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VAŠ BREZPLAČNI IZVOD/YOUR PERSONAL COPY

Adria Airways In-Flight Magazine oktober, november • October, November 2009

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Brata Rusjan The Rusjan Brothers

Dušan Jovanović Istanbul

Eda še leti • Eda is still Flying V senci bratov Rusjan • In the Shadow of the Rusjan Brothers Eda - zgodba bratov Rusjan • Eda The Story of the Rusjan Brothers

Kolesarjenje • Cycling Po Moravški dolini • Along the Moravče Valley Damjan Zabovnik

Skrivnosti Nadiških dolin • In the Land of the Nadiža Valleys Refošk Islandija • Iceland


Vsebina/Contents 30

Adrijin potnik/Adria Passenger

Dušan Jovanović Dušan Jovanović David Šalamun

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Istanbul

Med zvoki in vonji, ki obnavljajo preteklost in tkejo sedanjost

Among Sounds and Smells that Renew the Past and Weave the Present Neža Mrevlje

Janez Pukšič

Adria Airways In-Flight Magazine Revija Adria Airways In-Flight Magazine je namenjena potnikom na poletih z Adrio Airways. Adria In-flight Magazine is complimentary on Adria Airways flights.

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Izdajatelj/Published: Adria Airways, Slovenski letalski prevoznik, d.d. Adria Airways The Airline of Slovenia Kuzmičeva 7, 1000 Ljubljana Uredništvo / Editorial: Barbara Mihevc Bukovec Tel / Phone + 386 1 369 1290 E- mail: barbara.bukovec@adria.si Urednica / Edited by: Meta Krese Oglaševanje / Advertising: Alenka Dvoršak Tel / Phone + 386 1 369 1259 E- mail: alenka.dvorsak@adria.si Oblikovanje in AD /Design and AD: LUKS Studio Prevod /Translated by: Amidas Lektorica/Language editing: Vera Samohod Fotoliti /Lithography: Schwarz d.o.o. Tisk /Printed by: Schwarz d.o.o.

ISSN 1318-0789

Mnenja, izražena v tej publikaciji, so zgolj mnenja avtorjev ali intervjuvancev in ne odsevajo nujno stališč Adrie Airways. Razmnoževanje brez pisnega dovoljenja je prepovedano. Izdajatelj ne prevzema nikakršne odgovornosti za nenaročeno gradivo. The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors or persons interviewed only and do not necessarily reflect the views of Adria Airways. Reproduction without written permission is prohibited. The pub­l ish­er accepts no responsibility for unsolicit­ed material. Brezplačen izvod /Your personal copy

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Brata Rusjan/The Rusjan Brothers

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Marjan Žiberna

Eda še leti

Eda is Still Flying

V senci bratov Rusjan

In the Shadow of the Rusjan Brothers Darinka Kladnik

Eda – zgodba bratov Rusjan Eda – The Story of the Rusjan Brothers Neda Rusjan Bric

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Kolesarjenje/Cycling

Izziv, pri katerem gre v kilometre tudi seštevek metrov

A Challenge where the Number of Kilometres Should also Include the Total Metres Climbed...

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Marjan Žiberna

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Rafael Marn

Na kolesu po okolici Ljubljane

Cycling in the Countryside Around Ljubljana

Po Moravški dolini od Kolovrata do Tuštanja Along the Moravče Valley from Kolovrat to Tuštanj Janez Suhadolc

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Damjan Zabovnik

Z glavo skozi zid

Going at Everything Headfirst Živa Vadnov

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Skrivnosti Nadiških dolin/The mysteries of the Nadiža valleys

V deželi krivopet in gejdov

In the Land of Crooked-foot Witches and Giants Jože Balas

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Refošk

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Iztok Klenar

Vino za zdravje in užitek A Wine for Health and Pleasure

Islandija Iceland

Alja Bukovec


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Izgubljena/izgubljena in najdena/včasih tudi poškodovana prtljaga Besedilo: Barbara M. Bukovec Ilustracija: Maja Babič Košir

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vročih avgustovskih dnevih, ko se je še več potnikov kot običajno odpravljalo na lete, so medije preplavile informacije o precejšnji količini izgubljene prtljage pri letalskih prevoznikih. Vzrok za obravnavo omenjene teme je bila objava o izsledkih raziskave, ki jo je objavila evropska komisija o ravnanju s potniško prtljago na letališčih. Po zbranih podatkih je namreč v Evropski uniji od januarja do oktobra 2008 prispelo na letališča z zamudo 4,6 milijona kosov prtljage. To je sicer 20 odstotkov manj kot v letu 2007, a po oceni evropskega komisarja za promet Antonia Tajanija še vedno preveč. Velja pa na tem mestu poudariti, da je prtljage, ki jo prevozniki po prijavi o zamudi kasneje nikoli ne najdejo, vendarle samo okoli 2%. To je prtljaga, ki je resnično izgubljena ali pa v majhnem odstotku ukradena. Ta odstotek pa se je glede na leto 2007 zmanjšal za 45%. Kljub vsemu trudu prevoznikov in letaliških služb, da bi bilo takih pojavov čim manj, se občasno zgodi, da potnik po pristanku ugotovi, da njegova prtljaga ni prispela skupaj z njim na cilj ali pa je bila poškodovana. V takem primeru se mora prizadeti čimprej oglasiti pri okencu za izgubljeno prtljago, kjer bodo uslužbenci napisali zapisnik o škodi in mu svetovali nadaljnje ukrepanje. V prvi polovici leta 2009 se manj kot odstotek, natančneje 6,5 kosov prtljage na 1000 prepeljanih Adrijinih potnikov, po pristanku letala ni pojavilo na traku za prevzem. Večina le začasno, kajti v 85% primerov je prtljaga prispela na cilj z zamudo v roku 48 ur po prijavi, ostala pa v naslednjih nekaj dneh.

Kaj pa lahko stori potnik sam, da se v kar največji meri izogne takemu tveganju oz. morebitnemu zapletu v zvezi z njegovo prtljago? 1. Potnik naj svojo prtljago, preden jo odda na prevoz, skrbno označi na zunanji strani. Na privesek naj napiše svoj polni naslov in destinacijo, kamor potuje. Listek z naslovom je koristno pustiti tudi v notranjosti prtljage. Če prtljažni listek odpade, letališki delavci pogledajo za kakšnim drugim prepoznavnim znakom. V primeru, da na prtljagi ni prav ničesar, kar bi nakazovalo sledi do lastnika, jo uslužbenci prevoznika po petih dneh odprejo z namenom, da se po popisu predmetov skuša najti lastnika s pomočjo mednarodnega računalniškega sistema WorldTracer.

2. Prtljažni privesek, ki je sicer ključnega pomena za identifikacijo izgubljene ali najdene prtljage, je lahko včasih tudi vir nesporazuma. Na njem je namreč napisana tričrkovna koda letališča, kamor je prtljaga namenjena. Če uslužbenec na check-in okencu vtipka napačno kodo, bo prtljaga poslana na napačno končno letališče. To je v današnjem času sicer redek pojav, kajti podatki o rezervaciji se avtomatično prenesejo v sistem za prijavo na let, vendar možnosti napake ne moremo nikoli izključiti. Priporočljivo je, da potnik preveri prtljažni listek, takoj


ko ga dobi ob prijavi na let, in s tem zmanjša možnost, da bi prišlo do napake. 3. T atvin naši potniki sicer ne prijavljajo prav pogosto, je pa vseeno pravilo, da se v prtljago, ki ne potuje s potnikom, ne spravlja vrednostnih predmetov, denarja, računalnikov, fotoaparatov ipd. Prav tako se v prtljagi ne sme prenašati steklenic s tekočinami in lomljivih predmetov. Vse te napotke lahko potniki preberejo v knjižici Splošni pogoji prevoza (potnikov in prtljage), ki se dobi na Adrijinih prodajnih mestih, izvleček pa je tudi na spletni strani www.adria.si. 4. Potnik naj bo pozoren tudi na to, katero vrsto prtljage odda na prevoz – nekateri kovčki in potovalke so manj primerni za potovanje z letalom, saj niso dovolj trdni za tovrstno rokovanje. Precej manj bi bilo slabe volje, če bi tudi potniki namenili del svoje pozornosti zgornjim navodilom. Saj se tudi v primeru izplačanih odškodnin po montrealski konvenciji, ki se je držijo vsi prevozniki, potniku ne more povrniti njegovih slabih izkušenj in grenkega priokusa, ki ga je prav gotovo imel, ko je sicer varno prispel na cilj, a brez prtljage ali pa je bila ta poškodovana.

