Issuu on Google+

( Word to PDF Converter - Unregistered ) http://www.Word-to-PDF-Converter.net

1


Cryonics: Science or Science fiction? Cryonics is the speculative practice of using cold temperatures in an attempt to conserve the life of an individual who cannot be supported or healed using modern day technology. The main idea of cryonics is to cryo-preserve the body of the person for as long as it takes until the conservation process could be reversed and the person could be treated and restored with minimum damage.

The process of preserving living tissues and cells has been regularly used by cooling human embryos at extremely low temperatures that stop the metabolism of the cells. Also, humans have survived temperatures that stop all the functions of the body for almost an hour. Which basically tells us that life can stopped and restarted if it didn't suffer from any damage. This process of using chemicals that drop the body temperature to -120 C with very little or no ice formed is called "Vitrification"

Since 1967, the date of the first process of cryonical preservation, only around 200 people , along with 60 pets, have undergone the procedure. Today, cryonics foundations claim that they can preserve a brain with virtually no damage at all. Organizations hope that, in the near future, they could be able to vitrificate a whole body with no damage at all. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=974UMSY7hC0

2


The milestones of cloning ·

1938: Dr. Hans Spemann proposed an experiment to remove the nucleus from an unfertilized egg and replace it with the nucleus from a differentiated cell.

·

1953: discovery of the structure of DNA

·

1973: the first ever successful gene splicing procedure

·

1980: U.S. Supreme Court agrees that a genetically created new micro-organism could be patented

·

1984: using nuclear transfer, Steen Willadsen cloned a sheep from embryo cells. This is first mammal clone ever created

·

1990: the launch of the Human Genome Project by The National Institute of Health

·

1993: Human embryos were first cloned

·

1996: The first mammal was cloned from a cell of an adult animal. Ian Wilmut created the sheep Dolly.

·

1997: U.S. president Bill Clinton proposed a 5-year suspension on human cloning 3


research ·

1998: nineteen European nations banned human cloning

·

2000: five piglets are cloned by a company that eventually want to reproduce organs for humans

·

2002: George Bush puts some limitations on embryonic stem cell research

·

2004: UK announces the first embryonic stem cell bank

·

2009: the first cloned camel, called Injaz, was born at Dubai's Camel Reproduction Center

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7tbxN5uwaqA

Oliver: A man or a chimp http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-C6NkRUbI38 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2BucQb91MJg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PC9N62dixeY http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P1Y_-_mPy3s

4


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VOF-3kV7Lec http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qi1KiHVPd9s

5


Artificial liver: Imagine having an artificial liver that is made up of cells from human beings. This is what scientist recently discovered that they can create an artificial liver that help people with liver problems. The device is called The Extracorporeal Liver Assist Device, or ELAD, and it is the first artificial liver to use cells from humans rather than from pigs. It is used to aid patients awaiting a liver transplant or whose own liver is not functioning and needs to get better. Machines that used pig cells had a lot of problems because patients were exposed to animal cells which could harm them and cause dangerous infections. The ELAD uses a chamber system in which each of the two chambers is filled with cartridges that contain liver cells. Similar to a dialysis machine, when the device is connected via blood vessels, the blood is filtered, remixed, and

6


returned to the body. The pig cell device could only be used for six to ten hours; the new device could always be used by changing cartridges. Clinical trials of the ELAD began at the University of Chicago hospitals. The trials will decide both the safety and effectiveness of the device. These trials are set to help people with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), a liver disease. This disease can happen to any healthy person and its cause remains unknown. The device will be used to protect the patient's other vital organs during liver failure and to provide adequate time for the patient's liver to recover from the effects of the disease. By providing this extra time for patient’s liver to heal, this will decrease the number of people needing transplants.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SnnPLWxt134

This website have funstuff, and games about biotechnology. http://www.science2discover.com/funstuff.htm

7


What are Bio Ethics? Bioethics is a study of contreversies that are created by the ethical issues concerning the sceintific advances of biology and medicine. In the 20th and 21st centuries the world witnessed a massive scientific and technological revolution, in all fields of science icluding biology. Terms like genetic enginering and bio technology were introduced to the world, but this did not go unsanctioned, so the term bioethics came into existance in 1971, and it is was their to cite and study the contreversial clashes between Biotechnology and medicine on one side, and law , culture and religion on the other. Many contreversies were generated by biotechnology in the last few decades, and all were met with mixed views from the people, but never was any side proven 100% right , because scientists see that as scientific acheivment that serves humanity, and other people see it in some cases undiginifing to humanity, and at some cases as a rape of the natural world. In the coming articels, and videos, contreversies will be simulated, in some incidents that were major inspirators for the conflict. Genetic Engineering and Ethics First of all lets define the term Genetic Engineering, it is genetic modification of the genetic structure of a living organism, in an unnatural , by human beings. Genetic engineering is very attractive and promising to scientific researchers, and scientists , because through it uncurable diseases like cancer , and HIV Aids can be cured; perhaps that is the most compeling factor that popularizes genetic engineering among the masses. However Genetic Engineering has proven to be disatisfing to many, because of the speculations, that genetic engineers would modify the genes of humans before they were born, turning them into super humans, and that would also aid in increaseing their life span to a huge extent. What was just mentioned is opposed by millions if not billions of people around the world, because to some they see that as a interferance in the work of God, and some others see it as a rape of nature, as we are born the way we are supposed to be, some others argue that the genetic modification of babies, will result in a huge gap between the genetically modified , and the

8


genetically natural people, because the latter will be far less inteligent , and capable than the genetically modified. All the opposers inargubally have a common belief, and that genetic engineering will disrupt the natural world, and will change the meaning of the term humanity. This is a clear example of bioehtics that have been mentioned in the Article one of this section, that discussed bioethics. I believe that there is a synthesis that can be reached that can satisfy both sides, and it is that Genetic Engineering should be used to perevent children’s bearth with disabilities, and also should be used to cure incurable diseases, and I think that religious people, and human right activists will not be opposed to such inovations. On the other hand Genetic engineering should not be used in genetically modifing babies , to create super human beings, to prevent what I would classify as the destruction of humanities. Agricultural Genetic Engineering manipulation or salvation Scientists have accomplished a major scientific initiative, and it is the genetic engineering of seeds, so that the seed would grow larger than its natural size, the larger fruit that grows from the seed has fascinated many, and many see that as a solution for the famines that exist in many parts of the world. However not everyone sees it that way, many people have a hostile stance towards Agricultural Genetic Engineering , and see it as a manipulation of consumers, because they will be eating unnatural food , and they would not even know , because when these engineered food products are sold in the super markets, they are not labeled that they are, some may say so what’s wrong with that, at the end of the day it won’t hurt anyone not to know, however it has been proven that genetically engineered nutritional products , have some side effects. First of all the Engineered products, do not go through long term testing, so their safety can never be confirmed a 100%. Also these products can cause mutations that can turn toxic, and could be fatal in some cases. Not only does Agricultural GE cause these health hazards, it opens the way for companies that will produce such products, to manipulate their business associates who are mainly farmers, by engineering the seed to be used only once, so that the farmers would buy more seeds. This of course

9


happens thanks to the corrupt Politians who legitimize the selling of such products. I think that more research should be put into agricultural GE so that it would avoid its hazardous side effects, after wards a frame of laws and regulations should be formulated to set the pattern of the marketing of these products.

These are two videos on Bioethics that might be helpful to understand the concept http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G5hwvRnOE9o&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZYe85sxog8k&feature=related

10


BIOTECH