Blooming

Page 1

blooming HE ALTH IN THE CIT Y PARK(ED)

a journey in time through vondelpark

IT’S SUNRISE IN AMSTERDAM AND TIME FOR A R AVE! S S T C

JULY 2015


emenate.

eau de parfum 100% vegetarian

vegan perfume


/

/

/

/

/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / REGULARS

/ / / / / / / / / / / / / /

/

/ / / / / FEATURE / /

/ / / / / /

/

/

/ / / / / /

/ IMAGERY

/ / / / / /

/ / / / FORUM / /

/ / / / / /

/

/ / / / / / / STORY / COVER

/ / / / / /

/

/ / / FOOD / / FASHION / /

/ / / / / /

/ UP NEXT / / / / /

/ / / / / /

/ / /

/ / /

/

/

/

/

/

/

/ / / / / / I/ / / / / / / /

/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / N/ S / I / D /E / / / / JULY 2015 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / EDITORIAL / / / / / / / / / / / FACTOID / / / / / / / / BEHIND THE SCENES / / / / / / / / / / / / SARPHATI / / / FROM TO SARPHATI / / INSTITUTE / / / / / / / HE IN / ALTH / / THE / CIT/ Y / / / / / GOOGLE VENTURES / / / / / INTO WORLD HE ALTH / / / / / / / / / CIT Y WATCH / / / / / / / / / / / /PARK(ED) / / / / / / / / FOOD / / AND / THE / CIT/ Y / / / / / / / / / / L AB IN THE BANK / / / / / / / / ALTH / DIY DIGITAL HE / / / / / MAPPING / TR AIL / / / / / / / / / DRESS SMART / / / / / / / / / / IT’S/ SUNRISE / / IN/ / AMSTERDAM / / / AND/ TIME FOR A R AVE!/ / / / / / / / / / / / / MONDAYS / / MEATLESS / / / / / / / / / / 3D /REVOLUTION / / / / / / / / / / / / / blooming r / / / j u n/i o / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

/ / / / / / / / / / / / / /

/ / / / / / / / / / / / / /

/ / / / / / / / / / / / / /

/

/

/

/ / / / /

/ / / / / /

/

/

/

/ / / / / /

/ / / / / /

/

/

/

/ / / / / /

/ / / / / /

/

/

/

/ / / / / /

32 /

/ / / / / /

/

/

/

/ / / / / /

24 / / / / / /

/ / / / / /

/

/

/

/ / / / / /

/ / / / / /

/ / / / / /

/

/

/

/ / /

/ / /

/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

/ / /

04

06 / 68 08 12 36 60 16 45 28

40 56

50 52 68

/ / / / /


editorial WHILE THE NETHERLANDS FARES VERY WELL 5 IN INTERNATIONAL RANKINGS PERTAINING TO HEALTH AND LIFESTYLE, THE NUMBERS IN SPECIFIC AREAS CAN BE QUITE DISCONCERTING. IN THE CASE OF AMSTERDAM, THERE ARE CERTAIN AREAS AND POCKETS OF POPULATION THAT DISPLAY AN INCREASE IN ISSUES CONCERNING HEALTH AND LIFESTYLE. 4 WHILE THE ISSUE WHEN COMPARED TO GLOBAL AVERAGES, IS STILL RELATIVELY SMALL, WE IDENTIFY A DIRE NEED TO STAGE AN ACTIVE ROLE PLAYED BY THE CITY TOWARDS OUR WELL-BEING. FROM TIME IMMEMORIAL, HEALTH HAS BEEN IN ACTIVE DISCOURSE BY ACADEMICS, THE PUBLIC SECTOR, CORPORATIONS AND PERHAPS, HEALTH FANATICS. THIS MAGAZINE AIMS TO CAPTURE AND PROMOTE HEALTHY URBAN LIVING AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF GENERAL INTEREST. WE SEEK TO TAP INTO THE POTENTIAL WE OBSERVED OF THE ONGOING TRANSITION OF FOCUS FROM CURE TO PREVENTION. 9 THERE IS A SPECIFIC NEED TO CURB LIFESTYLE RELATED DISEASES. THE REASONS INCLUDE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC GAINS7 AS AN INCREASE IN THE AMOUNT OF SICK PEOPLE BRINGS ADDITIONAL PRESSURE TO THE ALREADY BURDENED HEALTHCARE SYSTEM. AS STATISTICS HAVE DEMONSTRATED, 23,5% OF AN AVERAGE NETHERLANDERS’ GROSS INCOME GOES INTO HEALTHCARE1. LIFESTYLE RELATED DISEASES CAN BE LARGELY PREVENTED BY KNOWLEDGE AND NUDGING. THE CITY CAN AID IN THIS CAUSE, AS WE WILL SHOW IN THIS MAGAZINE. WE USE AMSTERDAM AS OUR CASE STUDY TO EXPLORE THE POTENTIAL AND EVIDENCE OF CITIES IN TRANSITION TOWARDS PREVENTION. THESE DISEASES NEED NOT BE AS PREVALENT IN THE FUTURE AS THEY ARE TODAY. 4


REGULARS

5

Amsterdam Medical Centre’s subliminal message: in an initiative to encourage more people to use the stairs, the AMC plastered their elevator doors with large scale images of the building’s staircases.


FACTOID ÓÓÓ Two observations: The amount of overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25) adults is much higher than that of children aged 10 yrs (data set 2013-2014). Nieuw West, Zuid Oost and Noord have higher rates of overweight and obese people. This correlates with a slightly lower social-economic status of its inhabitants. Population: 811.185 city 2.332.773 metro Bikes: est. 800.000, 63% daily use Cars: est. 263.000 Modal split: 32% bike (48% in the city centre), 22% car, 16% public transport Monocle Global Quality of Life Survey Rank: 20th EIU Best cities ranking 2014: 2nd

LIFESTYLE RELATED DISEASES2,3

are not related to age, however they do appear more often in industrialized countries with increased longevity.

(2013-2014)

Diet and lifestyle are major factors thought to influence susceptibility to many diseases. Drug abuse, tobacco smoking, and alcohol drinking, as well as a lack of exercise may also increase the risk of developing certain diseases, especially later in life. Especially in Western countries, where many people lead a sedentary lifestyle, these diseases are increasingly more common. Lifestyle related diseases include: *Obesity *Alzheimer’s disease *Several types of cancer *Arthritis *Cirrhosis *Diabetes *Depression *Osteoporosis

(2012)

6


The nearer to the city centre, the better the perceived health. This closely correlates with exercise levels. The cost of healthcare cost has shot up for the Netherlands in the past two decades. Some of it is due to the aging population, but an increase in lifestyle related diseases plays a part in it. Internationally, the same trend can be observed8.

(2012)

Amsterdam is a relatively green city6, but the quality differs severely. Popular parks such as the Vondelpark and the Beatrixpark are regarded highly, while just a short walk away, low quality parks are present. The city center has not much to offer in terms of parks, but there is plenty of greenery spread throughout the streets. The amount of parks actually does not seem to have a correlation with the amount of overweight people. Furthermore, the city of Amsterdam is one of the digital city leaders of the world. However, developments are stalling10. Digital health developments can provide an ample opportunity for the realisation of a smart city.

DID YOU KNOW...

- that 85,4% of the 10 year olds in Amsterdam eat vegetables on a daily basis?4 - but for adults that is only 49,1%4 - there are 180 different ethnicities in Amsterdam - and there are about 157 bike shops - there are almost 270.000 bike parking spots - and exactly 40 parks - that about 55% of the 10-16 year olds are active for one hour or more per day. For adults that is 63,7%4

(2012)

Sources: 1: Koen Harms, Projectleader innovation development Achmea 2: Vaillant G.E., Mukamal K. Successful Aging, June 2001 3: Key T.J., Allen N.E., Spencer E.A.. The effect of diet on risk of cancer, September 2002 4: GGD Gezondheid in Beeld Amsterdam 5: OECD Better Life Index 2015 6: Jos Gadet, Urban Planner, Municipality of Amsterdam 7: ‘LIFESTYLE DISEASES: An Economic Burden on the Health Services’, UNChronicle.org, July 2010 8: OECD; Bureau of Economic Analysis; Health Affairs 9: ECU, Preventive care and healthy ageing 10: ‘Where the Digital Economy is Moving the Fastest’, Harvard Business Review, February 2015 Additional data: CBS StatLine & IAmsterdam.com

(2012)

7


8


FEATURE

from sarphati to sarphati institute Samuel Sarphati was a 19th century Dutch physician from Amsterdam. Sarphati contributed importantly to the initiation of waste transport in the city in 1847. He became involved in politics, mainly as a city planning project developer. Other of his noteworthy contributions to the city were improvements in education and industrialization. An important initiative by him was the Paleis voor Volksvlijt, which functioned as a platform for city innovators. In the spirit of Samuel Sarphati, the Sarphati Institute was opened in Amsterdam in 2015. This research institute focuses on citizens’ health and wellbeing. Several other institutes with a similar objective were established in the city in recent years, next to the existing hospitals and medical research centres.

From the time of Samuel Sarphati, Amsterdam has established itself as a city having keen interest in public-health & research. Blooming presents an overview of prevelant establishments towards the cause in the city today. SARPHATI INSTITUTE The institute is a scientific research institute focusing on public health. Within the institute, the municipality, knowledge institutes and private companies work together according to the ‘triple-helix model’. In first instance, the institute will execute Cohort-studies revolving around children-obesity and how this can effectively be prevented. The focus on this topic came forth from the municipality’s demand for the creation of an Amsterdam ‘Health Valley’. 9

AMSTERDAM INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED METROPOLITAN SOLUTIONS In 2012 the City of Amsterdam sensed a need in the city for an institute for applied sciences focusing on urban solutions. This came forth from the current ongoing trend of urbanisation globally. Consequently, the city launched a ‘design contest’ for such an institute in 2013. The AMS bid got selected as the best proposal. Since the opening of the institute in 2014, AMS conducts research and provides education on urban solutions.


