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BIZARRE LOVE TRIANGLE. THE PUBLIC SCULPTURES OF NOVI SAD INTERNATIONAL ART PROJECT


BIZARRE LOVE TRIANGLE - THE PUBLIC SCULPTURES OF NOVI SAD


BIZARRE LOVE TRIANGLE THE PUBLIC SCULPTURES OF NOVI SAD

International Visegrad Fund www.visegradfund.org


BIZARRE LOVE TRIANGLE. THE PUBLIC SCULPTURES OF NOVI SAD

University of Pécs, Faculty of Music and Visual Arts, Hungary Univerzitet u Pečuju, Fakultet muzičkih i vizuelnih umetnosti, Mađarska Academy of Arts in Banská Bystrica, Faculty of Fine Arts, Slovakia Akademija umetnosti u Banskoj Bistrici, Fakultet likovnih umetnosti, Slovačka University of Arts in Poznań, Poland Univerzitet umetnosti Poznan, Poljska University of Novi Sad, Academy of Arts, Serbia Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Akademija umetnosti, Srbija


Bizarre Love Triangle. The Public Sculptures of Novi Sad International Visegrad Fund Bosiljka Zirojević Lečić The project Bizarre Love Triangle. The Public Sculptures of Novi Sad was designed as an attempt of artists and students of art to tackle the issue of public space and to react on a long term practice of irresponsible urban design and placing the sculptures of questionable aesthetic value within the public space of Novi Sad. This problem has been evident in Novi Sad for the last twenty years and its outcomes are becoming more obvious and devastating, especially when it comes to the visual identity of the city and the attitude of the local authorities towards the contemporary art practice. Although professionals have often expressed their critical attitude, evaluated and proposed concrete suggestions usually within the professional associations of artists, architects, urban planners and art historians; the negative trend continues. The “system” of city institutions formally “responsible” for the city’s visual identity does not perform well as in most cases it is guided by trivial daily-political interests avoiding any elaborate analysis, professional or any kind of responsibility towards aesthetic and artistic values which build the city’s image and create the legacy to the future generations. Due to all these reasons, including the need to make a critical summary of irresponsible trends in urban planning practices from the position of a contemporary artist, Academy of Arts in Novi Sad developed and implemented the project Bizarre Love Triangle. The Public Sculptures of Novi Sad. Its research and analysis was done within the international scope of dialogue between urban architecture and public sculpture present in certain parts of Novi Sad. Our focus was also to investigate the system of urban planning through a critical analysis of the artistic value of the sculptures which erected during the last twenty years, but also the analysis of a contemporary art practice in the local public space. Envisaged as a teamwork and a open dialogue, this project gathered different art students and art teachers who were invited as representatives of their academies from V4 countries: Poland (University of Arts in Poznan); Hungary (University of Pecs, Faculty of Musical and Visual Arts) and Slovakia (Academy of Arts in Banska Bystrica) to work together with students and teachers at the Academy of Arts in Novi Sad, Serbia. The main goal of the project was the critical analysis of the problem of public space and creating of the proposals for an alternative design of the city of Novi Sad with the help of 15 artists from 4 different countries: Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Serbia. The choice of the cities which were presented in the project was made considering their similar architectural features. The most important segment of this project was an educational art workshop, held from October 9 to 14, 2014 where 15 students and teachers form all four academies worked together. The workshop consisted of a set of lectures on the proposed topic. Independent experts in the field of art theory and art practice such as Sanja Kojić Mladenov (an art historian and a director of Museum of Contemporary Art of Vojvodina); Zoran Pantelić (an artist, a producer and an educator); Miroslav Šilić (an architect and a professor at Academy of Arts in Novi Sad) and Đula Šanta(an artist) who presented the case study, compared different systems of urban planning in the last twenty years (including the last period of ex-Yugoslavia) and made a summary of contemporary art practice in Novi Sad and Vojvodina. Through interactive lectures, the participants were able to form a broader picture of this issue which served as a platform for their further action and creative thinking. During the workshop fieldwork the participants had an opportunity to see the actual cases, to critically analyse them from the artistic perspective by using the examples of best practice, aesthetic categories and artistic forms in relation to the environment – the urban whole. The participants from V4 countries contributed with their experiences in urban designing of public sculptures in their cities (Pécs, Poznań, Banská Bystrica) and compared them to the case of Novi Sad. That way, the main topic of the project 6


Bizarre Love Triangle. The Public Sculptures of Novi Sad International Visegrad Fund Bosiljka Zirojević Lečić Projekat Bizarre Love Triangle. The Public Sculptures of Novi Sad nastao je iz potrebe da se obradi tema Javnog prostora i odreaguje na permanentnu praksu lošeg postavljanja, pozicioniranja mnogobrojnih skulptura upitnih estetskih vrednosti u javne prostore grada Novog Sada. Ova problematika je u Novom Sadu evidentna poslednjih dvadeset godina i negativni rezultati su očigledni i poražavajući, posebno kada je u pitanju vizuelni indetitet grada i odnos nadležnih gradskih institucija prema savremenoj umetničkoj praksi. Stručna javnost često polemiše i izražava svoj kritički stav, ocenjuje i upućuje konkretne predloge ispred strukovnih udruženja umetnika, arhitekata, urbanista, istoričara umetnosti... I pored toga ova negativna praksa se nastavlja a loše postavljen „sistem“ gradskih institucija koje formalno „brinu“ i odlučuju o vizuelnom indetitetu grada najčešće je baziran na sitnim dnevno - političkim interesima, bez dubljeg promišljanja, stručne ili bilo kakve odgovornosti i brige o estetskim i umetničkim vrednostima koje grade sliku jednog grada i stvaraju njegovo nasleđe. Iz svega navedenog, kao i iz potrebe da se napravi još jedan kritički osvrt na praksu neodgovornog urbanog planiranja iz pozicije savremenog umetnika, Akademija umetnosti u Novom Sadu je osmislila i realizovala projekat Bizarre Love Triangle. The Public Sculptures of Novi Sad; istraživanje i analizu na međunarodnom nivou u okviru šire postavljene teme: Korespodencija urbane arhitekture i javne skulpture koja nalazi mesto u određenim delovima grada Novog Sada. U fokusu je bilo i istraživanje sistema funkcionisanja urbanog planiranja i kritičko sagledavanje umetničkih dometa postavljenih skulptura u periodu poslednjih dvadeset godina prostornog razvoja grada, kao i sagledavanje pozicije savremene umetničke prakse u lokalnom javnom prostoru. Projekat je kroz zajednički rad/dijalog, okupio studente i profesore koji su pozvani kao predstavnici umetničkih akademija iz zemalja V4 grupe: Poljske (Univerzitet umetnosti Poznan), Mađarske (Fakultet muzičke i vizuelne umetnosti u Pečuju) i Slovačke (Akademija umetnosti Banska Bistrica) zajedno sa studentima i profesorima Akademije umetnosti u Novom Sadu. Za osnovni cilj projekta postavljena je analiza problematike javnog prostora, kritičko sagledavanje, kreativno promišljanje kao i stvaranje predloga za alternativni dizajn prostora i uspostavljanje dobre prakse urbanog planiranja grada Novog Sada uz pomoć 15 umetnika iz 4 različite zemlje: Mađarske, Poljske, Slovačke i Srbije. Povezanost gradova koji su uključeni u projekat, ogleda se i u njihovim sličnim arhitektonskim obeležjima koja čine vizuelni indentitet grada. Najvažniji segment ovog projekta bila je umetničko - edukativna radionica, održana u periodu od 09. oktobra do 14. oktobra 2014. godine, gde je u zajedničkom radu sa navedenih akademija učestvovalo 15 studenata i profesora. U okviru radionice je održan set predavanja na ovu temu. Nezavisni stručnjaci iz oblasti teorije umetnosti i umetničke prakse: Sanja Kojić Mladenov, istoričarka umetnosti (direktorka MSUV); Zoran Pantelić, umetnik, producent, edukator; Miroslav Šilić, arhitekta, profesor (AUNS) i Đula Šanta, umetnik, predstavili su problemsku analizu slučaja, poređenje različitih sistema urbanog planiranja koji obuhvataju poslednjih dvadeset godina i period iz vremena bliže istorije SFRJ kao i presek savremene umetničke prakse u Novom Sadu i Vojvodini. Interaktivnim predavanjima učesnici su dobili širu sliku ove problematike i uvodnu platformu za delovanje i kreativno promišljanje. Tokom trajanja radionice učesnici su bili u prilici da sagledaju direktne primere na terenu i da ih kritički analiziraju iz ugla umetnika, gde su kao parametre koristili iskustva dobre prakse, estetske kategorije, umetničke forme u dijalogu sa okolinom - urbanom celinom. Učesnici iz zemalja V4 grupe posebno su dali doprinos svojim iskustvima dobre prakse u oblasti urbanog planiranja tj. korespodenciji urbane arhitekture i javne skulpture na području svojih gradova: Pečuja, Poznana i Banske Bistrice i imali su priliku da ih porede sa slučajem Novog Sada. Na taj način je i osnovna tema projekta - analiza novije spomeničke kulture u Novom Sadu, postavljena u širi kontekst problemsko teoretskog promišljanja u polju umetnosti, arhitekture i urbanizma. 7


– the analysis of recent architectural culture in Novi Sad was placed within broader context of theory and problem analysis in the field of art, architecture and urbanism. Teamwork, communication and exchange of ideas among young artists and experts in this field resulted in their direct creative and artistic expression and a large number of analytical and critical works and interventions which had a sense of humour and were done through the use of both traditional and new media. The exhibition of the selected works in “SKC Fabrika” was the final conclusion of the workshop. All the works of the project participants at the workshop - practical and theoretical, including all the lectures of the visiting experts were processed and are published in this catalogue. Therefore, this publication is a complex case study intended for a wider community: local, regional and international. Our final goal is to raise the awareness and responsibility of the institutions of local self-government and the ministries in charge, including all responsible parties in charge of the selection of sculptures/ art works and their placing in the public space of the city. After the implementation of the project Bizarre Love Triangle. The Public Sculptures of Novi Sad is over, we plan to continue with the concept by stimulating similar initiatives in other cities around Europe which have the problem of placing the sculptures of questionable artistic value within its public space including the problem of irresponsible urban planning. All our partners from Poland, Hungary and Slovakia argued that Novi Sad is not unique in this problem, as they are facing similar situation in their cities. Therefore, this project represents a starting point for the exchange of the experiences, ideas and the systems behind the problem of public sculptures in other EU countries.

Project Bizarre Love Triangle. The Public Sculptures of Novi Sad was supported by the International Visegrad Fund in 2014. The project was implemented by the Academy of Arts in Novi Sad, Department of Fine Arts (Serbia) together with its partners: University of Arts in Poznan (Poland), the Academy of Arts in Banska Bystrica (Slovakia) and the University of Pécs, Faculty of Music and Visual Arts (Hungary).

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Zajednički rad, komunikacija i razmena ideja mladih umetnika i stručnjaka iz ove oblasti, realizovana je direktnim kreativno umetničkim izražavanjem tj. velikim brojem analitičko - kritičkih, ali i duhovitih umetničkih radova i intervencija koji su podrazumevali upotrebu svih medija, i tradicionalnih i novih medija. Završnicu radionice je predstavljala izložba - problemska postavka odabranih radova u izlagačkom prostoru SKC „Fabrika“. Svi radovi učesnika projekta i radionice: praktični umetnički, teoretski, kao i sva stručna izlaganja pozvanih predavača obrađeni su i publikovani u formi obimnog kataloga. Ova publikacija predstavlja kompleksnu studiju jednog problemskog istraživanja, namenjenog široj zajednici: lokalnoj, u regionu i u širem okruženju a njena posebna svrha je podizanje svesti i odgovornosti institucija lokalne samouprave i nadležnog ministarstva; odgovornosti onih koji stvaraju i uređuju sisteme u praksi izbora i postavljanja skulptura/umetničkih dela u javni prostor grada. Nakon realizovanog projekta Bizarre Love Triangle. The Public Sculptures of Novi Sad ideja je da se nastavi sa konceptom urbanog redizajniranja i da se stimulišu slične inicijative u ostalim gradovima širom Evrope gde postoji problematika postavljanja skulptura upitnih umetničkih vrednosti u javni prostor i neodgovorno urbano planiranje. Iz komunikacije sa gostima - učesnicima radionice moglo se zaključiti da ovo nije problem samo Novog Sada, slična situacija je i u gradovima iz kojih oni dolaze. Na taj način ovaj projekat otvara direktan dijalog iskustava određene prakse i sistema u zemljama V4 grupe, EU i zemljama koje su van ove zajednice.

Projekat Bizarre Love Triangle. The Public Sculptures of Novi Sad podržan je od strane „International Visegrad Fund“, iz kategorije - Edukacija u 2014. godini. Nosilac projekta je Akademija umetnosti u Novom Sadu, Departman likovnih umetnosti (Srbija) uz partnere: Univerzitet umetnosti u Poznanu (Poljska), Akademija umetnosti u Banskoj Bistrici (Slovačka) i Univerzitet u Pečuju, Fakultet muzičkih i vizuelnih umetnosti (Mađarska).

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Odd Odyssey around Novi Sad Ania K. England I was in my third month of epic journey around Novi Sad before I discovered the sculpture of a ballet dancer in front of the National Theatre, despite passing by it almost every day. The fog of trees and popcorn trolleys had successfully hidden this tiny corner of land where the statue stands but – once discovered – it remained with me for the rest of my journey. Like a weird relationship from the song “Bizarre Love Triangle” by New Order, I became involved in a similarly turbulent relationship between who I am, what I see and who the artist who created the sculpture is. Between my respect for a talented dancer, her image and those, who allowed for such a bizarre homage to be put in the public space, with a missing foot, lack of face, disproportional limbs and deformed hands. As if this was not enough, the dancer had been condemned to an eternal torture by standing facing away from her beloved theatre. Not to mention the stump. The discovery of the tortured ballet dancer marked the start of my odd odyssey around the murky sculptures of Novi Sad. Many of them appear curved in spasms, deformed by some cruel torture or placed on pedestals, which are irresistible to dogs in need of relief themselves. I even saw how some extremely cunning oppressor placed the stunted statue of Janika Balazs not only behind the bushes, but sideways, so he can only see the place he loved – the Petrovaradin fortress – in the corner of his eye. Impossible to reach although within the grasp of his hand, like a glass of water for a thirsty man tied to a tree in a hot day. During my voyage I noticed other statues of important and famous people being humiliated by standing in awkward places, like a victim waiting for a public judgement and punishment. I have found art objects that nobody can admire, nor sit on, not play with it – objects designed to take the public space for itself. My ship sailed on to a distant port, where sculptures were used as emotional blackmail and hence impossible to be removed from the view. Their ugliness and inappropriate shapes are sanctioned despite the loud lamentation of a single voices (and a quiet disapproval of many) and remain like an infected splinter in a wound. Love, especially when in a triangle, is indeed a cruel feeling.

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Čudna odiseja po Novom Sadu Ania K. England Bio je to treći mesec mog epskog putovanja po Novom Sadu kada sam otkrila skulpturu balerine ispred Srpskog narodnog pozorišta, iako sam svakog dana prolazila pored nje. Krošnja drveta i kolica sa kokicama su uspešno sakrivali parčence zemlje na kome je stajala ova statua. Ali, od momenta kada sam je otkrila, ostala je u meni do kraja putovanja. Poput čudnog odnosa u pesmi „Bizarre Love Triangle” grupe New Order, postala sam svesna slične turbulentne veze između onoga ko sam ja, šta gledam i ko je umetnik-tvorac te skulpture tj. veze između mog divljenja upućenog talentovanoj balerini, njenom liku i delu i onih koji su dozvolili da joj se počast oda na tako bizaran način i to na javnom mestu, bez stopala, nedovršenog lica, disproporcionalnih udova i deformisanih ruku. I kao da sve to nije dovoljno, balerina, osuđena na večno mučenje, stoji leđima okrenuta svom voljenom pozorištu. A tu je i patrljak. Otkrivanje ove izmučene balerine je obeležilo početak moje čudne odiseje sumornih skulptura po Novom Sadu. Mnoge od njih izgledaju kao da su u grču, deformisane okrutnim mučenjem ili su stavljene na pijedestale koji nisu samo neodoljivi psima, već se čini da i same one imaju potrebu da se olakšaju. Videla sam i da razni prepredeni silnici mogu da postave zdepastu figuru Janike Balaža ne samo iza grmlja, već bočno od mesta koje je voleo – Petrovaradinske tvrđave i koju može da vidi samo krajičkom oka. Nadomak ruke, a opet daleko od domašaja, poput čaše vode i čoveka zavezanog za drvo u sred žege. Tokom mojih putešestvija, videla sam i kako se slavljene, eminentne ličnosti mogu poniziti stojeći na neprikladnim mestima, tako da podsećaju na osuđenike u iščekivanju javne osude i kazne. Pronalazila sam i umetničke objekte koje niko ne ceni, ne koristi, ne seda na njih, ne igra se sa njima – objekte koji kao da su dizajnirani da javni prostor uzmu samo za sebe. Moj brod je otplovio do udaljene luke gde se skulpture koriste kao emocionalna ucena, usled čega ih je nemoguće ukloniti iz vidika. Njihova ružnoća i neadekvatni oblici zvanično se odobravaju uprkos glasnog lamentiranja usamljenih glasova (i tihog negodovanja mnogih drugih) poput trna u inficiranoj rani. Ljubav, naročito u trouglu, zasita jeste okrutna.

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Public space – the place of art interventions Sanja Kojić Mladenov Art in the public space of Novi Sad in the last two decades can be divided into permanent works which mainly consist of memorial sculptures and temporary artistic interventions. It is already evident from this strict division that there are a number of problems when it comes to the presence of contemporary art in the free city space, which is also the subject of the analysis of the project “Bizarre Love Triangle. The Public Sculptures of Novi Sad” implemented by the Academy of Arts in Novi Sad. In the last few years, a couple of memorials have been erected in the urban space of Novi Sad. In most cases, they were made in the form of realistic monumental sculptures or busts resembling the traditional models of interpretation. Their prevailing model comprises the sculptures of eminent politicians, scientists, writers, actors and artists wrapped into massive coats which hide the technical deficiencies of presenting the proportions of a human body. Many of these works give a grotesque picture of these individuals and the social and economic circumstances around them. The colossal work of Ivan Meštrović from 1939 (the sculpture of Svetozar Miletić) at the central square of Novi Sad is still a dominant one, indicating the time of great ambitions and ideas. Due to a long period of crisis and marginalisation of art, the public space was often used for propaganda of different communities and political ideologies as in the case of the sculpture of Jaša Tomić. Furthermore, besides the monument of Nadežda Petrović in front of “Spomen zbirka Pavla Beljanskog”, there are no sculptures in the memory of eminent women or they are presented in a stereotypical form of a nude or almost nude female figure. All this corresponds to the traditional and patriarchal view of monument features and indicates a general degradation of values in the society. If we look at contemporary art scene of Novi Sad in the last twenty years including the present state of its sculptures, objects, interventions, sound and light installations, in situ or “site specific” projects and video and digital installations in public space, we  will notice a disproportion. There have been no permanent works of contemporary art interventions in the last twenty years besides quite a rich offer and production of Academy of Arts, Museum of Contemporary Art of Vojvodina, ULUV, SKC, many galleries and independent art associations. The art scene of Novi Sad, unlike many other cities in Vojvodina, failed to achieve more visibility in public space during this period, or perhaps the resistance to its popularisation was much stronger. If we compare this to the situation in Novi Sad in the period from 1950 to 1990, we notice that today there are no counterparts to the sculptures such as “Kompozicija” (Composition) by Olga Jančić (1959) and “Korenje” (Roots) by Ana Bešlić (1961) which were set in the public space. Such a situation underlies the neglect and disrespect of cultural needs of the public as well as the continuous degradation of social, artistic and aesthetic values. In the last two decades the contemporary art practice has used the public space only temporarily, as a part of an artistic action, performance, exhibition or an event. It usually presents a troublesome event, a “guerrilla” attack and a temporary occupation of the public space with uncertain duration in most cases. Due to this, not to mention modest budgets for its realisation, the authors of the interventions mostly do not even think about the sustainability of their works: when choosing the form and materials, they are not guided by the necessary durability, but give advantage to the concept. There have been more and more examples of such projects in the last two decades. The 1990s were marked by a very turbulent socio – political and economic situation, wars, nationalism and isolation; all of which influenced art in public space. There were no bigger public competitions which could enable artists to display the works of contemporary art practice in the open city spaces, so the activities were reduced to sporadic events and interventions of artists and art groups who gathered around small galleries, independent organisations or temporary exhibitions and projects. One of those projects was “Viribus Unitis” (1992) by authors: Lidija Srebotnjak-Prišić, Zoran Pantelić, Miroslav Šilić and Bojana Petrić presented at the Petrovaradin Fortress. Most of the works were ambient audio visual installations scattered throughout the fortress (bastions, stairs, walls and wells) with which the artists attempted to affirm the media practice in the country and discuss about art in the context of a specific location. 12


