images of time. There are no objects. Go on, try and grab them. If we were to erase the numbers from a clock, if we were to forget its false names, maybe then time would want to show its quiet torso, to appear to us in its full glory. Let the mouse run over the stone. Count only its every step. Only forget the word every, only forget the word step. Then each step will seem a new movement. Then, since your ability to perceive a series of movements as something whole has rightfully disappeared, that which you wrongly called a step (you had confused movement and time with space, you falsely transported one ove the other), that movement will begin to break apart, it will apporach zero. The shimmering will begin. The mouse will start to shimmer. Look around you: the world is shimmering (like a mouse).7
Alexander Vvedensky, The Gray Notebook (ca. 1932â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1933), (New York: Ugly Duckling Presse, 2002).
Ephemeris Time (ET) Apparent solar time Mean solar time Sidereal time Civil time GPS time International Atomic Time (TAI) Terrestrial Time (TT) Barycentric Dynamical Time (TDB) Terrestrial Dynamic Time (TDT) Universal Time (UT) Universal Time (UT0) Universal Time (UT1R) Universal Time (UT2) Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Geocentric Coordinate Time (TCG) Barycentric Coordinate Time (TCB) Standard time Local mean time
The mechanical clock, in short, helps to create the image of a numerically quantified and mechanically powered universe. It was in the world of the medieval monasteries, with their need for a rule and for synchronized order to guide communal life, that the clock got started on its modern developments. Time measured not by the uniqueness of private experience but by abstract uniform units gradually pervades all sense life, much as does the technology of writing and printing. Not only work, but also eating and sleeping, came to accommodate themselves to the clock rather than to organic needs.8
The acceptance of such fragmenting of life into minutes and hours was unthinkable, save in highly literate communities. Readiness to submit the human organism to the alien mode of mechanical time was as dependent upon literacy in the first Christian centuries as it is today. For the clock to dominate, there has to be the prior acceptance of the visual stress that is inseparable from phonetic literacy. Literacy is itself an abstract asceticism that prepares the way for endless patterns of privation in the human community. With universal literacy, time can take on the character of an enclosed or pictorial space that can be divided and subdivided. It can be filled-in. “My schedule is filled up.” It can be kept free: “I have a free week next month.”9
But perhaps it is that sometimes time flows through time itself; that there can be not only different quantities but different qualities of time. (…) An available time, an undisciplined time, a public time, whose ideological and moral density is tolerably low. This is not a given time, but rather a time that has to be generated.10
An interval must separate the present from what it is not in order for the present to be itself, but this interval that constitutes it as present must, by the same token, divide the present in and of itself, thereby also dividing, along with the present, everything that is thought on the basis of the present, (…).11 Really what the newspaper does really want to do and what the reader of the newspaper wants the newspaper to do is to know every day what happened the day before and so get the feeling that it has happened on the same day the day the newspaper appeared the day the newspaper reader reads the newspaper and not on the day before. If they did not want to do and to have this thing the newspaper reader and the newspaper writer then they would not mind so much reading the newspaper of the day before and anybody knows that anybody who reads newspapers always objects to reading the newspaper of the day before. (…) 8 9 10
That is really what the newspaper has to say that everything that has happened has happened on that day but really this is not true because everything that has happened on that day on the newspaper day has really happened the day before and that makes all the trouble that there is with the newspaper as it is and in every way they try to destroy this day the day between the day before and the day the newspaper day.12
Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media (New York: Routledge, 1964), 158. Ibid., 166. Stephen Wright, “The Fate of Public Time: toward a time without qualities”, 1 October 2008, at: http://northeastwestsouth.net/fate-public-time-toward-time-without-qualities-0 (accessed on 17 May 2020). Jacques Derrida, Margins of Philosophy (Brighton, The Harvester Press, 1982), 13. Gertrude Stein, Narration (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1935), 43.
