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Ex pl or i ngmeani ngands i gni f i canceoft he ‘ Cont ex t ual Di mens i on’ofanEcoCi t yConcept ”

Aqeel Khan 0910334 St age5 Scot tSut her l andSchool ofAr chi t ect ur e

9727wor ds Super v i s edby :DrQuaz i Zaman


List of figures Fig 1 – Cover image Songdo Smart city – Available at: http://www.itproportal.com/2012/11/19/smart-cities-future-urban-living/ Fig 2 – Context table – Author – Aqeel Khan Fig 3 - Context analysis – Author – Aqeel Khan Fig 4 – Distribution of Urban Population by region - World urban and rural population trends – United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Available at: http://esa.un.org/unup/unup/index_panel1.html. [Accessed 05/05/2013]. Fig 5 – Distribution of Rural Population by region - World urban and rural population trends – United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Available at: http://esa.un.org/unup/unup/index_panel1.html. [Accessed: 05/05/2013]. Fig 6 – Climatic Regions – Hyde, R., 2000. Climate Responsive Design. New York: E and FN Spon. Fig 7 - Building modifications in relation to climate - Hyde, R., 2000. Climate Responsive Design. New York: E and FN Spon. Fig 8 – Principle climatic conditions – Author – Aqeel Khan Fig 9 – Active/ Passive building models - Hyde, R., 2000. Climate Responsive Design. New York: E and FN Spon. Fig 10 - World population trend graph for Urban and Rural context - United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Available at: http://esa.un.org/unup/unup/index_panel1.html. [Accessed: 05/05/2013]. Fig 11 – Timeline of ecological movements – Author – Aqeel Khan Fig 12 - Fig 10. Ten principles to create ecological environment stated by urban ecology Roseland, M. 1997. Dimensions of the eco-city. Cities, 14(4), pp. 197-202. Fig 13 - Map Masdar – Available at: https://tiles.mapbox.com/akhan1/edit/mapdlfttxvd?newmap&preset=Terrain#8.00/12.569/78.555. [Accessed: 04/05/2013]. Fig 14 – Masdar table of figures - Author – Aqeel Khan Fig 15- Masdar masterplan – Available at: http://masdarcity.ae/en/78/master-plan/. [Accessed: 04/05/2013]. Fig 16– Masdar PRT pods – Available at: http://www.greenprophet.com/2011/05/interview-with-masdar-citys-pod-car-makers/. [Accessed: 07/05/2013] Fig 17 - Masdar institute – Available at: http://www.airmasteremirates.com/project_details.php?id=14&country=UAE. [Accessed: 02/05/2013] Fig 18 - Key areas of focus in Masdar – Author- Aqeel khan

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Fig 19 – Dongtan ecocity location - Available at: https://tiles.mapbox.com/akhan1/edit/mapdlfttxvd?newmap&preset=Terrain#8.00/12.569/78.555. [Accessed: 04/05/2013]. Fig 20 - Dongtan Ecocity table of figures – Author- Aqeel Khan Fig 21 – Dongtan eco city plan – Available at: http://www.foodurbanism.org/dongtan-ecoproject-2/. [Accessed: 07/05/2013]. Fig 22 - Dongtan eco city – Available at: http://www.zigersnead.com/current/blog/post/dongtan-eco-city-sustainable/ - [Accessed: 28/04/2013]. Fig 23 - Key areas of focus Dongtan – Author – Aqeel Khan Fig 24 - Tianjin ecocity Location - Available at: https://tiles.mapbox.com/akhan1/edit/mapdlfttxvd?newmap&preset=Terrain#8.00/12.569/78.555 [Accessed: 04/05/2013]. Fig 25 – Tianjin table of figures– Available at: http://www.tianjinecocity.gov.sg/bg_masterplan.htm[Accessed: 04/05/2013]. Fig 26 – Tianjin ecocity masterplan - Available at: http://www.kepcorp.com/en/news_item.aspx?sid=2045 [Accessed: 24/04/2013 Fig 27 - Layout of Tianjin grid neighbourhood structure – Available at: http://www.tianjinecocity.gov.sg/bg_masterplan.htm. [Accessed: 25/04/2013]. Fig 28 – Aerial view of Tianjin eco-city - Available at: http://www.tianjinecocity.gov.sg/gal_2012.htm [Accessed: 24/04/2013 Fig. 29 – Tianjin eco city masterplan - Available at: http://www.tianjinecocity.gov.sg/gal_2012.htm [Accessed: 24/04/2013] Fig. 30 - Tianjin Key areas of focus – Author – Aqeel Khan Fig 31 – Table of case study figures – Author – Aqeel Khan Fig 32 - Key areas of focus case studies – Author – Aqeel Khan Fig 33 - Auroville ecovillage location map - Available at: https://tiles.mapbox.com/akhan1/edit/mapdlfttxvd?newmap&preset=Terrain#8.00/12.569/78.555. [Accessed: 04/05/2013]. Fig 34 – Auroville hut - Available at: http://spfaust.wordpress.com/category/design/page/4/ [Accessed: 03/05/2013]. Fig 35 – Auroville site plan - Available at: http://eng.esperrance.org/index.php/post/2009/08/25/Auroville[Accessed: 05/05/2013]. Fig 36 – Table of figures – Author- Aqeel khan Fig 37 - Key areas of focus Auroville, India – Author Aqeel Khan Fig 38 - Ithaca ecovillage location map - Available at: https://tiles.mapbox.com/akhan1/edit/mapdlfttxvd?newmap&preset=Terrain#8.00/12.569/78.555 [Accessed: 05/05/2013]. Fig 39 – Table of figures – Author - Aqeel Khan

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Fig 40 – Ithaca ecovillage - Available at: http://ecovillageithaca.org/evi/index.php/about/virtual-tour [Accessed: 01/05/2013]. Fig 41 – Ithaca ecovillage - Available at: http://ecovillageithaca.org/evi/index.php/about/virtual-tour [Accessed: 01/05/2013]. Fig 42 – Key areas of focus in Ithaca, USA – Author – Aqeel Khan Fig 43 – Ecovillage figures – Author – Aqeel Khan Fig 44 – Common trends amoung the eco village case studies – Author – Aqeel Khan Fig 45 –Songdo Location map - Available at: https://tiles.mapbox.com/akhan1/edit/mapdlfttxvd?newmap&preset=Terrain#8.00/12.569/78.555. [Accessed: 04/05/2013]. Fig 46 – Songdo Figures – Author – Aqeel Khan Fig 47 - Available at: http://www.songdo.com/songdo-international-businessdistrict/gallery/image-gallery.aspx/rptGalleryRows=1[Accessed: 20/04/2013]. Fig 48 - Available at: http://www.songdo.com/songdo-international-businessdistrict/gallery/image-gallery.aspx/rptGalleryRows=1[Accessed: 20/04/2013]. Fig 49 – Songdo masterplan – Available at: http://www.songdo.com/Uploads/FileManager/songdo_flash_map/gale_web.html. [Accessed: 25/04/2013]. Fig 50 - Key areas of focus in Songdo Smart city – Author – Aqeel Khan Fig 51 – Guangming location map - Available at: https://tiles.mapbox.com/akhan1/edit/mapdlfttxvd?newmap&preset=Terrain#8.00/12.569/78.555. [Accessed: 04/05/2013]. Fig 52 – Table of figures – Author – Aqeel Khan Fig 53 – Crater communities - Available at: http://www.cityup.org/ae_ecocity/Cases/Asia/20100119/58866-2.shtml [Accessed: 08/05/2013]. Fig 54 – Masterplan - Available at: http://blog.designdb.com/emjaydesign/bbs/dblogView.asp?catPKID=5&sGb=&sTxt=&oDm =1&bbsType=&page=3&bbsPKID=1172 [Accessed: 08/05/2013]. Fig 55 – Key areas of focus Guangming – Author – Aqeel Khan Fig 56 – Smart city table of figures – Author – Aqeel Khan Fig 57 – Smart city key areas of focus – Author – Aqeel Khan Fig 58– Eco-design comparisons and similarities – Author – Aqeel Khan