Lost or Lost and Found Baggage,

Sometimes Damaged

Text: Barbara M. Bukovec Illustration: Maja Babič Košir

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n the hot days of August, when even more travellers than usual took flights, the media flooded us with details about excessive quantities of baggage lost by air carriers. The reason for discussing this topic was the publication of research findings issued by the European Commission on the handling of passenger baggage at airports. According to the published data, in the European Union from January to October 2008, 4.6 million items of baggage arrived at airports late. This is actually 20 percent less than in 2007, but in the assessment of the European Transport Commissioner Antonio Tajani it is still too much. It is worth noting at this point, however, that only around 2% of baggage was never found by carriers after being reported missing. This is baggage which is truly lost or in a small percentage of cases stolen. And relative to 2007, this percentage had fallen by 45%. Despite all the work of carriers and airport services to reduce such incidents to a minimum, it occasionally happens that passengers upon landing discover that their baggage has not arrived with them at the destination, or that it has been damaged. In such cases passengers

need to report this straight away at the lost baggage counter, where staff will fill out a report of loss or damage and advise passengers about further steps. In the first half of 2009 less than one percent, or precisely 6.5 items of baggage per 1,000 passengers carried by Adria failed to appear on the baggage claim carousel after arrival. For the most part this is merely temporary, since 85% of baggage arrived at the destination delayed but within 48 hours of it being reported, and the remainder in the next few days.

So what can passengers themselves do to avoid as far as possible such a risk? 1. Before handing over baggage for the trip, passengers should carefully mark it on the outside. This should include the full address and the destination of travel. It also helps to leave a note with the address inside the baggage, too. If the baggage tag is lost, airport workers look for some other recognisable sign. In the event of there being absolutely nothing on the baggage to indicate its ownership, after five days airline staff will open it with the aim of making an inventory of items to try to find the owner, using the international computer system WorldTracer. 2. T he baggage tag, which is normally of vital importance for identifying lost or found baggage, can sometimes also cause mishaps. The baggage tag shows the three-letter code of the airport to which the baggage is destined. If staff at the check-in counter enter the wrong code, the baggage will be sent to the wrong destination airport. Nowadays this is very rare, since the reservation data are automatically transferred to the flight check-in system, but the possibility of error can never be ruled out. Passengers are advised to check their baggage claim stickers they receive at check-in and in this way reduce the possibility of errors. 3. Our passengers do not often report thefts, but it is nevertheless the rule that baggage not directly accompanying the passenger should not contain items of value, money, computers or cameras. Equally, baggage should not contain any bottles with liquids or breakable items. Passengers can read all about these tips in the booklet “General conditions of carriage (of passengers and baggage)”, obtainable at Adria sales outlets, and part of this is also published on the website www.adria.si. 4. P  assengers should also be careful what kind of baggage they hand over for the trip – certain kinds of suitcase and holdall are less appropriate for air travel, since they are not strong enough for the kind of handling they receive. A lot of bad feeling can be avoided if passengers devote a little attention to these points. For even where compensation is paid out under the Montreal Convention, which is observed by all airlines, passengers cannot be recompensed for the bad experience and bitter taste no doubt experienced when they arrive safely at their destination, but without their baggage or with damaged bags.

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Brata Rusjan

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kroglih sto let je minilo, odkar je poletela prva Eda, ki je nosila, kot se za prvo pač spodobi, številčno oznako I. Od takrat jih je poletelo še nekaj. Nazadnje je Eda poletela koncem letošnjega julija z letališča v Lescah. Seveda ni šlo za 'izvirnik', za nobeno od slovitih Ed, ki sta jih izdelala brata Rusjan, pionirja slovenskega motornega letalstva, pač za repliko njune Ede V. Z njo je, tako kot že večkrat v preteklih letih, poletel Tomaž Meze.

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Eda še leti Besedilo: Marjan Žiberna

Fotografije: Rafael Marn


{ Brata Rusjan }

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etalo, ki je bilo dokončano leta 2000, je izdelal njen sedanji lastnik, upokojeni poklicni pilot Albin Novak. Glavni konstruktor replike je bil sicer Rado Kikelj – skonstruirana je bila na osnovi fotografij izvirnika, saj se druga dokumentacija ni ohranila –, naknadno pa se mu je pridružil še Meze, ki je kot pilot helikopterja zaposlen pri slovenski policiji, v času gradnje pa je bil tudi v vlogi letalskega kontrolorja. Replika enega od letal Edvarda in Jožeta Rusjana, sinov obrtnika, ki sta se izkazala z vizionarstvom, strastjo, pogumom, spretnostjo in domiselnostjo, je svojevrsten poklon njunemu tehničnemu geniju. Od sodobnih letalnih naprav se tako zelo razlikuje, da je kar težko verjeti, da se lahko varno odlepi od tal in obdrži v zraku. A v pionirskih časih motornih poletov so bila letala še bistveno bolj preproste izdelave. 17. decembra 1903 sta brata Orwill in Wilbur Wright, Američana, ki veljata za pionirja motornega letalstva, utrla pot načinu gibanja po zraku, ki je do danes doživelo nesluten razvoj in razsežnosti. Šest let kasneje, 25. novembra 1909, pa se je z motornim letalom dvignil v zrak tudi Edvard Rusjan. Slovenci (slovensko ozemlje je bilo del tedanje avstroogrske monarhije) smo tako postali peti narod letalcev na svetu. Tako je zgodba dobro znanega Edvarda in do nedavnega njegovega skoraj pozabljenega brata Jožeta, ki je bil za bratove polete, za katere sicer sam ni imel dovolj drznosti, še en primer uspešnega delovanja bratovskih dvojic iz pionirskih časov letalstva.

Brata Rusjan, dva od skupno osmih otrok poslovno ne posebno uspešnega goriškega sodarja Franca Rusjana, je tehnika zanimala od malih nog; že leta 1897, ko je imel starejši Jože trinajst, mlajši Edvard pa komaj enajst let, naj bi se bila ukvarjala s problemi dinamičnega letenja. To zanimanje je bržkone spodbudilo pisanje tedanjih časopisov o letalskih poskusih bratov Otta in Gustava Lilienthala, Wilhelma Kressa in drugih letalskih pionirjev ter ter izdaje prvih publikacij s tovrstno tematiko, ki jih je bilo tedaj že mogoče dobiti. Prvo letalo bratov Rusjan se je dvignilo v zrak že leta 1900. Manj kot kilogram težak enokrilec, ki ga je poganjala urina vzmet, se je dvignil pet metrov visoko in poletel dokaj daleč. Ta dosežek je bil tako vzpodbuden, da sta Edvard in Jože oziroma Pepi, kot so ga klicali, pričela razmišljati o letalu, ki bi v zrak poneslo človeka. V naslednjih letih sta se ukvarjala s študijem teorije letenja, izvajala poskuse, risala številne skice in načrte, ki pa so vedno znova pristali med smetmi … Edvard, ki mu študij strojništva zaradi pomanjkanja denarja ni bil usojen, je v teh letih dokaj uspešno tekmoval v kolesarstvu, kjer je imel priložnost spoznati druge navdušence za tehniko; teh v vrstah tedanjih kolesarjev ni manjkalo. V tem času so svet tudi preplavile vesti o letalskih uspehih Američanov in Francozov, kar je spodbudilo njunega očeta, da ju je začel bolj podpirati.


