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{]km[I°pdn∏v ]›n-a-L-´- hn-I-k-\-hp-am-bn- _-‘-s∏´ ]T-\-dn-t∏m¿´v s{]m^.-am-[hv KmUvKn¬ IΩ‰n, tI{μ- h\w ]cn-ÿnXn a{¥m-e-b-Øn\v ka¿∏n-®n´v Ct∏mƒ c≠v h¿jw ]n∂n-´n-cn-°p-∂p. F∂n-cp-∂mepw IΩ-‰n-bpsS ip]m¿i-Isf A[n-I-cn®v kPo-h-amb N¿®-Iƒ hnhn-[X - e - ß - f - n¬ Ct∏mgpw \S-°p-∂p-≠v. apJy-ambpw Bdv Imcy-ßsfbmWv dnt∏m¿´v ]cm-a¿in-°p-∂-Xv. (1) ]›n-a-L´w kw_-‘n® hnh-c-ß-fpsS t{ImUo-I-cWw (2) ]cn-ÿn-Xn-hn-teme {]tZ-i-ß-sf X-cw-Xn-cn-®-dn-b¬ (3) -Xn-cn-®-dn™ {]tZiß-fpsS XcwXn-cn-®p≈ ]cn-c-£Ww (4) ]›n-a-L-´-\n-hm-kn-I-fpsS Pohn-Xkp-c£ (5) ]›n-a-L´ hnI-k\w ]¶m-fnØ ssien-bn¬ B°¬ (6) ta¬t\m´ Npa-Xe \n¿h-ln-°m≥ ]›n-a-L´ AtXm-dn-‰n-bpsS cq]o-IcWw, F∂n-h-bmWv Ah. AXncp-hn´ hn`-h-hn-\n-tbmKw\SØn t\´ap≠m°p∂ Hcp-\yq-\-]£w KmUvKn¬ IΩ‰n apt∂m-´p-h-bv°p∂ ]e- ip-]m¿i-Ifpw X≈n-°-f-b-W-sa-∂mWv Bh-iy-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. F∂m¬ ]cn-c£ - W - Ø - n-eqsS Zo¿L-Ime hnI-k\w km[y-am-°pI F∂ dnt∏m¿´ns‚ auenIkao-]\w apgp-h≥ P\-hn-`m-K-߃°pw KpW-I-c-am-Wp-Xm-\pw. Bb-Xn-\m¬ ip]m¿i-I-fpsS A¥:kØ tNm¿Øn-°-f-bmsX Ah -P-\-t£-a-]-c-am-bpw, ÿeIme {]k-‡n-tbm-sSbpw, hnI-k-t\m-∑p-J-ambpw Fßs\ {]tbmKØnem°mw F∂-Xn-\mWv {]k-‡n. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse {]Ir-Xn-hn-`-h-ßsf Zo¿L-Im-em-Snÿm-\-Øn¬ ]cn-c-£n-°p-I-bpw, imkv{Xo-b-am-bn- A-hsb hn\n-tbm-Kn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂-Xn-\p≈ {]mtbm-KnI\S-]-Sn-I-fmWv KmUvKn¬ IΩ‰n ip]m¿iIfn¬ \n∂v Dcp- Ø n- c n- s ®- S p- t °- ≠ - X v . CØcw {ia- ß ƒ°v ]n≥_- e - t a- I m≥ ]›n- a L´ ]cn-ÿnXn hnZ-Kv[-k-anXn dnt∏m¿´ns‚ ae-bm-f-]cn`mj Gsd {]tbm-P-\ -s∏-Spsa-∂mWv imkv{X-km-ln-Xy-]-cn-jØv hniz-kn-°p-∂-Xv. aebmfØn¬ {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°p-∂Xn\v {]tNm-Z\w \¬Inb s{]m^. am[hv KmUvKn¬, tUm. ]n.-F-kv. hnP-b≥ F∂n-h-tcmSpw ]cn-`mj \n¿Δ-ln® {io. lcnZm-k≥ DÆn-Øm≥, {io. APnØv shÆn-bq¿, tUm.- kn.-F-kv. tKm]-Ip-am¿ F∂n-htcmSpw ]cn-j-Øns‚ \μn tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p.

tIc-f- im-kv{X-km-lnXy ]cn-jØv


aebmfw ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn hnZKv[kanXn dnt∏m¿´v H∂mw ]Xn∏v : sk]vXw-_¿ 2013 {]km-[-\w, hnX-cWw : tIcf imkv{X-km-lnXy ]cn-j-Øv Xr»q¿ ˛ 680004

C˛-sa-bn¬ : publicationkssp@gmail.com en]n hn\ymkw : sF amIv Xr»q¿

A®Sn : sXtc Hm^vsk‰v {]nt‚gvkv A¶-amen

malayalam Report of the Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel First edition : September 2013 Published & Distributed by : Kerala Sasthra Sahithya Parishath Thrissur - 680004 e-mail : publicationkssp@gmail.com Type setting : Imac Thrissur printing : Theressa offset printers Angamaly

{]kn≤oIcWkanXn s{]m^.sI.{io[c≥ (sNb¿am≥) tUm.Imhpºmbn _meIrjvW≥ (I¨ho\¿) AwK߃ tUm.Fw.]n.]ctaizc≥, s{]m^.kn.sP.-inhi¶c≥, ]n.apcfo[c≥, kn.Fw.apcfo[c≥, sI.sI.IrjvWIpam¿, s{]m^.Fw.inhi¶c≥, s{]m^.efnX se\n≥, Cu.Un.tUhokv, s{]m^.]n.sI.cho{μ≥,sI.Sn.cm[mIrjvW≥, P\p, s{]m^.Fw.sI.{]kmZv, tUm._meIrjvW≥ sNdq∏, s{]m^.sI.]m∏q´n, ]n.F.X¶®≥, ]n.Fw.Ko-X, sI.cm[≥, tUm.F≥.-sI.iin[c≥]n≈, hn.hn.{io\nhmk≥, ]n.sI.\mcmbW≥

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]›n-aL-´ ]-cn-ÿnXn hnZKv[ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v

tI{μ -]-cn-ÿnXn h\w -a-{¥m-ebØn\p ka¿∏n-°p-∂Xv

BKÃv 31, 2011


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Ih¿ Unssk≥ : tIcf kwÿm\ ssPh sshhn[y t_m¿Uv

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iv


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]m\¬ AwK߃ s{]m^. am[hv KmUvKn¬ sNb¿am≥ {io. _n.-sP. IrjvW≥ saº¿ tUm. sI.-F≥. KtW-iø saº¿ tUm. hn.-F-kv. hnP-b≥ saº¿ s{]m^. ({io-a-Xn) dn\n t_m¿Pkv saº¿ s{]m^. B¿. {ioIp-am¿ saº¿ tUm. enPnb s\mtdmW saº¿ {ioa-Xn. hnZy Fkv. \mbIv saº¿ tUm. Un.-sI. kp{_-“Wyw saº¿ tUm. B¿.-hn. h¿Ω saº¿ (F-Ivkv. H^o-tjym) sN-b¿am≥, tIcf kwÿm\ ssPh-ssh-hn[y t_m¿Uv sNb¿am≥, tZiob ssPh-ssh-hn[y AtXm-dn‰n (NBA) saº¿ (F-Ivkv. H^o-tjym) s{]m^. Fkv.-]n. KuXw saº¿ (F-Ivkv. H^o-tjym) sNb¿am≥, tI{μ aen-\o-I-cW \nb-{¥W t_m¿Uv (CPCB) tUm. B¿. B¿. \h¬Kp≠v saº¿ (F-Ivkv. H^o-tjym) Ub-d-IvS¿, kvt]kv Bπn-t°-j≥ sk‚¿ (SAC) tUm. Pn.-hn. kp{_-“Wyw saº¿-˛s - k-{I-´dn (F-Ivkv. H^o-tjym) AssUz-k¿ (RE), tI{μ ]cn-ÿnXn h\w a{¥m-ebw

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v


D≈S°w


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

BapJw h¿[n-®p-h-cp-∂ ]cn-ÿnXn \mi-Øns‚ Xo{hX Ipd-bv°pI F∂ e£y-tØmsS tI{μ-˛kw-ÿm-\-˛-{]m-tZ-inI `c-W-Iq-S-X-e-Ønepw P\-Io-b-X-e-Ønepw ImgvN-sh-°p∂ ]cn-ÿnXn kulrZ {]Xn-I-c-W-߃sIm≠v \ΩpsS cmPyw {it≤-b-am-bn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂ Hcp Ime-L-´am-Wn-Xv. \memw ]©-h¬k-c-]-≤-Xn-bpsS XpS°w (1970-I-fn¬) apX¬°p-Xs∂ {]mh¿Øn-Iam-°n-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂ kpÿnc hnI-k-\-X-{¥-Øn-eq-∂nb I¿a-]-≤-Xn-Iƒ, ]cn-ÿnXn ]cn-KW-\-bn-eq-∂nb hnI-k\ ImgvN-∏mSv F∂ Bibw hfsc apt∂-Xs∂ kzmwio-I-cn® Hcp cmPysa∂ JymXnbpw \ap°v t\Sn-Ø-∂n-´p-≠v. CuZri {]h¿Ø-\-߃, cmPyw F{X-am{Xw Bflm¿Yambpw Kuc-h-X-c-hp-am-bn´pw BWv ImWp-∂Xv F∂-Xns‚ aIp-tSm-Zm-l-c-W-amWv ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn hnZKv[ ]m\-en\v cq]w-sIm-Sp-Øp-sIm≠v tI{μ ]cn-ÿnXn h\w a{¥m-ebw ]pdØn-d-°nb DØ-c-hv. Zo¿L-Ime hnI-k\w km¿∞-I-am-°m-\p≈ GsXmcp \o°-Øn\p ]n∂nepw ]›n-aL´wt]mep≈ Hcp `q{]-tZ-i-Øn\v tI{μ-ÿm\w D≠v F∂ Imcy-Øn¬ X¿°-an-√. tKmZm-h-cn, IrjvW, t\{Xm-h-Xn, Imth-cn, Ip¥n, sshssK, F∂o alm-\-Zn-Iƒ°p ]pdta H´-t\Iw sNdp \Zn-Iƒ°pw ]pg-Iƒ°pw Poh-Pew \¬In kwc-£n-°p∂ {]IrXn amXm-hns‚ ÿm\-amWv C¥y≥ D]-`q-J-fi-Øns‚ ss]Xr-I-amb ]›n-a-L-´-Øn\v I¬]n-®n-´p-≈-Xv. Imfn-Zm-k≥ CXns\ Hcp I\y-I-tbm-SmWv D]-an-®n-´p-≈-Xv. AK-ÿy-ae inc- mbpw AXn\p Xmsg AÆm -a-e-bpw, \oe-Kn-cnbpw Db¿∂ amdn-S-ßfm-bpw, ]c-∂p-cp≠ Im\-d, tKmh ae-Iƒ at\m-l-c-amb \nXw-_-ß-fm-bpw, DØc klym-{Zn-a-e-Isf \o´n ]nf¿Øn-sh® Imep-I-fmbpw Imfn-Zm-k≥ h¿Æn-®n-´p-≠v. \n¿`m-Ky-h-im¬ lcnX taem-∏ns‚ I´n-bmb ]®-∏´v ]pX®v {]uV-bmbn hncmNn-®n-cp∂ Ah-fn∂v AXns‚ Iodn-∏-dn™ Ah-in-jvS-߃ Np‰n \mWw ad-bv°m-\m-hmsX tIgp∂ ÿnXn-bn-em-Wv. AXns\ Cßs\ ]n®n-®o-¥n-b-Xn\v ]n∂n¬ Zcn-{Z-cpsS ]in-b-S°m-\p≈ ]cm-{I-a-tØ-°m-fp-]cn AXn-k-º-∂-cpsS AS°n \ndp-Øm-\m-hmØ B¿Øn-bpsS Iq¿Ø \J-ß-fmWv F∂Xv Ncn-{XkXyw am{X-am-Wv. Z£n-tW-¥y-bpsS ]cn-ÿnXn kpc-£bpsS B[m-chpw kmº-ØnIkpc-£-bpsS ASn-Ø-d-bp-amb ]›n-a-L´w G‰p-hm-ßnb Hcp Zpc¥ Ah-ÿ-bm-WnXv F∂ Imcy-Øn¬ X¿°-an-√. ]cn-ÿnXn Zpc-¥-Øns‚ Icn-\n-g-en¬ Ign-bp-tºmgpw kmam\y P\-X-bpsS Db¿∂ km£c-Xbpw ]cn-ÿnXn Ah-t_m-[hpw Cu taJ-e-bpsS ]p\x-cp-≤m-c-W-Øn\v {]Xym-i-bpsS {]Imiw ]c-Øp-∂p. A[n-Im-c-hn-tI-{μo-IrX {ia-ßfn-eqsS P\m-[n-]Xy kwhn-[m\w i‡n-{]m-]n-°p-IbmWv F∂Xv as‰mcp km[y-X-bm-Wv. {]tXy-In®pw tIcfwt]mep≈ kwÿm-\߃ ]©mbØo cmPv ÿm]-\-ß-fpsS im‡o-I-c-W-Øn\pw tijn-h¿[-\-hn\pw th≠n \S-Øp∂ {ia߃ C¥y-bn¬ Xs∂ amXr-I-bm-Wv. tKmh kwÿm\w \S-∏n-em-°nb ‘doPn-b-W¬ πm≥ 2021’ F∂ ]≤Xn, `qhn-\n-tbmK \b-Øn¬ {Kma-k-`-I-fpsS ]¶m-fnØw Dƒt®¿°p-∂-Xns‚ \√ DZm-l-c-W-am-Wv. Cu coXn-bn¬ hne-bn-cp-Øp-tºmƒ ]cn-ÿnXn kulr-Z-]-chpw P\-tI-{μo-IrX-hp-amb Hcp hnI-k\ coXn {]mh¿Øn-I-am-°p-∂-Xn\v ]›n-a-L´w F¥p-sIm≠pw tbmPn® Hcp {]tZ-i-amWv F∂v Xo¿®-s∏-Sp-Ømw. C{]-Imcw Atß A‰w {]Xo-£m-\n¿`-c-amb Hcp kml-Ncyw ap∂n¬ I≠p-sIm-≠mWv ]›n-a-L´ hnZKv[ ]m\¬ NpaXe Gs‰-Sp-Ø-Xv. Hcp _lp-Xe {]h¿Ø\ X{¥-amWv ]m\¬ Bhn-jvI-cn-®Xv. AXns‚ apJy LS-I-߃ Cßs\ t{ImUo-I-cn-°mw. (i) ]›n-a-L-´-hp-ambn

