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Congratulations, you now have the first edition of AD&A in hand. It is a pleasure to present this new magazine that focuses on art, design and architecture. We are the first magazine that brings together these three themes in one magazine. This means that you as a reader will gain a greater insight into the world of design, and perhaps some new interests. As editor, I will ensure that you as the reader gets the best and most exclusive themes each month. In this issue we have a lot of snacks! A wonderful article by Frank Gehry and a portrait interview with Wally Olins is some of what you find in this release. I wish you a relaxing day, with pleasure through reading AD&A. If you are unhappy with something, or have suggestions for new articles so give us a tedious back. To a new back, send mail to Warmly greeting from your editor in chief.

AD&A number one, 2012 AD&A is a magazine that focuses on art, design and architecture. We are the first magazine that brings together these three themes in one magazine. This means that you as a reader will gain a greater insight into the world of design. Publisher Alexander Kanvik Publisher Kirkeveien 110B 0361 Oslo ISSN: 033-1059 Editor Alexander Kanvik Art director & design: Alexander Kanvik Print: Helli - visuell kommunikasjon Font Headline: Titillium Subtitle: Titilium Body text: Garamond Premier Pro Paper Cover: MultiDesign Smooth White 240g/m2 Inner: MultiDesign Smooth White 150g/m2 Edition: 001 Information The Wally Olins illustration is originaly made by (frontpage and page 19). Subscription order Price Kr. $200 private subscription / year Kr. $300 institutions / year A subscription runs until it is terminated. Ads To advertise, contact Price per single indentation 1/1 $1000 1/2 $600 1/4 $400 1/8 $200 Journalists Mark McGuinness Photographers Thomas Dix Illustrations Ramos Orozco

content Tiny text 06 > 07 Frank Gehry 08 > 13 Games and quiz 14 > 15 Portrait of Wally Olins 16 > 21 How to get inspired 22 > 23 Claude Monet 24 > 25 Rob Janoff and Apple 26 > 27 Typography 28 > 31 The Lotus Temple 32 > 33 Pablo Picasso 34

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for buying Art Tools and Art Supplies Being an artist is not only difficult but also a bit expensive. It is difficult for the reason that you need to have a natural talent for art and if you don’t have this talent then no school or private coaching classes can teach you art. Schools of arts are meant to polish your natural ability and talent for arts. Moreover, if you have the talent then you should be prepared to buy a huge lot of art supplies. A good art supply means a better painting; if you cannot afford them then it does not mean that you should stop painting. Sketchbook


There is a wide range of art supplies available in market. All of these supplies come with different price range and quality. You can always choose the best items that you can afford and the ones that best meet your requirements within you budget. There are many art supply items that can help you in producing a better painting but there are certain basic items that you must have. They are given below

Brush There is a variety of brushes available in market and each of them have there own purposes and needs. When you go to buy your supply of brushes, you will realize that the art suppliers offer you brush with natural or synthetic hair. The type of painting in which you are interested will help you in making the decision of which brush to buy.

Palette When choosing a palette make sure that you buy one that offers a fair amount of space. You can use this space to mix different colors more easily. Also, try to choose a palette that offers you a slope along one side. This slope is very helpful in separating the clean paint colors from the dirty paints. Do not squeeze too much paint on the palette as it will only result in wastage of your art supplies

There are often times in the life of painter when an idea for a painting just pops up. In this case, it is always helpful to carry a sketchbook. Use this sketchbook to immediately note down your ideas and if you are carrying a small painting kit with you then you can use the colors to capture the actual feeling of your idea on the sketchbook.

Pastels You can use pastels to add a unique touch to your painting but make sure that you use them before the watercolors otherwise the result will not be what you desired.

Water Color paper Watercolor papers are an integral part of painting. There are hundreds of watercolor papers available in market. You can use them for quick demonstrations, sketches and even wash them to give a wet look to your painting.

Paint There is a wide variety of paint colors available in market which you can buy according to your needs.

Water Spray These are the cheapest of all the art supplies. They are helpful for a quick light spray over the wet ink.


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The “Must Have” Guides for Designers, Printers and Color Decision Makers.

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Photo by Michandesuu

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Next time you find yourself in this situation, ask yourself this question:

“Have I ever solved a problem like this before?”

It doesn’t matter if the problem isn’t an exact match scan your memory for something even remotely similar. Then go back and revisit your old work, to see if there’s anything there that could help you now. Text: Mark McGuinness

I first came across this technique when I trained as a psychotherapist. Working with clients facing seemingly intractable problems such as long-term depression, substance abuse, or the breakdown of a marriage, I found myself using this question over and over again - with some surprisingly good results. Clients coming for therapy are understandably so focused on their problem that they forget or discount the many times when they have dealt with it effectively - or at least not disastrously. So when I asked this question, they were often able to remember times when they managed to motivate themselves to do something productive, and felt less depressed; or times when they resisted the cravings to use drugs; or when they managed to resolve disagreements with their partners in a respectful manner. No, it didn’t change their lives overnight. But it often gave them a foothold on the problem - a small success that boosted their confidence and opened up the possibility of achieving more. And it can do the same for you, next time you’re wondering if you’re up to a creative challenge. “But won’t this lead to me repeating myself?”

Only if you keep working on the same old types of project. But if you keep setting yourself new challenges, then that will force you to build on your old knowledge by adding something new to the mix. The big advantage of starting with one of your old solutions - apart from the motivational boost from getting a foothold on the problem - is that you are building from a foundation of success, using something that has been tried and tested and delivered results. One of the reasons clients pay more for experienced creatives is that they have a wealth of previous successes to draw on, which can give them a shortcut to success. Of course, you also need to make it new - but you knew that already.

So me th ing Old, So me thi ng New

Staying Strong Under Stress

Every creator knows the terror of the blank page. When you start on a new creative challenge and you have no idea how you are going to solve it, the virgin paper (or screen, or canvas, etc.) seems to stretch off endlessly in all directions. There are so many things you could do, it’s impossible to know where to start. And as a creative professional, you pride yourself on coming up with original solutions. It’s what your clients pay you for, or what your audience loves you for. So the pressure to ‘make it new’ can make it even harder to Illustration by Oscar Ramos Orozco get going.

I’m not generally a stressed person, but I do get anxious on occasion. You can ask any member of the Behance Team who’s seen me before a big product launch or other major event. My attention to detail, normally a strength, can become a compulsive need to verify everything. If I’m not careful, my drive to be helpful Text: Scott Belsky can backfire. In tough situations, with fires ablaze, certain strengths have the tendency to become weaknesses. For example, under stress, a natural and healthy tendency toward neatness and organization can turn compulsive. Smart people with great questions can become ruthless interro­ gators. Those who take pride in their laser-like focus can become too micro and miss the big picture. When handled improperly, stress acts like kryptonite. It causes your superpowers to turn against you; and, if you’re not careful, your stress can defeat you. While you can’t avoid stress, you can calibrate your reaction to it.

Ground your decisions in procedure. Under stress, we often make decisions more quickly and with less information than usual - the perfect setup for disaster. The best way to avoid this trigger response is to have a procedure in place. Ideally, one than forces you to walk through the steps and get the information you need prior to taking action. Many great development and technology teams, including our own team at Behance, maintain an “emergency sheet” that explains what to do if a website or key system goes down. The emergency sheet is prepared in advance and kept updated with simple step-by-step instructions for what to do first, who to notify, and how to proceed when the site goes down. Having a clear procedure for solving certain problems prevents brash decisions and ill-conceived solutions. The trick is to learn from mistakes made under stress and, afterwards, develop a procedure to follow the next time around.

Stay open For good reason, stress makes you defensive. Unfortun­ ately, defensiveness makes you less open and alert to the resources and information around you. When I get stressed, I instinctively become more self-reliant. (Perhaps it is my fear of failure that makes me put my head down and try to solve things all by myself ?) Ironically, at the times when it’s most important for us to consult our colleagues and absorb the opinions of others, we’re inclined to isolate ourselves. To offset this tendency, I make special efforts to engage people around me in times of stress. I pose more questions than usual. If I’m working under severe time constraints - drafting quick emails and attempting a quick solution - I remind myself to request a “gut check” from someone else on my team before taking action.

Don’t regress If you’re not careful, stress will conjure up the very worst of your natural impulses - paranoia, selfishness, and shortsightedness, among them. You’re also liable to misinterpret peoples’ intentions and ignore the help that you need. This is because stress is a natural consequence of the struggle against our primal tendencies. The instinct to run away from danger, or to fend for oneself at the expense of others, is in our ancestral DNA - what Seth Godin calls our “lizard brain.” We need to be aware of these deeply ingrained tendencies and push ourselves to keep evolving.

