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CORRUPTION IN INDIA Akshata, Liora, Meghan, Pragya, Renzo, Xintong


BACKGROUND In 2012, Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index ranked India 94th out of 176 countries, and gave it a score of 36 out of 100 (0 indicating highly corrupt and 100 indicating very clean).

Corruption in India is rampant and systemic. According to India Today, in 2012-13, bribes paid by adult urban Indians amounted to a loss of 6.3% of India’s total GDP. The amount of money invested in bribes outnumbered income tax revenues by 320%, the defense budget by 353%, health expenditure by 2,151%, education expenditure by 942% and food subsidy by 741%. Instead of going into corrupt pockets, this money could have been invested in developing welfare and facilitating growth.


The average Indian citizen will most likely encounter bribery in a basic routine setting, such as public services. The process of getting a driving license is a common example. It is both heavy in bureaucracy and low in auditing, thereby creating opportunities for shortcuts through bribery and middlemen. The option of bypassing the standard qualification procedures with bribery can lead to unsafe drivers obtaining licenses and taking to the roads. In a 2006 study on driving licensing in India, 69% of participants that successfully obtained licenses failed an independent driving test shortly after becoming certified. Incidentally, in 2010 the World Health Organization’s Global Status Report on Road Safety revealed that India has the highest rate of road traffic accidents in the world.

Origins of Corruption British Raj While India gained its independence in 1947, the origins of corruption can be “traced back to the country’s colonial past,” reports the Council on Foreign Affairs. During this period, called the British Raj, Indians were excluded from political participation and the British colonizers organized the political system. License Raj From independence onward until 1991, strict economic regulations were put into place to help India develop domestically. However, these regulations made it difficult to conduct business. According to the Council on Foreign Relations, “the 1951 Industries Act, required all new industrial operations to apply for business licenses from the central government. The policy limited foreign investment and stifled competition, and bribery became part and parcel to doing business.” Today After the License Raj economic policies were loosened, but government control over administrative functions has not been limited.

The amount of government control over services and functions has, in part, led to the level of corruption in modern India. Impact According to a survey by Transparency International, political parties are seen as most corrupt, followed by the police, parliament and legislature and public servants who were tied for third place. “Interestingly, a large number of the respondents believe that corruption is a two-way street and people who pay bribes are as much to blame for the current environment as those accepting such payments,” found a KPMG 2011 survey. Opinions “The basic cause is that the government is not designed for accountability and delivering services to its citizens. This is a larger problem, which can be resolved if adequate effort is made to streamline administrative processes.” – Shailesh Ghandi, Indian Express “Our fundamental rules in governance, Police, Co-operative and other welfare societies, etc. are still based on 1860 Act as amended but not implemented.” - Prem Sabhlok’s blog “Harassment bribery is widespread in India and it plays a large role in breeding inefficiency and has a corrosive effect on civil society. The central message…is that we should declare the act of giving a bribe in all such cases as legitimate activity. In other words the giver of a harassment bribe should have full immunity from any punitive action by the state. It is argued that this will cause a sharp decline in the incidence of bribery. The reasoning is that once the law is altered in this manner, after the act of bribery is committed, the interests of the bribe giver and the bribe taker will be at divergence. The bribe giver will be willing to cooperate in getting the bribe taker caught. Knowing that this will happen, the bribe taker will be deterred from taking a bribe.” Kaushik Basu, Chief Economic Adviser, Ministry of Finance


LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS Many attempts have been made to adress the problem of corruption in India, from legislation to government institutions responsible for implementing anti-corruption policies to civil society initiatives. However, they have not created enough deterrants from the route of bribery, enough incentives towards the route of honesty and enough awareness about unintended consequences on the every day life of the average Indian citizen.