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vii


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

_‘-s∏´ e`y-amb apgp-h≥ hnh-c-ßfpw tiJ-cn-°p-I, (ii) ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]cn-ÿnXn hnteme taJe Xncn-®-dn-bp-∂-Xn\v B[m-c-am-°m-hp∂ _lp-apJ am\-Z-fi-ß-f-S-ßnb ka-{K-amb Hcp Pntbm-kvt]-jy¬ hnhc ASn-Ød D≠m-°p-I, (iii) ]›n-a-L´ {]tZ-i-ß-fp-ambn t\cn´v kwthZn-°p-\\ hnhn[ P\-hn-`m-K-߃, _‘-s∏´ Pn√sb {]Xn-\n-[o-I-cn-°p∂ Fw.-]n. am¿, Fw.F¬.-F.-am¿, XrXe ]©m-bØo cmPv kwhn-[m-\-ßfn-te°p sXc-s™-Sp-°-s∏´ P\-{]-Xn-\n[n-I-fpw, {]kn-U-≠p-amcpw Dƒs∏sS hn]p-e-amb Hcp P\-k-©-bsØ t\cn¬ I≠v N¿® \SØn hnhcw tiJ-cn-°p-I. CØcw N¿®-Iƒ Hs°-Øs∂ ]c-ky-ambpw XnI™ kpXm-cyX Dd-∏m-°n-s°m≠pw \SØm≥ kan-Xn°p Ign™p F∂Xv Nmcn-Xm¿∞y-P-\-I-am-Wv. s]mXp hnh-c-ti-J-c-Øn-s‚bpw ]T-\-ßfp-sSbpw ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ Xøm-dm-°nb Pntbm-kvt]-jy¬ Um‰m t_kv F√m-h¿°pw e`y-am-I-Ø-°-hn-[-Øn¬ Hcp {]tXyI sh_v ssk‰mbn \ne-\n-dp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. Ign™ H∂c h¿j Ime-b-f-hn¬ ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn hnZKv[ kanXn 14 XhW ]m\¬ tbmKw tNcp-Ibpw ]›n-a-L-´-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´ hnhn[ {]iv\-߃ Iq´mbn ]cn-tim[n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. tbmK \S-]-Sn-I-fp-sSbpw a‰pw an\nSvkv tI{μ ]cn-ÿnXn h\w a{¥m-e-bØns‚ sh_v ssk‰n¬ e`y-am-Wv. kμ¿i\ ]T-\-ß-fpw, hnZ-Kv[-cp-am-bn-´p≈ A`n-ap-J-hpw, hne-bn-cp-ج tbmK-ßfpw CXns‚ `mK-ambn \S-∂p. Ch-bn-se√mw A¥¿eo-\-am-bn-cp∂ s]mXpe£yw ]T-\߃°v IrXy-amb Hcp imkv{Xob coXn-imkv{Xw hnI-kn-∏n-°p-∂-Xn\pw ]¶mfnØ {]{In-b-bn-eqsS AXns\ IqSp-X¬ sa®-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xn\pw th≠n Bbn-cp-∂p. apJy-ambpw aq∂vv Imcy-ßsf A[n-I-cn-®mWv dnt∏m¿´v Xøm-dm-°n-bn-´p-≈-Xv. Ah C{]-Imc-am-Wv. (i) kanXn XnI™ Ah-[m-\-X-tbmsS \S-Ønb ]cn-tim-[\-I-fp-sSbpw hne-bn-cp-Ø-ens‚bpw ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ ]›n-a-L-´sØ aq∂v taJ-e-bn¬ hcp∂ ]cn-ÿnXn hnteme {]tZ-iß-fmbn Xcw Xncn-®p. (ii) A{]-Imcw Xcw Xncn® Hmtcm taJ-e-bp-sSbpw {]tXy-I-X-Iƒ Xncn®-dn-bm-\pw ]cn-c£ - n-°m-\p-ap-≈ am\-Zfi ß - fpw Xøm-dm-°n, (iii) ]›n-aL - ´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtYmdn‰n cq]o-I-cn®v {]h¿Ø-\-£-a-am-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ Hcp N´-°qSpw Xøm-dm-°n-bn-´p-≠v. AXn-_r-l-Ømb Cu {]h¿Ø\w ka-b-_-‘n-X-ambn ]q¿Øn-bm-°m≥ Ign-™Xv kanXn-bp-ambn kl-I-cn®v {]h¿Øn® \nc-h[n hnZ-Kv[-cp-sSbpw kwL-S-\-I-fp-sSbpw ÿm]-\-ß-fpsSbpw k∑-\- p-sIm≠p am{X-am-Wv. ssPh-ssh-hn-[y-Øns‚ \n[n-Ipw-`-sa∂pw ss]Xr-I-sa∂pw temI-amsI JymXn-bp≈ ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-bp-ambn _‘-s∏´v CØ-c-samcp {]h¿Ø\w \S-Øm≥ Akp-e` kμ¿`w Hcp-°n-Ø∂ tI{μ ]cn-ÿnXn h\w a{¥m-e-b-Øn\pw a‰p-≈h¿°pw ]m\-en-\p≈ IrXm¿∞X tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p.

(H-∏v) s{]m^. am[hv KmUvKn¬ sNb¿am≥ ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn hnZKv[ kanXn

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viii


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

\μn ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-bn¬\n-∂p≈ temI-k-`m-Kw-K-߃, _‘-s∏´ kwÿm-\-ß-fnse a{¥nam¿, Fw.-F¬.-F.am¿, _lp-am-\s - ∏´ tI{μ-]c - n-ÿnXn h\w a{¥n F∂o al-Xvhy-‡n-Iƒ \¬Inb klmb kl-I-c-W-߃°v ]›n-a-L´ hnZKv[ kanXn \μn tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. ]›n-a-L´ kwÿm-\-ßfnse ]©m-bØo cmPv ÿm]-\ß-ƒ, {Kma-hn-I-k\ hIp-∏v, ]cnÿnXn h\w-h-Ip-∏v, tIcf C≥Ãn-‰yq´v Hm^v tem°¬ AUvan-\n-kvt{S-j≥, tIcf h\ KthjW tI{μw XpS-ßnb apgp-h≥ ÿm]-\-߃°pw Ah¿ \¬Inb tkh-\-ß-fpsS t]cn¬ \μn tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. hnZKv[ ]m\-ep-ambn kl-I-cn®pw kwth-Zn®pw {]h¿Øn® H´-\-h[n ]uckw-L-S-\-I-fpw, ]cn-ÿnXn kwL-S-\-Ifpw D≠v. \b-cq-]o-I-c-W-Øn¬ hy‡X hcp-Ønbpw ]cnÿnXn ]cn-c-£-W-Øn\v A\p-tbm-Py-amb am\-Z-fi-߃ Dcp-Øn-cn®pw {]tXy-In®v ]cn-ÿnXn hnteme taJe Xcw-Xn-cn-°p∂ Imcy-Ønepw Hs° \n¿Wm-b-I-amb kw`m-h-\-I-fmWv Chcn¬\n∂pw kan-Xn°p e`n-®-Xv. dnt∏m¿´ns‚ A\p-_‘ `mKØv Ch-cpsS t]cp-Iƒ tN¿Øn-´p≠v. F√m-h¿°pw D≈ \μn ChnsS tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. kμ¿i-\-th-f-I-fn¬ hnK-≤-k-an-Xnsb Dujva-f-ambn hc-th¬°p-I-bpw, Bh-iy-amb hnhc-߃ a\- n-em-°m≥ kuI-cy-sam-cp-°p-Ibpw sNbvX ]›n-a-L´ \nhm-kn-I-fpsS ]¶v hfsc hep-Xm-bn-cp∂p F∂mWv kanXn hne-bn-cp-Øp-∂-Xv. kp{]ow tImSXn A`n-`m-j-I-\pw, ELDF amt\-Pnßv ]m¿SvW-dp-amb {io. k©bv D]m-[ymb \¬Inb hnZKv[ D]-tZ-iw, ]›n-a-L´ AtXm-dn‰n cq]o-I-c-W-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´ am\-Z-fi-ß-fp≠m-°p∂ Imcy-Øn¬ hfsctbsd klm-b-I-c-ambn F∂ Imcyw \μn-]q¿hw kvacn-°p-∂p. Pntbm-kvt]-jy¬ Um‰m-t_-kp-ambn _-‘-s∏´ {]h¿Ø-\-߃°pw, ]cn-kvXnXn hnteme taJ-e-bpsS Xncn-®-dn-b-en-\p≈ am\-Z-fi-߃ D≠m-°p∂ Imcy-Ønepw tUm. Fkv.-F≥. {]kmZv \¬Inb tkh\w hne-a-Xn-°m-\m-Im-Ø-Xm-bn-cp-∂p. At±-l-Øn-\p≈ \μnbpw ChnsS Ipdn-°p∂p. H∏w Xs∂ ta¬]-d™ {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn¬ klm-bn® Xmsg ]d-bp-∂-h-cpsS tkh-\߃°p≈ \μnbpw tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. 1.

{io. Inc¨, {io. hn. {io\n-hm-k≥, tUm. PK-Zoiv IrjvW-kzm-an, {ioaXn Acp-≤Xn Zmkv

2.

FERAL

3.

sIb¿ F¿Ønse tUm. RJR Um\n-b¬kv

4.

ZSI

5.

s{]m^. B¿. kpIp-am¿

6.

tUm. sI.-F≥. KtW-iø

7.

tUm. ]n.-F-kv. tdmbn

8.

tUm. _dq-®, tUm. jmanX (BVIEER), tUm. sPbv ka-¥v, At±-l-Øns‚ kl-{]-h¿ØI¿ (DEVRAAI)

9.

tUm. sI.-F-kv. cmP≥ (Pn-tbm-kvt]-jy¬ ^ut≠-j≥)

se {io. cho{μ `√, CEPF se {io. `mkvI¿ BNmcy

se tUm. sI.-F. kp{_-“-Wy≥

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

ix


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

10.

tUm. ]n.hn.-sI. \mb¿ (tI-cf h\ Kth-jW tI{μw)

11.

{io. kt¥mjv tK°vhmZv, {io. inh-Ir-jvW≥, {io chn-Ip-am¿, {io. A∏-em-Nm-cn, {io. kmbv {]kmZv

12.

{ioaXn AarX tPmIvte°¿

C¥y≥ C≥Ãn-‰yq´v Hm^v kb≥kv _wK-fq-cp-hn¬ h®v \S-Ønb kan-Xn-bpsS N¿®m-tbmK-߃°v F√m kuI-cy-ßfpw Hcp-°nb {ioaXn KoX KmUvIm-°-dn-\p≈ {]tXyI \μn ChnsS Ipdn-°p-∂p. U¬ln-bnse Du¿P hn`-h-tI-{μ-Ønse (TERI) {ioaXn ktcmPv \mb¿, {ioaXn ssjen tIUnb F∂n-h¿°pw, dnt∏m¿´v X-øm-dm-°m-\pw, Kth-j-W-k-lm-b-߃°pw th≠n \¬Inb ]n¥p-W-bpsS t]cn¬ \μn tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. tI{μ ]cn-ÿnXn h\w a{¥m-e-b-Ønse apgp-h≥ DtZym-K-ÿ¿°pw {]tXy-In®v U]yq´n Ub-d-IvS¿ Bb tUm. AaoXv temhn\pw Bflm¿∞-amb \μn tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp∂p.

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

x


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

D≈-S°w BapJw

vii

\μn

ix

]´nIIƒ

xv

Nn{X߃

xvi

t_mIvkpIƒ

xvii

List of Abbreviations

xix

`mKw 1 ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn hnZ-Kv[-k-anXn dnt∏m¿´v -˛ `mKw 1 ......................... 1 1.

kw{Klw ......................................................................................................... 1

2

BapJw .......................................................................................................... 3

3.

kan-Xn-bpsS Npa-Xe-Iƒ............................................................................ 3

4.

dnt∏m¿´ns‚ LS\ ...................................................................................... 4

5.

Gs‰-SpØ {]h¿Ø-\-߃ ........................................................................ 4

6.