1 seconds The rotation of Earth, and its orbit, change slightly over time. Earth’s rotation, for example, is slowing slightly. So measuring a second based on rotation would mean that a second would get slowly longer over time. Ultimately, we couldn’t compare the second of today to the second of yesterday.13 1 ancient second
day divided by 60×60
1 modern second
hour divided by 60×60
1 solar second
1⁄86,400 of a mean solar day.
Proposed by The British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) in 1862 and internationlly adopted in 1940s.
1 ephemeris time second Defined in 1956 and adopted as part of the International System of Units (ISU) in 1960.
The fraction 1⁄31,556,925.9747 of the tropical year for 1900 January 0 at 12 hours ephemeris time.
1 atomic second (1 SI) Defined in 1967.
the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium-133 atom at a temperature of 0 K.
1 leap second A leap second is a one-second adjustment that is occasionally applied to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), to accommodate the difference between precise International Atomic Time as measured by atomic clocks and imprecise observed solar time which varies due to irregularities and long-term slowdown in the Earth’s rotation. The main reason for the slowing down of the Earth’s rotation is tidal friction, which alone would lengthen the day by 2.3 ms/century. Other contributing factors are the movement of the Earth’s crust relative to its core and any other events or processes that cause a significant redistribution of mass. For example, glacial rebound shortens the solar day by 0.6 ms per century and the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake is thought to have shortened it by 2.68 microseconds.14 1 Doomsday Clock second The “Doomsday Clock” of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, introduced in 1947, represents scientists’ estimation of our proximity to global catastrophe. (…) Doomsday Clock time doesn’t simply progress on its own, moving forward without fail, and it isn’t synchronized to one particular physical phenomenon, but rather to global politics and technological progress. A nonlinear device that is reset once each year, the Doomsday device clocks sociopolitical, technoscientific events, and its measure is marked by the distance from the endpoint—midnight, the apocalypse—rather than some origin point. Time is synchronized to a future of No Future.15 1 second in High Frequency Trading High frequency traders can conduct trades in approximately one 64 millionth of a second. This is roughly time it takes for a computer to process an order and send it out to another machine. Their automated systems allow them to scan markets for information and respond faster than a human possibly could. They complete trades in the time it would take for a human brain to process the new data appearing on a screen.16 13
Nathaniel Scharping: “Why 1 Second Is 1 Second”, Discover Magazine, 18 January 2018, at: https://www.discovermagazine.com/the-sciences/why-1-second-is-1-second (accessed on 17 May 2020). Source: Wikipedia. Karen Barad: “Troubling Time/s and Ecologies of Nothingness: Re-turning, Re-membering, and Facing the Incalculable”, New Formations, no. 92, Posthuman Temporalities (Autumn 2017), 58. Eric Reed, “What Is High-Frequency Trading?”, Smart Asset, 14 January 2020, at: https://smartasset.com/investing/high-frequency-trading (accessed on 20 May 2020).
How are we to think simultaneously, on the one hand, diffĂŠrance as the economic detour which, in the element of the same, always aims at coming back to the pleasure of the presence that have been deferred by (conscious or unconscious) calculation, and, on the other hand, diffĂŠrance as the relation to an impossible presence, as expedniture without reserve, as the irreparable loss of presence, the irreversible usage of energy, that is, as the death instinct, and as the entirely other relationship that apparently interrupts every economy?17
J acques Derrida, Margins of Philosophy (Brighton: The Harvester Press, 1982), 19.