Landscape Analysis and Status Quo The Legal Framework 1. 1860 Indian Penal Code 2. 1961 Prosecution section of Income Tax Act 3. 1988 Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Act to prohibit Benami transactions. 4. 1988 Prevention of Corruption 5. 2002 Prevention of Money Laundering Act (amended in2005) 6. 2005 Right to Information (RTI) Act 7. Public Interest Disclosure Resolution (PIDR) authorized the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) to be the ‘Designated Agency’ to receive written complaints for disclosure on any allegation of corruption or misuse of office and to recommend appropriate action. 8. Corrupt Public Servants Bill, the Lok Pal Bill (2011), the Whistle blowers Protection Bill (2011) and the Judge Inquiry Bill, and the Election Commission’s recommendation to debar candidates with a criminal background from parliamentary or State Assembly elections have been held up for years, according to The Global Integrity Report. The Institutional Framework There are various bodies in place for implementing anticorruption policies and raising awareness on corruption issues. At the federal level, key institutions include: the Supreme Court, the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC), the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), the Office of the Controller & Auditor General (C&AG), and the Chief Information Commission (CIC), and E-governce. At the State level, local anti-corruption bureaus have been set up, for example, the Anti-corruption Bureau of Maharashtra. Civil Society Initiatives • Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan (MKSS) MKSS is a small NGO formed in the 1990s that seeks place citizens and their associations directly into oversight of government functions. The organization pioneered a method for the participatory audit of local spending in rural Rajasthan.

• Transparency International India is the Indian Chapter of Transparency International. TI India promotes transparent practices in government, raises awareness among citizens and partners with civil society groups working towards similar goals. • The Centre for Media Studies (CMS) is a nonprofit, multi-disciplinary development research agency which has undertaken corruption tracking surveys since 2000. Its transparency studies unit publishes a quarterly magazine that compiles research on selected issues relevant for public accountability and transparency. It has published in collaboration with TI India the 2005 and 2007 India Corruption Studies. • Parivartan was established in 2000 as an attempt to expose corruption within the Income Tax Department in New Delhi. The movement now focuses on using the RIA Act to promote transparency and accountability in public services. • The Bharat Swabhiman Trust, established by well-known figure, Yog Guru Swami Ramdev, has run a large campaign against black money and corruption over the last ten years. • 5th Pillar is most known for the creation of the zero rupee note, a valueless note designed to be given to corrupt officials when they request bribes. • India Against Corruption (IAC) is a collective People’s Movement whose aim is “to ensure a corruption free India” by enacting the Jan Lokpal Bill. The movement is apolitical, but has resulted in the evolution of a political party, the Aam Aadmi Party, which is currently headed by Arvind Kejriwal, a prominent supporter of the IAC campaign. • Jaago Re! One Billion Votes is an organization originally founded by Tata Tea and Janaagraha to increase youth voter registration. They have since expanded their work to include other social issues, including corruption. • Association for Social Transparency, Rights and Action (ASTRA) is an NGO focused on grass-roots work to fight corruption in Karnataka.


• The Lok Satta Movement has transformed itself from a civil organization to a full-fledged political party, the Lok Satta Party. The party has fielded candidates in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Bangalore. In 2009, the party obtained its first elected post, when Jayaprakash Narayan won the election for the Kukatpally Assembly Constituency in Andhra Pradesh. • Ipaidabribe.com provides a public platform, through a website and a mobile application, that allows Indians to post their experiences with bribery. The types of bribery on the site fall four distinct categories: I Paid a Bribe (which captures incidences of bribery), I Am a Bribe Fighter (which gives examples of experiences where people resisted bribery), I Met an Honest Officer (which recognizes honest officers) and I Do Not Want to Pay a Bribe (which educates Indians how to avoid paying bribes).

Landscape Analysis and Status Quo: Road Safety The Legal Framework • Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 • The National Road Safety and Traffic Management Board Bill, 2010. Currently pending • Amendment to the Motor Vehicle Act, 2012, to increase penalties for traffic violations. Approved by the Rajya Sabha but still pending before the Lok Sabha The Institutional Framework The Department of Road Transport and Highways is the apex body for formulation and administration of the rules, regulations and laws relating to road transport, national highways and transport research. In 2005 the Department constituted a Committee on Road Safety and Traffic Management to conduct research towards identifying policies and interventions that are necessary for promoting road safety. The committee published a report in 2007 recommending the establishment of a National Road Safety Agency. However, according to the WHO there is still no national road safety strategy that is formally endorsed by the Indian government. In 2013 the Transport Ministry announced it is considering creating a National Road Safety and Traffic Management Board.