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photo by

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This is Frank Gehry

His buildings, including his private residence, have become tourist attractions. His works are cited as being among the most important works of contemporary architecture in the 2010 World Architecture Survey, which led Vanity Fair to label him as “the most important architect of our age”. Gehry was born Frank Owen Goldberg on February 28, 1929, in Toronto, Ontario. His parents were Polish Jews. A creative child, he was encouraged by his grandmother, Mrs. Caplan, with whom he would build little cities out of scraps of wood. His use of corrugated steel, chain link fencing, unpainted plywood and other utilitarian or “everyday” materials was partly inspired by spending Saturday mornings at his grandfather’s hardware store. He would spend time drawing with his father and his mother introduced him to the world of art. “So the creative genes were there,” Gehry says. “But my father thought I was a dreamer, I wasn’t gonna amount to anything. It was my mother who thought I was just reticent to do things. She would push me.” He was given the Hebrew name “Ephraim” by his grandfather but only used it at his bar mitzvah. In 1947 Gehry moved to California, got a job driving a delivery truck, and studied at Los Angeles City College, eventually to graduate from the University of Southern California’s School of Architecture. According to Gehry: “I was a truck driver in L.A., going to City College, and I tried radio announcing, which I wasn’t very good at. I tried chemical engineering, which I wasn’t very good at and didn’t like, and then I remembered. You know, somehow I just started racking my brain about, “What do I like?” Where was I? What made me excited? And I remembered art, that I loved going to museums and I loved looking at paintings, loved listening to music. Those things came from my mother, who took me to concerts and museums. I remembered Grandma and the blocks, and just on a hunch, I tried some architecture classes.” After graduation from USC in 1954, he spent time away from the field of architecture in numerous other jobs, including service in the United States Army. He studied


city planning at the Harvard Graduate School of Design for a year, leaving before completing the program. In 1952, still known as Frank Goldberg, he married Anita Snyder, who he claims was the one who told him to change his name, which he did, to Frank Gehry. In 1966 he and Snyder divorced. In 1975 he married Panamanian, Berta Isabel Aguilera, his current wife. He has two daughters from his first marriage, and two sons from his second marriage. Having grown up in Canada, Gehry is a huge fan of ice hockey. He began a hockey league in his office, FOG which stands for Frank Owen Gehry, though he no longer plays with them. In 2004, he designed the trophy for the World Cup of Hockey. Gehry holds dual citizenship in Canada and the United States. He lives in Santa Monica, California, and continues to practice out of Los Angeles.

Architectural style Much of Gehry’s work falls within the style of Deconstructivism, which is often referred to as post-structuralist in nature for its ability to go beyond current modalities of structural definition. In architecture, its application tends to depart from modernism in its inherent criticism of culturally inherited givens such as societal goals and functional necessity. Because of this, unlike early modernist structures, Deconstructivist structures are not required to reflect specific social or universal ideas, such as speed or universality of form, and they do not reflect a belief that form follows function. Gehry’s own Santa Monica residence is a commonly cited example of deconstructivist architecture, as it was so drastically divorced from its original context, and in such a manner as to subvert its original spatial intention.

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The famous Walt Disney Concert Hall designed by Frank Gehry. photo by

This is Frank Gehry

The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is a museum of modern and contemporary art. Photo by

The Ray and Maria Stata Center or Building 32 is a 720,000-square-foot academic complex. Photo by

The Experience Music Project and Science Fiction Museum and Hall of Fame. Photo by

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Gehry is sometimes associated with what is known as Technology from the National Building Museum on behalf the “Los Angeles School,” or the “Santa Monica School” of Gehry Partners and Gehry Technologies. of architecture. The appropriateness of this designation and the existence of such a school, however, remains Academia controversial due to the lack of a unifying philosophy or Gehry is a Distinguished Professor of Architecture theory. This designation stems from the Los Angeles area’s at Columbia University and teaches advanced design producing a group of the most influential postmodern studio­s at the Yale School of Architecture. He has received architects, including such notable Gehry contemporaries honorary doctoral degrees from Occidental College, as Eric Owen Moss and Pritzker Prize-winner Thom Whittier College, the Southern California Institute of Mayne of Morphosis, as well as the famous schools of Architecture, the University of Toronto, the California architecture at the Southern California Institute of College of Arts and Crafts, the Technical University of Archi­tecture, UCLA, and USC where Gehry is a member Nova Scotia, the Rhode Island School of Design, the of the Board of Directors. Gehry’s style at times seems California Institute of the Arts, and the Otis Art Institute unfinished or even crude, but his work is consistent at the Parsons School of Design. In 1982 and 1989, he held with the California ‘funk’ art movement in the 1960s the Charlotte Davenport Professorship in Architecture and early 1970s, which featured the use of inexpensive at Yale University. In 1984, he held the Eliot Noyes Chair found objects and non-traditional media such as clay at Harvard University. In January 2011, he joined the to make serious art. Gehry has been called “the apostle University of Southern California (USC) faculty, as the of chain-link fencing and corrugated metal siding”. Judge Widney Professor of Architecture. However, a retrospective exhibit at New York’s Whitney Museum in 1988 revealed that he is also a sophisticated Budgets classical artist, who knows European art history and Gehry has gained a reputation for taking the budgets of contemporary sculpture and painting. Reception of his clients seriously, in an industry where complex and Gehry’s work is not always positive. Art historian Hal innovative designs like Gehry’s typically go over budget. Foster reads Gehry’s architecture as, primarily, in the Sydney Opera House, which has been compared with the service of corporate branding. Criticism of his work Guggenheim Museum Bilbao in terms of architectural includes complaints that the buildings waste structural innovation, had a cost overrun of 1,400 percent. It was resources by creating functionless forms, do not seem to therefore duly noted when the Guggenheim Bilbao belong in their surroundings and are apparently designed was constructed on time and budget. In an interview in without accounting for the local climate. Harvard Design Magazine Gehry explained how he did it. First, he ensured that what he calls the “organization of the artist” prevailed during construction, in order to Awards Gehry was elected to the College of Fellows of the American prevent political and business interests from interfering Institute of Architects in 1974, and he has received many with the design. Second, he made sure he had a detailed national, regional, and local AIA awards, including AIA and realistic cost estimate before proceeding. Third, he Los Angeles Chapter Gold Medal. He presently serves used CATIA and close collaboration with the individual on the steering committee of the Aga Khan Award for building trades to control costs during construction. Architecture. Gehry was awarded the Pritzker Architecture However, not all of Gehry’s projects have gone smoothly. Prize at the Tōdai-ji Buddhist Temple in 1989. The Pritzker The Walt Disney Concert Hall in Downtown Los Angel­es Prize serves to honor a living architect whose built work resulted in over 10,000 and was $174 million over budget. demonstrates a combination of those qualities of talent, Furthermore, there was a dispute which ended with a vision, and commitment, which has produced consistent $17.8 million settlement. and significant contributions to humanity and the built environment through the art of architecture. In 1999, he Celebrity status was awarded the AIA Gold Medal “in recognition of a Gehry is considered a modern architectural icon and significant body of work of lasting influence on the theory celebrity, a major “Starchitect” — a neologism describing and practice of architecture.” He accepted the 2007 The the phenomenon of architects attaining a sort of celebrity Henry C. Turner Prize for Innovation in Construction status. Although Gehry has been a vocal opponent of the

This is Frank Gehry

term, it usually refers to architects known for dramatic, fish is made of glass plates and silicone, with the internal influential designs that often achieve fame and notoriety supporting structure of wood and steel clearly visible. through their spectacular effect. Other notable celebrity It soars above a reflecting pool in a glass building built architects include Jean Nouvel, Zaha Hadid, Thom Mayne, especially for it, in the Minneapolis Sculpture Garden. Steven Holl, Rem Koolhaas, and Norman Foster. Gehry Another huge Gehry fish sculpture, built in 1992, is came to the attention of the public in 1972 with his “Easy located in front of the Port Olímpic, in Barcelona, and Edges” cardboard furniture. He has appeared in Apple’s another one dominates a public garden in front of the black and white “Think Different” pictorial ad campaign Fishdance Restaurant in Kobe, Japan. In addition to that associates offbeat but revered figures with Apple’s architecture, Gehry has made a line of furniture, jewelry design philosophy. He even once appeared as himself in for Tiffany & Co., various household items, sculptures, The Simpsons in the episode “The Seven-Beer Snitch”, and even a glass bottle for Wyborowa Vodka. His first where he parodied himself by intimating that his ideas line of furniture, produced from 1969–1973, was called are derived by looking at a crumpled paper ball. He also “Easy Edges”, constructed out of cardboard. Another line voiced himself on the TV show Arthur, where he helped of furniture released in the spring of 1992 is “Bentwood Arthur and his friends design a new treehouse. Steve Furniture”. Each piece is named after a different hockey Sampl­e, President of the University of Southern California, term. He was first introduced to making furniture in told Gehry that “...After George Lucas, you are our most 1954 while serving in the U.S. Army, where he designed prominent graduate.” In 2009, Gehry designed a hat furniture for the enlisted soldiers. Gehry claims that for pop star Lady Gaga, reportedly by using his iPhone. making furniture is his “quick fix”.

The Vitra Design Museum is an internationally renowned, privately owned museum for design in Weil am Rhein, Germany. Photo by Thomas Dix.

Documentary In 2005, veteran film director Sydney Pollack, a friend of Gehry’s, made the documentary Sketches of Frank Gehry with appreciative comments by Philip Johnson, Ed Ruscha, Julian Schnabel, and Dennis Hopper, and critical ones by Hal Foster supplementing dialogue between Gehry and Pollack about their work in two collaborative art forms with considerable commercial constraints and photography of some buildings Gehry designed. It was released on DVD by Sony Pictures Home Entertainment on August 22, 2006, together with an interview of Sydney Pollack by fellow director Alexander Payne and some audience questions following the premiere of the film.

Fish and furniture

The Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum is an art museum located on the University of Minnesota campus in Minneapolis. Photo by

Gehry is very much inspired by fish. Not only do they appear in his buildings, he created a line of jewelry, household items, and sculptures based on this motif. “It was by accident I got into the fish image”, claimed Gehry. One thing that sparked his interest in fish was the fact that his colleagues are recreating Greek temples. He said, “Three hundred million years before man was fish....if you gotta go back, and you’re insecure about going forward... go back three hundred million years ago. Why are you stopping at the Greeks? So I started drawing fish in my sketchbook, and then I started to realize that there was something in it.” Standing Glass Fish is just one of many works featuring fish which Gehry has created. The gigantic

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Let’s play!