Benjamin Libet experimentally verified a half-second lag between the brain activity initiating a movement and the conscious registering of the “decision” to act. What was troubling about this (…) is that the very act assumed to be most definitive of reflective consciousness (…) fell instead into a gaping hole in the weave of experience. Not only is what occurs in the gap unavailable to consciousness, but the very fact that there is a lag is itself nonconscious. The ‘decision’ was found to be retrospectively ‘backdated’ to coincide with onset of brain activity, so that no gap is consciously experienced. Which only makes sense: how could an interval of nonconsciousness be consciously experienced? The very idea, however, introduced what many found to be an intolerable asynchrony into the heart of experience. The present of reflection, many a critic moaned, cannot be a ‘fiction’. If the present is already a was-there, then consciousness is always a beat behind itself. (…) (…) (…) infra-instant (…) The blacked-out gap in perception is not a lack. It is sparkingly intense, to excess. Something has to give. What gives is a ‘present’ feeling of transition: an extensioneffect. The felt-extension synchretically straddles the gap. It has lept into the world of effect, held aloft by its own integral momentum. (…) (…)
The off-beat in experience is the dynamic gap-point at which the terminus recurs to the here-and-now. (…) (…) (…) The infra-instant of off-beat experience (...) (…) (…) (…) is where experience falls out of itself into the groundless ground of its own abstract making. Experience in the syncopated making is abstract because, not yet having emerged into itself, it is not yet registrable in time or space. Its emergence makes a drop of world-time in which to take place. (…) The infra-instant is nonlocal. Not because it is a simple void or negation. It is nonlocal by dint of overfullness of potential. It is the kind of no-time/no-where that is everywhere/always in the enactive cracks of coming action-perception. (…) (…) (…)
(…) (…) (…) Lost in the in-most recesses of the everyday and every place, where we might be sorely tempted to seek a misplaced concreteness of experience, we find instead the most dynamic and unbounded of abstractions: the world’s expression in perception, catching its commotional breath.18
Brian Massumi, “The Crannies of the Present”, in “Performance and Temporalisation: Time Happens”, ed. Stuart Grant, Jodie McNeilly and Maeva Veerapen, (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015), 91-100.
She waits inside the Pause. Inside her. Now19
“a hiatus between yesterday and tomorrow” wherein the temporality of waiting becomes the temporality of the present.20
a redundant time a temporal limbo an icy present21
Theresa Hak Kyung Cha, Dictee (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001), 4. Megan M. Burke: “Gender as Lived Time: Reading The Second Sex for a Feminist Phenomenology of Temporality”, Hypatia 33, no. 1 (Winter 2018), 118. Ibid.
When a woman becomes a waiting, when she is abandoned in an icy present, she lives a profound existential dependency. In being reduced to and confined to a passive present, a woman is in or positioned by time rather than as a subject who simultaneously constitutes and is constituted by time.22
Never-ending passive present, temporality of waiting Why is it that only domestic appliance electric clocks – radio alarms, oven timers – still tell time according to the oscillation frequency of the utility current? Since the 1980s most electrical clocks have included a quartz crystal, which oscillates at a steady frequency independent of fluctuations in the utility frequency. How come almost nobody noticed that all domestic appliance electric clocks across a large part of Europe were running slow for almost two months? Do these questions not point towards the troubled social, political and economic divide between the invisible, under-valued, underpayed and often un-payed reproductive labour – specifically practices of care – on the one hand, and professional, profitgenerating, sometimes over-valued so-called productive/industrial/ immaterial labour/work on the other? Does reproductive labour’s relegation primarily to the domestic sphere (kitchen, bedroom), and the “productive” to the more visible working environment (office, factory), traditionally divided between women and men, respectively, not make this particular technological condition of a clock an issue of gendered temporality?
Caregiving, associated with and expected of women, is necessary for economic production to take place and yet it is split off from economic production, thereby structurally subordinating women in society. This is why even within their own racial, indigenous status, and economic groups, women are the most marginalized.23
[T]he unwaged condition of housework has been the most powerful weapon in reinforcing the common assumption that housework is not work(…).24
In redefining housework as WORK, as not a personal service but the work that produces and reproduces labor power, feminists have uncovered a new crucial ground of exploitation that Marx and Marxist theory completely ignored. (…) We established that capitalism is built on an immense amount of unpaid labor, that is not built exclusively or primarily on contractual relations; that the wage relation hides the unpaid, slave-like nature of so much of the work upon which capital accumulation is premised.25
Hawai’i State Commission on the Status of Women Executive Director Khara Jabola-Carolus in collaboration with members of the community, Building Bridges, Not Walking on Backs A Feminist Economic Recovery Plan for COVID-19, 14 April 2020, 1, at https://humanservices.hawaii.gov/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/4.13.20-Final-Cover-D2-Feminist-Economic-Recovery-D1.pdf (accessed on 31 May 2020). Silvia Federici, Wages against Housework (New York: Power of Women Collective and Fading Wall Press, 1975), 1. Silvia Federici, Precarious Labor: A Feminist Viewpoint , 7 June 2008, at: https://web.archive.org/web/20090129174238/http://auto_sol.tao.ca/node/3074 (accessed on 28 May 2020).
