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F IRST INTE RNATIONA L PE RM A NE NT M A KE UP PORTA L Here you can find all the informat ion about permanent makeup A ll the art ist s  A ll the studios  A ll the academies  A ll the event s


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Those saying our body is a temple are nothing but right. We are grateful to it for being the repository of the very essence of our life. And just like a temple has walls that protect what’s the most precious inside from the external dangers, so does our skin. It is the initial barrier to infection, environmental aggressiveness, sunlight, dehydration, chemicals and other challenges of everyday. So just like we understand that a  pile of bricks only becomes a  proper wall after fixing them with mortar, puttying and painting, a permanent makeup artist has to understand what happens in all the skin layers after pigment has been placed. Our skin can broadly be divided into epidermis (the upper layer) and dermis (the lower layer). Still, epidermis consists of several layers itself: STRATUM CORNEUM, which is technically 15-20 layers of dead flattened cells surrounded by protein envelope and lipids. STRATUM LUCIDUM, which is a  thin layer of dead cells transparent under the microscope. STRATUM GRANULOSUM, a thin layer where cells are being prepared for the upper migration. It is in this layer that cells lose their organelles and nuclei (in other words, they die) and get a so-called “lipid envelope” that contributes to the barrier function of skin. STRATUM SPINOSUM is the largest layer. It is in this layer that the



microscopic channel produced by the needle fills up with residual pigment the most. STRATUM BASALE is the layer where cells are mitotically active (simply put, they divide). From this layer the upward cell migration starts. The dermis is separated from the stratum basale by a thin basement membrane. It is vital to learn about skin layers to prevent excessive pigment fading. The key factor for pigment stability turns out to be the depth of placement. The epidermis cannot retain tattoo pigment since the epidermal cells are prone to migration. As they move towards the surface the residual pigment that they contain will naturally exfoliate with the outer layer of the dead cells. Eventually all epidermal layers will get rid of pigment particles in about 2-3 months, but the speed of pigment turnout will vary in each individual. Under this time the patient will still be noticing changes in the appearance of their permanent makeup due to a number of pigment particles being on their way to the stratum corneum. The best results are achieved when pigment is placed in the upper third of the dermis. If the needle is injected deeper, the pigment will appear bluish/ greenish because of the wrong light refraction or not be visible at all due to the fact that light waves cannot penetrate this depth. The only difficulty is presented by the application technique. It is problematic for the beginner artist to control the depth of pigment placement manually, by the feel of skin’s resistance. It

becomes even more complicated since the thickness of epidermis varies in different parts of the body and even alongside the same area. Thus, compared to other parts, eyelids have one of the thinnest epidermises, next come eyebrows and temples. It should also be noticed that the epithelium of the lip mucosa is thicker than that of the skin. Finally, scars and contractions are much thicker than undamaged skin. The way the needle is inserted and is retracted from the skin affects the efficiency of tattooing as it creates a so-called skin penetration opening. Some artists believe that in order to minimize the leaking of pigment onto the surface, the needle should penetrate the skin on 45o angle. This way, the skin penetration opening closes tighter and retains more pigment in comparison to when the needle enters on the angle of 80-90 o. Pigment injection induces a strong defensive reaction in the body. Some soluble components of the pigment can be quickly absorbed and eliminated by the lymphatic system. Insoluble components are taken away by the phagocytic cells. Since the majority of them is concentrated on the epidermal-dermal border, the pigment particles from stratum basale tend to being taken away, as well as some pigment from the dermis, although its quantity is insignificant.







Rebecca Chung is an international permanent makeup trainer with a degree in fine art. In 2010 she created her own manual technique called

— And what about microblading? — I started to perform microblading 5 years ago.

“Microblading technique”. In 2011, Rebecca opened her first permanent makeup salon «PrincessBrows» in the Hong Kong Central district; then in 2013 she started her new project «PrincessBrows Semi permanent makeup Training Academy». Rebecca is an official distributor of IPM micro pigmentation in Asia as well as a speaker at various worldwide permanent makeup conferences in Russia and some European countries. She was the first one to create a manual hairline tattooing technique and manual lashes tattooing (2013). In 2014, due to a very high level of professionalism, she became a «Biotek Quality Ambassador». In 2015 Rebecca created her permanent makeup machine, which was then manufactured in Germany, and launched her first series of pigments, manual tools and other products for permanent makeup.

We met Miss Chung during her visit to Moscow and had a conversation regarding permanent makeup in an informal environment. — How long have you been doing permanent makeup? — I’ve been doing permanent makeup for approximately 6 years.

— W hat d id you do before you beca me a permanent makeup artist? — I was a professional concert pianist. After my pregnancy I wasn’t able to work, because I needed to travel to perform my music. So I had to stop doing my job, because I was feeling very weak and I had to look after my baby for 1 year, and after that I learned how to do permanent makeup, so this is how I started. — How many permanent makeup ar tists work in your city? How many of them practice microblading? — I actually have no idea how many artists are practicing in Hong Kong. Some salons can have someone with lack of experience and thus lack of qualification yet doing permanent makeup. Many beauty salons or hairdressing salons usually have only one person that does permanent makeup. — PMU now has become really popular, a lot of artists appear every month trying to make easy money, but they are not really good at this, are they? — That’s true, actually. Also, a lot of eyelash or nail technicians have started to add this treatment to beauty salons as well.






— Where did you learn microblading? — I started to learn how to do microblading in Hong Kong, with an experienced artist, and even though it was a personal training, I wasn’t satisfied with the quality. So I went to Chinese cities like Beijing, Shanghai and others. After that I visited Taiwan and Korea; my last training was in Los Angeles. So this is my training history. — Can you recommend any schools or master classes? — Personally I like «Long-Time-Liner». They have different levels and I like their teaching methods. To be honest with you, there actually are a lot of artists I really like and respect: Mary Ritcherson, Sviatoslav Otchenash, Tina Davies, Alina Soloveva. — W hat are the specifics of the manual lip technique that you’re practicing? Did you develop it yourself? — It is not actually a  new technique; I  know that many artists have been doing it for some time. There are not many high-level professionals that can perform this technique; it is mostly used by beginners, but they can’t make it look artistic. That is why there aren’t many people who know that this technique exists. I learned it about 4 or 5 years ago; I like using this technique because it makes lips look more natural, creates more even outline. You can really see lips taking color right after the procedure, and with the machines sometimes you can’t tell if that happens, unfortunately, due to lack of experience. But of course I use both methods as each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. I just had training with two beginner groups and they loved the result a  lot, because it is very precise and you don’t have to learn how to control a machine as in this case you only need to control your hand. — What is the «hairline tattooing technique» that you use? Could you please tell us more about it? — Hairline tattooing is similar to microblading of eyebrows, however, the blade is bigger — I mean that it is wider and longer than usual blades. I am really satisfied with this technique, so are my customers. I  can tell you for sure that the colors really stay for a  long time if I  use black pigments; however, since most of my clients are Asian, I  haven’t got any experience with blonde hair yet. — Why did you choose microblading among other techniques? W hat advantages of this method do you like most?

— First of all, I like the fact that this way everything is controlled by hand, and it is more like art or craft. Secondly, I prefer microblading because it is cheaper than other techniques. I also believe that the result is much finer with microblading than with the machine method. Sometimes I try other techniques, but in the end the final result is pretty much the same, however, they are more expensive. — W hat do you think of the Color Theory? W hat is your method of choosing colors for different skin tones? — My method is actually based mostly on my experience and my errors. There are a  couple of brands that I choose all the time as I just know the result, because I  tested these products on my own body. It lasts for a long time and in 2 years you can see the results on clients as well. — C a n y ou tel l u s mor e a b out y ou r «PrincessBrows» brand? How did you came up with the idea and what do you produce under this brand? — One day I  just woke up and thought that this actually suits me perfectly. I have my salon and now I  also have the “PrincessBrows training academy”. Before I  opened the salon I  worked by myself; after a  trip to Los Angeles 2 years ago I  understood that I  was actually ver y good at permanent makeup, because people in America are at least 10 years behind my technique. So I was showing my technique to some students, and they were really amazed. Two years ago microblading wasn’t that well-known, so that is why I  started to develop skills and resources. Under this brand we produce certified microblades. Since most blades of this type are made in China, I decided to make my own blades in Korea so we would have everything approved. That way it is much safer because Chinese blades are very unpredictable and Korea has much better quality control. We have new needles coming out for lips and a  manual eyeliner technique. They are screw-ended with lock-in system (clip ending); it’s like a disposable hand pen with a changeable needle. These needles are coming out later this year. Also we have a  machine from Germany; we work together with the «Purebeau» company in crossover with the PrincessBrows name, so we have a  special design which suits my personal style.






— How much time do you actually spend working in your salon with all those master classes and other business? — I think I work about 2-3 weeks a month in my salon, but not only doing treatments, as there is a lot of administrative work and management as well. However, sometimes it might be 1 week, it really depends on my situation. — Which PMU artist in this industry inspires you? — I would say it is definitely Slava (Sviatoslav Otchenash). I was actually a huge fan of his; I absolutely love and admire his work. I try to message him, to share experience, we have basically become colleagues now. — What pigments and equipment do you use in your work? — Now I use Purebeau and PrincessBrows pigments from the USA. However, in Europe they only allow you to use E.U. approved pigments, therefore I have to use another brand in Europe — and it is Purebeau.

— What is better, in your opinion: microblading or a diamond blade? What is your preference? — These are completely different things. I don’t think I can compare those techniques. Diamond blades are finer; they have some gaps in between. However, it is less traumatic to perform permanent makeup with microblading. — What is the main goal of your ambitions and dreams? — My dream is to get retired very soon (laughs). My ambitions… to make PrincessBrows worldwide maybe. There are a lot of prep schools in the industry, they are claiming to give a lot of different certificates, giving different trainings — but they are not really qualified for intermediate and advanced trainers. Countries like Australia, New Zealand, America. — How do you manage to stay in such a good shape? Do you have any secrets? — I do exercises and try not to go to bed too late; I also have some spa procedures when possible. PMUINTERNATIONAL.COM


What is the most difficult part of a permanent makeup application procedure? Most specialists that I spoke with or consulted say: “It is the shape.” This is exactly what we are going to talk about now: THE SHAPE. I always believed (and will repeat it again and again) that the most important thing in permanent makeup is the shape. Of course, there are a lot of aspects that need to be considered; however, I don’t know anyone who would be genuinely happy with a perfectly chosen color that fills a shape which doesn’t suit this person, or, moreover, makes the face look really unattractive. The question is, “Where do all these associations with facial aesthetics come from?” I suppose, they come from the fact that there are no special lessons that concern aesthetics in schools. When a girl is on her way towards becoming a young woman, she especially needs a lot of information regarding different ways of skin care, various images and styles as well as other aspects of beauty, in order to develop an aesthetic taste. Well, as long as it is considered more important to do many other things at school, we need to catch up and get all the information we missed! For starters, let’s try to understand the way shapes can influence the outcome. I believe that nothing in our world happens by accident; eventually, everything gets some sort of shape, depending on different circumstances and aspects. A shape is a figure that is able to change under the influence of different factors.




Emotions can be one of those factors. Let’s look at an example of how facial expressions can change due to various shapes of eyebrows.





This is the occipital-frontal muscle, the one that is responsible for pulling the skin of the forehead, and accordingly, it can pull the eyebrows up – in this case we get a “surprised’ facial expression.

This is the muscle that allows us to wrinkle eyebrows. Despite its very small size, this muscle is able to pull both eyebrows towards each other, forming really unattractive wrinkles between them. As a rule, this muscle helps us show that we are in pain, feeling unhappy, dissatisfied, etc.

Unfortunately, a lot of permanent makeup specialists have no idea of how different types of muscles interact, and which facial expressions can appear on people’s faces when these muscles contract. As we all know, people’s faces often express various emotions; it is so rare when a face is just

This is the outer part of the frontal muscle; it may wrinkle the forehead when contracting. It can also raise the end of the eyebrows as well as the outer part of the forehead.

Finally, this is a pyramidal muscle (Procerus muscle); it is located between the eyebrows, in the area called glabella. When contracted, it lowers the position of the head of the eyebrow, creating frown lines that make the face look older, angry and stern, which is obviously not a positive result.

calm and completely relaxed. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to facial muscles anatomy; in this case, it’s a “winwin” situation: you , as a permanent makeup specialist, get the essential knowledge, and your client gets the desired result.





Mary Ritcherson is a permanent makeup artist who has worked in the Plastic Surgery & Medical Spa industry for more than 18 years as the Spa owner, a permanent makeup specialist, an office manager, a patient care coordinator, and a surgical technologist. Mary started her career in 1992 and has achieved a lot since then; she is a member of the SPCP. Mary Ritcherson was introduced to the idea of permanent makeup by a highly respected local plastic surgeon after he noticed her artistic abilities. She began to research permanent makeup and instantly fell in love with the idea of helping women as well as men to achieve their desired look. In 2004 Mary received her certificate in permanent makeup. Her motto is to maintain the highest standards of care for each and every client. The result of her work reflects her true artistic ability and sense for responsibility as well as her passion for permanent makeup. Mary truly loves what she does!

— How popular is permanent makeup in the USA? Are there many artists? Is there a tough competition between such specialists? — I think that PMU is becoming more and more popular. I know that 1 out of every 6-10 clients of mine inquire about becoming a technician. However, I do not feel like there is competition between specialists…I suppose the clients are just doing their research when choosing a qualified technician.

— A r e the r e a n y fed e r a l r e s t r ic t ion s/ requirements for establishing your own business in the PMU industry? — Ever y state (or county) has its own set of regulations and requirements in order to open a PMU facility. In Florida, for example, one must prove they were trained in PMU, obtain a business tax, tattoo establishment license, an artist license as well as a biomedical waste permit. Our facilities have annual inspections by the Department of Health to confirm we are in compliance. Also, blood borne pathogen testing is required in order to get licensing by the Department of Health. — How did you start learning how to do PMU? What schools/master classes have you attended? Can you recommend any of those? — I became certified in 2004. It was suggested by the plastic surgeon who I worked for that I should look into PMU classes. He thought I would do great at it after seeing my artistic skill. I took his advice and went to school over the course of 30+ days. I immediately fell in love with it and wanted to be the best I could possibly be. I would go to the local grocery store and buy pig skin to practice on. I did 3-4 months of practicing before I would begin working for money. I strongly believe that if you are going to do something, do it right. I get asked all the time: “Who taught you?» No one taught me the hair stroke technique. PMUINTERNATIONAL.COM


— You have many years of experience as a PMU artist. During the past years there were some evolutionary changes from rather bright and glamorous makeup to soft colors and natural looks. What do you think about such evolution of permanent makeup? Can you predict any changes in the future? — During the past 11 years, I  have definitely seen PMU evolve for the better.  There are better techniques, better trainings, forums, conventions, congresses etc. that allow us to learn the “right” way to perform certain techniques.   I wish that this knowledge and information was available to me years ago.   New technicians are really lucky to have such an avenue to so many wonderful classes, congresses and so on; it truly has evolved globally, and I could not be happier.  I think the future of the PMU industr y will only continue improving and will produce amazing technicians and trainers. Back then, it was not even something that could be offered, but I  really wanted to learn how to do it, so I  taught myself.   I have not done powdered brows in 11 years  — ONLY hair strokes.   I have attended many advanced classes, conventions and congresses over the last 11 years — most of them as a trainer.  When asked which school I would recommend to a future technician, I say that it is their responsibility to do their due diligence and research to make sure that the school is right for them. — What, in your opinion, is the hardest part of performing the PMU procedure? — To be honest with you, I really don’t find it hard, whatsoever, to apply permanent makeup — although I  limit my practice to only eyebrows and microneedling.  I stick with what I love to do and what I am good at.  I found eyeliner and lips the hardest to do, so I decided not to do them any longer.  For me that was the best decision I have ever made. — Many people treat PMU with suspicion, even though they are quite tolerant w ith regards to plastic surgery. Do you think that permanent makeup will become more popular in the mass media? — PMU has definitely come a long way, and from what I personally have seen, it has grown substantially in mass media.     I suppose clients are doing more research and basing their choice of technician on credentials, pictures, reviews as well as artistic skills.  I think most people make their choice wisely, most of the time; the ones that look for a  deal are normally the ones that end up with unsatisfactory work.  “Cheap work is never good, and good work is never cheap” — the words to live by.