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{ The Rusjan Brothers }


{ The Rusjan Brothers }

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Zamisel o 'mahokrilcu', letalu, ki bi ga poganjal človek z lastno močjo in bi mahalo s krili, sta z bratom opustila, prav tako zamisel o helikopterju podobni napravi, ki bi si jo človek pritrdil na hrbet. Ključno vprašanje je tako postal motor. Edvard, ki je kot samouk osvojil določeno inženirsko znanje, ga je sprva nameraval izdelati sam, a prek svojih kolesarskih znanstev je spoznal torinskega podjetnika in letalskega konstruktorja Franza Millerja, ki mu je omogočil obisk letalskega mitinga septembra leta 1909 v bližini italijanske Brescie. Tu se je seznanil z najnovejšim dogajanjem v letalstvu in tudi z Aleksandrom Anzanijem, proizvajalcem letalskih motorjev. Od Anzanija sta z bratom kupila zračno hlajeni motor, katerega moč je bila okrog 25 konjskih moči. Dvokrilno letalo, ki sta ga sama izdelala in ga poimenovala Eda (Edvarda so doma klicali Edo), je že kmalu poskakovalo po travniku v Malih Rojcah, na območju, kjer se danes nahaja novogoriški atletski stadion. 25. novembra, potem, ko sta ga nekoliko popravila, pa je Edvard z njim tudi uspešno poletel – dvanajst metrov dolgo letalo, ki je imelo čez krila osem metrov, ga je v stabilnem letu približno dva metra visoko od tal poneslo okrog 60 metrov daleč. Publiko so sestavljali njuni sorodniki in častniki goriškega garnizona, ki so o tem in nadaljnjih uspehih poročali v prestolnico, na Dunaj. Le nekaj dni kasneje, 29. novembra, ko je bilo vreme primerno za ponoven poskus, pa je Eda I poletela in varno pristala po 500 metrov dolgem poletu na višini okrog 12 metrov. Brata sta nato izdelala še več različno zasnovanih letal, skupno jih je bilo najbrž sedem. Eda II, trokrilnik, je januarja 1910 strmoglavila, pri čemer se je Edvard pri padcu z več kot štirimetrske višine le popraskal. Usoda je bila enako prizanesljiva tudi, ko se je marca istega leta zaradi sunka vetra razbila Eda III. Dne 13. novembra je Edvard poletel nad Zagrebom; letalo, ki sta ga zasnovala in izdelala ob finančnem vložku Mihajla Merćepa, v Zagrebu živečega trgovca, fotografa in letalskega navdušenca, je vzletelo po vsega 28 metrih zaleta. Letalo dotedanjega neuradnega svetovnega rekorderja, Francoza Louisa Blériota, ki je 25. julija 1909 kot prvi preletel Rokavski preliv, je potrebovalo za vzlet štiri metre več. V naslednjih dneh je Edvard pred številno publiko in novinarji poletel še nekajkrat ter postal prava zvezda. Dobil je številne ponudbe, tako da sta z Merćepom načrtovala turnejo po večjih balkanskih mestih. Žal pa se je ta končala že v prvem od njih, v Beogradu. Miting je organizirala vojska, ki je za letalske novotarije kazala veliko zanimanja, od česar si je Merćep obetal kasnejša naročila. Tako se je Edvard 9. januarja leta 1911 kljub močni košavi odločil za polet. Pred očmi množice, ki je njegov uspešni vzlet spremljala z navdušenjem, je sunek vetra zlomil krilo letala. Zrušilo se je na železniški nasip pod obzidjem kalemegdanske trdnjave. 25-letni Edvard Rusjan, ki je umrl med potjo v vojaško ambulanto, je bil žal tudi prva slovenska, jugoslovanska in avstroogrska žrtev letalske nesreče. A njegova tragedija ni mogla zaustaviti nadaljnjega razvoja letalstva v tem delu sveta, ta je šel svojo pot naprej. Jože Rusjan, ki je s svojo obrtniško spretnostjo, natančnostjo in tehničnimi izboljšavami veliko pripomogel pri izdelavi letal, je kmalu potem zapustil Zagreb, kjer je delal v Merćepovi delavnici. Leta 1912 se je z družino preselil v Argentino. Z letalstvom se ni več ukvarjal (z izjemo

izdelave propelerja leta 1937), a je na različnih področjih svojega delovanja prispeval številne tehnične izboljšave. Umrl je v Buenos Airesu leta 1953, star 79 let.

Eda is Still Flying Text: Marjan Žiberna

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Photography: Rafael Marn

xactly one hundred years have passed since the first Eda – bearing the numerical code I, as befits the first in a series – took to the air. It was followed by several others. Most recently, an Eda took off from Lesce airfield in July this year. It was not, of course, an “original” – one of the famous Edas built by the Rusjan brothers, Slovene pioneers of powered aviation, but a replica of their Eda V. The pilot on this occasion, as on several other occasions in previous years, was Tomaž Meze. The aircraft, which was completed in 2000, was built by its present owner Albin Novak, a retired professional pilot. The chief designer of the replica – it was built on the basis of photographs of the original, since no other documentation has survived – was Rado Kikelj, who was subsequently joined by Meze, a police helicopter pilot who was also working as a flight controller at the time. This replica of one of the aircraft of Edvard and Jože Rusjan, cooper's sons who distinguished themselves with their vision, passion, courage, skill and imagination, is a unique homage to their technical genius. It is so different from modern flying machines that it is hard to believe that it is capable of taking off safely and staying up in the air. But in the pioneering days of powered flights, aircraft were considerably simpler even than this. On 17 December 1903 the American brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright, considered the pioneers of powered flight, blazed a trail for a mode of moving through the air which has since developed at an unimaginable rate and attained dimensions they could never have dreamed of. Six years later, on 25 November 1909, Edvard Rusjan took to the air in a powered aircraft, making the Slovenes the fifth nation of aviators in the world (Slovene ethnic territory was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the time). The story of the celebrated Edvard Rusjan and his until recently almost completely forgotten brother Jože – who despite being closely involved in his brother's flights was reluctant to take to the air himself – is another example of a pair of brothers working successfully together in the pioneering age of aviation. The Rusjan brothers, two of the eight children of a modest barrelmaker from Gorizia, Franc Rusjan, were interested in technical matters


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{ The Rusjan Brothers }


{ The Rusjan Brothers }

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from early boyhood. They are said to have begun looking at the problems of dynamic flying in as early as 1897, when Jože was thirteen and Edvard just eleven. This interest was undoubtedly spurred by articles in the newspapers of the day about the attempts at flying by the brothers Otto and Gustav Lilienthal, Wilhelm Kress and other aviation pioneers, and the first publications dealing with the topic of aviation, already available at that time. The Rusjan brothers' first aircraft left the ground in 1900. A monoplane weighing less than a kilogram and powered by a clock spring, it rose to a height of five metres and flew quite a distance. This achievement was so encouraging that Edvard and Jože, known as Pepi, began thinking about an aircraft capable of carrying a human being into the air. In the years that followed they threw themselves into a study of the theory of flight, conducted experiments, and drew numerous sketches and plans, which however continued to end up in the wastepaper basket… Edvard, who was prevented from studying mechanical engineering by a lack of money, became quite a successful bicycle racer in this period, and thus had the opportunity to get to know other technical enthusiasts, of whom there was no shortage among cyclists at the time. The world was full of news about the aviation successes of the Americans and the French, and this encouraged the Rusjans' father to start giving them more support. The brothers abandoned the idea of a human-powered ornithopter with flapping wings, along with plans for a helicopter-like machine that the pilot would wear strapped to his back. The engine thus became the key question. Edvard, an autodidact who had acquired a certain amount of engineering knowledge, originally planned to build the engine himself, but through his acquaintances in the cycling world he met Franz Miller, a businessman and aircraft builder from Turin, who arranged for him to attend an aviation meet in September 1909 near the Italian city of Brescia. Here Rusjan found out about the latest developments in aviation and made the acquaintance of Alessandro Anzani, a manufacturer of aircraft engines, from whom the brothers bought an air-cooled engine of approximately 25 horsepower. Their biplane, which they built themselves and called Eda (Edvard was known as Edo at home), was soon hopping across the meadow in Male Rojce, on the site of today's Nova Gorica athletics stadium. On 25 November, after some slight corrections, Edvard succeeded in becoming airborne – the 12-metre aircraft with its 8-metre wingspan carried him a distance of around 60 metres in stable flight at a height of approximately two metres. The spectators of this feat consisted of the brothers' relatives and officers from the Gorizia garrison, who reported this and subsequent successes to Vienna, the capital. A few days later, on 29 November, when the weather was suitable for a fresh attempt, Eda I took off and landed safely after a flight of 500 metres at a height of around 12 metres. The brothers went on to build several more aircraft of different designs – a total of seven, it is believed. Eda II, a triplane, crashed in January 1910, although Edvard survived the fall from a height of over four metres with just a few scratches. He escaped injury once again when in March of the same year a gust of wind shattered Eda III. On 13 November that year Edvard took to the air above Zagreb. The aircraft, which


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the brothers had designed and built with the financial help of Mihajl Merćep, a merchant, photographer and aviation enthusiast living in Zagreb, took off after a takeoff run of 28 metres. The aircraft of the then unofficial world record-holder, the Frenchman Louis Blériot, who on 25 July 1909 had become the first man to fly the English Channel, had needed a takeoff run that was four metres longer. In the days that followed, Edvard made several more flights in front of large crowds and many journalists and became a real celebrity. He received several offers and he and Merćep began planning a tour of the major cities of the Balkans. Unfortunately, however, this tour ended in the first city it visited: Belgrade. The event was organised by the army, which had shown great interest in innovations in aviation, and from which Merćep was hoping to obtain valuable commissions. And so on 9 January 1911, despite the strong south-east wind, Edvard decided to go ahead with the flight. Before the eyes of the crowd, who followed his

successful takeoff with enthusiasm, a gust of wind broke the aircraft's wing. The aeroplane crashed onto a railway embankment below the walls of Kalemedgan, the great fortress. The 25-year-old Edvard Rusjan, who died on the way to the military hospital, thus unfortunately became the first Slovene, Yugoslav and Austro-Hungarian plane crash victim. Yet his tragedy could not halt the development of aviation in this part of the world, which continued on its course. Soon after the accident Jože Rusjan, whose craftsman's skill, precision and technical improvements had contributed greatly to the design of the aircraft, left Zagreb, where he had been working in Merćep's workshop. In 1912 he and has family emigrated to Argentina. He was no longer involved in aviation (with the exception of a propeller he made in 1937) but went on to contribute numerous technical improvements in various fields. He died in Buenos Aires in 1953 at the age of 79.