]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ AXn-cp-Iƒ ................................................................. 5

7

`q{]-IrXn ....................................................................................................... 8

8

kpÿn-c-ambn hnI-kn-∏n-°pI ˛ {i≤m-]q¿Δw ]cn-c-£n-°pI ....... 12

9.

]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJ-e-Iƒ ................................................................ 16 9.1.

]›n-a-L´ Um‰m t_kv ........................................................................................... 17

10.

]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZi AXn¿Øn \n¿Æbw ............................... 20

11.

\ne-hn-ep≈ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-Iƒ A\p-`-h-]m-T-߃ ...... 27

12.

kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS Icp-X¬ IhNw ........................................ 38 12.1 `oam-i-¶¿ h\y-k-t¶Xw ............................................................................................ 40 12.2 AXn¿Øn-\n¿Æ-b-Øn\v P\m-[n-jvTnX kwhn-[m\w ..................................... 42

13.

taJemXe -{]-h¿Ø-\-߃°p≈ am¿§-tcJ .................................... 43 13.1

14.

taJem πm\p-Ifpw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-Ifpw ...................................... 53

]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n ......................................................... 56

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

xi


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

14.1. \nb-a] - c - a - mb N´-°qSvv ................................................................................................. 58

15.

BXn-c-∏n≈n, Kpfinb Pe-ssh-ZypX ]≤-Xn-Iƒ............................. 64 15.1. BXn-c-∏n≈n ]≤Xn ................................................................................................... 64 15.2 Kpfinb Pe-ssh-ZypX ]≤Xn ................................................................................ 71

16.

cXv\-Kncn, kn‘p-Zp¿§ Pn√-Iƒ ............................................................ 75 16.1. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-X-bpsS \ne-hmcw .................................................................. 76 16.2. ]cn-ÿnXn `cW \n¿Δ-l-W-Ønse t]mcmbva ............................................... 76 16.3 ip]m¿i-Iƒ ................................................................................................................... 79

17.

tKmh-bnse J\\w ..................................................................................... 81 17.1

Ah-ÿbpw am‰hpw .................................................................................................... 81

17.2. J\-\Ø - ns‚ Imev]m-Sp-Iƒ ...................................................................................... 81 17.3 `c-W-]-c-amb {]iv\-߃ ............................................................................................. 84 17.4 ip]m¿i-Iƒ ..................................................................................................................... 88

A\p-_‘w .......................................................................................................... 90 A\p-_‘w 1 : ]T-\-coXn ................................................................................................................ 90 A\p-_‘w 2 : ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJe ˛H∂v, taJe˛c≠v, taJe˛aq∂v F∂n-h hnhn[ ]›n-a-L-´-Xm-eq-°p-Iƒ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øp-∂Xp kw_-‘n® \n¿t±iw. ................................................................................ 95 A\p-_‘w 3 : 50 iX-am-\-Øn¬ Xmsg-bp≈ {]tZiw ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ Dƒs∏-´n-´p≈ NphsS ]d-bp∂ Xmeq-°p-Isf taJ-e-˛-H-∂n-epw, taJ-e-˛-c-≠nepw Dƒs∏-Sp-Øm≥ \n¿tZ-in-®p .......................................................................... 98 A\p-_‘w 4 : Id‚ v kb≥kv t]∏¿.................................................................................... 100

klm-bI tcJ-Iƒ ........................................................................................... 123 ]cn-injvS tcJ-Iƒ ............................................................................................112 ]cn-injvS tcJ a : ]›n-a-L´ hnZ-Kv[-k-an-Xn-bpsS \nb-a\w ..................................... 112 ]cn-injvS tcJ b: ]cn-tim-[n® ]T\ tcJ-Iƒ ................................................................. 117

`mKw 2 ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn hnZ-Kv[-k-anXn dnt∏m¿´v -˛ `mKw 2 ...................... 129 1.

]›n-a-L´ Bhm-k-hy-hÿ ˛ X¬ÿnXn ........................................ 129 `ua-˛-ssPh `qhn-`m-K-߃ .............................................................................................................. 130 a\p-jys‚ CS-s]-S-epIfpw ]mcn-ÿn-XnI {]Xym-Lm-X-ßfpw ...................................... 136

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

xii


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]›n-a-L´ Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bpsS X¬ÿnXn hne-bn-cp-ج ..................................... 142 ]›n-a-L-´-ß-fnse BhmktaJ-esb Imem-hÿmhyXn-bm\w `mhn-bn¬ F{]-Imcw _m[n°mw? ............................................................................................. 161

2.

taJ-em-X-e-Øn-ep≈ ip]m¿i-Iƒ........................................................ 164

2.1

Pe-hn-\n-tbmKw ...........................................................................................................164 DXvI-WvTm-P-\-I-amb {]iv\-߃ ................................................................................................ 166 ÿnXn sa-®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ \S-]-Sn-Iƒ ................................................................................... 168

2.2

Irjn ............................................................................................................................... 172 DXvI-WvTm-P-\-I-amb {]iv\-߃ ................................................................................................ 172 ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ \S-]-Sn-Iƒ ................................................................................... 173

2.3. arK-]-cn-]m-e\w ...........................................................................................................176 DXvI-WvTm-P-\-I-amb {]iv\-߃ ................................................................................................ 177 ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ D]m-[n-Iƒ ................................................................................... 178

2.4. a’y-k-ºØv ..............................................................................................................180 DXvI-WvTm-P-\-I-amb {]iv\-߃ ................................................................................................ 181 ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ D]m-[n-Iƒ ................................................................................... 181

2.5

h\-ßfpw ssPh-ssh-hn-≤yhpw ...........................................................................183 DXvI-WvTm-P-\-I-amb {]iv\-߃ ................................................................................................ 184 ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ D]m-[n-Iƒ ................................................................................... 201

2.6

kwL-SnX hyh-kmbw ............................................................................................ 202 DXvI-WvTm-P-\-I-amb {]iv\-߃ ................................................................................................ 204 ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ D]m-[n-Iƒ ................................................................................... 205

2.7

J\\w............................................................................................................................ 205 DXvI-WvTm-P-\-I-amb {]iv\-߃ ................................................................................................ 205 ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ D]m-[n-Iƒ ................................................................................... 206

2.8. sshZyp-Xnbpw Du¿÷hpw ........................................................................................ 211 D¬°WvT Db¿Øp∂ {]iv\-߃ ........................................................................................... 214 ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ D]m-[n-Iƒ ................................................................................... 215

2.9

hnt\mZ k©mcw....................................................................................................... 217 D¬°WvT Db¿Øp∂ {]iv\-߃ ........................................................................................... 217 ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ D]m-[n-Iƒ ................................................................................... 217

2.10. KXm-KXw .......................................................................................................................219 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

xiii


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

D¬°WvT Db¿Øp∂ {]iv\-߃ ........................................................................................... 219 ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ D]m-[n-Iƒ ................................................................................... 220

2.11. a\pjy A[n-hm-k-߃ DS-a-ÿ-X-bnepw Pohn-X-co-Xn-bnepw am‰w ...... 221 D¬°WvT Db¿Øp∂ {]iv\-߃ ........................................................................................... 219 ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ D]m-[n-Iƒ ................................................................................... 223

2.12. imkv{Xhpw kmt¶-XnI imkv{Xhpw ............................................................... 224 D¬°WvT Db¿Øp∂ {]iv\-߃ ........................................................................................... 224 ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ D]m-[n-Iƒ ................................................................................... 225

2.13. t]mj-Im-lm-chpw Btcm-Kyhpw ......................................................................... 226 3.

]›n-a-L-´-Ønse _lp-Xe `cWw .....................................................228 `c-W-kw-hn-[m-\-Ønse t]mcm-bva-Iƒ .................................................................................... 228 ÿnXn sa®-s∏SpØm-\p≈ `cW \S-]-Sn-Iƒ ...................................................................... 236 `mh-\m-]q¿Æ-amb ]cn-c-£-Whpw hnI-k-\hpw hnZym-`ymk-Øn-eqsS ...................... 242 ssPh-ssh-hn[y kwc-£-W-Ønte¿s∏-Sp∂ Iº-\n-Iƒ°pw s]mXp-P-\-߃°pw t\cn´v {]Xn-^ew.................................................................................... 247 temI-ss]-XrI I¨sh≥j≥ ..................................................................................................... 253

A\p-_-‘w .........................................................................................................254 A\p-_‘w 1 : tIc-f kwÿm\ ssPh-Irjn \bhpw I¿Ω-]-≤-Xnbpw, 2010............................................................................................................ 254 A\p-_‘w 2 : ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse [mXp-°-fpw, [mXp-D¬]m-Z-\hpw ........................... 270 a ]›n-a-L´ kwÿm-\-ß-fnse/Pn√-I-fnse [mXp-°ƒ ................................... 270 b 2007˛08 -se [mXp Dev]m-Z\w ...................................................................................... 272

A\p-_‘w 3 : sFIy-cmjv{S ÿncw t^md-Øn¬ C¥y ka¿∏n® BZn-hmknIfpsS {]iv\-߃ kw_-‘n® \n¿t±-i-ß-fnt∑¬ Db¿∂ FXn¿∏p-Iƒ ................................................................... 280

klm-bI tcJ-Iƒ ...........................................................................................282 ]cn-injvS tcJ-Iƒ ...........................................................................................284 ]cn-injvS tcJ 1 : ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn hnZKv[ kan-XntbmKØns‚ an\pSvkv ..................................................................................................................... 284 ]cn-injvS tcJ 2: ]›n-a-L´ hnZKv[ {Kq∏v I¿Ω-]-≤Xn.............................................. 290

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

xiv


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]´n-IIƒ `mKw 1 ]´nI 1

: ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ `qan-im-kv{X-]-c-amb \n¿W-b-߃ .................. 7

]´nI 2

: ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i-ambn {]Jym-]n-°m≥ ]pXp-Xmbn e`n® \n¿t±-i-߃..............................................................19

]´nI 3

: taJ-e-I-fn-te°v \n¿t±-in-®n-´p≈ {]tZiw 50% Øn¬ A[n-I-ap≈ ]›n-a-L-´-Pn-√-Iƒ .................................... 25

]´nI 4

: taJe H∂n-te°pw c≠n-te°pw \n¿t±-in-°-s∏-´n-´p≈ {]tZiw 50% Øn¬ Xmsg D≈ ]›n-a-L-´ Pn√-Iƒ ................ 25

]´nI 5

: kn‘p-Zn¿K Pn√-bnse ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ß-fmbn \n¿t±-in-°-s∏-´h ........................................................ 26

]´nI 6

: taJ-em-X-e-Øn-ep≈ \n¿±njvS am¿§-tc-J-Iƒ ............................... 43

]´nI 7

: Kpfinb ]≤-Xn-bpsS khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ ............................................ 72

]´nI 8

: J\-\-tØm-Sp≈ k¿sΔ {]Xn-I-cWw ................................................ 87

`mKw 2 ]´nI 1

: ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse hyXykvX `q{]-IrXn taJ-e-Ifpw Ah-bn¬ ImW-s∏-Sp∂ \nXy-l-cnX kky-h¿K-ßfpw ...............................................................132

]´nI 2

: ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ Ncn{Xw Hcp s]mXp Ah-tem-I\w .......................................................................137

]´nI 3

: hS-°≥ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse Umap-Iƒ ................................................139

]´nI 4

: kcnkvI ISph dnk¿Δnse ISp-h-I-fpsS FÆw ........................183

]´nI 5

: {]tXyI kmº-ØnI taJe (sk v) bpsS kwÿm-\m-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-ep≈ IW°v ............................................. 203

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

xv


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Nn{X-߃ `mKw 1 Nn{Xw 1 : ]›n-a-L´ {]tZiw .................................................................................. 7 Nn{Xw 2˛7: taJe 1 Dw 2 Dw 3 Dw, kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-ßfpw ˛ Xmeq-°-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ ........................................................................... 22 Nn{Xw 8 : tKmh-bnse Ccp-º-bncv Dev]m-Z\w (1992˛2009) ........................... 82 Nn{Xw 9 : tKmh-bnse J\-\m-\p-aXn \¬Inb {]tZ-i-߃ (tKmh ^ut≠-j≥ 2010) ......................................... 83

`mKw 2 Nn{Xw 1 : ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse aq∂v {][m\ taJ-e-Ifpw Ah-bnse HºXv `q{]-IrXn hn`m-K-ßfpw ................................. 131 Nn{Xw 2 : KpP-dm-Ønse ]›n-a-L´ taJe Nn{Xw 3 : alm-cmjv{S-bnse ]›n-a-L-´ -ta-Je ............................................ 156 Nn{Xw 4 : tKmh-bnse ]›n-a-L´ taJe ....................................................... 157 Nn{Xw 5 : I¿Wm-S-I-bnse ]›n-a-L´ taJe .............................................. 158 Nn{Xw 6 : tIc-f-Ønse ]›n-a-L-´-ta-Je ...................................................... 159 Nn{Xw 7 : tIc-f-Ønepw Xan-gv\m-´p-ap≈ ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-e-Iƒ ............. 160 Nn{Xw 8 : IqSp-X-ep≈ kky-Pm-e-߃162 Nn{Xw 9 : Imem-hÿm hyXn-bm-\-tØm-Sp≈ hnt[-bXz km[yX....... 163 Nn{Xw 10 : hnhn[ kwÿm-\-ß-fnse ]mNI/Du¿÷ Bh-iy-߃°p≈ Km¿lnI C‘\ D]-tbmKw (TDDEY 2010) ........................................................................... 212 Nn{Xw 11 : ]›n-a-L´ kwÿm-\-ß-fnse sshZypXn Dev]m-Z\w ........... 213