Javni prostor – mesto umetničkih intervencija Sanja Kojić Mladenov Umetnost u javnom prostoru Novog Sada, tokom poslednje dve decenije možemo podeliti na trajno postavljena dela koja uglavnom čine memorijalne skulpture i privremeno izvedene umetničke intervencije. Već na osnovu ove oštre podele možemo zaključiti da postoji niz problema u prisustvu savremene umetnosti u slobodnom gradskom prostoru, što će biti predmet analize u okviru međunarodnog projekta „Bizarre Love Triangle. The Public Sculptures of Novi Sad“ Akademije umetnosti u Novom Sadu. Tokom poslednjih godina u urbani prostor Novog Sada postavljena je nekolicina memorijalnih dela izvedena uglavnom u formi realističke spomeničke skulpture ili biste, bliske tradicionalnim modelima interpretacije. Preovlađujući model su stojeće skulpture značajnih političara, naučnika, književnika, glumaca i umetnika, uglavnom obavijenih masivnim kaputima kojima se skrivaju tehničke manjkavosti u prikazu proporcija ljudskog tela. Mnoga izvedena dela na gotovo groteskni način upućuju na predstavljene ličnosti, kao i na društveno – ekonomske uslove u kojima su realizovane. Kolosalno delo Ivana Meštrovića iz 1939. (skulptura Svetozara Miletića) na centralnom trgu Novog Sada i dalje dominira, ukazujući na vreme velikih ambicija i ideja. Dugotrajni period krize i marginalizacije umetnosti uticao je na upotrebu javnog prostora kao mesta propagande različitih društvenih zajednica i partijskih ideologija, kao u slučaju skulpture Jaši Tomiću. Takođe, osim spomenika Nadeždi Petrović ispred „Spomen zbirke Pavla Beljanskog”, skulpture koje afirmišu sećanje na značajne žene nedostaju ili predstavljaju stereotipne prikaze nage ili skoro nage ženske figure. Sve ovo odgovara tradicionalnom i patrijarhalnom viđenju spomeničkih obeležja i ukazuje na opšti pad vrednosti u društvu. Posmatrajući savremenu umetničku scenu Novog Sada poslednjih dvadeset godina i trenutnu poziciju skulptura, objekata, intervencija, zvučnih i svetlosnih instalacija, in situ ili site specific projekata, video i digitalnih ambijenata u javnom prostoru, uočavamo disproporciju. Trajno postavljenih dela aktuelnih umetničkih intervencija tokom poslednjih dvadeset godina nema na slobodnim gradskim prostorima i pored istovremeno razvijene umetničke scene koju okupljaju Akademija umetnosti, Muzej savremene umetnosti Vojvodine, ULUV, SKC, mnoge galerije i nezavisne umetničke asocijacije. Umetnička scena Novog Sada, za razliku od mnogih manjih gradova Vojvodine, nije uspela tokom ovog perioda da se izbori za svoju veću vidljivost u javnom prostoru, ili su otpori njenoj popularizaciji bili jači. Ukoliko bismo napravili poređenje sa situacijom prisutnom u Novom Sadu u periodu 1950-1990. godine, primetićemo da paralela skulpturama kao što su: „Kompozicija” Olge Jančić (1959) i „Korenje” Ane Bešlić (1961), koje su u vremenu kada su realizovane i postavljene u javnom prostoru, predstavljale aktuelne umetničke trendove jugoslovenske skulpture, danas ne postoje. Ovakva situacija potvrđuje zanemarivanje i omalovažavanje kulturnih potreba javnosti, kao i kontinuiranu degradaciju društvenih, umetničkih i estetskih vrednosti. Poslednje dve decenije savremena umetnička praksa zauzima javni prostor samo privremeno, kao deo neke umetničke akcije, performansa, izložbe ili događaja. Ona obično predstavlja ekscesni događaj, „gerilsko” zauzimanje i privremenu okupaciju javnog prostora sa uglavnom neizvesnim trajanjem. Zbog ovakve situacije i skromnih budžeta za realizaciju rada, autori intervencija uglavnom ni ne razmišljaju o održivosti rada, te se pri izboru forme i materijala ne rukovode neophodnom izdržljivošću, već prioritet daju konceptu. Primera takvih projekata tokom poslednje dve decenije ima više. Devedesete godine 20. veka, bile su obeležene turbulentnom socio – političkom i ekonomskom situacijom, ratom, nacionalizmom i izolacijom, što je sve uticalo na umetnost u javnom prostoru. Nije bilo velikih javnih konkursa koji bi omogućili umetnicima izvođenje radova savremene umetničke prakse u slobodnim prostorima grada, te su ovakve aktivnosti bile reducirane na sporadične događaje i intervencije umetnika i umetničkih grupa okupljenih oko malih galerija, nezavisnih organizacija ili tokom privremenih izložbenih projekata. Jedan od takvih projekata je bio „Viribus Unitis” (1992) autora i autorki: Lidije Srebotnjak-Prišić, Zorana Pantelića, Miroslava Šilića i Bojane Petrić izveden na Petrovaradinskoj tvrđavi. Većinu radova su činile ambijentalne, 13


It was a period of contextual, interactive actions, installations, interventions, performances and events which, through the strategy of temporary engagement, offered the answer to the painful social reality. A good example of such artistic activities were initiatives of a group Led Art: “Potop” (Deluge) in 1993 and “Rekonstrukcija zločina” (Crime Reconstruction) from 1995 to 2013, displayed throughout years at different locations. The starting point for their activities was the critique of the social and political system of Slobodan Milošević in the 1990s - the imposed social reality which caused – metaphorically speaking - “freezing” of the society in Serbia. “Crime Reconstruction” was a performance consisting of a collective initiative of individuals who would quietly lie on the floor while artists outlined them in a fashion of crime investigation, just like the police marks the position of the victim’s body. These initiatives expressed the idea of massive victimization of the people by the authorities. Interventions in public space performed in situ – for a specific location and its multiple social, political, economic and architectural contexts which, at the same time, are inseparable from the location where they were shown and set – have been continuously used by Igor Antić since 1992. In situ is a means of creating a work both in theory and in practice - in other words - it is a work of art made in relation to its environment. Conscious construction of a situation based on investigating relations between a location and an art work was the strategy this author used during his intervention “Gol” (Goal, 1995) at a football pitch in Novi Sad. He temporarily occupied the pitch and put a long net to connect the two opposite goals in order to highlight the tensions between the players of the opposite teams. This way, he absurdly and with a sense of humour, placed them in the impossible position. In his later intervention on the wall of the building in the city centre – “Oglasnik” (Ad space, 2007) organised by “Inbox” association, he criticised inefficient cultural policies, nonexistence of contemporary art in urban space and in the premises of the Museum of Contemporary Art. In the sea of advertising billboards which flooded the city since 2000, the author formed his own space and used it for collecting donations for imaginary Contemporary Art Centre as an attempt to start a social initiative for the change of a bad situation in the culture. The topics linked to the changes of economic and political system are typical for the beginning of the new millennium, the period when Serbia entered the process of transition and tried to build a democratic social system and institutions. The city was changing its structure, foreign investments appeared and slowly the construction and reconstruction of urban environment was revived. However, as these changes were not accompanied by the changes in legislation, the beginning of the construction was run by political and economic interests and the neglect of art in public space continued. The interventions in free space did not get the necessary support from the state and they still remained locked within temporary activities of different cultural organisations and projects. Among those projects were: “Balkan Art” (2002) organised by Centre of Visual Culture “Zlatno Oko” (Golden Eye); “Grad umetnička radionica”,2005 (City Art Stage)  by the Association of Arts and Culture “Visart”, “Suburbium” by the Academy of Arts (participants: Igor Antić, Goran Despotovski, Vladimir Ilić, Vladan Joler, Željka Jović, Miroslava Kojić, Smiljana Kojić, Jelena Kovačević, Nikola Macura, MP, Lidija Srebotnjak-Prišić, Mileta Poštić, Goran Bajazetov, Mirko Žarković, Đula Šanta, Andrej Tišma, Dušan Todorović, Nataša Vujkov, Bosiljka Zirojević, Dragan Živančević and others). There were also multiple projects of mural making in public space organised by “Tableau” gallery (Daniel Babić, Milan Jovanović, Tadija Janičić, Boris Lukić...); “In Situ” (2007) and “Prostor za novi dijalog” (Space for a New Dialogue, 2008), the Museum of Contemporary Art of Vojvodina, Manual Forgotten Arts Museum and ” Visart “. By organising certain art projects, the Centre of Visual Culture “Zlatno oko” (Golden Eye) managed to affirm the art in public space through temporary exhibitions in the central pedestrian zone of the city. During triennial international exhibition “Balkan Art” (2002), there was a temporary intervention “intimno-javno” (intimate-public) by Stevan Kojić in Laze Telečkog Street. The installation consisted of a large mirror in front of which there was a metal bar placed horizontally resembling the space where ballerinas could exercise. The intimate scene of exercising was set in public space and at the opening there was also a performance. This potentially fragile installation was placed in one of the busiest pedestrian streets in Novi Sad with numerous cafes and soon it became a well-known meeting point for many citizens. Despite the development of destructive and vandal culture, nationalism and intolerance promoted by the authorities, this fragile installation managed to survive for ten years 14


audio i video instalacije raspoređene po celoj tvrđavi (bastioni, stepeništa, bedemi, bunar), kojima se težilo afirmaciji medijske prakse kod nas i razmatranju umetnosti u kontekstu specifičnog mesta. To je bio period kontekstualnih, interaktivnih akcija, instalacija, intervencija, performansa i događaja koji su kroz strategiju privremene angažovane prakse bili odgovor javnosti na bolnu socijalnu realnost. U ovakve umetničke aktivnosti spadaju akcije grupe Led Art kao što su: „Potop” (1993) i „Rekonstrukcija zločina” (1995–2013) - izvedena tokom više godina na različitim lokacijama. Polazište njihove aktivnosti činila je kritika društveno – političkog sistema Slobodana Miloševića devedesetih godina, nametnutog socijalnog stanja koje je uticalo na, metaforički gledano, „zamrzavanje” društva u Srbiji. „Rekonstrukcija zločina” je performans koji se sastojao od kolektivne akcije tokom koje bi pojedinci mirno ležali na podu, dok bi ih umetnici opcrtavali linijom, u vidu policijskog uviđaja mesta zločina, na način obeležavanja mesta i položaja tela žrtve. Akcije su transponovale ideju masovnog žrtvovanja stanovnika od strane vlasti. Intervencije u javnom prostoru izvedene kroz in situ praksu - za određeno mesto i njegove mnogostruke socijalne, političke, ekonomske i arhitektonske kontekste, istovremeno neodvojive od datog mesta za koje su realizovane i na koje su postavljene, je od 1992. kontinuirano primenjivao Igor Antić. In situ je način na koji se teorijski i praktično realizuje rad, drugim rečima, to je umetničko delo koje je stvoreno u relaciji sa svojim okruženjem. Svesno konstruisanje situacija zasnovanih na istraživanju odnosa mesta i umetničkog dela je strategija ovog autora, koju je koristio tokom svoje intervencije „Gol” (1995), na fudbalskom igralištu u Novom Sadu. Privremeno je zauzeo igralište postavljajući dugačku mrežu kojom je spojio dva suprotna gola tako da je naglasio tenziju koja postoji između igrača suprotnih timova, te ih apsurdno i sa dozom humora doveo u nemoguću poziciju. U svojoj kasnijoj intrevenciji na zidu zgrade u centru grada - „Oglasni prostor” (2007), u organizaciji asocijacije „Inbox”, kritikuje lošu kulturnu politiku, nepostojanje savremene umetnosti u urbanom prostoru, kao i prostore namenjene za smeštaj Muzeja savremene umetnosti. U moru reklamnih bilborda koji su preplavili grad od dvehiljadite godine, autor formira svoj prostor namenjen prikupljanju novca za imaginarni Centar za savremenu umetnost, pokušavajući da pokrene društvenu inicijativu za promenu loše situacije u kulturi. Teme vezane za promene ekonomskog i političkog sistema karakteristične su za početak novog milenijuma, perioda kada Srbija ulazi u proces tranzicije, težeći izgrađivanju demokratskog društvenog sistema i njegovih institucija. Grad počinje da menja svoju strukturu, dolaze strani investitori koji započinju svoja ulaganja, te polako oživljava izgradnja i rekonstrukcija urbanih sredina. Međutim, kako ove promene nisu pratile promene u zakonodavstvu, ovo aktiviranje građevinarstva je bilo vođeno političkim i ekonomskim interesima, te se nastavilo sa zanemarivanjem značaja umetnosti u javnom prostoru. Intervencije u slobodnom prostoru nisu dobile potrebnu pomoć države, već su i dalje bile segment privremenih aktivnosti različitih kulturnih organizacija i njihovih projekata. Među njima su projekti: „Balkan Art”, (2002) Centra za vizuelnu kulturu „Zlatno oko”; „Grad umetnička pozornica”(2005), asocijacije za umetnost i kulturu „Visart”, „Suburbium” i Akademije umetnosti (učesnici: Igor Antić, Goran Despotovski, Vladimir Ilić, Vladan Joler, Željka Jović, Miroslava Kojić, Smiljana Kojić, Jelena Kovačević, Nikola Macura, MP, Lidija Srebotnjak-Prišić, Mileta Poštić, Goran Bajazetov, Mirko Žarković, Đula Šanta, Andrej Tišma, Dušan Todorović, Nataša Vujkov, Bosiljka Zirojević, Dragan Živančević i dr; više projekata izvođenja murala u javnom prostoru, Galerija „Tableau” (Danijel Babić, Milan Nešić, Tadija Janičić, Boris Lukić...); „In Situ” (2007) i „Prostor za novi dijalog”(2008), Muzej savremene umetnosti Vojvodine, Manual muzej zaboravljenih umetnosti i „Visart”. Centar za vizuelnu kulturu „Zlatno oko” je tokom pojedinih umetničkih projekata afirmisao umetnost u javnom prostoru privremenim postavkama umetničkih radova u centralnoj, pešačkoj zoni grada. Tokom međunarodne trijenalne izložbe „Balkan Art” (2002) izvedena je privremena intervencija u ulici Laze Telečkog „Intimno – javno” Stevana Kojića. Instalacija se sastojala od velikog ogledala ispred kojeg se nalazila metalna šipka horizontalno postavljena, nalik opremi prostora za vežbanje balerina. Intimna scena vežbe postavljena je u javni prostor, a tokom samog otvaranja je izveden i performans. Ova potencijalno osetljiva instalacija postavljena u jednoj od najprometnijih pešačkih ulica u Novom Sadu u kojoj se nalazi veliki broj kafića, postala je me15


and during this period it changed the appearance in accordance with the construction changes or the use of buildings in its immediate vicinity. In 2007 the Museum of Contemporary Art of Vojvodina and “Visart” implemented the project “Sculpture / Objects, Installations, Surroundings, Interventions in Public Space” which consisted of theoretical analysis of public space interventions, organization of a debate, exhibitions and a publication. The exhibition presented several sketches, drawings and setting up of art interventions in the open city space by the following authors: Igor Antić, Kosta Bogdanović, Mira Brtka, Goran Despotovski, Gabriel Glid, Živko Grozdanić, Stevan Kojić, Nikola Macura, Olivera Parlić Karajanković, Vladimir Perić, Mileta Prodanović, Ivana Rakidžić Krumes, Đula Šanta and the artists from the workshops “Vacuum Pack”. Nikola Macura presented the results of a temporary installation “Isceljivanje” (Healing, 2005) which was previously set up at the plateau of the former Museum of the Revolution (today the Museum of Contemporary Art). Through different approaches, mediums of expression, materials and techniques applied in the form of sketches and initiatives, the participants of the project pointed out to the problems of art in public space in the case of Novi Sad. The project highlighted the lack of sense of belonging to a community, initiatives for a joint action or criticism, the lack of active participation of the public in decision-making regarding the issues of organisation and planning development of the city, the absence of public debates and the lack of transparency in city boards and committees etc. All these projects indicated a growing number of possibilities and trends in contemporary art practice, which in the last two decades have moved away from classical sculpture and expanded its domain to the use of different forms, materials, techniques and approaches. The relationship between a work of art and the place of its setting is becoming more important to contemporary artists whether in the case of architectural, art and ambient exhibitions, or when using a specific social context of space in order to launch an initiative in art. The reaction of artists to a given social, political, historical and cultural situation is more evident with the introduction of new materials and techniques. There is also a desire to communicate and interact with passers-by. Numerous international examples in contemporary theory show that a memorial monument is not only a realistic sculpture in stone and metal, but can be presented through different artistic interventions, sound and light installations, in situ or site specific projects, video and digital ambiences, artistic architectural wholes and so on. Artists have already offered many of these solutions at their temporary exhibitions in public space or through their sketches, models and installations, but still, none of that had a proper public and institutional support necessary for the continuation of such projects. 

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sto okupljanja i prepoznavanja za mnoge sugrađane. I pored razvoja destruktivne i vandalske kulture, afirmacije nacionalizma i netolerancije od strane vladajućih struktura, ova krhka instalacija je opstala deset godina tokom kojih je menjala svoj izgled u zavisnosti od građevinskih promena i namene objekata u njenoj neposrednoj okolini. Muzej savremene umetnosti Vojvodine i „Visart” su 2007. godine realizovali projekat „Skulptura / objekti, instalacije, ambijenti, intervencije u javnom prostoru” koji se sastojao od teorijskog razmatranja intervencija u javnom prostoru, organizacijom stručnog skupa, izložbe i publikacije. Na izložbi je predstvaljeno više skica, crteža i montaža umetničkih intervencija u slobodnim prostorima grada od strane autora i autorki: Igor Antić, Kosta Bogdanović, Mira Brtka, Goran Despotovski, Gabriel Glid, Živko Grozdanić, Stevan Kojić, Nikola Macura, Olivera Parlić Karajanković, Vladimir Perić, Mileta Prodanović, Ivana Rakidžić Krumes, Đula Šanta i umetnici Radionice «Vacuum Pack». Nikola Macura je predstavio rezultate privremene akcije - instalacije „Isceljivanje” (2005) izvedene nešto ranije na platou zgrade bivšeg Muzeja revolucije (danas Muzeja savremene umetnosti Vojvodine). Učesnici projekta su uglavnom svojim raznovrsnim pristupima, medijima izražavanja, materijalima i tehnikama, primenjenim u formi skica i projekata ukazali na probleme prisutne u Novom Sadu kada je u pitanju umetnost u javnom prostoru. Naglašeno je nepostojanje osećaja komunalne pripadnosti lokalnoj zajednici, nedostatak inicijative za zajedničku akciju ili kritiku, nemogućnost aktivnog učešća u odlučivanju vezanog za pitanja uređenja, razvojnog planiranja i funkcionisanja grada, odsustvo javnih rasprava, netransparentnost rada gradskih komisija i dr. Svi ovi projekti su ukazali na razvojne mogućnosti i tendencije savremene umetničke prakse, koja se tokom poslednje dve decenije udaljila od klasične skulpture i proširila svoja polja delovanja na upotrebu različitih formi, materijala, tehnika i pristupa. Istraživanja odnosa umetničkog dela i mesta postavke je sve bitnije savremenim umetnicima, bilo da je u pitanju obrazovanje arhitektonsko – umetničkih ambijentalnih postavki, ili korišćenje specifičnog društvenog konteksta mesta za pokretanje umetničke inicijative. Reakcija umetnika na date društveno – političke, istorijske i kulturne situacije je naglašenija, uvođenje novih materijala i tehnika, kao i želja za komunikacijom i interakcijom sa prolaznicima. Savremena teorija i praksa je mnoštvom internacionalnih primera pokazala da memorijalni spomenik ne mora da bude samo realistička skulptura u kamenu ili metalu, već različite umetničke intervencije, zvučne i svetlosne instalacije, in situ ili site specific projekti, video i digitalni ambijenti, umetničko - arhitektonske celine i sl. Mnoga takva rešenja su umetnici već ponudili tokom privremenih izložbi u javnom prostoru ili kroz svoje skice, makete i montaže, ali se za takvu praksu još uvek nije dobila prava državno – institucionalna podrška, koja je potrebna za realizaciju projekta i njegovo održavanje.