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V senci bratov Rusjan Besedilo: Darinka Kladnik

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Balon Nadvojvodinja Margareta na mariborskem sejmiĹĄÄ?u 9. junija 1912; s tem balonom je vzletel Max Macher (slika iz Kronike slovenskih mest, 1935) / The balloon Archduchess Margaret, in which Max Macher made an ascent, at the Maribor fairgrounds on 9 June 1912 (photograph from Kronika slovenskih mest, 1935)


Brata Rusjan

T

udi Slovenci smo imeli svojega Otta Lilienthala in brata Wright, pred njimi pa še nekaj pionirjev, ki so se ozirali v nebo in snovali prva letala. Ni jih malo, a večina, razen bratov Rusjan, je premalo znana. Z nekaterimi se je usoda grdo poigrala, drugim pa ponudila obilo možnosti za uspeh na tujem. Na kratko predstavljamo le peščico, ki je mnoge prehitela s svojimi snovanji in dejanji.

V

isoko se je povzpel balonar Max Macher, sin mariborskega trgovca. Leta 1911 je končal tečaj za vodenje motornih balonov in se izšolal še na vojaškem zrakoplovu sistema Parseval M1. Usposobil se je tudi za letenje s cepelinom in celo spremljal grofa Zeppelina na enem od poletov. Leta 1917 je postal generalni inšpektor za zrakoplovstvo v avstroogrskih zračnih silah. Po koncu vojne se je umaknil v Fischamend pri Dunaju in se leta 1921, še ne štiridesetleten, upokojil. Kako je preživel preostale dni svojega življenja, ni znano, prav tako ne, kdaj in kje je umrl. Očitno pa se ni več vrnil v rodni kraj Ravne na Koroškem, kjer se je rodil leta 1882. V Metliki je bil leta 1885 rojen Max Štupar, ki so ga po smrti – umrl je v letalski nesreči 1944. leta v bližini Daytona v ZDA – označili za prvega serijskega proizvajalca letal. Že kot otrok se je ukvarjal z letalskimi modeli in jih izdeloval tudi, ko se je s starši preselil v Chicago. 1910. leta je ustanovil družbo Stupar Aero Works, ki je v letih 1912 do 1916 izdelala 30 letal in tudi predstavila prvi Štuparjev biplan s traktorskim propelerjem in nepregornim trupom. Prijavil je tudi nekaj patentov. Leta 1916 se je pridružil korporaciji Standard Airport v New Jerseyu, 1928. leta pa postal član novoustanovljenega združenja Early Birt of Aviation. V Evropo se je vrnil leta 1939 in do smrti sodeloval pri razvoju modernih letalskih konstrukcij ter povezovanju oblasti z letalsko industrijo. Po mnenju nekaterih strokovnjakov bi morali iznajdbo helikopterja pripisati dr. Ivanu Slokarju, ki je leta 1909 skonstruiral konvertiplan (kombinacija letala in helikopterja) in dve leti zatem dobil patent zanj. Slokarjev helikopter je izpeljanka iz enokrilnega motornega letala, le da ima namesto običajnih kril krožni ploskvi. Ko se je nehal ukvarjati z letalskimi inovacijami, je postal ustanovitelj številnih slovenskih industrijskih podjetij. V Enciklopedijo Slovenije je zapisan kot izumitelj linguografije – enotne svetovne pisave –, ki jo je zaščitil kot svoj izum. Maxu Fabianiju je dunajska patentna pisarna leta 1912 priznala patent za izvirno konstrukcijo letalskih delov in povezavo med njimi. Rojen je bil v Kobdilju leta 1865 in postal eden najboljših urbanistov in arhitektov v Evropi. Čeprav se z letalstvom ni ukvarjal, je v njegovi zapuščini nekaj risb, ki sodijo v letalsko zgodovino.

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Patent za letalo Maxa Fabianija (iz knjige Marka Pozetta Max Fabiani – vizije prostora, 1997) / Patent for Max Fabiani's aircraft (from Marco Pozzetto's book Max Fabiani – Vizije prostora, 1997)

Življenjepis Jožeta Zablatnika (Josef Sablatnig) deluje kot napet roman – žal nedokončan –, ki se začne leta 1886 v Celovcu. Sledi za njim so izginile po letu 1945, ko so ga zajeli sovjetski vojaki. Leta 1909 je kupil letalo. Z 9. na 10. avgust leta 1911 je prvi na svetu opravil nočni polet z letalom, že naslednje leto pa je izdelal svoje letalo – Vindobon. Računal je, da bo prišlo do serijske proizvodnje, a ni. Pozimi leta 1913 je


{ Brata Rusjan }

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izdelal športno letalo, podobno Blěriotovemu, in se z njim udeleževal tekmovanj. Velikokrat je bil med najboljšimi. Postavil je višinski rekord v letenju s tremi potniki, prvi poletel s petimi potniki in še bi lahko naštevali. V Berlinu je postal solastnik podjetja Union Pfeildoppeldecker Werke, v katerem so izdelovali letala. Vse kaže na to, da so pri konstruiranju in izvedbi upoštevali Zablatnikovo znanje in napotke. V prvi polovici leta 1914 je letel z letalom lastne konstrukcije in prvi v Nemčiji (po Adolphu Pegoudu) opravil hrbtni let, lupinge in druge bravure. Ko je izbruhnila vojna, se je javil za mornariškega pilota. Leto zatem so mu zaupali razvoj bojnih letal. Po njegovih načrtih so nastali: vodno letalo serije SF 1-8, bombniki N1 in 2 ter Ci-III. Izdelali so jih v podjetju Sablatnig Flugzoige Ges, ki ga je ustanovil oktobra 1916. Do konca vojne je to podjetje naredilo 167 letal, od tega večji del po Zablatnikovih načrtih. Po končani vojni je predelal svoj bombnik v potniško letalo P1 za štiri potnike in razvijal prvo zgolj potniškemu prometu namenjeno letalo na svetu PIII za 7 potnikov. Ker ni našel kupcev, je z družabniki ustanovil lastno družbo za letalski promet, predhodnico Lufthanse. S prvenstvenimi leti in rekordi je kronal svojo letalsko pot tudi Tržačan Ivan Vidmar (Jovanni Vidmar, Giovanni Widmer). Sredi poletja leta 1911 je prvi preletel razdaljo med Gradežem in Trstom. Leto kasneje, za svoj 20. rojstni dan, je letel iz Trsta v Benetke in vzel s seboj pošto. S tem dogodkom naj bi bil povezan začetek slovenske letalske pošte. V San Marinu, kjer je poletel nad 700 metrov visoki Monte Titan, so mu postavili kamnito spominsko ploščo. V letih 1924 do 1934 je bil inštruktor letenja v Portorožu, kasneje direktor hidroplanskega oporišča v Trstu in načelnik takega oporišča v Portorožu. Kot avstrijski vojni pilot je poletel iz Sečovelj v Trst in prestopil na italijansko stran ter do smrti živel v Italiji. Umrl je 1971. leta. Omeniti je treba vsaj še Jurija–Jurčeta Kraigherja iz Hrašč pri Postojni, ki ga je pot vodila v ZDA. Kot mehanik se je zaposlil v tovarni letal Curtiss. Kmalu je postal preizkusni tovarniški pilot. Leta 1925 sta s prijateljem kupila letalo ter pričela prevažati ljudi. Pa ni bilo zaslužka. Zaposlil se je v podjetju za aerofotogrametrijo zemljišč v Philadelphii in nato prestopil k novoustanovljeni družbi Pan American Airways. Postal je eden vodilnih pilotov te družbe in utemeljitelj transkontinentalne povezave med Severno in Južno Ameriko. V svetovno letalsko zgodovino se je vpisal leta 1937: s potniškim letalom Lockheed Electra je v šestih dneh preletel 13.500 km. Bil je prvi, ki je letel z velikim potniškim letalom prek 6000 metrov visokih Andov. V ZDA je sodeloval z letalsko industrijo in jo bogatil z mnogimi izboljšavami in izumi, tudi z izumom za sinhronizacijo vrtljajev propelerja na večmotornih letalih. V sedemdesetih letih minulega stoletja je prišel v Slovenijo in se pogovarjal z Notranjskim muzejem, da bi jim podaril določeno gradivo, vendar dogovora niso sklenili. Umrl je leta 1984 v ZDA, kjer je ostala njegova dediščina. Ta je še vedno del svetovne letalske dediščine, v katero bi se moralo pridati (vsaj z omembo v svetovnih enciklopedijah) še marsikaj iz zapuščine slovenskih letalcev.