Plato once said “You can discover more about a person in an hour of play than in a year of conversation.” So try to solve the labyrinth yourself or let somebody else try. Maybe you can learn something new. Couse the way of thinking is very much alike the way you think in design. This task is complicated as well as any design tasks. So by solving this labyrinth you can learn new ways to think strategy in design. start


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Let’s play!

1. Which font is this?

10. which font is this?

A. Daxline Pro

A. Celeste

B. Helvetica

B. Garamond

C. Frutiger

C. Adobe Caslon Pro

2. Who made the Coca Cola logo?

11. What about this font?

A. Frank Mason Robinson

A. Daxline Pro

B. David Shen

B. Helvetica

C. Jacob Cass

C. Din

3. What style era is the Empire State Building ?

12. Who is the designer of this magazine?

A. Art Deco

A. Alexander Kanvik

B. Art nouveau

B. Espen Varslot

C. Cubism

C. Milton Glaser

4. Which style era did pablo picasso paint?

13. Which project on behance is most appreciated?

A. Art nouveau

A. Carving

B. Art Deco

B. Jacu Coffe Roastery

C. Cubism

C. INTRO free font

5. Who painted the Mona lisa?

14. How was apple’s first logo?

A. Leonardi Di Vinci

A. An apple

B. Leonardo Da Vinci

B. Isaac Newton sitting under a tree

C. Leonard Da Vinci

C. A banana

6. what is pantone?

15. Which bureau designed the norwegian opera?

A. A color palettes

A. Snøhetta

B. A typographic tool

B. Dinamo

C. A sunglass brand

C. Sverre Fehn Agency

7. Which of these are a font designer?

16. Do you know who Elling Reitan is?

A. Eirik Gihle

A. Yes, he is doing art and graphics

B. Eric Gill

B. Yes, he is doing art

C. Fredrik Refsli

C. I have no idea

8. Who designed capital gate in abu dhabi?

17. Who designs apple’s products?


A. Kaliber Design

B. Sir Norman Foster

B. Manfred Kielnhofer

C. Frank Gehry

C. Jonathan Paul Ive

9. Who made the apple logo?

18. Who designed the empire state building?

A. Milton Glaser

A. Richard Rogers

B. Paul Rand

B. William F. Lamb

C. Rob Janoff

C. Paul Rudolph

Correct answers: 1.A, 2.A, 3.A, 4.C, 5.B, 6.A, 7.B, 8.A, 9.C, 10.A, 11.C, 12.A, 13.B,14.B, 15.A, 16.A, 17.C, 18.B.

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Portrait of Wally Olins


According to The Financial Times Wally’s ”the world’s leading practitioner of branding and identity.” Wally tries his best to be direct and clear in his speech. He tells his clients the truth, without adding anything in between. He hates people who do not call him back, and generally unwind people. Outside of that he is okay to work with. He like to go for walks, mostly with the dog, sometimes with his wife and sometimes with both. He enjoys opera, theater, and dinner or lunch where all the talking.

Text: Marco van Hout

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Portrait of Wally Olins

Good morging mr. Olins. Most people realize and acknowledge that products or services are without a doubt connected to brands. Nevertheless, it is not always very clear what this connection is. Especially when it comes to ascribing a level of importance to either one. How do you see the relationship of products and services with brands?

It is on the basis of evoked emotional response that brands become differentiated in the minds of consumers and acquire the status of preferred brands. In your opinion, which aspects of “brand“ are the most important in evoking the right emotions to acquire this important status?

If you look at products and services traditionally, nobody thought through the idea in the early twentieth century. Let’s say Ford Motor Company. Ford didn’t look through the idea of creating a brand, but he intuitively created a brand. Very often brands are created by people who aren’t aware that they are doing just that. Every activity has a functional basis, you buy it on the base of its price, its quality and service. It also has an emotional content. Sometimes this emotional content is very deliberately and very carefully created. And sometimes this emotion­al content emerges in a very implicit rather natural way, from the personality of the people who run the business. The answer to your question therefore is, that virtually every product or service is both functional and emotional in content, so brands exist.

Well, if you take the example of Lloyd’s, which is probably the best known insurance brand in the world and had 300 years or so that it’s been in existence. It had a particular way of being, a particular style or way of projecting an idea of itself. What we have done recently, is refresh that, renew it and we have used the phrase “constant originality”. This phrase doesn’t describe a new Lloyd’s, it describes what Lloyd’s is. And when you would have to describe which aspects of brand are most important in creating such a brand? Or is this too hard to say?

So, when you would say that emotional content is deli­ berately put into a product. How would that be done?

It’s done in all kinds of ways. A ladies hairdresser, for example, who has a very flamboyant way of dressing and personal style. He creates a salon which is very much an extension of his own personality. Then he has already started to create a brand. When he makes two, five or ten of them, he has created a brand. He has done it implicitly though, he doesn’t know. If you ask him the question, he won’t be able to answer because it was done implicitly as a result of his own feelings about what he does. On the other hand, you can have organizations like ours, who very carefully examine a market place and see where the opportunities to create a new brand come, because the three, four or five brands that already exist in the market place haven’t covered a particular spectrum.

As I have said on a number of occasions and as I have also written in the book, I think that almost always you have to have the functional aspects of a brand right. The product, the price, the quality and the service have to be as good as the best of the competition. It isn’t absolutely always the case, but it’s mostly the case. And then you have to have something inside the brand, which makes people feel that “this is what I want to be associated with”. In other words, the brand adds something to me. I don’t buy the brand so much because I like the brand. I buy the brand because it adds something to my own feeling about myself. That’s the key to a successful brand. If you look at motorcars for example. They’ve all got four wheels and they all go as fast as you need to go, because there are so many speed limits all over. So why do people buy very large and fast cars that use a lot of fuel? Because they demonstrate something about themselves. I am a victim of this as well, I am just as bad as anyone else (laughs). I also have cars that I don’t need, but I like them.

In which way do you focus on the emotional values of products or services when you are asked to (re)invent a brand for a client?

Well, when you take for example AKZO, which we worked for, let’s say twenty years ago. AKZO was created from a whole set of different organizations which came together. It needed to present both to the people who worked inside it and to the outside people who dealt with it (suppliers, customers or anybody else) an idea of what it was. Particularly in relation to its competitor­s. So we very deliberately created that idea, but we looked inside the organization for characteristics that we could accentuate and develop so that the reality of the organization as it emerged was expressed through the brand. The brand wasn’t an entire artificial construct, it came from the nature of the business.
If on the other hand, you are talking about something that begins completely from scratch, from nothing, like Orange. Then you have to look at where the market place is and what the opportunities are, and see what you can do to create something that fits competitively in that market place. You do that partly through the examination that I have just described, but you also have to make it work so that the people inside the organization have to live the brand and understand what it stands for. That is much harder in a service brand than in a product brand.

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Is this the concept of “self-image“ they talk about all the time?

Yes, I think you could describe it as that. The concepts of self-image and brand identity and brand value are mentioned frequently, mainly in the academic world. It is argued that the match a person makes between his or her image of “self“ and the identity and values of the brand, defines the relationship and feelings a person has with a brand.

Well, it does to a certain extend. It depends on what brand you are talking about. This really particularly applies to luxury brands. I guess that when you buy breakfast cereals, whether you have Kellogg’s, Nestle, or any other brand, it is not an issue of self-image, but rather an issue of what you think tastes nice. If you are buying a bag of Louis Vuitton or some cognac, then self-image is much more significant. So, when I would ask you how you see this definition of a relationship manifested in the “real world“, you would most certainly refer to luxury brands?

Most certainly, but it is also true for charity brands.

Portrait of Wally Olins

Did you find Wally or Wally Olins?

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Portrait of Wally Olins

You have mentioned several kinds of branding now. Where would you say is branding going?

That is a question that everybody asks. Well, it is going in many directions but one of the directions it’s going in, is creating a much greater awareness of charity, of the world around us. When you are talking about sustainability or when you are talking about fair trade or giving money to charities. The point about a charity is, that it has only got emotional content. It doesn’t have any functional content; you don’t get anything ‘of ’ of giving something to a charity. Except that you derive emotional satisfaction, there is no functional satisfa­ ction. That is very interesting, because if a charity can get itself in a situation that it does something for my self-image and I associate myself with a charity because it makes me feel good about myself. And that is, if you like, the ultimate brand. Just because the brand has got no functional content at all. It only exists emotionally. And I think that is a very interesting phenomenon that is going to happen. Because as people get richer, and I am talking about in the West, then there will come a time where you have several houses, or several cars, etc. How many more things can you have? So people will begin to get their satisfaction increasingly from emotion, self-image if you like, of being nice, of being good, of behaving properly.

In “On Brand“ you give a thorough description of where brands came from and what happened when they grew up. Advertising has shifted mostly from informational (for example this drink contains herbs) to transformational (you are extremely cool when you drink this). And now, the talk of the day is “emotional branding“: creating long-lasting emotional relationships between consumers and brands. What, would you say, is new about that? Or are we just finally giving the old dog a name?

So, seeing brands like Apple and Coca-Cola as the ultimate brands is outdated?

I think it will be outdated, I don’t think it is outdated yet, but it will be in a few years time. In a few years time the ultimate brand might be the Red Cross. There will be brands that won’t have any functional content and therefore only emotional content. And those brands are probably going to be charity brands. You have said that one can forget about branding when the product is not good. This appears to go against the general idea that with branding, one could even make a “turd’ popular and attractive. Why is this such a big misunderstanding?