CITY

PRIVATE

CITIZEN

Demonstrating the roles of Amsterdam’s health institutions between the City, its Citizens, the University and Private Corporations

UNIVERSITY Institutions

Founding partners

Sarphati Institute

City of Amsterdam, VU University, VU Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Medical Centre

2015

€8 million

Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Metropolitan Solutions

Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Wageningen UR and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

2014

€50 million

Amsterdam Health and Technology Institute

Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (UvA, AMC, VUmc and VU) Duke Global Health Institute

2014

€7 million

Fusion between the VU hospital and the VU’s Faculty of Medicine.

2001

Several subsidies based on topic of research

Fusion between Wilhelmina Gasthuis, the Binnengasthuis and the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Amsterdam

1983

UV Medical Centre

Amsterdam Medical Centre

10

Foundation

Municipal investment


AMSTERDAM HEALTH & TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE The Amsterdam Health & Technology Institute (AHTI) is also a result of the City of Amsterdam’s design contest in which AMS was also involved. The AHTI bid got assessed second best by the jury of the design contest. As a result, the proposal was also supported by the city. AHTI connects innovative research to entrepreneurship and education. This is executed through collaborations with companies and knowledge institutes.

Samuel Sarphati; 1813 - 1866

AMSTERDAM MEDICAL CENTRE The Amsterdam Medical Centre (AMC) is one of the foremost research institutions in the Netherlands. It is also one of the country’s largest hospitals. More than 7000 people work at the AMC to provide integrated patient care, fundamental and clinical scientific research, and teaching. The AMC complex houses the university hospital, the faculty of medicine of the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, the medical department of the Royal Tropical Institute and the Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development.

VU MEDICAL CENTRE The VU Medical Centre opened in 1964 as the Academic Medical Hospital of the Vrije Universiteit. The VUmc is a centre conducting medical research, next to providing patient care and medical education. More than 6000 people work at the VUmc. The VUmc also houses the VUmc Cancer Centre.

COMPATIBILITY v/s OVERLAP Looking at the health landscape in Amsterdam, a strong trend towards innovation can be observed. Contrary to many other health improvement initiatives in cities around the world, Amsterdam’s approach is fairly unique. Where other cities focus on improvements within existing systems (e.g. robotized doctors), Amsterdam organises innovation differently. The city is in fact taking a step back to see whether innovations can perhaps cause the healthcare system to be organised in a different way. With the rise of diseases of affluence on the rise and an ageing society, health challenges in the city remain an ever relevant topic. With the current number of institutes in the city, from a city’s point of view it is important to organise them so they can be utilized most effectively. Especially since the new institutes are all supported by the city. Currently the three new institutes are organized independent from each other.

11

Between the Medical Centres (MC) and the three new institutes there seems to be good compatibility. Firstly, contrary to the hospitals, the new institutes do not provide patient care. Secondly, the MCs are partly involved in the establishment of AHTI and the Sarphati Institute. Lastly, the MCs are mostly focused on fundamental research, whereas especially AMS and AHTI emphasize applied research. AMS and AHTI can hence translate fundamental research to applied solutions in the city. The Sarphati Institute focuses on Cohort-studies, which is in fact another discipline next to the MCs and the urban solution focused institutes. Although AMS en AHTI being both directed at developing urban solutions, AHTI is engaged in developing health related solutions. It therefore seems that co-existense does not lead to overlap. It will however be important to monitor this, and ideally cross-fertilization can be facilitated after the institutes have been operational for a while. The City of Amsterdam and the Life Sciences & Health Cluster of the Amsterdam Economic Board play an important role in this.


HEALTH

and the

CITY

The cholera outbreaks of the 1800s across Europe, and responses to these, are good examples of significant turning points. Communities learned that they could intervene and prevent these outbreaks – they not only realised that some environments were more conducive to the spread of the disease than others. This saw the bourgeoisie visiting the poorest of the Jewish slums – unheard of before - and helping to clean the slums up. There was the advent of epidemiology and the mapping of incidences of disease with John Snow in London tracking the source of the outbreak in 1854 and putting forward his germ theory. Cholera committees were formed in Amsterdam to help predict outbreaks and warn citizens to prepare. Then there were resulting significant improvement in construction of sewerage systems and clean water supplies.

The infrastructure for health promotion has evolved significantly over the past couple of centuries. In this article we reflect on how health infrastructure is evolving from the hospital ideal to a universal health promoting environment around the city. Over centuries healthcare typologies took on several different forms. These usually involved an individual identified as having healing abilities either visiting patients at their homes or in communal “wards”. There was also a general belief/ understanding of a connection between the quality of the environment and health. Though there were some measures taken over history to improve health through improving environment (dealing with miasma), it wasn’t until the 1800s when significant effective changes in public health occurred.

In the years since, the advancements in medicine and technology saw significant reductions in childhood mortality childhood diseases (1850-1925) and reduction in adult mortality from accidents and cardiovascular disease (1925 – 1970). However, at the same time a decrease in focus on the public realm in terms of health promotion can be perceived, and more of a focus of resources on the primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare facilities and resources. 12


FEATURE

We commissioned a “brainstorm list� which was contributed to by a combination of architects, urban designers, engineers and with input from some specialists in the health industry. The remit was to list out anything in the physical realm (as opposed to the digital realm) that could contribute to health giving and health promotion in and in close proximity to Amsterdam. A summary of the results is on the following.

Our observations are that there are many opportunities for health promotion around the city. It is already recognised by industry professionals that the rise of lifestyle related illnesses can be curbed by the inclusion of these interventions in our city. However these are not resourced for through public health funding or through insurance companies. Given the costs of care/cure giving versus the cost of prevention/promotion, the government and relevant authorities should reconsider this.

PRIMARY CARE

SECONDARY CARE

TERTIARY CARE

The first point of contact for patients. This includes care provided by general practitioners, family doctors, community nurses etc.

These include acute care facilities - where treatment is provided for a short period of time. Includes some specialist care including urology, cardiology, and also facilities for childbirth.

Specialist research facilities including care for more chronic disease.

13


Activity and movement orientatated Intervention

ü

Specialist consultants - psychiatrist, physiotherapists, dermatologists etc.

ü

ü

Huisarts post - emergency GP - primary care

ü

ü

GP (huisarts) office - primary care

ü

ü

Maternal/child health/family planning offices - primary care

ü

ü

ü

ü

Dentist

Ambiguous *

ü

ü

ü

Orthodontist

Ambiguous *

ü

ü

ü

ü

ü

ü

Podiatrist

Ambiguous *

ü

ü

Optician

Ambiguous *

ü

ü

ü

Care Home

ü (as of 2015)

ü

ü

ü

Semi-dependant living

ü (as of 2015)

ü

ü

ü

Group homes

ü (as of 2015)

ü

ü

ü

Residential group living communities (e.g. Centraal Wonen Delft)

ü

ü

ü

High street drug store chain - Etos , Kruidvat,

ü

ü

ü

ü

Food Stores - (e.g. Albert Heijn, Dirk, Ecoplaza)

Ambiguous *

ü

ü

ü

Market - fresh foods and activity walking around

û

ü

ü

ü

Health stores (e.g. De Tuinen)

û

ü

ü

ü

Allotments/urban gardens

û

ü

ü

ü

ü

ü

Food festivals

û

ü

ü

ü

ü

Fitness clubs/gymnasia (e.g. Achmea Centers, Basic Fit)

û

ü

ü

ü

ü

Sports halls (for organised sports)

û

ü

ü

ü

ü

Sports fields (for football etc.)

û

ü

ü

ü

Running tracks

û

ü

ü

Tennis clubs

û

ü

ü

ü

Golf clubs

û

ü

ü

ü

Yoga centers

û

ü

ü

ü

ü

Massage parlors

û

ü

ü

ü

Acupuncturists

û

ü

ü

ü

ü

Parks

û

ü

ü

ü

ü

Outdoor fitness areas

û

ü

ü

ü

ü

Playgrounds

û

ü

ü

ü

ü

Skate parks

û

ü

ü

ü

Stairs in the public realm (e.g. metro, train stations etc.)

û

ü

ü

Road running courses (e.g. markings on pavement in Amsterdam Zuid)

û

ü

ü

ü

Beach

û

ü

ü

ü

ü

Sea and lake (water sports, swimming)

û

ü

ü

ü

Swimming pools

û

ü

ü

ü

Rowing lake (Amsterdamse Bos)

û

ü

ü

Water features (e.g. like the ones kids run through in Den Haag, Rotterdam etc.)

û

ü

ü

Canals (e.g. for stand up paddle, kayaking, canal swim)

û

ü

ü

Bike routes for road cyclists

û

ü

ü

ü

ü

General bike paths (commuting and recreational)

û

ü

ü

ü

ü

Sidewalks and pedestrianized areas around the city (e.g the Jordaan)

û

ü

ü

ü

ü

Walking tours of the city

û

ü

ü

ü

ü

Cycle tours of the city and the region

û

ü

ü

ü

Dance studios

û

ü

ü

ü

Salsa clubs

û

ü

ü

ü

Indoor festivals (e.g. Amsterdam Dance Event)

û

ü

ü

ü

Morning Gloryville (various locations around the city)

û

ü

ü

ü

Impromptu low key public dance events

û

ü

ü

ü

Outdoor festivals in green spaces

û

ü

ü

ü

Pillow fight at the Dam

û

ü

ü

ü

Tomato fight at the Dam

û

ü

ü

ü

Flash mobs (e.g. In IKEA)

û

ü

ü

ü

Pharmacies (Apotheek)

ü

ü

14

Lifestyle and/or community orientated intervention

ü

ü

Ambiguous* some items paid for by insurance, others not

Food and nutrition orientated Intervention

ü

General Hospital/acute care facilities - secondary care

health typologies

Prevention through medical intervention

Focus on diagnosis/ care/cure of existing illness condition

Focus on prevention and promotion

Public Health funding and or Insurance plans

Research and specialist care facilities - tertiary care

past and emerging

ü

ü ü

ü

ü

ü


Research and specialist care facilities

GP office - primary care

Pharmacies

Residential group

Food stores

Food festivals

Yoga centres

Outdoor fitness

Skate parks

Stairs in the public realm

Canals

Bike routes

Sidewalks and pedestrianized areas

Tomato fight at the Dam

Pillow fight at the Dam

15


park( ed)! 1865

1873

Surrounding land for possible future enlargement In 1873 a bandstand was built. In the same year, was also provided in its original design. brewer Gerard Adriaan Heineken was denied to open a bar in the park, so Bierhuis Vondel -Beer House Vondel was built in the street next to the park, what is now called Vondelstraat.