In the Shadow

of the Rusjan Brothers Text: Darinka Kladnik

W

e Slovenes had our own Otto Lilienthal and Wright brothers, and before them a number of other pioneers who gazed at the sky and dreamed up the first aircraft. Most of them, however, are too little known – unlike the Rusjan brothers. Destiny was cruel to some, while others were offered plentiful opportunities for success in other countries. Below we briefly present just a handful of those who outstripped many others with their designs and achievements. One early high-flyer was the balloonist Max Macher, the son of a Maribor merchant. In 1911 he completed a course in piloting motorised balloons and underwent training on the Parseval M1 military airship. He was also a trained Zeppelin pilot, even accompanying Count Zeppelin himself on a flight. In 1917 he became inspector-general of aviation in the Austro-Hungarian air force. At the end of the war he settled in Fischamend in Austria and in 1921, not yet forty years old, he retired. How he spent the remaining years of his life is not known – nor when and where he died. Evidently, however, he never returned to his native Ravne na Koroškem, where he was born in 1882. Max Štupar was born in Metlika in 1885. Following his death in a flying accident near Dayton in the USA in 1944 he was hailed as the "father of mass airplane production". He was still a child when he emigrated to Chicago with his parents, but he was already a keen model aircraft builder. In 1910 he founded the Stupar Aero Works, which built 30 aircraft between 1912 and 1916 and introduced the Stupar Tractor Biplane, the first biplane to use a tractor propeller and a fire-resistant fuselage. He also registered several patents. In 1916 he joined the New Jersey-based Standard Airport Corporation. In 1928 he became a member of the newly founded Early Birds of Aviation organisation. He returned to Europe in 1939 and until his death worked on the development of modern aircraft structures and liaised between governments and the aviation industry.


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Jo탑e Zablatnik v svojem letalu leta 1913 (iz knjige Darinke Kladnik Zgodovina letalstva na Slovenskem, 2008) / Jo탑e Zablatnik in his aircraft in 1913 (from Darinka Kladnik's book Zgodovina letalstva na Slovenskem [History of Aviation in Slovenia], 2008)

Ivan Vidmar na enem od poletov (iz knjige Darinke Kladnik Zgodovina letalstva na Slovenskem, 2008) / Ivan Vidmar during one of his flights (from Darinka Kladnik's book Zgodovina letalstva na Slovenskem [History of Aviation in Slovenia], 2008)


{ The Rusjan Brothers }

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In the opinion of some experts, the invention of the helicopter should be attributed to Dr Ivan Slokar, who built a "convertiplane" (a combination of an aeroplane and a helicopter) in 1909 and two years later obtained a patent for it. Slokar's helicopter was derived from the powered monoplane, except that instead of ordinary wings it had two rotating discs. When he stopped experimenting with aviation innovations he went on to found numerous Slovene industrial enterprises. He appears in the Encyclopaedia of Slovenia as the inventor of linguagraphia, a universal writing system, which he patented. In 1912 Max Fabiani was granted a patent by the Patents Office in Vienna for an original design of aircraft parts and the connections between them. He was born in Kobdilj in 1865 and became one of the finest town planners and architects in Europe. Although he was not directly involved in aviation, his legacy contains a number of drawings which form part of aviation history. The story of Jože Zablatnik (aka Josef Sablatnig) reads like a thrilling novel, though unfortunately incomplete. The story begins in 1886 in Klagenfurt. All traces of Zablatnik were lost after 1945, when he was captured by Soviet troops. In 1909 he bought an aircraft. On the night of 9/10 August 1911 he became the first man in the world to complete a night flight. In 1912 he built his own aircraft, the Vindobon. He planned on putting it into mass production, but this was not to be. In the winter of 1913 he built a sports aircraft similar to Blériot's and started taking part in air races. He was often among the top competitors. He set an altitude record for flying with three passengers and was the first to fly with five passengers. He was also responsible for several other achievements. In Berlin he became co-owner of an aircraft factory called UnionPfeil-Doppeldecker-Werke. Everything indicates that they used Zablatnik's knowledge and directions in the construction of their aircraft. In the first half of 1914 he flew an aircraft of his own design and became the first pilot in Germany to master inverted flight, loops and other feats (the French aviator Adolphe Pégoud had achieved similar feats the year before). When war broke out he signed up as a navy pilot. A year later he was entrusted with the development of warplanes. Aircraft built to his designs included: the SF 1-8 series seaplane, the N1 and N2 bombers and the Ci-III. They were built by Sablatnig-Flugzeugbau GmbH, a company founded by Zablatnik in October 1916. By the end of the war the company had built 167 aircraft, the greater part of them to Zablatnik's designs. After the war was over he converted one of his bombers into the P1 passenger aircraft, capable of carrying four passengers, and developed the world's first pure passenger aircraft, the PIII, which could carry 7 passengers. Unable to find a buyer, he and his partners founded their own airline, the forerunner of today's Lufthansa. The aviation career of Ivan Vidmar (aka Jovanni Vidmar, Giovanni Widmer) of Trieste was also crowned with first flights and records. In the summer of 1911 he became the first man to fly from Grado to Trieste (a distance of around 20 kilometres). To mark his 20th birthday (he was born in 1892) he flew from Trieste to Venice, carrying mail with him. This event is considered to mark the beginning of the Slovene air mail service. In San Marino, where Vidmar flew over Monte Titan (700 me-

tres), a commemorative stone plaque was erected. Between 1924 and 1934 he worked as a flying instructor in Portorož. He was later director of the seaplane base in Trieste and in charge of the seaplane base in Portorož. As an Austrian military pilot he flew from Sečovlje to Trieste and passed over to the Italian side. He would remain in Italy until his death in 1971. Another individual who deserves a mention is Jurij "Jurče" Kraigher of Hrašče near Postojna, whose journey took him to the USA. He first found employment as a mechanic with the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company. He soon became a factory test pilot. In 1925 he and a friend bought an aeroplane and began operating a passenger service. Having failed to make any money at this, Kraigher took a job with an aerophotogrammetry company in Philadelphia and then moved to the newly founded Pan American Airways. He became one of the airline's leading pilots and was the originator of the transcontinental route between North and South America. He wrote himself into world aviation history in 1937: with a Lockheed Electra passenger aircraft he flew 13,500 km in six days. He was the first pilot to fly over the 6000-metre Andes mountains in a large passenger aircraft.

Pot, ki je Juriju Kraigherju leta 1937 prinesla svetovni hitrostni rekord za potniška letala. (iz knjige Darinke Kladnik Zgodovina letalstva na Slovenskem, 2008). / The route which gave Jurij Kraigher the world speed record for passenger aircraft in 1937. (from Darinka Kladnik's book Zgodovina letalstva na Slovenskem [History of Aviation in Slovenia], 2008).


NaÄ?rt helikopterja dr. Ivana Slokarja iz leta 1909 (slika iz patentne dokumentacije na Dunaju; kopijo hranijo v TehniĹĄkem muzeju Slovenije). / Plan of a helicopter from 1909 by Dr Ivan Slokar (from patent documentation in Vienna. A copy is kept by the Technical Museum of Slovenia).

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He collaborated with the aircraft industry in the USA and enriched it with many improvements and inventions, including a device for the synchronisation of propeller revolutions on multi-engined aircraft. In the 1970s he came to Slovenia and held talks with the Museum of Notranjska about donating certain material, but no agreement was reached. He died in 1984 in the USA, where his legacy has remained.

This legacy remains part of world aviation heritage, to which much more should be added (at least in the form of mentions in world encyclopaedias) from the legacy of Slovene aviators.