— How hard was it for you to set up your own business? Were there any serious obstacles in your way? — O p en i ng my ow n bu si ne s s wa s qu ite easy.  I  found a  great location, built a  website and marketed myself through social networks… I have never encountered any difficulties in doing permanent makeup.   I follow all the laws and regulations, therefore there are no problems in this area, too. — We heard that your daughter has recently started practicing PMU procedures; are you planning to establish a  family business in the future? — Yes, my daughter Mary “Morgan” Ritcherson will be joining the family business.  She just finished her Medical Esthetician schooling and will be attending a licensed school in New Jersey in January 2016.   She is naturally so good at it, it makes me feel very proud of her.   We are planning to open a  location in Colorado and maintain the Tampa, Florida location as well.   She will be specializing in eyebrows and micro-needling along with skin care.  Stay tuned for updates! — As we already know, wide eyebrows are now in trend in Europe. What kind of eyebrows is the most popular in the USA? — I think the most popular type of eyebrows in my demographic and the USA is from medium to full thickness; it is my favorite type, too.   Megan Fox style is very popular.





— Can you tell us about the techniques you use in your practice? Do you use common techniques, or maybe you developed your own methods while becoming an experienced artist? — T he tech n ique s I u se i n my of f ice and teach i n my Advanced Cla sses are pr i mar i ly with digital machines.   I only ever use a 1 liner when doing my Hair Stroke technique, which I  trademarked Branch i ng & Blendi ng tm .; it is a  form of layering and placing the strokes that heal ver y natural. I will be taking a formal class in the near f uture with Tina Davies on Microblading.   I  am  a  firm believer in learning ever y th i ng about a  tech n ique from trai ners seasoned and experienced in that modality.   I hope to incorporate a  dual (mixed) technique in my eyebrow procedures in the future. — Ever y professional k nows that when working with eyebrows you cannot use the black pigment. It always goes bluish after some time. How often do you have to “save” your clients and correct blue eyebrows? What recommendations can you give to other artists regarding such situations? — My answer to this question will be easy — I do not do any corrective work at all.  I only work with clients that have never had their brows done before.  I make no exceptions.  Color correction is art in itself, and I am not a corrective specialist.  I think there should be more classes on how to correct different issues; also, it is important to teach the newbies about what is fixable and what is not. — One more common problem is the shape correction of eyebrows. Many clients come to an artist with a firm choice of the shape for their eyebrows. How do you work with such clients? Do you have to often change their opinion, or they ask for your professional advice most of the time? — Before I  meet my client face to face, I  send a questionnaire and they have to email me photos of their face with no makeup and with how they draw their eyebrows on.  If a request is out of the normal anatomical structure, I  will not do it.   I will probably compromise within reason.   I predraw the eyebrows to give the client a good idea of how they will look on the face.  I am pretty good at listening to them and getting it to where we are both happy.  If a client is indecisive or takes more than 15 minutes to decide on a shape, I will postpone the procedure and let them go home and have a bit of a think.  Most clients, not all of them though, leave it up to me.  I stay in the anatomical structure and 99% of the time they love my pre-draw.

— The microblading technique is extremely popular in Europe at the moment. Is it the same in the USA? What do you personally think about it? — Microblading, if done properly and trained properly, can be a beautiful form of art. It has become popular in the USA, but some say they like the machine results better, therefore use mixed techniques. It has become a  little too crazy with technicians offering training that were just trained themselves or have no hair stroke experience.   I plan on training with Tina Davies in the near future as stated above.  She is a wealth of knowledge and is seasoned in her technique. — Can you give any advice to beginners? What should they start with? — I would say to beginners: seek out a credible, licensed and accredited school for core training.  Don’t base your decision on money, but on the quality of education you will receive.   The money will come back to you.  I think it is very important to take as many advanced classes as they can to further their skills, learn new things, business plans….etc. You need to study all the time, always, to improve every day in every way. — W hich eyebrow techniques are the most popular in the USA in your opinion? — Hands down, I think the Hair Stroke technique is the most popular procedure sought out by clients. — We also know that you are teaching PMU classes. Are most of your students American or foreigners? Can you tell us about your teaching program and about an average studying period? — I  have been teaching Advanced Hair Stroke Classes as well as some Micro-needling classes in the USA and internationally for the last 3 years.  I have been abroad 11 times in 2,5 years. I  do not teach beginners. I  offer 3 options to potential students: the ones with no hair stroke experience, little hair stroke experience or extensive hair stroke experience.   I review their credentials and view their work before deciding what is the best for them. Beginners need to seek out proper education that can be given by licensed schools. Shades&Strokes is a  class that Teryn Darling and I  put together a  couple years ago.   Shades is a  1 day training on achieving a nice and soft powdered brow effect, taught by Teryn Darling.  I train the Hair Stroke technique for 1 full day.  These two parts complement each other as most technicians offer both techniques in their practice.   We have already done 4, and have 4 more classes already planned for 2016. PMUINTERNATIONAL.COM





Do you want your lips to be beautifully shaped and bright-colored? Do you want to look younger?

Full lips permanent makeup makes your lips look younger and fuller. By adding a little color we can emphasize lips without creating a dark outline which never looks natural. We have recently gone through the «Eyebrows trend» which still holds on and does have an impact on our client’s face. Today a new trend is coming up: «Full lips as a rejuvenating look». Full Lips PMU can enhance the shape and tone of your lips by adding just the right color; the usage of softer pigments creates a 3D effect.

Full lips tattooing is perfect for people suffering from vitiligo, or those who have scars on their lips that need to be hidden. This procedure is also recommended when the desired result is to slightly enlarge the size of the lips and give the rejuvenation effect, as well as creating a defined lip line.

Then you can start the full lips procedure with 3 Sloped/5 Sloped or 4 Flat needles. Depending on the preferred technique, it is possible to choose between: • the Loop technique on the full lips • the Zig Zag • the Crossed Lines • the Piano also called “Up & Down” or “Obaoba” • the Funnel • the Dotting • the Touch and Go; As you can see, there are a lot of ways to achieve the desired result. Make sure that the right colors are selected, such as light pink or flesh colors. If the color is too bright, the natural effect won’t be achieved. Make sure you also add a drop of orange in your pigments to increase brightness; pink colors are sometimes too cold and can become a bit bluish with the passing of time. You can also work with 2 different colors: one main color is used for the whole lips area, the other one which is slightly darker will be used for the lip corners; it is a good idea to add a drop of a very light pigment as well to emphasize the lighting effect and create an additional volume. The result will vary depending on your age, skin type, color preferences as well as your lifestyle. To achieve the best results, I suggest a touch-up every 18 months.

We usually start with the outline that is tattooed with either a one-point/3 micro/3 power needle (depending on thickness of the skin). The color used for the outline has to stay within the natural tone of client’s lips, maybe it can be slightly darker but not too much, otherwise it will be too visible, and the natural effect will fade away. When the outline is done, the same needle is used (with little loops) close to the liner to add more color to the natural tone of the lips. This is called the «Lip Shadow». It blurs the outline a little bit and makes it less visible, therefore less artificial.







Jody was the first Canadian PMU artist to offer the most current and successful semi-permanent makeup techniques to the Calgary market by establishing Cinnamon Girl Clinic in 2007. A graduate of Kolorsource, Permanently Perfect and Bio Touch Institute, Jody is well-known as a leading practitioner and is a frequent presenter at association events across North America. Jody is widely recognized for advances in hair stroke technique for brows and medical tattooing solutions including cleft lip and alopecia.

— Thanks for your time. First question is: how long have you been in permanent make up?

— I had my own business, it was called «Cinnamon Girl». I was a freelance makeup artist, working for many different companies including «Estee Lauder» and «Chanel» where I was a resident makeup artist. My last role in makeup was with a German company called «La Biostetique» where I worked both in Europe and Canada. — What is your favourite thing about PMU? — It’s definitely changing people for the better. In my opinion, what permanent makeup can do for people is like no other “thing” can do for them, neither makeup, nor surgery or laser. When I was a makeup artist I always thought “If only I could extend the result and increase confidence of these women.” — How do you apply pigments? Do you use both hand techniques and digital machines? — For eyebrows I use only a hand tool, and for eyes and lips or anything else on the body I use my digital Nouveaux Contour machine. — What’s your favourite machine?

— I’ve been doing permanent makeup for seven years, prior to that I was a makeup artist for eighteen years. — And where did you do that work?

— I prefer a hand tool; I really like the results that I get with it. I use a Nouveaux Contour machine with different needle configurations to get the desired result.



— And do you prefer any certain sort of pigments? — I  like both «Kolorsourse» pigments and «LI pigments». These are the pigments that I’m currently using. — Do you think it’s easier to make mistakes (for example, to damage the skin) when microblading, or it’s more likely with the use of digital machines? — Well, for me personally it is easier to perform microblading. I’m not heavy-handed; however, I think that in general mistakes are more often made with the use of digital machines. — Do you ever mix the two methods? — To be honest with you — no, never. — You’re a purist. — I’m a perfectionist, that’s for sure.

she’s modelling now. I think it’s really cool when you can be a  part of something like that and see what yourhard work can translate to. I have those kinds of moments all the time. I do a lot of tattooing for people going through chemotherapy. I see that this disease takes away people’s confidence. Being able to give it back a little gives me such an amazing feeling. — Do you charge for cancer patients? — I do. As a cancer survivor myself I feel it’s important to have compassionate pricing for people who have or had cancer. In Canada depending on the healthcare insurance provider some of this may be covered as well. — What about areolas? — I  also have compassionate pricing for areolas. I have an eyebrow program running right now. We invite people who can’t afford permanent eyebrow makeup to send their stories in to us and then we pick one story and this person gets eyebrows free of charge. — How often do you do that?

— W hat’s your proudest moment in the permanent makeup?

— Once every three months when the promotion is running.

— I have a few. I would probably have to say off the top of my head it was a 14-year-old girl with a cleft lip (photo on the next page); she was not able to get over the fact that she had that scarring and it’s disfiguration. We injected «Juvederm», then we tattooed the lip line, microneedled her scar and gave her an entirely new lip. Her and her mom came back to tell us that

— It’s a great idea! And back to that girl with the lip, how long did it take for her?


— I have worked on her lip twice and I just recently did a color boost on her, the pigment’s staying in really well. — What schools have you been to? — I  originally went to «BioTouch» training and took some classes in Los Angeles. I’ve been a part of Dr. Dixon’s boot camps and I’ve also been a speaker in Las Vegas regarding medical tattooing. Let’s talk about anesthetics. What anesthetics are in your opinion the best? — I  like a  few of them, for example anesthetics by «Kolorsource», and also some of «BioTouch» anesthetics. — Do you work by yourself? Do you have a salon? — I have my own clinic and I have a full-time client service coordinator who runs the front-end so that I can just come in and focus on my clients. — How many days of work on average do you have? — I  would say that in average it would be four working days a week.



— Is PMU the only thing you do? — Yes, that’s all I do, I’m focused on that.

the permits are there. You are visited by the health inspector, the fire department and police — everyone is involved. Normally we have annual inspections.

— What would be your advice regarding aftercare? — I use a proprietary wet heal, so I would recommend this to others, too.. — Do you like to teach? — I like to teach people who already have some experience. I like to share my experience, knowledge and skills with other students, and I would like people to share their experience with me. — How did you first get on microblading? — They only briefly explained what it was during our training at «BioTouch», so I just started figuring it out on my own. It was 7 years ago when NOBODY was doing it — that is just so crazy to me. — Is there any particular artist that you aspire to? — In permanent makeup or body tattooing? — Either. — I’ve been a huge fan of Kat von D forever. I have always really looked up to her and loved her artistic ability. I think I follow a lot of people that I look up to. I love people from Canada like Tina Davies; I’m also keen on Mary Ritcherson’s work. There are numerous people from Russia that I’m getting exposed to, who I’m really interested in. I think that there’s a lot of talent there. They have their heads wrapped around the art, they are doing totally realistic work and that’s what I love. I am obsessed with hyper-realism tattooing.

— If you could learn something better or be more efficient in something, what would it be? — Lips. Just recently I went to L A to see Anna Savina because I  was really interested in learning her lip style; I would like to get better results then I originally did. — How long does it take to do lips and what type of needles do you prefer? — It usually takes me about one hour. With regards to needles, I use a one point needle for lips. — You work really quickly. — Yes. It comes from my background in makeup and television. Someone would come and sit in my chair — “Ok, this person needs to be camera ready in three minutes”. So you had to be the best you could possibly be, in the least amount of time. I think I just started getting this skill set of working efficiently. Overworking the skin can be damaging both physically and mentally for the client so I try to make it as short and pleasant as possible. — That’s really good. How do you like this course? Do you like the concept? — It’s tricky trying to have a holiday and educate at the same time; I think a hotel venue may be a better option than a cruise. — What’s your background?

— Tell us please a bit about the agreements that your clients sign. Did you have a lawyer write them up? Did you write them up yourself?

— I’m Ukrainian and Polish. My education background is in business marketing, makeup artistry and tattooing.

— The woman who I trained with had her lawyer write them up and then I’ve revised them, but they are originally based on lawyer’s documents.

Check me out at

— Do you call your clients? Do you have a follow-up call? — No, normally they make a follow-up appointment. I don’t usually call them, they just come back to me. — What rules do you have to follow in your country? — It’s the Alberta Health Services. When you first get started they’re on top of you making sure all








Would I cover my eyes with a bright and thick line of pigment? No! Would I apply permanent eye shadows that will fade after a couple of years? Yes!




The head of the Training Centre NPM in Russia A world-class specialist in permanent makeup A world-class specialist in dermal pigmentation A certified trainer of NPM

Arrows. Blue arrows. They have been in fashion for such a long time that many people, including specialists in permanent makeup, sometimes have no idea that permanent makeup can be aesthetic, different from “standard permanent makeup”. For some artists it seems rather difficult to create something highly artistic and aesthetic; in fact, it is quite easy. All you need to do is just to observe the novelties appearing on the market of the beauty industry from time to time. We would like to introduce the new NPM EYE SHADOW pigments which are specially designed to create different variants of shading when applying permanent eye makeup.