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

xvi


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

t_mIvkp-Iƒ `mKw 1 t_mIvkv 1 : tems´ MIDC cmk-hy-h-km-b-irw-J-ebpw Zmt_mƒ IS-en-Sp-°ns‚ aen-\o-I-c-Whpw ............................... 13 t_mIvk 2 : _n.B¿.Sn. ae-bnse tkmfnKm Kncn-P-\-߃ ....................... 14 t_mIvkv 3 : {]mtZ-inI ]¶m-fnØ amt\-Pvsa‚ v ........................................... 15 t_mIvkv 4 : ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ am∏n-ßn\v Ah-ew-_n® {]h¿Ø-\-coXn ................................................................................... 17 t_mIvkv 5 : Xmsg X´n-ep≈ Hcp kwcw`w ........................................................ 26 t_mIvkv 6 : {Kma-k-`-I-fpsS {]ta-b-Øns‚ {]k-‡-`mKw......................... 26 t_mIvkv 7: Zlm\p Xmeq°v ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£W AtXm-dn‰n ............. 27 t_mIvkv 8 : alm-_-te-iz¿ ]©-K\n ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿∫e taJe ........ 28 t_mIvkv 9 : alm-_-te-iz¿ ]©-K\n taJ-e-bnse ]uc-P-\-ß-fpsS {]Xn-I-cWw ....................................................... 36 t_mIvkv 10 : kwc-£n-X-h-\-Øn-t\mSv _‘-s∏´ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZi-Øn-\p-th≠n sIm¬lm-]q¿ ssh¬Uv sse^v Unhn-js‚ \n¿±n-jvS-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v N´-߃............ 39 t_mIvkv 11 : taJem πm\p-Ifpw ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´nbpw .............................................................. 53 t_mIvkv 12 : tKmh-bnse J\\w: s]mXp-Xm-ev]-cy-l¿Pn-Iƒ ................... 86

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

xvii


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

t_mIvkp-Iƒ

`mKw 2

t_mIvkv 1 : ]›n-a-L-´-\n-cIfpsS s]mXp khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ .................... 134 t_mIvkv 2 : Imep AW-s°´v ................................................................................ 170 t_mIvkv 3 : sshX-cW a’y-k-t¶Xw (alm-cm-jv{S) ................................. 183 t_mIvkv 4 : tjme-h\ \io-I-c-WsØ kw_-‘n®At\z-jWw ....... 186 t_mIvkv 5 : kwbp-‡-h\w amt\-Pvsa‚ v; ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ \n∂p≈ Hc-\p-`hw ........................................................................... 191 t_mIvkv 6 : h\-A-h-Imi \nb-ahpw hmg-®m-ense ImScpw .................... 193 t_mIvkv 7 : `c-Xv]q-cnse ZmcpW hnVnØw ................................................. 196 t_mIvkv 8 : _nen-Kncn cwK-kzman t£{X-a-e-Iƒ ....................................... 197 t_mIvkv 9 : cXv\-Kncn Pn√-bnse hmbp-hns‚ KpW-ta∑......................... 204 t_mIvkv 10 : \nb-{¥nX J\\ amXrI .............................................................. 209 t_mIvkv 11 : DØc ]›n-a-L-´-Øn-eq-sS-bp≈ tdmUp-I-fpsS ]´nI..... 221 t_mIvkv 12 : h\m-h-Im-i-\n-baw \S-∏m-°p-∂-Xp-kw-_-‘n®v F≥.-kn.-k-Ivtk\ IΩn‰n dnt∏m¿´v 2010 .............................. 233 t_mIvkv 13 : ]cn-ÿnXn ˛{]-IrXn hn`-h-am-t\-Pvsa‚n¬ \ne-hn-ep≈ \nb-{¥-W-Ønse t]mcmbva ............................ 235 t_mIvk 14 : πm®n-a-S-bnse A\p-`hw ................................................................ 238

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

xviii


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Npcp-s°-gpØpIƒ List of Abbreviations

`mKw 1 ATREE BMC BVIEER Research CCF CEA CEC CEIA CES CETP CFR CPSS CRDS CPCB CZMA DCR DEC DEVRAAI DP DEC DPC(s) DPDC DPR DRP DTEPA DTP EAC EPA EPR ESA ESL ESZ EVI FGD FRA FSI GAP

Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment Biodiversity Management Committee Bharati Vidyapeeth Institute of Environmental Education and Chief Conservator of Forests Central Electricity Authority Central Empowered Committee Comprehensive Environment Impact Assessment Centre for Ecological Sciences Common effluent treatment plant Community Forest Resources Chalakudy Puzha Samrakshana Samithi Chalakudy River Diversion Scheme Central Pollution Control Board Coastal Zone Management Authority Development Control Regulations District Ecology Committees Development Research, Awareness & Action Institute Development Plan District Ecological Committee District Planning Committee (s) District Planning and Development Council Detailed Project Report District Regional Plans Dahanu Taluka Environment Protection Authority Director of Town Planning Environment Appraisal Committee Environment Protection Act Environment (Protection) Rules Ecologically Sensitive Area Ecologically Sensitive Locality Ecologically Sensitive Zone Enhanced Vegetation Index Flue gas desulfurizer Forest Rights Act Floor Space Index Good Agricultural Practice

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

xix


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

GGGJDC GHEP GMO GMOEA GOK GoM GRIHA GRP HEP HLMC HT IBWL JNNURM KFRI KMDA KPCL KSBB KSEB KSSP LSG MAHASESA MMDR MCD MCM MCR MFD MGNREGA MIDC MMDR MODIS MoEF MoTA MPC MPESZ MPT MTDC NCAER NCF NDVI NEERI NIO OGC PA(s) PCCF PESA PIL PPP PRI

Goa Government’s Golden Jubilee Development Council Gundia Hydro-Electric Project Genetically modified organisms Goa Mineral Exporters Association Government of Karnataka Government of Maharashtra Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment Goa Regional Plan Hydro Electric Project High Level Monitoring Committee high tension Indian Board of Wild Life Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission Kerala Forest Research institute Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority Karnataka Power Corporation Limited Kerala State Biodiversity Board Kerala State Electricity Board Kerala Sastra Sahithya Parishath Local Self Governments Maharashtra Sahyadri Ecologically Sensitive Area Mines & Minerals (Development & Regulation) Act. Municipal Corporation Districts Million cubic metres Mineral Concession Rules. Maharashtra Forest Department The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation Minerals and Metals (Development and Regulation) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Ministry of Environment and Forests Ministry of Tribal Affairs Metropolitan Planning Committee Mahabaleshwar Panchgani Ecological Sensitive Zone Mormugao Port Trust Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation National Council of Applied Economic Research Nature Conservation Foundation Normalized Differential Vegetation Index National Environmental Engineering Research Institute National Institute of Oceanography Open Geospatial Standards Protected Area(s) Principal Chief Conservator of Forests (India) Panchayat Extension to the Scheduled Areas Act Public Interest Litigation Public Private Partnership Panchayat Raj Institution

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

xx


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

PWD RRC RTI SAM SEZ SPCB SRTM SRUDPA STPs TBGRI TERI TIFF ULB UNESCO VP(s) WAPCOS WG WGEA WGEEP WGMCMP WLS ZASI ZMP ZP

Public Works Department River Research Centre Right To Information Spatial analyses in Macro Ecology Special Economic Zones State Pollution Control Board Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission State Regional and Urban Development Planning Acts Sewage Treatment Plants Tropical Botanical Garden and Research Institute The Energy and Resources Institute Tagged Image File Format Urban Local Body United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization Village Panchayat(s) Water and Power Consultancy Services Western Ghats Western Ghats Ecology Authority Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel Western Ghats Master Conservation and Management Plan Wild Life Sanctuary Zoning Atlas for Siting of Industries Zonal Master Plan Zilla Parishad

`mKw 2 ACF

Assistant Conservator of Forests

ADC

Autonomous District Council

AOFFPS

Area Oriented Fuel wood and Fodder Projects Scheme

APEDA

Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority

AQ

Air Quality

ARC

Autonomous Regional Council

ASCAS

Australian Soil Carbon Accreditation Scheme

ASTRP

Association of Scheduled Tribes and Rural Poor in Regeneration of Degraded Forests

ATREE

Ashoka Trust for Research In Ecology and the Environment

BDA

Biological Diversity Act

BEE

Bureau of Energy Efficiency

BMC

Biodiversity Management Committee

BOD

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

xxi


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ CAA Constitutional Amendment Act CAMPA

Compensatory Afforestation and Management and Planning Authority

CCA

Community Conservation Areas

CCF

Chief Conservator of Forests

CDM

Clean Development Mechanism

CES

Centre for Ecological Sciences

CFM

Community Forest Management

CFRe

Community Forest Resources

CFRt

Community Forest Rights

CPCB

Central Pollution Control Board

CPFFZ

Chemical Pesticide and Fertilizer-Free Zones.

CRPF

Central Reserve Police Force

CRZ

Coastal Regulation Zone

CSD

Council for Social Development

CSR

Corporate Social Responsibility

DBT

Department of Biotechnology

DC

District Collectorate

DCF

Deputy Conservator of Forests

DDT

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

DFO

District Forest Officer

DLC

Divisional Level Committee

DPC(s)

District Planning Committee (s)

DSAs

Defined Sequestration Areas

DTEPA

Dahanu Taluka Environment Protection Authority

EAC

Environment Appraisal Committee

EC

Environmental Clearances

EIA

Environmental Impact Assessment

ENRM

Environmental and Natural Resource Management

EPA

Environment Protection Act

ESAs

Ecologically Sensitive Areas

ESLs

Ecologically Sensitive Localities

ESZ

Ecologically Sensitive Zone

FAA

Food Adulteration Act

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization

FC

Forest Clearance

FD

Forest Departments

FDC

Forest Development Corporations

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

xxii


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ FEVORD Federation of Voluntary Organizations for Rural Development FGD

Flue Gas Desulphurisation

FGEC

Forest Grievance Enquiry Committee

FRA

Forest Rights Act

FRC

Forest Rights Committee

FRI

Forest Research Institute

GA

Gram Sabhas

GALASA

Group Approach for Locally Adapted and Sustainable Agriculture

GDP

Gross Domestic Product

GIM

Green India Mission

GIS

Geographic Information System

GM

Genetically Modified

GN

Goa-Nilgiris

GoI

Government of India

GSPCB

Goa State Pollution Control Board

HEP

Hydro Electric Project

IAEPS

Integrated Afforestation and Eco-Development Projects Scheme

ICAR

Indian Council of Agricultural Research

ICDS

Integrated Child Development Services

ICF

International Crane Foundation

ICT

Information and Communication Technologies

IFA

Indian Forest Act

IFRs

Individual Forest Rights

IGNFA

Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy

IISc

Indian Institute of Science

IMD

Indian Meteorological Department

IUCN

International Union For Conservation Of Nature

JFM

Joint Forest Management

JFMCs

Joint Forest Management Committees

KAU

Kerala Agricultural University

KFD

Karnataka Forest Department’s

KILA

Kerala Institute of Local Administration

KSBB

Kerala State Biodiversity Board

KSSP

Kerala Sastra Sahithya Parishath

KVK

Krishi Vigyan Kendra

LAMPS

Large Area Multi Purpose Societies

LEISA

Low External Input Sustainable Agriculture

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

xxiii


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas LSG

Local Self Government

MEA

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

MFPs

Minor Forest Products

MGNREGS

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme

MIDC

Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation

MILMA

Kerala Co-Operative Milk Marketing Federation

MMSC

Mining Monitoring Sub Committee

MoEF

Ministry of Environment and Forests

MoRD

Ministry of Rural Development

MoTA

Ministry of Tribal Affairs

MPCB

Maharashtra Pollution Control Board

MP

Member of Parliament

NAEB

National Afforestation and Ecodevelopment Board

NAP

The National Afforestation Programme

NAPCC

National Action Plan on Climate Change

NCA

National Commission on Agriculture

NCC

National Cadet Corps

NCERT

The National Council of Educational Research and Training

NCR

National Curriculum Review

NEERI

National Environmental Engineering Research Institute

NFP

National Forest Policy

NFRC

National Forest Rights Council

NGOs

Non Governmental Organizations

NP

National Park

NPOP

National Programme for Organic Production

NRC

National Research Council

NREGA

National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

NRSC

National Remote Sensing Agency

NSS

National Service Scheme

NTCA

National Tiger Conservation Authority

NTFP

Non-Timber Forest Produce

NTFP

Non-Timber Forest Produce

NTPC

National Thermal Power Corporation

NWGs

Northern Western Ghats

OFPC

Organic Farmer Producer Companies

OFRI

Organic Farming Research Institute

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

xxiv


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ OGC Open Geospatial Standards OKM

Organic Kerala Mission

OTFD

Other Traditional Forest Dweller

PAs

Protected Area(s)

PCCF

Principal Chief Conservator of Forests

PCS

Production Consumption Systems

PDR

People’s Biodiversity Registers

PESA

Panchayat Extension to the Scheduled Areas Act

PGS

Participatory Guarantee System

PGSC

Participatory Guarantee System of Certification

PPP

Public Private Partnerships

PPVRFA

Protection of Plant Variety and Farmers’ Rights Act

PRIs

Panchayat Raj Institutions

PTG

Primitive Tribal Group

R&D

Research and Development

REDD

Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation

REDD+

Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD), Forest Conservation, and Enhancement of Carbon Stocks and Sustainable Management of Forest

RES

Renewable Energy Sources

RF

Reserve Forests

RFD

Regional Forest Department.