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Brata Rusjan

Foto: M. Peternelj

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Eda – zgodba bratov Rusjan Besedilo: Neda Rusjan Bric


Foto: Ž. Koritnik

M

oj dekliški priimek je Rusjan in že od malega so me vedno spraševali, če sem v sorodu s »tistim« Rusjanom – letalcem. Josipov in Edvardov oče Franc je bil doma iz Renč, prav tako kakor moj nono, in četudi še danes ne vem, če smo res v sorodu, sem s svojim priimkom od nekdaj povezana z obema bratoma. Doma sem iz istih krajev, poznam ulico, kjer sta živela, njuno hišo, polje, s katerega sta prvič poletela … Duh prvega letalca je bil vedno močno vtisnjen v tamkajšnje ljudi in tako sem začela raziskovati in odkrivati njuno zgodbo, ki nosi zanimivo in večno vprašanje: komu od njiju je v življenju uspelo – mlademu, drznemu Edvardu, ki se je s svojo smrtjo zapisal v zgodovino, ali njegovemu bratu, ki je preživel in živel, vendar si nikoli ni »drznil«? V prvi vrsti gre za izjemno zanimivo zgodbo o dveh izumiteljih, ki jima je uspelo nekaj za tisti čas skoraj nemogočega, iz anonimnosti pa sta se dvignila izključno z lastno glavo, odrekanjem in nesebičnim medsebojnim sodelovanjem. Po drugi strani pa gre za razmerje med dvema bratoma, ki sta si gensko in duhovno tako blizu, pa vendar imata tako različni usodi. In ravno tu se nas njuna življenjska zgodba lahko dotakne: odnosi med ljudmi, njihovo čustvovanje in doživljanje so povsod po svetu enaki – intimni, a hkrati univerzalni.

P

red leti je dobila moja sestra Rene Rusjan elektronsko pošto iz Argentine, v kateri Josipov pravnuk poizveduje po morebitnih svojcih. Pisal je vsem Rusjanom, ki mu jih je v pradedovi stari domovini uspelo izslediti. Iz tega pisma se je rodila zamisel za predstavo, v kateri je glavni lik Eda, mlada ženska, ki hrepeni po osvoboditvi od pokroviteljske matere in od svojega strahu pred življenjem ter po osamosvojitvi; to pa naj bi dosegla tako, da bi končno posnela svoj diplomski film o prvem letalcu. Tako se začne njeno iskanje sorodstvenih vezi z Edvardom, s katerim jo povezuje priimek, ne pa tudi njegov zanos in pogum, ki si ju tako želi. Poizvedovanje jo pripelje do Josipovega v Argentini živečega sina Ada; ta ji pove zgodbo svojega očeta, v kateri se razkrije, kako se je Josip po Edvardovi smrti utapljal v žalosti in občutkih krivde, pozneje pa tudi v občutku, da ga je »stara domovina« odrinila in pozabila. Ob pogledu na zagrenjenega starca, ki že vse svoje življenje premleva »krivico«, ki se je zgodila njegovemu očetu, in to tako zelo, da jo že občuti kot svojo lastno, se Eda zave same sebe in svoje pasivnosti. V Adu uzre projekcijo same sebe, projekcijo, ki je posledica njenega prepričanja, da je žrtev. Ob tem spoznanju in prek celotne zgodbe o bratih Rusjan, ki se ji razkriva, ji postane jasno, da se vsak sam odloči, ali bo žrtev ali pa bo vzel življenje v svoje roke, ali bo v življenju »ždel« ali letel. To je predstava o strahu in pogumu, o večni želji po »višje, hitreje, močneje«, biti najboljši, biti prvi, biti edini, biti drugačen. Kdaj in zakaj se želja, ki je v vseh nas, razraste in postane premočna, da bi odnehali? Koliko smo pri svojih življenjskih odločitvah pripravljeni tvegati in kolikokrat se raje umaknemo? In po drugi strani: je res bolje biti en dan lev kot sto dni ovca? Edvardov entuziazem in pogum sta enako vredna kot Josipova trezna, modra narava, ki stoji trdno na tleh in prav s tem pomaga bratu, da se lahko dvigne in poleti. Človekova želja po letenju je prisotna že od pradavnin. Fizično je to danes razmeroma enostaven podvig; premagati svoje strahove, razširiti krila svoje želje in na njih poleteti do izpolnitve svojih sanj pa ostaja vedno in za vsakogar stvar lastne intime, svobode in odločitve, ki je samo tvoja, vendar boš v vsakem primeru plačal ceno zanjo.

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{ The Rusjan Brothers }

The Story of the Rusjan Brothers Text: Neda Rusjan Bric

M

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y maiden name is Rusjan and, ever since I can remember, people have always asked me the same question: whether I am related to "those" Rusjans – the aviators. Josip and Edvard's father Franc came from Renče, just like my grandfather, and although I still do not know whether we actually are related, my surname means that I have long felt a connection to the two brothers. I come from the same part of the country, I know the street where they lived, their house, the field where they made their first flight… The spirit of the first aviator was still strongly imprinted in the people who lived there, and so it was that I began to research and discover their story, which contains within it an interesting and eternal question: which of the two was more successful – the young, bold Edvard, whose death earned him a place in history, or his brother, who survived and went on living but never "dared"? First and foremost, theirs is a fascinating story about two inventors who succeeded in doing something that was almost impossible at the time, and who raised themselves out of anonymity through the force of their own intellects, with sacrifices and selfless cooperation. On the other hand it is the story of the relationship between two brothers, genetically and spiritually so similar, yet with such different destinies. And this is where their story can touch all of us: relationships between people, their feelings and experiences, are the same all over the world – intimate but at the same time universal. Some years ago my sister Rene Rusjan received an e-mail from Argentina which turned out to be from Josip Rusjan's great-grandson, who

A

Foto: J. Hribernik

Eda –

was inquiring about possible relatives. He was writing to all the Rusjans he had managed to track down in his great-grandfather's old homeland. From this correspondence came the idea for a play in which the main character is Eda, a young woman who yearns to be free of her patronising mother and of her fear of life, and to gain her independence; the way she is going to do this is by finally making her degree film – she is a film student – about the first aviator. And so begins her search for family ties with Edvard, with whom she shares a surname, but not his enthusiasm and courage, qualities she would dearly like to possess. Her investigations lead her to Ado, the son of Josip Rusjan, who lives in Argentina; he tells her his father's story, in which it is revealed how, following Edvard's death, Josip was overwhelmed by sorrow and feelings of guilt and, later, by the feeling that he had been shunned and forgotten by his "old homeland". Looking at this embittered old man, who has spent his whole life brooding on the "injustice" done to his father, so much so that he has begun to see it as an injustice done to him personally, Eda becomes aware of herself and her passivity. In Ado she sees a projection of herself, a projection that is the consequence of her belief that she is a victim. With this realisation, and as the story of the Rusjan brothers unfolds, it becomes clear to her that all of us decide for ourselves whether we are going to be victims or take life into our own hands, whether we are going to spend our lives cowering or flying. This is a play about fear and courage, about the eternal desire to be "higher, faster, stronger", to be the best, to be the first, to be the only one, to be different. When and why does the desire that is in all of us start to grow and become too strong to be denied? How many times in our life are we willing to risk, and how often do we choose to step back? And, on the other hand, is it really better to live one day as a lion than a hundred as a sheep? Edvard's enthusiasm and courage have the same value as Josip's sober, wise nature: by keeping his feet firmly on the ground, Josip helps his brother rise up and take to the air. The human desire to fly has been present since before history began. In purely physical terms, this has become a relatively simple feat; all you have to do is conquer your fears, spread the wings of your desire and fly away on them to the fulfilment of your dreams, and yet it remains, always and for everyone, an intimate matter connected with freedom: a decision which is yours alone, but for which in every case you will pay a price.


Foto: M. Peternelj

Foto: M. Peternelj

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Skrivnosti Nadiških dolin

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V deželi krivopet in gejdov P

oleti me rado zanese v Breginjski kot, odmaknjen na skrajni severozahod v ozko dolino rečic Bele in Nadiže, stisnjen med mogočna nedrja Mije, Ljubije

in Stola. Domačini, pravijo jim kar Kotarji, so prijazni in odprti ljudje, resda sprva malce nezaupljivi do tujcev, vendar so že v naslednjem trenutku pripravljeni povedati veliko več, kot sprva pričakuješ. Tudi o kontrabantu pa o pravljičnih bitjih, od krivopet do gejdov, o nenavadnih običajih in religiji, neokrnjeni naravi, zapuščenih vaseh in trdovratnih Kotarjih, ki so vse to preživeli.