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We can’t solve the problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them - Albert Einstein (Dawson, 2010)

1 Introduction Eco-cities consider wider environmental issues yet making place-responsive actions. Modelling a city is much more difficult than designing a building due to multiple urban conditions and stake holders, the central questions in this research is to judge whether there are contextual values more significant while drafting an eco-city concept. There must be a substantial decrease in carbon emissions and damage to the ecosystems. Ecocities have the ability to provide us of new ways of living and building within cities. How context is critical to eco-city applications and verifying whether the contextual meaning has been preserved at the level of application will be central to this dissertation. The eco-city concept is closely related to other ecological design initiatives such as the ecovillage and smart cities. The investigation of the ecovillage concept provides an understanding of a living sustainable settlement. The smart city has created a new approach to urban development, the dissertation will analysis whether these sustainable models have maintained contextual values within their application.

The importance of a place responsive eco-city concept It is said that the city is contains the fundamentals of culture and civilisation. Some have stated without the city, culture and civilisation would never have come into existence. Eco-cities could be the key to reducing the intense growth we face within our cities which are classed as wasteful and ecologically unhealthy sprawl. (Register, 1987) Masterplanning of an eco-city is important but what fails to be highlighted in the current masterplans, is that the economic, social and political issues are taken away from these concepts, they are important as they are key in shaping our society. Today as the population and densities within a city are increasing the solution is not to create new and improved masterplans but we should establish a greater understanding of the city. The notion of Sustainability alone will not solve the issues of global warming (Lim and Liu, 2010)

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Aims: The topic for this dissertation is to “Explore meaning and significance of the ‘Contextual Dimension’ of an Eco-City Concept.” This research is significant as environmental issues are becoming more important in Architecture today. Recently designed eco-cities provide evidence that almost any approach can be taken and made green, the question we must ask has anything changed from what was previously produced? The designing, building and operation of buildings has the greatest impact on nature and towards an eco-city concept, but the questions still remain how closely the ecocity addresses the micro-climatic issues and the contextual values. Eco cities have the ability to provide us of new ways of living and building within cities. There is a need to verify whether the contextual meaning has been preserved at the level of application.

Objectives: The objective of the dissertation is to answer the following hypothesis: Is the contextual meaning of an eco-city profoundly addressed with its application in a microclimatic condition? The designing, building and operation of buildings has the greatest impact on nature and towards an eco-city concept, but the questions still remain how closely the eco-city addresses the micro-climatic issues and the contextual values.

Methodology The research highlights how context is critical to eco-city applications. A Qualitative study is relevant for this topic from which a theoretical exploration of eco-cities conducted will establish an argument based upon the hypothesis. The topic is unique topic but requires further investigation how others have taken this argument. This understanding is central to this dissertation. Once a historical context is established, it will be investigated whether eco-cities have adopted the climatic context in their designs. To obtain a greater understanding of initial ideas within an eco-city. A theoretical analysis of relevant articles and publications by Richard Register, CJ Lim, Mark Roseland and Johnathan Dawson in the fields in Context in Architecture, Eco-cities, Urban Design, Ecovillages, Sustainability and Smart cities are conducted. As the topic is vast and has benefitted from large contributions across various authors the

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literature review is central to this research, which provides an awareness of the basic contextual parameters within an eco-city and a direction to pursue the dissertation. A method of analysing the case study concepts are established upon a rating system from 1-10 which determines its relationship to the contextual parameters and how successful they are in adopting these ideas. The most successful contextual application would achieve a 10, the least successful achieving 1. The table (Fig. 2) highlights the numbers given by each area and (Fig. 3) illustrates this analysis in the form of a completed diagram. The radar diagram will form the basis for the analysis and provide comparisons between the different case studies. The results will determine how successful each project is based on its contextual values.

Radar diagram example Economic Social and Cultural Political Environmental Contextual and climatic

8 9 8 10 9

Economic 10 8 6 Contextual and Climatic

4 2

Social and Cultural

0

Fig.2 Context table

Enviornmental

Political

Fig.3 Context analysis

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2 Definition of ‘contextually’ Responsive Architecture The definition of ‘contextually’ responsive architecture must be considered before the eco-city concept case studies are analysed. Why is climate and architecture as important now as it wasn’t the case previously? This is mostly focused towards the phenomenon of global warming and the emphasis on the design of ecological buildings. Preserving resources and consuming them in a sustainable manner will remain very important, this is not just important for the economy, but also for environmental, ecological and even health reasons. The problem we face today is that it’s not due to the lack of fossil fuels but it’s the actually how ‘clean’ they are. (Emmanuel, 2005) “Architecture and planning know-how cannot simply be exported as if they were some standard consumer product and it is essential for anyone wishing to work abroad to appreciate and understand the unique situation of the area concerned.” (Konya, 1980. P.7). Konya’s statement highlights the importance of a building relating to its surrounding conditions, the architect must be aware of the conditions such as climate, environment, the availability of materials and the local construction technology however they should also acquire an understanding of a particular regions life style whether it be political, social or religious views (Kukreja, 1978). The majority of the world’s population occupy within the hot tropical and subtropical regions (Fig. 4-5), so this is where most of the world’s buildings will be built (Oliver, 1973). Due to a lack of appreciation for nature in architecture buildings such as offices and dwellings tend to look very similar all over the world due to their primary objective being to keep nature outside and to keep the external elements entering the internal spaces, this has resulted in heavy reliance upon active cooling (Konya, 1980).

Distribution of Urban population by region 60% 40% 20% 0% Africa

Asia

Europe

1950

Latin Northern Oceania America, America Carribean

2011

2050

Fig. 4 Distribution of Rural Population by Region

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Distribution of Rural population by region 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Africa

Asia

Europe

1950

Latin Northern Oceania America, America Carribean

2011

2050

Fig. 5 Distribution of Rural Population by Region

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The building context The context in which the building is placed in, has an effect on how it is designed. A building within a cold climate will have a large wall thickness as the main objective in this design would be to contain as much heat as possible (Givoni, 1976). Whereas the design of the building within a warm climate the designer would pay careful attention to attributes such as the orientation of the building, these buildings will also rely heavily on natural ventilation. (Hyde, 2000). “Climate responsive design is based on the way a building form and structure moderates the climate for human good and well-being.� (Hyde, 2000 p. 4). Climate responsive architecture has many influences on the building with regards to the integrated construction methods, built form as well as the user experience within the space (Tan, 1994). The building context consists of the rural, suburban and Urban. The rural context consists of a large amount of natural features that provide greater flexibility in design and fewer constraints for the Architect (Givoni, 1998). The suburban context consists of a high density of buildings; these consist of smaller block sizes (Heschong, 1979). This has an effect on the wind flow and ventilation within the buildings. Buildings within a suburban context would face the street, this may not situated in its optimum orientation. In an urban context the buildings are far denser, the use is primarily focused towards non-residential and the reliance on air conditioning is increased. (Hyde, 2000).

