Issuu on Google+

VAŠ BREZPLAČNI IZVOD - YOUR PERSONAL COPY

Adria Airways In-Flight Magazine april, maj - April, May 2008

2)

Ribištvo Fishing

Anja Bukovec • Stockholm • Jernej iz Loke • Afriška Bela boginja • Egipt • Aleš Kristančič Anja Bukovec • Stockholm • Jernej of Loka • The White Goddes of Africa • Egypt • Aleš Kristančič


Vs e bi n a – C on t e n t s

46

Adrijina potnica / Adria Passenger

Anja Bukovec Anja Bukovec

Meta Krese

50

Stockholm

Bistvo lepote je v vodi

The Essence of Beauty is in the Water Andrej Crček

J. Pukšič

54 ()

Adria Airways In-flight Magazine Revija Adria Airways In-flight Magazine je namenjena potnikom na poletih z Adrio Airways. Adria In-flight Magazine is complimentary on Adria Airways flights. Izdajatelj / Published by: Adria Airways Slovenski letalski prevoznik, d.d. Adria Airways The Airline of Slovenia tel.: 00386 1 3691 000 Uredništvo / Editorial: Področje trženje in prodaja / Sales and Marketing - Barbara Mihevc Bukovec Urednica / Edited by: Meta Krese Oblikovanje in AD / Design and AD: LUKS Studio Prevod / Translated by: Amidas Lektorja / Language editing: Vera Samohod, Steve Diskin Fotoliti / Lithography: Schwarz d.o.o. Tisk / Printed by: Schwarz d.o.o. Oglaševanje / Advertising: Alenka Dvoršak, Adria Airways, Kuzmičeva 7, Ljubljana, E-mail: alenka.dvorsak@adria.si

66 72

Brezplačen izvod / Your personal copy

Športni ribolov v slovenskih vodah Sport Fishing in the Rivers and Lakes of SLovenia Jože Ocvirk

Ribiški muzej v Bistri The Fishing Museum in Bistra

Romana Erhatič Širnik

Očem skriti prebivalci naših rek in jezer The Secret Inhabitants of Slovenia’s Lakes and Rivers Meta Povž

78

Gotske poslikave / Gothic paintings

Zgodba Jerneja iz Loke The Story of Jernej of Loka Janez Mihovec

90

Togo

Afriška Bela boginja The White Goddes of Africa Marko Frelih

ISSN 1318-0789 Mnenja, izražena v tej publikaciji, so zgolj mnenja avtorjev ali intervjuvancev in ne odsevajo nujno stališč Adrie Airways. Razmnoževanje brez pisnega dovoljenja je prepovedano. Izdajatelj ne prevzema nikakršne odgovornosti za nenaročeno gradivo. The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors or persons interviewed only and do not necessarily reflect the views of Adria Airways. Reproduction without written permission is prohibited. The pub­lish­er accepts no responsibility for unsolicit­ed material.

Ribištvo / Fishing

96 104

Egipt / Egypt

Ogroženo večno življenje Eternal Life Under Threat Matjaž Kačičnik

Aleš Kristančič Movia Aleš Kristančič Movia Nina Levičnik


46

50

54 55

66 ()

72

90

78

96

104


{ Adrijine novosti } V vsaki številki Adria In-Flight Magazina vas bomo seznanjali z izbranimi novicami, zanimivimi dogodki in ugodnimi ponudbami Adrie Airways. Every issue of the Adria In-Flight Magazine contains a selection of news and information about interesting events and Adria Airways special offers.

Tomaž Kostanjšek, Thomas Windmüller, Giovanni Bisignani, Tadej Tufek,Marjan Ravnikar, Gordan Balen, Anamarija Kovač.

Slovenski nacionalni prevoznik Adria Airways gostil najvišjega predstavnika IATA Na povabilo uprave družbe Adrie Airways je Slovenijo v februarju obiskal Giovanni Bisignani, generalni direktor združenja IATA (Mednarodno združenje letalskih prevoznikov), z najožjimi sodelavci. Uprava Adrie Airways je ugledne visoke goste v Sloveniji sprejela prvič. Ob tej priložnosti so v prostorih družbe potekali delovni pogovori, kjer je uprava gostom predstavila rezultate poslovanja in prihodnje načrte. Bisignani je seznanil upravo družbe o prihajajočih aktivnostih glede sporazuma European Single Sky in IATA v prihodnjih letih ter o smernicah letalske industrije v prihodnje. Bisignani je obiskal tudi ministra za okolje in prostor Janeza Podobnika ter ministra za promet mag. Radovana Žerjava. Najvišje vodstvo IATA je ob predsedovanju Slovenije Svetu Evropske unije obema ministroma predstavilo bistvene teme s področja pomembnih vprašanj letalske industrije, njenega prispevka k lizbonski strategiji ter vlogo in strategijo združenja IATA v zvezi s klimatskimi spremembami in ohranjanjem okolja. Poslovanje Adrie je ocenil kot uspešno in poudaril pomen družbe za rast celotnega slovenskega gospodarstva. Vladna predstavnika, vodstvo Adrie Airways in najvišji predstavniki IATA so te pogovore ocenili kot zelo uspešne.

Iz Ljubljane v Stockholm Vse pristojbine razen stroška rezervacije so vključene v ceno. Pogoji na www.adria.si.

EUR

214

Adria Airways, the Airline of Slovenia, hosts senior representatives of IATA Giovanni Bisignani, the Director-General of the International Air Transport Association (IATA), visited Slovenia in February with key members of his team at the invitation of the Adria Airways management board. This is the first time that Adria Airways has received these distinguished guests in Slovenia. The visit included talks at the Adria offices, where the management board gave the guests a presentation of Adria’s business results and plans for the future. Mr Bisignani informed the Adria board about upcoming activities regarding the European Single Sky accord and future IATA activity, and about airline industry guidelines for the future. Mr Bisignani also visited the Minister of the Environment and Spatial Planning, Janez Podobnik, and the Minister of Transport, Radovan Žerjav. In view of the fact that the visit coincided with Slovenia’s Presidency of the EU Council, the IATA representatives gave the two ministers a presentation of the basic elements of a range of issues important for the airline industry, its contribution to the Lisbon Strategy, and the role and strategy of IATA in relation to climate change and environmental conservation. Mr Bisignani gave a positive rating to Adria’s operations and emphasised the importance of the company for the growth of Slovenia’s economy as a whole. All parties concerned – government representatives, Adria management and IATA representatives – described the talks as very successful.

From Stockholm to Ljubljana Fare with all charges excluding reservation fee. More info www.adria-airways.com.

SEK

2010

foto: Dean Dubokovič

( 12 )


{ Adria Airways News } Adria leti v Bruselj že deset let Adria Airways, ki med Ljubljano in Brusljem opravi osemnajst poletov na teden in je lani na tej liniji prepeljala več kot 50.000 potnikov, praznuje te dni deseto obletnico poletov v belgijsko prestolnico. Poletni vozni red bo tej progi dodal še en let. V Bruselj bo torej mogoče potovati od ponedeljka do petka trikrat dnevno, ob sobotah zjutraj ter ob nedeljah popoldne in zvečer, od 30. marca dalje pa tudi ob nedeljah zjutraj. »V Adrii Airways smo ponosni, da praznujemo deseto obletnico letenja v Bruselj ravno v času, ko je Slovenija prevzela predsedovanje EU. Ta pomembna poslovna proga je prestolnico približala tudi turistom iz obeh držav,« je povedal predsednik uprave mag. Tadej Tufek. Adria je z rednimi leti v Bruselj začela 2. marca 1998. Za to progo se je odločila, da bi tako poenostavila potovanje in delo predstavnikov EU in Slovenije, ki so sodelovali pri prizadevanjih za vključitev slovenske države v Evropsko unijo. Na začetku je med obema prestolnicama letela trikrat tedensko, nato pa je postopoma dodajala tedenske frekvence. Linija se je razvijala zaradi vedno večjega povpraševanja, še posebej pa se je razmahnila po vstopu Slovenije v EU. Da je bila odločitev o večanju frekvenc prava, potrjuje tudi naraščanje števila potnikov – v letu 1998 se je v Bruselj in nazaj peljalo 7.145 potnikov.

Adria began its scheduled service to Brussels on 2 March 1998, with the intention of simplifying the travel arrangements of representatives of the EU and Slovenia who were working together on efforts for Slovenia’s accession to the European Union. To begin with it operated a thrice-weekly service between the two capitals, but then gradually increased the number of flights. The route has developed thanks to the ever-increasing demand, especially since Slovenia joined the EU. That the decision to increase the number of flights was the correct one is confirmed by the growing number of passengers – in 1998 Adria carried just 7,145 passengers to Brussels and back.