Civil Society Initiatives • ArriveSafe is an NGO working on developing road safety programs with an aim to standardize learning and testing procedures for prospective drivers. • Road Safe India is an initiative to create collaboration between individuals, corporations, public health bodies, motoring organizations, government agencies and NGOs in spreading awareness and creating training programs towards increasing road safety in India. • The Institute for Road Traffic Education is an NGO involved in research initiatives into driver training and assessment, crash investigation, traffic management, public health for road safety, traffic engineering, road safety education and innovation. It is a member of the United Nations Road Safety Collaboration and the Commission for Global Road Safety, and is promoting the implementation of a five pillar action plan to improve road safety in India. • Community Against Drunk Driving is an NGO focusing on drunk driving prevention.


HOW MONEY & POWER REINFORCE CORRUPTION BEHAVIORAL FEEDBACK LOOP

Refusal to pay bribe Bureaucrats take advantage of their position Unequal power

Bribes are exchanged

Culture of Money = Power

Take the legal route

Task gets accomplished Reinforces belief that bribing is increases

Underdevelopment continues

Bribes are cheaper & more convenient Taxes are paid

High & Complicated taxes

Government

Infrastructure

Less taxes paid, more black money Reduction in public welfare funds


RELATIONSHIP MAP Key Corruption Causes Consequences Power Taxes Transparency

Government

PSEs, Civil Services

Judicial System Police, Courts

Civil Society

People & Institutions *lar larg ge sca e po le du pul atio e to n

to ue le d ion a c s t ula rge *la e pop g r a l

POWER

Media

Print, Digital, Broadcast

Business Corporations


Civil Society

People & Institutions

TAXES

to ue e d on l a sc lati u rge *la e pop g lar

Government Public Sector, IAS

Judicial System Police, Courts

Media

Print, Digital, Broadcast

Business Corporations


RELATIVE TRANSPARENCY IN CORRUPTION OF DIFFERENT STAKEHOLDERS

CIVIL SOCIETY

MEDIA

BUSINESS JUDICIAL SYSTEM GOVERNMENT

KEY LEAST TRANSPARENT

MORE TRANSPARENT


WHAT WE LEARNED By mapping the system of corruption we

to interview anyone involved in this process

learned that the epidemic is incredibly

due to the highly confidential nature of how

widespread and corruption occurs in many

business and government operate in India.

forms, whether it be bribery, fraud or

We narrowed the scope of our problem to

cronyism, on a daily basis in India. Because

a specific instance of corruption that occurs

the scope of the problem is so large, we

daily and the average Indian citizen could

decided to look at a specific transaction

talk about – the process of getting a drivers

where corruption occurs.

license.

To start, we researched how government

To glean insights, it was important to map

and private corporations interact. Some of

the actions, insights and motivations of

the largest corruption scandals occur when

three key players in the system: the license

government gives contracts to unqualified

applicant, the government bureaucrat

businesses. The tendering process

and the tout. By mapping this instance of

appeared to be a huge leverage point,

corruption, we were able to understand

but the more we researched the problem,

where money flows, how time is impacted

we were unable to map the interactions

and what various options there are at each

because transparent information about the

stage of the process.

system does not exist. We were also unable


USER JOURNEY MAP STUDENT

KEY

NEEDS & MOTIVATIONS:

TOUT STUDENT

-

Wants freedom and independence Would rather choose an easier and faster route Will likely have to pay a bribe in the process Everyone else pays bribes

RTA OFFICIAL

+

LESS TIME IS TAKEN QUICKENING THE PROCESS CAUSING MORE TIME DELAYING PROCESS

Wants a Driving License

GOES TO DRIVING SCHOOL

+

FINDS OUT A RESOURCE FOR GETTING LICENSE WITHOUT GOING THROUGH RTA

LEARNS TO DRIVE

CONTACTS THIS PERSON

GETS INFO- DOCS. NEEEDED

APPLIES FOR LICENSE

PAYS BRIBE WAITS FOR APPOINTMENT AT RTA (QUEUE)

PAYS BRIBE (TO DRIVING SCHOOL/RTA)

DOES NOT GET APPOINTMENT GETS LICENSE Frustration

GOES TO RTA AND GETS A LICENSE

GETS APPOINTMENT TAKES TEST

FAILS

PASSES

PAYS RTA & GETS LICENSE (FEE)

+

+MONEY TO

PAYS BRIBE

RECIEVE LICENSE RS500+RS1200 (BRIBE+FEE)