Fig 6 – Climatic regions

The designer should understand the location in which the building is situated whether it is temperate, tropical or even an Arctic climate Fig. 6. The climate conditions refer to three different areas, firstly the global conditions that are created by geographical features such as land, sea, sun and air (Aronin, 1953). Secondly, the local conditions are dependent upon the water, typography, vegetation, built environment and finally site conditions and the building context relate to the location

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conditions and the building. (Fig. 7) highlights the varied building modifications required when building in a particular climate (Hyde, 2000).

Climate type Moderate

Hot Dry

Adverse climatic elements Rain Snow Cold winter Winds Summer heat and high humidity

Areas to address

Response Method

Minimise heat loss in winter Allow solar access in winter Minimise insolation in Summer Utilise ventilation in summer

Insolation

Minimise heat loss in winter and heat gain in summer Utilise diurnal temperature variation for summer cooling, winter heating Provide dust barriers at openings Utilise small amount of rain and low humidity

Good insulation Large windows facing the winter sun with solar access Overhangs/ eaves for excluding summer sun Roof insulation or ventilated roof. Large openings with cross ventilation Overhangs/ eaves for excluding summer sun Shaded windows Heavy walls with large time-lag Screening

Large diurnal temperature variation Wind-blown sand and dust Dryness

Hot Humid

Rain Heat high Humidity Insolation Small diurnal variation

Minimise heat gain Maximise ventilation Maximise shading

Water feature to enhance evaporative cooling to incoming air Thin plan with axis eastwest Cross-ventilation, high ceilings Ventilated roof Window shading all year Shaded veranda

Fig. 7 – Building modifications in relation to climate

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Climatic Conditions When building design and human comfort are considered the principle climatic elements must be explored (Fig. 8). The duration and scale of these conditions may vary, they must be considered to ensure acceptable human comfort levels and structural safety within z building are achieved (Konya, 1980).

Principle climatic elements Special Characteristics

Temperature

Wind

Precipitation

Solar Radiation

Humidity

Lightning

Earthquakes

Fig. 8 – Principle climatic elements Dust storms

The methods of dealing with climatic conditions can be classed as Active, passive and hybrid models (Fig. 9). An active building system requires the use of plant and equipment to modify its climate. The buildings are called conditioned buildings and the building guarantees a regulated thermal comfort level, unfortunately designers rely heavily on this method which results in poor efficiency (Flohn, 1969). A hybrid system uses both active and passive methods to alter the climate. A term associated with this approach is ‘passive low energy architecture’ this method can be difficult to successfully manage both systems. The main problems designers and engineers face is how to confront the issues of solar gain within the hot-dry climates (Lippsmeier, 1969).

Fig. 9 – Active/passive building models

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The climatic conditions have a greater influence on the design than any other condition. The influences are notable within the built form, spacial qualities, and building structure but they differ on their applications with relation to their geographic location, the building context is also defined by site conditions (Aronin, 1953). The problem with creating an environment that is both ecologically friendly but also a strong social and cultural integration is proving to be quite a difficult task (Correa, 1989). The reason primarily being due to the fact that the hot-humid climates are facing extreme amounts of growth never experienced before Fig. 4-5. In comparison Europe took at least two hundred years to transform from a rural to an urban fabric. The hot-humid region has to do this within sixty years (Emmanuel, 2005).

Summary The urban environment within a hot climate is where the majority of the population growth is occurring. The creation of new buildings and cities must adhere to ecological principles based on the microclimatic conditions to minimise its impact on the environment. The microclimatic context is not entirely defined by its climate but also the economy, politics, culture and building context of that region. Eco-cities must ensure contextual parameters are adhered to, to create a comfortable environment.

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3 Introduction to eco cities By 2030 it is envisaged that around 5 billion people will be living within an urban context (fig 10). Researchers have concerns regarding the heavy use of finite resources. The fact is that cities are emerging rapidly in countries, such as, in India and China giving rise to mega-cities in a scale the world has never witnessed before. A struggle to reinstate a balance of growth, development and overall environmental impact, the eco-city emerged as a conceptual and strategic intervention, therefore, allowing us to shift the way we have developed cities in the past. World Urban and Rural Population Trends 7,000,000,000 6,000,000,000 5,000,000,000 4,000,000,000

Fig. 10 World population trend graph for Urban and Rural context

3,000,000,000 2,000,000,000 1,000,000,000 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2011 2020 2030 2040 2050 World Urban population

World Rural population

The cities establish a central role within civilization to carry the economic and cultural society. Cities are considered to be the largest creation of humanity and the designing, constructing and operating them has the greatest impact on nature than any other human activity (Register, 2006). Unfortunately these cities are burdened with most issues regarding resources and the environment and also where the increased rates of urban sprawl occur (Cao & Li, 2010).

Establishment of the ‘eco-city’ During the late 19th century the Author Ebenezer Howard established a movement called the ‘garden city’ whereby cities could be created where people could live in harmony with nature (Howard, 1902). The ideas highlighted the communities surrounded by green belts and His book the Garden Cities of To-morrow had an effect on ecological urban development and the evolution of the eco-city concept (Fook and Gang, 2010). The term ‘eco city’ was initially proposed by Richard Register in his book eco city Berkeley. The concept of eco-cities have been around for a long time even though the term ‘eco-city’ is quite new. Richard Register and his associates started a non-

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profit organisation called Urban Ecology under the wider datum of sustainable development to ‘rebuild cities in balance with nature’ (Roseland, 1997). Establishing a connection with nature will be an important step towards creating a greener way of living. An eco-city is determined as being an ecologically healthy city. It is very easy to strip the environmental attributes, whereby flattening forests or polluting it rather than to preserve it (Mcharg, 1969). It seems as though humans are unable to live with other creatures as they destroy natural areas by creating infrastructure, which are vital for sustaining animal life (Register, 1987). Eco cities could be used to remove the wasteful, unhealthy sprawl that is currently prevalent. The growth required within the cities will need to be varied such as the requirement of some cities to shrink, this will then cause cities to become far less sprawled and become further compact (Rees and Wackernagel, 1996). Other areas will take responsibility for regional population growth while emphasizing the requirements for a lower birth rate and a decreased human impact on nature. The way in which these cities become eco-cities will be dependent upon its bioregional implications (Register, 2006).

Ecological design movements The movements of the ecological design have been around for over 20 years which enable a greater understanding of the eco-city concept (Roseland, 1997): Appropriate technology works in harmony with current technology methods. Using less scarce resources is vital as well the system being created to serve the human rather than being so heavily reliant on technology. Community economic development is an initiative whereby communities can generate their own solutions to economic problems in order to support infrastructure and integrate economic, social and environmental objectives. (McRobie, 1981) Social ecology is the study of humans and natural ecosystems. Social ecology looks to restore the damaged ecosystems. The ideas of social ecology is not just to protect nature but it believes it is also important is also important to create an ecological society would be the solution (Bookchin, 1987). The Green movement believe in the four pillars of ecology. The pillars if applied to communities can provide improve the quality of life, create a harmony with nature. The main focus of bioregionalism is place. If the word is broken down with regards to its Greek and Latin meaning it means ‘a life territory’. It seeks to prevent the destruction of natural eco-systems such as forests and rivers though the application of various techniques to solve these issues. (Jacobs, 1991) Sustainable development movement was an initiative that was set up by the US government that acknowledged the issues faced across ecological trends. The group was to meet the needs of current generations without causing too great an effect to the future generations.

