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VAŠ BREZPLAČNI IZVOD - YOUR PERSONAL COPY

Adria Airways In-Flight Magazine avgust, september - August, September 2008

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Andraž Vehovar • Romunija • Bled • Botanični vrt v Ljubljani • Oaza • Ferdinand Avguštin Hallerstein Andraž Vehovar • Romania • Bled • Ljubljana Botanical garden • Oasis • Ferdinand Avguštin Hallerstein


Vse bi n a – C on t e n t s

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Adrijin potnik / Adria Passenger

Andraž Vehovar AndražVehovar

David Šalamun

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Romunija / Romania

Cetate Deva - kraj, kjer se rojevajo prvakinje Cetate Deva - a Place Where Champions are Born Iztok Bončina

J. Pukšič

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Adria Airways In-Flight Magazine Revija Adria Airways In-Flight Magazine je namenjena potnikom na poletih z Adrio Airways. Adria In-flight Magazine is complimentary on Adria Airways flights.

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Izdajatelj / Published by: Adria Airways Slovenski letalski prevoznik, d.d. Adria Airways The Airline of Slovenia tel.: 00386 1 3691 000 Uredništvo / Editorial: Področje trženje in prodaja / Sales and Marketing - Barbara Mihevc Bukovec Urednica / Edited by: Meta Krese Oblikovanje in AD / Design and AD: LUKS Studio Prevod / Translated by: Amidas Lektorja / Language editing: Vera Samohod, Steve Diskin Fotoliti / Lithography: Schwarz d.o.o. Tisk / Printed by: Schwarz d.o.o.

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Oglaševanje / Advertising: Alenka Dvoršak, Adria Airways, Kuzmičeva 7, Ljubljana, E-mail: alenka.dvorsak@adria.si ISSN 1318-0789 Mnenja, izražena v tej publikaciji, so zgolj mnenja avtorjev ali intervjuvancev in ne odsevajo nujno stališč Adrie Airways. Razmnoževanje brez pisnega dovoljenja je prepovedano. Izdajatelj ne prevzema nikakršne odgovornosti za nenaročeno gradivo. The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors or persons interviewed only and do not necessarily reflect the views of Adria Airways. Reproduction without written permission is prohibited. The pub­lish­er accepts no responsibility for unsolicit­ed material. Brezplačen izvod / Your personal copy

Olimpijske igre / Olympic Games

Olimpijske igre so se začele The Olympic Games have Begun Tomaž Pavlin

Na morje po nove medalje Over the Sea for New Medals Aleš Fevžer

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Olimpijci - šampijoni in manekeni Olympians - Champions and Models Janko Dvoršak

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Bled med tisočletnicama Bled Between Two Millenia Timotej Knific

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Botanični vrt v Ljubljani Ljubljana Botanical Garden Andrej Blatnik

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Oaza Oasis

Andrej Blatnik

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Kitajska / China

Ferdinand Avguštin Hallerstein, Slovenec, ki je evropsko znanost predstavil Kitajcem

Ferdinand Avguštin Hallerstein, the Slovene who Introduced European Science to the Chinese Dušan Moravec


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{ Adria Airways }

Telovadba na letalu je lahko koristna in zabavna!

Working out in a plane can be beneficial and fun! Če je za vas Kitajska predaleč, lahko ostanete doma in spremljate športnike z vsega sveta na malih zaslonih. Če pa se vseeno odločite za počitniško potovanje, vam v spodnjem članku ponujamo nekaj avio olimpijskih vaj, s katerimi boste bližje olimpijski formi. V Adrii Airways namreč skrbimo tudi za vaše udobje in dobro počutje.

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If China is too far away, you can stay at home and follow the sports people of the entire world on your TV screen. But if you decide all the same to do some holiday travelling, this article suggests a few air Olympic exercises that will bring you closer to Olympic form. After all, Adria Airways has your comfort and well-being at heart.

The most common causes of discomfort in an aircraft are sitting still Najpogostejša vzroka za slabo počutje na letalu sta nepremično sedenje and dehydration. The latter can be eliminated by drinking larger quantities in dehidracija. Slednji se lahko izognemo ali pa jo odpravimo s pitjem of water. This helps to send the blood around your body more enthusivečjih količin vode in drugih tekočin. To pomaga, da kri bolj vneto potuje astically and at the same time forces you to get up regularly and go to the po telesu in vas hkrati prisili, da večkrat vstanete ter se odpravite v toaletne toilet. So now you are already exercising! prostore. No, pa že imamo nekaj telovadbe! Pri daljših letih obstaja nevarnost za nastanek On long flights there is the danger of vein venske tromboze. Tromboembolija (tromboza) thrombosis. Thromboembolia (thrombosis) literally Mini nasvet 1: pomeni potujoči strdek v žilah. Strdki v venah means a moving clot in the veins. Clots in veins Vstanite in pretegnite noge; če so prehodi lahko povzročijo tudi globoko vensko trombozo, can also cause deep vein thrombosis, which appears med sedeži prosti, se še sprehodite po letalu. ki nastane v eni nogi, navadno pod kolenom, in in one leg, usually below the knee and completely Mini tip 1: popolnoma ali delno zamaši veno. Da bi zmanjor partly blocking the vein. In order to lower the Walk around and stretch your legs šali možnost za nastanek venske tromboze, med risk of vein thrombosis, on long-haul flights we recwhen the aisles are free. daljšim poletom priporočamo avio olimpijsko ommend air Olympic gymnastics. telovadbo. Before you start the gymnastics, we should Preden pričnete telovaditi, naj vas opozorimo, da so spodaj opisane advise you that the exercises described below are suitable for flights lasting vaje primerne za polete, dolge več ur, kar pomeni, da se na Adrijinih letih several hours, which means that on Adria flights you can entertain yourlahko zabavate predvsem z branjem, malo manj pa z izvajanjem vaj. self mainly with reading and less with exercising. Pozabavajte se s spodnjimi vajami, ki vam lahko pri izbranih disciplinah Have fun with the exercises below, which can get you in better shape for pomagajo do boljše telesne forme. Če ne drugega, boste zabavali vsaj svoje your chosen discipline. If nothing else, at least you will entertain your felsopotnike. low passengers. Opozorilo: ne izvajajte vaj, če so za vas pretežke ali vam povzročajo kakršnekoli bolečine.