RFL

Reserve Forest Land

RTI

Right to Information

S&T

Science and Technology

SAC

Space Application Centre

SCIPs

Soil Carbon Incentive Payments

SDA

State Department of Agriculture

SDLC

Sub-Divisional Level Committee

SEMCE

Socio-Ecological Multi Criteria Evaluation

SEZs

Approved Special Economic Zones

SFRS

State Forest Resources Survey

SLMC

State Level Monitoring Committee

SPCB

State Pollution Control Boards

SPCS

Sustainable Production Consumption Systems

SPGI

Space Department of Government of India

ST

Scheduled Tribe

STPs

Sewage Treatment Plants

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

xxv


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ T&D Transmission and Distribution TCS

Technical Support Consortium

TD

Tribal Department

TEDDY

The Energy Data Directory & Yearbook

TERI

The Energy and Resources Institute

TFR

Tribal Forest Right Act

TOR

Terms of Reference

TSP

Tribal Sub Plan Area

TTF

Tiger Task Force

UGC

University Grants Commission

UNDG

United Nations Development Groups

UNEP

United Nations Environment Programme

UNESCO

United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNFCCC

UN Framework Convention on Climate Change

VEC

Village Electricity Committee

VFCS

Village Forest Cooperative Societies

VFPCK

Vegetable and Fruit Promotion Council of Kerala

VP(s)

Village Panchayat(s)

VPF

Van Panchayat Forests

WCC

World Conservation Congress

WG

Western Ghats

WGA

Western Ghats Authority

WGEA

Western Ghats Ecology Authority

WGEAC

Western Ghats Expert Appraisal Committee

WGEEP

Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel

WGNG

Western Ghats North of Goa

WGPP

Western Ghats Parisara Prakashana

WGR

Western Ghats Region

WGSoPG

Western Ghats South of the Palghat Gap

WHC

World Heritage Committee

WLPA

Wild Life (Protection) Act

WLS

Wild Life Sanctuary

WTO

World Trade Organisation

ZAS

Zonal Atlas of the States

ZASI

Zoning Atlas for Siting of Industries

ZP

Zilla Parishad

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

xxiv


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn hnZ-Kv[-k-anXn dnt∏m¿´v -˛ H∂mw `mKw 1. kw{Klw hfsc {i≤m-]q¿Δw \S-Ønb hym]-Iamb hnh-c-k-am-l-c-W-Øn-s‚bpw hn]p-e-amb ÿe]-cn-tim-[-\-bp-sSbpw IqSn-bm-tem-N-\-I-fp-sSbpw A]-{K-Y-\-Øn-s‚bpw ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ ]›na-L-´sØ apgp-h≥ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ambn (Ecologically Sensitive Area - ESA) kanXn \n¿t±in-°p-Ibpw hnhn[ taJ-e-Isf aq∂v Xe-ß-fmbn Xcw-Xn-cn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e-ta-Je˛H∂v (Ecologically Sensitive Zone-1- ESZ-1), taJe c≠v, taJe aq∂v F∂n-ßs\ Ahsb \ma-I-cWw sNbvXp. ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ hnhn[ `mK-ß-fn-ep≈ {Kma]©m-b-Øp-I-fn¬ \n∂pw k¿°m-cn-Xc kwL-S-\-I-fn¬ \n∂pw kan-Xn°v e`n® \nth-Z-\-ß-fp-sS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ Nne {]tZ-i-ßsf ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ß-fmbn (Ecologically Sensitive Localities - ESL) \n›-bn-®n´p≠v. 9 In.ao. x 9 In.ao. hnkvXo¿Æ-ap≈ ka-b-Zqc bqWn-‰p-I-fmbn Xncn-®mWv (5 an\n´v x 5 an\n´v) ÿnXn hnhc ASn-Ø-dbv°v cq]w \¬In-bn-´p-≈Xv. Pe-t{km-X- p-I-fpsS AXn¿h-c-ºpIƒ t]mse-bp≈ {]Ir-Xn-ZØ LS-I-ß-fp-sStbm, hnt√-Pv, Xmeq-°v XpS-ßnb `cW bqWn-‰p-Ifp-sStbm ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-e√ CXv. hnhn[ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-I-fpsS ]cn[n \n›-bn-°p∂-Xn\pw {]mtZ-inI `c-W-\n¿Δ-lW ]≤-Xn°v cq]w \¬Ip∂-Xn\pw Hcp taJem kwhn-[m-\Øn\v cq]w \¬Ip-∂-Xn\pw Pe-t{km-X- p-I-fp-sSbpw hnt√-Pn-s‚bpw AXn-cp-Isf ka-\z-bn-∏n°p-∂Xv A`n-Im-ay-amWv. ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n (Western Ghats Ecology Authority) \nehn¬ hcp-tºmƒ hn]p-e-am-sbmcp ]¶m-fnØ {]{In-b-bn-eqsS AtXm-dn´n \n¿Δ-ln-t°-≠-Xm-bn´p≈ Hcp Npa-X-e-bm-WnXv. F∂n-cp-∂mepw kan-Xn-bpsS A]-{K-Y-\-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJe H∂v, c≠v, aq∂v F∂n-h-bpsS {]mcw` ]cn[n kw_-‘n®v Xm¬°menI hn⁄m-]\w ]pd-s∏-Sp-hn-°m≥ ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-e-b-tØmSv R߃ ip]m¿i sNøp∂p. CXv Xmeq°v/tªm°v Xe-Øn¬ sNøp-∂-Xm-bn-cn°pw Gsd A\p-tbmPyw. Cu Hcp ImgvN-∏m-Sns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ AXn-cp-I-fn-ep≈ 142 Xmeq-°p-I-fn-sebpw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-I-fpsS hnhn[ Xe-߃ R߃ \n¿Æ-bn-®p-I-gn™p. Hmtcm Xmeq°n-s‚bpw `qcn-`m-Khpw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-bpsS GXv Xe-Øn¬s]-Sp∂p F∂-Xns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-emWv Cu Xcw-Xn-cnhv \S-Øn-bn-´p-≈Xv. tKmh-bpsS Imcy-Øn¬ Hcp an\n´v x Hcp an\n´v F∂ bqWn-‰mWv D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xv. bqWn-‰ns‚ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-c-amb {]tXy-I-X-Isf ASn-ÿm-\-s∏-Sp-Øn-bmWv Xmeq-°p-I-fnse taJ-e-Isf \n¿Æ-bn-®Xv. taJe H∂v, c≠v, aq∂v F∂n-h-bpsS hnime N´-°q-Sn-\p-≈n¬ {]mtZ-inI ]cn-ÿnXn kmaq-ly-Np-‰p-]m-Sp-Iƒ°-\p-kr-X-am-bn-´p≈, t{]m’m-l-\-]-chpw F∂m¬ \nb-{¥-W-hn-t[-bhpw Bb, L´w-L-´-am-bp≈ Hcp kao-]-\-amWv kanXn ip]m¿i-sN-øp-∂Xv. {Kma-k-`-Iƒ hsc \ofp∂ Hcp ]¶m-fnØ {]{In-b-bmWv R߃ hn`m-h\ sNøp-∂-sX-¶nepw Hcp XpS-°-sa∂ \ne-bn¬ hn]p-e-am-sbmcp am¿§-tc-Jbv°v cq]w \¬Ip-∂Xv C°m-cy-Øn¬ DNn-X-am-bn-cn°pw. DtZym-Kÿ¿, hnZ-Kv[¿, kmaq-ly-kw-L-߃,]uc-P-\-߃ F∂n-h-cp-am-bp≈ hnim-e-Iq-Sn-bm-tem-N-\-IfpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ hnhn-[-ta-J-e-Iƒ°mbn CØ-c-samcp am¿§-tcJ Xøm-dm-°m≥ kanXn {ian-®n-´p≠v. H∂mw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-bn¬ (ESZ-1) hnime Pe-kw-`-c-Wn-I-fp≈ AW-s°-´pIƒ \n¿Ωn-°m≥ A\p-aXn \¬Icp-sX∂v kanXn ip]m¿i sNbvXn-´p≠v. AXn-c-∏n≈n, Kq≠nb Pe-ssh-ZypX ]≤Xn {]tZ-i-߃ taJe H∂n¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-∂-Xn-\m¬ Chbv°v ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nbd≥kv \¬IcpXv. tKmh-bn¬ taJe H∂nepw c≠nepw s]Sp∂ {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ J\\w \S-Øp-∂-Xn\v ]cnÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip-∂-Xn¬ samd-t´m-dnbw G¿s∏-Sp-Ø-W-sa∂pw 2016HmsS H∂mw taJ-ebn¬ J\\w L´w-L-´-ambn Ah-km-\n-∏n-°-W-sa∂pw kanXn ip]m¿i sNøp∂p. taJe c≠n¬ Ct∏mƒ \S-∂p-h-cp∂ J\-\-Øn\v I¿i\\nb-{¥-Whpw ^e-{]-Z-amb tkmjy¬ BUn‰pw ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

1


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

G¿s∏-Sp-ØWw. taJe c≠n¬ ÿnXn-K-Xn-Iƒ sa®-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xn-\-\p-k-cn®v J\\w aqew ]cn-ÿn-Xn-bnepw a\p-jy-cpsS Btcm-Ky-ÿn-Xn-bnepw ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-Ønepw D≠m-Ip∂ BLmX- ß ƒ Hcp hnZKv [ kanXn hne- b n- c p- Ø p- ∂ - X ns‚ ASn- ÿ m- \ - Ø n¬ ]cn- ÿ nXn ¢nb-d≥kn-\p≈ samd-t´m-dnbw ]p\-cm-tem-N-\bv°v hnt[-b-am-°m-hp-∂-XmWv. alm-cm-jv{S-bnse cXv\-Kncn, kn‘p Zp¿K-Pn-√-I-fnse J\\w, Du¿÷ D¬∏m-Z\w, aen-\oI-cW hyh-km-b-߃ F∂n-h-bpsS XpS¿∂p≈ hnI-k-\-Øn\v A\p-tbm-Py-am-sbmcp amXrIbv°v cq]w \¬I-W-sa∂v kan-Xn-tbmSv Bh-iy-s∏-´n-cp∂p. Cu Pn√-I-fpsS Nne-`m-K-߃ am{Xta ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ s]Sp-∂p≈q. kanXn Ahsb ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-I-fmbn XcwXn-c-°p-Ibpw am¿§-tc-J-Iƒ°v cq]w \¬Ip-Ibpw sNbvXn-´p≠v. Cu Pn√-I-fn¬ ]›n-a-L-´Øn¬ s]Sp∂ `mK-ß-fn¬ taJe H∂pw c≠p-ambn \n¿Æ-bn-®n-´p≈ {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ J\-\Øn\v ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip-∂-Xn\v samd-t´m-dnbw G¿s∏-Sp-Ø-W-sa-∂mWv kanXn ip]m¿i. taJe H∂n¬ 2016HmsS L´w-L-´-ambn J\\w Ah-km-\n-∏n-°Ww. taJe c≠n¬ \ne-hn-ep≈ J\\w I¿i-\-\n-b-{¥-W-ß-fp-sSbpw ^e-{]-Z-amb tkmjy¬ BUn-‰n-s‚bpw ASnÿm-\-Øn¬ am{Xta XpS-cmhq. taJe H∂nepw c≠nepw Iev°cn A[n-jvTnX Du¿÷-D¬∏mZ\ ime-Iƒ Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ Hcp ]pXnb hyh-km-b-߃°pw (Nph∏v,Hmd©v hn`m-K-Øn¬ s]-Sp-∂h) A\p-aXn \¬Im≥ ]mSn√. Nph∏v, Hmd©v hn`m-K-Øn¬ s]Sp∂ \ne-hn-ep≈ hyhkm-b-߃ 2016 HmsS ]qPyw aen-\o-I-cW \ne-hm-c-Øn-se-Øm≥ \n¿t±-in-°Ww. CXn-\mbn ^e-{]-Z-amb tkmjy¬ BUn-‰nßv kwhn-[m\w G¿s∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw thW-sa∂v kanXn ip]m¿isN-øp∂p. cXv\-Kncn, kn‘p Zp¿§ Pn√-I-fn¬ ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ s]SmØ `mK-ß-fpsS hy‡-amb hnh-c-߃ tiJ-cn-°mt\m Ah-bpsS ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e Ahÿ \n¿Æ-bn-°mt\m kanXn {ian-®n√. F∂m¬ kanXn Chn-SsØ ka-X-e-ß-fnepw Xoc-tZ-iØpw \S-Ønb ]cn-an-X-amb ]T-\-Øn¬ Cu {]tZ-i-߃ ISpØ ]mcn-ÿn-Xn-Ihpw kmaq-ly-hp-amb {]iv\-߃ t\cn-Sp-∂Xmbn a\- n-em-°m≥ Ign™p. Cu {]tZ-i-ß-fnepw alm-cm-jv{S-bnse dbn-KVv Pn√-bnepw tKmh kwÿm-\Øpw ChnsS \S-°p∂ hnhn[ hnI-k\ {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fpsS samØ-Øn-ep≈ BLm-X-sØ-∏‰n tKmh-bnse \mj-W¬ C≥Ãn-‰yq´v Hm^v Hmjymt\m{Km^n-bpsS t\Xr-XzØn¬ hn]p-e-am-sbmcp A]-{K-Y\w \S-Øp-∂Xv \∂m-bn-cn-°p-sa∂v kanXn ip]m¿i sNøp∂p. cXv\-Kncn, kn‘p Zp¿K Pn√-I-fnse ka-X-e-ß-fnepw Xoc-tZ-i-ß-fnepw J\-\-Øn\pw Nph∏v, Hmd©v hn`mKw hyh-km-b-߃°pw ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip-∂-Xn\v \ne-hn-ep≈ samdt´m-dnbw Cu A]-{K-Y\ ]T\w ]q¿Øn-bm-Ip-∂-Xp-hsc XpS-c-W-sa∂pw kanXn ip]m¿i sNøp∂p. ]T-\-Ønse Is≠-Ø-ep-I-fpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ samd-t´m-dnbw ]p\:]cn-tim-[n°m-hp-∂-XmWv. ]›n-a-L-´-Øn-ep-S-\ofw I≠p-h-cp∂ ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-W-Ønse hogvN ]cn-l-cn-°m≥ ASn-b-¥n-c-\-S-]Sn Bh-iy-am-sW∂v kanXn hniz-kn-°p∂p. ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-WsØ kw_‘n®v P\-ß-fpsS Ah-t_m-[sØ kanXn AwKo-I-cn-°p-Ibpw C°m-cy-Øn-ep≈ Ah-cpsS ]cnanXn-Isf a\- n-em-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂p. ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£W {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn¬ ]c-am-h[n P\]-¶m-fnØw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm≥ \S-]Sn kzoI-cn-°-W-sa∂v ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-e-b-tØmSv kanXn Bh-iy-s∏-Sp∂p. h\w Ah-Im-i-\n-b-a-Ønse kmaq-ly- h\h¬°-cW ]cn-]mSn \S-∏n-em°pI. F√m Xt±i `c-W-ÿm-]-\-ß-fnepw ]q¿Æ-A-[n-Imcw \¬In-bp≈ ssPh-ssh-hn-[y-kw-c-£W kan-Xn-Iƒ cq]o-I-cn-°pI, tIc-f kwÿm\ ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-t_m¿Uv DSp-º-t©me Xmeq-°n¬ \S-∏n-em°nb amXr-I-bn¬ ssPh-ssh-hn-[y-kw-c-£W {]h¿Ø-\-߃ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI, ]cnÿnXn BLm-X-A-]-{K-Y-\-ßfpw ¢nb-d≥kv \S-]-Sn-Ifpw Imtem-Nn-X-ambn ]cn-jv°-cn-°pI, ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£Ww kw_-‘n®v P\-ßsf ]c-am-h[n t_m[-h¬°-cn-°pI, ]cym-h-c¨ hmln\n ]cn-]mSn (Paryavaran Vahini Programme) ]p\-cm-cw-`n-°pI, B{‘-{]-tZ-inse alm-flm-Km‘n tZiob {Kma sXmgn-ep-d∏v N´-Øns‚ amXr-I-bn¬ F√m ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£W ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ°pw tkmjy¬ BUn‰v G¿s∏-Sp-ØpI F∂n-h-bmWv CXp-sIm-≠p-t±-in-°p-∂Xv. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