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Conclusion The Garden city movement established by Sir Ebenezer Howard in 1896 had many influences worldwide on ecological urban development with his ideas of communities surrounded by green belts with the integration of industries and dwellings. His book Garden Cities of To-morrow created a strong foundation which has led to the evolution of the eco city concept (Fig. 11). The eco-city can establish a solution to the increased rate of urban population growth, a new approach should be taken to tackle the issues associated with urban sprawl.

Fig. 11 Timeline of ecological movements

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4 Dimensions of eco city concept When creating an eco-city there are two ways in which it can be achieved, it can be created from an existing city or it can be built from scratch. The eco-city should look to reduce its impact on the environment. Three areas need to be addressed when designing an ecocity. The buildings, the transportation model and supplying new methods of energy. Register states that eco-cities are considered to be a direction rather than a destination. “Just as cities they are always changing so will eco-cities will be required to adapt to these changes�. (Register, 1987. p.136). The eco-city should improve the living condition. Once a strong connection with nature has been established it will allow us to understand that there is no end this journey. At the centre of the eco-city there are the economic, environmental, social and cultural requirements. Eco-cities must integrate green technologies, sustainable transportation, green belts and retain cultural and heritage conservation (Henderson, 1978).

Areas to address within an ecocity Within an ecocity there are three major areas that need to be addressed which are: the transformation of buildings, improvement of transportation systems and the implementation of new energy methods. Buildings within the eco-city should have the ability to produce more energy than it consumes via renewable sources. The transportation around the ecocity should incorporate ecologically friendly modes of transport such as electric cars or public transport. New methods of applying energy applications can be achieved via smart grids. They enable IT technology to distribute energy around the city more effectively.

The economic, social and cultural requirements of the ecocity The economy within eco-city must contribute to growth and with the aid of investments provide employment opportunities for its inhabitants locally thus reducing the need to commute. The economic growth will provide an income for the government which can then be applied to help with environmental initiatives and improve the living standards for its citizens (McHarg, 1969). The social and cultural activities within the eco-city should encourage interaction between people among diverse ethnic and religious groups. The eco city should allow people from all financial backgrounds to occupy the city (Fook and Gang, 2010). Masterplanning of an eco-city is important but what fails to be highlighted in the current masterplans, is that the economic, social and political issues are taken away from these concepts. Today as the population and densities within a city are

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increasing the solution is not to create new and improved masterplans but we should establish a greater understanding of the city (Lim and Liu, 2010).

Transportation within the eco-city Transportation within our city is very important the close proximity of buildings and services reduces the need for one to travel long distances using a car. A city is considered to be for cars and not for people. There are said to be 600 million cars in the world and about sixty million new ones arriving every year causing damage and destroying resources (Register, 2006). This view was also shared by David Engwhicht in his book Toward an Eco-city: calming the traffic with the notion that the car itself destroys the eco-city. The increase in the number of cars within a city leads to an increase in the requirement of movement spaces such as roads, car parks, and railways (Engwhicht, 1992).

Key principles to consider when building an eco-city Urban Ecology has stated ten principles to create ecological environments (Roseland, 1997): Ten Principles to create ecological environment stated by urban ecology

Contextual elements within the 10 principles

Revise land-use priorities to create compact diverse, mixed use communities near transit nodes and other transportation facilities

Based upon the cities local conditions it will allow for a reduction in walking distances and reduce the requirement for a car as well as encouraging local employment The reduction in road vehicle can omit an requirement for roads and create further green spaces which creates a greater social experience To maintain a strong connection with nature the ecosystem must be retained to minimise the cities based upon local conditions Encourage citizens from all wealth backgrounds to inhabit the city to create a diverse social experience A diverse community will also for greater social and cultural integration between the citizens Local agriculture will enable the city to become selfsufficient in food production and enhance microclimate

Revise transport priorities to favor foot, bicycle, cart and transit of cars Restore damaged urban environments, especially creeks, shorelines, ridgelines and wetlands Creating decent, affordable, safe and convenient mixed housing Create opportunities for a diversity of people, women, and disabled Support local agriculture and community gardening Promote recycling and resource conservation while reducing pollution and hazardous waste. Work with businesses to support ecologically sound economic activity whilst discouraging pollution, waste, and the use and production of hazardous materials

The reduction of waste will enable the city to reduce its carbon footprint and reduce pollution Ensuring businesses adhere to ecological principles can make a huge impact in the reduction of the cities carbon footprint as industries contribute to large amounts of waste

Promote voluntary simplicity and discourage excessive consumption of material goods.

A reduction of excessive consumption will reduce excessive waste minimising the cities carbon footprint

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Increase awareness of the local environment and bioregion through educational projects that increase awareness of ecological sustainability issues.

A collective awareness of local environmental principles will enables inhabitants to ensure the city is maintained to a healthy standard.

Fig 12. Ten principles to create ecological environment stated by urban ecology

Summary The eco-city should seek to address the political, social and environmental issues we face within our cities rather than cover them up. Establishing an ecological city is an endless process, the technology innovations will continue to change how the issues are tackled. To resolve the imbalance we must return to living in harmony with nature to ensure that self-sufficient communities can thrive. The existing cities and new ones that are being built should be analysed and have the ability to improve the environment or even reduce its damage. (Fook and Gang, 2010).

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5 Eco City Case Studies Masdar City – UAE Masdar is a small city located within Abu Dhabi which is set to be a carbon neutral zero waste city (Fig. 13). Abu Dhabi is preparing itself the day its oil reserves run dry to continue their growth. The initiative behind the project was to promote renewable energy in the UAE (GA Document, 2008). The city will act as a hub for knowledge, business, research and development. Which can then be applied as a model for regional and global urban development within a similar context. The city boasts of a high quality university known as Masdar Institute with its student being the first residents within the city (Masdar, 2012).

Fig. 13 Masdar City site Location

The construction and all integrated infrastructure will be carbon neutral for its residents and commuters (Fig. 14). The connection between Masdar and Abu Dhabi will be strengthened via rail cars and metro lines with connections to the airport.

Population

40,000 residents (50,000 commuters)

Cost

$22 Billion

Climate

Tropical

Scale

6.4km2

City focus

Research and Development, Education

Fig. 14 Masdar City table of figures

Due to sites climatic context buildings are placed 45 degrees towards north to allow for optimum shading without sacrificing daylight. Two parks provide fresh air and improve the local microclimate by capturing the cool easterly winds at night (May, 2008). The buildings within Masdar incorporate passive design elements, thermal mass efficient façade and utilities. They will be certified by the emirates own green standards known as the Pearl rating system. A large amount of energy produced for Masdar is achieved through the use of photovoltaic cells (Madlener, 2011).

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Fig.15 Masdar City masterplan

Masdar Institute The Masdar institute is at the heart of the project (Fig. 15). The institute will conduct renewable research that will be taught and applied during the construction process (Fig. 17). The project has proved to be a great challenge as it will be a high density, mixed use development (Masdar, 2012). Transportation methods are currently obtained through the PRT system which transports up to four people to the institute via an underground electric pod that is controlled through a central computer (Fig. 16) (Madlener, 2011).