GETS LICENSE


TOUT NEEDS & MOTIVATIONS: Make a low salary Must support family Wouldn't mind quick extra money Uses time to gain money Time = money Works hard

FACILITATES THE LICENSE PROCESS

CUSTOMER INQUIRES

CUSTOMER TAKES LEGAL ROUTE

-

CUSTOMER TAKES ILLEGAL ROUTE

THROUGH DRIVING SCHOOL

GIVES CLASSES

FASCILITATES APPLICATION FOR LICENSE

THROUGH RTA

MAKES CONTACT WITH RTA CLERK

PAYS BRIBE

GIVES LICENSE RECIEVES BRIBE

HELPS LEARNER OR LICENSE WITH FAKE TEST


KEY TOUT STUDENT

-

RTA OFFICIAL

+

LESS TIME IS TAKEN QUICKENING THE PROCESS CAUSING MORE TIME DELAYING PROCESS

RTA OFFICIAL NEEDS & MOTIVATIONS:

CLERKS

INSPECTORS

Has job security Makes a low salary Bribes help to support family Job gives a sense of power and status Facilitates government functions Job security leads to a lack of motivation Must keep superiors happy

ISSUES DRIVING LICENSE

A LARGE NUMBER OF APPLICATIONS RECEIVED

+

APPLICATIONS THAT HAVE BEEN PAID FOR

PROCESSED FASTER

-

GETS CONTACTED BY TOUTS

RECEIVES BRIBE APPLICATIONS THAT ARE NOT PAID FOR

LOW CLEARANCE PRIORITY

+

RECEIVES PAID APPLICATION

CLEARS APPLICATIONS & ISSUES LICENSES

HANDS IT TO THE TOUT


PROBLEM Although most of Indians know the

Since the quality of the potential driver is

importance of getting a driving license, it is

not guaranteed due to bribery and dodging

a common practice to pay bribes to obtain

of standard testing, road safety cannot be

a driving license. Why? Because obtaining

ensured. As a group, we realized that the

a license is time consuming, and the process

bribes are small and petty, and of course

nearly guarantees that a bribe will be paid

corrosive in their own way, but the real

to an RTA officer or a tout during the

problem is that unskilled drivers are getting

process. As a result, many Indians choose

on the road and their reckless driving has

to pay a bribe early on during the licensing

caused India to become the country with the

process to save time and money.

most automobile accidents.


THEORY OF CHANGE

System for Qualifying Drivers

Applying standards

Harsh Punishments for disobeying

Updated curriculum

Transparency

Convenience for user

Accountability

E-governance

Responsibility of license holder Redesigning the license

Responsibility of inspector

Responsibility of driving school

Person who approves license held accountable in instances where lives are lost

Creating campaigns for awareness -consequences


Strong Legal System

Maintaining standards

Check skills & knowledge every few years

Expiration of license

No other route

Transparency

Accountability


OUR LEVERAGE POINT There are lots of stakeholders in this driving license corruption process. We’ve identified the main stakeholders: ordinary citizens, RTA officials, touts, driving schools and the police. To have an impactful leverage point, we wanted to identify a place where all of the stakeholders had interest or ownership. We realized that the small details and basic deliverables could have an extraordinary affect on people’s normal daily life. We decided to redesign the driving license in India as a vehicle to impact accountability and unintended consequences. To create accountability and link unintended consequences to hazardous outcomes, certain features are required of our license redesign. To enforce accountability for the driving school or driving teacher, whether a friend or relative, the driving teacher or school’s name and their ID number will be included on the license. The license will also include a public service announcement element to remind people that driving without the proper skills can result in fatal accidents.


INSIGHTS & MOTIVATIONS As seen in our Theory of Change map, our ultimate goal is to reduce the number of unqualified drivers on the road. To create a better system for drivers, we needed to take into consideration the motivations for why people choose to pay a bribe when acquiring their license, as it relates back to our ultimate goal of reducing deaths caused by unqualified drivers. We found two motivations for drivers who pay bribes. One type of driver is truly unqualified. He doesn’t know how to drive and would not be able to pass the test. He is motivated to get a license and get on the road, but doesn’t want the embarrassment or hassle of going through the proper channels. The other type of driver realizes that bribery is likely to occur during the process of obtaining a license. Because of the system, there are many points where bribes may need to be paid. Due to the bureaucratic system, this driver knows that the earlier in the process she pays a bribe, the less time and money she will lose by trying to acquire a license in an honest way.