1874

1880

In 1874 “Milk house� opened its door, it was Some of the pictures from that time show the accessible to Amsterdammers to drink fresh milk. terrace around the house and how it offered a peaceful time around the population of the city. 16


1881

In 1881 The Pavilion opened its doors.

1893

In the late 19th century the park was elongated thanks to the land availability. It had a stream of water from the beginning to the end and contained many small paths and small bushes although its actual size was already reached in 1877.

The growing bicycle invasion begins to be noticeable.

Already in the 1880s and 1890s cycling in the park caused hindrance. First, the park management tried to resolve this with restrictive measurements against cyclists, such as special bike paths, limited opening hours, and fines for cyclists that were going faster than a horse’s trot. It was only after mediation of the Algemene Nederlandsche Wielrijders-Bond which means General Dutch Cyclists Union and had helped to fund the park, that a park guard was installed and cyclists were again permitted to cycle normally. This was in 1893.

17


1895

1900

The inauguration of the soccer field in 1895

1900-1919

In 1900 the annual fishing competition was established. 1919 - tennis courts were installed holding different competitions. During this first decade of the 20th century, citizens could also get eggs from chickens in the milkhouse, setting down the community feeling and the urban agriculture.

1930-1936 The annual Relay Race in Vondelpark in the late twenties / early thirties of the last century with many runners competing. In 1930 Athletics games in Vondelpark.

18


1936

1936 - Creation of a rosary with the purpose to make an exhibition.This initiative enhanced the creation of a social community as each person could own one of the 68 compartments.

In 1940s- 1950s the overall maintenance of the park became too expensive for the Vereniging tot aanleg van een rij- en wandelpark (Association for the creation of a park for riding and strolling), due to an intensified use. In 1953 the association donated the park to the city of Amsterdam (local government).

were removed, and the rose garden was renovated. Also the stream of water in the “trunk� near the northern entrance of the park was removed. The local government committed to (among others) stay open for horse riding and accessible for biking, with the only restriction on Sundays from 1 to 8 pm. Walking dogs off leash was also permitted (it was banned in the rest of the city parks but they made an exception) and public concerts could be held.

The landscape architect Egbert Mos renovated the Vondelpark for the city in the 1950s. The purpose was to improve the park for both usage and maintenance. Small bushes were grouped into larger bushes, superfluous paths

1937

1937, the Blauwe Theehuis or Blue Tearoom was opened. This tearoom is a round modernist building, designed by the architectural office Baanders. 19


1960 s -1970 s

In the 1960s children’s playgrounds were created. During the flower power era in the 1960s/1970s the Vondelpark became a symbol of a place where “everything is possible and (almost) everything is allowed”. In 1970 hippies take over the park under the umbrella of Amsterdam magic center of the world. From that moment until 1972 the number of Amsterdam Vondelpark sleepers increased annually up to 80.000. The court rules said “no ban on sleeping in Vondelpark” (May 1972). However in 1975 a ban on sleeping in the park was implemented. The atmosphere was getting worse at that moment due to issues with the use of hard drugs by an every time younger population, as well as robberies and problems with pimps.

1980 s -2000 s

In the 1980s an open-air theatre was built. The Vondelpark received the status of state monument in 1996. A renovation operation was started.

20


In the 1990s the number of visitors starts growing increasingly. The grass is used as sports field and the paths as bike paths. This causes the city to start a new renovation that is supposed to take place from 1999 to 2010. The purpose is to intensify the monumental value of the park and furthermore to improve the park’s durability. The renovation (which in the end started in 1996) takes more than ten years in order to decrease the hindrance for visitors and for brooding animals.

Since 2011 dark clouds cover the Vondelpark as from that year on barbecues are allowed. Consequently in 2012 specific areas are designated to that purpose.

21


The opening of the park in 1865 aimed to promote health including environmental, social, economical and overall increase of quality of life but above all, it aimed to enhance physical activity as all facts depict during its evolution. Its design has played a crucial role, its trails and tracks invited and welcomed Amsterdam’s population to walk, keep active, bike or ride. Interventions and renovations along its story always aimed to promote physical activities. Proof of that is the installation of playgrounds, tennis courts, the soccer field and the children pool. At some point even bicycles were banned and a specific regulation was needed to solve the problem. Sport events like the running or fishing competition were also boosted by The Committee in first instance and by city government in its later stages, always supported by Amsterdammers who enjoyed taking part in these activities. Along with this initiatives, social feeling was powered thanks to the milkhouse, rosary exhibition and several cafes spread throughout the park. A key question is how is the park used today and has it changed throughout its history? The successful design of the park is still the same. A brief analysis of the park reveals that due to the location of the park, in a residential area close to the city center, it is easily accessable. The fact that people always attract more people, making it more secure, proves that it is 100% beloved by its citizens. However, few locals walk, exercise or spend time with friends in the park. Today more than 95% of the visitors are tourists. The problem might not be that people are not willing to exercise in the park anymore, but the lack of space at specific times is evident, which 22

forces them to train early in the morning, or to migrate to other parks in the city. At the time of its opening and up to the early 2000s the Committee and local government sought to promote health in the park. Nowadays the most important events are related to music or open theater, which while being culturally interesting invites people to relax and to embrace a sedentary life.

Moreover, taking a look at the tram lines map hanging in different tram stops throughout the city, the Vondelpark is the only park shown. This could generate confusion amongst tourists, who may think that the Vondelpark is the only existing park (that’s worth a visit) in the city. There are still many topics to investigate about the new trends and uses of urban parks, however these questions could set up the starting point for a needed reflexion. * source: koninklijke bibliotheek (national library of the Netherlands)/ Amsterdam city archives


THE ART OF DOING NOTHING. active wear

DUTCH ARMY TRAINER A tribute to the original army trainer worn throughout the 70’s for various sporting activities such as fitness, tennis and running to the pub. Because of the double density outsole our Army Trainer is the most comfy shoe you will ever wear.

23


COVERSTORY

IT‘S SUNRISE IN AMSTERDAM AND TIME FOR A RAVE! 24


EVER SINCE I GOT MY FIRST INVITATION IN APRIL 2014 FOR THE L AUNCH OF MORNING GLORY VILLE IN AMSTERDAM, I THOUGHT, “THIS SOUNDS LIKE A BRILLIANT IDEA! I WILL DEFINITELY TRY THAT!”. HOWEVER, BEING A SLEEP LOVER, AND SOMEONE WHO WAS EXTRAORDINARILY BUSY AT WORK AT THE TIME, EVERY TIME ANOTHER EVENT CAME AROUND I FELT IT WAS A BIT AMBITIOUS FOR ME TO THINK I WOULD DRAG MYSELF OUT OF BED AND OUT OF THE HOUSE AT 6:00 TO GO CLUBBING BEFORE GOING TO WORK ON A WEDNESDAY MORNING…. HOWEVER, ON THE 1ST JULY 2015, I DID FINALLY MANAGE TO MAKE IT FOR THE 8 TH MORNING GLORY VILLE EVENT IN AMSTERDAM, THIS ONE WAS ON THE BEACH AT PLLEK… 25


Morning Gloryville was launched for the first time in May 2013 by Nico Thoemmes and Samantha Moyo in London. Originally called Morning Glory, it was advertised as “fun without alcohol!”. Since then the movement has expanded to 14 other cities around the globe, including Amsterdam.

26

06:15

Out of bed and getting ready – I managed to do it!

07:00

Arrived at the ferry port at Centraal Station to wait for the ferry to NDSM wharf. It is a beautiful morning and I am relishing in that smug feeling you have when you are up early to see the sun rise, breathing the fresh air …and amazed at the amount of young people also there, dressed in cosmic leggings and glitter…

07:15

Caught ferry going north to NDSM – there was a DJ! On the ferry! Interesting to see the expressions on the faces of the commuters who seemed amused at all of these young people in glitter up and awake and on their way to a rave.

07:30

Arrived at the entrance to the beach at Pllek everyone super happy looking! And the surreal experience of seeing people dancing around with no music to be heard - Silent Disco and I was set to pick up my earphones.

07:35

Picked up earphones – now this made sense! Good relaxed beach rave tunes – appropriate for the time in the morning!


SURVEYING THE SCENE THERE WERE ALL SORTS OF ACTIVITIES GOING ON – AND EVERYONE LOOKED SO HAPPY! (I EVEN REALIZED I HAD A BIT OF A GRIN ON!) THERE WERE HUL A HOOPS, ROLLER SK ATING, YOGA, JUGGLING, POY TWIRLING AND EVEN A COUPLE OF PEOPLE JUST SUN BATHING IN THE MORNING SUN. WE PURCHASED, AT A REASONABLE PRICE, A BREAKFAST OF YOGHURT AND GRANOL A, CROISSANTS, FRESH FRUIT SMOOTHIES, AND CAPPUCCINOS. ALL VERY TAST Y. THEN IT WAS ON TO DO A BIT MORE HUL A HOOPING AND DANCING IN THE SUN. AND ALSO WAVING TO THE CRUISE LINER AS IT ARRIVED IN TO PORT…

09:00

The first DJ made his announcement that he had to go to work – which brought me back to reality: normally most of my colleagues would be in the office by now, but I was lucky – I am on sabbatical! We spent the remaining time raving away to the same club house by the new DJ in purple and gold sequin outfit! And a bit of beach ball tossing… Realizing that the age range was impressive in the game from young toddlers, to teenagers, students, young adults (hipsters and hippies!), to the older crowd and a few retirees.. All happy!