Caution: do not do any exercise that is too hard for you or that causes any kind of pain.

AVIO OLIMPIJSKE VAJE Ko vstopite v letalo, z obema rokama primite svojo ročno prtljago in jo namestite v za to namenjeni predal nad sedežem. Tako ste prvo avio olimpijsko vajo dviganja »uteži« že opravili, ne da bi vedeli. Ne pozabite ponoviti vaje, ko boste zapustili letalo.

AIR OLYMPIC EXERCISES When you board the aircraft, take your hand baggage in both hands and place it in the overhead locker provided for this. Now you have the first Olympic exercise, weight lifting, out of the way, and you didn’t even know it. Don’t forget to repeat the exercise when you leave the aircraft. From Brussels to pristina All taxes, fees and charges are included in the price. Price may vary subject to date of travel and availability on desired flights. More info www.adria-airways.com.

EUR

318

From Munich to Skopje All taxes, fees and charges are included in the price. Price may vary subject to date of travel and availability on desired flights. More info www.adria-airways.com.

EUR

280


{ Adria Airways } SKOK V DALJINO Za povečanje odrivne moči postavite stopala trdno na tla in dvignite prste na nogah, kolikor visoko lahko. Zadržite 5 sekund in sprostite. Vajo 10-krat ponovite.

LONG JUMP To increase your launch power, place your feet firmly on the floor, then raise your toes as high as they will go. Hold for 5 seconds and relax. Do 10 repetitions.

KROGI Položite roke na naslonjala in se poskušajte dvigniti le s pomočjo rok; zatem počasi spet spuščajte telo v osnovni položaj. Vajo ponavljajte, dokler si ne ogledate vseh potnikov v letalu.

RINGS Place your hands on your armrests and try to lift yourself up using only your arms; then slowly lower your body to the start position. Repeat the exercise until you have had a good look at all the passengers on the plane.

ODBOJKA Za pripravo na timski šport potrebujete ekipo. Zato motivirajte potnike okoli sebe in skupaj opravite naslednjo vajo. Sprostite ramena, nato pa jih dvignite visoko navzgor, zadržite 5 sekund in jih počasi spustite. Ponavljajte, dokler se vam zdi smiselno.

VOLLEYBALL To get ready for a team sport, you need a team. So motivate the passengers around you and do the following exercise together. Relax your shoulders, then raise them high up and slowly down. Hold for 5 seconds and relax. Repeat for as long as it seems like a good idea.

MET DISKA Za dolg zamah iztegnite desno roko visoko nad glavo in jo z levo roko še dodatno povlecite navzgor. Vajo z vsako roko posebej še nekajkrat ponovite.

DISCUS To increase your range, stretch your arm high above your head and using your left hand push it even further up. Repeat this exercise several times for each arm.

KOLESARJENJE Brez trdega treninga se nikamor ne pride. Zato sklonite telo malo naprej, z rokami objemite desno koleno in ga povlecite k prsnemu košu. Zadržite telo v tem položaju 10 sekund, nato spustite nogo počasi nazaj na tla; vajo 10-krat ponovite. Tudi z drugo nogo naredite 10 ponovitev.

CYCLING You don’t get anywhere without concerted training. So lean your body forward a little, take your right knee in your hands and bring it up to your chest. Hold this position for 10 seconds, then let your leg go slowly back down to the floor. Change leg and do 10 repetitions. From Zurich to Skopje All taxes, fees and charges are included in the price. Price may vary subject to date of travel and availability on desired flights. More info www.adria-airways.com.

CHF

451

From London to Sarajevo All taxes, fees and charges are included in the price. Price may vary subject to date of travel and availability on desired flights. More info www.adria-airways.com.

GBP

205

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{ Adria Airways } SPROŠČANJE Telovadbo vedno končamo s sproščanjem, zato sprostite ramena in telo. Glavo spustite proti levemu ramenu, nato pa z njo enakomerno krožite od leve strani proti desni. Nad vsako ramo zadržite glavo v mirujočem položaju 5 sekund. Naredite 5 ponovitev. Vajo ponovite še z vrtenjem glave od desne strani proti levi.

RELAXATION Gymnastic training always finishes with relaxation, so relax your shoulders and body. Let your head fall to your left side and roll it across to the right. Hold your head over each shoulder for 5 seconds. Do 5 repetitions.

POSTANITE GLEDALEC Za to vajo ne potrebujeta treninga, le prekrižajte noge in vrtite stopalo noge, ki je zgoraj, v čim večjih krogih. Nogi zamenjajte in ponovite vajo še z drugo nogo.

HOW TO BE A SPECTATOR You need no training for this. Just cross your legs and rotate your free foot in the biggest circles possible. You can also occasionally change feet.

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Na letalu lahko poleg telovadbe preberete tudi različne dnevne časopise in revije, za hitrejše prebijanje časa pa vam ponujamo še nekaj miselnih iger za razmigavanje vaših možganov. When you fly, in addition to gymnastics you can browse through various newspapers, and to help the time pass more quickly we offer you some mental games to exercise your grey cells.

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Nadaljujte zaporedja: Complete the sequences: a) 2, 4, 6, 8 b) 4, 9, 16, 25 c) 1, 8, 81, 1024

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Mini nasvet 2: Če ste pozni in zamujate na letalo, stecite in s tem pospešite pretok krvi pa tudi dobro se boste ogreli.

Mini tip 2: If you're late for your flight, run for it - this will be a nice warm up.

Enostaven SUDOKU Simple SUDOKU

Če ste med svojim dolgim poletom uspeli narediti vsaj polovico opisanih vaj, potem ste pripravljeni na aktivne počitnice, ki so pred vami. Če pa boste aktivno spremljali prenose in navijali za svoje favorite na drugi strani sveta, lahko kakšno od vaj opravite kar v domačem naslonjaču.