Novosti: Evropa je še bliže - Adria širi mrežo svojih poletov iz Ljubljane v Atene, Stockholm, Oslo in Bukarešto. S poletnim voznim redom povezujemo Ljubljano na direktnih poletih s 4 novimi evropskimi prestolnicami. Do posebnih ponudb z nakupom preko spleta: www.adria-airways.com.

foto: Dean Dubokovič

( 13 )

Tomaž Kostanjšek

Adria Airways, which operates eighteen flights a week between Ljubljana and Brussels and which carried more than 50,000 passengers on this route last year, is celebrating the tenth anniversary of its service to the Belgian capital. The summer timetable will add yet another flight to this service. It will therefore be possible to travel to Brussels three times a day from Monday to Friday, on Saturday mornings, on Sunday afternoons and evenings and, from 30 March, on Sunday mornings too. “At Adria Airways we are proud to be celebrating the tenth anniversary of our Brussels service at a moment when Slovenia is holding the EU Presidency,” commented Adria CEO Tadej Tufek. “This important business route has also brought the two capitals closer to tourists from both countries.”

Iz Ljubljane v Atene Vse pristojbine razen stroška rezervacije so vključene v ceno. Pogoji na www.adria.si.

EUR

198

foto: Alja Pregl

Ten years of Adria flights to Brussels

New: Europe is even closer – Adria is expanding its network of flights to Athens, Stockholm, Oslo and Bucharest. Our summer timetable introduces direct services between Ljubljana and 4 new European capitals. Special offers available when you book online. www.adria-airways.com

From Athens to Ljubljana Fare with all charges excluding reservation fee. More info www.adria-airways.com.

EUR

198


{ Adria Airways }

Oddelek Podpore letenja Besedilo: David Šalamun

Fotografije: Peter Koraca

( 14 )

V

sak let družbe Adria Airways se začne v operativnem centru, pa vendar, ko prvič vstopiš v njihov prostor, takoj ne dojameš, kaj vse se tu organizira. V prvem delu so številni računalniki, ob njih radijski oddajniki, drugi del, ki je od prvega ločen zgolj z dolgim pultom, pa je prostor, kjer se zbirajo letalske posadke pred poletom. Gospod Zdenko Bašan, vodja oddelka podpore letenja, mi razloži, kaj se dogaja: “Pravkar se zbirajo piloti in skupaj z nami preverjajo podatke o poletih, ki so pred njimi.” Medtem ko iz oddajnika poslušamo poročila pilota, Zdenko Bašan nadaljuje: “Posadka se zbere pri nas eno uro pred letom in preveri vse podatke, ki jih potrebujejo za let. Kapitan in tudi drugi člani posadke dobijo operativni načrt za polet, v katerem so med drugim zabeleženi tudi podatki o številu predvidenih potnikov. Ta podatek je pomemben tudi za izračunavanje količine potrebnega goriva. In seveda so zapisani vsi meteorološki podatki za področje, ki ga bo letalo preletelo, ter ostale pomembne informacije za varen polet. Pri nas se zbira res veliko podatkov.”

Iz Ljubljane v Bukarešto Vse pristojbine razen stroška rezervacije so vključene v ceno. Pogoji na www.adria.si.

EUR

192

Uslužbenci operativnega centra so v stiku s posadko na določeni radijski frekvenci tudi med poletom, tako da vedo, kdaj bo letalo pristalo na predvideni destinaciji. V stalni pripravljenosti so prav tako zato, ker se letalska posadka takrat, ko se znajde v nepričakovani situaciji, dogovarja o rešitvah tudi z njimi. Recimo v primerih, ko so slabe vremenske razmere, kadar je gosta megla … Ključni dejavniki, pomembni za pravo rešitev, so poleg opremljenosti letala za pristajanje v pogojih zmanjšane vidljivosti CAT III tudi navigacijske naprave na letališču in izkušenost posadke. “Vse to so faktorji, ki jih moramo upoštevati. Če ocenimo, da zaradi vremenskih razmer ne bo možno pristati na predvidenem letališču, v najslabšem primeru predlagamo posadki alternativno letališče. Alternacije za letališče na Brniku so letališča v Mariboru,Trstu in Zagrebu. O tem se dogovarjamo skupaj s posadko letala, a letos nam je megla na Brniku zagodla le trikrat. Večkrat nam povzročajo težave letališča na Balkanu predvsem zaradi nezadostne opremljenosti za pristajanje v primerih zmanjšane vidljivosti.”

From Bucharest to Ljubljana Fare with all charges excluding reservation fee. More info www.adria-airways.com.

EUR

192


{ Adria Airways } blem pa je, da iz Eurocontrola v Bruslju velikokrat dobimo napovedano omejitev v zračnem prostoru ali na letališču − SLOT. V Eurocontrolu imajo namreč nadzor nad zračnim prometom v Evropi. Včasih je določen zračni prostor zasičen ali pa so zastoji na nekaterih letališčih, kjer je ogromno prometa. Tako je bil pred kratkim zastoj v Amsterdamu, in so nam sporočili SLOT. Letalo je imelo tri ure zamude. Megla v Amsterdamu je bila namreč tako gosta, da je lahko pristalo na uro samo petnajst letal namesto šestdeset. V takšnem primeru smo nemočni, saj se moramo držati navodil iz Eurocontrola. Žal je tega vse več, saj se zračni promet pač konstantno povečuje. V povprečju pa restrikcije zaenkrat trajajo od deset do dvajset minut. Zgoščena zračna križišča bi lahko v nekaterih primerih tudi obleteli, ampak največkrat bi s tem izgubili še več časa.” “Vseh pravil se strogo držimo,” zagotavlja Zdenko Bašan. O tem govori tudi podatek, da je bila Adria Airways ena prvih letalskih družb, ki so dobile certifikat IOSA (IATA Operational Safety Audit). “To je bilo decembra leta 2004,” nam ob koncu pove gospod Bašan.

Flight Operation Centre E

Med najinim pogovorom je v prostoru živahno. Člani posadk in uslužbenci oddelka si ves čas izmenjujejo podatke. Piloti poročajo o stanju posadke, o tem, koliko goriva potrebujejo ... Uslužbenci operativnega centra beležijo. Zdenko Bašan se ne pusti motiti in nadaljuje s pripovedovanjem; ta vsakdanja opravila namreč ne zahtevajo njegove pozornosti. “Posadka se tu zbere tudi po končanem delu,” nadaljuje. “Takrat imajo debrifing, kot rečemu temu sestanku v našem žargonu. Govorimo o podrobnostih, ki so nastopile med poletom.” Med pogovorom se spomnim svojih poletov, ki so se začeli z zamudami. Pred očmi imam trenutke, ko sem nestrpno buljil na stezo in čakal, da se bo letalo premaknilo. Ali pa nič manj prijetnih občutkov, ko sem neučakano hodil z enega konca letališča na drugi, gledal na uro in bentil. “Kateri so glavni vzroki zamud?” me je zanimalo. “Če pride do kakšne manjše okvare, jo ponavadi hitro odpravimo. Kadar je na razpolago drugo letalo, z njim nadomestimo pokvarjeno. Najpogostejši pro-

From Frankfurt to Pristina Fare with all charges excluding reservation fee. More info www.adria-airways.com.

EUR

258

( 15 )

very Adria Airways flight begins in the operation centre, although when you first walk in you do not immediately realise quite how much goes on here. The first section contains banks of computers and radio transmitters. The second section, separated from the first by a long counter, is the place where the aircraft crews assemble before a flight. Mr Zdenko Bašan, the head of the flight operation centre, explains to me what happens here: “Just now the pilots are assembling and going over the data on the flights they are about to make.” As we listen to a pilot’s report from the transmitter, Zdenko Bašan continues: “The crew assembles here an hour before the flight and goes through all the data that they need for the flight with the staff of the operation centre. The captain and the other members of the crew are given an operational plan for the flight containing various data including the expected number of passengers. This figure is important because it enables us to calculate the quantity of fuel that is necessary. Then there are all the meteorological data for the area that the aircraft will be flying over, and other information important for a safe flight. We collect a great deal of information here.” The staff of the operation centre are in contact with the aircraft’s crew on a specific radio frequency even during the flight, so that they know when the aircraft will land at its planned destination. They are in constant readiness so that when an aircraft’s crew finds itself in an unexpected situation they can help them find solutions. For example, when weather conditions are bad, when there is thick fog, and so on. The key factors that are important for a correct solution, besides the aircraft being suitably equipped for landing in

From Munich to Pristina Fare with all charges excluding reservation fee. More info www.adria-airways.com.

EUR

244


{ Adria Airways }

( 16 )

reduced visibility conditions (CAT III), are navigation devices at the airport and the experience of the crew. “These are all factors that we have to take into account. If we judge that weather conditions mean that is not possible to land at the planned airport, in the worst case we propose an alternative airport to the crew. The alternatives to Ljubljana Brnik are Maribor, Trieste and Zagreb. We agree on this with the aircraft crew, but this year we have only had problems with fog at Brnik on three occasions. We are more likely to have problems with airports in the Balkans because they are insufficiently equipped for landings in reduced visibility conditions.” During our conversation the operation centre seems very busy. Crew members and the centre’s staff are constantly exchanging data. Pilots report on the state of the crew, on how much fuel they need, and so on. The operation centre staff take notes. Zdenko Bašan ignores them and carries on talking. These everyday chores do not require his attention. “The crew also assembles here when they have finished work,” he explains. “Then they have what we call a debriefing. We discuss the details of the flight they have just completed.” As we talk, I remember flights I have taken that have begun with delays. I can see myself staring impatiently at the runway and waiting for the aircraft to start to move. Or those equally unpleasant times when I have walked impatiently up and down the airport, staring at my watch and cursing out loud. “What are the main causes of delays?” I ask.