10:00

Events take place every couple of months in Amsterdam; locations vary. There is tiered pricing from 9.50 Euro for early bird to 16 Euro on the door. For future events for Morning Gloryville in Amsterdam and in other Cities visit http://morninggloryville.com

Wrapping up feeling thoroughly energetic and surprisingly to me I managed to achieve so many other things that day in spite of the curtailment of my morning lie in. I will definitely look out for the next one! 27


lab in the bank Health environments have always been revolutionary. Throughout history, we have witnessed the specialization of such buildings that reflected advancements in science and technology at that time; It’s ironic then, that the technology of today is stripping the emerging health typology of all things specific. Blooming investigates one such emerging typology in Amsterdam Zuid-Oost, provoking thought on its purpose, location and relevance.

circulation parking

workspaces

healthcare fitness centre

eatery retail auditorium

programmatic section through AHTC building

28


The city of Amsterdam has witnessed a steady, deliberate shift of specialized medical facilites from the central regions to the outskirts of the city, specifically far south-east.

“T HE KN OW LE DG EA X IS � AMC

map of Amsterdam showing concentration of buildings having 100% vacancy, specifically in Zuid-Oost

This region however has faced severe criticism. It has a number of office buildings that are completely vacant. Reasons behind which can be mainly attributed to its distance from the city centre, as well as for being primarily car based. The Amsterdam Health and Technology Centre (AHTC), an integrated development that is to host a stateof-the-art healthcare facility in an erstwhile bank building is due to open later this month in this region of Amsterdam Zuid-Oost.

A privatised initiative led by 52IFH and investment managers DutchRE is responsible for giving this building a new lease of life through a fresh programmatic concept. The building today will house public health facilitiators like general physicians, dentists, dermatologists and physiotheraphy while also making provisions for a medical research centre, an integrated auditorium and seminar facilities along with workspaces for startups related to latest developments in healthcare.

The 27,420sqm former bank building has been lying vacant since October 2014. It is equipped with underground parking for over 250 cars and is located barely 5 minutes away from the Amsterdam Medical Centre and the Holendrecht train station. 29


Emphasising the need for communal space within the building interior, the AHTC facility will also accomodate generous space dedicated to general fitness, eateries and retail.

The Blooming Team visited the building to learn that the Amsterdam Health & Technology Institute (AHTI) moves in to this facility in a week’s time. What is fascinating is that the company needed little or no architectural renovations prior to their re-location. (Except tolerate a prolonged wait of over a month for KPN to provide their internet connection!) But, what does this have to say about the discipline of architecture and its future in designing health facilities? Are emerging health typologies also heading towards being “generic” ? Can the identity of these ‘specialised’ service driven facilities then just disintegrate into that of the corporate office space? Or that of a luxurious hotel? Or that of a popular department store?

AMC

While one might argue that the ‘generic’ reduction of healthcare facilities is dismal for the profession of architecture, the Blooming Team thinks otherwise. The genericness of health infrastructure has led to the simplification of its architectural typology. This, coupled with the Netherlands’ growing issues of vacant buildings, points towards the potential of fragmenting health infrastructure across the built environment.

CASE 01 : THE AMSTERDAM MEDICAL CENTRE (AMC); FLOOR PLATES ARE INTERSPERSED WITH SPECIALIZED SERVICES.

While Jos Gadet, chief urban planner of the Amsterdam municipality is of the opinion that diversifying neighbourhoods is a healthy planning strategy, the moving of medical infrastructure to Zuid-Oost along the ‘knowledge axis’ is quite the opposite. However, the AHTC initiative comes as a refreshing change. Witnessing technology that has enabled healthcare to occupy buildings that were previously banks, offices, state-owned or even industrial buildings that are now vacant.

->

30


In another refreshing take on vacancies and adaptive reuse, a recent business strategy outlined by the Netherlands’ leading health insurance company Achmea in association with THNK claims that owners of vacant buildings, and more specifically that of health real-estate, can come together to host specific, desirable living models for their properties’ futures via a co-creative online platform. With a community of potential future residents, a co-creation process is set up to achieve a socially, physically and financially desirable design for the property, through both online and offline processes. Financial models are then also worked out, ensuring that capital gain is realized. Thus, a unique living concept is realized while ensuring that investors have a lower risk at stake due to anticipated results of co-creation. AHTC

Technology today has given healthcare typologies the impetus to ‘simplify’; allowing health infrastructure to fragment itself across the urban environment. CASE 02 :

CASE 03 :

THE ERSTWHILE BANK BUILDING MADE PROVISION FOR ADDITIONAL SERVICES BY EXTENDING PROVISION ON ITS ROOF.

THE SETTING UP OF A CO-CREATIVE PLATFORM TO MAXIMISE POTENTIALS OF EXISTING UNUSED BUILDINGS.

->

31


DIY

digital health Connectivity is being a forerunner of a fundamental change in medical history. Costs of health in cities are increasing but investing in prevention will in the end reduce the costs of healthcare.

More patients could soon be seeing a virtual “doc in a box� 32


Digital health venture funding

Billions $

4.3 B$ 2014

2.1 B$ 2015

Resource: RockHealth, US

The year so far has seen 136 digital health investment deals over $2 million, for a total of $2.1 billion in funding according to Rock Health’s mid-year report. Rock Health tracks a narrower range of digital health companies than others and only tracks deals over $2 million.

Time

The digital health market is rapidly growing. But what exactly does it target? And what about the quality of the products?

Health ValleyNijmegen.

Amsterdam Smart CityHealth-Lab

Rockstart accesses a regional network of 700+ companies and institutions involved in healthcare within this area. Program partners include Radboudumc, Province of Gelderland, Noaber Ventures, Arbo Unie, PPM Oost, Health Valley, City of Nijmegen,Kadans Science Partner and Rabobank. Hekkelman Advocaten & Notarissen.

əə

Creating a platform where all those involved can meet, discuss and share developments in and implementation of new solutions in care.

əə

Support and stimulate the setup of several living lab locations where new solutions can be tested and improved, together with users.

əə

The creation of new curricula focusing on the implementation of these solutions in educational settings.

33


Dutch Telemedicine

Connected to services concerning prevention (e-mental health) and wellness, e.g. providing elderly or fragile people with services through video/TV screens.

CISCO in Amsterdam

More than 600 organizations worldwide use the Cisco Digital Media System, a comprehensive suite of applications for digital signage, desktop video, and interactive TV over the IP network. Cisco also has a Lab at AHTC university in Amsterdam.

Costs Cure and diagnosis

Communication

Data collection through personal devices

Academic Hospitals Public Health Cisco IBM Google Amazon Apple Watch Fitbit Jawbone CONTENT

34 CONTENT/MARKET

MARKET


I do not think that in the short term costs will be reduced by the use of digital technology in health. I think there are two possible scenarios – the increase in costs will slow down, or accelerate even more.

self diagnosis by means of digital devices might enlarge the demand for healthcare resources. It is hard to predict For example,

Maarten den Braber, Digital Health Strategist, Rockstart Accelerator

what will happen in the longer term.

lth a e H l a t i Dig lthcare a e H f o Cost CONCLUSION 1: The growing market of personal devices creates an opportunity to easily collect personal health data. Whether this makes healthcare more efficient is currently questionable. By adding medical expertise to the creation of digital devices, digital diagnosis might become a common practice in the future.

CONCLUSION 2: Many initiatives have been taken without medical quality control. The companies involved in the development of health and fitness apps often don’t have medical expertise. Here lies a great potential for further development of the sector.

35


“...focuses on health and longevity. I’m really excited about that. I am really excited about the possibility of data also, to improve health.”4 Sergey Brin, Co-Founder of Google

Google’s ventures into the world of health Drones will be the answer, if Google has anything to say about the future of emergency medical services. The inter-

net search giant has received a patent in June 2015 to provide unmanned aerial medical services. In Google’s vision, an emergency service center will only need to dispatch a drone with the right gear and instructions when it receives a report. The drone will carry medical items and provide instructions through sound and video to guide bystanders through the first aid process. It is not too difficult to imagine that this idea will change first aid immensely. Think of this situation. You are hiking in the woods. Suddenly, one of your friends collapses. You call for emergency services. A drone arrives, with instructions for CPR and diagnostic tools. It records and transmits the situation to the emergency team. The team takes a while to get there, but they receive all the information they need. They know what to prepare for. “Your friend will be fine”, they tell you over the phone. Sounds great. But why is Google investing in health(care)? The medical drone is not their first medical solution. Google Health for example launched in 2008. But it was a failed experiment and it closed by the end of 2012. The internet giant is actively building platforms, developing consumer and professional products, databases and emergency systems. What changes will it bring to patients and doctors? Let’s take a look at some of the undertakings of Google in health.

36


Google’s aerial medical drone patent drawing`, showing a drone finding an emergency situation. The patent was filed for in 2013, and granted in 2015

“Fitness devices and apps have been a fast-growing but still relatively niche market. These new ecosystems, if they gain traction, could finally push the industry into the mainstream�6 Harry Wang, Analyst Health and Mobile, Parks Associates 37


Google Health (2008, product discontinued) The service allowed Google users to volunteer their health records – either manually or by logging into their accounts at partnered health services providers – into the Google Health system, thereby merging potentially separate health records into one centralized Google Health profile. Google Health has been discontinued as of 1 January 2012. “... with a few years of experience, we’ve observed that Google Health is not having the broad impact that we hoped it would”, stated Google in their official blog.