2


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

2. BapJw “]›n-a-L-´-Ønse GXp Npcw Ibdn apI-fn-se-Øn-bmepw AXn-a-t\m-l-c-amb {]Ir-Xn`w-Kn-bmWv ImWm≥ Ign-bpI. 3000 apX¬ 4000 ASn-hsc Db-c-Øn¬ \nc-\n-c-bmbn ImWp∂ aeIƒ hr£-\n-_n-U-amWv. CS-bv°nsS IdpØ `oam-Im-c-amb ]md-Iƒ ImWmw. Ahbv°v apIfnepw Ip‰n-Im-Sp-I-fp≠v. ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ ]q\bv°v sXt°m-´p≈ {]tZ-isØ ]®n-e-°m-Sp-Iƒ ÿmbn-bmWv. h¿j-°m-eØv ae-\n-c-I-fn-eqsS Pe-sam-gp-Ip-tºmƒ Cu ImSp-I-fpsS ]®∏pw hf¿®bpw D®-ÿm-bn-bn-seØpw” - Grant Duft (1826) History of Marathas Vol.1 cmLp-cm-Pmhv C¥y-bpsS \me-Xn-cp-Iƒ Iog-S-°n-b-Xns\ ]‰n hnh-cn-°p-∂-n-SØv ImfnZmk≥ ]ivNn-a-L-´-a-e-\n-c-Isf Hcp \thm-V-tbm-SmWv D]-an-°p-∂Xv. Ah-fpsS inc v I\ymIpam-cn-°-Sp-Øm-sW∂pw B\-a-ebpw \oe-Kn-cnbpw Ah-fpsS kvX\-ß-fm-sW∂pw tKmh- Np-≠pI-fm-sW∂pw ]mZ-߃ Xm]n-\-Zn-°-Sp-Øm-sW∂pw AXn¬ hnh-cn-°p∂p. Db¿∂ ]cn-ÿnXn sshhn-[y-ap≈ CØcw ae-\n-c-Iƒ temI-Øm-I-am\w {]IrXn sshhn-[y-Øns‚ A£-b-I-\n-Ifm-bmWv Icp-X-s∏-Sp-∂Xv. ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ e`n-°p∂ ag-bpsS Af-hnepw henb G‰-°p-d-®nep≠v. \oe-Kncn Ip∂ns‚ sX°p-]-Sn-™m-d≥ aqe-bn¬ 8000 an.ao. ag e`n-°p-tºmƒ Ahn-S∂v shdpw 30 In.ao. Ing-°p≈ tambm¿ ae-bn-Sp-°n¬ e`n-°p-∂Xv 500 an.ao. ag-am{Xw. U°m≥ ]oT`q-an-bn¬ \qdp-I-W-°n\v Intem-ao-‰-dnse hm¿jnI ag e`yX 1000 an.ao. ¬ Xmsg-bmWv. ae-\n-cI-fn¬ hfsc hfsc AI-e-Øn¬ Nne Bhm-k-tI-{μ-ßfpw cq]-s∏-Sp-∂p≠v. ChnsS hyXykvX C\-Øn¬s]´ kky-Po-h-Pm-e-ß-fp-≠mIpw. hfsc AI-e-Øn¬ ÿnXn-sN-øp∂ ]›n-a-L-´Øn-s‚bpw lnam-e-b-Øn-s‚bpw Db-c-ß-fn¬ Rhododendron t]mse-bp≈ ]qs®-Sn-I-fp-sSbpw Xm¿ ae-bm-Sp-I-fp-tSbpw hyXykvX C\-ß-fp-≠mhpw. ae-\n-c-Iƒ a\p-jy-hm-k-Øn\v A{X A\ptbm-Py-a-√m-Ø-Xn-\m¬ ChnsS {]Ir-Xn-Z-Øtam A¿≤-{]-IrXn ZØtam Bb kky-Po-h-Pm-e߃ A`bw Is≠-Øp∂p. C°m-c-W-Øm-emWv ]›n-a-L-´hpw lnam-e-b-Øns‚ Ing-°p`m-Khpw C¥y≥ ssPh-ssh-hn-[y-Øns‚ {][m\ tI{μ-ß-fmbn C∂pw \ne-sIm-≈p-∂Xv. C¥ybn¬ am{Xw ImWp∂ \nc-h[n C\w kky-Po-h-Pm-e-ß-fpsS Bhm-k-tI-{μ-amWv ]›n-a-L´w. Ing-°≥ lnam-e-bhpw kky-Po-h-Pm-e-ß-fpsS A£-b-J\n am{X-a√ \nc-¥-c-`o-jWn t\cn-Sp∂ temIsØ c≠v {][m\ ssPh-ssh-hn[y kº∂ taJ-e-IƒIq-Sn-bmWv.

3. kan-Xn-bpsS Npa-X-e-Iƒ ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ ]mcn-ÿn-XnI {]m[m-\yhpw hnhn[ kwÿm-\-ß-fn-embn hym]n-®p-In-S°p∂ AXns‚ `qan-im-kv{X-]-c-amb k¶o¿Æ-X-Ifpw AXv Cu taJ-e-bnse Imem-h-ÿm-hy-Xnbm-\-Øn¬ sNepØp∂ kzm[o-\hpw IW-°n-se-SpØv 2010 am¿®v 4\v Cd-°nb Hcp DØ-c-hneqsS tI{μ-]-cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn hnZKv[ kan-Xn°v (Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel -WGEEP -A\p-_‘w A) cq]w \¬In. NphsS ]d-bp∂ Npa-X-e-Iƒ \n¿Δ-ln-°m-\mWv kan-Xn-tbmSv Bh-iy-s∏-´Xv. i. ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-bnse ]cn-ÿn-Xn-bpsS \ne-hn-ep≈ Ahÿ hne-bn-cpØpI ii. ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-e-bn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-߃ Is≠Øn 1986se ]cn-ÿnXn (kwc-£W) \nb-a-{]-Imcw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-I-fmbn Ah hn⁄m-]\w sNøm≥ ip]m¿i-sN-øpI. C{]-Imcw sNøp-tºmƒ taml≥ dmw IΩn‰n dnt∏m¿´v, _lp. kp{]nw tImS-Xn-bpsS Xocp-am-\-߃, tZiob h\y-Pohn t_m¿Uns‚ ip]m¿i F∂nh ]cn-K-Wn°p-Ibpw _‘-s∏´ kwÿm-\-k¿°m-cp-I-fp-ambn Bi-b-hn-\n-abw \S-Øp-Ibpw thWw. iii. _‘-s∏´ kwÿm-\-ßfpw P\-ß-fp-ambn hn]p-e-amb IqSn-bm-tem-N-\-Iƒ \SØn ]›naL-´-ta-Je kwc-£-W-Øn\pw ]p\-cp-÷o-h-\-Øn\pw Bh-iy-amb \S-]-Sn-Iƒ ip]m¿isN-øpI. iv. ]cn-ÿnXn (kwc-£W) \nba{]Imcw 1986 tI{μ ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJ-e-I-fmbn {]Jym-]n-°p∂ {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ hn⁄m-]-\-Ønse hyh-ÿ-Iƒ ^e-{]-Z-ambn \S-∏m-°m-\m-h-iy-amb \S-]-Sn-Iƒ \n¿t±-in-°pI. v. _‘-s∏´ kwÿm-\-ß-fpsS ]n¥p-W-tbmsS ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-Whpw ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

vi. vii.

kpÿnc hnI-k-\hpw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm≥ 1986 se ]cn-ÿnXn (kwc-£W) \nb-a-Ønse hyh-ÿ-Iƒ {]Imcw ]›n-a-L-´-]-cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n (Western Ghats Ecology Authority) cq]o-I-cn-°m-\p≈ ip]m¿i ka¿∏n-°pI. ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-bp-ambn _‘-s∏´v ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£W {]iv\-ß-fn¬ tI{μ ]cnÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw Bh-iy-s∏-Sp∂ a‰v hnj-b-߃. Xoc-tZ-i-apƒs∏sS cXv\-Kncn, kn‘p-Zp¿K Pn√-Iƒ ]q¿Æ-ambn ]n∂oSv kan-Xn-bpsS ]T\-]-cn-[n-bn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw Kp≠nb, BXn-c-∏n≈n Pe-ssh-ZypX ]≤XnIƒ {]tXyI ]cn-tim-[-\bv°v hnt[-b-am-°m\pw tKmh-bn¬ ]pXnb J\\ ssek≥kn-\p≈ samd-t´mdn-bsØ ]‰n Bh-iy-amb ip]m¿i \¬Im\pw kan-Xn-tbmSv \n¿t±-in®p.