Fig 16 – Masdar PRT pods

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Fig 17 – Masdar Institute

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Summary Masdar eco-city is setting a precedent of creating an eco-city in the most difficult climatic conditions. It will difficult to envisage the city operating completely at a level in which it can obtain zero carbon emissions. The buildings have considered a strong passive design element that limits their reliance upon active methods of cooling. The author Lim in his book Smart-cities and Eco-Warriors disagrees with the approach taken by Masdar to create a zero carbon city “anything that has some streets, reflecting pools, public transportation nodes, and an assortment of buildings and wind turbines is now an eco-city. This is the direct consequence of pretending masterplans were cities.� (Lim and Liu, 2010 p.248)

Key areas of focus in Masdar, UAE

Research and development

Technology

Contextual and Climatic

Economic 10 8 6 4 2 0

Social and Cultural

Political

Enviornmental

Fig. 18 Key areas of focus in Masdar

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Dongtan eco city The city was created as an experiment by Arup in 2008. Dongtan eco-city was set become the world’s first eco city located just north of Shanghai (Fig. 19). The project it enabled ARUP to test ideas that weren’t studied before even though their solutions were considered unreasonable people have come accept them today (Buxton, 2009). The scale of the project was considered to be an area three quarters the size of Manhattan (24 square miles), which was to be located in sensitive wetlands on Fig. 19 Dongtan Ecocity location Chongming Island at the mouth of the Yangze River just north of Shanghai (Hart, 2007). Population Cost Climate Scale Site focus

500,000 $2billion Temperate 62km2 Investment and commercial

Fig. 20 Dongtan Ecocity table of figures

The eco-city was designed to inhabit half a million people (Fig.20) (Waite, 2005). The use of the roads were focused towards servicing the city, thus encouraging the inhabitants to walk, cycle and utilise public transport (Fig. 22). The cars would incorporate hydrogen or fuel cells. 40 per cent of the land would be retained as farmland, the site would retain the bird reserve and place buildings nearby with eco farms in-between them (fig. 21). The residents would live within close proximity of work reducing the need to commute (Hart, 2007).

Fig. 21 Dongtan eco city plan

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Energy management It was considered that 80% of the city’s waste was to be recycled. Waste from rise husks would be used to generate energy within the city. Buildings orientated optimally in accordance to microclimatic conditions. All the buildings in Dongtan were said to be zero energy or passive structures.

Summary Dongtan was designed to become the world’s first eco-city, unfortunately that vision hadn’t become a reality. A lack of financial planning and corruption was a major cause for the project being incomplete. The project had allowed Arup to learn many lessons from the experiments that were carried out in Dongtan. The local conditions hadn’t been taken into consideration as the city was applying basic ecological principles rather than looking into contextual applications (Hart, 2007). The site is of great importance and would be of greater benefit for the Chinese government to leave the site undeveloped as it is part of a green area that is in the process of disappearing outside of Shanghai and holds one of China’s largest bird reserves (Dac, 2012).

Key areas of focus in Dongtan Economic 8 Research and development

6

Social and Cultural

4 2 0

Technology

Contextual and Climatic

Political

Enviornmental

Fig. 23 Key Areas of focus Dongtan

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Tianjin eco city Tianjin eco city is collaboration between the Chinese and Singaporean government that intends to build an environment that is socially harmonious, environmentally friendly and resource efficient (Fig. 24). The project is set to be completed around 2020 and will house around 350,000 people. Previously the site was used mainly salt pans, barren land and polluted water bodies (Tianjin, 2011). Fig. 24 Tianjin ecocity Location

Population Cost Climate Scale Site focus

350,000 $22 billion Temperate 34km2 Research and development, Investment

Fig. 25 Tianjin ecocity table of figures

The eco-city is based on a compact design. Business parks are located within close proximity of residential areas creating jobs locally reducing the need to commute. An emphasis is made on using green methods of transportation and non-motorized forms of transport such as cycling and walking. (Cao and Li 2011).

Fig. 27– Layout of Tianjin grid neighbourhood structure

Fig. 26 Tianjin eco-city masterplan

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The basic concept of the building layout is based upon a cell arrangement in plan. Each cell is 400m x 400m and four eco cells combine together to make a unit of residential community and several of the residential community unit combine together to create unit of blocks (Fig. 27). Within the eco-city there will be four eco districts (Fig. 26) (Tianjin, 2011). The city will house various sectors in which different applications and activities will take place. Tianjin is considered to be a large scale experiment that China is undertaking; this city will act as a model for future eco-cities in China. It is already considered to be a far more successful project that China has undertaken; residents have started moving into the city as well as large amounts of property already sold. It has made full use of the land that at one stage was considered to be inhabitable (Cao and Li, 2011). The location of the eco-city will allow for it to thrive within its strong transportation links and become major economic source for China. The sustainable applications applied are water treatment, solar and wind power. The city emphasises the amount of green spaces surrounding the buildings (Fig.29) (Cilento, 2011).

Fig. 28 - Aerial view of Tianjin eco-city

Fig. 29 – Tianjin ecocity masterplan

Combing ideas will provide the Chinese government greater awareness when approaching the design of ecocities in the future. As a large number of people are considered to moving into cities it is important to get these issues resolved correctly in the beginning as later on it can be very difficult to make changes to them (Tao and Watson, 2009). The tall buildings are considered to be the up to four times the height of the buildings in Manhattan (Fig. 28); they are situated very close together to reduce the distance that people would have to walk. This has reduced the quality of space at ground level (Cao and Li 2011).

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Summary Tianjin eco city has considered the basic fundamentals when draughting an ecocity plan, it has provided employment within close proximity of the resident’s homes to reduce commuting distances. The city will become a major source of income for the Chinese government. The sites ecosystem has been enhanced as previously the site was situated on unusable salt pans. The waste and water management have been considered, as well as the introduction of environmentally friendly transportation. The ecocity has a strong relation to economic, contextual and political influence (Fig. 30).

Key areas of focus in Tianjin ecocity

Research and development

Technology Contextual and Climatic

Economic 10 8 6 4 2 0

Social and Cultural

Political

Enviornmental

Fig. 30– Key Areas of focus Tianjin

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Conclusion The case studies highlight the different methods adopted by the cities to cope with their microclimatic conditions. Masdar will accommodate 40,000 people whereas Tianjin will inhabit 350,000 people, both projects received the same investment. It is evident that these ecocity concepts are highly influenced by their economic contributions (Fig. 31). The large amount of investment in Masdar was a product of creating solutions and applying innovative technology to establish a zero carbon settlement within an extreme climate. Dongtan was an unsuccessful project due to corruption and lack of funding. Dongtan was masterplanning a city that would be built upon an area considered to hold China’s largest bird reserve, the masterplan hadn’t established a strong connection to its contextual values (Fig. 32). Masdar and Tianjin enhanced their environments as Masdar created a city within a desert and Tianjin was built upon land that was once considered inhabitable. City

Population

Cost

Scale

Climate

Site focus

Masdar Dongtan

90,000 500,000

$22 billion $2 billion

6.4km2 62km2

Tropical Temperate

Tianjin

350,000

$22 billion

32km2

Temperate

R&D, education Commercial and investment R&D, Investment

Fig. 31 Table of Case study figures

Key areas of focus case studies

Research and development

Economic 10 8 6 4 2 0

Social and Cultural

Technology

Political

Contextual and Climatic

Dongtan

Environmental

Masdar

Tianjin

Fig. 32 Key areas of focus

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6 The Eco-village The ecovillage provides an effective way to uplift our degrading societies in social, ecological and spiritual environments. They provide a living model for sustainable living and how action can be taken immediately to create sustainable settlements (Global Ecovillage network, 2012). The increased level of consumerism and the large organisations that have flattened local economies and forced people into buying into products that have degraded workers and ecosystems (Kessler, 2008). The ecovillage seeks to regain the control over how the food is sourced, how homes are built, how energy is generated and how livelihoods are created (Fairlie, 1997). Robert and Diane Gilman were joint owners and editors of the In Context magazine in which they explored the sudden emergence of eco villages and sustainable communities. Their report stated that “human scale full-featured settlement in which human activities are harmlessly integrated into the natural world in a way that is supportive of healthy human development and can be successfully continued into the indefinite future.� (Dawson, 2010. P13). The eco-village has provided a model for living within a settlement at the smaller scale that provided a healthy living environment that harmlessly integrates in the natural world. (Kessler, 2008)