The NPM EYE SHADOW pigments can be applied easily and smoothly; after healing, they create and effect of proper eye shadows, emphasizing the expressiveness of the eyes. A lot of our clients would like to get permanent eye makeup applied without those bright arrows on the upper or lower eyelids. NPM EYE SHADOW can be a perfect solution for this problem. Not everyone can easily figure out that what seems to be usual eye makeup is in fact permanent eye makeup. Of course, shading is not a new technique in permanent makeup, and has been performed by specialists for years. However, to be able to do it properly, artists need to have lots of experience, and pigments need special diluents. The NPM EYE SHADOW pigments make the task much easier. Only a few drops of pigments (no need to dilute) create a realistic transparent shadow effect after healing, even if the coverage was quite thick. It is really easy, quick, effective, and, most importantly, aesthetic! One of the biggest advantages of NPM EYE SHADOW is that they fade smoothly and predictably. The color does not change to a warmer or a colder shade as the pigments have a very low degree of suppuration. Usual pigments can change their color after 2-5 years, and the result is not very attractive, unfortunately, and the worst thing about it that it can stay forever. Of course, it can be corrected or completely removed, but it is always better not to, if possible. The most common and typical mistakes in permanent eye makeup are wrong shapes of arrows or their clear asymmetr y, as well as shapes and lines being distorted, sometimes seriously deformed, due to results of plastic surgery (e.g. blepharoplasty). Also, quite often the usage of black pigments with a high content of carbon black can cause really dramatic situations when the pigments bleed under the skin. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to remove; however, those situations with bleeding pigments can be easily corrected by applying the NPM EYE SHADOW pigments as eye shadows — and this will be the best solution. PMUINTERNATIONAL.COM


The advantage of the NPM pigments in this situation is that they don’t make arrows thicker, neither they add density — they only smoothly change the color to a more aesthetic one, leaving a certain level of transparency. The application of pigments based on titanium dioxide, especially the white pigment, can create an effect of “putty”. The bright pigments of the NPM EYE SHADOW COLLECTION such as CREAM, for example, are an optimal combination of density and colors; usually applying these pigments is enough to cover the wrong colors, and in this case there is no “putty” effect.

FANTASTIC COLORS OF THE NPM EYE SHADOW COLLECTION ALLOW ARTISTS TO CREATE DIFFERENT VARIANTS AND COMBINATIONS OF AESTHETIC COLORS. THE PALETTE OF EYE SHADOW PIGMENTS CONSISTS OF VERSATILE SHADES. Another advantage of these pigments is the fact that the NPM EYE SHADOW pigments are grouped in sets that are based on fundamental visage principles when light colors are used for shading. The palette of each set is created taking into account the basic rules of makeup and depends on the eye color; it makes the process of color selection much easier. However, this is only the beginning as the selection of pigments does not just depend on the eye color, but also on the skin color, the hair color as well as the condition of the skin. It is better to emphasize the color of eyes with the shade that is located on the opposite side of the color wheel — for example, green eyes can be emphasized with purple eye shadows. The NPM EYE SHADOW pigments can be easily mixed together that allows artists to create new interesting shades of colors. Knowing the basic rules of color selection, it is possible to make the shading process very easy and effective. Also, the NPM EYE SHA DOW pigments can be perfectly combined with the NPM EYE LINER AND EFFECTS pigments; it gives the opportunity to create more expressive transitions from saturated bright shades to completely transparent ones.

I CALLED THE TECHNIQUE OF WORKING WITH SUCH PIGMENTS “THE PASTEL TECHNIQUE”. The pastel technique helps artists create and show the whole complex range of transparent color transitions. This technique combines lines and colors; it can be used for drawing as well as shading. It is possible to create really saturated as well as pale



color shades. The usage of the pastel technique in permanent makeup considers shading to be performed in such a way that several strokes applied next to each other appear as delicate and smooth transitions without being mixed completely. In other words, it is possible to create many colorful strokes that are applied on one another, or just cover the surface without mixing the pigments — it all depends on the level of professionalism. The pastel technique requires a lot of accuracy and moreover, a certain level of intuition when pigments are being selected; once the color is chosen, it is almost impossible to change it later. However, this technique allows artists to combine and mix colors in different, sometimes really unusual and surprising ways. The best permanent eye makeup applied with the usage of the pastel technique includes a few layers of transparent pigments that create a “chameleon” effect. Another feature of the NPM EYE SHADOW pigments is that due to its transparency, the light falling on the individual particles of the pigment is dispersed in different directions; it creates a very specific effect of glowing and pastel softness; the texture looks a little bit velvety. Naturally, the use of such techniques in permanent makup gives really impressive, unique results that look completely different from usual permanent makeup. It is also interesting to see how those permanent eye shadows change their colors and shades depending on the lighting or the angle of vision. It is absolutely fascinating and really impressive.

I GUARANTEE THAT GREAT RESULTS OF YOUR WORK WILL INCREASE THE LEVEL OF YOUR PROFESSIONALISM AND WILL ALSO GIVE YOU MORE NEW CLIENTS. All the specialists in permanent makeup know that we are working in a very niche industry. A very small variety of procedures leads to fatigue and a feeling of burnout. The attitude to work changes and an artist starts perceiving his/her job only as a way to make money, which for me is the first sign of regression. What can be better than the satisfactory feeling of making our clients more beautiful? It can give you a lot of pleasure when you manage to emphasize natural beauty of your clients. Your new knowledge and skills will help you to increase your professionalism, to see new opportunities for self-development, to achieve fantastic and impressive results — and to make someone happier. PMUINTERNATIONAL.COM




In today’s world, women want to be one step ahead of men in many ways, including the professional sphere. Military women, female weightlifters, financial experts and politicians have long been commonplace. However, men always try to keep pace. It has become usual for many to see men working as makeup artists or beauticians; nevertheless, a male permanent makeup artist is still at times a controversial issue. When we were devising this project, we were really surprised at the growing number of male permanent makeup artists in the world; the popularity of these people is absolutely undeniable. But then we were even more surprised by their female colleagues and their opinions. A lot of clients and colleagues of male permanent makeup artists showed their admiration and respect, as well as support and loyalty — even when the artist made some mistakes. The others were expressing negative about men working as PMU artists. Their statements were based on the view that men are only able to perform the technical part of the job, while women — and only women! — can create miracles, adding a lot of charm to the results of their work. The fact that most of the customers are women adds fuel to the fire, because it means that a male artist at a glance can endear his female client, therefore no difficulties or disputes with the client arise. We would like to note that, in our opinion, the main quality of permanent makeup artists should be professionalism rather than belonging to a particular gender. We offered to several well-known male artists of permanent makeup to answer some questions about their profession, skills and secrets, as well as things they consider very important in their lives. I would like to add that, in my opinion, every single one of these men is amazing, and I want to say to each of them: «Thank you so much for participating in our project! I hope that the army of your fans will grow after reading this article! J»




My name is A lan Spadone, I am a  master technician in Micropigmentation, a  member of A miea International MT.DER M; apart from performing PMU procedures I also conduct trainings and run workshops all around the world. I am the author and creator of the most complete Master Class Hair Stroke Eyebrow of Brazil. To d a y I   h a v e m y o w n A c a d e m y o f Micropigmentation, AS TEAM, in Brazil. I  started working when I  was 17 as a  bachelor of publicity and marketing at Paulista University; my journey continued in the field of advertising, where I  was



creating brands and organizing campaigns in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Having my experience in the beauty industry as well as having a lot of passion to teach people, I  started my new career as a  beauty artist in 2009, doing makeup, eyebrow design and permanent makeup. I thought that there are not so many artists who can do perfect eyebrows, so I decided to work on this area to develop my skills and techniques. I believe that nothing is impossible. My experience helped me to make this conclusion, and also to understand that the more information you get, the more creative you become.

I prefer working with eyebrows and lips, and use products of Amiea on a daily basis as I am really happy with the quality of these products. According to the law of the jungle, the strongest survives. Nowadays, however, the strongest is the one who stands out, the professional that has really good, creative ideas and can make them work in reality. I believe that fashion trends are dictated by those professionals around the world. When a  woman really wants to look more beautiful and invest money in her appearance, she can do anything to achieve this. Knowing about this, some companies can take advantage of this fact in order to launch their products and techniques, the quality of which is questionable. However, people are becoming more aware of the situation. I  believe that only serious and responsible professionals will stay in our business in the future. If we talk about necessary skills and qualities of PMU artists, I would say that having lots of experience, knowing lots of techniques, having artistic taste as well as good equipment — all those things are essential. However, I  suppose that trainings as well as every day practice are the main things. And, of course, you

should believe in yourself — it is very important for anyone who wants to be professional. At the same time, having someone who trusts you and believes in you makes things much easier. The person who I can really thank for believing in me, motivating me, supporting me and — which is very important — being very critical as well, is my wife Marcela Spadone. I  feel very comfortable working in the PMU area. I  believe that men and women have the same intellectual capacity for creating art, but a lot of women say they feel more comfortable when a  procedure is carried out by a  man. In my opinion, PMU artists do not sell procedures but dreams, and when you understand this you will be on the right path to become a great professional with lots of satisfied clients.

c e s s, c u s f o s t o l l I wi sh y ou a l m ember th at su cce ss i o n. t a n but r e i m r e t e d d a it h a n f f o t l u s e r   is a






My name is Ennio Orsini; I’m an Italian PMU artist. I have been working in the field of PMU since 2000. I am the inventor of the Tricopigmentazione® as well as an innovative technique that helps artists create naturally looking eyebrows for men and women. I  am a  teacher, too. I  give individual and group micropigmentation training courses. I am the CEO in “OR SINI & BEL FAT TO”, a  company that sells products and equipment for micropigmentation. I  am also a  writer. My last book is called “Ultrarealistic Eyebrows”; it was translated into 5 languages. I  participate in different congresses and conferences, run master classes and workshops in many different countries. My studio is in Italy, in Abruzzo. I  have my own academy called Orsini & Belfatto that I  manage with my associate Tony Belfatto. If we talk about my motto, I wouldn’t say I have one — I just have my personal lifestyle. I always ask myself: “Why?” in both my personal and professional life. I  hope I  will always have enough strength to find the answers. My first experience as a makeup artist helped me a lot at the beginning of my career in permanent makeup. I  learned pretty much everything by myself, never attended any courses. It’s quite interesting that I studied engineering in college, although I  left after some time, fortunately and unfortunately. I am sure that mathematics, physics, IT and chemistry gave me important basic knowledge which helps me in my current occupation. Regarding my favorite facial areas to work on… I prefer applying permanent makeup of eyebrows, it gives me more satisfaction. If you asked me to give any recommendations to people who are novice at PMU, I would say the following: try to find a permanent makeup artist that you really like, and then contact this person. Also, it is very important to get a  permanent cosmetics artist license. Your first procedures will probably be performed at your home, after that you could work in a beauty salon, and then, when and if you are ready, you can set up your business. Today there are many brands of PMU on the market, however, I’ve worked with many types of equipment and products, but I wasn’t happy with any of them. Therefore I decided to set

up my own company, ORSINI & BELFATTO SRL . I use these products and equipment on a daily basis; I admit that I am not objective in this respect, but honestly, the brand “Orsini & Belfatto” meets all my requirements. The world of PMU is developing, some countries such as Brazil are starting to dictate fashion trends; I  think soon it will become a  reference point of the world. In the near future I  see pigments and equipment becoming more and more reliable that will help artists increase the level of their professionalism. However, I believe that after quite a long period of time PMU will be unnecessary; the newest achievements of medicine (e.g. stem cells) will replace it. Today it is not enough just to be experienced and talented, because the world is full of talented people. To become a  good permanent makeup artist and to be a  successful person, you need to be PERSEVER ANT; it means that you need to be unbelievably motivated. Sometimes it just happens, people might not have chosen it; quite often artists achieve great results because of some painful experience that seriously damaged their confidence or self-esteem; they are haunted by these memories, every day and during sleepless nights, and just to get rid of them, to redeem themselves, becoming really perseverant and incredibly motivated, people achieve amazing results. We take energy from the world and from the people around us. I was inspired by Tony Belfatto, who helped me in my personal growth. I  must mention Mario Gisbert, I admire his organizational skills. In the PMU industry there is a  person who I  really respect and thank as he was the breakpoint in my professional career — it is Massimo Froio. And Claudio Inove — I  must thank him for my reputation in Brazil. For me it is very easy and comfortable to work in the field of PMU being a man among women — I feel like there is less competition for me. I wish you to always be intrigued and never be afraid of the unknown. Visualize anything you want to get, and you will get it eventually; visualize the results of your work, and you will achieve them.






My name is Alexander Sivak, I am the CEO (as well as the head of the training center) of the TAT PM Company. I am also a certified trainer of the NPM Company as well as the International League of professionals of permanent makeup, and an official distributor of NPM Russia. My work in the field of permanent makeup was the result of my passion for the art of tattooing. I did my first tattoo in 1997, and it was my hobby, nothing more than that, until 2000. In 2003 I started working on permanent makeup, which was very difficult at the beginning — I felt really uncomfortable performing procedures due to lack of knowledge, skills and experience. Teaching future permanent makeup artists today, I first of all share my experience in the hope to prevent them from making possible errors. In 2013 I decided to dedicate myself to PMU only; it gives me great satisfaction when I see happiness in the eyes of my clients, and I am also very proud of my students when they become successful. Today I am keen on working with eyebrows as in my opinion they create the character of the face. However, it doesn’t matter which area I am working on, the main thing for me is to emphasize natural beauty of my clients. My motto is the following: harmony will always be in fashion. It is very important for me to work with clients that share the same opinion as me; it helps me achieve the best results. When I talk to artists who are novice at permanent makeup, I quite often hear about their fear of working on particular areas such as eyes or lips, for example. I can say that all the facial areas are important; each of them has its own complex technical and medical aspects.

In my opinion, the most important thing for any artist is to understand the essence of the service as well as all the consequences. Everything else goes after — different techniques of permanent makeup application, artistic taste, experience, high quality equipment… All those things will be just a waste of time and money if you don’t get the main idea. I try to find inspiration by looking at other types of art; I believe that it allows me to be different from other artists. I have been interested in works of a Japanese artist called Toshiyuki Abe. His watercolor paintings are so delicate; they fascinate me with their subtle halftones. I also try to make my works look very natural; my aim is to emphasize my client’s character and individuality, to make the face look harmonious, to avoid the situation when one facial part is pronounced too much and therefore attracts too much attention. Women surprise me with their ability to endure anything for the sake of beauty — I really admire this quality, to be honest. Women are also really grateful and loyal clients, and I would like to say thanks to them. I believe that success only comes with selfimprovement and determination. You need to always be active and develop yourself. Remember that when you invest money in your education, it is the best investment.

e s s a nrd! c c u s f o all l ost sin y o ur c ar e e u o y h s I wti a c hi ev e m e nt gre a

Two f u ndamenta l factor s of profe s siona l competence are hard work and the ability to take responsibilities. If we talk about manufacturing companies…Our market is saturated with advertising offers. We must learn to understand if this information is reliable. Creative marketing approaches should not be more important than quality and safety. Marketing is just a sales tool, it cannot replace the product. Naturally, marketing allows us to promote and develop ourselves, but it should always be followed by high quality products and services. PMU world is developing, new brands of pigments, equipment and materials appear pretty much every day, however, I strongly believe that future development is impossible without young, talented, creative and hardworking specialists. Future is theirs. PMUINTERNATIONAL.COM





Hello ever yone! My name is Will A nthony, I am the owner of the Will Anthony® Permanent Cosmetics and Advanced Training Center in Verona, NJ, the USA  — and this is the place where I  currently practice permanent makeup. I  offer on-site and off-site Advanced Eyeliner and Smoky Lash Enhancement classes. My motto is: stay focused and strive for perfection. For me it is very important to see how much I’ve improved since yesterday — this is how I  measure my success. When I was 16, I used to sweep the floor at a tattoo salon. The idea to try and start tattooing came to me within the next year, so I became a tattoo artist. A few years later, when I was 20, I read an article about permanent makeup in a  beauty magazine; it made me realize that I  could incor porate traditional tattooing techniques into PMU. My favorite facial part to work on… I would have to say it is the eyeliner. I specialize in the procedure that I called “a smoky lash enhancement”. 20 years ago resources were limited, the Internet wasn’t the way it is today with Google, YouTube videos and amazingly informative Q&A forums. So, by word of mouth, I found a local trainer who taught me all the basic things regarding PMU. My advice to novice artists would be the following: try to take advantage of all the available resources. Don’t be misled by someone’s bio and credentials, you really have to see their latest before and after photos to estimate their talent accurately. You are only as good as your last procedure. The type of equipment that I use on a daily basis is the machine called the Will A nthony® K ing Coil. I  use Eikon 420 power supply, Li Pigments and CAM supply for miscellaneous items. I trust these products and these brands because they never let me down. When I look for a product to use on my clients, I  always look at the results of the use of this product rather than the way the company markets it. Nowaday s , i n the i ndu str y of per manent makeup there are so many talented people that produce impeccable work on a  daily basis, and now with the use of the Internet they are able to share it with clients and technicians all over the

world. It would be unfair to say that any particular region of the world is better than another, as we all have our own styles. I believe that technicians should concentrate on the fundamental things of PMU, which in my opinion are the following: artists need to learn how to create perfect brows (powdered or hair strokes), how to perform a perfect eye procedure (smoky or solid), and how to create perfect lips, rather than chasing the newest fads and gimmicks. The most important thing is having the ability to create a signature style that is globally recognizable, but at the same time having the ability to tweak that style to meet the wishes of the client. There are so many components that make up a PMU artist, from equipment to drive to talent. When all those factors are aligned, only then it is possible to create your signature style that can also meet the client’s needs. Talking about people who inspire me…This is a very hard question for me to answer because I am a  self-taught artist; I  thrive on creating my own styles and my own techniques. If I had to choose artists who really help the industry, I  would say it is Teryn Darling, and also Mary Ritcherson of Shades and Strokes ®. I  constantly get feedback from my students on how helpful these women are and how they have guided and inspired them. As a  man, I  have a different perspective on makeup; I would struggle to say that it is easier or more difficult to be a man in the beauty industry — it is just different. I don’t follow trends and temporary styles; my work will simply emphasize woman’s natural beauty. All the artists have their talents and their limits. You should know where your talent lies and what your limits are. If there is something you can’t do or can’t do well, don’t be afraid to refer a client to someone who can. Always believe in yourself, never give up. Wish you lots of luck and success!