4. dnt∏m¿´ns‚ LS\ dnt∏m¿´n\v c≠v `mK-ß-fm-Wp-≈Xv. `mKw H∂pw `mKw c≠pw. `mKw H∂mWv kan-Xn-bpsS {][m\ dnt∏m¿´v. kan-Xn-tbmSv ]T-\-hn-j-b-am-°m≥ Bh-iy-s∏´ F√m hnh-c-ßfpw AXn-emWp-≈Xv. ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-k-Yn-Xn-bpsS \ne-hn-ep≈ Ah-ÿsb kw_-‘n® hni-Z-amb N¿®Iƒ, `qhn-\n-tbmKw, a\p-jy-hm-k-tI-{μ-߃, Pe-hn-`h t{kmX- p-Iƒ, Irjn(^e-h¿§, tXm´w hnf-Iƒ Dƒ∏sS) h\-h¬°-c-Whpw ssPh-ssh-hn-[yhpw, hyh-km-b-߃˛ kwL-SnXw, J\\w, sshZyp-Xnbpw Du¿÷hpw, Sqdnkw, KXm-K-Xhpw hm¿Øm-hn-\n-a-bhpw, hnZym-`ymkw, imkv{Xhpw kmt¶-XnI hn⁄m-\hpw, hn⁄m-\-hym-]\w F∂n-ßs\ {][m\ dnt∏m¿´nse ip]m¿i-Iƒ°m[m-c-am-°nb hnj-b-ßsf kw_-‘n® hni-Z-amb Ipdn-∏p-Iƒ F∂n-h-bmWv c≠mw `mK-Øn-ep≈Xv. H∂mw `mK-Ønse H∂mw A[ym-b-Øn¬ H∂mw `mK-Øn¬ {]Xn-]m-Zn-°p∂ hnj-b-ßfpsS cXv\-Np-cp-°hpw c≠mw A[ym-b-Øn¬ Bap-Jhpw aq∂mw A≤ym-b-Øn¬ kan-Xn-bpsS Npa-X-e-I-fpw \memw A≤ym-b-Øn¬ dnt∏m¿´ns‚ LS-\bpw A©mw A≤ym-b-Øn¬ Gs‰SpØ {]h¿Ø-\-ßfpw Bdmw A≤ym-b-Øn¬ A≤ym-b-Øn¬ ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-e-bpsS AXn-cpIfpw Ggmw A≤ym-b-Øn¬ ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ samØ-Øn-ep≈ Ah-ÿbpw A≤ymbw F´n¬ ]›na L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n \ne-hn¬ hcp-tºmƒ IqSp-X¬ hnI-k-\-Øn\v DX-Ip-sa∂v IΩn‰n Icp-Xp∂ kwc-£W/hnI-k-\-k-ao-]-\hpw H≥]Xpw ]Øpw A≤ym-b-ß-fn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-sa∂ Bi-bsØ kw_-‘n® N¿®bpw ]cn-ÿnXn (kwc-£W) \nba (1986) {]Imcw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-Iƒ H∂v˛c≠v˛aq∂v F∂v hn`-Pn-°m-\m-h-iy-amb ÿnXn hnhc ASn-ÿm\ hnI-k-\hpw A≤ymbw 11¬ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS \ne-hn-ep≈ `c-W-kw-hn-[m-\sØ A\p-`-h-ß-fpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ ]p\: ]cn-tim-[n-°p-Ibpw A≤ymbw 12¬ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-߃°p Np‰p-ap≈ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i-ßsf kw_-‘n® A]-{K-Y-\hpw A≤ymbw 13¬ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ßfpsS XpS¿∂p≈ hnI-k-\-Øn\v klm-b-I-hp-am-Ip-sa∂v kanXn Icp-Xp∂ kao-]-\-co-Xnbpw ]cn-ÿn-Xnsb {]Xp-Iq-e-ambn _m[n-°p∂ {]h¿Ø-\-߃ \nb-{¥n-°m\pw A\p-Iq-e-amb {]h¿Ø-\-߃ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°m\pw Bh-iy-amb am¿§-\n¿t±-i-ßfpw A≤ymbw 14¬ tI{μØnepw kwÿm-\-ß-fnepw ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n-Ifpw Pn√-I-fn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn kanXn-Ifpw cq]o-I-cn-°m-\m-h-iy-amb \n¿t±-i-ßfpw A≤ymbw 15¬ AXn-c-∏n≈n, Kp≥Unbm Pessh-ZypX ]≤-Xn-Isf kw_-‘n® ]p\:]cn-tim-[\ ip]m¿i-Ifpw A≤ymbw 16¬ cXv\-Kncn, kn‘p Zp¿K Pn√-Isf kw_-‘n® ]T-\-ip-]m¿i-Ifpw A≤ymbw 17¬ tKmh-bnse J\-\-ssek≥kp-Isf kw_-‘n® ip]m¿i-Ifpw Dƒs∏-Sp∂p. A\p-_-‘-߃ kqNn-I-Iƒ F∂n-hbpw dnt∏m¿´ns‚ H∂mw `mK-Øn-ep≠v.

5. Gs‰-SpØ {]h¿Ø-\-߃ 2010 am¿®v 30 \v _wK-fp-cp-hn¬ tN¿∂ BZy tbmK-tØm-sS-bmWv kanXn {]h¿Ø-\-am-cw`n-®Xv. kanXn BsI 14 XhW tbmKw tN¿∂p. Ah-km-\-tbmKw 2011 BKÃv 16˛17 Xnø-Xn-Ifn¬ _wK-fq-cp-hn-em-bn-cp∂p. 42 HutZym-KnI Ipdn-∏p-Iƒ, AXn-hn-]p-e-amb 7 Bi-b-hn-\n-ab N¿®m-tbm-K-߃ Hcp hnZKv[ IqSn-bm-tem-N-\m-tbmKw, k¿°m¿ GP≥kn-I-fp-am-bp≈ 8 IqSnbm-tem-N\ tbmK-߃, kmaq-ly-kw-L-S-\-I-fp-am-bp≈ 40 IqSn-bm-tem-N-\m-tbm-K-߃, 14 ÿe............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

k-μ¿i-\-߃ F∂n-h-bn-eq-sS-bmWv kanXn Bh-iy-amb hnh-c-ti-J-cWw \S-Øn-bXv. CXn-\p]p-dta tKmh k¿°m-cns‚ kph¿Æ-Pq-_nen hnI-k\ Iu¨kn¬ AwK-ßf - mb am[hv KmUvKn¬, enPnb s\mtdmW F∂n-hsc kanXn AwK-ß-fm-°pI hgn tKmh-bnse k¿°m¿, k¿°m¿ CXc GP≥kn-I-fn¬ \n∂pw Ht´sd hnh-c-߃ kam-l-cn-°m≥ Ign™p. s]mXp-P-\-ß-fn¬ \n∂v ]c-am-h[n hnh-c-߃ kam-l-cn-°m-\mbn Hcp sh_vssk‰pw kanXn Xpd∂p. {]h¿Ø-\ß-fpsS IqSp-X¬ hnh-c-߃ A\p-_‘w _n˛F^n¬ tN¿Øn-´p≠v. kan-Xn-bpsS Npa-X-e-Iƒ Ht´sd imkv{Xo-b-amb sh√p-hn-fn-Iƒ \nd-™-Xm-bn-cp∂p. a\pjys‚ A\-h[n CS-s]-S-ep-I-fpsS {]Xym-Lm-X-߃°v {]tXyI Du∂¬ \¬In, 129, 037NXp-c{iIn.ao. hnkvXo¿Æ-ap≈ ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-e-bnse ]cn-ÿn-Xn-bpsS \ne-hn-ep≈ Ah-ÿbpw kw`-hn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ am‰-ßfpw kw_-‘n®v hni-Z-am-sbmcp [mcW Bh-iy-am-bn-cp∂p. CXp kw_-‘n®v [mcmfw hnh-c-߃ e`y-am-bn-cp-∂p. F∂m¬ Cu hnh-c-߃ KpW-]-c-ambpw hnizm-k-X-bnepw A{X t]mcm-bn-cp∂p F∂p-am-{X-a√ kpkw-L-Sn-Xhpw Bbn-cp-∂n√. DZm-l-cW-Øn\v \ne-hn¬ \S-∂p-h-cp∂ tKmh doPn-b-W¬ πm≥ 2021 F∂ kwcw`w hnhn[ kwÿm\ k¿°m¿ GP≥kn-I-fn-embn NnXdn InS-∂n-cp∂ ÿnXn hnh-cW IW-°p-Iƒ kam-l-cn®v Hcp KqKnƒ F¿Øv CtaPv πm‰-t^m-an¬ AWn-\n-c-Øp∂ tPmen Gs‰-SpØp. ]›n-a-L´ taJ-ebv°m-I-am\w CØ-c-samcp kwcw`w C∂v km[y-amWv. kan-Xn-bpsS BZy-{iaw CXm-bn-cp∂p. am{X-hp-a√ cmPy-Øn\v samØ-ambn CØ-c-samcp kwcw-`-Øn\v cq]w\¬I-W-sa∂v 2000¬ Xs∂ {]Wm_v sk≥ IΩn‰n i‡-ambn ip]m¿i sNbvXn-cp∂p. HcpZi-I-Øn\v tij-am-sW-¶nepw kanXn C°m-cy-Øn¬ DNn-X-am-sbmcp XpS°w Ipdn®p. kan-Xn-bpsS Hcp {][m\ Npa-Xe ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-Isf Is≠Øn 1986 se ]cn-ÿnXn (kwc-£W) \nb-a-{]-Imcw hn⁄m-]\w sNøm≥ \S-]Sn kzoIcn-°pI F∂-Xm-bn-cp∂p. ASn-ÿm\ ÿnXn hnh-c-W-I-W-°p-I-fpsS klm-b-tØmsS hkvXp\n-jvT-ambn CXv \n¿Δ-ln-°m-\m-bn-cp∂p kan-Xn-bpsS Xocp-am\w. CXn\v A\p-tbm-Py-amb Hcp imkv{Xob \n¿Δ-l-W-co-Xn°v cq]w \¬Ip-Ibpw s]mXp-P\ {]Xn-I-cWw Bcm-™p-sIm≠v AXv "Id‚ v kb≥kv' B\p-Im-en-I-Øns‚ 2011 P\p-hcn 25 e°-Øn¬ {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. (A-\p-_‘w ˛ 4)

6. ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ AXn-cp-Iƒ ]cn-ÿnXn kw_-‘n-bmb Imgv®-∏m-Sn-eqsS ]›n-a-L-´sØ \n¿ΔNn-°m-\mWv kanXn {ian-®Xv. Atd-_y≥ kap-{Z-Xo-c-Øn\v kam-¥-c-ambn ]me-°mSv Npcw HgnsI CS-X-S-hn-√msX 1500 In.ao. \of-Øn¬ sX°p-h-S°v Zni-bn¬ ÿnXn sNøp∂ Xm]n-\Zn apX¬ (DØc A£mwiw 210 16') C¥y≥ D]-`q-J-WvU-Øns‚ sXt° ap\-ºmb I\ym-Ip-am-cn-bv°-Sp-Øp-hsc (Z-£nW A£mwiw 80 19') hym]n-®p-In-S-°p∂ ae-\n-c-I-fmWv ]›n-a-L´w F∂ ]Zw kqNn-∏n-°p-∂Xv. F∂m¬ ]›n-a-L´w AYhm klym{Zn F∂ ]Zw sIm≠v Xm]n \Zn apX¬ s]\n≥kp-em¿ ]oU-`q-an-bpsS ]Sn-™m-d≥ {]tZ-ihpw sXt°m´v IpSIv hsc-bp≈ `mKhpw am{X-am-sW∂pw hnh-£-bp≠v. (DØc A£mwiw 12Un{Kn) XpS¿∂v sXt°m´v Db¿∂ ae-\n-c-I-fmb \oe-Kncn, B\-ae, Ge-a-e-Iƒ, AK-kvXy-ae F∂nh Dƒs∏´ `qan-im-kv{X-]-c-ambn hyXy-kvX-ta-Je Z£nW tªm°v (aWn 1974) F∂pw Adn-b-s∏-Sp∂p. F∂m¬ ]›n-a-L-´sØ Xm]n apX¬ I\ym-Ip-amcn hsc-bp≈ {]tZiw F∂ hnime A¿∞-Øn-emWv kanXn ]cn-K-Wn-°p-∂Xv. ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ AXn-cp-Iƒ \n¿Æ-bn-°p-∂-Xn¬ ]cn-l-cn-°-s∏-tS≠ Hcp {]iv\w `qanim-kv{X-]-c-ambn ]q¿Δ-L´w (Eastern Ghats) F∂v Icp-X-s∏-Sp∂ {]tZ-i-Øns‚ Ingt° AXn¿Øn \n¿Æ-b-amWv. Cu L´-ß-fpsS AXn¿Øn IrXy-ambn \n¿Æ-bn-°m≥ ]e {ia-߃ \S-∂n-´ps≠-¶nepw C°m-cy-Øn¬ Hcp hni-Zo-I-cWw C\nbpw Bh-iy-amWv. ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ {]tXyIn®pw alm-cm-jv{S-bnepw Xan-gv\m-´nepw \nc-h[n ]›na, ]q¿Δ ]¿Δ-X-in-J-c-߃߃ ÿnXn sNøp-∂p≠v. hy‡-amb AXn¿Øn \n¿Æ-b-Øn\v CXpw XS- -amWv. tZio-bhpw (\mj-W¬ dntam´v sk≥knwKv GP≥kn) A¥¿tZ-io-bhpw (t_Uvsse^v C‚¿\m-j-W¬, I¨k¿thj≥ C‚¿\m-j-W¬ )Bb ]e ÿm]-\-ßfpw Ah-bpsS ssPh sshhn≤y k¿sΔ-bp-sSbpw kwc-£-W-]-cn-]m-Sn-I-fp-sSbpw ]›m-Ø-e-Øn¬ AXn¿Øn \n¿Æ-b-Øn\v {ian-s®-¶nepw A{XI≠v ^e-h-Øm-bn√. C°m-cy-Øn¬ hy‡-am-sbmcp ka-hm-b-Øn-se-Øm≥ Ign-bm-Xn-cp-∂-Xn\v ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