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“Social Sculpture - politics, im / materiality, public discourse” Zoran Pantelić Sculpture interventions in space are a very important indicator of the time and context in which they are created. This is especially evident in urban structures where sculptures fit into the scenario of the urban environment and have the role of a specific narrative and ideological matrix. The scenic feature of a sculpture in relation to the urban environment and architecture often points to a specific era, thus allowing the anthropological and cultural scanning of the society. Since the very beginning of the 20th century, the introduction, i.e. specifying of art as a term and a discipline has caused a wave of many radical reactions through the opposing avant-garde movements. Academism was defended and attacked in different circumstances. Therefore, the very understanding of the context of time and place where certain practices are created is the key for understanding the specific poetics that became necessary in the conflict with the environment, academia, community, institutions and taboos. The period after World War II was the time of general mobilisation in terms of building university institutions, renewal of humanities and a structural initiation of the policies for the construction of a new society. At the same time, new aesthetic forms flourished in opposing ideological blocs often relying on competing relations. The eastern bloc, i.e. the socialist countries established a specific framework of development of culture and artistic practices based on realistic narratives whose role was the general implementation into all layers of the society. A special departure from such a codification appeared in Yugoslavia after its departing from the Soviet Union and the impulse to take the stand against the politics through a modernist expression. This period marked the appearance of monuments and urban complexes dedicated to the revolution all around Yugoslavia (Kosmaj, Kozara, Tjentište, Kragujevac, Petrova Gora, Jasenovac etc.) with a semiotic view on a modernist discourse and with a clear distinction form the elements of socialist realism. At the same time, in a developed system of Western art there was a breakthrough into spatial interventions with new forms of monuments (land art) essentially based on technology and nominal values, supporting the whole gallery system and its invested capital. Twenty-five years after the end of World War II, there was a first spontaneous review of practices and values of all that appeared in the agendas of the cultural policies of the CK13-outside | state. Different movements in favour of experiment were founded all around Europe and world as a reaction to the existing dominant policies and institutional monopolies. There was a growing number of various practices which critically analysed the domain of organizations, politics and art, relying on original radical actions from the time of avant-garde movement at the beginning of the 20th century. This was also the time of numerous initiatives in Yugoslavia; neo-avant-garde movements were active in all spheres of artistic production – in music, theatre, literature and art. By questioning the critique of the dominant institutional models, they presented many crucial and necessary aspects of creative processes: questioning of originality, group work and collective authorship, opinions and ideas as the basis for initiating the process of change – the immaterial work. Moving away from classical spaces designated for art and moving into real space and direct communication. This was the period that would radically impact the whole world by the codification of new paradigms, theories and practices and “comodify” the very concept implementing it into traditional disciplines. As the new era started with technological development; films, videos, photography, Xerox strongly influenced the questioning of the hierarchical values in the domain of cultural production. The practice of historical avant-garde and the development of neoavant-garde opposing to one another in the dominant nomenclature initiated the broadening of the boundaries for research and art practice. The field of special interventions was broadened in relation to traditional sculptures and newly established categories: installations, prefabricated temporary constructions, technological design, interventions in situ (site-specific) etc. 18


„Socijalna skulptura – politika, ne/materijalnost, javni diskurs“ Zoran Pantelić Skulptorske intervencije u prostoru su veoma bitna obeležja vremena i konteksta u kojem nastaju i na šta ukazuju, posebno u urbanim strukturama u kojima se skulptorska rešenja uklapaju u mizanscen urbanističkog ambijenta i imaju ulogu specifičnog narativa i ideološke matrice. Sceničnost skulpture u odnosu na urbano okruženje i arhitekturu često ukazuju na konkretnu epohu i omogućava antropološko i kulturološko skeniranje društva. Od samog početka XX veka uvođenje, tj. specifikovanje umetnosti kao pojma i discipline prouzrokovalo je talas radikalnih reakcija kroz avangardne pokrete koji su se tome suprotstavili. Akademizam je bio branjen i napadan u različitim okolnostima, pa upravo razumevanje konteksta vremena i prostora nastanka određenih praksi daje ključ za razumevanje specifičnih poetika nastalih kao nužda u sukobu sa okolinom, stručnom javnošću, zajednicom, institucijama, tabuima. U periodu nakon II svetskog rata, nastupilo je vreme opšte mobilizacije u pogledu izgradnje institucija Univerziteta i obnova humanističkih nauka, strukturno inicirane politike izgradnje novog društva. Istovremeno, u suprotstavljenim ideološkim blokovima nicali su novi oblici estetizacije često oslanjani na kompetativne relacije. U istočnom bloku, u socijalističkim zemljama ustrojen je poseban okvir razvoja kulture i umetničke prakse zasnovan na realističnim narativima koji su imali ulogu generalne primene za sve slojeve društva. Poseban otklon od takve kodifikacije nastaje u SFRJ nakon udaljavanja od Sovjetskog Saveza i podsticaj da se kroz modernistički izražaj zauzme otklon koji je utvrđen u političkoj sferi. Taj period ozvaničava pojavu monumentalnih skulptura i urbanističkih kompleksa po čitavom prostoru SFRJ posvećenih revoluciji (Kosmaj, Kozara, Tjentište, Kragujevac, Petrova Gora, Jasenovac, itd.) semiotički oslonjeni na modernistički diskurs sa jasnom distinkcijom od elemenata socijalističkog realizma. Istovremeno u razvijenom sistemu umetnosti zapada prisutan je iskorak u prostorne intervencije i iniciranje novih monumentalnih formi (land art) u osnovi baziranoj na tehnologiji i nominalnoj vrednosti na kojima je bio oslonjen čitav galerijski sistem odnosno uloženi kapital. Dvadeset i pet godina nakon završetka II svetskog rata došlo je spontano do prve revizije praksi i vrednosti onoga što je proisticalo iz agendi državnih kulturnih politika. Širom Evrope i sveta su se osnivali pokreti za eksperiment, reakciju na postojeće dominantne politike, reakcije na institucionalne monopole i tada u Evropi buja veliki broj različitih | PLAKATIRANJE u crno 2004 praksi koje kritički analiziraju polje organizacije, politike, umetnosti; oslanjajući se na izvorne radikalne iskorake iz vremena avangardnih pokreta sa početka XX veka. To je period kada se u Jugoslaviji pojavljuje takođe veliki broj inicijativa - neo-avangardni pokreti koji su delovali u svim sferama umetničke proizvodnje – muzika, teatar, književnost, umetnost. Oni su u propitivanju kritike dominantnih institucionalnih modela izneli veliki broj aspekata vrednih i neophodnih za razumevanje kreativnih procesa i stvaranja: propitivanje originalnosti, grupni rad i kolektivno autorstvo; Mišljenje i ideja kao osnov za pokretanje procesa promene stanja – nematerijalni rad. Iskorak iz klasičnih prostora predodređenih za umetnost – iskorak u realni prostor i direktna komunikacija, itd. To je period koji će radikalno da se odrazi na svetskom nivou kodifikacijom novih paradigmi, teorija i praksi koje će sam koncept komodifikovati i implementirati u tradicionalne discipline, nova era je pokrenuta razvojem tehnologije: film, video, fotografija, xerox, su snažno uticali na preispitivanje hijerarhijskih vrednosti u domenu kulturne proizvodnje. Praksa istorijskih avangardi i razvoj neo-avangardi koje su se suprotstavljale dominantnoj nomenklaturi, inicirali su proširivanje granica za istraživanje i proširenje polja umetničke prakse. Prošireno je polje prostornog intervenisanja u odnosu na tradicionalnu skulpturu i utvrđene nove kategorije: instalacije, montažne privremene konstrukcije, tehnološki dizajn, intervencije in situ (site-specific), itd. 19


At the same time, there were new initiatives that examined the monopoly of academic communities (anti-universities) and the space of an autodidact was expanded and now occupied an important place in the whole new range of practices within contemporary art. It was the period of different disciplinary fusions (theatre-music-dance-art) which from their very beginning produced the feeling of infinite possibilities. Parallelly, new hybrid forms with different influences of technology, theory and practice were formed (happenings, performances, conceptual art, computer graphics etc.). The 1970s brought the shift of generations of people who were in direct contact with the legacy of the great world conflict while a new form of economic relations was being developed on a global level. The process of de-industrialization started, or to be more specific, in the 1970s the world by all means stepped into post-industrial society. This was reflected on the fact that there were series of political decisions which were implemented in the field of economy, education and culture. It was the period of many overturns in the urbanistic development of the city, migrations of industrial production into the third world countries and gentrification* of deserted industrial complexes all around Europe which, by changing their basic purpose, were converted into new and expensive apartments and business blocks - the process in which the artists were greatly instrumentalised. The capital of multinational corporations glorified its role of the carrier and innovator of social stability symbolically inaugurating it by setting up huge monuments in front of their business buildings. Formally, not much changed in the aesthetics of the sculptures; the volume and materiality of the sculptures unavoidably highlighted dimensions before everything else. The proclamation of the new age value system was done symbolically while the ideological pattern changed only to please the consumerist society. It was the period when Rosalind E. Krauss questioned the relations of space and sculpture in the enlarged field defining it through the relation of (non)landscape and (non) architecture. By upgrading these categories, she created the division and developed a contemporary sculpture in space within the enlarged spectre of marked places in landscape and axiomatic structures derived from architecture which enable the interventions and constructions on the spot - in situ (site specific). POSTERING in black 2004 |

New terms stepped in the sculpture vocabulary - installations, urban environment, performances, interventions in space. At the same time they broadened the limits of traditional sculpture and started the process of questioning the very definition of a sculpture. This included determining sculptures as an isolated object; as a group of objects in space strictly separated from “other� non-artistic elements, the permeation and announcing of processual interventions such as happenings, temporary installations and the participation of the audience for new forms of expression within sculpture. The last decade of the 20th century was marked by new technologies; the field of the art practice was lavished with new computer tools and the possibilities which, more than ever before, offered their wider use within art. Computer processing, transmission of materials from one programme into another, easy manipulation, photo and sound processing | sheme Rosalind E Krauss accelerated the development of new media and created new terminology: web art, net art, interactive art, game art. From a technical point of view, the multimedia platform which is based on new technologies, created the atmosphere which enabled the convergence and interweaving of disciplines. Together with the multimedia aspect in art, it all made way for the development of multidisciplinary science. 20


Istovremeno se pokreću inicijative koje propituju monopol akademskih zajednica (anti-univerziteti), i prostor autodidakta se širi i zauzima važno mesto u spektru novih praksi u polju savremene umetnosti. To je period u kojem se dešavaju fuzije različitih disciplina (teatar-muzika-ples-umetnost) koje u svojim povojima proizvode osećaj neslućenih mogućnosti. Istovremeno se formiraju i hibridni oblici prožeti različitim uticajima tehnologije, teorije i prakse (hepening, performans, konceptualna umetnost, kompjuterska grafika, itd). Period 70-ih godina predstavlja i smenu generacija ljudi koji su u direktnoj vezi sa tekovinama velikog svetskog ratnog sukoba, i na sceni se razvija nov oblik ekonomskih odnosa na globalnom nivou. Započeo je proces deindustrijalizacije, tačnije sedamdesedih godina svet uveliko ukoračava u post-industrijsko društvo i to se reflektuje na čitav niz političkih odluka koje su se implementirale u polje ekonomije, privrede, obrazovanja, kulture. To je period koji je obeležio velike prevrate u urbanističkom razvoju gradova, migraciju industrijske proizvodnje u zemlje trećeg sveta i džentrifikaciju* napuštenih industrijskih kompleksa širom Evrope, koji su u procesu transformacije namene pretvarani u nove skupe stambene i poslovne blokove, u čijem su procesu u velikoj meri instrumentalizovani umetnici. Poslovni korporativni multinacionalni kapital je veličao svoju ulogu nosioca inovatora faktora stabilnosti društva i simbolički to inaugurisao postavljanjem velikih monumentalnih skulptura ispred svojih poslovnih zgrada. Formalno se nije mnogo toga promenilo u estetici skulptura, volumen i materijalnost skulptura nezaobilazno je izricalo gabarite u prvi plan. Simbolički je sprovedena identična uloga u proklamaciji nosioca vrednosti novog doba; Samo što se ideološki obrazac menjao u korist društva konzumerizma. To je period kada Rozalind Kraus (Rosalind E. Krauss) propituje relacione odnose prostora i skulpture u proširenom polju, prvenstveno ih definiše kao relaciju (ne)pejzaža i (ne)arhitekture. Nadogradnjom tih kategorija kreira podelu i razvoj savremene skulpture u prostoru na prošireni spektar: markiranih-označenih mesta u pejzažu, aksiomatskih struktura izvedenih iz arhitekture, koje omogućavaju intervencije i konstrukcije na licu mesta – in situ (site specific). Novi termini su tada zakoračili u skulptorski vokabular – instalacija, urbano okruženje, performans, intervencija u prostoru – istovremeno su proširili nivoe tradicionalne skulpture, pa je započet proces preispitivanja pojma skulpture, što je uključivalo determinaciju skulpture kao izolovanog objekta, grupe objekata u prostoru strogo odvojenih od ‚ostalih‘ neumetničkih elemenata, do prožimanja i proglašenjem procesulanih intervecija hepeninga, privremenih instalacija i učešće publike za nove oblike skulptorskog izraza. Poslednja dekada XX veka obeležena je razvojem novih tehnologija, a polje umetničke prakse je obasuto novim alatima, kompjuterskim mogućnostima koja se direktno reflektuju na daleko širu primenu u polju stvaralaštva nego ikada do tada. Kompjuterska | kuda.org_radni prostor-2010 obrada, transmitovanje materijala iz jednog u drugi program, laka manipulacija, obrada slike i zvuka ubrzala je razvoj novih medija i stvorila novu terminologiju: web art, net art, interaktivna umetnost, game art. Tehnički gledano multimedijska platforma na osnovama novih tehnologija kreirala je ambijent koji je omogućio približavanje i preplitanje praksi u nove oblike kreativnosti koji su se shodno osnovnoj ideji transponovale u svoje finalne formate. Uporedo sa tehnološkim informatičkim razvojem informacijska era je omogućila ubrzanu interakciju i preplitanje disciplina što je uz multimedijalni aspekt u umetnosti otvorilo prostor za razvoj multidisciplinarnosti u nauci. Uz sve nabrojane istorijske transformacije i pitanja koja su se generisala preko institucionalne kritike i anti-akademskih zajednica, umetnici su uz nove alate i kompjutersku tehnologiju sagledavali nove izazove i mogućnosti delovanja u svetu koji se nakon 90-ih homogenizovao u opredeljenju ka kapitalističkom neoliberalnom ambijentu. 21


Besides the mentioned historical transformations and issues that were generated through institutional critique and anti-academic communities, the artists were also facing new challenges and possibilities offered by the new tools and computer technologies in a world which after the 1990s was united in its support of the capitalist neoliberal environment. This was the period when, besides the government projects in the field of New Media (ZKM Karlsruhe, V2 Rotterdam, Kiasma, Helsinki, etc), new autonomous art groups started to appear. With their organisational model and their activities, they were a logical continuation of historical avant-garde and neo-avant-garde movements attempting to create a parallel creative space by cherishing critical thinking. These were mostly art groups and circles of artists, theorists, designers and computer programmers who, in their search of space, first established themselves in the virtual space (Irrational, Bristol; Technology to the People, Malaga; Public Netbase, Vienna; Micro, Berlin, etc). In the process of setting up a reference field of their creation, these groups created fundamentally important media archives that became a symbolical glossary of all the actors in the field. Such a practice can be divided into two actions. The first focused on the fusion with technology and is in a constant search of new aesthetic and innovative solutions (very often market-oriented). The second formed a front for critical thinking in the use of technology and was a type of opposition to techno fetishism in art. Such a situation generated new forms of organization, politics and art. The first of this kind in Serbia is kolektiv_kuda.org which, by relying on the experiences of Europe, established its own infrastructure and started its research in 2001. The research was generated from the experiences of the artistic activities during the1990s (association kuda.org_exhibition... | Apsolutno, www.apsolutno.net). DESIGN IDEOLOGY Zagreb The practice of kolektiv_kuda. org indirectly questions the interventions in space, the issues which become even more complex when in such an algorithm one also introduces political aspects of non-transparent privatization of public space from the period of socialism. Therefore, among other things, the activities of kuda.org focus on public space, i.e. on the analysis of the condition of public space and its use in the context of current process of privatization – whether it is for the young, for art or culture. An important segment is a self-critique of culture as an elite category opposed to the needs of the society as a whole. The activities of kuda.org are usually programme oriented and are produced through the implementation of social structures. Besides the production of exhibitions, Centar_kuda.org organises conferences, campaigns, lectures and edits the publishing programme of kuda.read. More about kolektiv_kuda.org on: www.kuda.org Concluding question When analysing the genesis of the changes and transformations of the language of sculpture, its spatial interventions, all forms of hybrid upgrades in a contemporary sculpture and its relation towards contemporary architecture and urbanism, we come to a paradoxical conclusion that a novum of sculpture language - at least in the case of Serbian sculpture and especially the sculpture of Novi Sad - is marginalized into a self-referential registry and remains unchanged in the elitist sphere of professionals and experts to the extent that it does not communicate with the real processes at all. It seems that these processes have determined their main flow of political and ideological revisionism somewhere deep within the retro-aesthetics, finding its justification in the nineteen century narratives. If that is really the case, the question is: what has led them to such a dichotomy in understanding and presenting the sculpture in public space? The current dominant mode of sculpture making in Novi Sad is limited to the bureaucratic repression of political marketing with, unfortunately, long term consequences. The public, experts and professional bodies are persistently trying to influence the rules and regulations for these processes. However, for now, these attempts have been ignored and it is obvious that there will be new challenges both for artists and for the society as a whole to find the way of balancing the implementation of public sculptures and interventions in urban space with the needs of the citizens. 22


To je period kada pored državnih projekata u sferi novih medija (ZKM Karlsruhe, V2 Rotterdam, Kiasma, Helsinki, itd) počinju da se pojavljuju autonomni umetnički kolektivi koji svojim modelom organizovanja i aktivnosti čine logičan nastavak u odnosu na istorijske avangarde i neo-avangardnih pokreta u nastojanju da se negovanjem kritičkog mišljenja ostvari paralelni stvaralački prostor. To su uglavnom kolektivi i umetničke grupe koje okupljaju umetnike, teoretičare, dizajnere i kompjuterske programere i u potrazi za prostorom, prvo sebe uspostavljaju u virtuelnom prostoru (Irational, Bristol; Technology to the People, Malaga; Public Netbase, Beč; Mikro, Berlin; itd). U procesu uspostavljanja referentnog polja svog stvaralaštva ovakvi kolektivi kreiraju fundamentalno važne medijske arhive koji prerastaju u simbolički pojmovnik svih aktera u polju. U okviru ovakvih praksi može se, njihova praksa, grubo podeliti u dva smera: prvi koji je bio usmeren na fuziju sa tehnologijom, konstantno tragajući za novim estetskim inovativnim rešenjima (vrlo često tržišno orijentisanim), i drugi koji je formirao front kritičkog promišljanja u upotrebi tehnologije, jedna vrsta opozicije tehnofetišizmu u polju umetnosti. U okviru tog radara su se generisali novi oblici organizovanja, politike i umetnosti. Prvi takve vrste kod nas je kolektiv_kuda.org koji je oslonjen na iskustva kolektiva iz Evrope, ustanovio svoju infrastrukturu i započeo svoja istraživanja 2001. godine generisanih iz iskustva umetničke delatnosti tokom devedesetih (asocijacija Apsolutno, www.apsolutno.net). Kroz praksu kolektiva_kuda.org se indirektno propituju intervencije u prostoru, a ta pitanja postaju još kompleksnija kada se u takav algoritam uvedu društveno politički aspekti netransparentne privatizacije javnog prostora iz perioda socijalizma. Stoga se, između | kuda.org_exhibition ID Novi Sad MSUV ostalog, aktivnosti kuda.org fokusiraju na javni prostor, odnosno na analizu stanja javnih prostora i njihove namene u kontekstu procesa aktuelne privatizacije - za mlade, za umetnost i kulturu, itd. Važan segment čini autokritika prema kulturi kao elitnoj kategoriji u odnosu na potrebe društva u celini. Aktivnosti kolektiva su često programski orijentisane i producirane kao implementiranje socijalnih skulptura. Pored produkcije izložbi Centar_kuda.org organizuje konferencije, akcije, predavanja, koncipira i uređuje izdavački program kuda.read. Više o kolektivu_kuda.org na web stanici: www.kuda.org Zaključno pitanje Ukoliko sagledamo genezu promena i transformacije skulptorskog jezika i prostornih interakcija, sve oblike hibridne nadogradnje u savremenoj skulpturi i njenoj relaciji posebno u kontekstu prema savremenoj arhitekturi i urbanizmu, dolazimo do paradoksalnog zaključka da je novum skulptorskog jezika, bar kada su savremena srpska skulptura i posebno Novi Sad u pitanju, skrajnuta u samoreferentni registar, ostala začaurena u elitističkoj sferi profesionalaca i eksperata i da nimalo nekorespondira sa relanim procesima koji su u dobokoj retro-estetici ustanovili glavni tok političkog i ideološkog revizionizma, koji svoje atribute baštini i opravdava iz tradicionalnih devetnaestovekovnih narativa. I ukoliko je to tako, šta je dovelo do takve dihotomije u razmimoilaženju shvatanja i predstave skulpture u javnom prostoru? Trenutni dominantni oblik realizacija skulptura u gradu Novom Sadu sveden je na birokratski represivni diktat političkog marketinga, ali sa nažalost dugotrajnim posledicama. Javnost, stručna tela i profesionalci uporno pokušavaju da utiču na regulative ovakvih procesa. Ali za sada su ti pokušaji ignorisani i očito je u najavi nov izazov kako za umetnike tako i za društvo u celini, da pronađe način kako da se implementacija javnih skulptura i intervencija u prostoru - u urbanom prostoru, dovedu u meru sa potrebama građana.