Well, you see, if you take the view that people are stupid and you can talk them into anything, are very easily persuaded and buy any rubbish, which is boldly speaking Naomi Klein’s (NO LOGO) view. Naomi Klein’s view of the human condition is that people are stupid and do anything they’re told. That is not a view that I share. I think that if people find a product, buy it and don’t like it, they won’t buy it again. You can see that from the collapse of brands all over the world. There used to be an airline called “Pan Am” and it doesn’t exist anymore. It was so important an airline that in Stanley Kubrick’s film “2001: A Space Oddity”, the spaceship had a Pan Am logo on it. He couldn’t even concede, in 1968 when he made the movie, that Pan Am wouldn’t exist anymore in 30 years time. There are plenty of brands that fail. General Motors, which was the largest company in the world, is falling to pieces. Why? Because it has lousy management and lousy products. I don’t believe, that for the most part, people buy things that are no good.

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There is nothing new about it at all. It is quite clear that people have long emotional relationships with each other and they have long emotional relationships with dogs and cats and you can also have a long emotional relationship with an armchair! You can have a long emotional relationship with whiskey. This is the brand of whiskey I like and that evokes in me all kinds of feelings that other brands of whiskey don’t evoke. Now, this is not necessarily because of what it tastes like. It’s because of the relationship, the memories that it brings back. A lot of books are written and sure, people have long emotional relationships with brands. But, that’s not new at all.
It is very important to try and understand the emotional relationships if you are making brands work and how you can continue to do that for a long time. But there is another thing that you have to remember. At the same time as people create long lasting emotional relationships with brands, there is also the element of fashion. So, at one level you have a long lasting relationship and at another level you can have a relationship that can last five years or five minutes, because it goes in and out of fashion. And there are also situations in which you want to continue to like the brand, but you can’t because the brand doesn’t behave in a way that you find attractive. The collapse of Rover, or the whole British motor industry, took place despite the fact that many people loved those brands. They loved MG, they loved Rover, but when you continue to make lousy products and tread people badly, in the end they get sick of it. When I think of the typical example of the blindfolded Coca-Cola versus Pepsi Cola preference test, where you would say: “Oh! It was Coca-Cola! Yes, I was doubting, but that one was perhaps the one I preferred instead of what I pointed out earlier….“
How much do brands influence our taste for and reactions to a certain product?

Well, the implication in the observation that you just made, is that functionally Coca-Cola was less attractive than Pepsi, because when you are blind fold you prefer Pepsi. I accept that that is true, and God knows how many times people have played that game. The point is though, that they are not entirely functional products. These are products that give you satisfaction. If you take the example of the Lousi Vuitton handbag. Well, if you want to have a bag that carries things around you’d be better of going to a supermarket and get a plastic bag. That carries things around better and is probably more effective. But the Louis Vuitton bag or let’s say the Coca-Cola bottle is an emotional statement as much as or perhaps even more than a functional statement. So, while there are some brands, and we talked about this earlier, where the function is very important, there are others where the emotional issues are more significant. If I would have to go to a bank and I would like to make a statement about myself, I would probably go to a private bank, with an elite name and an elite style. This issue of emotion and function, very much depends of the product.

Portrait of Wally Olins

You might say that products and service people are the interface between us and the brand (as an entity). The complexity and the feedback of this interface is crucial in the emotional relationship between brands and consumers. Though the quality of a product is easier to manage beforehand than something intangible as a service experience. In your book you argue for companies to see the importance of educating people who provide service to consumers. Isn’t that the hardest thing to do?

Yes! It is very hard to do. We have to remember that marketing grew up through companies like Unilever and Proctor & Gamble. You made ice-cream, soap, or whatever the product was. And you made five, ten, fifteen or a hundred million of them while the consumers’ reaction was always the same. That’s how marketing began. Marketing is now moving into services and every time you have a relationship with a service provider, the relationship is different. Every relation, every transaction that happens is different. And that is very difficult to manage. Especially by marketing people, because they have never traditionally needed to understand that every transaction is different. When you have checked and tested the product thoroughly, for ice-cream the consumers’ reaction is going to be the same, but when you are running Vodafone or DHL this is not going to be the case. People find that incredibly hard to understand. Your latest challenge has been to brand nations. When I think of the brand “España“, Spain, which you use as an example in your book, it occurs to me that it has been mainly used to brand Spain for tourist purposes. It is great to see that Spain is using logo’s and identity even internally in the same way to promote the various provinces like Galicia or Andalucía.
Of course, we have seen the enormous change in Spain since the death of Franco in 1975 and Spain has been very successful to export their identity of a rapidly modernizing nation. Companies like Telefonica and Repsol are big international players and confirm these views on modern Spain.
But, are the success stories which changed people’s views on Spain all around the world a result of efforts to brand the nation, or has it been the other way around and was the success a lead to get to brand the nation a lot easier? In your book you mentioned it is mainly a task of governments to manage this.

I understand your point. Well, it is very difficult to be clear about this. Nation branding is very different from commercial branding. It’s much more complicated and it’s much harder to manage. In fact you can hardly manage it… You can half-manage it. Some of the issues are the same. Your interest in tourism, your interest in investments, your interest in brand export, for example. But, what you can’t control is the way the nation is perceived, in terms of public diplomacy. Three or four years ago, nobody had an idea of the Ukraine and then something called the Orange Revolution happened. The Ukraine appeared very briefly and very clearly on the public map. Now it has slightly disappeared again. But for a time, the Ukraine was very significant. Now, that kind of thing doesn’t happen very much in business. So the issue of public diplomacy which affects the way in which a nation is perceived is very different in the commercial context from the way it is in a national context. The second issue is that nobody is in charge. In a commercial context there is somebody in the end in charge of the program. In a national context this is very difficult to know, because it is partly public sector, it is partly private sector, the tourism authority wants to handle it, foreign direct investment people want to handle it, etc. The political parties’ vision is very short, they want to change things in two, three or fours years because that’s the time they are in office. Then somebody else comes in office and has a very different view of the nation. So, the whole business of managing it is extremely difficult. However having said that, it is undoubtedly the case that in certain situations where

the reality does change over decades, perceptions very often lack behind them. And very, very few countries are satisfied with the way they are perceived, because they are perceived through stereotypes. So, the nations increasing attempt to match the perceptions with the changing reality. We have been recently working with Poland, which is not an easy country to work with. It is with 40 million people the same size as Spain, its influence in Eastern Europe should be the same as Spain in the far West of Europe. Perceptions of Poland remain very much stuck in a world of grey, poor, autocratic, cold, communism and all that kind of stuff. And Poland is rapidly changing and is becoming more and more like any other country. So, it is very hard to deal with it and it particularly in Poland where the politics are very unstable. Having said that however, it is not good for a nation to have a perception that is miles and miles away from its reality. So, when you are on this assignment and you come in in Poland…. Where do you start?

Well, you start in finding out how the nation perceives itself and how it is perceived by various target groups. How is the nation perceived internally by rich people, by poor people, by urban people, by rural people, etc. What do the Russians think, what do the Germans think, the French, Dutch, etc. You have to try and check these perceptions against the reality and then you have to think again: what is the brand, what is it that makes this country different. And it isn’t a case of sun, sea and sand…. Well, not in the case of Poland anyway (laughs). Wally, this seems very big already. What would be the next challenge? Are there any?

Sure! Well, there’s branding charities, what we talked about earlier. And there is the whole issue of the corporation that is now hollering out, so you can very easily find a company like Virgin. A company that consists entirely of attitude. It doesn’t really make or do anything. Virgin goes into hotels so then it is a hotel business, it goes into banking, etc. So you are going to have companies that are only about attitude and that means that the brand is going get even more important. Ok, Wally, thank you very much for this conversation.

Ok, very nice to talk to you.

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Portrait of Wally Olins

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Portrait of Wally Olins

Inspiration is the fuel for our designer’s minds and bodies - although some would say it actually is coffee :) If our inspiration stream dries out, things are slowing down, we don’t know how to start, how to continue and how to finish the tasks we are working on. Our mind gets distracted very fast and we just can not focus on what is needed. Or we are just trying to put the colors, shapes and letters to the right place and just feel that it doesn’t feel the right way.


So what can we do? We always have two choices - to give up, or not to give up and get inspired. I want to share with you a way how I get inspired when my inspiration stream feels dried. And as a bonus, on the end of this article you will find out, what some of the best designers do to get inspired.


Watch some inspirational movies, trailers, short videos. Watch some awesome Typography motion videos.


Read at least one of many great design/development books. Read biography of inspiring people who changed their world and stories of successful businesses.


Get inspired by reading some great design related blogs. You will find many great design resources, reviews, showcases of great designs, design tutorials and much more.


Nature is amazingly beautiful. I was on holiday in Switzerland recently, and seeing the nature there was one of the most beautiful views I ever seen. It was amazing to see all the mountains and colors from the plane. Go to mountains or beach, look at the flowers, watch the animals and bugs and you will get inspired. You will (almost) never go wrong with a color scheme created from nature. Take a look at some inspiring color schemes created from nature.

Art Gallery

Go to gallery or a museum and see the art of great artists, that inspired people for hundreds of years. Learn about their background, find out more about the artist. Study their techniques. Try to feel the atmosphere of the paintings.


Sleep, go out for a walk, watch people in the streets, get some fresh air, play some sport. Seriously, tired body and tired mind is like a barrier for your inspiration stream. Staying awake till 4am, trying to make that design, then sleeping for 3 hrs and getting back to your desk will not make it. Also make sure you drink enough water every day.


Music is powerful. It can get you in the right mood. As a musician, music plays important role in my life. I love listening to a smooth jazz or funky-drum’n’base when designing. It helps me to get away from the world around me and to focus on the task.


Twitter can be a great source of inspiration with thousands of links tweeted every hour. Search for hashtags #inspiration #inspired #design #webdesign on twitter. com search.