From Paris to Sarajevo Fare with all charges excluding reservation fee. More info www.adria-airways.com.

EUR

257

“In the case of a minor fault, we can usually fix it quickly. If another aircraft is available, we use it to substitute the one with the problem. The most frequent problem, however, is that we often get “slot messages” from Eurocontrol in Brussels announcing a restriction in the airspace or at the airport. Eurocontrol is responsible for controlling Europe’s airspace. Sometimes a specific part of the airspace is saturated, or there are delays at certain airports where there is a lot of traffic. Recently there was a delay at Amsterdam and they sent us a slot message. The aircraft ended up being three hours late. The fog in Amsterdam was so thick that only fifteen aircraft could land every hour, instead of the usual sixty. In a situation like that there is nothing we can do, because we have to obey instructions from Eurocontrol. Unfortunately this is happening more and more often as air traffic continues to grow. On average, restrictions last between ten and twenty minutes. In some cases we could fly round saturated air junctions, but in most cases this would mean losing even more time.” “We obey all rules very strictly,” Zdenko Bašan assures me. Evidence of this is the fact that Adria Airways was one of the first airlines to get the IOSA (IATA Operational Safety Audit) certificate. “That was in December 2004,” concludes Mr Bašan.

A

From London to Skopje Fare with all charges excluding reservation fee. More info www.adria-airways.com.

GBP

169


{ Nova redna proga { Adria/ Airways } New scheduled flight }

P

Oslo A

otovanje ob dramatični norveški obali ali pa po očarljivih divjinah njene notranjosti je izkušnja, kjer se popotnik lahkotno giblje na tanki meji med sanjskostjo in resničnostjo. Sanjska pot pa se lahko začne že v Oslu, v parku Frogner med skulpturami kiparja Gustava Vigelanda. V parku, danes poznanem kot Vigelandov park, se lahko sprehodimo po aveniji, dolgi 850 m, med njegovimi 192 deli, ki predstavljajo večinoma pretresljive človeške figure. Gustav Vigeland je v studiu, ki je zdaj spremenjen v muzej, delal od leta 1924, ko ga je mesto Oslo zgradilo prav zanj, pa vse do smrti leta 1943. V njem si lahko ogledamo različna umetnikova dela, pa tudi modele skulptur, ki stojijo v parku.

journey along the dramatic coast of Norway or through the enchanting wildernesses of the interior is an experience in which the traveller moves easily on the narrow boundary between dream and reality. This fantastic journey can begin in Oslo itself, in Frogner Park, among the sculptures of Gustav Vigeland. The Vigeland Sculpture Park contains 192 of the artist’s works located along an 850-metre avenue. Most of the sculptures represent human figures and are profoundly moving. From 1924 until his death in 1943, Gustav Vigeland worked in a studio built specially for him by the city of Oslo. Today this studio has been converted into a museum and in it we can see various works by the artist and models of the sculptures that stand in the park.

foto: Stanislav Hrovat

( 17 )

Od 1. 6. 2008 dalje bodo poleti med Ljubljano in Oslom z letalom Canadair Regional Jet200 (86 sedežev) trikrat tedensko: ob torkih, sredah in sobotah. Adria Airways bo na tej progi v sodelovanju (code share) s Scandinavian Airlinesom (SAS) ponudila tudi dobre povezave po celotni Skandinaviji. Informacije in rezervacije: Klicni center Adrie Airways, tel. 01369 10 10, www.adria-airways.com

Iz Ljubljane v Oslo Vse pristojbine razen stroška rezervacije so vključene v ceno. Pogoji na www.adria.si.

EUR

275

Flights will be operated between Ljubljana and Oslo with our Canadair Regional Jet 200 aircraft (86 seats) three times a week: on Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Saturdays, starting on 1 June 2008. Through a code share agreement with Scandinavian Airlines (SAS) Adria Airways will also offer great connections from this service throughout Scandinavia. Information and reservations: Adria Airways Call Centre, tel. 00 386 (0)1 369 10 10, www.adria-airways.com

From Oslo to Ljubljana Fare with all charges excluding reservation fee. More info www.adria-airways.com.

NOK

2380


Športni ribolov v slovenskih vodah Besedilo Jože Ocvirk

( 54 )

{➳}

Fotografije: Luka Dakskobler


( 55 )


{ Ribištvo }

Športni ribolov ima v Sloveniji že veã kot stoletno tradicijo. Z njim je povezan tudi turistiãni ribolov. Za športni ribolov je zanimivih okrog dvajset vrst rib. V slovenskih vodah so jih lovili številni ribiški gostje, ki so se zapisali tudi v zgodovino ribolova, kot so: Karl Heintz (izumitelj znamenitih blestivk za lov predatorskih vrst rib), Charles Ritz (lastnik znamenitih Ritz hotelov in izjemen praktik muharjenja, avtor veã knjig o muharjenju) ter Hans Gebetsroiter (profesor muharjenja in izdelovalec umetnih muh), s tem da sodobnikov niti ne omenjamo. Tako kot nekoã v preteklosti tudi danes veãino ribiških turistov privlaãi ribolov na postrvi, lipana in sulca, v zadnjem ãasu pa tudi na soma, šãuko in na veã vrst krapovcev, zlasti krapa, linja, klena, mrene in platnice.

Muharjenje Soãa ( 56 )

M

uharjenje in ribje vrste, povezane s tem načinom ribolova, so največji magnet ob seveda bistrih vodah in v urejenem okolju. Med njimi je reka Soča vsekakor na prvem mestu. Že s svojo enkratno smaragdno barvo, belim prodcem in vijuganjem po zeleni dolini, obkroženi z zasneženimi vršaci, vsakogar osupne s svojo lepoto. Soča je dom znamenite soške postrvi. Še pred petdesetimi leti je bila široko razprostranjena v pasu izliva voda v Jadransko morje – od reke Pad (Po) v Italiji, furlanskih rek, preko Soče, rek v Dalmaciji, Neretve, Morače, Bojane pa vse do albanskih voda. Zaradi antropogenih vzrokov je soška postrv v večini teh voda izginila. Tik pred izginotjem je živela tudi v Soči. Potem pa je pred 25 leti stekla skupna akcija vseh slovenskih ribičev za njeno rešitev. Rezultat tega dela je, da je danes v gornjem delu reke ponovno vzpostavljena čista populacija soške postrvi. Podoben proces teče tudi v srednjem delu, kjer njena populacija prevladuje in je iz leta v leto večja. Povprečna velikost soške postrvi je okrog 35 cm v gornjem in srednjem delu Soče. Vsako leto pa ujamejo nekaj postrvi te vrste, težkih po pet do petnajst kilogramov. Največji doslej registriran primerek je iz leta 1995. Postrv je merila 117 cm in je tehtala 25 kg. Za ribolov najbolj zanimiv del Soče je predel od vasi Soča v Trenti do Tolmina. Večina toka reke v tem delu je lahko dostopna s ceste Bovec–Nova Gorica, speljane ob njej. V gornjem delu je hitra, deroča, s številnimi brzicami, prelivi in tolmuni. Na nekaj mestih se reka prebija skozi krajše soteske, imenovane korita. Pod Napoleonovim mostom v Kobaridu se Soča izvije iz več kilometrov dolgega kanjona, ki je kot nalašč za ljubitelje ribolova v divjini in samoti. Od tu do Tolmina so muharjem njeni prelivi in tolmuni spet lahko dostopni. Sezona ribolova traja od velike noči do konca oktobra. Edini dovoljeni način je muharjenje. Prvi dnevi ribolova v dolini tedaj, ko se zima še povsem ne poslovi, zahtevajo od ribiča kar precej potrpljenja. A zato je pozneje obilo poplačan s številnimi prijemi, ko za uro ali dve

obsije sonce dolino in z njo oživi bogat svet obvodnih žuželk. Če je vešč lova z nimfo ali potezanko, je uspešen ribolov možen kar cel dan. Snežna voda v maju in začetku junija nekoliko zmanjša aktivnost rib, je pa v tem času zelo dober ribolov v pritokih. Lepenjica, Koritnica, Tolminka in Idrijca z Bačo imajo primeren vodostaj, saj so njihove snežne vode že daleč. Večerni skok s suho muho je dolg, uspešen in se potegne še daleč v noč. Konec junija in cel julij je na Soči običajno najboljši čas. Postrvi se na površino dvigajo predvsem po sončnem zahodu. Zato pa je lipan aktiven cel dan. V Soči živi soški lipan, ki se ne le genetsko, ampak tudi po obnašanju in fenotipu močno razlikuje od lipana v drugih slovenskih vodah. Njegova povprečna velikost je okrog 40 cm, čeprav v sezoni ribiči poročajo o ulovu 50-centimetrskih lipanov, pa tudi večjih.