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APPENDIX The chronology of Centar_kuda.org activities in the context of public space, infrastructure, urban planning and architecture which are directly or indirectly reflected on the quality and conditions of work in the field of art practice: 1. The initiative “For cultural policies, the politics of culture” launched in 2009: http://www.zakulturnepolitike.net 2. The founding of the Youth Centre CK13, (co-founder and legal representative until 2011 - kuda.org) aiming to stimulate and develop social engagement: www.ck13.org 3. The research project, exhibition and catalogue: A(U)KCIJA- the register of Novi Sad spaces between personal interests and public needs: http://www.kuda.org/aukcija-registar-novosadskih-prostora-izme-u-li-nih-interesa-i-javnih-potreba 4. Documentary OTVORENE KASARNE (Open Barracks) focusing on the process of changing the use of large military complexes in Novi Sad: http://www.kuda.org/otvorene-kasarne-tv-emisija-kudaorg-0 5. The project “Local policy and urban self-government” is dedicated to strengthening of civil society through the revitalization of local government, motivation of citizens to get involved in decision-making processes and gather around local initiatives: www.detelinara.org 6. Texts: http://www.kuda.org/nasilje-eksploatacija-i-samo-organizovanje-u-radu-u-kulturi http://www.kuda.org/dug-pogled-ka-autonomiji-kapitalizam-migracije-i-dru-tvene-borbe http://www.kuda.org/du-na-poslu-od-otu-enja-do-autonomije http://www.kuda.org/konferencija-otvorene-institucije-zagreb-pogon-jedinstvo-20-23-januar Illustrations: 1. Picture 1. CK13-outside 2. Picture 2. POSTERING in black 2004 3. Picture 3. POSTERING in black 2004 4. Picture 4. sheme Rosalind E Krauss 5. Picture 5. kuda.org_workspace-2010 6. Picture 6. kuda.org_exhibition ID Novi Sad MSUV 7. Picture 7. kuda.org_exhibition DESIGN IDEOLOGY Zagreb

*gentrification – the process of replacing the lower status population with the higher status population, appreciation of buildings, raising the economic value of a certain part of the city and overall change of the neighbourhood features. 24


PRILOG Hronologija prakse Centra_kuda.org u kontekstu istraživanja javnog prostora, infrastrukture, urbanizma i arhitekture, koji se direktno ili indirektno reflektuju na kvalitet i uslove rada u polju umetničke prakse: 1. Inicijativa „Za kulturne politike, politika kulture“ pokrenuta 2009. godine: http://www.zakulturnepolitike.net 2. Osnivanje Omladinskog centra CK13, (koosnivač, pravni zastupnik do 2011. kuda.org) namenjen podsticaju i razvoju društvenog angažmana: www.ck13.org 3. Istraživački projekat, izložba i katalog: A(U)KCIJA-registar novosadskih prostora između ličnih interesa i javnih potreba: http://www.kuda.org/aukcija-registar-novosadskih-prostora-izme-u-li-nih-interesa-i-javnih-potreba 4. Dokumentarni film OTVORENE KASARNE usmeren je na proces promene namene velikih vojnih kompleksa u Novom Sadu: http://www.kuda.org/otvorene-kasarne-tv-emisija-kudaorg-0 5. Projekat „Lokalne politike i urbana samouprava“ posvećen je jačanju civilnog društva na način revitalizacije lokalne samouprave, motivacija građana za uključivanje u procese odlučivanja i udruživanja na lokalnom nivou: www.detelinara.org 6. Tekstovi: http://www.kuda.org/nasilje-eksploatacija-i-samo-organizovanje-u-radu-u-kulturi http://www.kuda.org/dug-pogled-ka-autonomiji-kapitalizam-migracije-i-dru-tvene-borbe http://www.kuda.org/du-na-poslu-od-otu-enja-do-autonomije http://www.kuda.org/konferencija-otvorene-institucije-zagreb-pogon-jedinstvo-20-23-januar Ilustracije: 1. Slika 1. CK13-spolja 2. Slika 2. PLAKATIRANJE u crno 2004 3. Slika 3. PLAKATIRANJE u crno 2004 4. Slika 4. shema Rosalind E Krauss 5. Slika 5. kuda.org_radni prostor-2010 6. Slika 6. kuda.org_exhibition ID Novi Sad MSUV 7. Slika 7. kuda.org_exhibition DESIGN IDEOLOGY Zagreb

*džentrifikacija – proces zamene stanovništva nižeg statusa stanovništvom višeg statusa, građevinska aprecijacija i podizanje ekonomske vrednosti tog dela grada i sveobuhvatna izmena karaktera susedstva. 25


ART IN PUBLIC SPACE: SPATIAL STRATEGIES Miroslav Šilić Abstract The aim of this paper is to clarify the concepts of public art and public space, possible art forms and modes of action, but also the ways citizens can participate in public space. The term “strategy” is used due to the complexity of the problem of art in public space and it includes a number of factors: planning, financing, permits, public tenders etc. Following the main theme of the meeting “Sculpture in Public Space”, the article discusses the possibilities of artistic activities in less traditional, contemporary modes of artistic expression such as installations, objects, interventions and the possibility of creating a “place” through art in public space. The concept of public art Art in public space comprises all forms of art that are implemented in public space: from traditional sculptures to installations, objects, murals, street art, performances, happenings etc. The broader term of art in public space denotes all the activities which shape public urban spaces like urban planning, architecture, urban furniture, lighting and many more. Art in public space implies a wider audience than the art displayed in galleries and is more prone to criticism because it is directly interwoven in daily life. All of us are the audience of public art, whether we like it or not. For this reason, it is important to determine what our rights are when it comes to the use and creation of public space. The concept and the genesis of public space Public space was established during the development of the Ancient Greek polis as an agora, which served as a meeting place for the discussion of public issues and finding the solution for them. Agora was also the place where the town hall was situated. This tells us about the level of awareness and the importance of public space since ancient times. Starting from the agora and later on from the Roman Forum, different forms of organised public life were built up, among which the most important was certainly the city square. Public space requires a democratic society; it is a place of debates, while public art implies the audience of active citizens with critical views. The opposite of a citizen is not a peasant, but a vassal1. Therefore, architecture is the kind of art that determines the public space as physical, but also as mental space i.e. the public sphere. There is no dichotomy between the concepts of architecture and public space as architecture is the very essence of public space. It is a projection of human needs, habits and beliefs within the space and the framework of its movement. As such, it creates public space both physically and in the sense of meaning and has a twofold role in articulating public art. The first role, immanent in the very architecture, is the physical creation of space, i.e. the architecture as the scene of events. The second, in a broad sense of the term public art can become, through the processes of architectural design, a player in the field of urban design, planning of the location for monuments and inclusion of the citizens and artists in the process of spatial planning. Who does public space belong to? The crucial issue regarding public space refers to the question of ownership, i.e. answers a broader sociological question: who is entitled to the city? The question of the participation in managing - how to act on the interests of the public, what are the interests and how many of them are at citizens’ disposal when it comes to managing the public space. Architecture as art in public space is manifested in the fact that it constitutes public space by itself, although we tend to miss this point as we look at architecture not as art, but as something which is found within space itself - as something that occurs KsenijaPetovar, a sociologist http://www.kontrapress.com/clanak.php?rub=Razgovori&url=Beograd-na-vodi-i-njegovi-podanici 26 1


UMETNOST U JAVNOM PROSTORU: PROSTORNE STRATEGIJE Miroslav Šilić Abstrakt Cilj ovog teksta je da razjasni pojmove javne umetnosti i javnog prostora, moguće umetničke forme i modalitete delovanja, kao i načine učešća građana u javnom prostoru. Termin „strategije“ koristi se zbog složenosti problema umetnosti u javnom prostoru, koji uključuje niz faktora - od planiranja, finansiranja, dozvola, javnog konkursa i sl. Sledeći glavnu temu sastanka „Skulptura u javnom prostoru“, u tekstu se razmatraju mogućnosti umetničkog delovanja u manje tradicionalnim, savremenim načinima umetničkog izražavanja, kao što su instalacije, objekti, intervencije, kao i mogućnost stvaranja „mesta“ putem umetnosti u javnom prostoru. Pojam javne umetnosti Umetnost u javnom prostoru podrazumeva sve one oblike umetnosti koje se realizuju u javnom prostoru, počevši od tradicionalne skulpture do instalacija, objekata, murala, street arta, performansa, hepeninga i slično. Širi pojam umetnosti u javnom prostoru podrazumeva sve ono što se preduzima u oblikovanju javnih urbanih prostora od urbanističkih planova, arhitekture, urbanog mobilijara, osvetljenja i slično. Umetnost u javnom prostoru pretpostavlja širu publiku nego umetnost koja je stvarana za izlaganje u galerijama, i više je podložna kritici jer je direktno uključena u svakodnevni život. Svi smo publika javne umetnosti, svidelo se to nama ili ne. Iz tog razloga je važno da se utvrdi koja su naša prava u upotrebi i stvaranju javnog prostora. Pojam i geneza javnog prostora Javni prostor ustanovljen je tokom razvoja grčkih polisa kao agora, koja je služila kao mesto susreta, razgovora o javnim temama i njihovom rešavanju. Agora je bila i mesto gradske većnice. Ovo nam govori o stepenu svesti o značaju javnog prostora još u antička vremena. Kasnije se od agore, preko rimskog foruma razvijaju oblici koncentrisanja javnog života, od kojih je gradski trg najvažniji. Javni prostor traži demokratsko društvo, on je mesto polemike, a javna umetnost pretpostavlja aktivnog i kritičkog građanina kao publiku. Suprotnost građaninu nije seljak, nego podanik.1 Arhitektura pri tome predstavlja upravo onu umetnost koja determiniše javni prostor kao fizički, ali i mentalni prostor – javnu sferu. Ne postoji dihotomija između pojmova arhitektura i javni prostor, arhitektura je sama suština javnog prostora. Ona je projekcija čovekovih potreba, navika i verovanja u prostoru i okvir njegovih kretanja. Kao takva, ona tvori javni prostor i u fizičkom smislu, i u smislu značenja, i ima dvostruku ulogu u artikulisanju javne umetnosti. Prva uloga, imanentna samoj arhitekturi je fizičko stvaranje prostora, tj. arhitekture kao scene događanja. Druga, u širem smislu pojma javne umetnosti, ona može kroz procese arhitektonskog oblikovanja postati akter kroz oblasti urbanog dizajna, planiranja lokacija za spomenike i uključivanje stanovnika i umetnika u proces uređenja prostora. Čiji je javni prostor? Suštinsko pitanje u vezi javnog prostora odnosi se na način raspolaganja, tj. odgovora na šire sociološki postavljeno pitanje - ko ima pravo na grad. Pitanje je participacije u upravljanju - kako se ostvaruju interesi građanstva, i kolika i kakva prava imaju na raspolaganju i upravljanju javnim prostorom. Arhitektura kao umetnost u javnom prostoru se ispoljava u tome da ona sama po sebi tvori javni prostor, ali nam to najčešće promiče i posmatramo arhitekturu ne kao umetnost nego kao nešto što se samo po sebi našlo u prostoru, kao nešto što nastaje mimo našeg znanja i volje. I to je uglavnom tačno. Ona i jeste nastala mimo volje i znanja svog krajnjeg korisnika, građanina. 1

Ksenija Petovar, sociolog http://www.kontrapress.com/clanak.php?rub=Razgovori&url=Beograd-na-vodi-i-njegovi-podanici 27


beyond our knowledge and our will. And in most cases this is true. It indeed is created regardless of the will and knowledge of its end-user, a citizen. In modernism, it was believed that architecture can change society and today it is clear that perhaps it is the most visible resultant of socio-economic relations. Furthermore, due to the complexity of planning, technological processes and legal procedures, we could partially accept the fact that the public does not have a decisive say in the choice of public facilities. However, the entire professional community must not be excluded from the process of creating urban solutions or the introduction of art in public space. A particular threat to the public interest, the legality of the proceedings and the system which degrades and even annuls the impact of professionals can be seen in the case of “Belgrade Waterfront”, where all the planning documentation is being neglected for the needs of the investors which opens a door for ad hoc design at an exceptional location not based on real social and economic needs. Therefore, the institution behind the public competition may be the only solution which includes the public interest in the process of public space design, although still with a limited scope as it is done over the representatives of the profession. Creative and spatial strategies The need to actively incorporate art into the society initiated the development of different strategies of artistic action. The term “strategy” is used due to the complexity of the problem of art in public space which includes a number of factors - planning, financing, permits, public tender, etc. The attitude of public art towards social reality and its goals create strategies in public space and public sphere, resulting in concrete art practices: • monument practice • anti monument practice • utilitarian practice They are all specific in their objectives, methodology, organisation and financing. What they should all have in common is the control over the use of public funds and the inclusion of the professionals in creating the objectives, a public competition and a jury. Monument practice Traditional notion of art in public space includes monuments, a memorial sculpture usually done with traditional methods and through the Realist approach. It was set up to celebrate historical events and personalities, politicians, scientists and artists usually with a purpose to establish and maintain the awareness of statehood and national history, but also to glorify the power of the regime and the ruling ideology. The creation of such monuments is always and entirely run by the institutions. How far the state policy goes in abusing art in order to achieve its goals is best illustrated by the example of Skopje. The level of absurdity in the interpretation of history and the megalomaniac invasion of space can be compared to the tendencies of some totalitarian societies throughout history, despite the fact that Macedonia is a democratic state. Historicism and classicism have always been suitable tools to display power of the totalitarian regime while claiming that people cannot understand modern art, thus completely opposing the modernist experience. (Picture 1) Picture 1. Monument to Alexander the.. | Great, Skopje

Holocaust Monument, also known as the Nameless Library is a work of a memorial character, set in the Jewish district of Vienna. It is dedicated to the Jewish victims of the Holocaust in Austria. It is a work of a British artist Rachel Whiteread who, by creating “negatives” of the space, evokes its very essence and returns it to the physical reality. If the space is hollow and, as such, positive, its footprint i.e. its negative becomes a full, strong body that bears the imprint of the space and the memory of time. This is the opposite of the previous example and shows that it is possible to use cultural policies, public competitions as well as local administration to set up a monument which represents contemporary art and culture that fosters the culture of memory. (Picture 2) 28


Klasici modernizma su smatrali da arhitektura može da menja društvo, ali danas je jasno da ona možda predstavlja tek najvidljiviju rezultantu društveno-ekonomskih odnosa. Možda se zbog složenosti projektantskog i tehničko-tehnološkog procesa i pravne procedure može delimično prihvatiti da javnost nema odlučujuću reč prilikom izbora rešenja javnih objekata, ali se ne može isključiti kompletna stručna javnost prilikom kreiranja urbanističkih rešenja ili uvođenja umetnosti u javni prostor. Izuzetnu opasnost po javni interes, zakonitost postupaka, i uticaj kojima se degradira, pa i poništava uticaj struke predstavlja primer „Beograd na vodi”, gde se za potrebe investitora poništavaju svi planski dokumenti i uvodi ad hoc projektovanje na izuzetnoj lokaciji koje nije zasnovano na istinskim društvenim i ekonomskim potrebama. Stoga je institucija javnog konkursa možda i jedino rešenje kojim se uključuje javnost, iako ograničeno preko predstavnika struke, u kreiranje javnog prostora. Kreativne i prostorne strategije Iz potrebe da se umetnost uključi aktivno u društvenu stvarnost, razvile su se strategije delovanja umetnika. Termin „strategije” se koristi zbog složenosti problema umetnosti u javnom prostoru, koji uključuje niz faktora - planiranje, finansiranje, dozvole, javni konkurs i sl. Odnos prema društvenoj stvarnosti i ciljevi javne umetnosti kreiraju strategije aktivnosti u javnom prostoru i javnoj sferi, što rezultira konkretnim umetničkim praksama: • Spomenička praksa • Anti spomenička praksa • Utilitarna praksa Oni su svi specifični po ciljevima, metodama organizovanja i finansiranja. Ono što bi trebalo da je svima zajedničko je kontrola nad trošenjem javnih sredstava i uključivanje struke u formulisanju ciljeva, javnog konkursa i žirija. Spomenička praksa Tradicionalno shvaćena umetnost u javnom prostoru obuhvata spomeničku, memorijalnu skulpturu, najčešće realizovanu tradicionalnim metodama i realističkog prosedea. Ona je postavljena radi obeležavanja istorijskih događaja i ličnosti, političara, naučnika i umetnika, a najčešće služi uspostavljanju i održavanju svesti o državnosti i nacionalnoj istoriji, ali i veličanju moći režima i vladajuće ideologije. Realizacija ovakvih spomenika je uvek u potpunosti institucionalno postavljena. Koliko daleko može da dovede državna politika koja u ostvarivanju svojih ciljeva zloupotrebljava umetnost najrečitije govori primer Skoplja. Nivo apsurda u tumačenju istorije, kao i megalomanski zahvat u prostor može da se meri samo sa zahvatima nekih totalitarnih društava kroz istoriju, iako je Makedonija demokratska država. Istoricizam i klasicizam su uvek bili pogodni za prikazivanje moći totalitarnih režima, koji su smatrali da narod ne razume modernu umetnost, negirajući u potpunosti iskustvo modernizma. (Slika 1) Holokaust memorijal, poznat i kao Bezimena biblioteka je delo memorijalnog karak- | Slika 2. Holocaust Memorial, Rachel ..Whiteread, Beč tera, postavljeno u jevrejskoj četvrti Beča. Posvećen je jevrejskim žrtvama holokausta u Austriji. Delo je britanske umetnice Rachel Whiteread koja se bavi izrađivanjem „negativa“ prostora i time evocira samo biće prostora i vraća nam ga u fizičku realnost. Ukoliko je prostor šupljina i kao takav pozitiv, njegov otisak, kao negativ, postaje punoća, čvrsto telo koje nosi otisak prostora i sećanje na vreme. Ovaj primer je suprotan prethodnom i pokazuje da je moguće kulturnom politikom, institucijom konkursa i uključivanjem lokalne administracije postaviti spomeničko delo koje je reprezent savremene umetnosti i koje neguje kulturu pamćenja. (Slika 2) 29


Anti monument practice Opposed to the traditional concept, the term of public art is now being used as a special form of artistic action in the public sphere. Contemporary art in public space introduces new themes and a new relationship with the urban and social environment and with an element of social activism although these works do not need to have a permanent character. The goal of such art is no longer an art object or aestheticism of reality, but an active attitude towards social reality. The concept of site - specific work is introduced – created In Situ (on the spot) so that later this principle of creating a work with a metaphorical relation to space is upgraded into a context-specific concept, processing works, actions and participatory art of the community based on a social context. Public art is the opposite of art in public space: it is not created to last physically; it is a temporary concept. Site-specific art is art created for a particular space or location. It takes into account the nature of the place, its past and present, its users and purpose. It would be impossible for the work created in a specific location to be perceived and performed in exact same manner somewhere else. The most commonly used definition of site-specific art was given by Richard Serra while attempting to determine his position in a public debate about the trial in the famous case of the removing his site-specific sculpture named Tilted Arc in 1981. He said: ”To move the work means to destroy it”. A site - specific work is created for a specific place and its composition depends entirely on the way in which it is displayed in the environment - it does not work separate from it. The term Site specific is linked to land art, process art, performance, conceptual and installation art, institutional critique as well as the art that works with local communities. Utilitarian practice A special aspect of dealing with space which is entirely institutionally regulated is the practice of urban planning, which in itself includes the practice of urban design. This way we can establish the system of using public space as a common good and its positive examples are numerous, unless they end up in the massive use of Behaton. The example Novi Sad Quay, whose primary purpose is the defense against floods and a secondary one- recreation, is a successful example of urban design that has gained a lot of popularity among the citizens of Novi Sad. This solution also included an existing memorial monument to the victims of the WWII raid, whose different meanings and purposes did not oppose themselves, but, on the contrary, permeated so that the memorial complex is in harmony with the function of its recreational zone. (Picture 3)

Picture 3. Novi Sad Quay |

The disappearance of “a place” A ”place” is a key concept of a philosophical view of architecture as spatial and historical fact. The definition of a ”place” does not imply an abstract, geographic location, but the complete urban phenomena that determine the character and atmosphere of the location.