Number one 2012 / ArtDesign&Architecture / 25

The life of Claude Monet

Claude Monet was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement’s philosophy of expressing one’s perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein-air landscape painting. The term Impressionism is derived from the title of his painting Impression, Sunrise.


fever, his aunt intervened to get him out of the army if he agreed to complete an art course at an art school. It is possible that the Dutch painter Johan Barthold Jongkind, whom Monet knew, may have prompted his aunt on this matter. Disillusioned with the traditional art taught at art schools, in 1862 Monet became a student of Charles Gleyre in Paris, where he met Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Frédéric Bazille and Alfred Sisley. Together they shared new approaches to art, painting the effects of light en plein air with broken color and rapid brushstrokes, in what later came to be known as Impressionism. Monet’s Camille or The Woman in the Green Dress, painted in 1866, brought him recognition and was one of many works featuring his future wife, Camille Doncieux; she was the model for the figures in Women in the Garden of the following year, as well as for On the Bank of the Seine, Bennecourt, 1868, pictured here. Shortly thereafter, Camille became pregnant and gave birth to their first child, Jean.


Netherlands, where he made twenty-five paintings. He also paid a first visit to nearby Amsterdam. In October or November 1871, he returned to France. Monet lived from December 1871 to 1878 at Argenteuil, a village on the right bank of the Seine river near Paris, and a popular Sunday-outing desti­nation for Parisians, where he painted some of his best known works. In 1874, he briefly returned to Holland. In 1872, he painted Impress­ ion, Sunrise depicting a Le Havre port landscape. It hung in the first Impressionist exhibition in 1874 and is now displayed in the Musée Marmottan Monet in Paris. From the painting’s title, art critic Louis Leroy coined the term “Impressionism”,­which he intended as disparagement but which the Impressionists app­ ropriated for themselves. Also in this exhibition was a painting titled Boulevard des Capucines, a painting of the boulevard done from the photographer Nadar’s apartment at no. 35. There were, however, two paintings by Monet of the boulevard: one is now in the Pushkin Museum in Moscow, the other in the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City. It has never become clear which painting appeared in the groundbreaking 1874 exhibition, though more recently the Moscow picture has been favoured. Monet and Camille Doncieux had married just before the war and, after their excursion to London and Zaandam, they had moved to Argenteuil, in December 1871. It was during this time that Monet painted various works of modern life. Camille became ill in 1876. They had a second son, Michel, on 17 March 1878. This second child weakened her already fading health. In that same year, he moved to the village of Vétheuil. On 5 September 1879, Camille Monet died of tuberculosis at the age of thirty-two; Monet painted her on her death bed.

When Monet traveled to Paris to visit the Louvre, he witnessed painters copying from the old masters. Having brought his paints and other tools with him, he would instead go and sit by a window and paint what he saw. Monet was in Paris for several years and met other young painters who would become friends and fellow impressionists; among them was Édouard Manet. In June 1861, Monet joined the First Regiment of African Light Cavalry in Algeria for a seven-year commitment, but, two years later, after he had contracted typhoid

After several difficult months following the death of Camille, a grief-stricken Monet began in earnest to create some of his best paintings of the 19th century. During the early 1880s, Monet painted several groups of landscapes and seascapes in what he considered to be campaigns to document the French countryside. His extensive campaigns evolved into his series’ paintings. Camille Monet had become ill with tuberculosis in

Claude Monet was born on 14 November 1840 on the 5th floor of 45 rue Laffitte, in the 9th arrondissement of Paris. He was the second son of Claude Adolphe Monet and Louise Justine Aubrée Monet, both of them secondgeneration Parisians. On 20 May 1841, he was baptized in the local parish church, Notre-Dame-de-Lorette, as Oscar-Claude, but his parents called him simply Oscar. In 1845, his family moved to Le Havre in Normandy. His father wanted him to go into the family grocery business, but Monet wanted to become an artist. His mother was a singer. On 1 April 1851, Monet entered Le Havre secondary school of the arts. Locals knew him well for his charcoal caricatures, which he would sell for ten to twenty francs. Monet also undertook his first drawing lessons from Jacques-François Ochard, a former student of Jacques-Louis David. On the beaches of Normandy in about 1856/1857, he met fellow artist Eugène Boudin, who became his mentor and taught him to use oil paints. Boudin taught Monet “en plein air” techniques for painting. Both received the influence of Johan Barthold Jongkind. On 28 January 1857, his mother died. At the age of sixteen, he left school and went to live with his widowed childless aunt, MarieJeanne Lecadre.

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War, Impressionism, and Argenteuil After the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War, Monet took refuge in England in September 1870, where he studied the works of John Constable and Joseph Mallord William Turner, both of whose landscapes would serve to inspire Monet’s innovations in the study of color. In the spring of 1871, Monet’s works were refused authorisation for inclusion in the Royal Academy exhibition. In May 1871, he left London to live in Zaandam, in the

Later life

Woman with a parasol. Photo by

The life of Claude Monet

1876. Pregnant with her second child she gave birth to Michel Monet in March 1878. In 1878 the Monets temporarily moved into the home of Ernest Hoschedé, (1837–1891), a wealthy department store owner and patron of the arts. Both families then shared a house in Vétheuil during the summer. After her husband became bankrupt, and left in 1878 for Belgium, and after the death of Camille Monet in September 1879, and while Monet continued to live in the house in Vétheuil; Alice Hoschedé helped Monet to raise his two sons, Jean and Michel, by taking them to Paris to live alongside her own six children. They were Blanche Hoschedé Monet. Germaine, Suzanne Hoschedé, Marthe, Jean-Pierre, and Jacques. In the spring of 1880, Alice Hoschedé and all the children left Paris and rejoined Monet still living in the house in Vétheuil. In 1881, all of them moved to Poissy, which Monet hated. In April 1883, looking out the window of the little train between Vernon and Gasny, he discovered Giverny. They then moved to Vernon, then to a house in Giverny in Normandy, where he planted a large garden and where he painted for much of the rest of his life. Following the death of her estranged husband, Alice Hoschedé married Claude Monet in 1892.

1980, following restoration. In addition to souvenirs of Monet and other objects of his life, the house contains his collection of Japanese woodcut prints. The house is one of the two main attractions of Giverny, which hosts tourists from all over the world.

Posthumous sales

The artist’s garden at vetheuil. Photo by

ings in Venice, Italy, and in London he painted two important series—views of Parliament and views of Charing Cross Bridge. His second wife, Alice, died in 1911 and his oldest son Jean, who had married Alice’s daughter Blanche, Monet’s particular favourite, died in 1914. After his wife died, Blanche looked after and cared for him. It was during this time that Monet began to develop the first signs of cataracts. During World War I, in which his younger son Michel served and his friend and admirer Clemenceau led the French nation, Monet painted a series of weeping willow trees as homage to the French fallen soldiers. In 1923, he underwent two operations to remove his cataracts: the paintings done while the cataracts affected his vision have a general reddish tone, which is characteristic of the vision of cataract victims. It may also be that after surgery he was able to see certain ultraviolet wavelengths of light that are normally excluded by the lens of the eye; this may have had an effect on the colors he perceived. After his operations he even repainted some of these paintings, with bluer water lilies than before.

Camille Monet sur son lit de mort. Photo by

Giverny At the beginning of May 1883, Monet and his large family rented a house and 2 acres from a local landowner. The house was situated near the main road between the towns of Vernon and Gasny at Giverny. There was a barn that doubled as a painting studio, orchards and a small garden. The house was close enough to the local schools for the children to attend and the surrounding landscape offered many suitable motifs for Monet’s work. The family worked and built up the gardens and Monet’s fortunes began to change for the better as his dealer Paul Durand-Ruel had increasing success in selling his paintings. By November 1890, Monet was prosperous enough to buy the house, the surrounding buildings and the land for his gardens. During the 1890s, Monet built a greenhouse and a second studio, a spacious building well lit with skylights. Beginning in the 1880s and 1890s through the end of his life in 1926, Monet worked on “series” paintings, in which a subject was depicted in varying light and weather conditions. His first series exhibited as such was of Haystacks, painted from different points of view and at different times of the day. Fifteen of the paintings were exhibited at the Galerie Durand-Ruel in 1891. He later produced several series of paintings including: Rouen Cathedral, Poplars, the Parliament, Mornings on the Seine, and the Water Lilies that were painted on his property at Giverny. Monet was fond of painting controlled nature: his own gardens in Giverny, with its water lilies, pond, and bridge. He also painted up and down the banks of the Seine, producing paintings such as Break-up of the ice on the Seine. He wrote daily instructions to his gardener, precise designs and layouts for plantings, and invoices for his floral purchases and his collection of botany books. As Monet’s wealth grew, his garden evolved. He remained its architect, even after he hired seven gardeners. Between 1883 and 1908, Monet traveled to the Mediterranean, where he painted landmarks, landscapes, and seascapes, such as Bordighera. He painted an important series of paint-

In 2004, London, the Parliament, Effects of Sun in the Fog, was sold for US$20.1 million. In 2006, the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society published a paper providing evidence that these were painted in situ at St Thomas’ Hospital over the river Thames. Falaises près de Dieppe has been stolen on two separate occasions. Once in 1998 and most recently in August 2007. It was recovered in June 2008. Monet’s Le Pont du chemin de fer à Argenteuil, an 1873 painting of a railway bridge spanning the Seine near Paris, was bought by an anonymous telephone bidder for a record $ 41.4 million at Christie’s auction in New York on 6 May 2008. The previous record for his painting stood at $ 36.5 million. Just a few weeks later, Le bassin aux nymphéas was sold at Christie’s 24 June 2008 auction in London, lot 19, for £36,500,000 or £40,921,250 with fees, nearly doubling the record for the artist and representing one of the top 20 highest prices paid for a painting at the time.