The definition of an ecovillage The definition of an eco-village is a settlement that solely relies upon its own resources to sustain a habitable environment with aid of environmental conservation technology. There are three key principles which are central to the ecovillage concept: social, ecological and spiritual (Bates and Joseph, 2003). There is a focus upon two points that an ecovillage looks to develop that are restoration and the maintenance of rural ecosystems and the encouragement of interaction between rural and urban areas (Kada, 1990). The ecovillage will make the most of its contextual characteristics and apply amenities that would not have been possible within an urban environment (Jackson, 2004). The settlement will tend to focus more upon passive methods of cooling. Even the dependence upon mechanical methods will be required to sit in harmony within its environment (Jackson and Svensson, 2002). Citizens within an urban environment are encouraged to live within a rural settlement in order that they may choose to settle there after a short period of time. This notion will allow inhabitants to appreciate each other’s values with the experiences of living within their urban or rural environments (Takeuchi, Tanaka and Namiki, 1998). The model of the eco village is one that is self-sustaining as they grow their own crops, even to the extent where they have their own currency which seamlessly integrates into the national economic structure. Inhabitants working within the

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settlement are paid with their local currency but it is deposited into a single shared account which is distributed equally (Kada, 1990). When ecovillages are observed, greater attention seems to be placed upon the technologies that have been applied. Ecovillages themselves place greater emphasis on the social dimension, whether the project is successful also lies upon these principles. The eco-village seeks to promote a culture of trust and compassion, this is established through honest and transparent communication (Meltzer, 2005). Any decisions that are made within the community are established through a unanimous consensus rather than relying upon an individual to make decision within the village. (Takeuchi, Tanaka and Namiki, 1998). This approach seeks to remove any form of alienation of its residents and establishes a greater sense of community between the inhabitants (Fairlie, 1997). As well as there being an established sense of community within the eco village there is also a strong emphasis on strong peace work. Excess food and resources are redistributed among the poor within the rural areas (Bates and Joseph, 2003). At the heart of the ecovillage lies a strong sense of spirituality, it is also known to the villagers as the term free thinking. From these initiatives many organisations have stemmed from the local effort of the community (Dawson, 2010). The economy within the ecovillage holds a strong reliance upon the education sector. Various courses are offered that teach about ecovillage design, arts and crafts and renewable systems (Sevier, 2008). Ecovillages have won numerous awards for excellence for in this area of education and has been appreciated worldwide. (Dawson, 2010). The ecovillage is reliant upon its community members to apply, develop new initiatives and may even face alienation from government and professional bodies as a result of this (Jackson and Svensson, 2002).

Summary The ecovillage establishes a strong connection with nature that minimises its footprint. The methods of living incorporates its own economic policy whereby trust remains at the centre of this notion. Due to the small scale projects executed by the ecovillage it allows for testing of new innovative ideas that can be applied at an urban scale. The ecovillage re-establishes the lost social and cultural connection that the urban context lacks, this is created through inner community partnerships and initiatives. The case studies create a greater awareness of the varied applications of the ecovillage concept.

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7 Eco Village Case Studies Auroville, India Auroville is amongst the best known and the most successful example of an ecovillage (Auroville, 2012). It is located in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu (Fig. 33). The current population of the village is around 2,000 but looks to grow to into a small city of around 50,000 people (Bartlett, 2008). Before the ecovillage was created the Fig. 33 Auroville ecovillage location map land was in poor condition and required natural interventions to bring the ecosystem up to an acceptable standard. From the outset due to its climatic implications there lied ahead a difficult task of creating dams and dykes to prevent the run off of monsoon floods and plant trees. There was a lack of vegetation and due to the monsoon rain the topsoil was being washed away (Kundoo, 2008). With the hard work of the local community and the new settlers it has allowed for there to be planting of two million trees, the improvement of water management systems and the villages eco system has been restored to a healthy state (Dawson, 2010).

Fig 34 – Auroville hut

Fig 35 – Auroville plan

When the village was first created there was no source of electricity. The power was generated through wind a mill which was also used to pump water. Businesses within the community had developed biomass and solar technologies. “Auroville is said to have the biggest concentration of alternative and appropriate energy systems in India” (Dawson, 2010. p25).

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The city is considered to be self-sufficient with regards to their food production such as their milk and their fruit and vegetable production (LeFay, 2005). The growth of the village has led to scientific establishments creating a station within the area its scientific research is acknowledged as a centre of excellence throughout the whole of India. The technologies implemented within the village have been transferred to other regions of India which has benefitted the other communities living in similar condition (Auroville, 2012). Population

2,000 currently, 50,000 (target)

Size

1000acres

Climate

Tropical

Improvements to ecosystem based on context

Planted 2 Million trees, created dams to prevent damage from monsoon rain, develop technologies to generate power and grow their own food.

Fig 36 – Table of figures

The success of the Auroville village lies upon three principles. The first being there is a strong spiritual influence at the heart of the village that holds the community together. The second being the village’s status as a powerful symbol of hope and unity (Bartlett, 2008). This idea has led to generous funding from individuals. The third being a strong economy of solidarity, that seeks to redistribute financial wealth within the community. The community members in large numbers would share their incomes within a pot, this way any inequalities can be removed. (Dawson, 2010). The city is considered to be a laboratory where residents can experiment with new innovative techniques to apply to its city (LeFay, 2005). It has encouraged students from universities such as Seattle and Architectural association to test ideas within a different context. The city is being built as a garden city, due to its size it minimises the need for travelling great distances (Auroville, 2012). A collection of homes being created by rammed earth bricks and reinforced concrete design by architects to create a way of living that would eliminate any requirement for air conditioning to focus towards passive cooling methods (Fig.34). For the first time buildings were able to incorporate kitchens and bathrooms that wasn’t possible previously (Kessler, 2008).

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Summary The site embraces its contextual implications through advanced technology applications. The village is sourced through funding and donations for its research conducted. The village can test new technology and building methods at a smaller scale. This ecovillage model is self-sufficient as well as boasting of one of the most advanced appropriate energy systems in India. The Auroville ecovillage is an important in relation to sustainable as the eco village concept creates a strong sense of community as well as enhancing the ecosystem its microclimate (Fig. 37).