Greetings Ladies and Gentlemen. When I was asked for this interview, I thought to myself: “This can’t be true. One of the most important Permanent Makeup magazines in the world is contacting me...” — you can understand why I was so surprised. But actually it was true... so here I am, telling you about my life. My name is Matteo Perazzi, I was born on September 14th, 1977 in a little town in the Central Italy, Rieti. Perhaps somebody among you is wondering how I got to permanent makeup. In this respect, I believe that the story of our life is always written by destiny. Until I was 30, I’d never thought of doing anything like this as I had attended technical school. I had been working as a  supervisor in Italian as well as international companies of electronics, then in 2005 a  stroke of lightning changed my life. I  was in Bologna at an international fair of Aesthetics. I  was lucky to meet interesting people such as Pablo (the Art Director of Gil Cagne), one of the most talented Italian makeup artists; later the same year I attended a course of makeup and eyebrow design. So I have worked in «Gil Cagne Pro makeup artist» team from 2006 to 2009 and took part in many important events. If you want to become a good permanent makeup artist, you should attend courses as it is impossible to get the best results without having basic knowledge of the color theory, morphology as well as facial geometry. In 2009 I attended my first training of permanent makeup at the International permanent makeup Biotek Academy in Milan. The teacher there was Cristiana Causo, one of the best international permanent makeup artists; we got married in 2014! Cristiana helped me to become a Biotek Master teacher after one year of academic training. Thanks to the Academy my skills were growing rapidly, I learned a lot about techniques and procedures, tools and materials as well as clients’ psychology. I know that lots of companies produce tools and pigments for dermopigmentation; personally I  trust Biotek’s products as I  have been using them for a long time. As an alternative to Biotek production there is the Orsini & Belfatto Company which offers two kinds of different devices, one for permanent makeup, the other one for Tricopigmentation. To learn about the Tricopigmentation, I attended a special course given by my friend and colleague Toni Belfatto. If we speak about safety of pigments for permanent makeup, then I would say that there are some brands that I trust and know very well, therefore use them all the time — I never had any problem with products of Biotek, Orsini & Belfatto, Nouveau Contour. I am convinced that a modern

permanent makeup artist should use all the good stuff that the market offers, and then, after having tried lots of different variants, you can select the ones which are the best in your opinion. My favorite areas to work with are eyebrows and lips: I believe that those facial parts are able to emphasize the character as well as beauty the most. The advice I would like to give you is «listen to your customers», listen to them carefully, and try to understand why they had decided to get permanent makeup applied. That will help you to choose the correct technique and the harmonious image in general. Unfortunately, a  lot of artists make money as their first priority without caring about new techniques, without developing their skills and increasing their level. That is why there are too many bad, unattractive results. I  have been practicing dermopigmentation for several years and I am sure that if you have a thirst for knowledge as well as determination to work hard, you can achieve very high levels of professionalism. To be a  man in the industry where women are the majority is not a  disadvantage. My experience led me to the conclusion that women tend to compete (being customers, artists or models) more often than men. Women don’t always listen to their customers as they are used to doing makeup in their own way, therefore it makes them feel that they know better; on the contrary, men generally tend to work in a more collaborative and communicative way. To achieve the best results in the world of dermopigmentation, you have to start with the basics: makeup and colorimetry courses after which you can start doing permanent makeup. It is very important to acquire and analyze all the given information, to avoid possible mistakes during procedures. I have made lots of mistakes, just like everybody else, and I know I will make some more in the future, it is inevitable; however, it is important to make sure that you learn from your mistakes, not repeat them again and again. This is my philosophy. I wish you all to be asked for interviews like this one, because that will mean you have reached something important and remarkable in your professional life. Thanks to everybody!






Hello to all the readers of the PMU International magazine, my name is Moshe Alul. I’m a tattoo artist; I have been practicing tattooing for more than 30 years. I also have been doing permanent makeup, Hair Follicle Simulation, areola procedures and paramedical treatments for the past 12 years all over the world. I am the owner of NPM International and the head of the Research and Development department, as well as the master instructor at NPM International. I have invented the NPM roller that had a really big influence on the industry of Hair Follicle Simulation around the world. I was born in Israel; my working place is located in the suburbs of a beautiful city called Kiryat Motzkin. I have 2 academies in Israel: one is located in the North of the country, the other one is in the center of the country, in Rishon LeZion. Our school offers different types of master classes; they cover all the basics of permanent makeup, from colors and needles, to drawing sketches. As an artist as well as a trainer, I give master classes in many different countries of the world. My motto is: «Make a difference in people’s lives», that is my personal and professional goal; I try to be as good as I possibly can no matter what exactly I do. As a manufacturer of devices, pigments or needles, I always try to create and produce the best products in the industry. My career in permanent makeup started 10 years ago, when I decided to do something to help bald people (as I was getting bald myself). I wanted to find a solution to this problem, so one day I came up with an idea of creating an optical illusion of hair follicles on the scalp. From that point on, I have been dedicating my time and energy to micropigmentation and permanent makeup; I have created the NPM Roller, 10 NPM needles (designed for different facial parts) as well as various machines, so the clients get the desired result. There are three areas that I really like working on: hair follicle simulation, areola treatments and eye shadows. Working on these areas makes me really inspired and creative. The fact that we can add colors, create different effects as well as emphasize certain facial features reminds me of all those years of being a tattoo artist. I was making progress every day when customers would come to me with different requests that I did not expect, neither was I ready for them. I still

remember when one of my friends asked me what I thought of her eyebrows. Her next question changed my life drastically — she asked me if I could do her eyebrows. Here I am 12 years later, the owner of NPM International. If you ask me about brands I use on a daily basis, I guess the answer will be obvious — I believe in what I have created and brought into the market, so I use only NPM products and am absolutely sure that they are amongst the best products in the industry. Regarding marketing solutions that I find highly professional, I would have to say that NPM campaigns are really successful and effective; however, I also need to mention the ORSINI & BELFATTO GROUP as well as BIOTEK, and give them credit for their marketing, branding and advertising. If we speak about a city that could be called “the capital of PMU”, I would struggle to name one that really stands out — although it could be said about one country: Russia. There are some artists who I believe dictate trends: Viktoria Tomashivskaya, when it comes to Eye Shadows; Nataliya Yeremenko with her hyper realistic Eyebrows; really talented artists Sviatoslav Otchenash and Alexander Sivak; in other countries there are names like Toni Belfatto, Ennio Orsini, Tunde Mehn and Alan Spadone. I believe that the PMU industry will only be growing, there is a lot more to learn and even more people to teach. I have noticed that the level of artistry is increasing; there have been lots of breakthroughs in the industry and there will be even more to come. Talking about secrets of success… It is important to find your own way; I have found mine in my MAPS: Mechanics of the devices that the artist uses; Artist’s skills; Pigments of high quality; Structure of the needle. These factors are the most important for PMU artists. I have been doing PMU for many years and I must admit — I feel very comfortable work ing in this so - called female dominated industry; there are lots of talented male artists who have proved that men are actually doing really well here. I would like to thank the PMU International Magazine and their team for their great ideas; I wish them lots of success in this brilliant project. All the best to everyone, and good luck!






My name is Toni Belfatto. I started working as a tattoo artist in 1989, and then several years later I started to dedicate my time to permanent makeup and paramedical dermapigmentation. Having certain qualities in my personality, such as perseverance, as well as lots of passion for my work, I  was always ready to experiment, to study new techniques and grow professionally; this is how the training academy called “Orsini & Belfatto” was created. There were about 5000 students, among which I selected the best artists so they could join me in my new franchising project called “Belfatto Lab”. I am the President of the Italian Association of Dermapigmentation; a speaker and an Italian representative at more than 50 world congresses of medicine and micropigmentation; the inventor of Tricopigmentation and a  holder of patents of specific equipment for this specialization; a  teacher in several universities; an author of several books about permanent makeup and Tricopigmentation that were translated into 5 languages. I  currently practice PMU in Casoli, Rome, Milan and Pescara; I  am the owner of the Tony Belfatto Academy and the co-founder of “ O r si n i & B el fatto”  — a  comp a ny t h at provides materials and un ique tech nologies that allow artists to achieve high levels of safety, effectiveness and professionalism. My motto is: don’t look for a way to happiness, instead just be happy and grateful for the way you are. I was fascinated by permanent makeup when I first discovered this new world; a lot of things I  learned by myself, improving my skills and techniques from day to day, trying new machines and new pigments. At the moment my favorite areas to work on are eyebrows; I  especially like these modern hyper-realistic techniques which allow you to achieve absolutely fantastic results. In my opinion, the company that provides the best qualit y equipment is Orsini & Belfatto; I  use products of this brand on a  daily basis. With regards to marketing solutions, I  believe that the quality of products and services is more important than any advertising campaign.

There are companies that provide ver y high quality materials, tools, pigments, for example Or si n i & B el fatto, N PM , M T. D er m — those companies can help artists achieve high levels of professionalism. Nowadays PMU is very popular ever y where, I  would say that Europe now is a  continent of PMU, the most professional and experienced artists from all over the world work and teach there. Permanent makeup is developing, therefore I  believe that certain things like the quality of tools, pigments, materials as well as procedures and trainings, are changing, and changing to the better. To achieve the best results, it is important not to only choose the right company which provides with the best quality products, but also to choose the right artist, an expert that can work with different equipment and various techniques. The most important things for PMU artists are technical skills, experience, communicative skills and highly developed artistic taste. There are two people who really inspire me, one of them is Carole Franck, — one of the first PMU artists in the world; the other one is Ennio Orsini, I respect and admire his artistic taste as well as his ability to apply marketing and advertising approaches to the world of PMU. I feel ver y comfortable working in the PMU industr y; there are a  lot of advantages of being a  man when most clients and competitors are women, for example female clients get both high quality procedures and male opinions about their new look. T here i s a  good ph ra se : “A m i nd i s l i ke a  parachute: it only works when open”. If you are open-minded, you can achieve great results. Curiosity as well as desire to experiment made me write manuals which, I hope, will help a lot of people to approach the world of beauty.

Thank you.





My name is Sviatoslav Otchenash. At the moment I am living in Tallinn (Estonia). However, having been to so many places around the world, I  feel more like the whole world is my home. I  have long been engaged in tattooing, although permanent makeup became my specialty about 5 years ago. I do not have a favorite technique or favorite area to work with. I just love what I do. My motto is: «Never rest on your laurels!”, so I  tr y to make full use of ever y single day of my life. I  spend a  lot of time on self-development, creating my own techniques that can be useful for my work  — although I  never think that my techniques are perfect. I strongly believe that the most talented artists are from Russia. Seriously, no offense, but I honestly think so. Many artists that are known all over the world often don’t have as much talent as ordinary technicians who just do their job every day. My opinion is that Russia is the country that dictates fashion trends and styles in permanent makeup. It is clear that in different countries clients have different opinions and preferences. In the Middle East people prefer wide eyebrows that are set close to each other; in other countries clients tend to choose more natural design. However, sometimes a European woman with fair hair and light-colored eyes really wants to have dark wide eyebrows. This, in my opinion, is one of the main problems: the discrepancy between selfperception and artist’s views and ideas. Therefore, a  trusting relationship between an artist and a client is very important. I have clients who want to get permanent makeup applied for the first time in their life, and also I  correct various mistakes of other artists. However, I  never agree to correct bad results of microblading. In general, I  don’t understand this global microblading euphoria. Often PMU trainers when teaching this technique are not completely honest about possible consequences of bad quality work. Seeing these f laws quite often, I am not willing to correct them. Personally, I know this technique very well, and use it from time to time; I just don’t want it to be positioned as something out of this world. At this stage of my teaching experience, I  don’t give training courses on microblading. The art of tattooing has not changed that much within hundreds of years. The same situation is with permanent makeup: whatever we come up with, no matter what advertising shows us, the essence of the procedure is still the same.

There are no perfect pigments, and there a lot more things to study. Maybe one day there will be a  brand with a  really elaborate marketing campaign, the one that will be based on many artists’ opinions. A MIE A and BIOT EK are the brands that I prefer. I also want to mention LONGT IM E-L INER , for their competent marketing strateg y. I  believe that anyone who desires to be a  good artist can learn how to perform the procedure of permanent makeup application. A lot of my students have no art education, yet the quality of their work is really high. The results of their work might be not absolutely exquisite, but there are no defects, they look good, so the clients are satisfied. A good artist performs the procedure well from a  technical point of view; a talented artist is not only a technician, but also a  designer, a  stylist, a  colorist, a  psychologist, and by combining various techniques as well as pigment compositions he/she creates something unique. I  feel ver y comfortable being a  man in this “female” industry; I don’t see any problems. I agree though that for me, as a man, there is less competition than for female artists. I have never attended any master classes — I am a self-taught artist. However, I put a lot of effort into my work to be as good and creative as the artists who inspired me. Tatiana Petraitis — it is thanks to her work that I came up with a technique for working with the eye area — shading on the upper eyelid. There are two more artists who unwittingly helped my career — Valeria Barchenko and A nna Savina.

The most amusing question for me was: «Do you consider yourself a well-known artist?» I  had no idea that I am well-known J



All the artists from time to time face various situations when color correction is required — normally in about a year or two after permanent makeup application. In this article I am going to share with you my opinion about this whole situation, as well as my experience in color correction. You will find out about different ways to correct unwanted colors, and read about color theory basics. I need to point out that in this article I am going to talk about iron oxide pigments. Pigments used for permanent lip makeup can turn blue or purple, so the lips can look bluish, purplish, brownish or greyish; this happens when the color was chosen incorrectly, or the process of pigment application went wrong. As for permanent eyebrow makeup, the variety of colors is large: pigments can turn red, pink, orange, coral, purple or blue. What is the reason of this color change?