Unica

L

e dobro uro vožnje z avtomobilom je od soške doline oddaljena reka Unica na Planinskem polju. To je reka brez izvira in izliva. Rodi se na sotočju voda Pivke in Malenščice pri Planini in izgine v nedrje Krasa pri Grčarevcu na drugem delu polja. Ta tipična kraška reka je bogata z vegetacijo in ribjo hrano. Njen tok meandrira po kraškem polju in je dvainpolkrat daljši od dolžine polja. Reka je svetovno znana po odličnem ribolovu na lipana, ki tu zaradi naravnih pogojev in ustreznih ribolovnih režimov dosega rekordne vrednosti. Povprečna mera ujetih rib je krepko čez 40 cm, trofejnih rib, dolgih okoli pol metra, pa tudi ni malo. Svoje doda k temu še potočna postrv, ki prav tako dosega kapitalne velikosti. Največja doslej ujeta je tehtala več kot 11 kg. Ribolovna sezona se prične v maju in tja do konca junija, ko vodostaj upade, je to najboljši čas za lov. Lipani so aktivni cel dan in tudi zvečer je večerni skok močan. Potočne postrvi pa dostikrat tudi sredi majskega dneva premami masovno rojenje enodnevnic in ob obilici hrane kar pozabijo na prirojeno previdnost. V poletni vročini julija in avgusta ter ob nizkem vodostaju se ribe grupirajo po velikosti. V curku pred tolmunom lahko na vsega nekaj metrov oddaljenosti preizkušate svojo potrpežljivost, pa tudi potrpljenje trofejnih lipanov, ki se ne zmenijo za ponujene umetne muhe niti za trpečega ribiča. Običajno


( 57 )

pa se kateri izmed njih dvigne do gladine in si ogleda kakšen droben primerek črne mravlje ali drobcene enodnevnice. Vsem pravilom v brk pa zna iznenada čofniti tudi na veliko košatico, ki je običajno še za postrv velika. Poletje je obdobje selektivnega ribolova in v tem času ujet lipan ima še dodatno vrednost. Jesenske ohladitve prinesejo povečano aktivnost rib. Zlasti potočnice se spet pojavijo že ob manjšem rojenju. Oktobrsko in novembrsko sonce pripomore ribičem še do kakšnega kapitalnega prijema. Na glavnem delu reke je namreč dovoljen lov le s suho muho! Nimfa in potezanka nista dovoljeni. To so še zadnji dnevi, ko si v lepem, sončnem dnevu lahko muharji naberejo spomine, ob katerih bodo preživeli zimski lovopust.

Lov na sulca ali sulčelov

L

ov na sulca, kralja slovenskih voda, ali sulčelov ima svoje privržence, pa čeprav se največkrat tudi po celodnevnih naporih konča brez prijema želene ribe; dostikrat je sulčar še vidi ne. A vse je poplačano z ulovom sulca. Po napetem drilu, ki lahko traja tudi pol ure ali več, je trofejna riba v sulčarjevih rokah. Vse pogosteje sulčar nagradi sulca za trenutke užitkov, ki mu jih je nudil, z

življenjem. Fotografija in spomin na nepozaben dogodek sta današnjemu sulčarju povsem dovolj. Prava sezona lova na sulca so zimski meseci od decembra do srede februarja, čeprav ga je dovoljeno loviti že od oktobra dalje. Lovijo ga največ z vijačenjem in umetnimi vabami. V zadnjem času pa je tudi vse več sulčarjev z muharicami v roki. Sulec, ki je bil še nedolgo tega razmeroma redka riba, je danes prav zahvaljujoč dobremu gospodarjenju z ribjim fondom prisoten v vse večjem številu. Tudi v preteklosti, ko je bila večina voda v mnogo boljšem stanju, ni poročil o tako številčnih ulovih sulcev s težo preko 10 ali 15 kg kot zdaj. Vsako leto je namreč ujetih nekaj sulcev, težkih okrog 20 kg. Kar dva največja, rekordna sulca s težo dobrih 24 kg sta bila ujeta v Savi v zadnjih petih letih, in sicer v Medvodah in v Kranju. Številčno je sulec danes najbolje zastopan v celotnem toku Save Bohinjke, kar je plod dvajsetletnega poribljavanja s to ribjo vrsto. Kot je bilo že omenjeno, je tudi srednja Sava od Radovljice do Litije zelo dober sulčji revir. Morda ne po številu, ampak po velikosti sulcev. Prav zaradi sulca je tok reke Save med Medvodami in Šentjakobom uvrščen v Naturo 2000. Pa tudi Sora, Ljubljanica, Savinja, Mirna, Krka in Kolpa se lahko pohvalijo s solidnim, marsikatera pa tudi z dobrim stanjem sulca.


{ Ribištvo }

Beličarjenje

( 58 )

B

eličarjenje je najpogostejši način ribolova v tekočih vodah (potokih in rekah) ter jezerih. Beličarji (ribiči, ki beličarijo) običajno love s plovcem, ki pokaže prijem ribe. Na mirnih vodah je uspešen talni ribolov. To je statičen način, a vseeno zahteva od ribiča precej koncentracije. V zadnjih petnajstih letih je ta način ribolova, zlasti na krapa, doživel nesluten razmah. Izpopolnjena tehnika in mednarodna izmenjava znanja ter izkušenj sta privedli do neverjetnih rezultatov. Kraparji lovijo in ujamejo krape s težo preko dvajset kilogramov tudi že pri nas. Večina akumulacij na Štajerskem skriva v svojih globinah rekordne krape. Šmartinsko in Slivniško jezero, jezera na Pesnici, na Goričkem ter tudi akumulacije na Primorskem (Mola, Klivnik, Vogršček) in Rudniško jezero pri Kočevju so priljubljene destinacije tako čisto običajnih ribičev kot tudi lovcev na rekordne ribe. Sicer pa večina ribičev na rekah lovi podust, ki je še vedno najštevilčnejši plen slovenskih ribičev. Na kraških vodah (Krka, Ljubljanica, Kolpa) je najpogostejša riba platnica. Zelo zaželene ribe na trnku so še klen, ogrica in mrena. V stoječih vodah je poleg krapa najbolj priljubljen linj, ki pa ni prav pogost. Le malokatero jezero se lahko pohvali z dobro zastopanostjo te ribje vrste. Konstantno najmočnejšo populacijo linja ima kljub presihanju Cerkniško jezero. V akumulacijskih jezerih na Savi in Dravi je poleg prej naštetih rib vse pogosteje zastopan ploščič, ki velikokrat rešuje lovni dan. Omeniti velja še babuško (srebrni koreselj), ki se je že povsem udomačila v marsikateri slovenski vodi.

Vijačenje

V

ijačenje je uspešen način lova predatorskih vrst rib. Iz etičnih razlogov ta vrsta ribolova že več kot trideset let ni dovoljena za lov na postrvi. Dovoljen pa je za vse druge vrste predatorjev, kot so: ščuka, som, smuč, ostriž, bolen in klen. Skoraj vsi revirji, našteti pri beličarjenju, pridejo v poštev tudi za vijačenje, zato jih ne bomo posebej naštevali. Vseeno pa velja omeniti Cerkniško jezero. V tem naravnem kraškem fenomenu je naseljenih vsega nekaj vrst rib. Med njimi je najpomembnejša ščuka. Njena populacija prav zaradi presihanja izjemno niha. Jezero sicer tudi v „suhih“ letih nudi soliden ribolov. Po vsakem „mokrem“ letu, ko jezero sploh ne presahne ali morda le delno, velikost ščuk krepko poraste in ponuja obilo užitkov vsem obiskovalcem z vijačnico v roki.


( 59 )


{ Fishing }

Sport fishing in the rivers and lakes of Slovenia Text: Jože Ocvirk

( 60 )

Photography: Luka Dakskobler

Sport fishing in Slovenia has a tradition dating back more than a century. Fishing tourism is a related activity. Around twenty species of fish are of interest to sport fishermen. They have been fished in Slovenia’s waters by numerous visiting anglers who have written themselves into the story of fishing, among them Karl Heintz (the inventor of the famous “blinker”, a lure used to catch predatory species), Charles Ritz (the owner of the Ritz hotels and an outstanding angler, the author of several books on fly fishing), Hans Gebetsroiter (a teacher of fly fishing and a maker of artificial flies), not to mention contemporary anglers. Just as in the past, the majority of visiting fishermen are attracted by the chance to fish for trout, grayling, huchen and, more recently, wels catfish, pike and several species of Cyprinidae, in particular carp, tench, chub, barbel and roach.