If you have managed to do at least half the described exercises on your long flight, then you are ready for the active holiday that awaits you. And if you are actively following the TV broadcasts and cheering on your favourites on the other side of the world, you can even do some of these exercises on your couch.

Na tleh in v zraku v poskočnem koraku!

Put a spring in your step, on the ground or in the air!

Maja Zužič, Adria Airways

Maja Zužič, Adria Airways

From Tirana to Paris All taxes, fees and charges are included in the price. Price may vary subject to date of travel and availability on desired flights. More info www.adria-airways.com.

EUR

326

From Pristina to London All taxes, fees and charges are included in the price. Price may vary subject to date of travel and availability on desired flights. More info www.adria-airways.com.

EUR

347


Besedilo: Tomaž Pavlin

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Atene/Athens, 2004

Fotografije: Aleš Fevžer


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{}


{ Olimpijske igre }

O

limpijskim igram, ki so se v moderno civilizacijo zapisale pred dobrimi sto desetimi leti, so bila resda vzor antiãna tekmovanja v grškem svetišãu Olimpija na Peloponezu; vendar pa je med prvimi in sedanjimi poldrugo tisoãletje razmika, obenem pa tudi precejšnja kulturna razlika: antiãna tekmovanja so potekala v obliki športnega boja grških vitezov in pozneje religijskega rituala atletov vrhovnemu bogu Zevsu v ãast, moderne pa so sekularni festival športa.

Atlanta, 1996

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O

živitev modernih olimpijskih tekmovanj, ki jih s starimi druži protokolarno prižiganje olimpijskega ognja v grški Olimpiji, je vpeta v burne čase evropske imperialistične in kolonialne politike druge polovice 19. stoletja, v preobrazbo evropsko-ameriške družbe v industrijskotehnično družbo in v iskanje ter oblikovanje prenovljenih in šoloobveznih vzgojno-izobraževalnih sistemov, v katerih naj bi imela mesto tudi telesna vzgoja, najsibo utemeljena na gimnastiki, po slovensko telovadbi, na anglosaksonskemu športu ali pa na kombinaciji obeh. Telovadbo kot širok sistem vaj in vadbe ter kot celinsko evropsko kulturno inovacijo beležimo v prvi polovici 19. stoletja, medtem ko je bil šport britanska ali otoška kulturna inovacija

in je poosebljal tekmo in tekmovanja. Britanski šport se je v zadnji tretjini 19. stoletja širil v francoski in srednjeevropski prostor, in sicer preko britanskih gospodarskih predstavništev v pristaniščih ob Kanalu (npr. v Franciji v pristaniškem Le Havru je skupina Angležev leta 1872 organizirala Le Havre Athletic Club) ali po Evropi ali pa preko prihajajočih britanskih študentov in zaposlenih na britanskih konzularnih in diplomatskih predstavništvih. Šport, zlasti npr. nogomet, je navdušil evropsko mladino in naletel na različne odmeve. Nemški telovadci so mu npr. nasprotovali, zanje je bil nogomet tipična anglosaksonska dejavnost, ki nima nič skupnega z narodno tradicijo, zlasti pa ne z narodno telovadbo. A šport je nadaljeval svojo pot in v Franciji je bil 1882. leta v Parizu ustanovljen Racing-club de France,


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Sydney, 2000


{ Olimpijske igre } ( 50 )

dejansko prvi francoski športni klub, ki je združeval atletske discipline, predvsem teke, in igre (npr. rugby in nogomet). Nekaj let pozneje se mu je pridružil mestni rival Stade Francais. Racing in Stade sta bila pionirja francoskega športa. Športna anglomanija, prodor atletike, nogometa in rugbija, tenisa, veslanja in drugih panog so bili v vzponu in leta 1887 sta bila kluba iniciatorja športne zveze, ki naj bi prevzela koordinacijo razvoja in oblikovala športni prostor ter pravila. Šport je navdušil francosko dijaštvo, ki pa ga je gojilo le izven šol; tako je že leta 1888 dijaško športno moštvo potovalo s pariške šole Monge v Anglijo na Eton. Parižane je vodil športni simpatizer in odbornik Pierre de Coubertin, pobudnik oživitve olimpijskih tekmovanj, ki pa mu je bila tedaj prednostna prenova francoske telesne vzgoje s pomočjo športa. S študijem angleškega vzgojnega sistema in vpetosti športa vanj je ugotavljal, da je morda vzgoja celo pomembnejša kot izobraževanje, saj oblikuje značaje, in da naloga vzgojitelja ni vzgajanje sužnjev ali poslušnih, s čimer je karikiral francosko pedagogiko, pač pa mora vzgojitelj vzgojiti gospodarje. Takšen sistem naj bi zagotavljal obstoj britanskega imperija, ki je potreboval mlade kolonialne uradnike in častnike, elito, ki ni le polna znanja, pač pa tudi fizične moči in zdravja, elito, ki je moralno čvrsta in odgovorna. To naj bi bili moderni vitezi, dostojanstveni, hrabri, krepostni in pošteni gentlemani in sportsmani. A od kod Coubertinu ideja o olimpijskih igrah, če se je posvečal problemom francoske vzgoje? Takoj moramo pojasniti, da Coubertin še zdaleč ni bil prvi, ki bi se domislil olimpijskih tekmovanj. Tekmovanja, podobna olimpijskim oziroma zgledujoča se po antičnih, in ideje o organiziranju slednjih beležimo v telesnokulturni zgodovini že v 17. stoletju v Angliji (Cotswoldske igre) ali pa v času francoske revolucije leta 1792, ko je v vnemi po kreiranju “nove dobe”, utemeljene na nacionalizmu in liberalizmu, eden od poslancev, zgledujoč se po starogrških olimpiadah, predlagal, naj bo francoska olimpiada vsaka štiri leta; potekala naj bi v Parizu na Marsovem polju. Tudi Grki so npr. nekaj desetletij po osvoboditvi izpod Turkov organizirali grška nacionalna tekmovanja, navdihnjena pri antičnih, a precej neuspešno. Glede na dejstvo, da je bil Coubertin rojen leta 1863, so nanj bistveno vplivale Olympic Games v Much Wenlocku. V Britaniji niso bile osamljen primer, toda imele so najdaljši staž, in to že vse od srede 19. stoletja dalje. Vodil jih je neumorni zdravnik dr. William Penny Brookes, ki je imel tudi dobre stike z Grki. S Coubertinom sta navezala stike ob mednarodnem kongresu o telesni vzgoji v Parizu leta 1889, ko ga je Brookes povabil naslednje leto v Much Wenlock in gostu v čast organiziral olimpijska tekmovanja. Coubertin, oborožen s praktično olimpijsko izkušnjo, je novembra 1892 ob proslavi Zveze francoskih atletskih društev v zaključku svojega govora poudaril, da bi morali šport razširiti, tako v Franciji kot v mednarodnem merilu, kajti