Due to the globalization and the dominance of technical and technological notion of space; advertising, communication and symbolism in space, the traditional character of a place is now lost and it becomes a uniform without meaning. There is a loss of identity, but also the meaning of urban space which was built up throughout the history is lost. We are stuck in one-dimensional and hyper-real consumer society that excludes any symbolic or historical meaning. It is a hyperrealism of a purchase in which we are treated only as consumers, not as actors. Urban public space is disappearing as well as the concept of a city square as the focal point of city life is giving its central role to cars. As soon as the city square becomes a parking space, it will not be referred as public space any more, but transport infrastructure. An example of this is Trifković Square in Novi Sad. Today, few people know that at the area of the parking space there used to be the first city theatre, built by voluntary contributions which were collected by the Serbian National Theatre Society. 30


Anti-spomenička praksa Naspram tradicionalno postavljenog pojma uvodi se pojam Javna umetnost kao poseban vid delovanja umetnika u javnoj sferi. Savremena umetnost u javni prostor uvodi nove teme i novi odnos prema urbanom i društvenom okruženju, element društvenog aktivizma, pri čemu ta dela (radovi) ne moraju da imaju trajni karakter. Cilj ove umetnosti nije više umetnički predmet ili estetizacija realnosti, nego aktivan odnos prema društvenoj stvarnosti. Uvodi se pojam sajt – specifičnog dela, stvaranog In Situ (na licu mesta), da bi kasnije ovaj princip stvaranja dela koje se metaforički odnosi prema prostoru bio nadograđen u kontekst-specifične i procesne radove i akcije, participativnu i umetnost zajednice, koji su utemeljeni u socijalnom kontekstu. Javna umetnost predstavlja suprotnost umetnosti u javnom prostoru, ona se ne stvara da fizički traje, nego ima temporalni karakter. Site-specific umetnost je umetnost koja je napravljena za određeni prostor ili mesto. Ona uzima u obzir prirodu mesta, njegovu prošlost i sadašnjost, njegove korisnike i svrhu. Bilo bi nemoguće da rad stvoren na specifičnoj lokaciji bude na potpuno isti način izveden bilo gde drugde. Najčešće korišćena definicija site-specific umetničke prakse jeste ona koju je izgovorio Ričard Sera, pokušavajući da utvrdi svoju poziciju u javnoj raspravi u vezi sa suđenjem u poznatom slučaju uklanjanja njegove site-specific skulpture pod nazivom Tilted Arc 1981. godine. On je rekao: „Pomeriti delo znači uništiti ga“. Sajt - specifično delo je kreirano da postoji na određenom mestu i njegova kompozicija u potpunosti zavisi od načina na koji je postavljeno u datom prostoru - ono ne funkcioniše odvojeno od njega. Pojam Site specific povezan je sa lend artom, procesualnom umetnosti, performansom, konceptualnom i umetnosti instalacije, institucionalnom kritikom, kao i umetnosti koja radi sa lokalnim zajednicama. Utilitarna praksa Poseban vid bavljenja prostorom, u potpunosti institucionalno regulisan jeste praksa urbanističkog planiranja, koja u sebe uključuje i praksu urbanog dizajna. Na ovaj način | Slika 4. Jermenska crkva, Novi Sad se uspostavlja sistem korišćenja javnog prostora kao opšteg dobra, a pozitivni primeri su brojni, ukoliko se ne završe u masovnom korišćenju behatona. Primer novosadskog keja, čija je primarna namena odbrana od poplava, koja je dopunjena i sekundarnom, a to je rekreacija, predstavlja uspešan primer urbanog dizajna koji je stekao veliku popularnost među građanima Novog Sada. Ovo rešenje je uključilo u sebe i postojeći memorijal, Spomenik žrtvama racije, pri čemu nije došlo do kolizije između različitih značenja i namena, nego do prožimanja, na način da je memorijalni kompleks usklađen sa funkcijom keja kao rekreacione zone. Dakle, jedna vrsta prakse ne mora isključiti drugu. (Slika 3) Nestanak „mesta“ Mesto je ključni pojam filozofskog promišljanja arhitekture kao prostorne, ali i istorijske činjenice. Pod mestom se ne podrazumeva apstraktna, geografska lokacija, već celina urbanih fenomena, koji određuju karakter i atmosferu lokacije. Usled globalizacije, prevlasti tehničko – tehnološkog poimanja prostora i marketinško – komunikativne funkcije i znakovnosti u prostoru, tradicionalni karakter mesta se gubi, prostori su uniformni i bez značenja. Dolazi do gubitka identiteta i značenja urbanog prostora, onakvog kakav se taložio kroz istoriju. Nalazimo se u ravni jedne dimenzije hiperrealizma konzumerističkog društva, koji isključuje simbolički i istorijski nivo. To je hiperrealizam kupovine, u kome smo tretirani samo kao potrošači, ne i kao akteri. 31


The Civic Hall was built in 1871; it was designed by György Molnár and was destroyed in 1891. Police and sanitary reports were used as the official explanation for the action, but the real reason behind it was that “the city had no more interest to renew the contract with the Serbian National Theatre Society”. The Armenian Church in Novi Sad suffered a similar fate. It was destroyed to make place for a boulevard that passed right over it. At the place of the former church there is no a memorial - it was also destroyed; meaning that this sacral object disappeared twice. What once was a place, space of a great symbolic significance for the citizens, disappeared due to a bureaucratic decision. (Picture 4) Creating “a place” All these classifications and examples will prompt any person dealing with space to conclude that art in public space or public art can significantly contribute to restoring the character of a place and give meaning to space. Artistic interventions help create a sense of belonging to certain space and therefore art really becomes public art – a driver and an actor in the public sphere. A good example of “creating a place” is a land art installation in Bač (Serbia) carried out within the project “Pannonian Art Path” by Academy of Arts Novi Sad and the Academy of Arts in Osijek as an EU IPA project. Land art is here shown as a possible strategy of “creating a place”. Right next to the historic town of Bač, a medieval fortress and a cycling path which is a part of European cycling routes, there is a land art feature - a mathematical symbol of infinity, a “reverse” number eight. Although it does not refer to a specific location or to the history of the place, “the eight” creates a new topographical or urban landmark. The symbolism of infinity refers to the infinity of art and the seeming infinity of the path through the plain where it is located. Together with the characteristics and urban equipment, this landmark becomes a new symbolic “place” in Bač - the location whose aim is to gather its residents and to engage them in the life of this place. This symbolic peripatetic “path of health” has no specific purpose but it metaphorically speaks of the infinity of path to art. It is made of the historic stone cobbles found in Bođani and is of a permanent character therefore creating the continuity of historical memory of the location. (Picture 5) Besides these art forms and strategies, the online presentation of art projects, creating databases and online documentation also play an important role in popularisation of Picture 5. Land art installation in Bač | public art. A crucial factor in all this is the education, because the recognition of public art as a special area in the education of artists still does not exist in Serbia. Whichever approach or strategy we choose when creating art in public space or public art, one thing is clear – there is not enough of it, which again indicates a low level of art and democratic culture and less possibilities for the citizens to participate in the creation of the public space. Illustrations: 1. Picture 1. Monument to Alexander the Great, Skopje 2. Picture 2. Holocaust Memorial, Rachel Whiteread, Vienna 3. Picture 3. Novi Sad Quay 4. Picture 4. Armenian Church, Novi Sad 5. Picture 5. Land art installation in Bač References: 1. Claire Bishop: Installation art, Tate Publishing, London, 2005. 2. Stevan Vuković: Umetnost u javnom prostoru , Academica, Užice 2012. 3. Werner Fenz: Umetnost bez rama, MSUV, Graz-Novi Sad in 2011. 32


Javni gradski prostori nestaju i karakter trga kao centralnog mesta gradskog života nestaje, a centralnu ulogu preuzimaju automobili. U trenutku kada trg postane parking, ne možemo više govoriti o javnom prostoru, nego o saobraćajnoj infrastrukturi. Takav primer je Trifkovićev trg. Danas malo ko zna da se na mestu parkinga nalazilo prvo gradsko pozorište, izgrađeno dobrovoljnim prilozima, u organizaciji Društva za Srpsko narodno pozorište. Zgrada Građanske dvorane izgrađena je 1871, po projektu Đerđa Molnara, a srušena je 1891. Kao formalni razlog rušenja uzeti su policijski i sanitarni izveštaji dok je pravi razlog bio to „što varoš nema više razlog da obnavlja ugovor sa Društvom za Srpsko narodno pozorište“. Sličnu sudbinu imala je i Jermenska crkva, koja je srušena da bi na tom mestu prošao bulevar, koja jedva da više postoji i kao spomen obeležje. Spomen obeležje na mestu gde se nalazila crkva je devastirano, tako da ovaj sakralni objekat nestaje dva puta. Ono što je nekada bilo mesto, prostor od velikog simboličkog značaja za stanovnike grada, nestalo je birokratskom odlukom. (Slika 4) Stvaranje „mesta“ Sve ove klasifikacije i primeri navode onoga ko se bavi prostorom do zaključka da umetnost u javnom prostoru, ili javna umetnost, može značajno doprineti vraćanju karaktera mestu i davanja značenja prostoru. Kroz umetničke intervencije stvara se osećaj pripadništva određenom prostoru i tako umetnost zaista postaje javna – pokretač i akter u javnoj sferi. Dobar primer „stvaranja mesta“ predstavlja lend art instalacija u Baču, izvedena u okviru projekta „Panonski put umetnosti“ Akademije umetnosti Novi Sad i Umjetničke akademije Osijek u okviru šireg IPA projekta Evropske unije. Lend art se ovde pokazuje kao jedna od mogućih strategija „stvaranja mesta”. Neposredno uz istorijski grad Bač, srednjevekovnu tvrđavu i put koji je deo evropske biciklističke rute, postavljeno je lend art obeležje, matematički simbol beskonačnosti „obrnuta” osmica. Iako se ne odnosi na konkretnu lokaciju, niti na istoriju tog mesta, „osmica” stvara novi topografski, ali i urbani reper. Simbolika beskonačnog odnosi se na beskonačnost umetnosti, kao i na prividnu beskonačnost puta kroz ravnicu u kojoj se nalazi. Zajedno sa obeležjima i urbanom opremom, ovaj lendmark postaje novo simboličko „mesto” u Baču, lokacija kojoj je cilj da okuplja stanovnike i da se uključi u život naselja. Ova simbolička peripatetička „staza zdravlja” nema konkretnu namenu, nego nam metaforički govori o beskonačnosti puta ka umetnosti. Izrađena je od kamene turske kaldrme iz XVI veka iz Bođana i ima trajni karakter, čime je uspostavljen kontinuitet istorijskog pamćenja lokaliteta. (Slika 5) Pored nabrojanih umetničkih formi i strategija, značajnu ulogu u popularizaciji javne umetnosti ima i onlajn prezentovanje umetničkih projekata, stvaranje baze podataka i onlajn dokumentacije. Veoma važan faktor u svemu tome je i obrazovanje, jer kod nas još uvek ne postoji prepoznavanje javne umetnosti kao posebne oblasti u obrazovanju umetnika. Koji god pristup ili strategiju da odaberemo prilikom stvaranja umetnosti u javnom prostoru, ili javne umetnosti, jasno je samo jedno – kod nas je nema dovoljno, što nam govori o niskom nivou umetničke i demokratske kulture i maloj mogućnosti učešća građana u kreiranju javnog prostora.

Ilustracije: 1. Slika 1. Spomenik Aleksandru Makedonskom, Skoplje 2. Slika 2. Holocaust Memorial, Rachel Whiteread, Beč 3. Slika 3. Kej u Novom Sadu 4. Slika 4. Jermenska crkva, Novi Sad 5. Slika 5. Lend art instalacija u Baču Literatura: 1. Claire Bishop: Installation art, Tate publishing, London, 2005. 2. Stevan Vuković: Umetnost u javnom prostoru, Academica, Užice 2012. 3. Werner Fenz: Umetnost bez rama, MSUV, Graz-Novi Sad: 2011. 33


The art of public surfaces in Novi Sad /situation, triangle, artists... Đula Šanta According to statistics, Novi Sad today occupies an area of about 100 km2 and has a population of around 280,000 people. It is a Central European city with specific architectural heritage in the city centre and new urban units which have developed around the city core. Several monuments and/or memorials and around fifty sculptures contribute to the urban image of Novi Sad. The oldest monuments in the city are the cross of the Holy Great-Martyr George next to the Saint George’s Cathedral from the second half of the 18th century and the tombstone of the Armenian family Čenazi by an unknown author from 1790, located at Mihajlo Pupin Boulevard near the entrance to the underground passage. It is easy to notice that the art of public surfaces is limited mainly to the sculptures originating from the beginning of the twentieth century: the Fountain in Dunavski Park – “The Girl with a Horn of Plenty”, a work of Đorđe Jovanović from 1912; the Monument of Svetozar Miletić at Liberty Square, a work of Ivan Meštrović from 1939; the Monument to the victims of WWII raid at Danube Quay, a work of Jovan Soldatović in1971; the Monument of Đura Jaksić at Dunavski Park, a work of Jovan Soldatović in 1982; the Monument to Jovan Jovanović Zmaj in Zmaj-Jovina Street, a work of Dragan Nikolić from 1984 and many others. Unfortunately, more recent sculptures within public surfaces, with some rare exceptions (the sculpture of the painter Nadežda Petrović in front of the Pavle Beljanski Gallery, a work of Mira Sandić from 1995), are not the happiest examples of urban image: the sculpture of Sergius Radonezh in Dunavski Park, a work of Viacheslav Klikov from 1992; Fountain of Wishes and Gate of Wishes on the Newly-Weds Square, works of Mladen Marinkov from 1998; the monument of Janika Balaž near the Varadinska duga Bridge, a work of Laslo Silađi from the 1990s. There was a huge culture scandal in 2011 when a series of monuments of questionable artistic value erected within the city core: the monument of Laza Kostić in Modene Street, a work of Stevan Filipović; the monument of Mihajlo Pupin on the corner of Modene Street and Mihajlo Pupin Boulevard, a work of Sava Halugin; the monument of Vasa Stajić next to the building of the Executive Council of Vojvodina, a work of Slobodan Bodulić; the monument of Marina Olenjina, the founder of ballet in Serbian National Theatre at the Theatre Square, a work Laslo Silađi. The most striking example is the bust of an Azerbaijani composer Uzeyir Hadžibejli donated to the city by the Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan and set at Belgrade Quay also in 2011. The overall picture of artistic features in our city is not an impressive one; more precisely, one gets the impression that the sculptures are set in order to satisfy the form and add another element of the urban landscape to the city. By observing recently erected sculptures in Novi Sad, we can follow turbulent social changes that have afflicted the city since the 1990s. It was not the chance that the mentioned year of 2011 was so fruitful with sculptures in public space. Namely, it is evident that there are no art works at public surfaces of Novi Sad (most perceive them as sculptures) because this segment of urban landscape has been noticeably neglected during the last decade. Therefore, the authorities with their mandates approaching the end decided (under urgent procedure) they should leave their mark on the city streets. On the other hand, Novi Sad has the resources to achieve the most impressive results in the field. Being the centre of Vojvodina and the second largest city in the country, Novi Sad is the home of the Academy of Arts, different professional associations (SULUV, UPIDIV, Institute for Protection of Cultural Monuments, Association of Novi Sad Architects, Public Enterprise for City Construction and Development etc.), but also there is an independent art scene. So, the question is: why are we witnessing general degradation in this domain? The situation in the artistic milieu in the city space can be schematically represented as a triangle, although such a comparison is not a direct reference to the topic of this project (Bizarre Love Triangle), because the triangle in this case might be seen as bizarre, but it is certainly not a love triangle. The basis of this triangle is comprised of: A) the public (local community), B) the authorities (politicians who run the city) and C) the artists (in this case - visual artists). The situation that caused the current state in public space of the city can be described through disharmonious coexistence of the three mentioned elements. The current position of an artist in such environment can be illustratively described through the prism of the relations within the triangle. 34


Umetnost javnih površina u Novom Sadu /stanje, trougao, umetnici... Đula Šanta Podaci govore da Novi Sad danas ima površinu oko 100 km2 i oko 280.000 stanovnika. To je grad srednjoevropskog tipa, sa arhitektonskim nasleđem u centru grada i novim urbanim celinama koje su se razvile u širem gradskom jezgru. Urbanu celinu Novog Sada upotpunjuje nekoliko spomenika ili spomen-obeležja i pedesetak skulptura. Najstariji spomenici u gradu su krst Sv. Velikomučenika Georgija u porti Saborne crkve, postavljen u drugoj polovini 18. veka i nadgrobni spomenik jermenske porodice Čenazi, rad nepoznatog autora iz 1790, koji se nalazi na Bulevaru Mihajla Pupina, kraj ulaza u podzemni prolaz. Primetno je da se umetnost javnih površina svodi uglavnom na skulpture koje u gradski prostor ulaze početkom XX veka: Fontana kod Dunavskog parka – „Devojka sa rogom izobilja”, rad Đorđa Jovanovića iz 1912; Spomenik Svetozaru Miletiću na Trgu slobode, rad Ivana Meštrovića iz 1939; Spomenik žrtvama racije, Dunavski kej, rad Jovana Soldatovića iz 1971; Spomenik Đuri Jakšiću, Dunavski park, rad Jovana Soldatovića iz 1982; Spomenik Jovanu Jovanoviću Zmaju, Zmaj-Jovina ulica, rad Dragana Nikolića iz 1984. i drugi. Nažalost, skulpture postavljene u skorije vreme na gradskim javnim površinama, uz retke izuzetke (figura slikarke Nadežde Petrović ispred Galerije Pavla Beljanskog, rad Mire Sandić iz 1995), nisu najsrećniji primeri urbane plastike: figura Sergija Radonješkog u Dunavskom parku, rad Vjačeslava Klikova iz 1992; „Fontana želja“ na Trgu mladenaca, rad Mladena Marinkova iz 1998; spomenik Janiki Balažu kod mosta Varadinska duga, rad Lasla Silađija iz devedesetih godina; veliki kulturni skandal doživljavamo 2011. godine, kad se u najuže gradsko jezgro postavlja niz spomenika upitne umetničke vrednosti: spomenik Lazi Kostiću u Ulici Modene, rad Stevana Filipovića; spomenik Mihajlu Pupinu na uglu Ulice Modene i Bulevara Mihajla Pupina, rad Save Halugina; spomenik Vasi Stajiću kod zgrade Izvršnog veća, rad Slobodana Bodulića; spomenik osnivačici baleta SNP Marini Olenjinoj na Pozorišnom trgu, rad Lasla Silađija. Najdrastičniji primer je bista azerbejdžanskog kompozitora Uzeira Hadžibejlija koju je gradu poklonila ambasada Republike Azerbejdžan, postavljen na Beogradski kej takođe 2011. Ukupna slika umetničkih obeležja u našem gradu nije impresivna, tačnije, stiče se utisak da su skulpture postavljene kako bi se zadovoljila forma i dodao još jedan element urbanog pejzaža. Posredstvom skorije postavljenih skulptura u Novom Sadu možemo pratiti turbulentne društvene promene koje su grad zadesile nakon devedesetih godina prošlog veka. Spomenuta 2011. godina nije slučajno bila plodna izvedenim skulpturama u prostoru. Naime, primećeno je da Novom Sadu nedostaju umetnička dela na javnim površinama (u percepciji većine to su skulpture) a da je tokom prethodne dekade taj segment urbanog pejzaža bio primetno zapostavljen. Stoga su odlazeće vlasti odlučile da (po hitnom postupku) ostave svoj pečat na ulicama grada. S druge strane, Novi Sad ima resurse da se u ovom segmentu ostvare impresivniji rezultati. Kao centar AP Vojvodine i drugi najveći grad u državi, u Novom Sadu postoje Akademija umetnosti, strukovna udruženja iz relevantnih oblasti (SULUV, UPIDIV, Zavod za zaštitu spomenika kulture, Društvo arhitekata Novog Sada, Zavod za izgradnju grada...), ali i nezavisna umetnička scena i postavlja se pitanje zašto smo u ovom domenu svedoci opšte degradacije. Stanje u miljeu umetnosti u prostoru grada može se šematski prikazati kao trougao, s tim da ovo poređenje nije direktna referenca na temu ovog projekta (Bizarni ljubavni trougao), jer se trougao u ovom slučaju možda može shvatiti kao bizaran, ali svakako ne kao ljubavni. Osnove ovog trougla čine: A) javnost (lokalna zajednica), B) vlast (političari koji upravljaju gradom) i C) umetnici (u ovom slučaju likovni umetnici). Uzrok trenutnog stanja u sferi umetnosti javnih prostora u gradu može se opisati kao disharmonična koegzistencija tri nabrojana elementa. Kroz prizmu odnosa u okviru trougla može se najilustrativnije opisati i trenutna pozicija umetnika u ovoj sredini. Kako je posle arhitekture, urbana skulptura uvek bila pogodno sredstvo demonstracije moći, ideologije i statusa, ni vlast u istoriji Novog Sada nije propuštala priliku da povremeno ostavi sopstveni pečat u gradskom pejzažu. Najkarakterističniji i najefektniji pozitivni primer je monumentalna skulptura Svetozara Miletića, rad Ivana Meštrovića, koja je postavljena na centralni gradski trg, 1939. 35