To understand the reason, we need to explore the properties of brown pigments. Browns can be complex; they can include cadmium oxide (red), ocher (yellow) or soot (black). Over time, the yellow color is the first one that is removed from the skin, so then the skin color turns purplish, or has a bit of a lilac shade. Later, the black color goes away, and then the only color that is left is red. Cadmium (red) is perceived by the body as a natural color, so we often can see red, pink, orange eyebrows after the other shades have faded away; the problem is that it stays for a long time — sometimes forever. Personally, I use brown pigments based on ocher and soot (yellow and black), they represent cold shades of brown. Then after the procedure I use different antigrey correctors (usually with orange pigments) to make the main color of the eyebrows warmer. But what are we going to do when we have clients whose eyebrows have different colors, and none of these colors is the one that this client wants to wear?

RUBRIC There are two different ways to solve the problem: •

Laser tattoo removal

Color correction with the use of different corrective pigments

On one hand, laser tattoo removal is a highly effective treatment; however, not every client will agree to use it. A lot of people feel really worried

BLUE EYEBROWS (grey, blue, greenish cold shades) These tones appear if the main pigment used for the procedure of permanent makeup was black (or various shades of grey). If a client wants permanent eyebrow makeup to be performed with the use of the shading technique, then the process of color correction is quite simple — it is enough just to apply warm pigments (such as orange) on top of the eyebrow, and then add desired shades of brown.

about the healing process which is very long, and all the way through the client has to look a bit weird. To remove the pigment completely, it may require multiple sessions; also, scarring as well as changes in skin color or texture can occur. Some people are concerned that laser tattoo removal is not that harmless for the body, since the pigment is destroyed by the laser and is removed by kidneys and liver. The decision is made — corrective pigments! Now we need to get down to work.

However, if a client prefers the hairstroke technique as a method of permanent makeup application, then a lot depends on how saturated the old pigment is. If the layer of pigment is really thick and the color is too bright (like tribal tattoos, for example), then, no matter what we do, it will be impossible to get hair strokes as a result; the color black is really dark, it will dominate in any case, and the hairs will not be noticeable at all. In this case, the only possible solution to the problem is laser tattoo removal. Nevertheless, if the shade of the old pigment is lighter, then it is possible to help the situation.

Here is what we need to do: 1. Drawing hair strokes on the area of permanent makeup that needs color correction; the main rule is that the new pigment should have darker shades than the old one; 2. Creating a mixture using two tones – orange and light beige. Our job is to make the skin color between the hair strokes look as natural as possible. It is also a very good idea to add a bit of ocher (yellow) to the mixture; this will allow us to make the tone look warmer and even more natural. Using this mixture, we need to draw light lines in between of the dark ones; it is possible to make the light bits wider than the dark ones as our paramount task is to make the main color of the eyebrows look more neutral. 3. There are some situations when after finishing the procedure of color correction we realize that the old pigment is still noticeable. In this case, it is possible to use orange corrective pigments and apply them on top of the eyebrow area. No need to worry that the eyebrows will turn orange or ginger; the orange shade in itself is rather transparent (if there is no titanium dioxide), so it is going to give the eyebrows a warmer shade.



RED EYEBROWS If the color of the eyebrows is maroon or bright red, then the only possible solution is to use laser removal. If the shading technique of permanent eyebrow makeup is requested, then it is necessary to choose olive shades of the corrective pigments. When working with the hairstroke technique, we need to do the following: 1. Drawing the main hair strokes with a brown color; 2. To make the skin color between the hair strokes look more natural, it is necessary to use a mixture of greenish (olive), beige and yellow shades, which is going to neutralize red tones 3. If necessary, it is possible to add a bit of shading using light brown colors. When the old pigment is really light, it is possible not to use any corrective mixture to neutralize the tone; instead, a cold shade of brown pigment can be applied on top of the pigmented area (using the shading technique) Everything depends on the color type of the client as well as the desired result.

PURPLE EYEBROWS Again, a lot depends on the situation: if the color of the old pigment is too dark, then it is necessary to use laser removal as the only way to correct it. If the shade is light enough, we can start working on the process of color correction. 1.

Drawing hair strokes using the correct shade of brown

2. Creating a mixture of yellow and beige (it is also possible to add a bit of orange or green, depending on the shade of the old pigment); applying the corrective mixture in between of the hair strokes 3. Using orange corrective pigments to make the shade warmer

As for the use of titanium dioxide in permanent makeup — it is a divisive issue. My opinion is the following: the less white the better. We have all seen how unattractive it can look when titanium dioxide remains in the skin. It is important to consider that titanium dioxide in its pure form is better to use for eyelid correction, or when camouflaging blue circles around the eyes; in such cases, the pigment is applied on top of the area that needs to be covered. When we work with eyebrows, then it is necessary



to apply very thin lines of pigment between the hair strokes; this helps to highlight the area a bit, and emphasize the dark lines of pigment. Over time, if the dark color goes away, and there are only light lines left, then it looks much better than red or blue eyebrows. Sometimes it is enough just to add a little more dark lines (as hair strokes) and everything falls into place, provided that the brown pigment used for the procedure has no cadmium, nor should it be greyish with a cold tone.





The thing that makes me excited (and something that I would call one of my weaknesses) is a beautiful, perfect curve of thick eyebrows, or, to be more precise– the eyebrows that only seem thick. Gorgeous Coco Chanel always emphasized the importance of eyebrows; she believed that they “make” the woman’s face. Any permanent makeup specialist will agree with this statement as beautiful and nicely shaped eyebrows are the main component of makeup. All the things that create our look somehow help us express our personality in many different ways — so why the eyebrows should be an exception? The line of the eyebrows should be in harmony with the size and shape of the eyes and the mouth, as well as the facial outline. A proportional shape of the eyebrows, as well as their color and density, indicates the balance between emotions, mind and personality. However, not every woman has naturally harmonious appearance and classically beautiful facial features. Permanent makeup is like a wizard that can create miracles: it is possible to choose any shape of eyebrows, and this is not a fairy tale. Creating beautiful eyebrows is real art. For example, thick and wide eyebrows have been in trend for a few seasons; this type of eyebrow shapes enhances a facial contour, makes the outline of the face more pronounced visually, and also adds a lot of emphasis

to the eyes. Moreover, in this case the eyebrows themselves look much more natural and beautiful than ultra-thin, over-plucked eyebrows. However, it is not very sensible to apply permanent makeup according to the latest trends — even if your client is really keen on this idea. Eyebrows can be wide or thin — in fact, a lot depends on the client’s facial features, since they can be pronounced (e.g. a strong jaw, a big nose, full lips etc.), or rather delicate. To select the right color and shape, it is essential to consider all the individual characteristics as well as the wishes of the client. An eyebrow line that is too wide, or a very thin dark line in combination with fair hair — both variants can look equally unattractive and artificial. If an eyebrow line is too thin, the face can lose all its charm and attractiveness. In sum, I stand by natural looks. Using the shading technique, it is possible to create eyebrows that will look absolutely natural. Permanent makeup applied with the use of the shading technique is considered universal, because it allows an artist to solve several tasks: to correct the natural shape of the eyebrows; to choose the right color with the maximum accuracy; to disguise various imperfections, etc. PMUINTERNATIONAL.COM


The color selected for the procedure blends with the natural color of the hairs, therefore it creates an effect of “all-natural line”. When working with the shading technique, a permanent makeup specialist should know all the basic principles of the color theory as well as be able to apply them when required, so the new image which is being created by this artist looks really harmonious. Of course, depending on the client’s request, an eyebrow can be bright, wide, thin, light — any kind, actually. The main thing is that it should be done properly, according to all the principles of permanent makeup; the eyebrows should have enough volume so they don’t look flat and therefore artificial. That is where the shading technique is really useful as it helps to avoid gaps or uneven lines during the process of coloring. It is not enough just to learn how to use this technique; it is essential to be able to apply it accurately and carefully; an artist should be able to “feel” the process.

thick — it should be rather transparent. This type of technique should be applied carefully, accurately, with the complete understanding of the process by the artist. To create a  proper shadow effect, it is necessary to consider the fact that even when the applied pigment is very light, the final result is always much darker than the original color of the pigment.

*A pencil technique Nowadays, the industry of permanent makeup is changing and transforming day by day, therefore, it cannot be considered in isolation, without an integrated approach, where a lot of factors such as facial geometry, the color theory etc. play great roles. There many types of cosmetic procedures that can alter the look of one’s eyebrows, however, the shapes in permanent makeup should be drawn according to the position (and, to a  certain extent, the shape) of natural eyebrow lines; the direction of the hair growth should be considered, too.

Using this type of technique, it is possible to fill the shape of the eyebrow leaving no gaps. All the color transitions should create enough volume, despite the fact that the layer of the applied pigment is rather thick. The shading process is based on the use of several colors of pigments mixed and combined. For example, it is possible to create an illusion of volume by using three shades of pigments; in this case, the eyebrows will look dense and thick, at the same time very natural. *A shadow technique Permanent makeup applied with the use of this technique creates an effect of a  very soft natural color, without any pronounced lines that in some situations can look absolutely inappropriate. It is important not to make the layer of the color too



Typically, an eyebrow consists of three parts — the head, the body and the tail. There are some nuances that should be kept in mind when drawing the eyebrow lines. First of all, the beginning of the eyebrow should start from the line of the nose wings – although sometimes eyebrows are a  bit shorter and do not reach this line; in this case, you should start drawing from the beginning of the natural eyebrow line. Secondly, it is important to define the spot where the arch of the eyebrow should peak. In order to do it, there should be a line drawn from the center of the nose tip, passing through the pupil of the eye up to the eyebrows. The third point will be the end of the eyebrow line; in order to determine it, a line should be drawn from the tip of the nose through the eye to the outer corner of the eyebrow. Unfortunately (or perhaps luckily), it is impossible to apply some sort of universal template in order to draw the suitable shape, since we all are completely different. There are sometimes certain situations

when eyebrows were done according to all the rules and canons of permanent makeup, yet they are far from looking perfect. The main rule is the following: permanent makeup should create an illusion of volume after healing. For example, if a client has close-set eyes, and there are no hairs in the area of the peak of the eyebrows, then it would be better to make the arch of the eyebrow a bit brighter, despite the fact that from the artistic point of view the light comes from above, therefore the arch is not the darkest part of the eyebrow. On the other hand, if a client has wide-set eyes, it would make sense to add more emphasis to the head of the eyebrow. It is essential to remember that there should be no sharp lines when drawing the shape. One more important detail to remember: the difference between the color of pigment and the hair color should not be more than 2 tones. If it is necessary to enhance the eyebrows a little, it is possible to use a light pigment to make certain areas a  bit lighter. On the one hand, a  light color should camouflage imperfections (such as bleeding, or some parts of the natural eyebrow that are not supposed to be noticeable), on the other hand it should look very natural, to avoid the effect of “putty”. I believe that the most important thing in permanent makeup of eyebrows is keeping the balance in order to emphasize natural beauty; it is also essential to avoid disproportion; instead of following the latest fashion trends, it is better to choose the shape of eyebrows that will be suitable precisely for this person, to find and select colors that will be in harmony with all the facial features. In this case, the results of your work will definitely please your clients, regardless of the applied techniques. PMUINTERNATIONAL.COM




For more than 20 years the experts of LONGTIME-LINER®, under the supervision of the CEO and company founder Waltraud Kuffner, have been developing the most modern technologies, processes and materials for gentle methods and well-tolerated dyes for lasting beauty. Continuing pursuit of innovation and quality are trademarks of LONG-TIME-LINER®.

Permanent makeup originates from the art of tattooing, so at the beginning both of these procedures were carried out with the usage of the same machines. By and by, the production of special machines for permanent makeup with the rotar y engine was set up, and after some time the industry started producing machines with engines of induction type designed for contouring makeup. A bit later, the machines running on induction came to be called universal. To figure out the differences between universal tattoo machines and special machines for permanent makeup, it is necessary to understand the details of their structure. The machines for permanent makeup are small, with a lightweight handle; they are fairly simple to use. Manufacturers were able to reduce the weight of the machines by using special materials such as plastic or titanium; the weight reduction is also achieved thanks to relatively small motors, which, however, leads to a decrease in power and, consequently, reduces the impact force of the needle. In addition, there is a considerably limited selection of needles for these machines as low-power motors simply cannot work with large needles.




Long-Time-Liner machines are versatile; they were designed specifically for permanent makeup. Despite the fact that these machines are slightly heavier and have a higher vibration, even the most ardent opponents of universal machines say with confidence that it is possible to get used to the weight and vibration within several weeks. Moreover, modern universal machines have the lightweight design as the case is made of plastic. Last but not least: thanks to a special transmission box the vibration is completely removed from the tip of the needle, thus only the handle vibrates during the procedure of permanent makeup application. Universal machines are safer as they do less damage to clients’ skin. First of all, the needles used for those machines are thinner and sharper, which naturally reduces the damage. Secondly, the induction machines are more powerful, and therefore, they work on a  higher speed. Thanks to these two reasons the needles, on one hand, do not get stuck into the skin, on the other hand, they do not cut the skin as much as razors.

BENEFITS OF LONG-TIME-LINER® The advantages of the Lon g-Time-Liner machines are the following: the quality and the speed of pigment application. For example, with the use of a universal machine the permanent lip makeup procedure (the application of pigment) can take only 15-20 minutes, whereas using a  machine for permanent makeup, an artist can spend up to one hour, or even more, depending on the situation. Permanent makeup artists that work with universal machines say that it is much easier to carry out a procedure of shading when this type of equipment is being used. If an artist wants to increase the level of professionalism, to be really good at contouring as well as permanent makeup, then it is better to work with a  universal machine because it has great potential. This machine is designed for improv isation.

Permanent makeup artists usually have some basic requirements to the machines they work with: it must be comfortable, powerful, and useful for dermopigmentation and permanent makeup of any complexity. The LongTime-Liner machine has no flaws in these matters. Unlike their previous rotar y analogues, modern



machines are equipped with a disposable sterile cartridge consisting of needles and tubes. Vibration at the end of the needle is minimized thanks to the transmission system. The course of the needle is between 2-4 mm, which allows an artist to control the depth of penetration as well as the uniformity of pigment application. Like in most modern rotary machines, the elegant handles are as light as possible, which is achieved by reducing the size of the motor. The last generation of handles has no restriction in the selection of needles, which allows professionals to perform various procedures, including contouring as well as shading. Another advantage of the Long-Time-Liner® machines is the absence of module: it means that only the needle is used for the procedure; the remaining parts of the handle that come into contact with the patient’s skin are sterilized with the use of an autoclave or “dry-heat” sterilizers, which reduces the cost of the procedure. All the modern machines are equipped with computerized management systems. Thanks to a  liquid crystal display an artist is able to control the frequency as well as the force of punctures.

CONTURE® -LINER DUO ULTRA-FINE PIGMENTATION DEVICE The Conture®-Liner Duo ultra-fine pigmentation device is the result of the Long-Time-Liner® company’s many years of research and elaboration. The device is designed, developed and manufactured in Munich (Germany). With the use of this device it is possible to easily control the speed of the needle as well as the pigment flow; an artist can also select one of the four pre-configured modes.

The Conture®-Liner Duo micropigmentation device also has a low noise level, which enables the specialist to properly focus on the process of work, while the customer can spend the time of procedure in a calm and relaxing atmosphere.



The Conture®-Liner Duo device by Long-TimeLiner looks elegant and presentable; it also has an additional socket to connect a second handle. Using the second handle enables to carry out procedures of more complex pigmentation, since it is possible to use two colors of pigments simultaneously, and therefore, an artist will spend much less time on the process.