TOWARDS OUR SOLUTION As we narrowed the scope of the problem, we identified a clear leverage point – reducing the number of unqualified drivers on the road. In order to design a solution, our approach needed to include a system for accountability. We also wanted to include an awareness campaign to link behaviors to consequences. Issuing people licenses without having appropriate driving skills becomes far removed from the serious accidents that occur down the line, so we wanted to make a connection between the initial action and the potential consequence. After assessing various ideas, we decided to redesign the drivers’ license for both accountability and as a reminder of the consequences of driving without proper skills.

Accountability Currently, the Indian drivers’ license lists various personal information, (and for women, their fathers’ name) but we have found that critical information needed to create a system of accountability is missing. Our redesign will require information about how the driver learned to drive and will also list the government bureaucrat who issues the driving test and passes the driver. Our design intends to hold people accountable for issuing licenses without properly testing drivers. There are various ways this redesign element could change the system. For example, just knowing that there is a system of accountability should theoretically reduce the number of people who are able to pass the driving test without the proper skills. However, this system

Title

License N.O.

Name Photo

Son of/ Wife of/ Daughter of Date of Birth

Holder’s Signature Issuing Authority

Address

Date of Issue Date of Expiration

EXISTING INDIAN DRIVER’S LICENSE


could be adopted by police, who could take note of the driving school and government driving test issuer while writing a ticket and report after a serious accident. If a bureaucrat or driving school is found to have an excessive number of crashes with fatalities, they could lose their job or license to operate a driving school.

IMPORTANT GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS

Reminder of Consequences Currently, the back of the Indian drivers’ license is blank. We plan to use the back of the license as a public service reminder to remind people that driving without the proper skills can lead to serious accidents and death. This is simple and straightforward idea that will reinforce the idea of personal responsibility. Documents Are a Source of Identity & Accountability Since we identified accountability in our theory of change map, we needed a way to help enforce accountability with tools that already exist. Government documents are tools of identity. When you receive a passport, a marriage license or a birth certificate, it’s a rite of passage. The same feeling of pride is also felt when you receive your license for the first time. It’s a means of identity. These documents from the government also serve as a form of accountability. A driver’s license lists personal information, and in theory, ensures you know how to drive. It’s a form of trust and credibility. Because a license represents identity and accountability, it’s a vehicle that can drive change. In our project, the license is our

EXISTING INDIAN DRIVER’S LICENSES


SURVEY & RESULTS 1. Gender 2. Age: 3. How did you learn to drive? - Learned by yourself - Learned from friends - Learned from parents - Learned from a driving school - Other 4. How old were you when you first received your first license? 5. How did you obtain your driving license? - Driving school - RTA - Other (if other, please explain) 6. Did you take a driving test in oder to receive your license? 7. Did you pay a bribe for obtaining your license? - Yes - No 8. If yes, how much did you pay in bribes? 9. Where do you keep your driving license? (i.e. in the car, at home, etc.) 10. When do you carry your license? - All the time - Only when I’m driving - When I remember - Never 11. Do you carry your driving license with your other I.D’s? - Yes - No - Sometimes 12. Do you have a strong opinion about your driving license being encrypted with GPS tracking technology? If so, please share your thoughts:

We conducted a web based survey composed of 10 questions about the process of acquiring a driving license, attitudes about new technology and privacy. We used our group’s connections to reach an audience in India. Out of 62 respondants. 64.52% were male, 35.48% were female. 64.52% of respondents were aged 2129. 42.62% learned to drive at a driving school, 26.33% learned from parents, 13.11% taught themselves and 9.84% learned from friends. 75% obtained their driving licenses through an RTA official, while 18.33% received their license directly through a driving school. 75.81% claimed say they had not paid a bribe when obtaining their license. Those who did pay a bribe paid between 200 – 3000 Rupees. 93.22% carried their licenses with them at all times. 75.81% also carried other IDs with it. Many respondants expressed concern over the use of digital tracking and violation of privacy. Insights: Comparing the experiences of our Indian group members with the survey respondants, we see that many people are involved in bribery while obtaining a driver’s license - however many may not realize the money they are paying constitutes as bribery. This enforced our assumption about how common and accepted everyday bribery in driving qualification in India is. The ability to ‘learn’ driving through personal sources combined with the ability to obtain the document through simple bribery, suggests that corruption culture has a consequence of legally permitting unqualified drivers to take to the roads. We did see that people treat their licenses as important documents and this presents an opportunity to add more information and increase accountability. Also, we took note of people’s issues with technological tracking and privacy.