Besides architecture, urban sculptures have always been percieved as a convenient means for the demonstration of power, ideology and status, the authorities throughout the history of Novi Sad never missed the opportunity to occasionally leave their mark on the urban landscape. The best and most effective among positive examples is the monument of Svetozar Miletić, work of Ivan Meštrović placed on the Main Square in 1939. The authorities in today’s hybrid partocratic society in Serbia perceive the art of public space opportunistically, as another chance for a party or personal advertising with the aim to climb the power ladder or to score some additional political points. Decisions about setting up sculptures in public space (selection of authors, location of the sculpture on the city map, the material from which it will be made etc.) are made ad hoc and usually without consulting the professionals in the field. The primary goal is to meet the formal requirements, gain sympathy and score extra points from the public while the aesthetic aspect of the work becomes irrelevant. Such a situation puts the artists in the position of mere contractors reducing their work to a utilitarian function within the set framework. One might ask a question why artists accept such a position? The answer to this question can be found in a harsh financial situation, but also in the fact that it is difficult to change the perception of artists and their work among the general public. The current situation in art and the position of artists are generally very complex. From a global perspective, the position of visual artists in the society has changed drastically with the emergence of new media (much more if we compare them to other artists). Entertaining programmes in mass media largely suppress the artistic content, taking over the role of art and culture. Columns about culture in the press and other media are giving way to the political topics while the number of editors is growing. Physical appearance has become a fundamental element of social acceptance. Visual artists who by the nature of their job act mainly from the background and promote themselves entirely through their work are becoming invisible, which makes it more difficult for them to reach out to the public. The category of (in)visibility - (dis)appearance in a today’s society is a handicap particularly applying to visual artists. For example, a protest of the Association of Actors will attract more media (and therefore more public) attention than the Association of Visual Artists because the public recognises the familiar faces who then - unlike visual artists – can more easily express their views. From a local perspective, we notice there are no adequate cultural policies, exhibiting or working space and financial situation of artists is devastating as they barely make the ends meet. The legacy of the past, when many aspects of artistic activities used to be regulated by the authorities who guaranteed them continuous work and financial security, is evident in the lack of initiative especially among artists of middle and older generations. On the other hand, the number of visual artists in Novi Sad in the last few decades has significantly incrased, which is an additional infrastructural and social problem. In the archives of the Federation of Artists Associations of Vojvodina it is stated that in the 1960s there were only forty artists active in Novi Sad while today there are more than four hundred of them. This was certainly caused by a wrong strategy in this field, or the lack of it. The Academy of Arts in Novi Sad is forced to enroll an increasing number of students every year while such inflation of new artists is also contributed by various private faculties and academies. When talking about art in the urban space, the attitude of the public is quite apathetic. On the other hand, they are aware to a certain extent that there is a need for sculptures and other artifacts in the open space as they create the overall image of a city. This topic is not attractive enough to get more attention of the general public and the media controlling the (un)publishing of the information in this field which then contributes to the lack of reaction in the public. The increased transparency of public competitions and the whole process – from decision-making to its realisation – would significantly help reaching a wider social consensus. There is also a need for legal regulation within this field. If we notice that there are resources and the will to raise the art of urban space on a higher level, then we must conclude that it requires a process of establishing trust within the “love triangle” and finding the minimum of common interest as a starting point in a qualitative shift. And all three parties will benefit from the results. 36


Današnja vlast u hibridnom partokratskom srpskom društvu, umetnost javnih prostora u najvećoj meri shvata oportunistički, kao još jednu mogućnost za partijski ili lični marketing a sve u cilju uzdizanja na lestvici moći ili prikupljanja dodatnih političkih poena. Odluke o postavljanju skulptura u javni prostor (izbor autora, mesto skulpture na mapi grada, materijal od kog je načinjena...) donose se ad hok, uglavnom bez konsultacija sa stručnom javnošću. Primarni cilj je da se zadovolji forma, steknu simpatije i dodatni poeni, a estetska strana postavljenog dela pada u drugi plan. U takvoj situaciji umetnici su samo puki izvođači radova, a njihov rad sveden je na utilitarnu funkciju u zadatim okvirima. Moglo bi se postaviti pitanje zašto umetnici prihvataju ovakav položaj? Odgovor se može naći u teškoj ekonomskoj situaciji, ali i u teško izmenjivoj društvenoj percepciji umetnika i njihovog rada. Trenutna pozicija umetnosti i umetnika i inače je vrlo složena. Na globalnom nivou, pojavom novih medija, pozicija likovnih umetnika u društvu drastično se promenila (mnogo više u odnosu na ostale vidove umetnosti). Zabavni sadržaji u mas medijima uveliko potiskuju umetničke sadržaje i preuzimaju funkciju kulturno-umetničkih. Kulturne rubrike u javnim glasilima ustupaju mesto politici i skandalima a urednici likovnih rubrika postaju prekobrojni. Fizička pojavnost postala je osnovni element društvenog prihvatanja. Likovni umetnici koji, po prirodi posla, deluju uglavnom u pozadini, a promovišu se posredstvom svojih radova, nisu dovoljno vidljivi i samim tim teže im je da dopru u javnost. Kategorija (ne)vidljivosti – (ne)pojavnosti u savremenom društvu je poseban hendikep koji najviše dotiče likovne umetnike. Poređenja radi, mnogo više medijske pažnje (a samim tim i društvene) privući će protest, npr. glumačkih udruženja nego udruženja likovnih umetnika, zato što u tom slučaju javnost vidi poznata lica koja im, samim tim, lakše saopštavaju svoje stavove, što nije slučaj sa likovnim umetnicima. Na lokalnom nivou uočavamo nepostojanje adekvatne kulturne politike, nedostatak izlagačkog i radnog prostora, katastrofalni materijalni položaj umetnika koji žive i rade na rubu egzistencije... Nasleđe prošlih vremena, kada su mnogi aspekti umetničke delatnosti bili uređeni sistemom a većem delu umetnika omogućena kontinuirana aktivnost i materijalna egzistencija, vidljivo je u nedostatku inicijativa, pogotovo kod umetnika srednje i starije generacije. S druge strane, i broj likovnih umetnika u Novom Sadu u poslednjih nekoliko dekada značajno se uvećao, što predstavlja dodatni infrastrukturni i socijalni problem. U arhivama Saveza udruženja likovnih umetnika Vojvodine stoji da je šezdesetih godina XX veka u Novom Sadu bilo aktivno tek četrdesetak umetnika, dok ih danas ima više od četiri stotine. Tome je svakako doprinela pogrešna strategija u ovoj oblasti ili nedostatak iste. Novosadska akademija umetnosti prisiljena je da upisuje sve veći broj studenata, a inflaciji novih umetnika doprinose i razni privatni fakulteti i akademije. Kad govorimo o umetnosti u urbanom prostoru, stav društva je prilično apatičan. Postoji doduše određena svest o tome da je potreban veći broj skulptura ili drugih umetničkih artefekata u otvorenom prostoru, jer to doprinosi opštem imidžu grada. Ova tema nije dovoljno atraktivna da bi dobila širu društvenu pažnju, a mediji koji kontrolisano (ne) objavljuju informacije iz ove oblasti doprinose da reakcija javnosti izostaje u većini ovakvih inicijativa. Veća transparentnost konkursa i celog procesa, počevši od donošenja odluka i realizacije projekta, značajno bi doprinela postizanju šireg društvenog konsenzusa. Uviđa se i neophodnost zakonskog uređenja u ovoj oblasti. Ako je primetno da u Novom Sadu postoje resursi i volja da se umetnost urbanih prostora podigne na viši nivo, onda bi zaključak bio da je neophodan proces uspostavljanja poverenja u okvirima „ljubavnog trougla” i traženje minimuma zajedničkog interesa kao inicijalne polazne tačke u kvalitativnom pomeranju. A rezultati bi bili korisni za sve tri strane.

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University of Pécs, Faculty of Music and Visual Arts, Hungary Univerzitet u Pečuju, Fakultet muzičkih i vizuelnih umetnosti, Mađarska Dr Gergely Mészáros, teaching assistant / asistent u nastavi Márta Gyuricza, student Aliz Fülöp, student

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Dr Gergely Mészáros teaching assistant / asistent u nastavi

Novi Sad 2014 100 cm x 535 cm Print

This work is a collection of several ideas on public space linked together in one project. It examines actual problems of public space and tries to give possible solutions in theory and practice. Rad predstavlja kolekciju nekoliko ideja o javnom prostoru povezanih unutar jednog projekta. Bavi se ispitivanjem stvarnih problema koji se tiču javnog prostora sa ciljem da ponudi moguće rešenje u okviru teorije i prakse.

University of Pécs, Faculty of Music and Visual Arts / Univerzitet u Pečuju, Fakultet muzičkih i vizuelnih umetnosti 40


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Márta Gyuricza student

University of Pécs, Faculty of Music and Visual Arts / Univerzitet u Pečuju, Fakultet muzičkih i vizuelnih umetnosti 42


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Aliz Fülöp student

University of Pécs, Faculty of Music and Visual Arts / Univerzitet u Pečuju, Fakultet muzičkih i vizuelnih umetnosti 44


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University of Pécs, Faculty of Music and Visual Arts / Univerzitet u Pečuju, Fakultet muzičkih i vizuelnih umetnosti 46


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Academy of Arts in BanskĂĄ Bystrica, Faculty of Fine Arts, Slovakia Akademija umetnosti u Banskoj Bistrici, Fakultet likovnih umetnosti, SlovaÄ?ka Dean / dekan Juraj Sapara, Full Professor / profesor Juraj Gramantik, student Marek Galbavy, student

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Juraj Sapara Full Professor / profesor

Paraphrase I. Map I. / Parafraza I. Mapa I. Paraphrase I. Map II / Parafraza I. Mapa II. Paraphrase I. Map III. / Parafraza I. Mapa III. 70 cm x 100 cm Digital print / Digitalna ĹĄtampa

Academy of Arts in BanskĂĄ Bystrica, Faculty of Fine Arts / Akademija umetnosti u Banskoj Bistrici, Fakultet likovnih umetnosti 50


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Juraj Gramantik student

Madness / Ludilo installation / instalacija

Installation Madness describes consumer society and shopping cacoethes. Instalacija Ludilo je prikaz potrošačkog društva i shopping manije.

Academy of Arts in Banská Bystrica, Faculty of Fine Arts / Akademija umetnosti u Banskoj Bistrici, Fakultet likovnih umetnosti 52


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Marek Galbavy student

Manuals for the Removal of Failed Interventions / PriruÄ?nici za otklanjanje neuspelih intervencija Action in public space, 3D interactive projection / Akcija u javnom prostoru, 3D interaktivna projekcija

Academy of Arts in BanskĂĄ Bystrica, Faculty of Fine Arts / Akademija umetnosti u Banskoj Bistrici, Fakultet likovnih umetnosti 54


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University of Arts in PoznaĹ„, Poland Univerzitet umetnosti Poznan, Poljska Dr Pawel Flieger, teaching assistant / asistent u nastavi Dr Ania England, independent researcher / samostalni istraĹźivaÄ? Klara Roza Kondracka, student Maciej Jacek Dziekan, student

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Dr Pawel Flieger teaching assistant / asistent u nastavi

Dr Ania England independent researcher / samostalni istraživač

Klara Roza Kondracka Maciej Jacek Dziekan students / studenti

MAIN IDEA A subversive attitude towards the ugliness and inadequate position of sculptures in Novi Sad. The site specific actions intend to focus on the idea, shape, proportions or other problems related to a particular sculpture and its environment. The main idea is to expose the politics of the city, not the citizens, who are deprived of any influences over their city design. OSNOVNA IDEJA Subverzivni odnos prema ružnoći i neadekvatnom položaju skulptura u Novom Sadu. Ove site specific akcije u fokus stavljaju ideju, oblik, proporcije i druge probleme koji se tiču određene skulpture i njenog okruženja. Osnovna ideja je ukazati na politiku gradskih vlasti, a ne na građane koji nemaju nikakvog uticaja kada je u pitanju dizajn grada.

University of Arts in Poznań / Univerzitet umetnosti Poznan 58


GORILLAZ Problem: Wrong proportions / Problem: Loše proporcije Solution: Painting gorilla’s skeleton over the statue / Rešenje: Oslikati kostur gorile preko statue Materials: Fluorescent paint / Materijali: Fluorescentna farba Colour: Green and cyan / Boja: zelena i cijan 59


CRYSTAL MARINA / KRISTALNA MARINA Problem: Ballerina does not have a foot and her back is facing the theatre, where she loved to perform / Problem: Balerini nedostaje stopalo, a leđima je okrenuta pozorištu u kome je volela da nastupa Solution: Attention placed on ballerina’s foot (shining prosthesis) and at the same time an arrow towards her beloved theatre / Rešenje: Pažnju usmeriti na balerinino stopalo (svetlucava proteza) sa strelicom u pravcu njenog voljenog pozorišta Materials: Swarovski crystals, LED light inside / Materijali: Swarovski kristali, LED svetlo postavljeno unutar stopala Colour: Pink, violet, magenta / Boja: roza, ljubičasta, magenta

University of Arts in Poznań / Univerzitet umetnosti Poznan 60


PLEASURE CITY / GRAD ZADOVOLJSTVA Problem: Inadequate shape and style of the sculptures placed within historical environment / Problem: Neadekvatni oblik i stil skulptura postavljenih u istorijskom okruženju Solution: Redesigning the place i.e. the shape of the sculptures and the name of the square / Rešenje: Redizajnirati mesto tj. oblik skulptura i ime trga Materials: Plexiglas and polyurethane / Materijali: Pleksiglas i poliuretan Colour: Shades of magenta / Boja: nijanse magente 61


THE BALL / LOPTA Problem: Poorly presented image of Kosta Hadži / Problem: Loš prikaz lika dr Koste Hadžija Solution: Covering the sculpture with a ball / Rešenje: Maskiranje skulpture loptom Materials: Glossy and matte finish Plexiglas / Materijali: sjaj - mat pleksiglas Colour: Transparent - black / Boja: transparentna - crna

University of Arts in Poznań / Univerzitet umetnosti Poznan 62


MIRROR MIRROR / OGLEDALO, OGLEDALCE Problem: Janika cannot see his beloved fortress because of his inadequate position and badly designed environment / Problem: Janika ne može da vidi svoju voljenu Tvrđavu zbog neadekvatnog položaja i loše osmišljenog prostora Solution: Cutting trees and placing a mirror, which will reflect the fortress / Rešenje: ukloniti drveće i postaviti ogledalo u kome će se ogledati Tvrđava Materials: Magnifying mirror, metal, glass / Materijali: Uveličavajuće ogledalo, metal, staklo 63


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University of Novi Sad, Academy of Arts, Serbia Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Akademija umetnosti, Srbija Miroslav Šilić, Assistant Professor / docent Nikola Nikolić, student Stefan Stojanović, student Stanislav Drča, student Teodora Ivkov, student

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Miroslav Šilić Assistant Professor / docent

Erased memories 150 cm x 54 cm Print THE THEATRE BUILDING (The Civic Hall), 1871 The General Assembly of the town magistrate granted the request of the Theatre Building Society and lent the plot belonging to the city on the today’s Trifkovic Square over the period of 20 years with the annual rent of ten ducats. Many choirs, armature theatre troupes and magicians, among others, helped by giving donations. Even later, the costumes and props for the theatre were obtained as gifts or legacies. The original design made by C.E. Andreas Paulik was used as a foundation and starting point in subsequent Molnar’s designs. From the original design, meticulously and precisely made by Molnar, it can be concluded that the new Civic Hall, at least as it was conceived, well met the needs of city’s cultural life. From the architectural point of view, it was a monumental public building from the second half of the XIX century. Molnar completed the design on December 25, 1870. According to the design, it was a building with a cross-shaped base, with a vestibule and auxiliary rooms facing Mileticeva St. The protracted nave housed the auditorium, the stage and the backstage area. The entrance was decorated with two gables of probably richer façade ornaments. Front openings were rectangular and slightly enlarged. The lateral openings in the higher sections were rounded. The building which was finished in December 1871, had stalls, but no circles or boxes. Around 600 guests were present at the opening ceremony on December 25. In 1888 the Theatre Committee decided to take measures and extend the renting period for another 10 years and postpone the destruction of the building. The members and supporters of the theatre fought long and persistently. However, The Ministry officially rejected their request and the building was torn down in March 1892, despite citizens’ protests. Police and sanitary reports were used as the official explanation for the action, whereas the real reason was the fact that ‘the city had no reason to renew the contract with the Serbian National Theatre Society’. The construction of a new building, according to the design of arch. Vladimir Nikolic, commenced the same year in the courtyard of the hotel situated on the main square. It was known as Dundjerski Theatre. Autor: Vladimir Mitrović

University of Novi Sad, Academy of Arts / Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Akademija umetnosti 66


POZORIŠTE („Građanska dvorana“), 1871. Glavna skupština Magistrata grada izašla je u susret molbi Družine za građenje pozorišne dvorane i ustupila gradsko zemljište na današnjem Trifkovićevom trgu na rok od 20 godina i određeni godišnji zakup od 10 dukata. U akciji prikupljanja sredstava za gradnju, pored ostalih, učestvovala su i razna pevačka društva, diletantske pozorišne grupe, mađioničari i sl. I kasnije su često garderoba i predmeti za pozorište dobijani privatnim poklonima i zaveštanjima. Prvobitni plan za pozorišnu zgradu što ga je izgradio građevinar Andreas Paulik bio je osnova i polazište za kasnije Molnarove planove. Na osnovu priloženih planova koje je Molnar pedantno i precizno izradio, može se zaključiti da je nova Građanska dvorana bar po zamisli bila adekvatna tadašnjim potrebama kulturnog života grada, a sa arhitektonskog stanovišta i značajna javna građevina druge polovine XIX veka u Novom Sadu. Plan je Molnar završio 25. decembra 1870. Planom je predviđena zgrada krstaste osnove sa tremom i sklopom pomoćnih prostorija smeštenih prema Miletićevoj ulici. Produženi brod objekta služio je za gledalište sa binom i prostorom za glumce. Ulazni deo krasila su dva zabata, verovatno nešto bogatijeg fasadnog ukrasa. Otvori na pročelju su bili nešto uvećani, pravougaonog oblika. Bočni otvori na višim delovima objekta bili su polukružno završeni. Tokom decembra 1871. zgrada je dovršena sa prostranim parterom, bez balkona i loža. Na premijernom otvaranju, 25. decembra, bilo je oko 600 gledalaca. Već 1888. Odbor za pozorište pokreće akciju da se rentiranje zemljišta od grada produži za narednih 10 godina te da se rušenje objekta odloži (32). Članovi i simpatizeri pozorišta borili su se dugo i uporno. Ipak 1890. godine Ministarstvo je zvanično odbilo zahtev za produženje koncesije pa je pozorište srušeno u martu 1892. i pored protesta građana. Kao formalni razlog uzeti su policijski i sanitarni izveštaj dok je pravi razlog bio to „što varoš nema više razlog da obnavlja ugovor sa Društvom za Srpsko narodno pozorište“(33). Iste godine otpočela je gradnja nove pozorišne zgrade u dvorištu hotela na glavnom trgu, poznato kao Pozorište Dunđerskih po projektu arh. Vladimira Nikolića (1857-1922). Vladimir Mitrović 67


Nikola Nikolić Stanislav Drča Stefan Stojanović students / studenti

Special Treatment 29,7 cm x 42 cm Space intervention, artistic action, print / Intervencija u prostoru, umetnička akcija, print

Satirical critique presented through the artistic action and aiming at a cultural problem of relations between art and public urban space. Critique of new monumental sculptures and their aesthetics in Novi Sad. This series is printed and divided into two segments. The first is an intervention in space as the answer to the existing situation of monuments and sculptures, documented in photography; while the second is also intervention but in different media – digital editing and softer manipulation. The very name of the work is a clear association of how one should understand the concept of this work i.e. visual criticism is made based on the existing aesthetics of the monuments and sculptures. The artistic play with visual contents of the sculptures through the relocation of the monument context. Critical mockery of the lack of aesthetic values of the monuments and sculptures. By putting the symbols of product packing directly within the public space, including the projection of the sculpture and digital editing, the context of the monument is changed and produces new meanings and concepts. Satirična kritika kroz umetničku akciju na kulturološki problem u odnosu umetnosti i javnog, urbanog prostora. Kritikovanje nove spomeničke kulture i estetike skulptura u Novom Sadu. Ova serija printova podeljena je u dva segmenta. Jedan je intervencija u prostoru na postojeće stanje spomenika odnosno skulptura dokumentovana kroz fotografiju, a drugi je takođe intervencija samo na drugi način - kroz digitalnu montažu i softversku manipulaciju. Sam naziv rada je dovoljna asocijacija za razumevanje koncepta ovog rada, u smislu da je vizuelna kritika nastala na osnovu postojeće estetike spomenika odnosno skulptura. Likovna igra sa vizuelnim sadržajem skulptura kroz izmeštanje konteksta samog spomenika. Kritičko ismejavanje nedostatka estetskih vrednosti spomenika tj. skulptura. Apliciranjem simbola za pakovanje proizvoda direktno u javnom prostoru kroz projektovanje na samu skulpturu i kroz digitalnu montažu menja se kontekst samog spomenika i time se dobija novo značenje odnosno koncept.