My Tracks (2009) My Tracks records the users’ path, speed, distance, and elevation while they walk, run, bike, or do anything else outdoors. While recording, users can view their data live, annotate their path, and hear periodic voice announcements of their progress. Users can also share their progress with their friends through social networks. According to the Play Store, it has been installed well over 10.000.000 times. While not intended as a fitness or exercise app at first, it is being used in such fashion by many users according to the reviews on the Play Store.

Calicolabs (2013) Calicolabs was brought into life by Google to research subjects related to aging and its associated diseases. Google said that the new and independent company, starting with seven MD’s and PhD’s will largely focus on age-attendant conditions such as Alzheimer’s, cancer and heart disease. Larry Page: “Illness and aging affect all our families. With some longer term, moonshot thinking around healthcare and biotechnology, I believe we can improve millions of lives.”

Lift Labs Spoon (2013) In 2014 Google bought the startup Lift Labs. The spoon sensors and counters tremors caused by Parkinson’s disease. An electronic system in the handle detects movements and responds with countermovements to provide a stable utensil. Google explained it could be used in other ways to improve the understanding and management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and essential tremor.

Google Fit Platform (2013) Google Fit is an open ecosystem that allows developers to upload fitness data to a central repository where users can access their data from different devices and apps in one location. It uses sensors in a user’s mobile device or activity tracker to record physical fitness activities (such as walking or cycling), which are measured against the user’s fitness goals to provide a comprehensive view of their fitness

Google Glass (2013, product discontinued) Dr. Rafael Grossman used Google Glass to livestream a surgery to whoever was interested via Google Hangouts. One can imagine this is extremely useful for educational purposes. “The entire procedure was unremarkable and Google Glass was unobtrusive and second nature,” he commented7. Sales of the glasses have ended in 2014. However, Google continues to develop the concept.

38


Smart Contact Lens (2014) Google and Novartis created a smart contact lens that contains a tiny sensor used to monitor glucose levels in tears. The antenna is thinner than a human hair and the sensor is the size of a piece of glitter. The lens will make it easier to monitor blood sugar levels. It’s not invasive and less painful than the typical way of pricking a finger and testing blood droplets multiple times per day. “This is a key step for us to go beyond the confines of traditional disease management, starting with the eye”, said Novartis CEOJ osepsh Jiminez5.

Google Genomics (2014) Google Genomics helps the life science community organize the world’s genomic information and make it accessible and useful. Through extensions to the Google Cloud Platform, it is possible to process, explore, and share large, complex datasets.

Google X Wristband (2015) This Google device measures your pulse, heart rhythm and skin temperature, gathers environmental data such as light, exposures and noise. It gives minute-by-minute data to the doctor. Doctors, researchers and drug makers can continuously track patients’ vital signs outside of a hospital or clinic. Google hopes that in the future, healthy people would use tools like this wristband to catch early signs of disease.

What tech inventions in health will mean for1

Patients

*Gamification based wellness *Embedded/digestible sensors *Home diagnostics *Improved recovery processes *Healthcare experience will change *Augmented bodies

Health(care)

*Virtual operation *Ultra quick diagnostics *Remote care *Real time physiology simulation and warnings *Availability of a wide range of data, boosting research

*Rise of the ‘mcdonalds’-clinic, go in, get your treatment and get out *Improved safety and accessibility through movement aids and routing

However, this story is also about legislation, policy and ethics These platforms and products surpass former boundaries. Users need to realise what is happening to their data. A free service is free for a reason. As app and tech expert Maarten den Braber of Rockstart said2: “Private companies will sell your anonymised data you willingly provide”. This does not have to be a bad thing, but do realise that no service is truly free. The demonstration in France concerning UberPOP has shown us what can happen if a technology based solution challenges decade old habits. What could happen when every statistic about your body is available, and that data could be on the

market? There is a good reason for Google to enter the market. In the end, it is a business model. Yet, let’s not only think about the bad. These applications, wearables and other sensors have proven to be useful in improving personal health.They will slowly but surely change the healthcare process, removing the need for check-ups and diagnosis. All the data will be provided even before the patient enters a doctors’ room. Surgeries can be performed remotely by a super skilled surgeon or a robot3. Using the available data, prevention will be bet-

Sources: 1: Bertalan Mesko, MD, PhD (medicalfuturist.com), 2013 2: Maarten den Braber of Rockstart on health apps and innovations, July 2015 3: Jaap Goudsmit, MD, PhD on health innovations, July 2015 4: ‘Fireside chat with Google co-founders, Larry Page and Sergey Brin’, July 2014

ter than ever, illnesses can be detected before they become a real threat. “Focuses on health and longevity. I’m really excited about that. I am really excited about the possibility of data also, to improve health”, states Google CEO Larry Page. But, the challenge often lies in the regulatory arena. “Generally, health is just so heavily regulated. It’s just a painful business to be in.”4 Google’s moonshot approach to products and businessmodels is ambitious, but something is bound to stick around.

5 ‘Google’s smart contact lens is coming to an eye near you’, DailyMail, July 2014 6: ‘How Apple and Google plan to reinvent health care’, The Verge, July 2014 7: “Inside The Operating Room With Google Glass”, Forbes, June 2015 8: ‘An update on Google Health and Google PowerMeter’, Google, June 2011

39


trailmapping.

do you know who has your data? IN THIS DAY AND AGE NO MAT TER WHAT YOU WANT TO DO YOU HE AR: “THERE IS AN APP FOR THAT!” HOW POPUL AR ARE THE Y? HOW EFFECTIVE ARE THE Y? HOW MUCH ARE THE Y USED? CAN THE Y OFFER ANY THING TO A CIT Y?

40


FORUM Anyone with an iPhone with updated operating software OS8 has automatically got the Health App on your phone. And more interestingly, it’s an app that cannot be deleted.

apple research kit This is Apple’’s initiative for collecting data for researchers and specialists. At the moment there are at least five specially design research apps for diseases such as asthma and Parkinson’s. In addition Apples Research kit is compatible with the HealthKit so essentially any app you sync with Health could potentially be feeding data into specialist medical research.How do you feel about this?

So what does this app do? DASHBOARD AND STEP TRACKING This is a basic function as standard MEDICAL ID maintains a record of important information such as you allergies, blood type, organ donor status. This is accessible even when your phone is locked. HEATH DATA Records information from other 3rd party health apps. Here you can also share data with the various apps you have. SOURCES A portal where you can control which apps feed into the Health app (Apple enables developers of other apps to do this via the HealthKit)

People are concerned about their data being out there. But there is a flipside to all of this… There are others who may be of the opinion;

“if you can’t beat them, join them!”

At the moment this is just, to the consumer, an aggregator of the data you would find with the standard commercial apps on the market… Is this data of use to researchers and medical practitioners? Perhaps yes, perhaps not - it is just as reliable as any other apps. But as we have seen: any data can be sold (particularly from free apps) and used to draw inferences about its user population. PAID APPS

Privacy protected

S our ce:

In our meeting with Maarten den Braber from Rockstart it became clear he is not only comfortable with sharing his data via these applications, He is actively going out and becoming a test monkey even having chips imbedded in himself. We can also bypass the commercial free apps which make money by selling your data to third parties by actively volunteering to provide data for the greater good such as via Apple ResearchKit.

UNPAID APPS

Tracking information and data from target groups can obviously help with public health planning. This is modern epidemiology and is helping to improve not only medical research but also urban planning in the same way that mapping out Cholera outbreaks in the mid 1800s helped to eliminate that disease from

Privacy protected

f d a r e g u l at i o n f o r m o b i l e p h o n e a p p l i c at i o n s

41


From another survey conducted by PWC in the United States, it was also found that for most people privacy trumps convenience of usage of said applications.

51%

OTHER

0% DISEASE

FDA REGUL ATIONS In the USA the development and usgae of health applications is regulated by the FTA2013. In the opinion of the FDA the risk presented is similar to a physical device used for health.

FITNESS

Can you rely on an app that tells you your blood sugar levels? What if isn’t accurate? Does it not pose a significant health risk to you and others like you? Applications targeted at monitoring drug levels or radiation levels can prove harmful. The malfunctioning of a sensor in these apps can lead to a delay in life saving disgnosis.

10%

28%

The plethora of health applications available for download through your smartphone span a wide range of applications. The increased usage is opening new and innovative ways to improve health and its delivery. According to the FDA while many of these applications carry no risks a small subset of these can be harmful if they do not operate correctly.

DIET

assurance?

From a survey done among the summer school participants, it was found that the majority of the applications used target fitness and well being but not disease-related. There were also some people who did not have a smart phone. There were some who did not like invasion of their privacy and thus, didnt have an application.

GENERAL HEALTH 12%

The survey of participants on the Summer School Thinking Cities Program in Amsterdam, conducted among 60 people showed that although most people have smart phones and many with iPhones, only two had noted that they had the Apple Health App on their phones. There are ways to disable data tracking on the app, according to one survey participant. They had to actively go into the individual app settings and disable GPS. This may not be immediately obvious to all iPhone owners.

SUMMER SCHOOL PARTICIPANTS

42

US SURVEY RESPONDENTS


While physical infrastructure in cities is supportive of these considerations the cyber is not. Implementation of privacy laws and regulation of smart phone applications according to standards should be implemented. The potential inaccuracy of the applications should also be taken into account while relying on the data.

Development

The recent growth in the availability of modern spatial information technology (SIT)— geographic information systems (GIS), low cost global positioning systems (GPS), remote sensing image analysis software—as well as the growth of participatory mapping techniques has enabled data to be shared and correlated geographically without a precedent in history. There is an ongoing tension between the empowerment of the potential and the resulting social, political, economic, and ethical ramifcations of this technology. If you possess a smartphone you can be tagged. The laxation in privacy laws can lead to geotagging of an individual and in the right or the wrong hands lead to behavioral marketing, targeting, theft and other issues.

“The point of privacy is moot.”