THERE IS ALWAYS SOMEONE ASLEEP AND SOMEONE AWAKE SOMEONE DREAMING ASLEEP SOMEONE DREAMING AWAKE SOMEONE EATING SOMEONE HUNGRY SOMEONE FIGHTING SOMEONE LOVING SOMEONE MAKING MONEY SOMEONE BROKE SOMEONE TRAVELLING SOMEONE STAYING PUT SOMEONE HELPING SOMEONE HINDERING SOMEONE INJOYING SOMEONE SUFFERING SOMEONE INDIFFERENT SOMEONE STARTING SOMEONE STOPPING THE NETWORK IS EVERLASTING26
Robert Filliou and George Brecht, “The Eternal Network”, in Teaching and Learning as Performance Art (Cologne and New York: Koenig, 1970), 205.
What are we to make of a communication that has neither sender nor recipient until transmission has already occurred? That is, what are we to make of the fact that the existence of sender and receiver follows from this nonlocal relating rather than preceding it? What strange causality is effected? A lightning bolt is not a straightforward resolution of the buildup of a charge difference between the earth and a storm cloud: a lightning bolt does not simply proceed from storm cloud to the earth along a unidirectional (if somewhat erratic) path; rather, flirtations alight here and there and now and again as stepped leaders and positive streamers gesture toward possible forms of connection to come. The path that lightning takes not only is not predictable but does not make its way according to some continuous unidirectional path between sky and ground. Though far from microscopic in scale, it seems that we are witnessing a quantum form of communicationâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a process of iterative intra-activity.27
Karen Barad, â&#x20AC;&#x153;TransMaterialities: Trans*/Matter/Realities and Queer Political Imaginingsâ&#x20AC;?, GLQ 21, no. 2-3 (2015), 398.
(…) electricity is the condition we observe when there are certain spatial relations between things (…).28
As the networked space, through connectivity, transmits presence, and enables contact and communication, it similarly and simultaneously establishes shared zones of absence, passivity, and non-contact, perhaps mediating indifference. Facilitating active communication and intentional transmission of information, it also pushes places and people into mediated proximity that is not intentional on their part. One could say that in the latter case, the networked space instigates a situation in which one is connected involuntarily and unknowingly, sometimes randomly. One’s presence is displaced and put into proximity with another’s, passing by each other and occasionally forming involuntary temporary assemblages.29
oung J.Z., Doubt and Certainty in Science: A Biologist’s Reflections on the Brain, (New York: Praeger, 1982), 109. Y T ao G. Vrhovec Sambolec, “Rhythms of Presence”, research thesis, University of Bergen, 2018, 60, at: http://taogvs.org/RhythmsOfPresenceARPmain.html (accessed on 17 May 2020).
Utility Frequency The line power frequency is the nominal frequency of the oscillations of alternating current (AC) in a wide area synchronous grid transmitted from a power station to the end-user. In Europe this is 50 Hz. In practice, the exact line power frequency of the grid varies around the nominal frequency, reducing when the grid is heavily loaded, and speeding up when lightly loaded. However, most power utilities will adjust the frequency of the grid over the course of the day to ensure a constant number of cycles occur. In the synchronous grid of Continental Europe, the deviation between network phase time and Coordinated Universal Time UTC —based on International Atomic Time— is calculated at 08:00 each day in a control center in Switzerland. This is used by some clocks to accurately maintain their time. Musical instrument the Hammond Organ also depends on a synchronous AC clock motor to maintain correct speed of its internal “tone wheel” generator, thus keeping all notes pitchperfect, based on utility frequency stability.30
Electrical network frequency (ENF) analysis A forensic science technique for validating audio recordings by comparing frequency changes in background line power hum in the recording with long-term high-precision historical records of line power frequency changes from a database. In effect the line power hum signal is treated as if it were a time-dependent digital watermark that can help identify when the recording was created, and help detect any edits in the recording. More recently, researchers demonstrated that indoor lights such as fluorescent lights and incandescent bulbs vary their light intensity in accordance with the voltage supplied, which in turn depends on the voltage supply frequency. As a result, the light intensity can carry the frequency fluctuation information to the visual sensor recordings in a similar way as the electromagnetic waves from the power transmission lines carry the ENF information to audio sensing mechanisms.31
S ource: Wikipedia. S ource: Wikipedia.