• •

The Conture®-Liner Duo micropigmentation device has the following advantages:

It is very important for the company to provide Linergists (Linergisten®) with the opportunity to apply pigments with the high level of accuracy, as well as the ability to feel confident and comfortable when performing the procedure of micropigmentation. To achieve these goals, the company Long-Time-Liner® has been developing the micropigmentation techniques and methods for more than 29 years.

• • • •


it is more powerful than most machines available on the market easier to work with thanks to the simultaneous use of two pigments helps artists save a lot of time the “one needle” technique


makes the process of work more effective has an adequate level of protection against magnetic fields needle-vibration controlling mechanism


1. NEVER LET YOUR HEAD HANG DOWN! And no matter how perfect or imperfect the results of your work are, if you are a person who strives for perfection, you should never be completely satisfied with your results.

2. LEARN A LOT! You shouldn’t think that the artist whose works you really admire has come from somewhere like Mars or Venus. Start with signing up for a master class — and shoot for the stars!

3. FREE PERMANENT MAKEUP CORRECTION! In this case, all of your clients will come back to you in a month for a touch-up. You need to see the results of your work after healing.

4. DON’T THINK ONLY ABOUT MONEY! Especially in a situation when a client comes to you for a  correction procedure. If you realize that a certain problem cannot be solved by you, you should ask one of your more experienced colleagues to help you. Under no circumstances should you agree to perform a  procedure of permanent makeup if a  client has any contraindications.

5. A GOOD RELATIONSHIP or f r ie nd sh ip w it h a co smetolo g i st , a n opht h a l molog i st , a  der m atolog i st or anesthesiologist will be a great advantage for you as a specialist, because any professional advice from such experts is priceless.

7. FOLLOW THE LAWS. Don’t cheat. Don’t work at home. It is absolutely not serious.

8. TRY NOT TO SAY phrases like “Oh my God , who did that to you??” — remember of the boomerang law!

9. WHEN COMMUNICATING with colleagues, try to be very friendly and open. You are going to work in this society, so you need to respect it.

10. DURING YOUR FIRST WORKING YEAR, try not to do corrections — you might make the result even worse, due to lack of experience. Be patient.

11. ALWAYS TAKE BEFORE AND AFTER PHOTOS and, more importantly, take photos after healing.

12. YOU SHOULD ALWAYS HAVE client info cards filled in, with the names of all the pigments you used.

13. NEVER USE tools, pigments, anesthetics that don’t have a special certificate; neither should you use any type of equipment if you didn’t attend a special course on how to use it.

6. TRY TO MAKE FRIENDS with lawyers, tax consultants as well as specialists of regulatory authorities in your country — these people can be unbelievably useful.






I will try to answer your questions about why pure titanium oxide should not be used in Permanent Makeup.

Recently there have been many trainers that were using white either as a highlighter, as a base for light lip colors on dark skin tones that otherwise would not show, or in the so called «butterfly” eyeliners. I have also come across trainers that teach students to correct their mistakes by using skin color pigments i.e. camouflage. I am at a loss for words as to how any ethical trainer could teach these techniques to students who are new to the permanent makeup industry. These students put their faith in trainers, which have been paid handsomely, only to realize later that they start to receive complaint after complaint from their clients due to the aforementioned techniques they have been taught. We must remember that our responsibility with the clients ends the very day when the last molecule of the pigment we had implanted fades away, not before; in most cases, the pigment does not go away completely. If you think that your job is done as long as the client walks out happy — think again. I have had many people in my clinic who told me that their face had been ruined by the flesh color pigment which was used to correct a mistake. Years after the black eyeliner faded, the f lesh pigment went yellow and has become a painful reminder of a botched job.

I do have some deg ree of s y mpathy for camouf lage being used in years gone by, before laser treatments were affordable. I have spent the past five years of my life developing techniques to remove pigments safely from the face, and was teaching these techniques in case the law of supply as well as demand would make laser treatments affordable. However, there is no excuse for using flesh color pigments today. Once I trained a very experienced semi-permanent makeup technician how to use a tattoo removal laser. I asked her what she did if she made a mistake before she had a laser. Her answer, without missing a beat, was “I don’t make mistakes... I need the laser to fix other technician’s mistakes!” Whilst this response may seem rather arrogant, the fact is that it is what every semi-permanent makeup technician should be striving for. Since mistakes are inevitable to some degree, the aim should always be to get the ink out, not to cover up mistakes by putting more layers of pigment on top. A slip of the hand is possible even for the most experienced technicians, but getting the ink out is the ONLY ethical approach to correct those mistakes. What is Titanium Dioxide? All bases for pigment must be derived from either organic or inorganic (synthetic) sources. In the days of Rembrandt and Rubens, white oil pigments were derived from lead. PMUINTERNATIONAL.COM


What happens then?! The oxidized lead was then mixed with grape seed oil in order to produce the white pigment for their masterpieces. Indeed they would mix most of the colors with white, which was a great contributor to the fact that a  lot of artists died prematurely from what is today believed to be lead poisoning. Today the white pigment is also derived from metal; however, since manufacturers now know about the toxic qualities of lead, they use Titanium instead. A photocatalyst process is used to turn it into Titanium Dioxide, otherwise known as WHITE. Why is it used in Pigments? Pigments need a  base in order to show their brightness which is appreciated by many. The white color serves as a base for the pigment in the same way as the white paper behind the pink bottle. The lighter the color, the more of a  white base it requires; therefore, a soft baby pink color will have a greater percentage of Titanium than a dark brow pigment. W hy should W hite and Beige Camouf lage Pigments not be used? White or Titanium Dioxide in its purest form should not be used because the molecules are so large that they will never break down and therefore remain indefinitely in the skin. When you make corrections with a  f lesh color pigment, you are sentencing your clients to live with the result for the rest of their life. The only way to get the pigments out of the skin is to use very aggressive non-laser techniques.

At this point, you are in the land of no return territor y. Within the first couple of years, your client will have ghastly white lips like the ones in the photo above. From there, the molecules will swell under the skin becoming even larger and giving the skin a bumpy texture. The molecules will then turn yellowish. It will remain this way forever, unfortunately; laser treatments will not help the situation, non-laser ones will be very painful. The layers of pigments become so thick at this point that you can almost cut it out.

What will happen is that the rest of the colors will fade in time and only this white/camouflage pigment will remain in the skin. What is even worse is that over time, these already large titanium molecules will become even larger under the skin and turn yellowish, besides giving the texture of cottage cheese under the skin. I was trained to do lips on darker skin tones by implanting white before a soft pink pigment. Are you saying that this is wrong? YES! That’s exactly what I’m saying. I’m sure when you were trained you were told that the client simply needed to return for touch ups every year and that this would be good for your business…well, that’s a lie. There is only so much pigment that you’re able to implant in one area of skin. Titanium molecules are HUGE and therefore it will only take a couple of touch ups before the skin is totally saturated and no more pigment can be implanted.



But I was told that in the consultation I should lay out the risk and go ahead if the client still wants me to perform the procedure. This is exactly where INTEGRITY comes in  — or lack of it. You should NEVER go ahead with a procedure that is not in the best interest of the client. If your motivation for being in this industry is money — I suggest you put your hand piece down and retire. Harsh? No. Actually, it is not harsh enough. When people had undesired results, they come to me. I’m their last hope.

Think for a second how I feel when I need to look these people in the eye and tell them, ”there is nothing I  can do for you”, “there is nothing anyone can do for you”. Think of what these people feel when they know I’m their last hope… It is me who is left wiping the tears after their bad experience: they’ve gone back to the technician that disfigured them at one of these “Master Classes” , and have been told “what are you complaining about, you had a free treatment?” When we have selected permanent makeup a r ti st s a nd/or tr a i ner s teach i ng u net h ica l techniques, we must always keep in mind that our integrity should never be compromised at the financial expense of others. Those that are motivated by money and not the art are putting this great industry at risk. By doing so, they are putting our very livelihoods at risk. The more clients have undesired results, the less people that will want to get permanent makeup done; then we will all be out of business. Many pigments contain Titanium Dioxide, is this really bad? No, not at all. A lot of people think that pigments made without Titanium Dioxide are better than those that have it. This is simply not true; they are different but certainly not better. Most pigments are made with Titanium as a base. The general rule is that the lighter the pigment is, the more Titanium Dioxide it will have. Pigments undergo an extensive production process where the Titanium is diluted and modified in a way that it becomes easily removable. Traditionally, pigments have left a  residue of Titanium Dioxide which we see as “orange” or “red” eyebrows; however, than k s to new formulations, pigments such as Golden Eye, LI Pigments, Biotek and KB Pro Pigments to name a few (there are others) fade true to color and do not leave the reddish residue that we are all so familiar with. What happens to red brows under the laser is  that  they undergo the process of oxidation and turn dark, after which point they can be easily removed. On the other hand, organic pigments without Titanium are far easier to remove as we skip the oxidation stage; these pigments are obviously my preference.

Can we use White to highlight lips? IF pure titanium is diluted enough and IF it is implanted in the top layer of the skin — then yes, I  have seen it fade within six months when used to highlight lips. However, these are too many ifs; also, only few technicians have the level of skill required to not make it permanent. How about camouf lage colors? Should they be used? It depends; my view on camouf lage and skin colors is that they should never be used to cover up mistakes. In order for a light color to cover up a  dark one, it needs to be used really carefully. Considering that these colors are mostly made of Titanium Oxide, it is clear that they will stay in the skin indefinitely. If you make a  mistake, the only ethical thing to do is to remove the pigment from the skin. I do a  lot of pro bono work for colleagues in these cases. If the mistake was made by another artist, the best thing to do would be to recommend laser treatments to the client rather than cover it with camouflage. There are no good laser clinics in my area; also, I  can match the sk in color perfectly. Why not use it? Mainly because the color will change over time and will not fade, so you will end up with a lighter color than you originally tattooed, within time. Are these difficult to remove? The same principal applies: if they turn dark under a  laser because of how they have been manufactured, then yes, they are easy to remove. However, often they do not oxidize; therefore this leaves us with a huge problem. In my experience, pigments do not generally oxidize, thus the only way to remove them is with non-laser techniques such as Saline, Glycolic or Rejuvi tattoo removal. They will eventually shift with laser but it will take an excessive number of treatments which is not ideal for the skin. The important thing to remember is that the more experienced the artist is, the more they can get away with using these colors in a  diluted form. Nevertheless, a  novice must perform such procedures with a lot of caution. A lways keep in mind the well-being of the client years down the line. I  see the use of white and camouflage pigments come through my clinic daily. I see people in tears and have to turn them away. Let that not be one of your clients.



Smooth and even skin tone, bright red lips, arrow eyeliner and long, thick eyelashes are components of a “win-win” variant of makeup for pretty much any girl or woman in the world. Red lipstick in a cosmetics bag of any girl is an absolute ‘must have’; it is considered classic, along with a little black dress. Some girls are lucky to have found a suitable color of lipstick which is perfect for them, while others feel frustrated as they cannot find anything that does not make them look vulgar or simply unattractive — regardless of their skin or hair color. Brunettes with bright red lips might look older than they actually are, while blondes can look really provocative, if not aggressive or vulgar. In fact, makeup with red lips is always fashionable and popular; it looks sexy and really attractive — if the shade of red is chosen correctly. The majority of men agree that red color on women’s lips looks luxurious, elegant and appealing. Perhaps this is why so many women, when talking to a permanent makeup artist, want to get bright red lips as a final result. The procedure of permanent lip makeup is very delicate; an artist should be able to “feel” the process of application, as well as to know how to work with the skin of the lips which is very thin and sensitive. It might take a large number of procedures before an artist masters to feel the skin, so that all the factors of properly applied makeup can be taken into account and managed on a subconscious level. It is very important to select the color and create the right shape considering the skin tone as well as the proportions of the face.




We asked famous artists of permanent makeup to reveal their secrets of creating perfect bright red lips in order to give some advice and help novice artists, or the ones who are only starting to work with this area. We really hope that these practical tips will be useful to our readers.

Full Lip Blush is one of the most impressive treatments in Permanent Cosmetics; it makes lips look really bright, attractive and at the same time realistic. Every color, from light pink to deep red, has its own charm which makes any artist happy to work with. Full lip treatments make artists work with passion; every procedure can be an interesting and exciting challenge when you look for the perfect color for every client. Having searched for a long time trying to find the perfect brand of pigments, I have found LI pigments. These pigments have a very high level of durability, therefore it is possible to create beautiful full lips during one or maximum two procedures. The full lip treatment procedure takes about one hour. There is special technique that is used so the color goes into the skin very quickly. I start the procedure with the outline that is created with a diluted pigment and a 3-point needle. It normally goes really smoothly and quickly. Then, with the same 3 point needle I fill in the whole lip area making horizontal and vertical movements, back and forth. It is very important to keep the surface and texture of the lips smooth, for this aim I usually use a bit of Vaseline, and slightly stretch the skin. Remember not to stretch too much as it can easily damage the lips. After applying a few layers of pigment (3 -5) the color of the lips is starting to look really bright, intense and attractive. By adding more layers and using lighter or darker shades of the pigment, we can create the desired 3D effect that always looks amazing and really natural. The outline will depend on the client’s preferences: some people want it to look really bright and pronounced, for others a soft and natural outline is more preferable. Using a 1-point needle, we can create a bright and thin line of the contour. Fuller and brighter lips with natural or striking colors — this is the result of this fantastic treatment!




Red lips are a symbol of beauty and health — something that so many women would love to have. Making a perfect contrast with white teeth, full lips add more expressiveness to the face and emphasize woman’s beauty. Obviously, for someone it is a question of genetics; however, only a very small number of women have naturally full and bright red lips. Nevertheless, no reason to be upset — nowadays the newest achievements of aesthetic medicine as well as permanent makeup breakthroughs can help those who strive for perfection. Before creating beautiful red lips, it is important to thoroughly analyze the baseline, the characteristics of the client’s skin color and, most importantly, client’s expectations regarding the results of pigmentation. During the initial diagnostics it is absolutely essential to take the size of the client’s lips into account. In short, the smaller the lips are, the less appropriate it will be to make them bright red. The red color requires a surface where it can «come to life», the one that will reflect the light and therefore create the desired color effect. Thus, it is important that carmine lips would be chosen by women with fuller lips. The technique of drawing red lips in principle will not be any different from drawing lips in any other color, although the color red is rather specific. Red lips can look more aggressive, the shape might appear more angled due to a very bright and pronounced outline. The red color is a color of extremes; it is immediately noticed and can even look provocative. The preparation of red pigments for specific lips will not be an easy process. What is important for the redness is the substrate as it will define the final color effect. If it is neutral, pale pink or natural red, the effect will be unstable. This is not suitable for complicated situations such as working with a type of skin that is really pale, or looks unhealthy, to be specific, it contains the particles of light blue color. Lips with a bluish tinge must be aligned with a suitable primer which can perfectly disguise all the blue shades, at the same time can reflect light, giving an optical zoom effect. Then, after the lips are properly prepared, the red pigment of selected shade can be applied. To color the lips carmine it is necessary to apply the pigment of the certain quality and purity, it should be dense, saturated, with no additives of blue shades. It must be kept in mind that the shade of red and the skin color should be in harmony. Some shades of red are suitable for people with a  pale complexion, others can be more appropriate for tanned skin and dark hair. All these aspects should be taken into account when selecting the shade of red. The temperature and quality of the color applied on the lips will determine the final result and therefore will affect the way the client feels. After the procedure, the bright red lip color creates a very natural look, despite the fact that the lips are still swollen, which is temporary anyway. Now you have to wait until the skin heals, then it is possible to see the amount of pigment that stayed. Normally, the client has a touch up procedure in about one month after the initial application. It is recommended to add a little bit of a lighter pigment when applying permanent lip makeup — this will create a very natural 3-D effect and add more volume to the lips. I wish you lots of success in your work and many satisfied clients!