Besedilo in fotografije: Jože Balas


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{ Skrivnosti Nadiških dolin }

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ajbolj so seveda zanimive zgodbe o krivopetah, bajeslovnih bitjih, ki so našle svoj prostor v mitih in legendah Beneške Slovenije, Breginjski kot pa se v teh pripovedih pojavlja kot najvzhodnejša točka njihovega življenjskega prostora; pa o gejdih, velikanih, ki so prebivali v teh krajih, preden so se tja naselili ljudje. Tako krivopete kot gejdi so varovali kar nekaj zakladov v tem koncu, razen tistega breginjskega; čuvali so ga panjuti, srednjeveški roparji – strah in trepet tako lokalne gospode kot tudi potujočih karavan in trgovcev, ki so potovali po stari trgovski poti. Ta je v poletnih mesecih potekala iz Furlanije preko Robidišča in Stola v dolino Učje in v Bovško kotlino ali pa po dolini Nadiže proti Kobaridu, nas poduči v svojih zapisih Boštjan Kravanja. In če že pridem v te konce, potem grem najprej do Podbele, zaspane vasice na robu Bejskega polja nad Nadižo. Vasica je, tako kot skoraj ves Kot, izgubila svojo dušo po letu 1976, ko je potres dodobra spremenil arhitekturno, posledično pa tudi socialno podobo tega kraja. Vasi Breginjskega kota je namreč krasila specifična arhitekturna gradnja. Nasilne arhitekturne preobleke je bil deležen tako rekoč ves Breginjski kot, prvotni videz tipične tlorisne zasnove in prvobitno arhitekturno identiteto pa sta obdržala le še Logje in Robidišče, kjer se je ohranilo nekaj hiš beneškoslovenskega arhitekturnega tipa. Tu se kažejo zelo močni vplivi sredozemskega kulturnega področja in predalpskega sveta. V Breginju, za katerega bi lahko rekli, da je bil pravi biser, pa se je ohranil le Ščirnov ograd, edini ohranjen stanovanjski kompleks štirih domačij (Ščirni, Konti, Češornji in Lazarji). Te ležijo v zaprtem elipsastem dvorišču, ki je hkrati tudi etnološki muzej in kulturni spomenik. No, Podbela je tako postala črno bela vasica, kjer so čudovite stanovanjske komplekse iz kamna in lesa zamenjale brezosebne in hladne, enolične in zdolgočasene montažne hiše, s tem pa je bila tudi na nek način pretrgana tisočletna vez s preteklostjo. Podoba, ki te stežka prepriča, da so v tej vasi stoletja ohranjali stara verovanja in vraže. Eno takih je tudi prižiganje »ognja na vodi«, ki najbrž izvira še iz poganskih časov in se pojavlja na širšem slovenskem področju. Boštjan Kravanja je zapisal, da so v Podbeli ob hudi suši in potem, ko niso pomagale ne molitve, ne romanja in darovanja, v Nadižo spustili lesen ploh ali stara vrata ter na njih prižgali ogenj. Kdaj so nazadnje vaščani na ta način klicali dež, ni znano, je pa zgodba še vedno zelo živa ne samo med starejšimi prebivalci te vasi. No, Podbela kaže v poletnih mesecih drugačno podobo kot med letom, saj takrat popolnoma oživi, pravzaprav kipi od življenja. V bistvu oživi celoten Kot, saj se veliko število obiskovalcev kampa v Podbeli čez dan razkropi na vse konce: v Breginj, Logje, Robidišče in čez v Italijo, na Stol ali pa bližnji Matajur, pravzaprav sta tudi Kobarid in Soča zelo blizu. Največ pa je tistih, ki svoj prostor pod soncem ali pa senco iščejo na bregovih Nadiže, najbolj drzni in avantur željni pa se odpravijo raziskovat njena korita in soteske. Posebno zanimiv je predel okrog Napoleonovega mostu, vendar se postopanje in raziskovanje po zaraščenih poteh odsvetuje prav zaradi krivopete pri Kocovi jami, ki menda žre ljudi, zapiše Kravanja. Kamnit in stopničast Napoleonov most je prejel ime po Napoleonovih četah, ki naj bi ga bile prečkale nekje na začetku 19. stoletja; te čete pa naj bi se bile celo za več dni ustavile na Robidišču, kjer še danes stoji poslopje, v katerem so bili nastanjeni vojaki in konji. Most, za katerega se je v preteklosti uporabljalo predvsem ime »stari most«, pa je naj-

Kot ne skriva samo dragocenosti v zlatu ter bajeslovnih bitij, gejdov in krivopet. brž dosti starejši. Tako se postavitev mostu nad ozki kanjon Nadiže ujema z že omenjenimi starodavnimi rimsko antičnimi potmi iz Furlanije čez Pradol in Robidišče preko Stola v dolino Učje in v Bovško kotlino ali pa po dolini Nadiže proti Kobaridu v dolino Soče. Turkizno modra Nadiža, ena najtoplejših alpskih rečic, ki naj bi bila po ljudskem izročilu nudila zatočišče tudi zmaju, izvira pod dolgim grebenom Stola. V njenem zgornjem delu, ki ga tvorita Črni in Beli potok, je predvsem hudournik, ki je v karbonizirani živi skali ustvaril številne soteske in tesne grape. Očem skrit strm prepadni svet, ki se dviga nad Nadižo, bi bil kot nalašč za skrivnostne krivopete, ki bi kaj lahko iskale svoje zadnje zatočišče pred ponorelim svetom prav v koritih Nadiže. Ker je rečica topla, v vročih poletjih naj bi se ogrela tudi do 25 stopinj, bi divje žene kaj lahko zalotili, kako čofotajo po vodi ali pa le brezvoljno namakajo v njej svoje utrujene noge. Nadiža je namreč znana daleč naokoli po svojih blagodejenih učinkih, ki te v trenutku prerodijo. Prav tako naj bi reka celila rane in imela zdravilen učinek, lepotnega pač ne, saj potem krivopete ne bi bile takšne, s kakršnimi nas strašijo. Kot ne skriva samo dragocenosti v zlatu ter bajeslovnih bitij, gejdov in krivopet. Njegovi zakladi se skrivajo tudi v ljudeh ter naravnih lepotah tega konca, v sami naravi in njenih danostih. In če nas ob misli na srečanje z medvedom nekje na Miji ali v Pradolu kar zmrazi, smo toliko bolj veseli, če v koritih pri Kredu ali pa pri Napoleonovem mostu odkrijemo endemičen bramutijev oziroma nadiški otavčič (Leontodon hispidus L. ssp. Brumatii). Floristična posebnost teh koncev so tudi: kernerjev mleček (Euphorbia kerneri) – to je prav tako endemična vrsta, ki v Sloveniji raste le ob Nadiži –, kljunastoplodna lanika (Thesium rostratum) in polegla medvejka (Spiraea decumbes). Vse to so vrste, ki jih je v Sloveniji možno najti le v Breginjskem kotu; naj omenimo še berinijev otavčič (Leontodon berinii),


( 87 ) ki je prav tako endem Nadiške doline. Zanimiva in redka sta tudi šopasti repušnik (Physoplexis comosa), ki ga najdete v stenah Plazi potoka – to nahajališče pa je edino v slovenskem delu prigorja Julijskih Alp in sodi na južno mejo njene razširjenosti v Sloveniji –, ter strešnati meček (Gladiolus inricatus) – edino znano nahajališče le tega je na zahodnem pobočju Slemena na Logmi (Čušin), torej moramo paziti, da bo tako tudi v prihodnje. Nadiža, oziroma njen celotni tok v Sloveniji, je zavarovana kot naravni spomenik ter ima status geomorfološke, hidrološke in botanične naravne dediščine. Kljub temu je krhek ekosistem reke zelo ogrožen, bati pa se je, da se bomo tega zares zavedeli prepozno. Ne glede na to, da so dovoljeni le nekateri posegi v ekosistem reke, pa še ti le v soglasju z Zavodom za varstvo naravne in kulturne dediščine, je moč zaslediti veliko opozoril in prijav tistih, ki jim ni vseeno, da se v ekosistem posega na nedovoljen, dostikrat tudi na kazniv način in brez ustreznih dovoljenj. Če hočemo, da bo Nadiža ostala alpski biser tudi za naše zanamce, potem moramo za njeno ohranitev mobilizirati prav vse: lokalno skupnost, ribiče, lovce in ne nazadnje tudi vse nas, ki se v tiste konce prikrademo enkrat ali dvakrat na leto, turiste, ki tam brezvestno kampiramo, parkiramo, kurimo, mastimo reko z raznimi zaščitnimi kremami za telo in proti komarjem ter puščamo na tone odpadkov. Potreben bo velikanski premik, in to pri nas samih! Zdaj, ne jutri, ko bo najbrž že prepozno. Pri pisanju tega članka sem se v veliki meri opiral na pričevanja prijaznih prebivalcev, predvsem pa članek ne bi nastal brez naslednje strokovne literature, ki jo priporočam v branje vsem, ki vas je Kot očaral: • Boštjan Kravanja, Sveti svet, Topografija religioznega prostora na primeru Breginjskega kota, 2007 • Boško Čušin, Rastlinstvo Breginjskega kota, 2006