( 61 )


{ Cross-Country { Fishing Skiing } } ( 62 )

Fly Fishing The Soãa

F

ly fishing and the fish species associated with this technique are the biggest attraction, besides of course the crystal-clear water and well-kept environment. There is no doubt that the river Soča is the jewel in the crown. The unique emerald colour of its water, the white gravel of its bed, and its winding course through a green valley surrounded by snowy peaks are an astonishingly beautiful sight. The river Soča is home to the famous marble trout. Fifty years ago this fish was found throughout the belt of waters that drain into the Adriatic, from the river Po in Italy, the rivers of Friuli, and the Soča to the rivers of Dalmatia, the Neretva, the Morača, the Bojana and the rivers of Albania. Human activity has caused it to disappear from the majority of these waters. It was even on the point of extinction in the Soča. But twenty-five years ago Slovenia’s fishermen united in a campaign to save it. The result of this effort is that today a pure population of marble trout has been re-established in the upper part of the river. A similar process is under way in the river’s middle section, where the fish’s population is prevailing and increasing from year to year. The average length of the marble trout is approximately 35 cm in the upper section of the Soča and 40 cm in the middle section of the Soča. A number of marble trout weighing between five and fifteen kilos are caught every year. The largest recorded specimen to date was caught in 1995: a fish measuring 117 cm and weighing 25 kg. The most interesting part of the Soča for anglers is the section between the village of Soča in the Trenta Valley and Tolmin. Most of the river in this section is accessible from the Bovec–Nova Gorica road that runs beside it. The river is faster higher up, with numerous rapids, channels and pools. At some points the river flows through short ravines known as korita [troughs]. Below the Napoleon Bridge in Kobarid, the Soča flows out of a gorge several kilometres long, ideal for those who love fishing in wild and solitary surroundings. From here to Tolmin, its channels and pools are again accessible to fly fishermen. The fishing season lasts from Easter to the end of October. The only legal fishing method is fly fishing. The first days of the fishing season in the valley, where the winter still has not entirely taken its leave, demand considerable patience. But the angler is plentifully repaid with numerous bites when the sun lights up the valley for an hour or two and revives the rich world of aquatic insects. If the angler is skilled at using a nymph or streamer, successful fishing is possible throughout the day. Snow melt water in May and early June slightly reduces fish activity. This is however a very good season for fishing in the Soča’s tributaries. The Lepenjica, the Koritnica, the Tolminka and the Idrijca with the Bača have a suitable water level, and their snow melt waters are already long gone. Evening rise dry-fly fishing can be very successful and lasts well into the night. As a rule the best season on the Soča is from the end of June to the end of July. The trout mainly rise to the surface after sunset, but for this reason the grayling is active throughout the day. The Soča is

home to the Soča grayling, which is very different from the grayling in the other waters of Slovenia, not only genetically but also in terms of behaviour and phenotype. Its average length is around 40 cm, although during the course of a season anglers report catches of graylings measuring 50 cm and even more.

The Unica

J

ust over an hour’s drive from the valley of the Soča is the river Unica, on Planinsko Polje. This is a river without a source and without a mouth. It is born at the confluence of the Pivka and the Malenščica at Planina and disappears into the karst underworld at Grčarevec in another part of the polje. It is a typical karst river, rich in vegetation and food for fish. It meanders across the karst polje and is two and a half times longer than the polje itself. It is world famous for its excellent grayling fishing. Natural conditions and a suitable fishing regime mean that graylings achieve record dimensions here. The average length of fish caught is well over 40 cm, and there is no shortage of trophy-sized fish measuring around half a metre. The brown trout also does its bit, and can likewise reach an impressive size. The largest brown trout caught to date weighed more than 11 kg. The fishing season begins in May but the best time for fishing is towards the end of June, when the water level drops. Grayling are active throughout the day and there is a strong evening rise. Even in the middle of a May day, brown trout are often tempted by a large mayfly hatch and the abundance of food makes them forget their innate caution. In the summer heat of July and August when the water level is low, the fish group together by size. In a jet of water in front of a pool, you can try your own patience, and that of the trophy-sized grayling that pay no heed to the proffered artificial flies or to the suffering angler, every few metres. Occasionally one of them will rise to the surface and look at some tiny specimen of black ant or mayfly. But flying in the face of all rules, they are also capable of plumping suddenly for a big bushy fly that would usually be considered large even for a trout. Summer is a time of selective fishing. A grayling caught at this time of year has an extra value. The autumn cooling brings increased fish activity. Brown trout in particular again appear even for smaller insect hatches. The October and November sun will still help anglers to the occasional trophy catch. On the main body of the river, only dry-fly fishing is permitted. Nymphs and streamers are not allowed. This is the last opportunity for fly fishermen to collect memories on a beautiful sunny day to tide them over the winter close season.


( 63 )


{ Fishing }

Huchen Fishing

( 64 )

H

uchen fishing has its adherents, although in most cases an expedition to catch a huchen (also known as the Danube salmon), the king of Slovenia’s waters, will end without the desired fish being caught, despite a whole day’s efforts. Often the angler will not even see the fish. But it is all worth it when a huchen bites. After a tense battle that can last half an hour or more, the trophy-sized fish is in the angler’s hands. More and more often the huchen fisherman rewards the fish for the moments of pleasure it has offered him by sparing its life. A photograph and an unforgettable memory are more than enough for today’s huchen fisherman. The true season for huchen are the winter months from December to the middle of February, although they can be fished from October. For the most part they are fished using the spinning technique and with artificial lures. Recently, however, an increasing number of huchen fishermen have been using fly fishing rods. The huchen, which not long ago was a relatively rare fish, is today present in ever greater numbers thanks to good management of fish stocks. Even in the past, when the majority of rivers were in much better condition, there were not as many reports of catches of huchen weighing more than 10 or 15 kg as there are today. Every year a number of huchen weighing around 20 kg are caught. The two largest, record-breaking huchen, weighing over 24 kg, were caught in the Sava in the last five years – in Medvode and in Kranj. The huchen is today best represented in terms of numbers along the entire length of the Sava Bohinjka, which is the fruit of twenty years of restocking with this species. As mentioned above, the Sava between Radovljica and Litija is also a very good place for huchen. Perhaps not in terms of number, but certainly in terms of size. It is thanks to the huchen that the Sava between Medvode and Šentjakob has been classified as a Natura 2000 site. Additionally, the Sora, the Ljubljanica, the Savinja, the Mirna, the Krka and the Kolpa can also boast a solid or good huchen population.

Coarse Fishing

C

oarse fishing is the most common method of fishing in running water (streams and rivers) and lakes. Anglers usually fish with a float, which shows when a fish bites. In calm waters, bottom fishing is successful. This is a static method but it nevertheless demands considerable concentration from the angler. In the last fifteen years this method of fishing, particularly for carp, has enjoyed an unprecedented boom. Perfected techniques and the international exchange of knowledge and experience have led to unbelievable results. Carp fishermen are already catching carp weighing over 20 kg even in Slovenia. Most bodies of water in the Štajerska region conceal record-breaking carp in their depths. Šmartinsko Jezero, Slivniško Jezero, the Pesnica and Goričko lakes and also bodies of water in Primorska (Mola, Klivnik, Vogršček) and Rudniško Jezero near Kočevje are popular destinations both among ordinary anglers and those on the trail of record-breaking fish.

Most river anglers fish for nase, which is still the commonest quarry of Slovenia’s fishermen. In karst waters (the Krka, the Ljubljanica and the Kolpa), the roach is the most common fish. Chub, vimba and barbel are a very sought-after catch. In standing waters, besides carp, the tench is the most popular, although it is not very common. Only a few lakes can boast a good stock of this species. Despite drying up periodically, Lake Cerknica has the consistently strongest tench population. Besides the fish already mentioned, the reservoirs on the Sava and the Drava increasingly frequently contain bream which can often redeem an otherwise unprofitable fishing trip. Also worth mentioning is the Prussian carp, which has already made itself entirely at home in many of Slovenia’s waters.

Spinning

S

pinning is a successful method of fishing for predatory fish species. For over thirty years this type of fishing has been prohibited for trout fishing on ethical grounds. It is however permitted for other predators such as pike, wels catfish, pikeperch, perch, asp and chub. Almost all the locations listed under coarse fishing apply to spinning too, so we will not list them again. It is however worth mentioning Lake Cerknica. This natural karst phenomenon is home to a number of species of fish. The most important among them is the pike. The pike population fluctuates greatly, because of the lake’s intermittent nature. Even in “dry” years, however, the lake offers solid fishing. After every “wet” year, when the lake does not dry up at all, or perhaps only partially, the size of the pike grows considerably and offers abundant pleasures to all visitors with a spinning rod in their hand.