njegova svobodna izmenjava bo vplivala na moralo stare Evrope in okrepila vlogo miru. V podporo športnemu gibanju je predlagal obnovitev olimpijskih iger na moderni osnovi. Ideja je sprva naletela na neodobravanje in nerazumevanje, nasproti so bili na eni strani spori med telovadnimi in športnimi organizacijami, na drugi pa mednacionalna nasprotja, pogojena z aktualnimi političnimi dogodki. Poleg tega je bil posredi tudi problem amaterizma in profesionalizma, saj je bil šport zaradi stav, korupcije in nasilja moralno vprašljiv, amaterizem pa je bil jamstvo za “čisti” šport, ki bi bil kot sredstvo vzgoje primeren za internacionalizacijo. Coubertin je svojo idejo ponovno predlagal na mednarodnem športnem kongresu junija 1894 v Parizu. Kongres je njegov predlog podprl in sprejel odločitev, da se obnovijo tekmovanja po antičnem cikličnem vzoru, a v moderni obliki in s sodobnimi vsebinami (gimnastika in šport) ter na mednarodni podlagi. Oživljena tekmovanja naj bi se prvič izvedla leta 1896 v grških Atenah − v počastitev spomina na antičnega vzornika −, zatem pa bi se prizorišče selilo. Prav tako je bilo potrjeno načelo amaterizma, ki je bilo v različicah v veljavi vse do olimpijSydney, 2000 skih iger v korejskem Seulu 1988. leta. Določalo je, da je amater tisti športnik, ki ni nastopal za denarne nagrade, ki ni plačani učitelj telesne vzgoje ali inštruktor za telesno vadbo in ki ni nikdar nastopal s profesionalci. Načelo amaterizma je ščitilo šport kot sredstvo vzgoje, s čimer je želel Coubertin olimpijski šport razmejiti s profesionalnim oziroma s tekmami za stave. Na kongresu je bilo oblikovano telo, ki je prevzelo vodenje snujočega se gibanja, Mednarodni olimpijski komite (MOK). Člani MOKa so bili prvi ambasadorji novega gibanja in moderne olimpijske ideje, morali so biti finančno neodvisni in politično svobodni, da bi lahko v svojih nacionalnih okoljih in sosedstvih čim bolje reprezentirali in širili olimpijstvo in olimpijska tekmovanja. Prišlo je leto 1896. Igre v Atenah so bile v primerjavi z današnjimi zelo skromne, udeležilo se jih je okrog 240 športnikov 14 narodnosti, ki so se pomerili v 9 olimpijskih športih in 43 disciplinah. Proces se je sprožil in širil in olimpijske igre so postale telesnokulturna stalnica. Z olimpijski igrami so bili telesna vzgoja, šport in olimpizem vzajemno povezani: olimpizem je pomenil internacionalizacijo športa, promoviral ga je in družbeno uveljavljal, hkrati z njim pa tudi telesno vzgojo; širitev in družbena uveljavitev športa je tako širila olimpizem kot telesnovzgojno, humanistično in mirovniško idejo. Rojeno je bilo novo gibanje, ki je temeljilo na športu kot vzgojnem sredstvu in kovnici značaja in se manifestiralo na olimpijskih tekmovanjih. Gibanje je v 20. stoletju rastlo, tako število nacionalnih komitejev, športnikov in športnic kot tudi olimpijski program, ki se je danes na poletnih olimpijskih igrah zaokrožil na 28 športov in na 302 moške, ženske in mešane discipline ali tekmovanja.


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Sydney, 2000


{ Olympic Games } ( 52 )

The Olympic Games have begun Text: Tomaž Pavlin

Photography: Aleš Fevžer

While it is true that the Olympic Games, which became a part of modern civilisation just over 110 years ago, took as their model the ancient competitions in the Greek sanctuary of Olympia in the Peloponnese, a gap of a millennium and a half separates the former from the latter, and there is also a cultural difference: the ancient competitions were a sporting contest of Greek knights and, later, athletes and a religious ritual in honour of Zeus, the supreme god, while the modern Games are a secular festival of sport.

T

he revival of modern Olympic competitions, symbolically linked to the ancient games by the lighting of the Olympic fire at Olympia in Greece, belongs to the turbulent times of European imperialist and colonial policy in the second half of the 19th century, the transformation of European and American society into industrial/technological societies, and the quest for and formulation of modern, compulsory education systems in which there would also be a place for physical education, whether based on gymnastics or physical exercise in the central European sense, or sport in the Anglo-Saxon sense – or on a combination of the two. The development of gymnastics as a broad system of exercises and training and a cultural innovation in continental Europe can be traced to the first half of the 19th century, while “sport” was a British or insular cultural innovation embodying the concepts of contest and competition. In the last third of the 19th century British sport had begun spreading into France and central Europe. It spread either via British trade delegations in the Channel ports (in the French port of Le Havre, for example, a group of Englishmen set up the Havre Athletic Club in 1872) or around Europe via visiting British students or the staff of British consular and diplomatic missions. Sport, particularly football, caught the enthusiasm of young Europeans and met with a variety of reactions. Germany’s gymnasts, for example, opposed it. For them, football was a typical Anglo-Saxon activity which had nothing in common with the national tradition and essence, and nothing at all in common with national gymnastics. But sport continued to make inroads and

Sydney, 2000


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Sydney, 2000


{ Cross-Country { Olympic Games Skiing} } ( 54 )