Key areas of focus in Auroville,India Economic 10 8 6 Contextual and Climatic

4 2

Social and Cultural

0

Enviornmental

Political

Fig 37 – Key areas of focus Auroville, India

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Eco village at Ithaca, United States The ecovillage at Ithaca created a model for a sustainable method of living that would be replicable for middle class Americans (Fig. 38). These implemented systems will be set to redesign the human habitat in a practical manner. Ithaca comes under New York State (Walker, 2005). The features of the village include dense clustering to reduce the footprint size, shared boiler systems, passive solar design, super-insulated walls and duplex Fig 38– Ithaca ecovillage location map constructions. The homes within the settlement are said to use 40% less gas and electricity compared to similar homes (Walker, 2006). At the heart of the ecovillage education is very important, it has collaborated with local universities to create a centre for research for the students at Cornell University. The collaboration with educational institutions provided Ithaca with further funding. The close proximity of the village to the city allows for residents to obtain employment out of the village (Walker, 2006). The project took five year to begin after starting in 1991. The ecovillage consists of 60 small homes the aim of the project is to highlight sustainable methods of living to the American through education programs and media coverage (Sevier, 2008).

Population

500

Size

175 acres

Climate

Temperate

Improvements to ecosystem based on context

Farms produce own food, applied renewable technolgies as a source of energy, prevented large scale development of 150 homes taking place.

Fig 39 – Table of figures

The inhabitants within the community use carpooling, public transport and cycling to travel out of the ecovillage. A large majority of the community are employed within the settlement thus reducing the need for commuting, if any inhabitants need to leave the settlement downtown Ithaca is only 2.5 miles away. (Walker, 2005). There are farms within the community that produce vegetables. (Dawson, 2010). This way of living highlights a strong sense of community with the inhabitants and 90% of the land is left open for agriculture (Fig. 40-41).

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Fig. 41 – Ithaca ecovillage

Fig. 40 – Ithaca ecovillage

Summary The village creates a strong sense of community. The benefit of community members employed within the settlement reduces any need for commuting. The ecovillage opens up to the public on regular occasions to educate the public and provide a source of income for the community. The applications applied to deal with climatic implications provide a warm building within the winter as well as passive cooled building in the summer. The ten acre village farm has the ability to feed 1,000 people a week during growing season. The site was initially planned for development by the local authority whereby 150 homes were going to be built and 90% of the site would be built upon, but as the site was purchased by the Eco village citizens and 90% of the site has now been left undeveloped.

Key areas of focus in Ithaca, USA

Contextual and Climate

Environmental

Economic 10 8 6 4 2 0

Social and Cultural

Political

Fig. 42 Areas of focus Ithaca, USA (Aqeel, 2013)

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Conclusion At the centre of the eco-village there is a strong sense of community and trust that has created a sense of equality between the inhabitants. There is a common trend occurring amongst the ecovillage concept as initiatives such as money sharing, employment within the settlement, self-sufficient living and sustainable applications. The eco-village is not completely redundant on the car but tries to reduce its usage as well as using environmentally friendly methods of commuting. Ecovillage Auroville

Population 50,000

Climate Tropical

Scale 1000 acres

Ithaca

500

Temperate

175 acres

Applications Planted 2 Million trees, created dams to prevent damage from monsoon rain, develop technologies to generate power and grow their own food. Farms produce some of their own organic food, applied renewable technolgies as a source of energy, prevented large scale development of 150 homes taking place.

Fig 43 – Ecovillage Figures

The mass production of societies and lack of support from governments and legislations has limited growth of the ecovillage. A large portion of the ecovillage funding is obtained through donations and fund raising events. Some projects have been deemed to be a greater success than other. The analysis of the key eco village case studies highlights that there main focus is towards a social enviornment that builds a strong sense of community. The contextual applications of these settlements are defined by their climate but also by the economy and local resources. The Auroville and Ithaca case study have highlighted a strong relationship within their context (Fig. 44) there applications in enhancing their ecosystems have differed (Fig. 43). The ambitious forecast figures for Auroville of 50,000 residents is yet to be fulfilled as in 2011 there were only 2,000 residents occupying the site. Unfortunately currently there are no set guidelines for creating a new ecovillage, the failure to create a basic model has hindered other from creating a settlement of this nature. Both the ecovillage at Ithaca and Auroville have made significant contributions to research in the field of sustainablilty and environmental technology, the ecovillage concepts have also benefitted from media coverage due their seamless integration within its context.

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Common trends amoung the eco village case studies Economic 10 8 6 4 2 0

Climatic and contextual

Enivornmental

Aurovilla,India

Social and cultural

Political

Ithaca, USA

Fig 44 – Ecovillage comparisons (Aqeel, 2013)

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8 Smart Cities Instead of starting from a blank slate a smart city is an evolution of previously used sustainable principles. Urban agriculture is highly emphasised within a smart city, it can enable a city to reduce its carbon footprint due to this hybrid method of living. (IBM, 2012). The smart city increases the opportunities for work for its occupants in sectors such as renewable energy, recycling, agriculture, construction and transport. As more people choose to live within an urban environment it’s important to create an ecological environment that will sustain its growth which seeks to change how services are delivered. (Nam and Pardo, 2012). Food plays a large role in shaping our cities as without it we would not be able to sustain life. As it has become so cheap and widely available it has come at a great cost, as a third of greenhouse gases are created from agriculture and food. Agriculture is the cause of large areas of rainforests being destroyed every year. It is considered that the wealthiest countries in the world are considered to be the healthiest and safest places to live in the world, but this high quality of life comes at a cost of an increased ecological footprint of that city (Dirks, 2009). Smart cities place an emphasis on applying computer technology within the city’s infrastructure. The technology can be implemented within a city to areas such as education, healthcare, economy, public safety, transportation and administration to make them integrated, efficient and liveable as well as being sustainable at the same time (Pollock, 2010). There is a complex process in creating a smart city as it is not entirely based upon technology alone there are many factors as well as technology that make a city smart, such as systems, infrastructures and services. The IT infrastructure is used as a means of achieving the smart city that can establish innovative systems (Nam and Pardo, 2012). It is important for countries to offer attractive packages invite business, and people into its cities. The expectations of people living within an urban context has increased as they require a better quality of life and availability of employment. As the cities aren’t built to cope with rapid rates of sprawl it is important to solve this issues before it gets worse. These issues should be addressed with a completely new method compared to how it was done previously. (Nam and Pardo, 2011)

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Summary The smart city creates an IT infrastructure to seamlessly integrate into a city. It creates greater opportunities for investment, as well as creating far more efficient services. Central to the smart city open green spaces create an environment that encourages social interaction as well as cultural activities. The applied technology can create an environment that is sustainable and self-sufficient incorporating effective methods of energy and waste management.

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Songdo SmartCity An ecological city concept in South Korea has been envisioned as being a model smart city. The project seeks to invite foreign investment to support South Korea’s declining economy (Fig. 45). It is ideally located within close proximity of Seoul airport. The project began in 2001, as there wasn’t enough land to build the city on 1500 acres of it had to be reclaimed from the sea. The project has taken precedent from projects all over the world and has been built from scratch. (Pollock, 2010).

Fig 45 – Songdo Location map

The city is located three hours from China and is said to be the most technologically advanced and most eco-friendly city in the world. A new technology applied within the city’s buildings allows for every home, office and school to communicate through video, this system is called telePresence, it reduces the need for people to travel. The ability to regulate water and energy consumption has been possible through the use of this system. (Cisco, 2012) Cost of project Population Scale Climate

$35 billion 125,000 100 million square foot Temperate

Fig 46 – Songdo Figures

Fig 47– Songdo centre

Fig 48 - Songdo Park

The smart city changes how education is being taught within the city. The schools offer the ability for children to integrate technology in all their classes to enhance their learning experience. (Cisco, 2012)

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The implemented technology system increase the inhabitant’s quality of life. It is evident that the Songdo smart city concept is innovative, it changes how inhabitants within a community live and interact with one another. The aim of the city is to obtain greater foreign investment as it will be a centre for technology and ecological development. (Songdo International Business District, 2013) The city makes use of both the Korean and International green rating systems to ensure the highest level of sustainable construction is accomplished. The cities open space accounts for 40% of the area to increase its connection with nature, which incorporate pedestrian and cycle routes. To encourage cycling within the city large cycle routes have been created, a subway line that runs through the centre of the city has been created. Car parking has been created for a small percentage of residents and office workers that choose to use low emission vehicles for travelling.