QUESTIONABLE BENEFITS; GOING PAST THE STAGES OF DIGITIZATION OF HEALTH

Maarten den Braber head of digital health initiatives at rockstart

So what if all the data that is available for us to use with without privacy breach? There are initiatives from NGOs and collectives as precedent which are targeted at specific outsomes.

One example is the Propeller health initiative which maps asthma and COPD.

43


Individuals produce a lot of data. One issue is privacy, but if data is used collectively it can become an invaluable urban design tool.

However, there is no initiative by a city or a government to collate this for benefit for its denizens. There are some citizens who are skeptical of usage of applicaiton and smartphone. City or municipality initiatives that can help in making them a part of data are lacking. When relaible data can be collected, interpreted and then understood with relevance to health related issues in the city, it can pave way to solutions which are of benefit to the city. To be or not to be ... rather to do or not to do is the question... Which city takes the lead remains to be seen..

44


Food and the city Food is not just about fueling your body for your daily functioning. Eating has been a social activity in many cultures throughout time. Amsterdam is an incredible melting pot of cultures. With culture comes food. Many local food businesses are thriving. Increasing Food tours industry like “Hungry Birds Food Tours” and “EatingAmsterdamTours” invite you to explore the city by tasting street and food spots. But the question is what is the quality and culture of food in Amsterdam.

How do we experience the city today and relationship to the presence of food or absence. Do we have any choices?

Exploring the Food experience in the city, investigate the ability to make a choice. What you can get from the city 45


From Waterlooplein to Central Station

ROUTE 1 Moving from the Academy of Architecture (Waterlooplein) through different streets to the Central Station, quality of provided food (cafes, snack points, etc) is decreasing. In the same time it is not easy to find a way skipping food

-18 min -average food (fast food spots)

Closer to the public active location like Central Station, restaurants are changing to fast food spots

ROUTE 2 -23 min -most food (bars, steakhouses)

More comfortable way of walking because of wider path. Only on this route sportsperson was

ROUTE 3 -31 min -least food (no fast food spots, 2 restaurants)

It is a new experience of the city when you are not bombarded with food consumption culture and...

46


Existing food distribution is driving to consume more than you are really need and to consume low quality food as well.

“ People start to travel a lot all over the world. It has been maybe 20 years ago. When pasta, for example, appear in Amsterdam. And rice. And fried potato. Which is now very popular, unfortunately�-, Arie van Wijngaarden, Projectmanagementbureau, citizen of Amsterdam

...you can get an opportunity to see the city in a new way

47


Central Station

Rouet2 0:23 min

Route1 0:18 min

Route3 0:31 min

W aa ls

lan

s an

Zw a

ne nb urg wa l

sch de u O

ei

Am ste l

48

Academy of Architecture

dg ra ch t


Smell food spot

As far as food is one of the first factors influencing health according to the latest researches. It is challenging to attempt build healthier infrastructure for healthier cities before or without addresing issue of food distribution.

Food distribution in electronic shop. Amsterdam 2015

Smell food spot

While most of shops in the Amsterdam are closing by 18.00-19.00, at places like the railway stations where it is a possibility to buy food but prices are differ. For excample, The price of croissant in the late food shop on the station and supermarket of Albert Heijn* is the same. But the price of banana is 4 times higher.

*Albert Heijn supermarkets are partners of GGD Amsterdam (Public Health Department of Amsterdam) in health promotion city programme. 49

Food shop on the Utrecht railway station. 00:20


150

100

11

570

18

185

MILK

510

140

32

30

How many showers?

9

27 To produce one kilogramme beef it takes 15.400 litres of water. That is how much water is used in 510 showers. In general animal products waste more water than vegetarian ones. This Infographic shows how many showers you could take for one kilogramme of the product above. This infographic shows how many showers you could take for one kilogramme of a product. 26

waterfootprint.org

50


meatless M ONDAYS It is estimated that by 2050 earths population will increase to 9.1 billion people. The making of animal products uses up a lot of resources such as land, fertilizer or water. For the production of 1 kg of beef, 15.400 litres of water are used. To produce the same amount of rice it takes 2.500 litres. If we keep to current trend of production and consumption there will not be enough food to feed increasing population. If everybody adapts their diet to a vegetarian one, there would be enough produce to feed even 13 billion people. In the Netherlands and Amsterdam as example, there are more and more vegan shops, restaurants, and also supermarkets, clothing stores and a steadily growing online community. Founded in 1999, HappyCow was created as a public service to assist travelers and people everywhere find vegan, vegetarian, and healthy food store guide. Today, there are 466 spots (Vegetarian Restaurants & Health Food Stores) listed in Nederlands and 134 in Amsterdam.

Jaap Korteweg is 9th generation farmer and founding father of The Vegetarian Butcher. When the swine fever and the mad cow disease were holding the Netherlands in their grip, After observing this disaster, he decided to become a vegetarian. But he missed the taste of meat so much. So after a 10 years search, Jaap developed and found innovative meat substitutes with a spectacular bite and texture. It can be said that he is working on a big transition from animal to vegetable meat. From 2012 Collaboration with the first Dutch supermarkets is a fact. From now on, all Coops, Ekoplazas and JUMBO stores offer the Vegetarian Butcher product range. “Our ideal is to have meat enthusiasts experience that they don’t have to miss out on anything if they take meat out of their diet for one or more days. That is why we always try to capture the flavor of real meat and why we distinguish ourselves with an entirely new generation of meat and fish substitutes” - a statement from “The Vegetarian Butcher” and Entrepreneur Jaap Korteweg. He revolutionized vegetarian meat substitudes when he opened his first shop in 2010 in Amsterdam. Source: http://www.vegetarianbutcher.com

51

FOOD

Today it seems everyone is talking about food and every day a new food movement is initiated or at least coined.

Vegetarianism - abstaining

from the consumption of meat, and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter. Varieties of the diet:

Veganism - renouncing all

animal products, including dairy, eggs and honey.

Fruitarianism - only consuming plant based food, but without killing or harming plants, only the “dead” parts.

Flexitarianism - being aware

of what eating a lot of meat does to your body and the environment and renouncing it most of the time, but still every now and then consuming meat.

Pescetarianism - vegetarian diet but also consuming fish.

Raw till 4 - maintaining a

raw-vegan diet before 4pm and eating one cooked meal for dinner. There are many different reasons why people change their “omnivorous” diet. Reasoning behind it may vary : health, ethics, environment issue. But future challenges will require to rethink a favor.


from environments to wearables

3D revolution

Today, we can print objects out of almost any material from nylon to glass, from chocolate to titanium to... 3D PRINTING, OR “ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING” AS IT IS FORMALLY KNOWN, IS ABOUT TO TRANSFORM EVERY SINGLE ASPECT OF OUR LIVES. TODAY WE CAN PRINT OBJECTS OUT OF ALMOST ANY MATERIAL – FROM NYLON TO GL ASS, FROM CHOCOL ATE TO TITANIUM – HAVING ANY COMPLEX GEOMETRY. THIS IS TRANSFORMING NOT JUST ENGINEERING, BUT MANY OTHER FIELDS, INCLUDING EDUCATION, MEDICINE, FASHION, BIO-PRINTING AND EVEN FOOD PRINTING. SOON ANYONE WILL BE ABLE TO MAKE COMPLEX PRODUCTS QUICKLY AND CHEAPLY. HERE’S SOMETHING THAT WILL DEMOCRATISE INNOVATION AND UNLEASH HUMAN CREATIVITY.

The first working 3D printer was created in 1984 by Charles Deckard Hull of 3D Systems Cor

2002 - A 3D printed min kidney is manufactured Sciennsts aim to produ full-sized, working orga

1999 - Sciennsts manage to grow organs from paaent’s cells and use a 3D printed scaffold to support them

1992 - 3D systems produce the first SLA 3D Printer machine.

Spending in million U.S. dollars

15.000 12.500 10.000 7.500 5.000 2.500 1984

1990

1995 52

2000

20 leg


FASHION

3D PRINTED SHOES Absolute customization and personalization has always been the main purpose for 3D printing technology. Being able to create products, wearables, furniture and environments, structured to societies’ exact needs and specifications, is an exalted goal, but there is no denying that it would make the lives easier and potentially healthier. 3D printing has helped researchers develop major advances in the healthcare industry, from 3D printed bone replacements, customized 3D printed surgical guides, dental work and even 3D printed models used in surgical pre-planning.

2014 3D printed food

nature d. uce 2009 - 3D printed ans. blood vessel

2014 3D Printed Heart

2012 3D printed jaw 2015 3D printed canal house 2013 3D printed shoes

008 - 3D prostheec g is produced.

2005

2016 3D Prinnng Aircraa Parts

2011 3D printed car

2010

2018 3D bioprinted body parts

2015 53

2020


Tradi ional Shoes

Exact needs and specificaaons Individual Body Scans. Comfort for Walkability

3D PRINTED SHOES ADVANTAGES: HEALTH BENEFITS

Beeer blood circulaaon, Posture Endless Design Opportuniies Personalizaaon

According to users, the ability to obtain properly fitting footwear every time they purchase a pair of shoes can help treat foot problems such as plantar fasciitis, bursitis, tendinitis, diabetic foot ulcers, and foot, ankle, and heel pain.

Transformaaon Low prices (2015) Zero Waste Low transport costs Recyclable materials

Flat feet are properly supported with customized arch and contours are followed to the persons “hammer toe” with added space and padding beneath. Muscle imbalance puts a lot of pressure on the toe’s tendons ad joint.This pressure forces the toe into a hammerhead shape. Heel to toe drop can be alerted to reduce stress on liunts and significantlyimprove gait and posture when standing.

Speaking to Salome Galjaard, product deisgner at ARUP, Blooming learnt that the ARUP team has produced a design method for critical structural steel elements for use in complex project using the latest 3D printing techniques. The work signals a whole new direction for the use of additive manufacturing in the field of construction and engineering. The research also shows that additive manufacturing has the potential to reduce costs, cut waste and slash the carbon footprint of the construction sector.