Death Monet died of lung cancer on 5 December 1926 at the age of 86 and is buried in the Giverny church cemetery. Monet had insisted that the occasion be simple; thus only about fifty people attended the ceremony. His home, garden and waterlily pond were bequeathed by his son Michel, his only heir, to the French Academy of Fine Arts in 1966. Through the Fondation Claude Monet, the house and gardens were opened for visit in

Number one 2012 / ArtDesign&Architecture / 27

Portrait of Rob Janoff

Rob Janoff and the apple logo

The Apple logo is one of the most famous logos in the world. Apple fans not only put this logo on their vehicles to show their loyalty, they go to the extreme of tattooing themselves with it, a level of dedication very few brands achieved. The logo is admired for it’s simplicity and many meanings that people attach to it. It’s timeless. For 30 years it has been unchanged and I expect at least another 30 Text: Ivan Raszl before anything drastic will be done to it.

Rob Janoff made the famous Apple logo in 1977. Photo by

When Jean Louis Gassée (executive at Apple Computer from 1981 to 1990) was asked about his thoughts to the Apple logo he answered:
One of the deep mysteries to me is our logo, the symbol of lust and knowledge, bitten into, all crossed with the colors of the rainbow in the wrong order. You couldn’t dream of a more appropriate logo: lust, knowledge, hope, and anarchy There are many theories about this logo and many of them are just that. Find out the truth, read the interview with Rob Janoff, the designer of the original Apple logo.

When did you design the original Apple logo with the colorful stripes?

Early 1977. The agency got the account (Apple) sometime January. The logo was introduced with the new product Apple II in April of that year. Were you working for an agency at the time?

Yes, I was working for an advertising and public relations agency called Regis McKenna and I was an art director. Have you met Steve Jobs?

Sure. The first time must have been that first year. It was before he was getting his company started. So it was just Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Mike Markkula. His was the elder guy who corralled these young entrepreneurs. And I think it’s because Mike Markkula is how the account wound up at our agency. He was friends with my boss Regis McKenna. Did you get a brief from them?

Really there was no brief. But the really funny thing was the only direction we got from Steve Jobs is: “don’t make it cute”. There were briefs on subsequent jobs. First there was the logo, then there was an introductory ad and a sales brochure for the upcoming introduction. But it was pretty lose at that time. There was a previous logo to my logo. It was a logo done by Ron Wayne who was a very brief partner of the two Steves early on. He later took a buy-out, because he was a little concerned about the financial obligations he might have. He had a young family and the other guys didn’t. Ron did a pen and ink drawing of Sir Isaac Newton sitting under an Apple tree with a poem all around the border. And, I think when Steve Jobs started to get serious about the Apple II and getting a prototype for the design of the shell he realized that logo would not do. So he needed a new logo. How many versions did you do for the presentation?

We presented two versions of the logo. One with and one without the bite. Just in case he thought the bite was too cute. Fortunately he went with the one that gave it the most personality with the bite. Frankly it

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was a no brainer and you would miss the mark if you don’t show some kind of an apple. When I presented I showed him several variations. Striped version, solid color version, metallic version. All those with the same shape. So even then you knew you needed a solid color version and a metallic version?

Yes, you kind of had to. When you’re doing printing of either one or two color you need to have some way to go and I realized that the stripes would not always get it. The stripes really didn’t work as a greyscale halftone. Do the colors represent the hippy culture, which was in fashion at the time?

Partially it was a really big influence. Both Steve and I came from that place, but the real solid reason for the stripes was that the Apple II was the first home or personal computer that could reproduce images on the monitor in color. So it represents color bars on the screen. Also, it was an attempt to make the logo very accessible to everyone, especially to young people so that Steve could get them into schools. At the time most logos were single color or 2 color logos. Anybody fought against the color stripes?

Steve liked the idea, because he liked things that were outside the box. And, it’s not so revolutionary now, but it was a little different then. However I did get a lot of opposition from one of the higher account executives at agency. He was sort of working against

Portrait of Rob Janoff

anybody ever had an apple he probably bitten into it and that’s what you get. It was after I designed it, that my creative director told me: “Well you know, there is a computer term called byte”. And I was like: “You’re kidding!” So, it was like perfect, but it was coincidental that it was also a computer term. At the time I had to be told everything about basic computer terms. You obviously didn’t design the logo on computer?

Actually, and it’s a revelation to a lot of young designers. I get emails about the logo all the time asking me questions about the logo from all over the world and it’s really kinda very satisfying because it’s not something every designer gets a chance to talk to everybody because of some work you did. And, people ask me: did you design it on a computer? And of course at the time computers couldn’t really do that for me. It was only years later till the Mac was designed, developed and refined that I even start working on a computer. At the time it was all pencil and paper, glue and cut paper, pens and all that stuff. How does it feel to see your logo everywhere?

me on the meeting where I presented the work to Steve. He made a comment that if this new company went ahead and produced stationary in all these colors they will go bankrupt before they start the business. That was kind of the attitude that I was facing from the agency. But Steve liked it right off. He’s a pretty perceptive guy as we later learned and he liked the uniqueness of it as well. Also, I should add that the idea of a computer going into people’s homes was a little bit threatening because up to then computers were for big businesses, who were highly technical and sensitive and all that stuff. Most of the personal computer products that were coming out at the time had very techno names. TRS-80 and things like that, so that’s why the name Apple was so golden because it was basic and not technical and to go with that the colors were very important. What does the bite in the apple represents? Is it a reference to a computing term byte? Is it a reference to the biblical event when Eve bit into the forbidden fruit? Is the fruit itself referencing the discovery of gravity by Newton when an apple fell on his head while sitting under the tree?

They are really interesting, but I’m afraid it didn’t have a thing to do with it. From a designer’s point of view and you probably experienced this, one of the big phenomena is having the experience of designing a logo for whatever reasons you design it, and years later you find out supposedly why you did certain things. And, they are all BS. It’s a wonderful urban legend. Somebody starts it and then people go “oh yeah, that must be it”. Is it possible you were influenced subconsciously by these stories?

Well, I’m probably the least religious person, so Adam and Eve didn’t have anything to do with it. The bite of knowledge sounds fabulous, but that’s not it. And, there is a whole lot of other lure about it. Turing the famous supposed father of computer science who committed suicide in the early 50’s was british and was accused of being homosexual, which he was. He was facing a jail sentence so he committed suicide to avoid all that. So, I heard one of the legends being that the colored logo was an homage to him. People think I did the colored stripes because of the gay flag. And, that was something really thought for a long time. The other really cool part was that apparently he killed himself with a cyanide laced apple. And, then I found out Alan Turing’s favorite childhood story was Snow White where she falls asleep forever for eating a poisoned apple to be woken up by the handsome prince. Anyway, when I explain the real reason why I did the bite it’s kind of a let down. But I’ll tell you. I designed it with a bite for scale, so people get that it was an apple not a cherry. Also it was kind of iconic about taking a bite out of an apple. Something that everyone can experience. It goes across cultures. If

It’s a real unique experience that still makes my day whenever I see it unexpectedly. You’re watching a movie or tv and usually when they have a cool character they’ll have a laptop with an Apple logo on it, like Meryl Streep in The Devil Wears Prada. I’ve done a lot of traveling and early on when the logo still had multicolored stripes on it I was in China and there it was on a billboard somewhere. It was Chinese script that I couldn’t read, but something that came out of my head was up there for all to see and to interpret. It’s kind of a personal thing. It’s kinda like having a kid. You’re very proud of it. Do you like the changes Apple made to your original design over the years?

I do like them. The stripes served their purpose and they are definitely dated. I think it’s very important that a product like Apple keep very up-to-date and Steve Jobs is obviously very conscious of that and he has fabulous designers working for him in industrial design and graphic design. I feel great that it’s still the same basic silhouette even though it went through lots and lots of changes. The apple shape changed slightly from my original design in the early 80’s. The design firm Landor & Associates made the changes. They brightened the colors, they made the shapes much more symmetrical, much more geometric. When I designed it I pretty much did it freehand. I often think to myself why didn’t I do that. It’s because it wasn’t where I was coming from at the time. I think they did a great job and it will be fascinating to see the next iteration and how it works out. What other projects are you proud of?

People assume that I continued in a pure design mode and did lot more logos. I did some logos, but my career path is more about advertising, which meant print and TV advertising. As far as image or logo type of thing there is really nothing that tops or comes close to the Apple logo. It’s kind of a problem when you do something that so well known, so early on in your career. It’s all downhill from then. I was proud of all the things I was involved in. How to do a television commercial, which really does take a while to understand. Those were the things that kept my interest. In advertising you work with words and images together, you work with more people. There is more a chance to come up with imagery that has double meanings, has to do with colloquialisms and all that. That’s a long way of saying, there is nothing else that I’m as proud of and things were very different from then on.

Do you use Macs today? Do you still work?

I’d really like to retire, but in this economy I really can’t. I do work on a Mac, it’s all I ever worked on. I would not know what to do with a left click and a right click. Been brand loyal all the way, even though the products cost a little bit more. I wouldn’t think of using anything else. Plus, for graphics and design Apple has it all over Microsoft. Can you tell me a favorite logo of yours that is not designed by you?

There is a lot. I really do like other classic designs. Volkswagen­bec­ause it’s very clear what it is and it’s been around for so long. I’m trying to think of other logos that incorporated the multicolor and I thought of NBC logo. I like logos with a relationship with positive and negative spaces, where something is revealed. Like the FedEx logo?

Yes, that’s another one that I enjoy so much. It’s very simple and if you study it you get the dynamic element of it with that arrow. Those are the kinds of logos I respond to. Can you give me the most important things to watch out for when designing a logo?