Isolating the source of the sound is like a deflation of meaning – so this is where it has been coming from, this is what has been producing it, there is nothing to worry about and nothing further to interpret.32
Mladen Dolar, “The Burrow of Sound”, differences 22, no. 2–3 (2011), 120.
Radio Yesterday I used a radio receiver for the first time. This was an agreeable way, I found, to be convinced that entertainment is readily available. You hear something that is far away, and the people producing these audible sounds are speaking, as it were, to everyone—in other words they are completely ignorant as to the number and characteristics of their listeners. Among other things, I heard the sports results from Berlin. The person announcing them to me had not an inkling of my listenership or even my existence. I also heard Swiss-German poetry being read, which in part I found exceptionally amusing. When a group of people listens to the radio, they naturally stop carrying on conversations. While they are occupied with listening, the art of companionship is, as it were, neglected a little. This is a quite proper, obvious consequence. I and the people sitting beside me heard someone playing the cello in England. There was something strange and marvelous about this. It would be discourteous to fail to acknowledge straightaway the triumph of the spirit of technical innovation. How splendid to be enjoying piano music that came dancing up to me from a magical distance, I found: the music seemed to possess a certain buoyant languor. And now today I find a director’s position advertised in a well-established paper.33
R obert Walser, “Microscript 337 – Radio” (ca. 1926), in Microscripts, (Zurich and Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1985), 25.
The trace (of that) which can never be presented, the trace which itself can never be presented: that is, appear and manifest itself, as such, in its phenomenon. (â&#x20AC;Ś) Always differing and deferring, the trace is never as it is in the presentation of itself. It erases itself in presenting itself, muffles itself in resonating, (â&#x20AC;Ś).34
When the tobacco smoke also smells of the mouth which exhales it the two odors are married by infra-thin. The sound or the music which corduroy trousers, like these, make when one moves, is pertinent to infra-thin. The hollow in the paper between the front and back of a thin sheet of paper. The warmth of a seat (which has just/been left) is infra-thin.35
Jacques Derrida, Margins of Philosophy (Brighton: The Harvester Press, 1982), 23. Marcel Duchamp, The Essential Writings of Marcel Duchamp, ed. Michell Sanouillet and Elmer Peterson (London: Thames and Hudson, 1975), 194.
The sound implies a missing link of time and space at the point of their overlapping. This is the point from which it sounds.36
Mladen Dolar, “The Burrow of Sound”, differences 22, no. 2–3 (2011), 131.
Shadow infra-connectivity The common synchronous electrical grid establishes a territory with clear borders. The qualitative space emerging within is immeasurable, multidimensional and multidirectional; distances collapse and time synchronizes, yet the grid’s stability is precarious and fragile. Time and space are tuned by the tone of electrical current, radiating through barely audible yet potent acoustics. This opaque and radiant infrastructure provides the foundation for establishing and expressing subjectivities, identities, nationalities, and differences, and for engaging in collaborations, co-productions, trade, conflicts and wars. It is an underlying shared economy – a system that all participating agents bring into existence, contribute to, maintain and consume. This system is not fixed and finite, but it is fluctuating in the constant process of becoming and disappearing. The induced delay, the gap in time, illuminates this infrastructural entanglement, which is surprisingly and unexpectedly emphatic in the way it operates – being transnational, mutual and based on sharing, radical interdependence, co-existence of differences and collaboration. Can the operational principles of this system be transposed to the symbolic, metaphorical, social, imaginary and political registers? Can they be danced into presence as an immanent infra-utopia that is already here?