{ Skrivnosti }


{ The mysteries of the Nadiža valleys }

In the Land of Crooked-foot Witches and Giants Text and photography: Jože Balas

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he summertime has a habit of carrying me off to Breginjski Kot, a remote spot in the extreme northwest, and to the narrow valley of the Bela and Nadiža streams, squeezed between the mighty mountain embrace of Mija, Ljubija and Stol. The locals, known as Kotarji, are friendly and open people, albeit at first a touch untrusting of strangers, but the very next moment they are ready to tell you a whole lot more than you first expect. Including stories of smuggling and of fairy-tale creatures, from krivopete or crooked-foot witches to gejdi, troll-like giants, of unusual customs and religion, of unspoilt nature, abandoned villages and the tenacious Kotarji who have lived through it all. Of course the most fascinating stories are those about the krivopete, fantastical beings who occupy a place in the myths and legends of Venetian Slovenia, while Breginjski Kot appears in these stories as the easternmost point of their habitat; and those of the gejdi, giants who settled these parts before people arrived. Both the krivopete and gejdi guarded a number of treasures in this area, except for that of Breginjski, which was guarded by the Panjuti, medieval bandits who stirred fear and anxiety among both the local gentlefolk and travelling caravans and merchants following the old trading route. In the summer months this ran from Friuli via Robidišče and Stol to the Učja valley and the Bovec basin, or along the Nadiža valley towards Kobarid, as we may read in the notes of Boštjan Kravanja. And once I am in these parts, I go first to Podbela, the sleepy hamlet on the margin of Bejsko Polje above the Nadiža. This hamlet, like almost all of the Kot area, lost its soul after 1976, when an earthquake seriously rearranged the architecture, and along with it went the social image of this location. The villages of Breginjski Kot were indeed distinguished by a specific architectural tradition. An aggressive architectural transformation was visited in effect upon the whole of Breginjski Kot, with the original appearance of typical ground plans and the original architectural identity being retained only by the villages of Logje and Robidišče, where several houses of the Slavia Veneta architectural type survived. Powerful influences both of the Mediterranean cultural sphere and the sub-Alpine region can be seen here. Breginj, for which it could be said that it was a veritable jewel, has retained only Ščirnov Ograd, the sole preserved housing complex of four homesteads (the

Ščirni, Konti, Češornji and Lazarji), which stand in a closed ellipsoid courtyard, and which serves at the same time as an ethnological museum and cultural monument. So Podbela has in this way become a black and white village, where marvellous residential complexes of stone and wood have been replaced by impersonal, cold, monolithic and hackneyed prefabricated houses, and in so doing a bond going back a thousand years has been broken. This is an image that would hardly convince you that for centuries the village harboured ancient beliefs and superstitions. One such is the igniting of “fire on the water”, which probably originates from pagan times and appears across the wider Slovenian lands. Boštjan Kravanja recorded that in Podbela during a serious drought, and when neither prayers, pilgrimages nor offerings had any effect, they would lower into the Nadiža a wooden plank or old door and light a fire on it. Quite when the villagers last appealed for rain in this manner is not known, but the story is still very much alive, and not just among the older inhabitants of the village. In the summer months Podbela reveals a different image than at other times, coming fully to life, in fact positively bubbling with life. Actually the entire Kot area comes to life, with a large number of visitors to the camp at Podbela scattering themselves all over the area by day: to Breginj, Logje, Robidišče and over into Italy, to Stol or nearby Matajur, while in fact Kobarid and the Soča river are also close. The largest numbers are of those who seek their spot in the sun – or in the shade – on

The Kot area conceals not just treasures in gold and fanciful beings such as gejdi and krivopete. the banks of the Nadiža, while the boldest and most adventurous set off to explore its channels and gorges. An especially interesting area lies around the Napoleon Bridge, although approaching and exploring it via the overgrown paths is discouraged precisely because of the krivopeta at Kocova Jama cave, who supposedly devours people, notes Kravanja. The stepped stone Napoleon Bridge gained its name from Napoleon’s troops, who supposedly crossed it some time at the beginning of the 19th century, and these same troops supposedly stopped for several days in Robidišče, where today stands the building that accommodated the soldiers and horses. The bridge, which in the past had been known chiefly as the “old bridge”, is probably much older. In this way the erecting of a bridge over the narrow Nadiža canyon ties in with the previously mentioned ancient Roman routes from Pradol and Robidišče, from Friuli via Stol to the Učja valley and the Bovec basin, or along the Nadiža valley towards Kobarid and the Soča valley. The turquoise-blue Nadiža, one of the warmest Alpine streams, which according to folk tradition also offered refuge for a dragon, rises below the long ridge of Stol. In its upper section, which is formed by the Črni and Beli (black and white) streams, it is mainly a mountain torrent, which in the carbonised living rock has created numerous gorges and


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{ The Mysteries }


{ The mysteries of the Nadiža valleys }

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narrow ravines. The steep, precipitous terrain, hidden from view, which rises above the Nadiža would seem ideally suited for mysterious krivopete, who might indeed seek their final refuge from the crazy world right there in the gorges of the Nadiža. Since the river is warm – in hot summers it supposedly reaches 25 degrees – it would be possible occasionally to catch the wild women splashing about in the water or just listlessly soaking their tired feet. The Nadiža is indeed known far around for its therapeutic properties, which can rejuvenate you in an instant. The Nadiža is also reputed to have healed wounds and to have curative powers, although it lacks the power to beautify, for the krivopete would not otherwise be so fearsome to us. The Kot area conceals not just treasures in gold and fanciful beings such as gejdi and krivopete. Its treasures lie also in the people and the natural beauty of the area, in nature itself and its features. And if your blood runs cold at the thought of encountering a bear somewhere on Mija or in Pradol, you will be all the more joyful to discover in the stream beds at Kred or the Napoleon Bridge an endemic bristly hawkbit dandelion (Leontodon hispidus L. ssp. Brumatii). Other floral peculiarities of these parts include Kerner’s euphorbia (Euphorbia kerneri), which is also an endemic species that grows in Slovenia only along the Nadiža, the hook-fruited thesium (Thesium rostratum) and the spiraea bush (Spiraea decumbes), these being species that grow in Slovenia only in Breginjski Kot, and the berini dandelion (Leontodon berinii), which is also endemic to the Nadiža valley. A fascinating and rare species is the devil’s claw (Physoplexis comosa), which can be found in the walls of the Plazi stream, this site being the only one in the Slovenian part of the Julian Alps foothills, and marking the southern boundary of its spread in Slovenia, and a hooded gladiolus (Gladiolus imbricatus), with the only known site for this species (Čušin) lying on the western slope of Sleme nad Logmi. We must therefore take care to ensure that it will remain so. The Nadiža, and in fact its entire stream in Slovenia, is protected as a natural monument, and has the status of geomorphological, hydrological and botanical natural heritage. Nevertheless the fragile ecosystem of the river is under great threat, and there are fears that we will only truly realise this too late. Even though only certain encroachments are permitted on the river’s ecosystem, and those only with the consent of the Institute for the Protection of Natural and Cultural Heritage, there have been ample warnings and reports from those who are concerned that the ecosystem is being encroached upon in an illicit, frequently even criminal, manner, and without the relevant permits. If we want the Nadiža to remain an Alpine jewel for those who come after us, then we need to mobilise absolutely everyone for its preservation: the local community, anglers, hunters and of course all those of us who wander into these parts once or twice a year, tourists who blithely camp, park and cook here, greasing up the river with various sun and insect creams, and leaving tons of waste. A major shift will be needed – from ourselves in particular! And now, not tomorrow, when it will no doubt be too late.

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In writing this article I relied to a large extent on the testament of friendly residents, and the article would not have been possible particularly without the following expert literature, which I recommend to anyone charmed by the Kot area: • Boštjan Kravanja, Sveti svet, Topografija religioznega prostora na primeru Breginjskega kota [Holy World, Topography of a religious area in the case of Breginjski Kot], 2007 • Boško Čušin, Rastlinstvo Breginjskega kota [Plants of Breginjski Kot], 2006


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Adria Airways In-Flight Magazine October, November 2009  

Free copy of Adria Airways Magazine for passengers. About Adria Airways, Slovenia, travel, culture, sport, events....