Atlanta, 1996

in 1882 the Racing Club de France – actually the first French sports club – was founded in Paris, combining athletics disciplines, particularly running, and games (e.g. rugby, football). A few years later it was joined by its city rival Stade Français. Racing and Stade were pioneers of French sport. Anglophilia in sport, the breakthrough of athletics, football and rugby, tennis, rowing and other disciplines was on the rise, and in 1887 the two clubs were behind the formation of a sports federation, the role of which was to coordinate development and help shape the field of sport and formulate rules. Sport caught the imagination of French schoolboys, for whom sport was, however, an extracurricular activity. In 1888 a boys’ team from the Monge school in Paris travelled to Eton. The Parisians were led by sports advocate and committee member Pierre de Coubertin, the man behind the revival of Olympic competitions, who at that time was principally concerned with the renovation of French physical education through sport. By studying the English educational system and the position of sport in it, he realised that personal development was perhaps even more important than education, since it formed characters, and that the task of the teacher was not to raise generations of slaves or docile spirits, which is how he characterised the French education system, but rather to raise masters. Such a system was designed to guarantee the survival of the British Empire, which needed young colonial officials and officers, an elite class that was not only full of knowledge but also boasted physical strength and health and was morally steady and responsible. These were the modern knights: honourable, courageous, virtuous and honest gentlemen and sportsmen.

But if Coubertin was concentrating on the problems of the French education system, where did the idea of the Olympic Games come from? It should immediately be explained that Coubertin was by no means the first to hit upon the idea of Olympic competitions. Competitions similar to or modelled on the ancient Olympic competitions, and plans to organise them, are to be found in the history of physical culture in England in as early as the 17th century (the Cotswold “Olimpick” Games), or during the French Revolution, in 1792, when a deputy of the Legislative Assembly, in his zeal to create a “new age” based on nationalism and liberalism, and taking as his model the Olympiads of Ancient Greece, proposed a French “Olympiad” every four years, to be held on the Champ de Mars in Paris. The Greeks too, within decades of their liberation from the Turks, organised Greek national competitions inspired by the ancient Games, although with little success. Coubertin, born in 1863, was greatly influenced by the “Olympian Games” held at Much Wenlock in Shropshire, England. These games were not the only event of this type in Britain, but they had the longest tradition, having been founded in the mid-19th century. They were led by the tireless physician Dr William Penny Brookes, who also maintained good contacts with the Greeks. He and Coubertin met on the occasion of the international congress on physical education held in Paris in 1889. Brookes invited him to come to Much Wenlock the following year and organised “Olympic” competitions in honour of the visitor. In November 1892, at the celebration of the Union des Sociétés Françaises de Sports Athlétiques, Coubertin, now armed with practical Olympic experience, concluded his speech by calling for the spread of sport, both in France and internationally, insist-


Atene/Athens, 2004

ing that a free interchange would have an effect on the moral fibre of old Europe and strengthen the role of peace. In support of the sports movement he proposed a revival of the Olympic Games on a modern basis. To begin with the idea was met by disapproval and incomprehension. Opposing it were, on the one hand, quarrels between gymnastics and sports organisations and, on the other, international conflicts conditioned by the current political climate. There was also the problem of amateurism and professionalism: owing to betting, corruption and violence, sport was morally questionable, while amateurism was a guarantee of “pure” sport, which as a means of education was suitable for internationalisation. Coubertin proposed his idea once again at the international sports congress held in Paris in June 1894. The congress supported his proposal and voted to revive competitions based on the ancient cyclical model, but in a modern form and with modern contents (gymnastics and sports), and on an international basis. The revived competition would take place for the first time in 1896 in Athens – in honour of the Ancient Greek model – after which the venue would rotate. The principle of amateurism was also confirmed, and would remain in force, with certain variants, right up until the Seoul Olympics in 1988. An amateur was defined as an athlete who had not appeared for money, who was not a paid teacher of physical education or physical exercise instructor and who had never appeared with professionals. The principle of amateurism safeguarded sport as a means of education, and in this way Coubertin wished to keep Olympic sport separate from professional sport or competitions involving betting. The congress saw the formation of the body which would take over the leadership of

( 55 ) the planned movement: the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The members of the IOC were the first ambassadors of the new movement and of the modern Olympic ideal. They had to be financially independent and politically free, in order to be able to represent and propagate the Olympic movement and Olympic competitions in their own national environments as effectively as possible. The great year arrived: the 1896 Olympic Games in Athens were very modest in comparison to today’s Games: 240 athletes from 14 countries competed in 9 Olympic sports and 43 disciplines. The process had begun and continued to spread, and the Olympic Games became a constant of physical culture. Through the Olympic Games, physical education, sport and the Olympic ideal were mutually connected: the Olympic ideal meant the internationalisation of sport, promoted it and affirmed it in society, and thus also physical culture, while the spread and the social affirmation of sport spread the Olympic ideal as an ideal of physical culture, humanism and peace. A new movement was born, based on sport as a means of education and a builder of character, and it manifested itself through Olympic competitions. The movement grew in the 20th century, in terms of both the number of national committees and athletes, and the Olympic programme itself, which today, at the summer Olympic Games, includes 28 sports and 302 men’s, women’s and mixed disciplines or competitions.

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Besedilo in fotografije: Aleš Fevžer

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Sydney, 2000


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{}


{ Olimpijske igre }

S

lovenski navijaãi znova veliko priãakujejo od naših športnikov v Pekingu, ki so nas z medaljami in vrhunskimi uvrstitvami navdušili že v preteklosti. Na zadnjih poletnih olimpijskih igrah v grških Atenah

so prvo medaljo v jadranju osvojili tudi slovenski jadralci po zaslugi Vasilija Žbogarja, ki je domov prinesel bron v razredu laser, odliãno pa sta v razredu 470

jadrali tudi Vesna Dekleva Paoli in Klara Mauãec. Bili sta blizu srebrni medalji, a sta po smoli v finalni regati ostali na nehvaležnem ãetrtem mestu.