A LICENSE CAN DRIVE CHANGE

OUR PROCESS What do we need to create accountability? 1. Information for the driving school, the guarantor and the RTA officer 2. A link to show the consequences of issuing license to those who don’t know how to drive and bribery. What other information is important in a license? 1. Vehicle type 2. Blood type 3. Emergency contact 4. Driving restrictions 5. Information that can be used as personal identification 6. Whether or not a driver has learned driving from a driving school or through personal channels What kind of techniques can we use to communicate? 1. We can change the orientation of the license to communicate where the driver has learned to drive, which can been seen at first glance. This also creates two different hierarchies for the license, which will encourage people to use driving schools. 2. We can also use modern technology, like the QR code, for easy access to relevant information.


EXPLORATIONS & IDEAS


IMPORTANT IDEAS Important excerpts from explorations: 1. ORIENTATION: The orientation of the license indicates where the person has learned to drive. A vertical license indicates a person has not learned at a driving school, whereas a horizontal license indicates a person learned to drive through a licensed driving school. 2. ACCOUNTABILITY: • To create accountability, we are incorporating various information for driving guarantors and business schools. For driving guarantors, an ID number and signature will be required. For driving schools, the business ID number and official stamp of the driving school will be required. • As government officials are also held accountable, the employee that administers the driving test will have his or her name, office location and stamp displayed on the license. 3. QR Code: • When scanned, the QR Code will display further information about the license holder and people responsible for administering the license. • The record of the driving school and its students will be displayed. As a next step, we will create a grading or point system for driving schools that ranks the success of their drivers, and driving school will need to have a particular grade or points in order to keep their business license. • The RTA office location where the license was granted will also be displayed. The information from this office will include the frequency of traffic violations of license holders who have use their license from that specific office.

4. TRANSPARENCY: • The record of the driving school will be transparent so that potential drivers’ decisions about choosing a qualified school can be based on quantitative data. 5. AWARENESS: • Linking unintended consequences to the process of paying bribes when receiving a driving license is a challenge. To create a sense of personal responsibility for knowing how to drive properly, we are creating a campaign on the back of the license, which will be a personalized newspaper headline and photo that describes the consequence of an auto accident. By personalizing the scenario and requiring a signature below the campaign, the goal is to create personal responsibility. 6. OTHER INFORMATION: • Emergency Contact Number • Date of Expiry


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[DRIVER'S NAME] Killed Accident ����� in �� ���� ������ ��� ��������� �� ������ ������� Three people were killed 2 other passengers were

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THE SOLUTION MAP

SOLUTION MAP

CORRUPTION IN DRIVING LICENSES IN INDIA

Accountability Government

IDENTITY

Driving school

Form of personal ID

Other citizens who take resposibility

Driving records accessible & comparable

further info of driving teacher/driving school

Horizontal and vertical layout quickly identiĂžed people who went to driving school and those who didn't

Akshata, Liora, Meghan, Pragya, Renzo, Xintong

The accident took 9.30 am. Probe re that it was raining

2 other passenger critically injured undergoing treatm hospital.

Linking unintended consequences to the process of bribery Personalizing the scenario as [DRIVER'S NAM E]

[DRIVER'S NAME]

Transparency

Awareness

Three people were killed on Saturday morning when their car rammed into a bus. The driver, who was

Killed in Accident

Medical records (QR code is password protected)


SCENARIO MAP

KAVITA SIGNS THE LICENSE ID & IS AWARE OF THE CONSEQUENCES

Refusal to pay bribe

Bureaucrats

KAVITA HAS ACCIDENT. TWO PEOPLE IN THE OTHER CAR GET INJURED POLICEMAN SCANS THE INJURED PEOPLEÕS LICENSE + SCANS KAVITAÕS LICENSE HER DRIVING RECORD IS ACCESSED