A


( 65 )

Slovenija

Slovenia

G

I

ima razvejano mrežo voda, ki pripadajo donavskemu in jadranskemu porečju. Vodne površine merijo več kot 12.000 ha. Okoli 4.000 ha naseljujejo postrvi in lipani. Ob takšni razporeditvi lahko vsakdo, ki ga ribiška žilica žene z ribnico naokoli po svetu, najde sebi primerno vodo in želeno ribjo vrsto. Ribolovne dovolilnice so na voljo gostom v hotelih, gostilnah in turističnih agencijah. Po potrebi lahko priskrbijo tudi ribiškega vodiča. Ribiči lahko poiščejo dodatne informacije na spletnih straneh Ribiške zveze Slovenije http://www.ribiska-zveza.si in Zavoda za ribištvo Slovenije http://www.zzrs.si.

eografsko in podnebno je Slovenija zelo raznolika dežela. Na razmeroma majhnem ozemlju obstaja cela vrsta izjemno zanimivih naravnih znamenitosti, med njimi tudi vode in ribe. V geološki sliki prevladuje med kamninami apnenec, ki daje vodam izjemno privlačno zeleno barvo v številnih odtenkih. A ne le to, s svojo pufersko sposobnostjo nevtralizira vpliv kislega dežja, tako da je pH vrednost voda idealna – med 7 in 8.

has an extensive network of waters belonging to the Danube and Adriatic drainage basins and covering a total of more than 12,000 hectares. Around 4000 hectares are home to trout and grayling. With such a distribution, everyone who travels the world with a fishing rod can find a suitable stretch of water and some suitable species to fish. Fishing permits are available to visitors in hotels, restaurants and tourist agencies. Fishing guides can also be provided if necessary. Additional information is available to anglers on the websites of the Anglers’ Union of Slovenia www.ribiska-zveza.si and the Fisheries Research Institute of Slovenia www.zzrs.si.

n terms of geography and climate, Slovenia is a country of great diversity. Its relatively small territory contains a range of natural sights of extraordinary interest. These include its waters and the fish that live in them. Limestone is the dominant rock in the country’s geological profile. This gives the waters their very attractive green colour, in a variety of shades. Not only that, but its buffering capacity neutralises the effects of acid rain, with the result that the water has an ideal pH of between 7 and 8.


Ribiški muzej v Bistri ( 66 )

Nedaleã od Ljubljane domuje v idiliãnem okolju ob robu Ljubljanskega barja ribiški muzej. Zbirka sodi v sklop Tehniškega muzeja Slovenije, kjer si je mogoãe ogledati še druge vsebine: gozdarstvo, lesarstvo, promet, tekstil, kmetijstvo, tiskarstvo, pa tudi katero od obãasnih tematskih razstav. Besedilo: Romana Erhatiã Širnik

Fotografije: Branko âeak

{➳}


( 67 )


{ Ribištvo }

R ( 68 )

ibiška zbirka je nastala v osemdesetih letih preteklega stoletja. Zanjo so se odločili slovenski ribiči, ki so želeli širši javnosti predstaviti svojo dejavnost in bogat podvodni svet, hkrati pa zanamcem ohraniti ribiške dokumente in predmete kot del naše kulturne dediščine. Povezali so se z nami v Tehniškem muzeju Slovenije in postopoma je začela nastajati nova zbirka. Iskali smo med pozabljenimi predmeti po podstrešjih, obiskovali ribogojnice, pregledali arhive, poslušali pripovedi starejših ribičev ter se posvetovali s strokovnjaki. Nastala je muzejska zgodba, ki pripoveduje o ribah in njihovem življenjskem okolju v slovenskih celinskih vodah, o ribah kot nekdaj pomembni postni, danes pa zdravi hrani ter o ribolovnih napravah in pripomočkih za vzrejo rib. Rezultat vsega tega je zbirka, ki ni namenjena le ribičem, pač pa tudi širši javnosti. Nekoga zanimajo ribe, drugega pritegnejo nekdanji načini ribolova, tretji z zanimanjem sledijo ekološki problematiki. V zbirki ne hranimo dragih in dragocenih predmetov, pač pa le tiste, ki so jih ribiči redno uporabljali in so povezani z njihovim vsakdanjim življenjem. Slovenija se ponaša z veliko biološko pestrostjo, kar velja tudi za vodni živelj. Večino naših obiskovalcev preseneti podatek, da živi v slovenskih vodah več kot devetdeset vrst rib. Najpomembnejše informacije o posameznih vrstah in o vodah, v katerih živijo, dobijo obiskovalci s pomočjo računalniške multimedije, s pomočjo podvodnih filmov pa spoznajo posamezne vrste tudi v njihovem življenjskem okolju. Mnogim je znano slikovito Blejsko jezero, poznajo zeleno Krko, Kolpo, Savo, Dravo, Muro in druge reke, le malo pa jih ve, kaj skrivajo njihove globine. In prav to skrivnost rečnih globin imajo možnost videti v muzeju. Ribiči so že konec 19. stoletja ugotavljali, da se število rib zmanjšuje. Ponekod je bil vzrok pretiran ribolov, največkrat pa onesnaženost voda in pogini rib. Njihove pritožbe največkrat niso zalegle, zato so si prizadevali izgube nadomestiti. Od osemdesetih let 19. stoletja dalje v razmeroma preprostih vališčih, eno takih si je mogoče ogledati tudi v muzeju, umetno vzrejajo ribe v ribogojnicah, izvaljene ribice pa vlagajo v reke in potoke. V želji, da bi popestrili in obogatili ribji živelj,

so naredili tudi nekaj napak. Ne da bi pomislili na posledice, so poleg domačih vzrejali tudi tuje vrste, ki so jih prinesli iz drugih dežel in celo kontinentov. Danes pa je njihova dejavnost namenjena predvsem vzreji redkih in ogroženih avtohtonih vrst. Sladkovodno ribištvo kot dejavnost spremljamo v muzeju preko preoblikovanja njegove funkcije iz gospodarske v športno dejavnost, ki si zadnja leta vse bolj prizadeva dosegati cilje trajnostnega značaja in deluje v skladu z naravovarstvenimi načeli. Obiskovalec se seznani s časi, ko je bila pravica do ribolova v domeni privilegiranih slojev. Prikazane tehnike ribolova in ribiško orodje so bili povsem drugačni od današnjih. Ribe so lovili z mrežami, vršami, različnimi nastavami, večje ribe pa so nabadali z ostmi. Vsaka voda je imela in še vedno ima nekatere specifčnosti, tako glede ribjega življa kot načinov ribolova. Najbolj edinstven pa je bil ribolov na prav tako edinstvenem Cerkniškem jezeru. Pričevanja o njem nam je ohranil polihistor Janez Vajkard Valvasor, ki mu je prav raziskovanje in poročanje o Cerkniškem jezeru omogočilo članstvo v Royal Society v Londonu. Vsakokrat, ko je jezero usahnilo, se je začel ribolov po natančno predpisanem vrstnem redu. Ko so samostani in graščine napolnili zaloge, je še vedno ostalo dovolj rib za domačine, ki so se kar brez oblek podali v odtekajoče jezero ter s saki in koši pobirali preostale ribe. Sak kot simbol nekdanjih časov hranimo tudi v muzeju. Ribolov s trnkom se je uveljavil razmeroma pozno. V muzeju sledimo razvoju športne opreme, vse od preprostih leskovk do najsodobnejših muharic. Izpopolnjevanju ribiške palice je sledilo izpopolnjevanje druge opreme. Za ribiče je še posebej zanimiva zbirka umetnih muh in doma izdelanih blestivk. Razstavne prostore povezuje hodnik, del njega je posvečen ekologiji voda. Spremljamo Savo in spremembe v tej največji slovenski reki ter ob njej v zadnjih dveh stoletjih. Obiskovalec, ki ga pot dnevno ali le občasno vodi mimo te reke, težko verjame, da so ljudje še pred sto leti uporabljali vodo iz nje za pitje in kuho, se v njej kopali, prali perilo in napajali živino. Vsak razmislek o tem je dobrodošel in verjamemo, da vsaj kanček prispeva tudi k drugačnemu odnosu do okolja in narave.