University of Novi Sad, Academy of Arts / Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Akademija umetnosti 68


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Tangible/Intangible Sculpture 400 cm x 400 cm Interactive installation / Interaktivna instalacija

Tangible / Intangible Sculpture is an interactive installation with almost complete absence of tangible and visual elements. They are replaced with personal, abstract and sound-guided orientation in space. The installation consists of code done in VVVV platform that through Xbox Kinect sensors monitors the position of the observer and starts the sound when he/she stands on the defined location. Each location carries its own unique sound so that they proportionately delineate five sculptures from the centre of Novi Sad. The Fountain near the Cathedral, the monument to Marina Olenjina, Laza Kostić, Mihajlo Pupin and Vasa Stajić were selected as newly appointed urban solutions and the embodiment of the current pinnacle of a “bizarre” aesthetic collapse. The audio sound of the sculpture makes a combination and a mix of different sounds which give the listener a hint of which sculpture it represents including the author’s attitude towards it. Sounds are not mere interpretations and are not just transferred from one medium to another, from a sculpture to a sound or from the tangible to the intangible, but present the very criticism of the sculptures. Delo Tangible/Intangible Sculpture je interaktivna instalacija u kojoj se javlja gotovo potpuno odsustvo opipljivog i vizuelnog elementa, a zamenjuje ih čovekovo apstrahovano snalaženje u prostoru vođeno zvukom. Instalaciju sačinjava kôd radjen u VVVV platformi koji putem Xbox Kinect senzora prati poziciju posmatrača i pokreće zvuk kada se on nađe na predefinisanoj lokaciji. Svaka lokacija nosi svoj jedinstveni zvuk, a one same su predefinisane tako da proporcionalno ocrtavaju pet skulptura smeštenih u strogom centru Novog Sada. Fontana u Katoličkoj porti, spomenik Marini Olenjinoj kao i Lazi Kostiću, Mihajlu Pupinu i Vasi Stajiću su izabrani kao novopostavljena urbanistička rešenja koja predstavljaju oličenje i trenutni vrhunac „bizarnosti“ i estetskog kolapsa. Sam audio pripisan skulpturi jeste kombinacija i preplitanje različitih zvukova koji slušaocu nagoveštavaju o kojoj skulpturi je reč kao i stav autora o njoj. Zvuci nisu puka interpretacija i prenošenje iz jednog medija u drugi, iz skulpture u audio, iz opipljivog u neopipljivo, već upravo predstavljaju njihovu kritiku.

University of Novi Sad, Academy of Arts / Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Akademija umetnosti 70


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Nationalist and Capitalist Evaluation of an Artwork / Nacionalistička i kapitalistička evaluacija umetničkog dela 100 cm x 70 cm Print

Nationalist and Capitalist Evaluation of an Artwork is a conceptual representation of the Chamber of Visual Arts RICH diagram presented as the algorithmic system by which Nazi Germany determined their system of art evaluation in order to differentiate art from degenerate art. The system is designated annularly so that the whole process ends in the centre of the system. It is predetermined and complete, which means that the cases which could lead to the deviation of the system are not possible. The algorithm presents the current system of the art within our state. It is based on three core values from which one creates a specific situation, without repetition and in a flow. This means that no process can be repeated entirely after it is performed several times. Visually it is presented as a game of black, gray and white squares with a specific scheme including all possible combinations of 3 out of 3. The scheme offers infinite combinations that cannot be repeated, making it a never-ending interactive game. Each square in any part of the system exists only as a consequence of the previous two, and it is a condition for the existence of the next one. The game begins by creating the initial situation from the three offered ones, out of which the process develops. The critical aspect of the work is present in the very parallel of these two systems or art. Nacionalistička i kapitalistička evaluacija umetničkog dela je konceptualni prikaz dijagrama RICH komore likovnih umetnosti, koji je predstavljen kao algoritamski sistem po kojem je u nacističkoj Nemačkoj određen sistem vrednovanja umetničkih odnosno ne-umetničkih dela; tj. šta je umetnost a šta degenerisana umetnost. Sistem je prstenasto konstruisan i ceo proces se završava u središtu sistema. Unapred je određen i celovit u smislu ne postojanja mogućnosti za slučajeve koji bi na neki način doveli do odstupanja od sistema. Algoritam predstavlja sadašnji sistem uređenja umetnosti unutar naše države. Zasniva se na tri osnovne vrednosti, iz kojih se kreraju određene situacije, bez ponavljanja u nizu, što znači da se nijedan proces ne ponavlja u celini posle određenog broja izvođenja. Vizuelno je predstavljen kao igra crnog, sivog i belog kvadrata, za koju postoji šema sa svim mogućim kombinacijama 3 od 3. Iz šeme mogu da se izvode kombinacije u beskonačnost i bez ponavljanja, i to postaje jedna interaktivna igra čiji se proces nikada ne završava. Svaki kvadrat u bilo kom delu sistema postoji kao posledica samo prethodna dva i sam je uslov za postojanje sledećeg. Igra započinje tako što se kreira određena početna situacija od tri ponuđene iz koje se dalje ide u proces. Kritički stav je u samoj paraleli koja se pravi između ova dva sistema uređenja umetnosti.

University of Novi Sad, Academy of Arts / Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Akademija umetnosti 72


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Teodora Ivkov student

I don’t see you too / Ni ja vas ne vidim Photography / Fotografija

Sculptures – there are not many of them in Novi Sad, but where there are few, they are either hidden or people, living their lives too fast, have forgotten to notice them. These two works critically analyse public space through collage and photography. In most cases the beauty of Novi Sad sculptures is not questionable, but the choice of the locations where they are set is. There are sculptures in the centre of Novi Sad one cannot come close to or they blend in the environment completely. Therefore, both the sculptures and the artists are deprived of their identity. The problem is that it looks like the problem does not really exist; yet, in fact, it is hidden together with those sculptures. Is it a sad picture of the authorities who put them there, or is it a sad picture of the society? Skulpture – nema ih mnogo po Novom Sadu, a i tamo gde ih ima, ili su zavučene, ili su ljudi u brzini današnjice zaboravili da obraćaju pažnju na njih. Ova dva rada bave se kritikom javnog prostora kroz kolaž i fotografiju. Uglavnom lepota novosadskih skulptura nije pod znakom pitanja, ali mesta na kojima se nalaze jeste. U centru grada postavljene su skulpture kojima ne može da se priđe ili su stopljene sa okolinom. Na taj način uskraćuje se identitet skulpturi i umetniku. Problem je u tome što izgleda kao da problem ne postoji, a zapravo je sakriven zajedno sa skulpturom. Tužna slika vlasti koja ga je na to mesto postavila, ili je to možda tužna slika društva?

University of Novi Sad, Academy of Arts / Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Akademija umetnosti 74


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Project coordinator

Bosiljka Zirojević Lečić (1971), Full Professor Graduated painting in 1994 at the Academy of Arts Novi Sad where she also finished her postgraduate studies in 2000. A member of art group Multiflex. Had 18 solo and over 100 group exhibitions in Serbia and abroad. Awarded many times. Employed at the Academy of Arts Novi Sad, department of Painting since 2000.

Guest lecturers

Sanja Kojić Mladenov art historian, director of the Museum of Contemporary Art of Vojvodina (MSUV) “Public space – the place of art interventions” Zoran Pantelić artist, producer, educator, freelance artist “Social Sculpture - politics, im/materiality, public discourse” Miroslav Šilić architect and visual artist, Assistant Professor at Academy of Arts in Novi Sad “Art in Public Space: Spatial Strategies” Đula Šanta Graduated painter, freelance artist “The art of public surfaces in Novi Sad / situation, triangle, artists...”

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Sanja Kojić Mladenov (1974) – art historian, director of the Museum of Contemporary Art of Vojvodina (MSUV) Graduated at the Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade, department of History of Arts. Finished her Master studies in Interdisciplinary Gender Studies at Novi Sad University (ACIMSI). The founder and director of the Gallery “Nova” in Pančevo (1995-1998). A member of AICA (International Association of Art Critics), ICOM (International Council of Museums) and CIMAM (International Committee ICOM for Museums and Collections of Modern Art) whose scholarship grantee she became in 2011. Works as a curator in the Museum of Contemporary Art of Vojvodina (since 2006). In 2013 she was elected the director of this institution. She developed her curatorial practice through research work and active monitoring, presenting and connecting the local contemporary art scene with the international art scene through many projects and within many cultural institutions and associations where she participated as a manager or an expert. The curator of the Serbian Pavilion at the 54th Biennale of Contemporary Art in Venice (2011). Zoran Pantelić (1966) – artist, producer, educator, freelance artist Graduated in 1991(B.A.) and 1995 (M.A) at the Academy of Arts in Novi Sad, department of Sculpture. The founder of an art association Apsolutno (1993) comprising a group of artists very active in the field of interdisciplinary art projects and media pluralism. They presented their work at numerous art festivals and galleries in the 1990s. Since 1995 he participated in many international symposiums and conferences in the field of new media culture and was a guest lecturer at universities around Europe (Vienna, Maastricht, Berlin, Amsterdam, Dessau, Sarajevo, Helsinki, Moscow etc.). The founder of the New Media Centre_kuda. org (2000), an organization dedicated to new technologies, activism and politics (www.kuda.org). A member of several boards and councils, international publishing houses dealing with media and contemporary art practice (DATA browser, University of Plymouth). Depending on the phenomenon and type of research, he takes part in different collaborative initiatives as a curator, editor, producer and author. Since 2005 he has worked as a guest lecturer at the Academy of Arts in Novi Sad for the course Mass Media Communications. Received many awards for his art work. Several of his works from the period of working in sculpture at Apsolutno were purchased and are now a part of private and museum collections. Miroslav Šilić (1967) – architect and visual artist, Assistant Professor at Academy of Arts in Novi Sad Graduated from the Faculty of Architecture in Belgrade and the Academy of Arts in Novi Sad, Department of Painting where he also got his master’s degree. Works at the Academy of Arts in Novi Sad as Assistant Professor at subjects Architecture I and II (since 2007). Before that he worked as an architect in an architectural design studio “Studio K” (2006-2007); “Gardi” (2003-2006) and as a teaching associate at Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, department of Architecture (1997-2001) at a subject Architectural and a Free Choice Drawing. Since 2008 he has run his own architectural studio. A member of the Association of Artists of Applied Arts and Design (UPIDIV) since 2000 (Chairman of the Board from 2005-2008); the Association of Novi Sad Architects (DANS) since 2003; Serbian Chamber of Engineers since 2006. From 2002 to 2010 he was an art editor and a graphic designer in “DaNS” magazine of the Association of Novi Sad Architects as well as in most of their publications. He participated in a number of architectural projects as an author (Cultural Centre of Novi Sad, Sports Centre Futog, French Institute in Novi Sad, Academy of Arts in Novi Sad and projects on residential, business and private buildings). Had many group and solo exhibitions at home and abroad. Received several awards for his work. Đula Šanta (1968) – Graduated painter, free lance artist Graduated from the Academy of Arts in Novi Sad in 1995 at the department of Painting. The Secretary of the Federation of Associations of Fine Artists of Vojvodina (SULUV). Has a very active artistic background and expresses his art through different media. The author of many exhibitions in the country and abroad; selected for different national teams within contemporary art by many critics. His works are perceived as an adequate reaction of an artist towards visual and cultural environment within which he created an intensive critical approach towards the society by using his own expression. He is also very active in the field of applied arts: graphic design, web design, theatre, scene and costume design. 77


Koordinator projekta

Bosiljka Zirojević Lečić (1971), redovni profesor Diplomirala je slikarstvo 1994. godine na Akademiji umetnosti u Novom Sadu. Postdiplomske studije završila je 2000. godine na istoj akademiji. Član je ULUS-a i ULUV-a od 1997. godine. Član je umetničke grupe Multiflex. Izlagala je 18 puta sаmоstаlno i učestvovala je na preko 100 kolektivnih izlоžbi u zеmlјi i inоstrаnstvu. Više puta je nagrađivana. Zaposlena je na Akademiji umetnosti u Novom Sadu od 2000. godine na Katedri za slikarstvo.

Gostujući predavači

Sanja Kojić Mladenov Istoričarka umetnosti, direktorka Muzeja savremene umetnosti Vojvodine (MSUV) „Javni prostor – mesto umetničkih intervencija“ Zoran Pantelić Umetnik, producent, edukator,slobodni umetnik „Socijalna skulptura – politika, ne/materijalnost, javni diskurs“ Miroslav Šilić Arhitekta i likovni umetnik, docent na AUNS „Umetnost u javnom prostoru: prostorne strategije“ Đula Šanta Diplomirani slikar, slobodni umetnik „Umetnost javnih površina u Novom Sadu / stanje, trougao, umetnici...“

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Sanja Kojić Mladenov (1974) – istoričarka umetnosti, direktorka Muzeja savremene umetnosti Vojvodine (MSUV) Diplomirala na Filozofskom fakultetu u Beogradu, na katedri za istoriju umetnosti. Završila master na Interdisciplinarnim rodnim studijama u Novom Sadu (ACIMSI). Osnivač i neko vreme direktorka Galerije „Nova“ u Pančevu (1995-1998). Članica je međunarodnih udruženja AICA (internacionalno udruženje umetničkih kritičara), ICOM (internacionalni savet muzeja) i CIMAM (Međunarodni komitet ICOM za muzeje i zbirke moderne umetnosti) čija je i stipendistkinja (2011). Kustoskinja Muzeja savremene umetnosti Vojvodine od 2006. godine, a na mestu direktorke iste institucije je od 2013. godine. Svoju kustosku praksu razvija kroz studijsko-istraživački rad i aktivno praćenje, prezentovanje i povezivanje lokalne i internacionalne savremene umetničke scene od 1995. godine kroz mnoge autorske projekte kao i kroz svoj menadžerski, selektorski i stručni angažman u mnogim institucijama kulture i udruženjima. Bila je kustoskinja Paviljona Srbije na 54. Venecijanskom Bijenalu savremene umetnosti (2011). Zoran Pantelić (1966) – Umetnik, producent, edukator, slobodni umetnik. Diplomirao 1991. i magistrirao 1995. na Akademiji umetnosti u Novom Sadu, odsek vajarstvo. Osnivač umetničke asocijacije „Apsolutno“ (1993), grupe umetnika koja je tokom devedesetih delovala na polju interdisciplinarnih umetničkih projekata i medijskog pluralizma, internacionalno prezentujući svoj rad na mnogim umetničkim festivalima i galerijama. Od 1995. godine učestvuje na brojnim internacionalnim simpozijumima i konferencijama posvećenim kulturi novih medija kao gostujući predavač na univerzitetima širom Evrope (Beč, Maastricht, Berlin, Amsterdam, Dessau, Sarajevo, Helsinki, Moskva, itd.). Osnivač Centra za nove medije_kuda.org (2000), kolektiva posvećenog novim tehnologijama, umetnosti, aktivizmu i politici (www. kuda.org). Uključen je u rad nekoliko odbora i savetodavnih grupa i internacionalnih izdavačkih kuća koje se bave medijima i savremenom umetničkom praksom (DATA browser, University of Plymouth). U zavisnosti od fenomena i formata istraživanja, učestvuje ravnopravno u kolaborativnim praksama kao kustos, urednik, producent i autor. Od 2005. godine predaje na Akademiji umetnosti u Novom Sadu na predmetu Mediji masovne komunikacije kao honorarni predavač. Dobitnik je nekoliko nagrada za svoj umetnički rad. Nekoliko radova iz perioda rada u polju skulpture i rada u kolektivu „Apsolutno“ su otkupljeni i zastupljeni u privatnim i muzejskim kolekcijama. Miroslav Šilić (1967) – arhitekta i likovni umetnik, docent na Akademiji umetnosti u Novom Sadu Diplomirao na Arhitektonskom fakultetu u Beogradu i na Akademiji umetnosti u Novom Sadu, odsek slikarstvo i magistrirao na istoj akademiji. Zaposlen na Akademiji umetnosti u Novom Sadu kao docent na predmetima Arhitektura I i II od 2007. godine. Pre toga bio je zaposlen u projektantskom birou „Studio K“ od 2006-07. kao arhitekta-projektant, preduzeću „Gardi“ od 2003-06. kao arhitekta-projektant i na FTN Novi Sad, Arhitektonski odsek, od 1997-2001. godine kao saradnik na predmetu Arhitektonsko i slobodno crtanje. Od 2008. vodi sopstveni arhitektonski studio. Član je Udruženja likovnih umetnika primenjenih umetnosti i dizajna (UPIDIV) od 2000, (predsednik Upravnog odbora od 2005 do 2008), kао i član Društva arhitekata Novog Sada (DANS) od 2003. godine. Član Inženjerske komore Srbije od 2006. godine. Od 2002 do 2010. je likovni urednik i grafički dizajner časopisa „DaNS“ Društva arhitekata Novog Sada i većine publikacija Društva arhitekata Novog Sada. Kao autor, koautor ili deo tima radio je na velikom broju arhitektonskih projekata (Kulturni centar Novog Sada, Dom sportova Futog, Francuski kulturni centar u Novom Sadu, Akademija umetnosti u Novom Sadu, stambeni, poslovni i privatni objekti). Izlagao je na većem broju kolektivnih izložbi u zemlji i inostranstvu, kao i na samostalnim izložbama. Dobitnik je više nagrada i priznanja za svoj rad. Đula Šanta (1968) – diplomirani slikar, slobodni umetnik Diplomirao 1995. na Akademiji umetnosti u Novom Sadu na odseku za slikarstvo. Sekretar Saveza udruženja likovnih umetnika Vojvodine (SULUV). Izuzetno aktivan u umetničkom radu, izražava se u različitim medijima. Izlagao na mnogobrojnim izložbama u zemlji i inostranstvu a više puta je biran od strane likovnih kritičara u nacionalne selekcije umetnika koje su predstavljale savremenu umetničku scenu. Njegovi umetnički radovi predstavljaju adekvatnu reakciju umetnika na vizuelno i kulturno okruženje u kojem stvara, gde svojim izrazom i pristupom snažno izražava kritički odnos prema društvu. Aktivno radi i u oblasti primenjene umetnosti: grafički dizajn, web dizajn kao i pozorišna scenografija i kostimografija. 79


University of Pécs, Faculty of Music and Visual Arts, Hungary

Dr Gergely Mészáros (1980), teaching assistant Graduated sculpting in 2006 at the University of Pécs, Faculty of Music and Visual Arts where he also received his doctorate diploma (Doctor of Liberal Arts DLA) in 2009. Had 17 group and 2 solo exhibitions; two of his works are set up in public space (Rome, Pécs) and one as a part of the city collection. Employed at the University of Pécs since 2011. filadentron@gmail.com www.mgergely.com