HER DRIVING SCHOOLS RECORD IS ACCESSED

HER RTA OFFICES RECORD IS ACCESSED INNOCENT

NOTES ARE MADE ON HER DRIVING RECORD

GUILTY KAVITA

THE POLICE OFFICER TAKES HER LICENSE & ISSUES HER COURT DATE

KAVITA GOES TO COURT AND A JUDGE DETERMINES HER GUILT OR INNOCENCE

HAS POINTS PUT ON HER LICENSE (IF NOT FIRST OFFENSE THERE MAY BE OTHER CONSEQUENCES)

DRIVING SCHOOL

RTA

POINTS GETS ADDED

IF THE DRIVING SCHOOL'S OVERALL RECORD IS GOOD, POINTS ARE ADDED TO THEIR RECORD AND THEIR REPUTATION Infrastructure IS IMPACTED

IF RECORD IS BAD SCHOOL IS SHUT DOWN

IF THE DRIVING SCHOOL'S OVERALL RECORD IS BAD, THEY ARE LIKELY TO BE SHUT DOWN IF A CERTAINReduction in public welfare funds NUMBER OF POINTS ARE ACCUMULATED

ACCIDENT IS RECORDED IF THERE ARE A STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF ACCIDENTS FROM DRIVERS APPROVED AT THIS LOCATION, THE Less taxes paid, GOVERNMENT INTERVENES more black money


OUR NEXT STEPS GAPS IN THE CURRENT DESIGN: Security and privacy: Sensitive personal information could be compromised by digital security issues. Opportunities for corruption in the new system: In order for this plan to achieve its goals, it needs to be supported by corruption blocking measures in other parts of the system, such as law enforcement and the judicial system.

NEXT STEPS: • Build the technological platform • Connect the process to an e-governance system • Roll out the licensing points system • Install relevant anti-corruption measures in the new system • Create a publicly accessible platform for driving schools • Develop a model from this approach that can be applied to other fields


Sources • Basu, Kaushik. “Why, for a Class of Bribes, the Act of Giving a Bribe Should Be Treated as Legal.” • Datta, Damayanti. “The Bribe Republic.” India Today. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 July 2013. <http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/ bribery-in-india-bribe-republic-anticorruption-bureau/1/291074.html> • (n.d.): n. pag. Web. <http://finmin.nic.in/ WorkingPaper/Act_Giving_Bribe_Legal. pdf>. • “India.” Global Corruption Barometer 2013. Transparency International, n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2013. <http://www.transparency.org/ gcb2013/country/?country=india>. • http://www.kpmg.com/Global/en/ IssuesAndInsights/ArticlesPublications/ Documents/bribery-corruption.pdf • http://www.u4.no/publications/overviewof-corruption-and-anti-corruption-effortsin-india/ • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corruption_ in_India#Anti-corruption_efforts • Sabhlok, Prem. “The Main Causes of Corruption in India.” Vedic Metaphysics Selfgovernance and Other Matters RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2013. <http:// prem.sabhlokcity.com/2011/06/the-maincauses-of-corruption-in-india/>.

• *M. Bertrand, S. Djankov, R. Hanna, S. Mullainathan, “Does Corruption Produce Unsafe Drivers?”, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge MA, May 2006 <http://www.nber.org/papers/ w12274> • *Rajat Arora, “Getting driver’s licence: A tout story”, Hindustan Times, New Delhi, July 10 2012 <http://www.hindustantimes. com/india-news/newdelhi/getting-drivers-licence-a-tout-story/article1-886029. aspx> • *Murali Krishnan, “India has the highest number of road accidents in the world”, DW, New Delhi, April 29 2010 <http:// www.dw.de/india-has-the-highestnumber-of-road-accidents-in-theworld/a-5519345-1> • *”Report of the Committee on Road Safety and Traffic Management”, Secretariat for the Committee on Infrastructure, New Delhi, February 2007 <http://www.infrastructure.gov.in/pdf/ Road_Safety.pdf> • *”Govt to set up a road safety and traffic management body”, The Hindu, New Delhi, October 7 2013 • <http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/ govt-to-set-up-a-road-safety-and-trafficmanagement-body/article5210515.ece>



Corruption in india