The main thing is to make it simple, because designers especially young designers tend to over-design or clients want too many things in there. I think people who tried to work a logo too hard, having too much meaning, wind up with something that’s too complex. Logos usually have to be interpreted from very-very small to very-very large and that’s not always easy. So, I think simplicity and readability is key. You’re designing for an audience who really doesn’t care as much as you do and unless it catches their interest right away they are going to pass right over it. So having it very readable is also important. Capturing the audiences imagination by having something revealed to them as they look at the logo is also important. Also, it’s an opportunity to give whatever you’re trying to portray a personality — this is something I try to do. Huge percentage of designers never receive formal education. Still some of them are doing great work. Do you think formal education is necessary?

Well, I don’t think it’s necessary, because I think I’ve learned most of the knowledge about graphics after I started working, not in school. I do think though that someone who is a successful designer has innate ability to see in a certain way. I know that I do. I tend to be a very visual person as opposed to verbal and I think that’s a real important quality. Unfortunately now everyone has all of the tools at their disposal regardless whether they have any talent for designing. Everyone thinks he’s a designer by pulling down a filter in Photoshop. So, I think no, you don’t need all that much formal education and things can be learned obviously when working at it. Final question, what is your suggestion to our younger readers, what should they focus on to become great designers?

This is something I tell my kids: I could do this even if I’m not getting paid for it, because I like it so much, because now more than ever before there are so many people trying to become designers and work for agencies just because the tools that are available. So, it’s harder and harder to get work. And, the way some people have to get work is by apprenticing and working for nothing for somebody until they get that job, because there is so much competition.

Number one 2012 / ArtDesign&Architecture / 29

Learn the basics

A 20 minute intro to

typography basics

Typography plays a big role in graphic design and can be one of the hardest things to get right. My aim here is to introduce some of the basics and the most common areas of typography that will be important in your design work. Text: Mark Bowley

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Learn the basics

Typography plays a big role in graphic design and many designers are very passionate or opinionated about it. For this reason it is a very hot topic in design circles. Developing your own skills in typography will take time and it can be one of the hardest things to get right. It is best to get a solid understanding of the basics as soon as possible in your education and career. However, it is a complex subject with a massive amount of detail which cannot be explained in just one article. So my aim here is to introduce some of the basics and the most common areas of typography that will be important in your design work.

So What is Typography? Typography is an art form that has been around for hundreds of years. Words and text are all around us every day in almost everything we do. In every piece of type you see, somebody has considered how the letters, sentences and paragraphs will look in order for it to be read by us, or make us feel a certain way when we look at it. Sometimes it is done well, others not. Often it is us graphic designers who are the ones deciding how it will look, in our brochures, our logos, our websites and so on. The better we are at this, the more effective our designs will be. Good typography comes from paying attention to tiny details as this can make the difference between graphic design work that is just acceptable or really good. There is more to it than just choosing fonts and making copy look good though – it is also about making things legible and readable as well as making layouts look good in an aesthetic way.

Typeface or font?

Kerning is the adjustment of the spacing between individual characters. Tracking, however, is the spacing of a group of characters. These two are often confused, but the way I remember them is that Tracking sounds like a long line of railway tracks, whereas Kerning sounds like kernel, which is an individual object.

Kerning and Tracking

What are glyphs? Most designers have noticed that there is now a Glyphs palette in most of the major software packages. The word essentially refers to all the available characters in a font, from letters to numbers and all the special characters.


There are many different classifications and subclassification of typefaces, but the most common two types you will hear of are: Serif – these typefaces are the more traditional ones. They are distinguished by a short line or finishing stroke on the end of character strokes and and; Sans-serif – as the name suggests, these are distinguished by their lack of any Serifs. They only became popular in the nineteenth century and are considered modern as a result.

Typeface classifications

typeface is a family of fonts (such as Helvetica Regular, Helvetica Italic, Helvetica Bold, Helvetica Black, etc.) but a font is one weight or style within a typeface family (such as Helvetica Regular).

Let’s get this one cleared up straight away! Designers are often unsure of the difference between these two, as they are both well used terms for the same thing. Actually, a

What is a Glyph? A. A special character in the font B. The whole font C. Spacing between characters

Which of these fonts are a sans-serif? A. Adobe Caslon Pro B. Helvetica C. Trixie

Number one 2012 / ArtDesign&Architecture / 31

C. An uneven vertical edge of a block type

B. A guideline

A. A skateboard trick

What is a grid?

Now you know a lot about typography, but can you draw it? Try out the game on the next page, as well as the quiz.

The last thing

If a single word or very short line is left at the end of a column it is called a Widow. Likewise if the same is left at the top of the following column this is called an Orphan. Both of these are considered bad typography as they cause distracting shapes in a block of type. They can usually be fixed easily in the same way as the rag, by reworking the line breaks in the column or by editing the copy.

Alignment Generally text should be left aligned, simply because we are used to reading that way. Without good reason, only consider centering or right aligning text if it is a small amount, such as a heading or caption. Also, justifying text should be used in moderation too. It looks nice and neat in some situations, but too much of it will make a layout look rigid. Additionally justifying in a small column size can cause irregular spacing as between words as the software attempts to adjust your text to fit.

Measure This refers to the length of lines of text in a paragraph or column. Most people tend to just refer to it as column width though. Measure is an important thing to get right in typography as it can be crucial to the readability of the text. If the measure is too wide the text may be difficult to read as the eye has to move a lot more after each line is read. If it is too narrow it can also be tiring on the eye to read, as the eye is constantly moving back and forth. A narrow measure will also lead to a lot of hyphenation.


Vertical line spacing is referred to as Leading in typography and print, which is because in the old days of printing and setting blocks of type, strips of lead were inserted between the lines according to how much space was required. Leading’s role in typography is to generate sufficient space between the lines to make it readable. As with all matters of typography, it is a balance between reading comfort and aesthetic style.

Widows and Orphans

What is hyphenation? Ligatures

This is the uneven vertical edge of a block of type, most commonly the right-hand edge, as in the case of left-aligned text. It is important to pay attention to the rag, as it can affect readability in a big way. If the rag

A. The space between each letter


B. It splits a word C. A disease

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When parts of the anatomy of characters either clash or look too close together, they can be combined in what are called Ligatures. These can be for functional or decorative reasons depending on how obvious the clash is. Mostly this is only an issue with serif fonts although sometimes sans-serifs will need ligatures to be set too.


Another one of those details you have to judge in typography. Hyphenation is not loved by designers or typographers but is considered necessary sometimes in order to prevent rag problems. If you have to use them avoid having a lot of them in a block of copy, and especially avoid having one follow another.

A Grid is a guide by which graphic designers can organise copy and images in a flexible way, whilst making this content easy to take in and understand. They can form the basis of a good typographic layout so it’s good to get into the habit of using them in your work. Try looking at examples such as a newspaper, a brochure, or a website with a lot of text content to see how the type has been positioned and structured. The diagram below is intended to show in a basic way how different pieces of type can be positioned on a grid, and what the main parts of a grid are called.

is not very good, it can be very distracting on the eye, as you read down a column. Usually it can easily be fixed by reworking the line breaks, or by editing the copy.

Learn the basics

Hyphens, En-dashes and Em-dashes

Another thing that can cause confusion the use of the horizontal line characters in a font, and which is the correct one to use. It is worth knowing the difference between a Hyphen (the short one) an En-dash and an Em-dash.


Learn the basics

1. Which of these examples are correctly kerned? A. This is the right one. B. This is also the right one. C. This is also also the right one.

2. Do you see the difference between Em-dash and En-dash? Then which is the Em-dash? A. B. – C. —

Pack my box with five dozen liquor jugs Pack my box with five dozen liquor jugs

pack my box with five dozen liquor jugs pack my box with five dozen liquor jugs

Pack my box with five dozen liquor jugs Pack my box with five dozen liquor jugs

3. Which of these examples are left justified? A. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Etiam vitae nibh tortor, quis elementum dolor. Morbi congue ultricies sapien, eget convallis libero vehicula nec. In velit diam, vestibulum non facilisis vitae, pretium quis eros. Nam id tortor erat. B. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Etiam vitae nibh tortor, quis elementum dolor. Morbi congue ultricies sapien, eget convallis libero vehicula nec. In velit diam, vestibulum non facilisis vitae, pretium quis eros. Nam id tortor erat. C. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Etiam vitae nibh tortor, quis elementum dolor. Morbi congue ultricies sapien, eget convallis libero vehicula nec. In velit diam, vestibulum non facilisis vitae, pretium quis eros. Nam id tortor erat.

Send in your answers and take part to compete for honor, glory and fame. AD&A Magazine att. compete, Kirkeveien 110B, 0361 Oslo, Norway

Number one 2012 / ArtDesign&Architecture / 33

The Lotus Temple

The Bahá’í House of Worship in New Delhi, India, popularly known as the Lotus Temple due to its flowerlike shape, is a Bahá’í House of Worship and also a prominent attraction in Delhi. It was completed in 1986 and serves as the Mother Temple of the Indian subcontinent. It has won numerous architectural awards and been featured in hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles.