Fig 49 – Songdo masterplan

To allow habitats to thrive the smart city will incorporate green roofs to reduce the amount of storm water run-off, any excess water due to rainfall would be maximised. Natural gas will be used to provide clean energy and hot water. The city’s waste management avoids use of conventional methods used by western countries as it has adopted a system known as Pneumatic waste collection system. The city will make full use of recycled materials as well as recycling as much as 70% of construction waste (Songdo International Business District, 2013).

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Summary Songdo establishes a strong connection with the technological applications in the city. The city creates a strong economic foundation which will encourage investment and growth. The technology simplifies some of the issues that a city within a similar context would face (Fig. 46). The city provides large open spaces of green areas to reduce pollution and aid cooling within the summer. The city uses technology to improve its ecological footprint and become self-sustaining.

Key areas of focus in Songdo Smart city Economic 10 Research and development

Social and Cultural 5 0

Technology

Contextual and Climatic

Political

Enviornmental

Fig 50 – Songdo masterplan

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Guangming smart city As much as half of the Chinese rural residents are moving into the urban environment. Over the years China has witnessed a shift in its industrial, agriculture and economic sectors. An increased demand of their resources and greater environmental issues occur as a result of this rapid shift (Lim, 2008) (Fig. 51). The Guangming smart city would cover an area of 7.97km2. The city will sustain a series Fig. 51 – Guangming location map of eco projects in order to sustain itself. Guangming will incorporate its own car free zone, the main method of transportation between the neighbourhoods are light rail (MTR) (Ucl, 2007). The use of electric or biogas sky buses run between the crater communities. The crater suburbs adopted by the buildings will act as a method to reduce urban sprawl. The neighbourhoods will also house the local amenities for ease of access for the residents. (Lim, 2008). The concept provides a series of facilities for its citizens such as civic, commercial, recreational, agricultural, cultural and tourist. Guangming will also act as a commercial and civic centre for Gongming and Songshanhu (Ucl, 2007). Cost of project Population Scale Climate

N/A 200,000 7.97km2 Temperate

Fig. 52 – Guangming figures

Fig. 53 – Crater communities

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The Guangming smart city concept seeks to create a solution to the current problem faced in China as the urban dwellers are forced to give up their land and move into the city, unfortunately the inexperienced urban dwellers lack the correct skills to obtain relevant employment within the city. The smart city allows for the integration of agriculture within an urban context thus allowing farmers to retain their land. Local facilities are provided to the suburbs to ensure that activities are accessible within walking distance.

Summary The roof space within the city has been utilised to increase the yield of its produce annually. The city establishes innovative ways to encourage social and cultural activities. As other eco-city concepts the city incorporates a compact design to reduce the walking distances between buildings and minimise its footprint on site. The crater suburbs prevents urban sprawl, the suburbs contain local amenities to encourage community interaction. The smart city concept has strong relations to social and cultural activities.

Key areas of focus in Guangming Smart city

Research and development Technology Contextual and Climatic

Economic 10 8 6 4 2 0

Social and Cultural

Political Enviornmental

Fig. 55 – Key areas of focus Guangming

City Songdo Guangming

Population 125,000 200,000

Scale 100 million sq ft 7.97km2

Climate Temperate Temperate

Cost $35 billion N/A

Fig. 56 – Table of figures

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Conclusion Songdo establishes a strong connection with the technological applications in the city to improve its ecological impact on the site. The city creates a strong economic foundation that will encourage foreign investment and growth. In comparison to Songdo, the Guangming smart city concept lacks the advanced technological innovations to increase efficiency within the city (Fig. 57). The Guangming concept maintains a strong relation to its context as it strives to preserve the livelihoods of its local farmers. Both smart city concepts are located within a temperate climate but they vary in their applications. The projects have different briefs and Songdo is considered a major project backed by large investment from its government.

Smart city key areas of focus Economic 10 8 6 4 2 0

Research and development

Technology

Social and Cultural

Political

Contextual and Climatic

Songdo

Enviornmental

Guangming

Fig. 57 – Smart city Key areas of focus

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9 Conclusion The aim of the dissertation was to identify the ecocity’s contextual values and whether they had been preserved at the level of application. The contextual conditions aren’t entirely focused upon the climate. The building context, site conditions and the social, political requirements all contribute to the context of the microclimate. From the research conducted it is evident that the urban population is increasing at a rapid rate. The hot climates are experiencing the largest increases in these population shifts. The urban population is said to reach 5 billion by 2030 (Fig.10). The difficult task still remains whereby creating an environment that is environmentally friendly but also succeeds with social and cultural integration. The early indication of sustainable development was established by Sir Ebenezer Howard in his book Garden cities of To-morrow, his book had a profound effect ecological movements that developed. (Fook and Gang, 2010). The eco city seeks reestablish communities in balance with nature. Eco-cities have the ability to resolve the wider issues faced within a society while making place responsive actions. The ecocity case studies highlighted the variations in their technological applications primarily due to the contextual parameters such as climate. The primary focus for Masdar eco city was focused towards creating a research hub that could attract foreign investment to sustain its growth even after Abu Dhabi’s reliance on wealth from oil would come to an end. The city incorporated passive technology to control the microclimate. The Tianjin case study forms an emphasis on outdoor green spaces to encourage community and social interaction (Fig. 26). The cities also emphasised creating renewable energy alternatives and self-sustaining ecosystems. The Dongtan project applied basic sustainable applications to control the microclimate but hadn’t considered the local conditions appropriately. The ecovillage case studies have highlighted the strong association to nature. While applying place responsive initiatives. The ecovillage has created living models of selfsufficient communities that enhance their ecosystem and have a strong connection to social, cultural and spiritual values. The conducted research has drawn relationships between the three ecological design concepts. The philosophies central to these ecological design concepts intend to create self-sufficient societies that are place responsive (Fig. 58). Their applications will differ as their brief and context in which there built in will have an effect on its design.

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Fig 58 – Ecological design analysis

The smart city concept has created a new way of building within an urban development. The Songdo city concept enhances the user experience, inhabitants are able to control their own environment and energy through a remote control, video communication is integrated to reduce the need to for people to travel (Cisco, 2012). The IT infrastructure provides greater efficiency within the education, healthcare, economic, energy and sustainability sectors. As the topic of research is unique it provided an analysis of three important ecological design initiatives that have been compared which has not carried out before. The dissertation provided a vision into the contextual values that are essential and should be considered when creating an ecocity.

Further research There are areas in which further research can be conducted, the smart city and ecocity concept are large topics which could unearth more findings with extended research. The ecovillage models have been created in many countries across the world. There currently lacks a basic model for ecovillage requirements which would enable others to replicate this way of living (Dawson, 2010). Further research and analysis of the varied contextual applications could provide a series of basic guidelines in creating an ecovillage model.

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Dissertation eco city concepts  

Dissertation on exploring meaning and significance of the 'Contextual Dimension' of an Eco-City Concept' undertaken in semester 2.

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