Atene/Athens, 2004

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S

lovenska jadralna reprezentanca je letos še močnejša, kot je bila v Atenah, saj poleg Žbogarja in posadke Dekleva Paoli − Maučec na visoko uvrstitev meri tudi Gašper Vinčec v razredu finn. V zadnjih letih se je prebil v ospredje v svoji disciplini z osvojenimi medaljami in uvrstitvami tik pod vrhom na evropskih in svetovnih prvenstvih. Najmanj izkušenj z nastopi na velikih tekmovanjih imata najmlajša člana ekipe Karlo Hmeljak in Mitja Nevečny. Na svojih prvih olimpijskih igrah v razredu 470 bosta poskušala nadaljevati tradicijo uspehov, s katerimi

sta nas celo desetletje razvajala Tomaž Čopi in Mitja Margon. Bila sta najbolj zaslužna, da je jadranje dobilo pravo mesto med slovenskimi vrhunskimi športi, saj je med laiki dolgo veljalo, da gre le za uživanje na morju in ne za resen šport. Čopi in Margon sta po odličnem nastopu na olimpijskih igrah v Atlanti 1996, kjer je bilo regatno polje v štiri ure oddaljenemu Savannahu in zato daleč od oči javnosti, svoje življenje podredila izključno jadranju in postala zgled mladim slovenskim jadralcem. Imel sem srečo, da sem ju spremljal v času njunih največjih uspehov − zlati medalji na Sredozemskih igrah v


Atene/Athens, 2004

Atene/Athens, 2004

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{ Olimpijske igre } ( 60 )

Bariju 1997, srebrni medalji na svetovnem prvenstvu 1998, evropskem prvenstvu 1998 in 1999 ter olimpijskih igrah v Sydneyu, kjer sta z devetim mestom dokončno potrdila svoj sloves med svetovno elito. V Dubaju 1998 sem prvič srečal tudi Vasilija Žbogarja in ostale mlade jadralce. Tomaž in Mitja sta bila njihova prava vzornika, saj sta na velikih tekmovanjih osvojila med vsemi slovenskimi jadralci največ odličij. V zadnjih letih je vrhunsko jadranje postalo medijsko zelo zanimiv šport, a na žalost bodo tudi v Pekingu jadralci stanovali in tekmovali daleč proč od olimpijskih prizorišč. Jadralni center v mestu Qingdao, ki ima več kot 6 milijonov prebivalcev, je kar osemsto kilometrov ali uro in 15 minut leta z letalom oddaljen od kitajskega glavnega mesta in povsem nova marina je bila zgrajena izključno za nastope najboljših jadralcev na svetu. A fantje in dekleta bodo moderno velemesto, v katerem stoji tudi največja kitajska pivovarna, le redko videli, saj bo njihova olimpijska vas v marini, kjer so posebej zanje zgradili luksuzni hotel s petimi zvezdicami. Tako se bodo lahko iz sobe kar z dvigalom odpeljali do svojih bark v marini in na regatno polje. Šibki vetrovi in močan morski tok bodo zahtevali veliko potrpežljivega jadranja, zato so se številne posadke poleg nastopa na predolimpijski regati odločile še za mnoge treninge na Kitajskem, na katerih so preizkušali barke s čim manj opreme in balasta. Za optimalno jadranje je pomembna tudi teža, zato bodo v prednosti lahke posadke iz Azije, ki na olimpijskih igrah do sedaj niso zabeležile večjih uspehov. Mnogi najboljši

Atene/Athens, 2004

jadralci na svetu so načrtno shujšali tudi do deset kilogramov, da bodo konkurenčni v šibkem vetru. »Na barkah so sami okostnjaki in podhranjenci,« so to početje komentirali trenerji, ki pa morajo paziti, da imajo njihovi jadralci kljub izgubi teže še vedno dovolj moči za vrhunske nastope. Slovenski jadralci znova merijo na visoke uvrstitve in Žbogarjeva medalja iz Aten je zanje dovolj velik motiv. Vasilij Žbogar bo imel največje tekmece v starih znancih iz zadnjih let, ki prihajajo iz Velike Britanije, Avstralije, Nove Zelandije in Estonije. V razredu finn bo Gašper Vinčec napadal srebrno medaljo, saj je zlato po napovedih strokovnjakov že oddano. Nepremagljivi Britanec Ben Ainslie je v izjavah sicer skromen, a vsi vedo, da ga bo zadovoljila samo zlata olimpijska medalja. Ženska posadka v razredu 470 Dekleva Paoli − Maučec bo imela najhujše nasprotnice v Italijankah, Japonkah, Avstralkah in Američankah, v moškem razredu 470 pa bosta Hmeljak in Nevečny poskušala jadrati tako dobro kot Angleži, Avstralci ali Portugalci. Kljub temu, da bodo vetrovne razmere v marsičem krojile razplet bojev za olimpijska odličja, pa so slovenski jadralci trdno odločeni, da se iz Kitajske vrnejo visoko dvignjenih glav.


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Atene/Athens, 2004


{ Olympic Games } ( 62 )

Over the sea for new medals Text and photography: Aleš Fevžer

Slovenia’s sports enthusiasts are once again expecting a great deal from our athletes in Beijing, having thrilled in the past to their medals and top placings. At the last Summer Olympic Games in Athens, Slovenia’s sailors achieved their first medal when Vasilij Žbogar brought home the bronze in the Laser class. Another excellent showing came from Vesna Dekleva Paoli and Klara Mauãec in the 470 class. They were very close to the silver, but bad luck in the final regatta left them empty-handed in fourth place.