3D Printed Steel Node, ARUP

“We created a redesign of a steel node for a lightweight structure using additive manufacturing. Arup has a lot of experience with these kind of structures, for example the tensegrity structure of the Kurilpa Bridge in Australia. The complex geometry of these kind of nodes are an ideal showcase of the possibilities of this new technique.”

“By using additive manufacturing we can create lots of complex individually designed pieces far more efficiently. Apart from implications like cutting cost and reducing waste, this approach potentially enables a very sophisticated design, without the need to simplify the design in a later stage to lower costs.”

Arup funded the development work and collaborated with a number of partners to realise the designs, including WithinLab (an engineering design software and consulting company), CRDM/3D Systems (the Additive Manufacturing partner) and EOS, who worked on the early development of the technology. One of the amazing benefits of the 3D-printing is the ability to design and print something that is entirely yours. Personalization is usually something that costs a great deal extra to buy from a larger company, especially when something is being made by hand or sold as a limited edition. 54


55


dress smart Rebeccah Pailes-Friedman, adjunct associate professor at Pratt Institute, attempts to take clothing beyond it’s traditional function of ‘coverage’ and ‘protection’ by defining smart textiles as “fabric with the ability to do many things that traditional fabrics cannot; including communicate, transform, conduct energy and even grow.”

Blooming spoke to a personal fitness trainer based in Amsterdam about the fitness industries’ response to such textiles and her thoughts on the accessibility of such products in the future for everyday use. While she remained extremely optimistic about the prospects of smart technology in fitness apparel, she also mentioned that the reach of such products will become more diverse in due course of time. Interestingly, she threw light on the growing concsiousness of consumers when it comes to the manufacturing process of their clothes.

The statement gives us a hint at an emerging revolution that begins to link wearable technologies with everyday clothing, paving the way for big change in the field of fashion. While 2015 saw smart technology embedded in clothing take up a storm at the New York Fashion Week, it is the textile revolution that aims to go beyond aesthetic function - of changing colour or lighting up at the touch of a sensor that Blooming investigates in this issue.

Retail giant Nike, as a part of their material innovation strategy, in 2013 pitched their project “LAUNCH”, in cooperation with NASA and USAID. Nike took forward their unique production technique for “flykint” shoes and used the platform to create awareness on water consumption for manufacturing prosesses. It takes about 30 liters of water to conventionally dye a T-shirt, they however have developed a method to reduce water consumption by using CO2 to infuse fabrics with colour.

While disruptive research headed by BioCouture are delving into how biotechnology is facilitating a new material revolution by literally growing the materials of the future, Yin Gao pays tribute to Archigrams’ Walking City, with her interactive pod dress. It seems to be that smart clothing used for performance enhancement and monitoring will have great impact in the sport and fitness industries. While tremendous fabric innovation has always existed within this sector; be it of seamless clothing, flexible weaves, lightweight textiles or breathable fabrics; the onslaught of smart textiles gives one an unimaginable range of individual capabilities, ranging from regulating ones body temperature to control ones muscle vibration. Specifically, the health industry has also begun innovations on medical-textiles that release prescribed amounts of drugs, to fabrics with embedded moisturiser and perfume!

She says, “While brands like Nike are constantly working on building their brand to ensure environmental conciousness, the manufacturers are often left out.” This brings us to another area of focus and innovation in fashion retail- that is the transparency of their production. Following a tragic collapse of a clothing factory in Bangladesh, a movement called “fashion revolution” has been launched, provoking users to be aware of the socio-economic conditions of fashion retail production houses.

56


FASHION

walking city: Yin Gao

nike flyknit

//////////// //////////// //////////// //////////// //////////// //////////// //////////// ////////////

for information visit fashion revolution.org

57


city watch Cities offer unique opportunities to positively influence people’s health. Through design and infrastructure along with decisions about appropriate mixes of land use, strategic density, and the various policies cities can arrange for health-promoting environments. By considering everyday opportunities for being physically active in buildings and public urban areas, providing access to environmentally sustainable and safe modes of transportation, and making healthy food accessible to everyone, cities can play a critical role in shaping the long term health of communities and preventive measures for health.

Pro-walking initiatives in New York

58


FEATURE mais où est la Tour Eiffel ? Apolluted paris impression; march 2015

paris

france

NEW YORKUS

Ranked the most polluted city in March 2014 Ranked the most popular destination for tourists 2014. To counter the effects of pollution on health the city, on Saturday March 21 2015 decreed that public transport will be free in the greater Paris region in an effort to reduce pollution from cars, while parking will also be free inside the city. A car ban imposed that meant that odd and even number plates would alternate their usage inside the city.

Ranked 6th healthiest city.

New York is one of the few cities in the world that has been successful in implementing healthy urban planning measures and in documenting its achievements . New York City also mentored other U.S. jurisdictions through the Fit Nation work with AIA.

Another law was approved in France in 2015 that requires the rooftops of every new building in a commercial zone to be partially covered with either solar panels or plants.

As part of the Fit Nation mentoring work, the Department of City Planning drew on fieldwork conducted in cities across the U.S. to create Active Design: Shaping the Sidewalk Experience, presenting key considerations, tools and references for designing sidewalks, a key amenity for walkability.

This new law applies only to new construction of buildings in commercial zones in France. Originally, environmental groups had lobbied for the law to apply to all new buildings, and for the requirement to be total rooftop coverage with greenery, but it’s been scaled back to allow partial coverage or solar panels, whichever the building owner prefers.

Anti-smoking campaigns and initiatives along with detailed building codes and laws make this practice a precedent to be followed.

In December 2014 to tackle socio economic disparity which can be linked to health acumulation in one area The French capital has announced a plan to stop housing displacement in gentrifying neighborhoods. It might be the most radical proposal Europe has seen.

New York City Active Design Guidelines in 2010” aims to “provides architects and urban designers with a manual of strategies for creating healthier buildings, streets, and urban spaces, based on the latest academic research and best practices in the field”. 59


copenhagen denmark Copenhagen was crowned European Green Capital 2014. It aims to be world´s first carbon neutral capital by 2025 together with becoming the best world´s bicycle city. 50 specific initiatives spread in 6 main groups will meet the goal for 2015, requiring further preparation with the State or the private sector. The success of Copenhagen’s clean energy program lies partly in the establishment of a renewable energy wind infrastructure based on local ownership (lighthouse project). Longterm government have supported industry growth, with plans to increase the share of electricity consumption generated from wind energy to 50% by 2020, Lighthouse project also obliges cars run in wind energy. One of these 6 main groups; Copenhageners and climate directly aims the community inclusion. The goal lies in educating a whole new climate generation and it is consider one of the key topics of the vision.

additional 60,000 cyclists by 2025. By using Intelligent Traffic System the street is transformed into dynamic. LED lights will depict priority and time. The 2025 streets will handle rush hour, peak shopping hours, evening life and night activities. In 2025, there will be a standardised campaign directed at encouraging more shopping by bicycle (34% in 2009). The campaigns will be supplemented with minor physical improvements (bike-thru shopping and parking, for example). The efforts will be done in collaboration with local businesses and citizens. Switching between walking and cycling is easy and effortless so streets will be designed with pedestrians and cyclists in mind. Bicycle parking is issue to be improved as more bicycles than parking spots are expected in 2025.

The eyes of the world are already focused on Copenhagen referring to it as The City of Cyclists, 3 main topics will be improved; travel time, comfort and sense of security. Investments in bike transportation are lower than in other types transport. One of Copenhagen’s plan for achieving a greater modal share for bicycles includes increasing the capacity of the cycle tracks to the city centre, in order to accommodate an 60


cu ritiba brazil

“I have an obsession, which is to show and teach our city to the kids; because the more you know how something works, the more you’re going to respect it. I think this is the best way to give a significant scale answer to the problem of sustainability.” “We decided to teach kids in all schools for six months [to separate waste], and then children taught their parents. So then we started a campaign and Curitiba has been the city with the highest indicator or garbage separation in the world for 20 years now: 70% of the population separates garbage.”

Two completely opposite initiatives from a planification point of view have been a great success in the Brazilian city of Curitiba. First initiative emerged in 1960 converting urban planning in the key elements, the choice for growth in a ‘radial linear-branching pattern’, which has allowed a population increase from 361.000 to 1.828 million in 2008,without experiencing typical drawbacks from congestion, pollution and reduction of public space.This pattern encouraged through a combination of land-use zoning and provision of public transport infrastructure - a diversion of traffic from the city centre and the development of housing, services and industrial locations along the radial axes.

“Curitiba has proved that it is possible. Becoming sustainable can happen and that simple solutions are possible.” -

As a result of integrated planning, Curitiba has the highest rate of public transport use in Brazil (45% of journeys),which was also efficiently divided in concentric circles and one of the country’s lowest rates of urban air pollution.model which imitated later on by other cities such as LA, Bogotá or Medellín.

Jaime Lemer Large metallic bins were placed at the edge of the favelas. Anyone who deposited a bag full of pre-sorted garbage received a bus token as public transport is not affordable for a big part of the population. Those who collected paper and cartons were given plastic chits, exchangeable for parcels of seasonal fresh fruits and vegetables. In addition, a schoolbased garbage collection program supplied poorer students with notebooks. The result? 13% of solid waste is recycled in Curitiba, as compared to only 1 per cent in Sao Paulo.

Curitiba has managed to address its potentially costly flooding problem by turning vulnerable areas into parks controlling also this way the drainage. In 1971 architect Jaime Lerner, who became mayor of the city and is at the forefront of the second wave of reforms,has achieved an environmental star turning Curitiba into one of the greenest cities in the world.

All in all, Curitiba presents a case study of how smart urban planning can avoid significant costs in the future and improve efficiency, productivity and quality of life for its inhabitants.