Red lip makeup has long been a massive hit in the beauty industry. Traditionally, red lipstick is considered more appropriate for evening makeup; during the day it may look quite provocative and even a bit vulgar, as daily makeup is supposed to create a natural, polished appearance. Nevertheless, a vibrant red mouth is beauty’s equivalent of the little black dress—it is classic, yet current, and never fails to look absolutely amazing; it will always be popular, despite all the fickle whims of fashion. That is why so many girls all over the world desire to get permanent lip makeup applied, so their lips always look bright and attractive. But is it such a good idea, to always wear red? Permanent makeup is NOT lipstick. It is very difficult to achieve pure, solid red color as a desired result of permanent lip makeup; in my opinion, it is not necessary at all. Whether a woman goes to sleep or wakes up — permanent makeup stays on her face all the time. The question is whether a man will want to see his beloved woman with the same bright red lips, night and day, day and night. He might one day ask her to remove this aggressive color so he can see her natural pink lips, and then what? Unfortunately, it will not be very easy to get rid of the red color. However, different clients have different requests; in the end, everybody wants to get very beautiful, sexy lips as a  result. Very often girls ask for so-called “baby lip color” which looks very natural yet bright. In fact, babies have a lot of different tones of the lip color, and all the shades are very rich. This is the secret that I try to use when applying permanent lip makeup — the red color should not be too bright, but rich enough. The color red can have warm shades (i.e. coral red, scarlet) or cold ones (e.g. vinous), therefore, the final result will depend on the shade that we add to the main pigment. As a rule, warm shades of red are used for aging women; one drop of warm red color added to the pigment mixture works wonders as it gives an effect of beautiful berry lipstick. On the other hand, if a woman is young, the choice of the color tone depends on the type of appearance as well as the client’s requests; in this case, both warm and cold shades of red can be equally suitable. However, it is necessary to remember that cold tones tend to turn pinkish after healing; it is important to choose the shade carefully and not to put too much of a cold tone so clients don’t get purple lips as a result. If you have a client who insists on a very bright lip color such as scarlet (I have had these situations in my experience), you should start small — choose a translucent red; alternatively, you can select a ready-to-use pigment (for example, Amiea pigments have many beautiful and natural colors, such as Rot 070 (Precious Red, reddish pink, red currant color), Rot 080 (warm, coral red), Rot 090 (venous blood color, neutral red), Rot 200 (bright scarlet, the color of sunrise). You can also use the Cranberry pigment from the Organic Line. If the selected color seems too dense, you can easily dilute it with a special diluent. Practice shows that normally clients feel satisfied after the first procedure; the color of lips turns out to be rich, yet not too bright. If it is necessary to make it brighter, then during a color correction procedure you can add a bit more pigment (it needs to be diluted as well), and then, when all work is done, you will hear a lot of words of gratitude from your happy client! PMUINTERNATIONAL.COM


For those, who I can recommend permanent lips to: • To clients, whose lips are naturally very thin, asymmetric, or very pale and dim. • For middle aged or older people, by choosing a vivid and fresh pigment colour, then we can create a rejuvenating effect, making the whole face look a lot younger. • To those clients that had herpes on their lips for several times previously. In such cases the natural vermillion border gets blended into the skin and the lips loose their original sharp edges. • People, who like to wear lipstick very frequently and/or strongly. This is a very durable choice for them, since it never smudges. Enlarging the lips The lips can be magnified but just reasonably, not going into extreme shapes. If our client’s lips have a  very edgy, sharp vermillion border, which breaks the reflection of light, then it would NOT be a good idea to enlarge the lips, it will not be aesthetic. If the lips have a blunt edge, so geometrically not too bulging, then we can increase the size and shape of the lips even by maximum 1-2 millimetres. The workflow • Pre-numbing and pre-drawing of the shape • Micropigmentation of the contour line with 1 pointer needle, twice, back and forth • Shading with 5 or 7 pointer shader needle, 6-8 times in every direction • Directions of shading: right and left diagonal, horizontal, vertical • Application of the anaesthetic after each round of the micropigmentation • Filling up the small empty gaps with a 1 pointer needle, to make the colouring consistent • Close to the contour lines make it very intensely pigmented, progressing toward the inside of the lips, make it gradually blended into the skin. This way the pigmentation will be more transparent as we get closer to the inner side of the lips • When enlarging the lips shape, pay attention that extra amount of pigments should be added outside the vermillion border to make it look just as strongly pigmented as the original lips shape Colour choice • Match the characteristics and age of the client • The original skin and lip colour should be taken into consideration • Try to assess the client, in which season type her characteristics fit in: spring/summer/autumn/winter • Purplish-brownish lips can be corrected with a tinge of orangelike pigment mixture. If your client has such purple lips, it is prohibited to use cool toned and too dark pigment colours because it will make the lips look very dark and greyish-brown • Red, coral, pink, mauve, terracotta  — these are the most frequently chosen colours



Personal Advices • You can apply soft shading, full shading or colour transitional shading techniques for lips • During shading, the lips will get swollen because the blood vessels are getting filled with blood and a slight oedema might occur, which deforms temporarily the shape of the lips • Right after treatment, the colour intensity is always stronger than once it is healed

• The final colour is shown after 4 weeks • Clients with herpes must take preventive medication 5 days prior to the treatment, to avoid herpes • Do not tattoo too deep into the skin, otherwise you might severely damage the skin, causing scars, which results in spotty and inconsistent pigmentation • The result is appealing if the micropigmentation is consistent and has a slightly shiny, velvety look.



Sharona is a permanent makeup artist famous not only in Israel but all over the world. Not only did she kindly adree to help us reveal all the secrets of creating perfect red lips, but also discussed this subject with other artists. From ancient days of human history men and woman colored their lips.

The lip skin contains fewer melanocytes (cells which produce natural melanin pigment, which give skin its color), because of this, the blood vessels appear through the lip skin which leads to the vivid red coloring you see. The color of the lips is different from one person to another due to different reasons such as: • Age. When we are young, the natural lip pigment is strong and vivid; when we’re getting old, we start losing it). • Different skin type. Asians, African Americans, Europeans: everyone has different tone of red. • Medical condition affects the lips color as well. The medical phenomenon of «blue lips» Blue lips may represent a type of cyanosis caused by low level of oxygen in the red blood cells, it may also represent high level of an abnormal form of hemoglobin in the blood stream. You may also meet patients whose lips turn blue due to coldness. No matter what the reason is — the solution is simple: Orange is The key! Some companies will call it: «UNGREY» (Li pigments), «Red 340» (Goldeneye), others — «Blue out» (Amiea — Mt.Derm) etc. But the principle is identical! Orange removes the blue shade from the lips. In some cases you need to add few drops of it to your mix while in other cases you can use it in pure form. One thing is for sure — you must have one of these on your tray. When it comes to lip work procedure, it is fascinating to see that great artists around the world use different techniques to get the same results! In this article I’m going to take you with me on the international journey, to meet:

The lip skin is very thin compared to regular sk in tissue; while face sk in contains almost 21 layers (and sub-layers), the lip skin has only 3-5 layers.



• The Queen of lips — Solvar Hegge from Norway is working with 4 flat and 3 micro needle. • British expert  — Miriam Grice from UK  — 1 point needle style. • Super Star from Navada — Teryn Darling who works with 5 liner round & 9/ 11 magnum with a retro machine.


— Hi Solvar, can you tell us about your unique lip technique?

for permanent makeup. My favorite needle for the lip liner is 3-micro. I prefer these needles because of the sharp and thin result of pigmentation. For full lip fill I usually use the 4-flat needle. It perfectly stays in the thin lip line and the healed result will look very natural. My method when I do the lip fill is like painting a wall with «up and down» movements. — What do you use as home aftercare?

— I would love to share this with you. First of all, it’s important to clean the lips with cleansing milk and then put on the anesthetic — I prefer to use Emla. Leave it for 30 minutes before pigmentation procedure. After that, draw the lip line with a sharpened pencil (pencil for permanent makeup, over which you could do the pigmentation). I prefer Goochie pencils. During the years I have created my own technique for making the perfect lips, which never fails. It’s rather difficult to explain it properly, but I’ll gladly share this with those I’ll meet in person.

— My advice for home aftercare is to use Bepanthen. Apply it with thin layers. — How do you use the needles? — Lip liner 3-micro, speed 120, with 40 degree angle. Lip filer 4-flat, speed 140, with 90 degree angle. — What is your favorite line o products and brand?

For all my work I use Amiea devices and equipment — I use Amiea and my favorite pigment colors for the organic pigment line are: Tasty Nude and Cherry Blossom; from the non-organic line: Raspberry and Old Rose. — What useful tips can you give our readers? — The secret of perfect lips is to get the perfect shape for each client and use stretching technique. The stretch technique is the “alpha & omega” of lip permanent makeup.





Miriam Grice is a highly skilled and well-known semi-permanent makeup artist in UK — Hello Miriam, tell us what is your choice of needle when you perform lip procedure? — I prefer to use 1 point needle as this implants the pigment more accurately and effectively. While using very light and fast movements, I slowly lay the pigment into the skin with multiple passes. This causes the least amount of skin trauma, finer crust during healing and maximum colour retention. I have a few different machines and I use them all in different ways; I find machines and needles to be like brushes in a makeup artist’s kit. For this procedure (see photo on the next page) I used 1 point needle and the Goldeneye machine, on the slowest possible setting. Intense speeds are too aggressive for the fragile lip tissue. — Сan you describe in details the process of your work?




— I’ll be glad to explain it to you. To design the lips I use the Wireless Mixer dipped in the actual pigment to fully define the border and coat the full lip, this way it’s easier to guage balance and symmetry. I contour the lips with one ver y light pass starting from the corner closest to me, as I am etching and gliding up the lip edge, I pause before I reach the Cupid’s bow and after that I start the lower lip contouring from the corner to the centre. I do this because I find making a full pass on the top lip risks smudging the design on the lower lip, so it’s better to create the contour in stages. I work at approximately 45 degrees with only a very slight stretch at this point, overstretching of the skin can distort the template and as I don’t want to see much of a contour line it’s not overly important to get maximum pigmentation at this stage. My aim is for the outer edge to blend in fully and to be indistinguishable when healed. Then, I very gently scratch over the lips to allow better absorption of the anesthetics; occlude for 5 minutes for effective pain management.

«STEP BY STEP» I start at the corner closest to me on the top lip, it’s now important to have a tight stretch to smooth out the lips so there is less chance of the needle snagging. Beginning with a small rim running along the contour line, very slowly I move forward in tiny circles overlapping each other. One slow light pass of circles with a 1 point needle is enough to ensure that the edge is tidy and pigment is implanted right up to the contour, so no gaps occur through fear of overshooting the template. Mov i ng onto larger shad i ng movements , covering the full depth of the lip (in the section I am working on), I ensure the needle isn’t too far out. Accuracy isn’t your main concern now, as you’re working over a larger surface area, that is generally more vascular than the outer edge, so it requires light, fast movements. The method of shading with a 1 point needle is very «relaxed» as long as you work very lightly, only implanting pigment just under the membrane. A slow machine setting, a  light pressure and a  ver y fast, loose hand motion means you can literally shade in any direction. Back/forth, side to side, ovals and circles will not show in the skin as long as your pressure and speed is consistent. Hold the handpiece at approximately 35 degrees, this pushes the pigment in and is kinder to the skin. Loose, fast shading motions either side to side or back and forth, are used while covering the full section as I am working on overlapping the edges; I  repeat this motion without stopping or wiping whilst counting to 10 in my head. Letting the pigment sit on the skin for a time whilst you shade over and over allows it to absorb more effectively. W hen you wipe at this point, it’s not always possible to see evidence of any pigment, however, some pigment has been implanted, it just doesn’t b e come v i sible u nt i l you re p e at t h i s st a ge multiple times. It does depend on the individual client and how their skin accepts the pigment, but I  generally get the right colour saturation over 4 passes of repeating this stage. Only when I am happy with the depth of colour achieved in the first section (top and bottom), I  move onto the central section and so on. — W hat kind of brand do you usually use for lips? — I  love so many brands of lip pigments, I’ve recently started using the Forever Lips organic range and have had great results so far. PMUINTERNATIONAL.COM


TERYN DARLING — SUPER STAR FROM NEVADA/USA While numbing I set up my tray: I use Ultra fine Tip sharpie marker for my drawing. I always put out a couple of Q-tips with Alcohol out as this will remove the marker if you need to adjust your shape. I tattoo the border for 3 passes using a shoveling technique (back and forth) with 45 — 65 degree angle. I have always used a coil or a rotary machine for all my work. I use TATsoul needles and for the border I always use size #9 diameter, 5 Round Liner with an extra long taper. Once my border is symmetrical and perfect I then do what I called «scoring» of the lips. I use #11 Magnum needle and lightly but firmly scrape the needle over the entire lip. I like to use just enough pressure to where I see tiny pin pricks of blood .This tells me I have broken the barrier and will now allow for deeper numbing. — So what you’re saying is that one of the most important things in lip procedure is to control the patient’s pain? — Exactly! At this point, I  put my «Blue Gel» which contains Epinephrine. Epinephrine constricts the blood vessels to help control bleeding and can help with swelling and bruising as well. This is very important to me & allows me to get full saturation of color in one first pass and the client is comfortable while I’m doing so. — How many passes do you do?

— Hello Teryn, I would like to speak with you about your work with lips, since many of artists are struggling with this procedure. Can you share with us some of your huge experience? — With pleasure. I’ve been tattooing lips for fifteen years now and to be honest it took me the first 5 years of my career to figure them out and get really good at them. One of the most important tasks with a lip procedure is to control client discomfort and body fluids. I apply «Pro Plus» to the entire lip for 15 minutes.



— I do two full passes only on the interior of the lip, using circular movements, so it is important to tattoo with efficiency and achieve optimum color saturation. Inside the lips I use 11straight Magnum (with extralong tapers) 45-65 degree angle. — What do you do after you’ve finished the procedure and what do you advise to patients as aftercare? — Once I  completed the tattoo process, I  then clean the entire lip with Infinity Tea tree cleanser. I love this stuff; have been using it faithfully for about five years to cleanse all my procedures when done (except eyes, due to the fact that Tea tree can sting them). I  also use infinity Healing Balm for their aftercare. The Infinity balm is an all-natural

Beeswax base with jojoba oil and lots of other naturally wonderful healing ingredients. I have them press and blot the lips for a couple of days, several times a day to remove all body fluids that surface while re-applying their balm after they bolt. I advise them to use straw to drink with for the next few days, brush with natural toothpaste (nothing with bleach, peroxide or whitening ingredients) and avoid eating spicy, salty and oily food. They can use a cold pack for the first couple of days to help with the soreness; I advise 10 minutes on 10 minutes off. This is how I have been tattooing lips for the last eight or nine years and with these techniques I get exceptional color retention on just one session! I’m very particular and can always find something to touch-up on my own work, but many of my lips really don’t need a touch-up. I ask my clients to wait for 8 weeks before the second session.

— Thank you, it was a pleasure listening to every word you said. Te r y n i s t he L I P ig me nt US & C a n ad a International Master distributer. She has many sub-distributers all over the world. She is also teaching her techniques in a great Master classes with Mar y R itcherson; the program is called: «Shades and Strokes» for more information contact Teryn Darling.