( 69 )


{ Fishing }

The Fishing Museum in Bistra Text: Romana Erhatiã Širnik

N ( 70 )

Photography: Branko âeak

ot far from Ljubljana, in an idyllic setting on the edge of the Barje marshland, stands the fishing museum. The collection comes under the aegis of the Technical Museum of Slovenia, where it is also possible to view other collections covering forestry, the timber industry, transport, textiles, agriculture, printing and occasional thematic exhibitions. The fishing collection was created in the 1980s at the initiative of a group of fishing enthusiasts who wanted to present their activities and the rich aquatic world to the general public, and at the same time preserve fishing-related documents and items for posterity as part of our cultural heritage. They got in touch with the Technical Museum of Slovenia and slowly the new collection began to take shape. We rummaged among forgotten objects in attics, visited fish farms, pored over archives, listened to the tales of old fishermen and consulted experts. The result was a museum story that tells of fish and their habitat in Slovenia’s inland waters, about fish as food – once important Lenten fare and today a healthy staple, about fishing gear and aids to fish breeding. The result is a collection that is aimed not only at fishing enthusiasts but at the general public. Some are interested in fish, others are attracted by old fishing techniques, and others again want to learn about environmental issues. The collection does not include expensive or valuable objects, but items that fishermen used regularly and that illustrate their everyday life. Slovenia boasts great biodiversity and this also applies to aquatic fauna. Most of our visitors are surprised to learn that more than ninety species of fish live in Slovenia’s waters. The most important information about individual species and the waters they live in are provided to visitors with the help of computerised multimedia, while underwater films allow them to get to know individual species in their own habitats. Many people are familiar with picturesque Lake Bled and they know the green Krka, the Kolpa, the Sava, the Drava, the Mura and other rivers, but few of them know what hides in their depths. And this is what they have a chance to see in the museum. By as early as the end of the 19th century anglers realised that fish numbers were falling. In some places the reason for this was overfishing, but in most places water pollution and fish mortality were the cause. For the most part their protests had no effect, so they began

trying to replenish the dwindling stocks. Ever since the 1880s fish have been bred artificially in fish farms using relatively simple hatcheries, of the kind that can be seen in the museum, and the hatched fish released into rivers and streams. In their desire to variegate and enrich the piscine population, the fish farmers also made some errors. Without thinking of the consequences, they bred foreign species brought from other countries or even other continents alongside the domestic species. Today their activity focuses above all on breeding rare and endangered autochthonous species. The museum traces the development of freshwater fishing through the transformation of its function from a commercial activity to a sport – one which in recent years has increasingly followed the goals of sustainable use and operates in accordance with nature protection principles. Visitors to the museum learn about the era when the right to fish was reserved for the privileged classes. The fishing techniques and equipment on show in the museum are very different from those used today. Fishermen used nets, fish-baskets and a variety of accessories. Larger fish were speared. Every body of water has and had certain specific characteristics, both with regard to the fish that live in it and the fishing methods employed. Most unusual of all was fishing in the equally unusual Lake Cerknica. Accounts of it were conserved by the polymath Johann Weichard Valvasor, whose research into and reports on Lake Cerknica earned him membership of the Royal Society in London. Every time the lake dried up, fishing began, according to a precisely determined order. Once the monasteries and castles had filled their storerooms, there were still enough fish left for the locals, who would wade naked into the dwindling waters and collect the remaining fish with dip nets and baskets. A dip net is kept in the museum as a symbol of times gone by. Fishing with a hook developed relatively late. In the museum we follow the development of sports equipment, from simple hazel rods to the latest carbon graphite fly rods. The perfecting of the fishing rod was followed by the perfecting of other equipment. Particularly interesting to fishing enthusiasts is the collection of artificial flies and homemade spoon lures. The exhibition spaces are connected by a corridor, part of which is devoted to water ecology. We follow Slovenia’s largest river, the Sava, and the changes in and along it over the last two centuries. The visitor whose daily journey takes him across this river will find it hard to believe that a hundred years ago people still used water from the river for drinking and cooking, swam in it, washed clothes in it and used it to water their livestock. Every reflection on this subject is welcome and we believe that it also helps change attitudes to the environment and nature.

A


( 71 )

Obisk

Tehniškega muzeja je mogoče združiti s prijetnim izletom: sprehodimo se lahko po muzejskem parku in ob bregovih Bistre, se naužijemo svežega zraka, uživamo v lepotah barja ali spoznavamo skrivnosti gozda na učni poti. Raznovrstne vsebine in idilično okolje privabijo letno 40.000 obiskovalcev kljub slabim prometnim povezavam in dejstvu, da je muzej v zimskem času zaprt.

A visit

to the Technical Museum can be combined with a pleasant day out: a stroll in the museum park and along the banks of the Bistra, enjoying the fresh air and the beauties of the marshland or discovering the secrets of the forest on a nature trail. A variety of activities and an idyllic environment attract 40,000 visitors a year, despite poor transport connections and the fact that the museum is closed during the winter.


( 72 )

OÄ?em skriti prebivalci naĹĄih rek in jezer


ščuka/Pike (Esox lucius)

( 73 )

Vodotoki, jezera, ribniki ali tako imenovane celinske vode Slovenije, ki so z vodno površino okoli 12.000 ha razdeljene med povodje Donave in Jadranskega morja, so naseljene z 90 vrstami sladkovodnih rib in 3 piškurji. Jadransko povodje pokriva približno eno ãetrtino Slovenije in spada v sredozemsko zlivno obmoãje; donavsko pa spada v ãrnomorsko zlivno obmoãje in usmerja vodotoke proti vzhodu v ârno morje. Besedilo: Meta Povž

Fotografije: Krištof Istiniã

{➳}


{ Ribištvo }

krap/Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

lipan/Grayling (Thymallus thymallus)

ri nas je 77 domorodnih in 16 tujerodnih vrst rib. V povodju Donave je popisanih 74 vrst, med temi je 58 domorodnih, vključno s piškurji (Petromyzontidae), 12 so jih v preteklosti prinesli z drugih celin in jih vehementno spustili v naše vode za popestritev športnega ribolova, 4 pa izvirajo iz jadranskega povodja. V jadranskem povodju je popisanih 41 vrst skupaj s piškurjema, od tega je 21 domorodnih, 12 je naseljenih z drugih celin in 8 preseljenih iz donavskega povodja. V Sloveniji poznamo zaenkrat samo eno endemno ribjo vrsto, in sicer barjanskega kaplja (Cottus metae), med ostalimi pa je 10 endemitov donavskega in 12 jadranskega povodja, ki živijo tudi v sosednjih deželah. Vso to ribjo raznolikost ogrožajo tako pri nas kot tudi vsepovsod drugje po svetu različni vzroki, kot na primer prevelik in nenadzoro-

van ulov sulca, soške in jezerske postrvi ter drugih večjih vrst. Zelo velika nevarnost za domorodne vrste je naseljevanje vrst iz drugih porečij, povodij ali celin, nazadnje pa naj omenimo še tako imenovano genetsko polucijo, ki pride do izraza predvsem pri preseljevanju rib med sosednjimi porečji; te vrste so si najbolj v sorodu in je zato največ možnosti za križanje. Zelo znan primer genetske polucije je naseljevanje potočne postrvi ali lipana v vode jadranskega povodja, saj je ravno zaradi tega prišlo do intenzivnega križanja in posledično do izginevanja izvirnega genskega potenciala soške postrvi in že izginulega jadranskega lipana. Ampak potopimo se v prečudovit podvodni svet slovenskih potokov, rek in jezer ter raziščimo, kaj se tam skriva pred našimi očmi. Pojdimo najprej na zahod Slovenije. Začnimo v zgornjem Posočju v

P ( 74 )

potočna postrv/Brown trout (Salmo trutta fario)


rdečeperka/Red Eye (Scardinius eryhropsalmus)

soška postrv/Marbel trout (Salmo marmoratus)

čudovitih kanjonih Soče in njenih pritokov. V globinah se skriva naša brez dvoma najlepša in največja, po celem svetu znana, značilno marmorirana, bakreno olivno zelena soška postrv (Salmo marmoratus). To je ena največjih evropskih postrvjih vrst, ki zraste do 140 cm in tehta do 25 kg. Po velikosti jo dosega in presega samo prav tako v evropskih vodah živeči sulec (Hucho hucho), ki lahko zraste do 180 cm in tehta do 60 kg, najdemo pa ga na drugi strani Slovenije, v globokih tolmunih porečij Save, Drave in Mure, v rekah, ki tečejo v Črno morje. Vrnimo se še nekoliko v jadransko povodje in poglejmo, katere ribje vrste delajo družbo soški lepotici. Morda prav tako čudovit, seveda v povsem drugačnih barvah in dimenzijah, je lipan (Thymallus thymallus), ki je zaradi značilnega okusa dobil ime po materini dušici ali timijanu. V vodah jadranskega povodja so še štrkavci, grbe, mreni-