“A sustainable city is the one that integrates housing, work and leisure, while preserving its history and investing in public transportation.” 61


san franciscoUS San Francisco was one of the first cities to create an open data initiative in 2009, its goal was to increase the transparency of government and to spur economic development. Data has been a key planning tool especially since 2007, as these policy advancements have been supported by the data of the San Francisco Indicator Project (formerly known as the Sustainable Communities Index (SCI) and the Healthy Development Measurement Tool (HDMT).

The use of open data aimed for improving better data-driven decision-making; addressing emerging health issues; protect citizens from traffic safety hazards, air pollution, and displacement; and improve opportunities for all residents to work and live in healthy, resource rich neighborhoods. In April 2015, the City of San Francisco’s Department of Public Health announced the release of a new Climate and Health Pro-

62


file, which links climate change and health outcomes and identifies populations and locations most vulnerable to these health impacts. Tool will be available on sfclimatehealth.org and raw data on datasf.org.

barcelona SPAIN

“The datasets published through the Climate and Health Profile Report demonstrates

the use of innovative data to improve health and provide the public with information to take action on improving resiliency.

Barcelona applies innovative solutions to manage its services and resources to improve its citizens quality of life. Experimentation and innovation are essential qualities. Within this creative environment, Barcelona City Council is working to generate employment, promote investment and financing, attract talent and provide help for companies and entrepreneurs.

In January 2014, Cisco released the results of an in-depth analysis of the economic benefits of the Internet of Everything (IoE) for the public sector. Cisco’s model revealed that some $4.6 trillion in “Value at Stake” would result from the adoption of IoE capabilities across 40 key public sector use cases over the next 10 years. According to Ms. Lopez (coordinator of Barcelona smart city strategy), partnering with key technology firms has been a crucial part of developing Barcelona’s Smart City capabilities. “We recognize that all these developments cannot be done only by the city,” she said. “You have to follow a strong and well-thought-out public/private partnership approach in which you have to account for both large and small private sector participants.” Projects also enhance the cooperation of Barcelona’s people. Platforms and initiatives are being created so that the general public can give their opinions, ask questions, make propositions. The general public is proactive in the construction of the new smart.

SF Indicator Project includes: environment, transportation, community cohesion, public realm, education, housing, economy, and health systems.. Indicators were chosen because of their connection to health they are presented in the form of maps and tables, with accompanying detail on why the indicator is important to health and how to interpret results from a geographic and social equity perspective.

63


singapore

tokyoJAPAN

In 2014 Singapore’s healthcare system got rewarded as the number 1 most efficient system in the world by Bloomberg rankings.

Japan being well-known for its old and healthy citizens, the country’s healthcare system is in fact not so well equipped for today’s standards. Japan uses a free-access system to hospitals, without the use of general practitioners. This has led to the problem of excessive demand from patients who visit hospitals for treatment.

So far Singapore has focused largely on making the existing healthcare systems more efficient by implementing IT solutions. An example is the implemetation of electronic patient dossiers, which gives doctors immediate access to a patient’s relevant information. Although increasing efficiency greatly supports the existing healthcare systems, Singapore is also looking at more fundamental changes in the healthcare system to find solutions. An important item in this regard is the move from hospital to home. For instance, Tele-health allows doctors to assess patients from a distance. However, technology alone is not enough, as solutions should be embedded solidly in society in order to be efficient. In Singapore there are many domestic workers involved in personal healthcare, hence technology should ideally be compatible with these workers. Cheaper technology would also create opportunities, although the human factor is in many cases appreciated by patients.

As a first step in 2014, the Medical Care Act was introduced, aiming at a shift of resources from the hospital sector to the home sector. In 2015 also prevention got more emphasized by the Japanese government, which advocated the initiation of a healthy life industry as a strategy for economic growth. The government currently promotes the development of a health products industry, including dementia, exercise and stress care related products. Resulting from this product driven approach are for instance ‘intelligent toilets’. The intelligent toilet developed in Japan measures sugar levels in urine, blood pressure, heart rate, body fat and weight. These results can be send from the toilet to a doctor by an internet-capable cellular phone built into the toilet. Through long distance monitoring, doctors can chart a person’s physical well-being. Next to this, the toilet data can be displayed on the user’s home PC on a graph in weekly, monthly and yearly units. This allows users to actively manage their health, resulting in a reduction of lab work for doctors and will therefore ultimatly reduce pressure on Japan’s current healthcare system.

Next to this, Singapore also focuses on prevention. The Ministry of Health (MoH) and the Health Promotion Board (HPB) are collaborating with the Advertising Standards Authority to regulate food advertising. Secondly, on a city design level Singapore has introduced covered walkways, so people can walk in the shadow or use it as a sheltered way in case of rain. An app has been developed to indicate where these walkways are, which adds to convenience of living for the citizens, which is an important driver for the country’s Smart Nation strategy. 64


&

AMSTERDAM the netherlands

In 2014 the Netherlands ranked number one in the annual Euro health consumer index (EHCI), which compares healthcare systems in Europe. However, the Dutch population is gradually ageing and new challenges are dawning. Furthermore, also an increase in lifestyle related diseases is observed.

Next to AHTI, also the Sarphati Institute is operational since the beginning of this year. The Sarphati Institute is a scientific research institute in which the municipality, the market and knowledge institutes cooperate to tackle issues like obesity and diabetes. The institute executes Cohort-studies, with an intial focus on obesity amongst children. The goal is to develop sustainable solutions for diseases of affluence, increasingly relevant in cities in the developed world.

In order to effectively cope with these topics and also to make the transition from treatment to prevention, Amsterdam as a city initiated the establishment of new institutes in the city, like the Amsterdam Health & Technology Institute (AHTI). The goal of this institute is to contribute to a higher quality of healthcare and to promote a healthy lifestyle. Innovation will play an important role in achieving this goal, innovation which should be generated by collaborations between the different stakeholders in the city. The underlying idea is that Amsterdam will function as a ‘living lab’, a lab in which urban solutions related to health can be tested, which can subsequently be copied and scaled to other cities around the world.

Several projects to reduce child-obesity were already started before the establishment of the Sarphati Institute, as part of the Amsterdam Aanpak Gezond Gewicht (Amsterdam Approach Healthy Weight). One of the projects was ‘Water uit de Kraan’. This project aimed at the promotion of drinking tap water amongst children. An important share of obese children in the city are children of immigrants. Amongst immigrants, drinking tap water is generally not as custom as it is for local Dutch native residents, although Dutch tap water is of very high quality. The goals of the campaign are to promote that tap water is safe to drink, that it is healthy and cheap. As a result of this, public water taps are now becoming increasingly present in the Amsterdam street scene.

Open data will play an important role in bringing the city stakeholders together and to facilitate the development of new city applications.

65


on the lookout While striving towards similar goals, interestingly cities seem to have their own way of working towards their goals. Especially in the Asian cities there seems to be a strong tendency to organise innovations in a top-down manner. Moreover, the cities play more on the safe side when it comes to innovation, as it is mostly focused on improving the existing systems of healthcare. There remains however plenty of improvement opportunities on the social level of healthcare as well as in urban design for healthcare. In Tokyo for instance, few green spaces exist, which generally trigger incentive for people to take a healthy stroll. Tremendous opportunity to improve the city’s design exists if the self-reliance trend can successfully be continued. An important requirement in this regard would be standardization of data, so all data of health self-measurements can be collected. This will allow the city to have a good insight in demographics and certain disease or handicap frequencies. Based on this trend analysis can be made, which in turn can support policy making. A positive side-effect of this would be a reduction of waiting times at hospitals and less hospital related traffic. Contrary the technology focused approach in Asia, in Europe a more cooperative approach towards innovations in the city can be observed. This is also expressed in an approach in which the focus is more towards sustainability. This approach towards city innovation can be sensed in the establishment of the new urban solution focused institutes in Amsterdam. The institutes aim to work using the ‘triple-helix’ approach, implying bringing the knowledge institutes and companies together. Through cooperation between these parties, smart and healthy solutions for the city should be developed, which are supported by the entire city. Also the stimulation of start-ups plays a role in this. The city should become a platform like an appstore where data is openly shared, so that especially start-ups can developed applications for the city. In the Americas the approach seems more data oriented, in which network technnology companies implement Internet of Things (IoT) solutions in the cities. Overviewing the different approaches, good opportunities to collaborate seem to exist as they seem more complementary to eachother than colliding or overlapping. The high quality products and services developed in Asia can be implemented in the cooperative approach in Europe, whereas a cooperative approach can also stimulate better product development in Asia. If all this will be supported by a good networking systems as present in the US, an excellent mix seems to exist to successfully work towards smart and healthy cities.

66


ANALYSING THE APPROACH OF DIFFERENT CITIES’ RESPONSES TOWARDS PUBLIC WELL-BEING; IN COMPARISON WITH THE CITY OF AMSTERDAM.

67 regulated ads

cycling

green roofs

IT solutions

collaboration

teaching-learning

design principles

open data

smart toilets

living labs

tokyo

singapore

barcelona paris amsterdam copenhagen

curitiba

new york

san fransisco


U P

N E

X

T

AUG 2015

TE AM BLOOMING IS THRILLED TO PRESENT TO YOU A SNE AK-PEEK OF BLOOMING JUNIOR! A NEW EDITION OF THE MAGA ZINE SPECIALLY FOR OUR YOUNG RE ADERS!

68


blooming r junio

H E A LT H I N T H E C IT Y PAR K(E D) a story in time through vondelpark

MR. SARPHATI , AMSTERDAMS HERO! S S T C

JULY

69


We would like to thank the organisation of the Summer School Thinking City for all their efforts over the past two weeks. It was a thoroughly enjoyable experience. We all agree: we have learned a lot, but it was also intensively fun. Thanks to our tutors, Sanne van den Breemer and Janna Bystrykh for their guidanceand support. - Team Health. 70


B E H I N D THE S C E N E S

71


72