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lovenia’s sailing team is even stronger this year than it was in Athens, since alongside Žbogar and the Dekleva Paoli–Maučec crew, Gašper Vinčec in the Finn class is aiming for a good result. In recent years he has come to the fore in his discipline, with medals and placings just outside the medal zone in European and World championships. The least experienced members of the team in terms of appearances at major competitions are Karlo Hmeljak and Mitja Nevečny. At their first Olympic Games in the 470 class they will try to continue the tradition of successes with which Tomaž Čopi and Mitja Margon spoiled us for a whole decade. These two were largely responsible for sailing taking its proper place among top sports in Slovenia. Before them, sailing was often seen more as “messing about in boats” than as a real sport. Since their excellent performance at the Atlanta Olympics in 1996 (where the sailing venue was four hours away, in Savannah, far from the eyes of the public), Čopi and Margon have dedicated their lives exclusively to sailing and become a model for young Slovene sailors. I was fortunate enough to be able to accompany them during the period of their greatest successes – gold medals at the Mediterranean Games in Bari in 1997, silver medals at the 1998 World Championships and at the 1998 and 1999 European Championships, and the Olympic Games in Sydney, where their ninth place sealed their reputation among the world’s elite. It was at Dubai in 1998 that I first met Vasilij Žbogar and the other young sailors. Tomaž and Mitja were true models for them, since they have won more medals at major competitions than any other Slovene yachtsmen.

Atene/Athens, 2004


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Peking/Beijing, 2008

In recent years, top-flight sailing has attracted considerable media attention. Unfortunately, however, even at the Beijing Games, the sailors will live and compete far from the main Olympic venues. The sailing centre in the city of Qingdao, which has a population of more than 6 million, is eight hundred kilometres – an hour and a half by air – from the Chinese capital, and the brand-new marina was built exclusively for the performances of the finest sailors in the world. But the young men and women will not see much of the modern metropolis, which is also home to China’s largest brewery. Their Olympic Village will be in the marina, where a luxury five-star hotel has been built especially for them. This means that they will be able to take the lift from their rooms down to their boats in the marina and head out onto the course. Light winds and a strong current will require a lot of patient sailing. For this reason, many crews have opted for multiple

Atene/Athens, 2004

training sessions in China, as well as appearing at a pre-Olympics regatta, where they have been able to try out their boats with as little equipment and ballast as possible. Weight is a significant factor for optimal sailing, which means that light crews from Asia – which up to now have scored no major Olympic successes – will have an advantage. Many of the finest sailors in the world have deliberately lost weight – up to ten kilograms – in order to be competitive in light airs. “The boats are full of bags of bones and starvelings,” comment the coaches, who have to be careful that despite their weight loss their charges are still strong enough to perform at the highest level. Slovenia’s sailors are once again aiming for good results. Žbogar’s medal from Athens is a sufficiently strong motivation. Vasilij Žbogar’s biggest rivals will include some old acquaintances from recent years, from Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand and Estonia. In the Finn class Gašper Vinčec will be aiming for the silver medal, since according to the experts the winner of the gold is a foregone conclusion. The unbeatable British sailor Ben Ainslie is characteristically modest in his declarations, but everyone knows that he will only be satisfied with an Olympic gold medal. The women’s crew in the 470 class – Dekleva Paoli and Maučec – will find their toughest opponents in the Italians, Japanese, Australians and Americans, while in the men’s 470 class Hmeljak and Nevečny will do their best to outsail the crews from Great Britain, Australia and Portugal. Despite the fact that the wind conditions will strongly condition the outcome of the battle for Olympic glory, Slovenia’s yachtsmen and yachtswomen are resolved to return from China with their heads held high.

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Besedilo: Janko Dvoršak

( 64 )

Barcelona, 1992

Fotografije: Aleš Fevžer


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{}


{ Olimpijske igre } ( 66 )

Sydney, 2000

»O

bleka naredi človeka,« so nas učile naše mame. Povsem res, saj mnogokrat oblačilo ne varuje zgolj našega telesa, temveč še marsikaj pove o lastniku. Zato na velikih mednarodnih športnih tekmovanjih predstavlja športna oprema poleg izjemno pomembnega tehničnega elementa tudi del športnikove nacionalne identitete. Ko se športna olimpijska delegacija udeleži olimpijskih iger, se v navidez enostavni športni opremi združijo vse možne zahteve in pričakovanja. Povsem normalno je, da je oprema narejena iz najboljših materialov, ki so primerni za predvidene klimatske razmere in nudijo športniku najboljše udobje ter izpolnjujejo najvišje tehnološke standarde posameznih športov; oblačila pa morajo biti tudi ustrezno krojena. To pa še ni vse. Športna oprava mora biti tudi všečna, modna, ponazarjati mora nacionalno identiteto, biti mora prepoznavna v množici oblačil športnikov z vsega sveta, vremenu in klimi primerno je potrebno izbrati barve in še marsikaj. Kolekcija pa mora biti usklajena tudi s pravili Mednarodnega olimpijskega komiteja in ostalih športnih organizacij. Pri uporabi državnih simbolov morajo kreatorji upoštevati predpise, ki jih postavljajo zakoni. In kaj potem sploh še ostane tistim, ki morajo to opremo sestaviti v ustrezno kolekcijo ter pri tem upoštevati še zahteve njenih proizvajalcev? Ne prav dosti. Ali pač, saj sta prav zaradi vseh teh zahtev izbira in izdelava primernih športnih oblačil velik izziv za ekipo ustvarjalcev. Kolekcija je obsežna, saj mora zadostiti zahtevam bivanja, treniranja in tekmovanja športnikov za cel čas iger, to je nekako od 15 do 25 dni. Glede na namembnost se večina delegacij odloča za tri sklope oblačil. Uniforma za otvoritveno slovesnost ali svečana uniforma je tista, ki jo olimpijska delegacija namenja za mimohod držav ob otvoritvi olimpijskih iger. Pravijo, da vsaj 60 odstotkov uspeha olimpijskih iger predstavlja uspešna in izjemna otvoritvena slovesnost, zato ni čudno, da nacionalni komiteji namenjajo svečanim oblačilom veliko pozornosti. Modne rešitve svečanih oblačil postavlja v slovenski olimpijski delegaciji praktično od olimpijskih iger v Barceloni dalje prekmurska Mura, ki