sta brez dvoma potočna in ameriška postrv, ki sta tudi najagresivnejši. Potem pa sledi še cela vrsta drugih, takih, ki izvirajo bodisi iz donavskega povodja, kot so ščuka, linj, krap, som, ali z drugih celin, in to srebrni koreselj, amur, pseudorazbora, ameriška postrv in druge. Raznolikost rib v vodah zahodnega dela Slovenije, v porečjih Save, Drave in Mure je pestrejša in se zelo razlikuje od rib jadranskega povodja. Vsa tri donavska porečja imajo zelo podobno ribjo favno, razlikujejo se predvsem v nekaterih vrstah, ki živijo samo v prvem, drugem ali tretjem porečju. Sabljevca (Pelecus cultratus) najdemo le v Muri, samo v Dravi je bila najdena (Coregonus sp.) in samo v savskem porečju živi pegunica (Alburnus sarmaticus). Sicer pa v vseh treh rekah živi največji evropski predstavnik družine postrvi in največja sladkovodna postrvja vrsta sploh, že omenjeni sulec (Hucho hucho), ki po svoji velikosti prekaša jadransko velikanko soško postrv. Naša največja sladkovodna riba sploh pa je som (Silurus glanis), ki pri nas zraste prek 2 m in tehta okoli 90 kg. Po velikosti mu sledijo krap, ščuka in smuč, ki pa so vsi precej manjši, še vedno pa dosegajo dolžino okoli 1 m. Manjši, toda ne najmanjši so kleni, mrene, podusti, platnice in kleniči. Najmanjše, najlepše in najzanimivejše pa so seveda ribice, kot so v drsti živo rdečih ust drobni pisanci, svetlikajoče se zelenike in pisanke, čokati kaplji, kačaste nežice in progaste činklje, ki menda s svojim oglašanjem napovedujejo vremenske spremembe, pa razni pegasti globočki in piškurji. Med zanimivejše ribe donavskega porečja spada menek (Lota lota), edina sladkovodna trska, ki jo najdemo v vseh treh porečjih povodja Donave. Med ribjimi posebneži Mure in Drave moramo vsekakor omeniti kečigo, edinega še živečega predstavnika jesetrov pri nas, pa smrkeža, čepa in njegovega manjšega sorodnika upiravca, ki pa živi tudi v porečju Save. Izjemnost porečja Mure so v spomladanskem času njene prečudovite mrtvice, prekrite z lokvanji in blatniki; pod plavajočim vodnim rastlinjem skrivajo drobno ribico – veliko senčico (Umbra krameri), ki ima sorodnike samo še v Severni Ameriki. Pa tudi Drava se ponaša z malce nenavadnim posebnežem; v svojih mokrih nedrjih skriva grbastega okuna (Gymnocephalus baloni), ki mu dela družbo navadni okun (Gymnocephalus cernuus), razširjen tudi v Savi in Muri. Pestrost je za tako majhen košček ozemlja izjemna. Pri nas živi približno 20 odstotkov vseh evropskih vrst in lahko smo ponosni na to, da so populacije naših rib med bolj ohranjenimi v Evropi.

menek/Burbot (Lota lota)

či, kapiči, primorske belice, dvopikaste nežice in po celem svetu znana jegulja, majhni pisanci, pegasti globočki ter redki laški piškurji. Vse te vrste rib živijo samo v vodah zahodne Slovenije, ki se zlivajo v Jadransko morje. No, če smo natančni, so nekako do konca 19. stoletja res živele samo te vrste v jadranskem povodju. Danes pa jim delajo družbo številne ribe pritepenke, ki so jih naselili ljudje z bolj ali manj resnimi nameni – popestriti ribolov. Pa so ga le za kratek čas, dokler niso priseljenke začele spodrivati domačink iz njihovih vodnih bivališč in danes marsikje že popolnoma obvladujejo prostor. Med najbolj znanimi

( 75 )


{ Fishing }

The secret inhabitants of Slovenia’s lakes and rivers Text: Meta Povž

Photography: Krištof Istiniã

The watercourses, lakes and fishponds of Slovenia – inland waters covering around 12,000 hectares divided between the drainage basins of the Danube and the Adriatic Sea – are inhabited by 90 species of freshwater fish and 3 lampreys. The Adriatic drainage basin covers approximately one quarter of Slovenia and belongs to the Mediterranean drainage area; the Danube drainage basin belongs to the Black Sea drainage area and directs watercourses towards the east into the Black Sea.

S ( 76 )

lovenia has 77 autochthonous species and 16 allochthonous species of fish. The list for the Danube drainage basin includes 74 species, among them 58 autochthonous species including the lampreys (Petromyzontidae); 12 were brought from other continents in the past and released into our waters in order to add variety to sport fishing, while 4 derive from the Adriatic drainage basin. The list for the Adriatic drainage basin runs to 41 species, including two lampreys; 21 of these are autochthonous, 12 come from other continents and 8 have migrated from the Danube drainage area. Only one endemic fish species has been identified to date in Slovenia: Cottus metae, a species of sculpin or bullhead. There are however 10 species endemic to the Danube drainage basin and 12 species endemic to the Adriatic drainage basin which also live in neighbouring countries.

Just as elsewhere in the world, the diversity of fishes in Slovenia is threatened by various factors, including the excessive and uncontrolled fishing of salmon, marble trout and lake trout and other larger species. A very great danger for autochthonous species is colonisation by species from other river basins, drainage basins or continents, while we should also mention so-called genetic pollution, which occurs above all in the case of migrations of fish between neighbouring river basins; these species are most closely related and therefore the possibilities of cross-breeding are greatest. A very well-known example of genetic pollution is the colonisation of the brown trout or grayling in the waters of the Adriatic drainage area, since this has led to intensive cross-breeding and, consequently, to the disappearance of the original genetic potential of the marble trout and the Adriatic grayling – which has already disappeared.

sulec/Danube salmon (Hucho hucho)


klen /Chub (Squalius cephalus)

pisanci/Minow (Phoxinus phoxinus)

But let us immerse ourselves in the wonderful underwater world of Slovenia’s streams, rivers and lakes and find out what is hiding there. To begin with, let us go to the west of Slovenia and the Upper Soča Basin – to the wonderful gorges of the Soča and its tributaries. In the depths of these waters hides what is without a doubt our largest and most beautiful fish, the world-famous marble trout (Salmo marmoratus), with its distinctive marbling and copper/olive green colouring. This is one of the largest European trout species and grows to up to 140 cm and can weigh up to 25 kg. It is second in size only to the huchen or Danube salmon (Hucho hucho), which also lives in European waters and can grow to up to 180 cm and weigh up to 60 kg. This fish is found on the other side of Slovenia, in the deep pools of the Sava, Drava and Mura river basins, in the rivers that flow to the Black Sea. Let us return for a moment to the Adriatic drainage area and see what other species of fish share the waters with the “beauty of the Soča”. Perhaps equally wonderful, although entirely different in colour and dimensions, is the grayling, which owes its Latin name Thymallus thymallus to its characteristic “thyme” flavour. The waters of the Adriatic drainage area also contain chub, barbel, bullhead, Italian bleak, two-spot loach and the world-famous eel, little minnows, speckled gudgeon and red Lombardy lampreys. All of these species live only in the waters of western Slovenia, that flow into the Adriatic. To be precise, until around the end of the 19th century only these species lived in the Adriatic drainage area. Today, however, they share the waters with numerous “immigrants” brought in by people whose more or less serious intention was to variegate fishing. But they only did so for a short time, until the immigrants began to drive out the natives from their homes. Today, in many places, they have become completely dominant. Among the most well-known are without a doubt the brown trout and the rainbow trout. These are also the most aggressive species. They are followed by a whole range of other species, some deriving from the Danube drainage basin, such as pike, tench, carp and catfish, or from other continents, such as the Prussian carp, the amur, the pseudorasbora, the rainbow trout and others. The variety of fish in the waters of western Slovenia, in the basins of the Sava, the Drava and the Mura, is even greater, and the species

differ considerably from the fish of the Adriatic drainage basin. All three Danube river basins have very similar fauna. The main differences are in certain species that live only in the first, second or third of these basins. The chechon (Pelecus cultratus) is only found in the Mura, the whitefish (Coregonus sp.) has only been found in the Drava, and the shemaya (Alburnus sarmaticus) only lives in the Sava river basin. All three rivers are home to the largest European member of the trout family and the largest freshwater trout species of all, the huchen (Hucho hucho), which even outdoes the Adriatic drainage basin’s giant marble trout. The largest freshwater fish of all is the wels catfish (Siluris glanis), which in Slovenia grows to over 2 metres and weighs around 90 kg. In terms of size it is followed by the carp, the pike and the pikeperch, which are all a lot smaller, although they can still reach a length of around 1 metre. Smaller, but not the smallest, are the chub, the barbel, the nase, the Danube roach and the dace. The smallest, most beautiful and most interesting are of course the little fish such as the tiny minnows, the glittering bleak and schneider, the stubby bullhead, the snake-like spined loach and the striped weather loach, whose appearance is said to forecast changes in the weather, and the various speckled gudgeon and lampreys. Among the most interesting fish of the Danube drainage basin is the burbot (Lota lota), the only freshwater cod, which we find in all three river basins of the Danube drainage area. Other notable inhabitants of the Mura and the Drava include the sterlet (the only surviving representative of the sturgeon in Slovenia) and the striped ruffe, the zingel and its slightly smaller relative the streber, which also lives in the Sava basin. One special feature of the Mura basin in the spring are its backwaters covered with water lilies; beneath the floating aquatic plants hides a tiny fish, the mudminnow (Umbra krameri), whose only relatives are found in North America. The Drava, too, can boast a slightly unusual inhabitant, the Balon’s ruffe (Gymnocephalus baloni), which is kept company by the common ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus), also found in the Sava and the Mura. The variety is extraordinary for such a small piece of territory. Approximately 20 percent of all European fish species live in Slovenia and we can be proud that our fish populations are among the best conserved in Europe.

A

( 77 )


Adria Airways In-Flight Magazine April, May 2008