— Can you tell us which colors you use for those amazing lips you do? — I use both Li pigment Aqua and «Forever Lips» for all my procedures. — Do you mean you Mix the two of them? — Yes, exactly. — This is brilliant! This way you get the benefits from both. Iron Oxide is more stable, but the organic is more vivid — very clever! — Yes, Li Pigments Aqua are more natural and subtle in tone while «Forever Lips» are much stronger and brighter colors. My favorite Li Aqua colors are: Pink, Rose Petal, Indian Earth, Mauve And Strawberries and cream. My favorite «Forever Lips» colors are: Sugared rose, Berr y Persistent, Watermelon Lip Candy, Electric pink and Pink Coral Pop. I must tell you, when I mix them — I get great results! — This all sounds great Teryn, tell me, can you give our readers a tip? Teryn’s Tips: • Use a nice taut three way stretch. • Do not overwork… Lips are very thin and delicate so get in, get your color in and get out. • Use eye loupe; make sure that the tips of your needles are pristine and not damaged… cause if they are — it means damage to the lip tissue.







Since 2001, Florence Wong has been a professional makeup artist with numerous diploma and certificate qualifications. She is a certified beauty therapist, personal image stylist, T V & Movie makeup ar ti st, eyebrow embroiderer and bridal makeup & hair stylist. Based in Kuala Lumpur, her artistic ability has taken her throughout Malaysia and internationally, providing her services to advertising campaigns, editorial work, weddings and formal functions. Since she is practicing as an artist in many countries, we decided to ask her opinion on specifics of permanent makeup in Asia and her personal experience and preferences.

— First of all, we would like to ask you to tell us about Asian PMU School and its specifics in different countries. We are particularly interested in differences between the Asian and European schools. — Let me start by clarif ying that I am from Malaysia; that is also where my studio and office are based. The differences between PMU Schools

in Asia and Europe are very small. In Taiwan, China and Malaysia teachers use many different allegories and metaphors during the teaching process to inspire students. Europeans, on the other hand, are very time-conscious and therefore more efficient when it comes to delivering a lesson. However, this takes away the soft touch of the service industry. In the PMU industry, self-confidence and the way you carry yourself are the most important criteria you need when becoming a good PMU artist since a personal touch is essential when we deal with the client. Naturally, it is important to have certain communicative skills to establish and keep the “artist-client” contact. However, these skills are very much affected by cultural differences as well as differences in religions and traditions. — Are there any special characteristics of local clients’ skin and eyebrow shapes? — Asians generally have combination or oily skin, so in some ways it is more difficult to work with, and the pigments may fade faster. Women with tanned skin like to use whitening products on their face which also affects the result of permanent makeup application as it may quicken the fading process. As for eyebrows shapes, Asians generally like to follow trends and imitate their screen idols, especially Korean film stars, despite the fact that the design or style may not be very suitable for them. Also, Europeans have more facial hair, while Asian people have much less. Generally, European people prefer curvy, long eyebrows with tiny ends to bring out the sexiness in their facial features. PMUINTERNATIONAL.COM




— What is the most popular permanent makeup procedure in Taiwan? — Permanent makeup covers eyebrow tattooing, eyeliner tattooing and permanent lip makeup. Semipermanent makeup covers eyebrow embroidery, eyeliner embroidery and lip embroidery. In many parts of Asia, the most popular makeup procedure is eyebrow embroidery, which is followed by eyeliner embroidery. Permanent lip makeup used to be very popular; however, due to the side effects as well as the quantity of undesired results, its popularity has declined over the years. — Tell us about your techniques. Are there any author techniques you have invented and been practicing? — I use 3 different techniques: the 3D1, 3D2 and 3D3 strokes. The difference between these 3 techniques is how the strokes are done. The decision of which technique to use depends on the level of skin sensitivity. I found out that technique 3D1 sometimes leaves a dotted effect after the work is done. The 3D2 technique often results in bleeding; this is all because of how the blade moves. I invented and came up with the 3D3 embroidery strokes, which combines the 3D1 and 3D2 techniques. The results of 3D3 embroidery look very natural, and the amount of bleeding is reduced as well thanks to the way the strokes are applied. Thus, the 3D3 technique can be also used when clients have very sensitive skin. However, I am not planning to stop here. The R&D will always keep going, and hopefully I will also be able to come up with new techniques to be up to the mark when dealing with the demanding PMU industry. — As far as we know, you also practice medical tattooing such as scar camouflaging, etc. This type of permanent makeup is much rarely seen. Please tell us about your work in this area. — As you probably know, scarred areas may prevent hair from growing. I try to define the original hair growth patterns on the eyebrow line and then create hair strokes to be as close as possible to the original brow. Before I embroider, I choose the pigment that is very similar to the client’s hair color to cover the scar/ hairless area. The embroidered strokes will blend in and look like a part of the client’s brow, completing it in a very natural way. In some situations, scarred eyebrows also need reshaping. Scar camouflaging is mainly for men, or for some women who had sustained the scars through accidents. My youngest client for this procedure was a 10-year-old boy who had hit his head on the corner of the table. His eyebrow was really thick and dark, so the hairless area was very noticeable. However, it is not a good idea to do reshaping for children.

—What do you think about the Microblading technique? Do you use it yourself? — Microblading is another term for the manual technique; it is used for semi— permanent embroidery. The effect is very natural and also lasts for much longer comparing to the needlepoint machine technique which also damages the skin when there is a need for a touchup. I have used both the microblading manual technique and also the needlepoint machine technique on myself. The effect of the needlepoint technique wore off after 3 to 4 months. Therefore, the needlepoint technique is not suitable for the Asian market. — It is a well-known fact that quite often clients come in with red or blue eyebrows asking for the correction of those. Do you accept clients for correction procedures? Can you tell us more about any particular cases in your experience? — I have helped many people who came to me with red or blue eyebrows. Red colored brows are the result of the application of low quality pigments that faded leaving only the red pigment. Red brows would continue fading (since embroidery is a semi-permanent makeup technique), so it is not a major problem to add a new color to it. Blue colored brows appear when artists use the old permanent makeup technique of tattooing. Blue brows require more work to undo as the color does not fade. PMUINTERNATIONAL.COM



The final result would be darker brows, so the client would need to agree to the darker shade of the eyebrows as well as all the required procedures beforehand. The first step is to ascertain how dark the blue color is. If it is too dark, I will need to use laser to remove the old color, then reshape the eyebrow, and then perform the embroidery procedure. If the color is not too dark, I usually use a skin-color pigment, then we need to wait for 1 month to reshape the eyebrow; after that the embroidery can be done. If it is necessary to change the original eyebrow shape, it is possible to do with the use of a skin-color pigment, too. — Do you have many male clients? What is the most popular procedure among them? — Yes, I have a lot of male clients, including professional artists; almost all of them come in for my Elegant 3D eyebrow embroidery, to correct uneven brows, to fill in sparse brows, or to enhance certain facial features. It is very popular here because Asians believe in Face Feng Shui (the Chinese art of face fortune). Eyebrow Feng Shui is another subject on its own, which I will not be covering here. — In your opinion, what are the main differences between treating male and female clients? — Male clients expect the result to look very natural and subtle. On their first visit, after designing the brows, I usually embroider fewer strokes for men so that the work wouldn’t look so obvious. Then I add more strokes when they return for a touch-up. Men do not really want their brow shapes to be well-defined — certainly not as much as women do. I try to make men’s brows look slightly wild and natural, following their original hair pattern. Women want more well-defined brows, as it was said above; for them, “wild” eyebrows look messy and not at all elegant. The brow shape also differs between men and women. Women’s brow shapes are wider near the bridge of the nose and narrow above the corner of the eye, whereas men’s brows are equally wide, if not wider at the end. Men’s skin is also thicker and the texture is more rough, with bigger pores in general. I use harder microblades for men; these blades are stiff and not flexible like the ones I use for women.



— We know that you travel a lot. That is a common practice for worldwide non PMU artistes. Can you tell us about your most interesting international experience? Either a teaching/practice case or people you have met and places you have visited. — Every country is interesting in its own way, from Russia, UK, across Europe, UAE and Asia to South America. As international trainers we need to define the word “beauty”, this word is abstract. We have to localize the standard of “beauty” when we visit different countries. Before I go somewhere, I need to understand what the word “beauty” means to the local people. To do that, I need to do some research and find out about the weather, the people, the way they dress as well as their culture and religion. All the factors mentioned above influence people’s behavior and character. Some of them are more talkative, the other ones would keep things to themselves etc.; this is the reason why I have to adapt to their behavior and character. They are all very lovely in their own way that is why I never hold back when holding a class. Instead of teaching the students, I try to share my techniques, skills, case studies and experience with them and always welcome their ideas. The interaction between me and my students makes us understand each other better. These challenges make my entire international experience always an interesting one. Recently I have visited Peru (in September 2015, to be precise). It was the longest flight I have ever taken: it lasted for 36 hours. Then I found out that my luggage did not arrive with me; it was delayed for another 24 hours. So my luggage took a longer flight than I did. It was a beautiful country; I actually felt very cold, even though the temperature was only between 14C and 20C. It started raining, well, not really raining, just drizzling, which for me was something new and unusual: when it rains in Malaysia, it actually pours! The people were unbelievably friendly and helpful, and I enjoyed their hospitality as well as the opportunity to teach there. I really liked the food — it was absolutely fantastic, with a lot of amazingly fresh and juicy fruits.

— W hat equipment and pigments do you use in your practice? Why did you choose those among many others? — Besides the usual tools of the trade (e.g. eyebrow shaping pencils, astringent, anesthetics cream, etc.), for my actual work I use microblades of stiff and flexible types. I have more than 10 pigments (colors) for mixing and matching. I use the Li pigments (an American brand), because their ability of being absorbed by the skin is really good; they are suitable for both Asian and European skin types. The Li pigments also last longer than pigments of other brands I have tried, and give a very natural result. To remove old pigments from the skin, I use a German laser machine, even though it costs about 5 times more than one from China. I do not want to compromise on my clients’ safety and the quality of my work by using a machine that can burn the skin. — Recently you have attended an independent championship on permanent makeup called “Golden Needle”. Can you share with us your opinion and experience? — I was proud to be able to represent my country Malaysia at this Congress. It was very well-conducted, and I enjoyed participating in such a great event. All the people there were extremely friendly and really helpful. A congress of this kind should be held every year. It was a great opportunity for so many artists as there were so many top notch speakers from around the world sharing their techniques and their view on the beauty industry outlook. Despite the fact that each speaker had their own mother tongue, the interaction between the participants was so fluent, probably because we all speak the same language. The language is called “Beauty”. :) In Malaysia, as well as in many other Muslim countries, the brow embroidery is getting more and more popular thanks to the fact that embroidery is “semi-permanent”, and therefore, according to my Muslim clients, it is allowed by their religion — unlike tattooing, which is permanent. The eyebrow embroidery industry is relatively new, and considering the above mentioned, brow embroidery will soon set a trend in the world.


































SPONSORS It is our pleasure to have PERMANENT MAKEUP INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINE, Alina Soloveva and Natural Enhancement as our main sponsors of this competition.










I have been doing this job for 10 years, and I love it. I was very happy to win the competition in Birmingham, it was great! There were participants from so many countries; it was very interesting for me to compete with people of different nationalities. I’ve seen and learnt a lot, and also met with big stars of permanent makeup — it was priceless. There were no difficult moments, because when I am working, I am in my own world. I believe that if you want to succeed in PMU, you have to do your work with love, attend various training courses, try to improve every day, and never be complacent.

I wa s bor n i n Venez uela , and moved to Italy when I was only 20. I decided to become a makeup artist, and later, in 2008, attended my first course on PMU in Bologna. I would say that doing this job is like pure oxygen to my lungs. The UK conference held by Katerina Zapletalova was like a beautiful movie — WONDERFUL, so much energy and optimism in the air, so much magic, because everyone who works in this field is passionate, full of dreams, and has a great desire to continue. I have seen so many talented artists, and everyone brought the best to the show. I wish it could be more often!

I have my own beauty salon called Beautique Medispa for the last 25 years. I hold my own permanent makeup clinics in London and around the UK. I was really happy to participate in the conference. Katerina did a great job hosting the first UK Championship. I loved meeting my colleagues and watch i ng such talented demonstrations on stage. In my opinion though, the models should be judged in person, not from the picture. I also think Microblading and Machine should be t wo separate categories. In general, the competition was a great success and an enjoyable day. Personally I think we were all winners.



Permanent makeup is a form of art for me. My trainings are improving my skills from day to day; they give me enthusiasm and new ideas that I put into practice. After my basic training 2 years ago, I have attended master classes held by famous artists, and participated in 4 conferences. During the UK championship I was a bit nervous before our category had started, but then relaxed and concentrated on my work. It was not difficult for me as I  as surrounded with my friends. I was happy to meet my colleagues all over the world and watch others to perform eyebrows. I think that Championship and Conference are very important for our industry development and they should be held every year.

AGNIESZKA SOBIERAJSKA SENIOR CATEGORY – 2 PLACE I am a permanent makeup artist living and work ing in Stamford , U K ; I am r unning a boutique Nail & Permanent Makeup Salon. In 2012 I attended a Swiss Color basic training cou rse , si nce then I have completed a number of master classes. 80% of my treatments are eyebrows. Championships were a great opportunity to meet with my colleagues, exchange views, and learn something new from the industry leaders. The hardest thing was to keep my hands still when being watched by judges and other colleagues. The list of artists I admire in PMU is huge; there are lots of talented people I get inspiration from.

TATJANA ANTONOVA SENIOR CATEGORY – 3 PLACE In 2012 I started look ing for Semi Permanent Make Up courses as I was dreaming of becoming an artist. I then set up my own business MARUSSIA BE AU T Y & PE R M A N E N T M A K EUP. I absolutely love my job; nothing else can be better than your client’s happy smile. It wasn’t an easy decision to attend the 1st international PMU Championship in the UK as there are so many talented artists, but I’m so happy I did it! To be honest, it was rather hard – so much stress… But you have to always believe in yourself. If you want to be successful, you need to be prepared to work really hard, but the result is worth it.








I sta r te d my PM U ca re er a b o ut t w o y e a r s a g o , a n d microblading — about 6 months ago. T he champion sh ip i s the b e st way to ver i f y you r p r o fe s s i o n a l s k i l l s . D u r i n g the Champion sh ip the most d i ff ic u lt par t for me wa s to resist the high level of stress. Howe ver, t he fe el i ng of h appi ne s s on mo del s’ face s a f ter t re at me nt s w a s re a l ly rewarding. At the moment the most important thing for me is to focus on my work and do it in the best possible way. In the world of PMU there are a lot of amazing artists, and I’m ver y happy that I met some of them in Birmingham.

I am a professional beauty artist; I provide a wide range of treatment s . A s so on a s I heard about the first PMU Championship in the UK 2015 I decided to tr y my luck in Junior Category. It was the first competition I have ever done. The hardest part was to stay calm and concentrate on the work process as we had judges around us asking a lot of questions. The atmosphere was ver y friendly, and everyone was helping each other. I got high reviews from the best artists in our industry, met new friends, and picked up new ideas. The main thing I learned was that hard work always pays back, so you should never give up.

I am from Ukraine, but some time ago I moved to Ireland; I wanted to work in the beauty industr y, so had to work hard to ac h ie ve c e r t a i n r e s u lt s . I  attended various courses and master classes, and took part in the PMU Conference in Ukraine. I was chosen to take part in the UK Championship; it was such a great experience. I’ve become more confident, I have more clients now. Katerina Zapletalova did very well organising such a big event. I am grateful to all the judges, such great experts in our field. I would like to keep helping people, developing my skills and gaining knowledge. The best is yet to come!







Profile for Jenny Mashkova

PMU 2  

PMU 2