z Zvezdano Serec, avtorico kreacij, izpolnjuje modne trende. Oblačila morajo biti elegantna, izvirna in tudi ustrezno vpadljiva; slednje je v mimohodu 205 nacionalnih olimpijskih komitejev še kako pomembno. Sicer pa je vse prej kot enostavno v enaka oblačila opraviti 160 kg težkega atleta ali pa 35 kg težko telovadko ali recimo 215 cm visokega košarkarja. Mladi športniki se znajo predstaviti vsak na svoj način, in če se eksploziji pričakovanj in veselja pridružijo še ustrezna modna oblačila, se lahko izpolnijo pričakovanja vseh. Čeprav prostega časa na olimpijskih igrah ni veliko, imajo športniki s seboj še kolekcijo oblačil za prosti čas in izjemno pomembno je, da se v njih karseda udobno počutijo. Zaradi udobnosti jih redno uporabljajo tudi na potovanjih, še posebno, če so igre preko oceana. Kolekcijo za prosti čas ustvarja z veliko mero domišljije in prodornosti proizvajalec Les Coq Sportif, ki je s pekinško dejansko postavil nov mejnik modnih rešitev v opremi delegacije; posamezni artikli iz kolekcije ravno zaradi svoje popolne različnosti delujejo izjemno enotno. Najpomembnejši del olimpijske opreme so tekmovalna oblačila, saj športniki v njih ne le tekmujejo, ampak so zaradi medijev v njih tudi največkrat izpostavljeni očem javnosti. Le ta pa je vedno zelo stroga ocenjevalka. Pri izbiri teh oblačil so športniki najbolj občutljivi, kar je seveda upravičeno, saj ni mogoče pričakovati vrhunskega rezultata v povprečni ali celo neustrezni opremi. Že nekaj časa teče polemika o primernosti in izboru nacionalnih barv, ki so bile izbrane na skupščinah Športne zveze Slovenije in kasneje tudi na skupščini Olimpijskega komiteja Slovenije. Seveda je razlogov za tak barvni izbor, kakršen je, prav toliko, kolikor bi jih lahko našli za drugačnega. Ampak prav tako bi lahko diskutirali o skladnosti nacionalnih barv z barvami slovenske zastave in grba, ki se kot državna simbola pogosto pojavljata na tekmovalnih oblačilih slovenskih reprezentantov. Prepoznavnost nacionalnih delegacij gotovo ni odvisna le od njihove celostne podobe, temveč vplivajo nanjo v pretežni meri dosežene vrhunske uvrstitve športnikov na najbolj konkurenčnih mednarodnih tekmovanjih.


Atlanta, 1996

Sydney, 2000

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{ Olympic Games }

Olympians – champions and models Text: Janko Dvoršak

“C

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lothes make the man,” our mothers taught us. Perfectly true, since very often clothes not only protect the body, they say much about the person wearing them. This is why at major international sports competitions an athlete’s kit, as well as being an extremely important technical element, represents a part of the athlete’s national identity. When an Olympic delegation takes part in the Olympic Games, all manner of requirements and expectations combine in the team’s apparently simple sports kit. It is perfectly understandable that the kit should be made from the finest materials, suitable for the expected climatic conditions while at the same time offering the athlete the greatest possible comfort and meeting the highest technological standards of individual disciplines; but the clothes must also be suitably cut. And that is not all. The outfit must also be pleasing to the eye, fashionable, illustrative of national identity, and recognisable among the mass of outfits of athletes from all over the world, the colours must be appropriate for the weather and the climate, and so on. The collection must also conform to the rules of the International Olympic Committee and other sports organisations. When using national symbols, the creators must respect the regulations established by law. So what choices are left to those who have to assemble this kit into a suitable collection while at the same time taking into account the requirements of their producers? Not many. On the other hand, it is precisely because of all these requirements that the selection and production of suitable sports clothes is a great challenge for the creative team. The collection is a sizeable one, since it has to meet the athletes’ requirements – living, training and competing – for the duration of the Games (between 15 and 25 days). Most delegations choose three sets of clothes, for different purposes. The opening ceremony uniform, or formal uniform, is what the Olympic delegation wears for the parade of competing countries at the Olympic Games opening ceremony. It is said that a successful and eye-catching opening ceremony accounts for at least 60 percent of the success of the Games, and it is therefore no surprise that national Olympic committees should devote great attention to their formal attire. Ever since the Barcelona Olympics (1992), the Prekmurje-based company Mura has provided Slovenia’s Olympic delegation with fashionable formal uniforms designed by Zvezdana

Photography: Aleš Fevžer

Serec. The clothes must be elegant, original and also striking –  a very important consideration in a parade of 205 national Olympic delegations. On the other hand it is anything but simple trying to dress an athlete who weighs 160 kg in the same clothes as a gymnast weighing 35 kg or a basketball player who is 215 cm tall. But young athletes know how to present themselves in their own way, and if the explosion of expectations and happiness is complemented by the right clothes, the expectations of all can be fulfilled. Although there is never much “time off” at the Olympics, the athletes also have with them a collection of clothes for their free time, and it is important that they feel as comfortable as possible in them. Comfort is also the reason that they use them when travelling – especially if the Games are on an another continent. The free-time collection has been created with a great deal of imagination and insight by Le Coq Sportif. With their Beijing collection they have set a new fashionable standard for the delegation; the individual items of the collection have a very uniform effect precisely because they are so different. The most important elements of the Olympic kit are of course the clothes used in competition: not only do the athletes compete in them, media coverage of the Games means that they are the outfits that are most frequently seen by the public. And the public is a very harsh judge. The selection of these clothes is a sensitive issue with athletes. This is understandable, since it is hardly possible to expect top results in average or even unsuitable kit. For some time now a debate has been raging about the suitability and choice of the national colours selected at the assemblies of the Sports Federation of Slovenia and, later, at the assembly of the Olympic Committee of Slovenia. There are, of course, as many reasons for this selection of colours as could be found for any other selection. But likewise we could argue about the compatibility of the national colours with the colours of Slovenia’s flag and coat of arms, which as national symbols often appear on the kit of Slovenia’s national teams. The recognisability of national delegations does not, however, depend solely on their corporate identity. Above all, it is affected by the results achieved by a country’s athletes at the most keenly contested international competitions.

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Peking/Beijing, 2008

Peking/Beijing, 2008

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Adria Airways In-Flight Magazine August, September 2008  

Free copy of Adria Airways Magazine for passengers. Abaout Adria Airways, travel, culture, sport, events....

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