Márta Gyuricza (1990), student Currently at the last year of studies at University of Pécs, Deparmemt of painting in the class of Zoltán Ádám. Had one solo exhibition in 2013 in Pécs, and nearly twenty group exhibitions mostly in Pécs and Budapest, but also abroad (Senta – Serbia, Venezia – Italy). Department of Painting, 6th year. gyuriczamarta1990@gmail.com

Alíz Fülöp (1992), student Graduated ceramic design in 2010 at the Tömörkény István High School and School of Arts in Szeged. Studied sculpture at University of Pécs since 2010. Had four collective exhibitions. Department of Sculpture, 4th year. fulop.aliz.eva@gmail.com

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Univerzitet u Pečuju, Fakultet muzičkih i likovnih umetnosti, Mađarska

dr Gergely Mészáros (1980), asistent u nastavi Diplomirao vajarstvo 2006. na Fakultetu muzičkih i vizuelnih umetnosti Univerziteta u Pečuju gde je završio i doktorske studije (Doktor liberalnih umetnosti DLA) 2009. godine. Imao je 17 kolektivnih i 2 samostalne izložbe; 2 njegova dela nalaze se u javnom prostoru (Rome, Pečuj), a 1 rad je deo izložbe grada. Zaposlen je na Univerzitetu u Pečuju od 2011. godine. filadentron@gmail.com www.mgergely.com

Márta Gyuricza (1990), student Student završne godine slikarstva na Univerzitetu u Pečuju u klasi Zoltána Ádáma. Do sada je imala jednu samostalnu izložbu u Pečuju i skoro dvadeset kolektivnih izložbi većinom u Pečuju, Budimpešti ali i u inostranstvu (Senta - Srbija i Venecija - Italija). Odsek za slikarstvo, VI godina. gyuriczamarta1990@gmail.com

Alíz Fülöp (1992), student Diplomirala keramički dizajn 2010. godine u Segedinu na „Tömörkény István“ srednjoj školi i Umetničkoj školi. Od 2010. godine student je Univerziteta u Pečuju, odsek za vajarstvo. Do sada je imala četiri kolektivne izložbe. Odsek za vajarstvo, IV godina. fulop.aliz.eva@gmail.com

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Academy of Arts in Banská Bystrica, Faculty of Fine Arts, Slovakia

doc. Juraj Sapara akad. soch. (1947), Professor Graduated in 1973 at the Academy of fine Arts in Bratislava; (1984 – 1995) worked as a freelance creative artist. In 1989 he was a cofounding member of GERULATA association; in 1990 a founding member of the Association of Slovak Medalists; in 1992 the organizer of International Sculptural Symposium sculpture - music; in 1994 the organizer and founder of International Sculptural Symposium bronze 94; (1995 – 2004) a teacher of computer graphics at Industrial Graphic High School; in 1996 the organizer of International Medal Symposium Moravany 96; (1997 – 2015) a member of Governor Commission of National Bank of Slovakia for Memorial Coins; in 2000 appointed the Head of the studio at the Department of sculpture, Faculty of Fine Arts, Academy of Arts in Banská Bystrica; (2001 – 2008) the head of the Department of sculpture; (2003 – 2004) the Vice-rector at the same institution; (2004 – 2014) Member of the committee of the Association of Slovak Medalists; in 2011 the Dean of Faculty of Fine Arts, Academy of Arts in Banská Bystrica. Works on fine arts sculpture, monumental and room plastic art, art in the architecture, medal work, drawing, painting and computer graphics. Actively participates in the fine arts life in Slovakia. Regularly presents his work at domestic and international forums in SK, CZ, H, PL, D, A, DK, FIN, GB, I, P, F, CH, RUS, USA, RC, ESP, SU. Lives and works in Bratislava. Department of sculpture. saparaj@orangemail.sk

Juraj Gramantík (1989), student Department of sculpture juraj.gramantik@gmail.com

Marek Galbavý (1987), student Graduated sculpture at the Faculty of Visual Arts, the Academy of Arts in Banská Bystrica (studio of Juraj Sapara) where he is currently a doctoral student. His works were appraised already during his studies due to a particular approach in the use of space as a sculptural form, sensitive even symbolical selection of materials and the choice of social topics. Solo exhibitions: 2014 New territories of space modeling, Galerie Sýpka, Valasske Mezirici, (CZ); 2013 Verejní žobráci, Bunker – Nitrianska Galéria, Nitra (SK); 2010 Mlyny, Outdoor gallery, Nitra (SK). Group exhibitions (Selection): 2014 Face to face, FAB Gallery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada (CA); 2014 1st NSK FOLK ART Biennale, Lipsko, Germany (DE); 2013 Kontextuálne umenie Galéria Cypriána Majerníka, Bratislava (SK); 2013 Spurensicherung, Kulturný dom B31, Lipsko, Germany (DE); 2011 Medzicentrum II, Stanica Žilina-Záriečie, Žilina (SK); 2011 Idea in Optima Forma, Open Studios ISCP, New York (USA). Department of sculpture, Doctoral Studies. galbavyxyz@gmail.com marekgalbavy.blogspot.sk

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Akademija umetnosti u Banskoj Bistrici, Fakultet likovnih umetnosti, Slovačka

Doc. Juraj Sapara akad. soch. (1947), profesor Diplomirao 1947. na Akademiji umetnosti u Bratislavi. Od 1984. do 1995. radio kao slobodni umetnik. 1989. bio je suosnivač asocijacije GERULATA; 1990. godine jedan od osnivača Urduženja slovačkih dizajnera medalja; 1992. organizator Međunarodnog simpozijuma skulpture sculpture-music; 1994. organizator i osnivač Međunarodnog simpozijuma bronze 94; (1994 – 2004) nastavnik kompjuterske grafike u Srednjoj školi za industrijsku grafiku; 1996. organizator Međunarodnog simpozijuma medalje Moravany 96; (1997 – 2015) član Komisije guvernera Nacionalne banke Slovačke za spomen kovanice; 2000. postavljen za šefa studija Odseka za skulpturu Fakulteta likovnih umetnosti Akademije umetnosti, Banska Bistrica; (2001 – 2008) šef Odseka za skulpturu na istoj akademiji, (2003 – 2004) prorektor; (2004 – 2014) član komiteta Asocijacije slovačkih dizajnera medalja; od 2011. dekan Fakulteta likovnih umetnosti, Akademije umetnosti u Banskoj Bistrici. Bavi se skulpturom, monumentalnom umetnošću i room plastic art, umetnošću u arhitekturi, dizajniranjem medalja, crtanjem, slikanjem i kompjuterskom grafikom. Aktivno učestvuje u umetničkom životu Slovačke. Redovno izlaže na domaćim i međunarodnim forumima. Živi i radi u Bratislavi. saparaj@orangemail.sk

Juraj Gramantík (1989), student Odsek za vajarstvo juraj.gramantik@gmail.com

Marek Galbavý (1987), student Diplomirao vajarstvo na Fakultetu likovnih umetnosti Akademije umetnosti u Banskoj Bistrici (studio Juraja Sapare), gde je trenutno na doktorskim studijama. Već tokom studija, njegova dela su se isticala svojim posebnim pristupom prostoru kao vrsti skulpture, istančanim i simboličkim izborom materijala ali i izborom društveno-kritičkih tema. Samostalne izložbe: 2014. Nove teritorije prostornog modelovanja, Galerija Sýpka,Valasske Mezirici, (CZ); 2013. Verejní žobráci, Bunker – Nitrianska Galéria, Nitra (SK); 2010. Mlyny, Galerija na otvorenom, Nitra (SK). Grupne izložbe: 2014. Face to face, FAB galerija, Univerzitet u Alberti, Edmonton, Kanada; 2014. 1st NSK FOLK ART Biennale 2014, Lipsko, Nemačka; 2013. Kontextuálne umenie Galéria Cypriána Majerníka, Bratislava; 2013. Spurensicherung, Kulturný dom B31, Lipsko, Nemačka; 2011. Medzicentrum II, Stanica Žilina-Záriečie, Žilina; 2011. Idea in Optima Forma, Open Studios ISCP, Njujork, SAD. Odsek za vajarstvo, doktorske studije. galbavyxyz@gmail.com marekgalbavy.blogspot.sk

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University of Arts in Poznań, Poland

Dr Ania England (1978), independent researcher Studied painting, art education and Polish philology at the University of Arts in Poznań and at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. In 2014 received a doctorate in the field of art history from the University of Wrocław. Her research fields concentrate on camp and kitsch in the culture as well as on all things weird and odd. ania.england@gmail.com www.englanda.co.uk

Dr Paweł Flieger (1979), teaching assistant In 2005 graduated with Honours at the Painting Studio of Prof. Jan Świtka, Academy of Fine Arts In Poznań; in 2007 he received the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage Scholarship and in 2008 a diploma with Honours from the Offset Studio of Prof. Grzegorz Nowicki. Since 2005 worked as an assistant teacher at the Anatomical Drawing Studio of Prof. Sławomir Kuszczak dr hab. (UAP). In 2011 he obtained his PhD’s degree. Had eight solo exhibitions and participated in over 35 group exhibitions in the country and abroad. flieger@o2.pl

Klara Kondracka (1992), student Student of architecture, active member of the Polish Association of Students of Architecture OSSA. Participated in Architektour workshops (organized by the students of architecture). Published three works in Figurama catalogue Prague (2013, 2014). Exhibitions: Akt I - exihibition of drawig studio of Sławomir Kuszczak, Słupca, Poland, 2012; Obszary rysunku exhibition of drawings in the Gallery of Jesuits, 2013; Akt II Skalar gallery, Poznań, Poland. Architecture and urban planning, 4th year. klara.kondracka@gmail.com

Maciej Dziekan (1991), student Born in 1991 in South-West Poland. Graduated photography at the University of Arts in Poznań in 2013 where he is currently on master studies. Multimedia communication, 5th year. dziekanart@gmail.com www.maciejdziekan.com

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Univerzitet umetnosti Poznan, Poljska

dr Ania England (1978), nezavisni istraživač u oblasti umetnosti Diplomirala slikarstvo, umetničku pedagogiju i poljsku filologiju na Univerzitetu umetnosti u Poznanu i na Adam Mickiewicz univerzitetu u Poznanu. 2014. godine doktorirala istoriju umetnosti na Wrocław univerzitetu. Njene oblasti istraživanja kreću se od kempa i kiča u kulturi do svega onoga što je neobično i čudno. ania.england@gmail.com www.englanda.co.uk

dr Paweł Flieger (1979), asistent u nastavi 2005. diplomirao sa počastima u slikarskom studiju prof. Jana Svitke, Univerziteta umetnosti u Poznanu; 2007. dodeljena mu je stipendija Ministarstva kulture i nacionalnog nasleđa, a 2008. diploma sa počastima (Offset studio prof. Grzegorz Nowicki). Od 2005. zaposlen kao asistent u nastavi u crtačkom studiju anatomije prof. Sławomir-a Kuszczak-a. Doktorirao je 2011. godine. Autor je 8 samostalnih izložbi, a učestvovao je na preko 35 grupnih izložbi u zemlji i u inostranstvu. flieger@o2.pl

Klara Kondracka (1992), student Student arhitekture, aktivan član Poljske asocijacije studenata arhitekture OSSA. Učestvovala u radionicama u organizaciji studenata arhitekture Architektour. Ima tri objavljena rada u Figurama katalogu iz Praga (2013, 2014). Izložbe: Akt I, izložba Studija crtanja Sławomir Kuszczak, Słupca, Poljska, 2013; Obszary rysunku, izložba crtanja u Galeriji Jesuits, 2013; Akt II Skalar galerija, Poznan, Poljska. klara.kondracka@gmail.com

Maciej Dziekan (1991), student Rođen 1991. godine na severozapadu Poljske. 2013. godine diplomirao na Univerzitetu umetnosti u Poznanu na odseku za fotografiju gde je trenutno na master studijama. Odsek za multimedijalne komunikacije, V godina. dziekanart@gmail.com www.maciejdziekan.com

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University of Novi Sad, Academy of Arts, Serbia

Nikola Nikolić (1991), student Born in Aleksinac, Serbia where he finished elementary school “Ljupče Nikolić” and elementary music school “Vladimir Đorđević”. Participated in many art workshops and colonies at the school. Finished Secondary Art School in Niš in 2011, Department of graphic design. Participated in many group exhibitions and competitions in school (photography, graphics). Student of the Academy of Arts in Novi Sad since 2012, where he exhibited his works in the project Razlike in 2013 and 2014. Painting, 3rd year. artistablah@gmail.com

Stanislav Drča (1993), student Born in Novi Sad where he attended grammar school “Jovan Jovanović Zmaj” and elementary music school “Isidor Bajić”, department: piano. With the school choir participated in many competitions and festivals in country and abroad. Worked as a graphic editor (2011 - 2012) in a school magazine “Skamija” for which he received an award at “Brankovo kolo” Festival. Selected Exhibitions and Projects: Razlike 2013; Medvedi 2014; Shortz 2013; volunteered at Republika Fest in Rijeka, Croatia in 2013; Pannonian Art Path 2013/2014; video support for the exhibition Pun K. Nikole Puzigaće; F.A.C.K Project 2014; Projekat Nova Kolekcija 2014. New Visual Media, 3rd year. stanislav.drca@gmail.com

Stefan Stojanović (1993), student Born in Vranje, attended secondary Art School in Niš, department of Painting. During his education he participated in numerous group exhibitions. Selected exhibitions and projects: Biennial of Miniature, Gornji Milanovac (2010); Project Lidice, Czech Republic (2012) where he was awarded for one of the best works from Serbia; competition Exlibris Interetno (awarded several times); Razlike (2013); Razlike (2014). Painting, 3rd year. tagnacht@hotmail.com

Teodora Ivkov (1994), student Attended secondary art school “Bogdan Šuput”, department of graphic design. Currently a student at the Academy of Arts in Novi Sad, department of photography. teodora.ivkovivkov@gmail.com

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Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Akademija umetnosti, Srbija

Nikola Nikolić (1991), student Rođen 1991. u Aleksincu, gde je završio osnovnu školu „Ljupče Nikolić“ i osnovnu muzičku školu „Vladimir Đorđević“. U toku osnovne škole učestvovao na raznim likovnim sekcijama i kolonijama. Završio srednju Umetničku školu u Nišu 2011. godine, smer grafički dizajn. Učestvovao na školskim izložbama i konkursima iz oblasti fotografije i likovne grafike. Upisao slikarstvo na Akademiji umetnosti u Novom sadu 2012. godine gde je izlagao na projektu Razlike 2013. i 2014. godine. Slikarstvo, III godina. artistablah@gmail.com

Stanislav Drča (1993), student Rođen u Novom Sadu gde je završio gimnaziju „Jovan Jovanović Zmaj“, prirodno-matematički smer. Pohađao nižu muzičku školu „Isidor Bajić“ na odseku za klavir. Sa horom Gimnazije „Jovan Jovanović Zmaj“ učestvovao na mnogobrojnim takmičenjima i smotrama u zemlji i inostranstvu. Dve godine (2011 i 2012.) radio kao grafički urednik gimnazijskog časopisa „Skamija“ kada je dobio priznanje na festivalu „Brankovo kolo“. Odabrana izlaganja i projekti: Razlike 2013; Medvedi 2014; Shortz 2013; volonter Republika Fest u Rijeci 2013; Pannonian Art Path 2013/2014; video podrška za izložbu Pun K. Nikole Puzigaće; F.A.C.K Project 2014; Projekat Nova Kolekcija 2014. Novi likovni mediji,III godina. stanislav.drca@gmail.com

Stefan Stojanović (1993), student Rođen u Vranju, srednju Umetničku školu završio u Nišu, smer slikarstvo. Tokom školovanja učestvovao u brojnim grupnim izložbama. Odabrane izložbe i projekti : Bijenale minijature, Gornji Milanovac (2010); projekat Lidice, Češka (2012) gde je nagrađen za jedan od najboljih radova iz Srbije; konkurs Exlibris Interetno (nagrađivan nekoliko puta); Razlike (2013); Razlike (2014). Katedra za slikarstvo, III godina. tagnacht@hotmail.com

Teodora Ivkov (1994), student Završila srednju umetničku školu za dizajn “Bogdan Šuput” 2013. godine, smer grafički dizajn. Trenutno student na Akademiji umetnosti u Novom Sadu, smer fotografija. teodora.ivkovivkov@gmail.com

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BIZARRE LOVE TRIANGLE. THE PUBLIC SCULPTURES OF NOVI SAD

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City Tour / Obilasci lokacija

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Setting up of the Exhibition Postavljanje izlo탑be

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Opening of the Exhibition / Otvaranje izlo탑be The Student Cultural Centre of Novi Sad Fabrika Studentski kulturni centar Novi Sad Fabrika October 2014 / oktobar 2014. 99


BIZARRE LOVE TRIANGLE. THE PUBLIC SCULPTURES OF NOVI SAD

University of Pécs, Faculty of Music and Visual Arts, Hungary Univerzitet u Pečuju, Fakultet muzičkih i vizuelnih umetnosti, Mađarska Academy of Arts in Banská Bystrica, Faculty of Fine Arts, Slovakia Akademija umetnosti u Banskoj Bistrici, Fakultet likovnih umetnosti, Slovačka University of Arts in Poznań, Poland Univerzitet umetnosti Poznan, Poljska University of Novi Sad, Academy of Arts, Serbia Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Akademija umetnosti, Srbija


BIZARRE LOVE TRIANGLE THE PUBLIC SCULPTURES OF NOVI SAD

Publisher / Izdavač: University of Novi Sad, Academy of Arts Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Akademija umetnosti Đure Jakšića 7, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia / Srbija www.akademija.uns.ac.rs Publisher / Glavni i odgovorni urednik: Prof. Zoran Krajišnik, Dean / dekan   Editor-in-Chief / Urednik izdanja: Bosiljka Zirojević Lečić, Full Professor / redovni profesor   Graphic Design / Grafičko oblikovanje: Goran Despotovski, Associate Professor / vanredni profesor   Design of Logo / Dizajn logoa projekta: Goran Despotovski, Associate Professor / vanredni profesor   Preface / Predgovor: Bosiljka Zirojević Lečić, Full Professor / redovni profesor   Authors of the Texts / Autori teksta: Dr Ania K. England Sanja Kojić Mladenov Miroslav Šilić Zoran Pantelić Đula Šanta   Authors of the Photos / Autori fotografija: Miroslav Šilić Teodora Ivkov Maciej Dziekan Gergely Mészáros   Translation / Prevod: Bojana Borković   Circulation / Tiraž: 300   Printed by / Štampa: Štamparija IŠD “CICERO” d.o.o. Beograd     Novi Sad, January / januar 2015.

This project is supported by International Visegrad Fund Projekat je podržao International Visegrad Fund This publication is financed by International Visegrad Fund. Ova publikacija je finansirana sredstvima International Visegrad Fund-a.

Project team / Projektni tim: Prof. Bosiljka Zirojević Lečić project coordinator / koordinator projekta Prof. Goran Despotovski website and project design / dizajn i vizuelni indetitet projekta Dr Ania K. England project assistant / saradnik na projektu Bojan Novaković project assistant / saradnik na projektu Svetlana Putnik project accountant / finansije Bojana Borković project administrator / administrator projekta

www.visegradfund.org www.bizarrelovetriangle.akademija.uns.ac.rs www.akademija.uns.ac.rs www.art.pte.hu www.uap.edu.pl www.aku.sk


CIP - Каталогизација у публикацији Библиотека Матице српске, Нови Сад 730:71 BIZARRE love triangle : the public sculptures of Novi Sad / [autori teksta Ania K. England ... [et al.] ; autori fotografija Miroslav Šilić ... [et al.] ; urednik izdanja Bosiljka Zirojević-Lečić ; prevod Bojana Borković]. - Novi Sad : Akademija umetnosti, 2015 (Beograd : “Cicero”). - 98 str. : ilustr. ; 25 cm Uporedo srp. tekst i engl. prevod. - Tiraž 300. ISBN 978-86-88191-48-7 1. Енгланд, Аниа [аутор] a) Скулптуре - Јавни простори COBISS.SR-ID 293404679


BIZARRE LOVE TRIANGLE - THE PUBLIC SCULPTURES OF NOVI SAD

BIZARRE LOVE TRIANGLE. THE PUBLIC SCULPTURES OF NOVI SAD  

The project Bizarre Love Triangle. The Public Sculptures of Novi Sad is designed as an attempt of artists and students of art to tackle the...

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