“Individuals” are infinitely indebted to all others, where or results from a transaction but, rather, a debt that is
The dancer’s movement is a nondirectional motility that resonates to the autonomous movement of the space by which it is pathically induced. Space filled with tone and homogenized by a single pervading movement—and in this the homogeneity of the acoustical mode of the spatial differs from that of empty metrical space—has itself a presentic character. Dance space is not a part of directed, historical space but is a symbolic region of the world. It is determined not by distance, direction, and magnitude but through the “wide openness,” loftiness, profundity, and autokinesis of space. While a distance extends from here to there and, thus, has a definite position and spot in space, a spot and a position have a different relation to “wide openness.” “Wide openness” is neither here nor on the horizon, nor is it on a line connecting the here with any other points of space or such points with each other; it is not quantifiable but is rather a quality of space.37
indebtedness is about not a debt that follows the condition of possibility of giving/receiving.38
Erwin Straus, Forms of Spatiality in Phenomenological Psychology (New York: Basic Books, 1966), 35. K aren Barad, “On Touching--The Inhuman That Therefore I Am”, differences 23, no. 3 (2012), 214.
The duration of one 50 Hz cycle measured with an electric clock before mid-January and after midMarch 2018 somewhere in Europe.
The duration of one 50 Hz cycle measured with an electric clock between mid-January and midMarch 2018 somewhere in Europe.
This tactic of delay—un retard en vers [a delay in verse] as Duchamp might have put it—is one means by which the avant-garde survives its inhospitable cultural environment. Seeded in ephemera, work too radical to be assimilated, diluted, absorbed, or even recognized in its own moment of composition disappears to lie dormant, but not before provoking a few subsequent experiments that will eventually develop the context in which those original strains can finally be read.39
During the Middle Ages the communal clock extended by the bell permitted high coordination of the energies of small communities. In the Renaissance the clock combined with the uniform respectability of the new typography to extend the power of social organization almost to a national scale. By the nineteenth century it had provided a technology of cohesion that was inseparable from industry and transport, enabling an entire metropolis to act almost as an automaton. Now in the electric age of decentralized power and information we begin to chafe under the uniformity of clock-time. In this age of space-time we seek multiplicity, rather than repeatability, of rhythms. This is the difference between marching soldiers and ballet.40
(…) [I]f all of us are struggling with finding time, something may have happened to time itself, even as we continue to think of it as a smoothly flowing through phenomenal space and against which changes and shifts could be measured. What about cracks in time? What about a “third time,” a fuzzy, slothful or vacant time, recalcitrant to the tyranny of real time?42 39
This urgency is both new and not new. (…) it is perhaps that the structure of temporality that timelines (in their linearity) smuggle into the discussion is inadequate to this moment.41
Craig Dworkin, “Delay in Verse”, in Language to Cover a Page, The Early writings of Vito Acconci, ed. Craig Dworkin (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2006), xvi. Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media (New York: Routledge, 1964), 161. Karen Barad, “Troubling Time/s and Ecologies of Nothingness: Re-turning, Re-membering, and Facing the Incalculable”, in New Formations, no. 92, Posthuman Temporalities (Autumn 2017), 57. Stephen Wright, “The Fate of Public Time: toward a time without qualities”, at: http://northeastwestsouth.net/fate-public-time-toward-time-without-qualities-0 (accessed on 17 May 2020).