Like all other Bahá’í Houses of Worship, the Lotus Temple is open to all regardless of religion, or any other distinction, as emphasized in Bahá’í texts. The Bahá’í laws emphasize that the spirit of the House of Worship be that it is a gathering place where people of all religions may worship God without denominational restrictions. The Bahá’í laws also stipulate that only the holy scriptures of the Bahá’í Faith and other religions can be read or chanted inside in any language; while readings and prayers can be set to music by choirs, no musical instruments can be played inside. Furthermore no sermons can be delivered, and there can be no ritualistic ceremonies practiced.

sT em L o tu


e l


All Bahá’í Houses of Worship, including the Lotus Temple, share certain architectural elements, some of which are specified by Bahá’í scripture. `Abdu’l-Bahá, the son of the founder of the religion, stipulated that an essential architectural character of a House of Worship is a nine-sided circular shape. While all current Bahá’í Houses of Worship have a dome, this is not regarded as an essential part of their architecture. Bahá’í scripture also states that no pictures, statues or images be displayed within the House of Worship and no pulpits or altars be incorporated as an architectural feature. Inspired by the lotus flower, the design for the House of Worship in New Delhi is composed of 27 free-standing marble clad “petals” arranged in clusters of three to form nine sides. The nine doors of the Lotus Temple open onto a central hall slightly more than 40 meters tall that is capable of holding up to 2,500 people. The surface of the House of Worship is made of white marble from Penteli mountain in Greece, the very same from which many ancient monuments and other Bahá’í Houses of Worship are built. Along with its nine surrounding ponds and the gardens, the Lotus Temple property comprises 26 acres. The site is in the village of Bahapur, in the National Capital Territory of Delhi. The architect was an Iranian, who now lives in Canada, named Fariborz Sahba. He was approached in 1976 to design it and later oversaw its construction. The major part of the funds needed to buy this land was donated by Ardishír Rustampúr of Hyderabad, who gave his entire life savings for this purpose in 1953. A portion of construction budget was saved and used to build a greenhouse to study indigenous plants and flowers that would be appropriate for use on the site.

34 / ArtDesign&Architecture / Number one 2012

Number one 2012 / ArtDesign&Architecture / 35

k or s w ted hi tec ed; is az ro liv is N e p he t d o to am re gh ass a gh s f he ou Pic on , ou ,” hi is, w e th sm, rer or it e f t r r i y. Th ar Pa e sc rd ck te f s w fa u ism lu era n o ter or s m tic lly n tio ri m as cri ca ge pa w is m f iti de u d az , a o ol f “ occ an N lin ord o p e o n ists ith Sta w als m ma rt w h d a as pito er n a tion sep ive e w e e G he lia o Jo rece H he th w t s t ng ar, t affi nt ely wa uri e w tes eme carc d h h m t lig rs s hi fter he s ndo , and a e d y t ic r’s an d b iast itle a. e s H ic r ac u gr enth ond me y ve be r A ga far wa le old sca in c en ev

st rti t r a en , he m m ot ove bis ory m u e c n, ve ry f C , h tio is y e tu e o ns ep h s all en as io xc in nt tu h c e c rat e e re pri ing Much vir 20t n th abo Th ictu and be can i l e p . of the om ly a r-- col get ct is h ple eri hil wh rce to o eat be stra re h am Am Ars llem story of ith sca ute gr e - ab the s ex of rs, Wi modern t w as ib y’s qu an n u rk te d tis w tr or ra ed ve vio o in an sculpture is bound ar ere con ist es B int ut e ob y w t pa ck rs. he th e, t h rg pa ; b e rl is lo he up with welding and s t nd pir ar eo er art -on ea ion ol ot wa , a ins of G nev ct re- the ess n P ong assembling images from he on ’t ne ith o tra e n pr so sheet metal, rather than r, ck dn o w ss bs wh o x ck am ve re di in d ca a y ct t E Ja g , s i r modeling in clay, casting in eo to he h, te P a ve ffe ac y, in or d at ic ven ce , w e e str rk on bronze or carving in wood; and M ha th wh in sin life lay his Ab Go e Ko d this tradition of the open constructed form rather than solid mass arose from one small guitar that Picasso snipped and joined out of tin in 1912. If collage--the gluing of previously unrelated things and images on a flat surface--became a basic mode of modern art, that too was due to Picasso’s Cubist collaboration with Braque. He was never a member of the Surrealist group, but in the 1920s and ‘30s he produced some of the scariest distortions of the human body and the most violently irrational, erotic images of Eros and Thanatos ever committed to canvas. He was not a realist painter/reporter, still less anyone’s official muralist, and yet Guernica remains the most powerful political image in modern art, rivaled only by some of the Mexican work of Diego Rivera.

36 / ArtDesign&Architecture / Number one 2012

In today’s art world, a place without living culture heroes, you can’t even N be o p imagine such a protean monster arising. His output was vast. This is not a e a virtue in itself--only a few oil paintings by Vermeer survive, and fewer t quit n a inte he e p s fa r o still by the brothers Van Eyck, but they are as firmly lodged in his- m m o m r so yth an ssib ou scu tory as Picasso ever was or will be. Still, Picasso’s oeuvre filled ot larg and date le t s as lpto the world, and he left permanent marks on every discipline M he el g t ha th r, o r y iro arc me tra ener set t no is in not he entered. His work expanded fractally, one image ny el D dia nsf ate fo ne h ev v a breeding new clusters of others, right up to his death. S ng , h u : p er w rt e is en r o i h v a c p th an uar s c ha hot ed f del soc er w wn Mi m at t iard d ar erta mp, ogr rom y m ial ill life che w att he w t o inl th aph oi em me be tim lan m as t ered lang as t ver y ha at cu y, m l pai orab anin aga e. gelo a w ss he to ua he th d nn ov nti le g , in, An , h sty orld me first peo ge o last e pa mor ing ies, ngs ima to now d it ad ha le, s. I dia. ar ple f o gr st 3 e in old tele and ges arti th is ve hi f t H tis o il ea 0 flu f vi sc ha cu at cre s c hat e s t to th pa t b ye en ox sio ul s b lat ate ons ha too en er t inti en ars ce of n. ptu ee e d s tan d n d jo han ng efic tha on con Th re t n uc t p ot at y t t s a ia n n ce ou o h c u b the he he nd ry Pi om pt gh on shi een in ob ir d sc of cas in ual tro ng so ter se ev ulp th so all ve of , h sec ssiv ote tu e b , th y rsy th is ti e es re el e --a e en res on att . A rea ief nd ve tle of ent nd lly th lop ss c the ion he us e, ha se o su w ng tw f ch ou es o ce ld of leb no rit t y.

He was a superstitious, sarcastic man, sometimes rotten to his children, often beastly to his women. He had contempt for women artists. His famous remark about women being “goddesses or doormats” has rendered him odious to feminists, but women tended to walk into both roles open-eyed and eagerly, for his charm was legendary. Whole cultural industries derived from his much mythologized virility. He was the Minotaur in a canvas-andpaper labyrinth of his own construction.

sht st ug o e ra e m . H t r, d h rt is te f t a b s in o ury Cu yle s pa one nt he f st ou s sh s ce t o m lle ni e i h- ing ety t fa se pa . H 0t nd ari os oi his a S tor in 2 fou e v is m em 7), f as ulp res co- wid g h s D 193 g o e on Le ( in . o w sc gu r ss d fi fo th m ist ica b ar ca an ed n or . A b rn m W Pi an, niz ow nd f ork -Cu ue bo ivil m cog t kn t a is w oto d G an h C lopicas re es en in h pr an rm anis xt: Pab b ) e e m is ove died th 907 e G Sp Te e e m bo ar (1 th th em rks on l of ring n o w vig ya du a a d’A rtr nic po uer G n ti . ar ce rn la m te np o es o fr ern W mm ard od d a e d co i m a r at st an e d h fo in re Sp th ha lic as m e le of m ub h w h do he m litt ype e hi al p 17t oug nd sso , t e ot or ot he -th a g ca ow th ot ef e t t e- ity in Pi n ay, pr r b Th z in opl bil an ast lo , by d ery te e. ue pe o me t le of ab is rth e v ain tim zq d s, n e-- , a ds, g t P ury bi th o p fe ela san ead nc ork re din ha nt th e . N n li r V ou h die w nd en y t ce 0 om re w o th ed u is hu n sa th is 5 bec gu is o ury ew wn ’s a en h ly of u . To e 20 re h had lic fi in h cent n a f cro asso d se ossib jects mor th fo a ub ce th ha the Pic an , p ub ru Be alag as p ien e 16 ore t t of pe. him tens he s and M tist aud th m os ro of he re t n ar ass n in no d m f Eu ard in t we atio m tia bly de a o he as ork dor Ti oba nclu ntsi had n--w is w e, a pr t i ige ho io h lik a th tell le w duct and , dis in op ro He sip pe rep ons. gos in illi sis, m aly an

P ye icass h ars o d tw ood , pa em w en an int ons cr ith tieth d ad ing trat in eat diff c ol in a ed te clud ivit ere entu esce rea unc br ctu in y m nt ry nc lis an th oug re. g oi an theo his s e; d tic m ny a in rou ht His l pa ifes rie tyl uri an rtist tw gh him re in te s, t e c ng ne ic en ou v ti d e h t r ta tie t h un olu ngs itse chn ange he fi thro len th is ive tio , sc lf iqu d rs ug t in ce life rsa na ulp in es as h t d h hi nt , m l r ry tu n , a e ec hi s e ur a en ar re um nd ex ad s c ar y a kin ow ti , d e id pe e hi ly rt. g n stic ra rou ea rim of ldhi an a wi s s. e th m d cc ng m P nt e th im om , a ed ica ed e b m p n iu ss est en lis d a m o -k se hm rch s, no fo e iwn rtu nt fig nes s ur e

Pablo Picasso

Picasso was regarded as a boy genius, but if he had died before 1906, his 25th year, his mark on 20th century art would have been slight. The so-called Blue and Rose periods, with their wistful etiolated figures of beggars and circus folk, are not, despite their great popularity, much more than pendants to late 19th century Symbolism. It was the experience of modernity that created his modernism, and that happened in Paris. There, mass production and reproduction had come to the forefront of ordinary life: newspapers, printed labels, the overlay of posters on walls--the dizzily intense public life of signs, simultaneous, high-speed and layered. This was the cityscape of Cubism.

Check out this months young graphic design talent.

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