Each period of living differs from any other period of living not in the way life is but in the way life is conducted and that authentically speaking is composition. After life has been conducted in a certain way everybody knows it but nobody knows it, little by little, nobody knows it as long as nobody knows it. (…) No one is ahead of his time, it is only that the particular variety of creating his time is the one that his contemporaries who also are creating their own time refuse to accept. And they refuse to accept it for a very simple reason and that is that they do not have to accept it for any reason. (…) Lord Grey remarked that when the generals before the war talked about the war they talked about it as a nineteenth century war although to be fought with twentieth century weapons. That is because war is a thing that decides how it is to be when it is to be done. It is prepared and to that degree it is like all academies it is not a thing made by being made it is a thing prepared. (…) For this reason as in quoting Lord Grey it is quite certain that nations not actively threatened are at least several generations behind themselves militarily so aesthetically they are more than several generations behind themselves and it is very much too bad, (…).43
G ertrude Stein, Composition as Explanation (1925), at https://www.poetryfoundation.org/articles/69481/composition-as-explanation (accessed on 17 May 2020).
Re-verse in delay It seems that in the part of the Balkans – previously the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, Ottoman Empire (all transnational entities), etc. – the nation-state forming process at the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st century is in delay. This process has fallen into a contextual, temporal and political void. Globally, the concept and existence of nation statehood is being eroded for good or ill, from below, above and from within – by the neoliberal, multinational, financial corporate politics of globalization, and at the same time, by decolonial (indigenous), regional and transnational movements. (Another example of a delay created to uphold a nation-state is national fascism and totalitarianism as violent rejection of current transnational and global conditions. National totalitarianism is the extreme attempt to freeze time in order to institute its power on the basis of the projected past that never really was.) This does not mean that nation-states cease to exist operationally, and that coming from one does not, to a great extent, determine one’s human condition and fate. The present struggle to establish a nation-state therefore creates and at the same time exists within the delay – in the temporal gap. The contemporary emerging nation-state can only exist in the delay it creates.
The phenomenon of deterritorialization, beyond liquidating the nation-state, in fact allows for an elaboration of the concept of a local without territory. (…) The in-between regards a space, not a territory. Politics takes place, but it is not a place. (…) In the era of globalization (…) this interactive space could therefore be called an absolute local [locale assoluto], “absolute” because (…) [it is] freed of the territoriality of place and from every dimension that roots it in a continuity. The absolute local is thus the name of a taking-place of politics that has no predefined borders, nor any fixed or sacred confines. It is not a nation, nor a fatherland, nor a land. It extends as far as the interactive space that is generated by reciprocal communication. It is a relational space that happens with the event of this communication and, together with it, disappears. The place and the duration are contingent and unforeseeable.44
Adriana Cavarero: “The Reciprocal Communication of Voices”, in For More than One Voice, Toward a Philosophy of Vocal Expression (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2005), 204.
Naturally one does not know how it happened until it is well
Gertrude Stein, Composition as Explanation (1925), at https://www.poetryfoundation.org/articles/69481/composition-as-explanation (accessed on 17 May 2020).
over beginning happening.45
Tao G. Vrhovec Sambolec 0.004 Hz
This publication is a companion to the project 0.004 Hz Aksioma Project Space, Ljubljana, Slovenia 19 August – 4 September 2020 www.aksioma.org/0.004hz
Concept, editing, introduction, entries, images: Tao G. Vrhovec Sambolec Editing: Janine Armin, Tea Kačar Slovenian translation: Maja Lovrenov Graphic design: Luka Umek with Tao G. Vrhovec Sambolec Software design frequency deviation graph: Jurij Rejec Produced and published by: A ksioma – Institute for Contemporary Art, Ljubljana, Slovenia | www.aksioma.org
Supported by: M inistry of Culture of Republic Slovenia Municipality of Ljubljana - Department of Culture, Slovenia Mondriaan Fund, The Netherlands Thanks to: ELES d.o.o., Kleitia Zeqo, Tomaž Grom Printed in: MegaDruck.de Edition: 1000
Disclaimer: We thank all copyright owners for their kind permission to reproduce their material. Should any person entitled to rights have been overlooked, despite our intensive research, please e-mail us with questions or concerns. Kataložni zapis o publikaciji (CIP) pripravili v Narodni in univerzitetni knjižnici v Ljubljani © Tao G. Vrhovec Sambolec 2020