5


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

ImcWw AXn¿Øn \n¿Æ-b-Øn\v D]-tbm-Kn® am\-Z-fi-߃ icn-bmw-hÆw \n¿Δ-ln-°msXbpw ]c-kv]cw AwKo-I-cn-°m-sXbpw t]mb-XmWv. ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ AXn¿Øn \n¿Æ-bn-°m≥ kanXn Ah-ew-_n-®Xv kap-{Z-\n-c-∏n¬ \n∂p≈ Db-chpw h\-ß-fpsS hym]vXn-bp-amWv. AXp-sIm≠v "L´' (Ghat)Øn\p≈ Rß-fpsS \n¿Δ-N\w \n›nX Db-c-Øn-ep≈ h\-{]-tZiw F∂mWv. X∑qew 500 ao‰-dn\v apI-fn-ep≈ h\{]-tZ-isØ Ingt° AXn¿Øn-bmbn \n¿›-bn®p. sU°m¨ ]oV-`q-an-bn¬ \n∂v ]›n-a-L´w Db¿∂p \n°p-\n-ev°p-∂Xv s]mXp-hn¬500 ao‰¿ Db-c-Øn¬ \n∂m-sW∂ IW-°mWv CXn-\m[mcw. ]Sn-™m-dp-h-iØv ]¿Δ-X-\n-c-Iƒ kap-{Z-Xo-c-tØ°v Ncn™v ÿnXn-sN-øp-∂-Xn-\m¬ 150 ao‰-dn-e-[nIw Db-c-Øn-ep≈ h\-{]-tZ-isØ ]›na AXn¿Øn-bmbpw \n›-bn®p 150 ao‰-dn-e[nIw Db-c-Øn-ep≈ h\-{]-tZ-i-߃ kap{Zw hsctbm kap-{Z-Xo-c-Øn\v Hcp Intem-ao-‰¿ Zqcw hsctbm FØp∂ {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ Xocw \n¿Æ-bn-°pI _p≤n-ap-´mWv. Aß-s\-bp≈ ÿe-ßfn¬ (alm-cm-jv{Sbnse-t]mse) L´-Øns‚ ]›na AXn¿Øn Xoc-tZiw Xs∂-sb∂v \n›bn®p. h\-ta-Je \n¿Æ-bn-°p-∂-Xn\v t^mdÃv k¿sΔ Hm^v C¥y hnI-kn-∏n-s®-SpØ `qhn-\ntbm-K-`q-]-Shpw (Land-use map) 1x1 In.ao. F∂ A]-{K-Y-\-Øn¬ Dbcw \n›-bn-°m≥ GTOPO 30 Dw (Global 30 Arc -Second Elevation Data Set) BWv D]-tbm-Kn-®Xv. taev]-d™ am\-Z-fihpw c≠v Um‰msk-‰p-Ifpw Ah-ew-_n-®mWv AXn¿Øn-Iƒ \n¿Æ-bn-®Xv. kky-Pmew AYhm h\-ta-J-e-bpsS \n¿Æ-b-Øn-\mbn Hcp ]Icw kwhn-[m-\-sa∂ \ne-bn¬ hm¿jnI h¿[\ ImWn-°p∂ NDVI (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index) aqey-ßfpw R߃ D]-tbm-Kn®p. F∂m¬ t^mdÃv k¿sΔ Hm^v C¥y-bpsS `q]Sw Xs∂ CXn\v aXn-bm-Ip-sa∂v ]n∂oSv Is≠Øn. ]q¿Δ-L-´-Øns‚ sXt°- A-‰hpw ]Sn-™mtd A‰hpw _nen-Kncn cwK≥kv (Biligiri rangance) F∂-dn-b-s∏-Sp∂ I¿Æm-S-I-bn-sebpw Xan-gv\m-´n-sebpw ae-\n-c-I-fm-sW-∂Xv imkv{X-Ir-Xn-Ifn¬ s]mXpth AwKo-I-cn-°-s∏-´n-´p≠v (aWn 1974). c≠v ae-\n-c-Iƒ°n-S-bn¬ Ipd™ Db-cØn¬ (250 ao‰¿) kn¶q¿ (Singur) ]oT-`q-an°pw Xe-asse (Talamalai) ]oT-`q-an-°p-an-S-bn¬ tambm¿ (Moyar) \Zn-bpsS Xmgv-h-c-bmWv. ]›n-a-L-´-Øn-s‚bpw (\oe-Kncn) ]q¿Δ-L-´-Øn-s‚bpw (_nenKn-cn-cw-K≥kv) kwK-a-ÿew. `qX-ehpw h\-ßfpw CS-X-S-hn-√msX XpS-cp-∂-Xn-\m¬ \oe-Kncn˛ _nen-Kncn cwK≥kv ae-\n-c-Iƒ XΩn¬ `qan-im-kv{X-]-c-ambn hy‡-am-sbmcp AXncv \n¿Æbn-°pI hnj-a-I-c-amWv. At\Iw kky-Pm-e-ß-fpsS Bhm-k-tI-{μ-amWv Cu ae-\n-c-Iƒ°n-Sbv°p≈ {]tZ-i-sa-∂-Xn-\m¬ _nen-Kn-cn-cw-K≥ ae-\n-c-Isf L´-Øns‚ ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-WØn-\mbn cq]o-I-cn-°p∂ ]›n-a-L´ AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS ]cn-[n-bn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-tØ-≠-Xp≠v. BI-bm¬ I¿Æm-S-I-Ønepw Xan-gv\m-´n-ep-ambn sX°p-h-S°v 150 In.ao‰-tdmfw \of-Øn¬ ÿnXn-sN-øp∂ _nen-Kn-cn-cw-K≥a-e-\n-c-Isf ]›n-a-L´ AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS ]cn-[n-bn¬s]-Sp-Øm\mbn ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ AXn¿Øn-bn-epƒs∏-Sp-Øm≥ R߃ ip]m¿i sNøp∂p. _nen-Kn-cncw-K≥ ae-\n-c-I-fpsS Ingt° AXn¿Øn \n¿Æ-bn-°m-\mbn `qXe AXn¿Øn°v Bt]-£n-Iambn kphy-‡-amb `c-W-]-c-amb AXn¿Øn kanXn \n¿t±-in-°p∂p. I¿Æm-S-I-bn¬ _nen-Kncn-cw-K≥ ae-\n-c-I-fpsS hS-°p-`m-KsØ AXn¿Øn sIm√-K¬˛ kXy-aw-Kew sslth-bpsS s]mXpA-Xn¿Øn-bmb Nma-cm-P-\-K¿ t^mdÃv Unhn-js‚ AXn¿Øn Xs∂-bm-bn-cn-°Ww. Xan-gv \m-´n¬ _nen-Kn-cn-cw-K≥ ae-\n-c-I-fpsS Z£n-W-`m-KsØ kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw kXy-aw-Kew t^mdÃv Unhn-js‚ Hcp `mKw Dƒs∏-Sp∂ \oe-Kncn _tbm-kv^n-b¿ dnk¿Δpw Ing°v sIm√K¬˛ kXy-aw-Kew sslth-bpsS s]mXp- A-Xn¿Øn-bp-amWv R߃ \n¿t±-in-°p-∂Xv. taev]-d™ AXn¿Øn-Iƒ {]Imcw hS°v Xm]n Xmgv-h-c-ap-X¬ sX°v I\ym-Ip-amcn hsc 1490 In.ao‰-dmWv ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ ssZ¿Lyw. (Nn{Xw 1) GI-tZi hnkvXo¿Æw 129037 NXp-c{i Intem-ao-‰-dmWv. hoXn Xan-gv\m-´n¬ 210 In. ao‰-dm-sW-¶n¬ alm-cm-jv{S-bn¬ 48 In.ao am{X-amWv. (]me-°mSv Npcw HgnsI) ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n \ne-hn¬ hcp-tºmƒ R߃ \n¿t±-in-®n-´p≈ AXn¿Øn-Iƒ Ah¿°v ho≠pw ]cn-tim-[n-t°-≠-Xmbn hcpw. ImcWw AXnkq-£va-ambn CXv \n¿Æ-bn-°m-\p≈ ka-btam kmh-Im-itam R߃°v e`n-®n-√. DZm-l-c-WØn\v cXv\-Kncn Pn√-bnse Umt]mfn (Dapoli) Kpl-K¿ (Guhagar) F∂o {][m\ {]tZ-i-ßfpw ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ D]-a-e-\n-c-I-fmb Xms\, sdbvKUv Pn√-I-fn¬s]´ XpwtK-tc-iz¿ (Tungareswar), {]_m¬ (Prabal), Sm≥k (Tansa), am\¿ (Manor), sshXma (Vaithama) XpS-ßn-bh Dƒs∏-Sp-Øm≥ hn´p-t]m-bn-cp∂p. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

6


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Xncp-Øm≥ Ign-bm-Ø-hn[w sshIn-bmWv CXv Rß-fpsS {i≤-bn¬s]-´Xv. ]›n-a-L´Øn s‚ `qan-im-kv{X-]-c-amb AXn¿Øn ]´nI H∂n¬ sImSp-Øn-´p≠v.

Nn{Xw: 1 ]›n-a-L´ {]tZiw

]´nI 1 : ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ `qan-im-kv{X-]-c-amb \n¿W-b-߃ ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ {]tXy-I-X-Iƒ DØc AXn¿Øn

80 19' 8''- -210 16'24'' DØ-cmwiw

]q¿Δ AXn¿Øn

720 56' 24''-780 19' 40'' ]q¿Δmwiw

samØw hnkvXo¿Æw

129037 NXp-c{i In.ao.

samØw \ofw

1490 In.-ao.

Ipd™ hoXn

48 In ao.

]c-am-h[n hoXn

210 Inao

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

7


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Xmeq°v, Pn√ F∂n-h-t]mse ]›n-a-L-´sØ {]tXyI `cW bqWn-‰p-I-fmbn \n›-bn°pI km[y-a√. sImSIv, \oe-Kncn, hb-\mSv, CSp°n F∂nh Hgn-®m¬ s]mXp-hn¬ Pn√m AXncp-Iƒ ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ AXn¿Øn-bp-ambn HØp-h-cp-∂n√. `qcn-`mKw Pn√-I-fnepw ]›n-a-L´ {]tZ-i-߃s°m∏w ]›n-a-Xo-c-Øn-s‚tbm ]Sn-™m-d≥ ]oT-`q-an-bp-sStbm `mK-߃°qSn Dƒs∏Sp-∂p≠v. U¬ln-bnse Su¨ B‚ v I¨{Sn πm\nwKv Hm¿K-ss\-tk-j≥ (Town and country Planning Organisation) 1960Ifn¬ Xøm-dm-°nb dnt∏m¿´n-emWv taJem Bkq-{XnX {]{In-b-bv°p-th≠n ]›n-a-L-´sØ BZyw `c-W-bq-Wn-‰p-I-fmbn hn`m-h\ sNbvXXv. Cu dnt∏m¿´n¬ ]›n-a-L´sØ Xmeq°v Xe-Øn-emWv IW-°n-se-Sp-Øn-´p-≈Xv. CXns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-emWv Bkq{XW IΩo-js‚ ]›n-L´ hnI-k-\-]-≤Xn (Western Ghat's Development Programme WGDP) 1974--˛75¬ 132(3) Xmeq-°p-I-fn¬ Bcw-`n-®Xv. tI{μ k¿°m¿ klmbw e`n-°m≥ XpS-ßn-b-Xn-\-Sn-ÿm\w Cu ]≤-Xn-bmWv. F∂m¬ `c-W-]-c-amb Cu \n¿hN\-Øn\v ]cn-ÿnXn \nb-{¥Whp-ambn bmsXmcp _‘-hp-an√. ]s£ ]›n-a-L-´sØ \n¿Æ-bn-°p-∂-Xn\v Xmeq-°p-Iƒ Hcp bYm¿∞ `c-W-bq-Wn-‰m-I-bm¬ XpS¿∂p≈ N¿®-Iƒ°v Xmeq°v ASn-ÿm-\-am-°m-sa∂v kanXn \n›bn®p.

7. `q{]-IrXn C¥y≥ D]-`q-Jfi Ø - ns‚ Pe-tKm-]p-chpw ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-Øns‚ \n[n-Ipw-`hp-amb ]›na-L-´-Ønse ae-\n-c-Iƒ hS°v Xm]n \Zn-ap-X¬ sX°v I\ym-Ip-am-cn-hsc C¥y-bpsS ]›n-a-Xoc-Øn\v kam-¥-c-ambn \ne-sIm-≈p∂p. ]Sn-™mdv Xoc-tZ-i-tØbv°v Ncn-™n-d-ßp∂ ae-\n-cIƒ U°m≥ ]oT-`q-an-bn¬ Ip∂n≥\n-c-I-fp-ambn XmZmflyw {]m]n-°p∂p. `qan-im-kv{X-]-c-ambn ]›n-aL - ´- sØ c≠v hn`m-Ka - mbn Xcn°mw. Xmc-Xt- ay\ _ew Ipd™ ]md-°q-´ß - f - pw, apIƒ`mKw ]c∂ ae-Ifpw \nd™ Imfo-\-Zn°v hS-°p≈ sU°m≥ {Sm∏v. Cu taJ-e-bnse ae-Iƒ°v 1500 ao‰-dn-e-[nIw Db-c-an√. Imfn-\-Zn°v sX°p≈ `mKw ISp-∏-ta-dnb ]md-Iƒ \nd™ {]o Im{ºnb≥ (Precambrian) {]tZiw. Dcp≠ BIr-Xn-bn-ep≈ ae-Iƒ \nd™ Cu taJ-ebv°v 2000ao‰tdm AXn-e-[n-Itam Db-c-ap≠v. Atd-_y≥ kap-{Z-Øn¬ \n∂p-h-cp∂ \ocmhn \nd™ Im‰ns\ XS-™p-\n¿Øn h¿jØn¬ 2000 an.ao‰tdm AXn-e-[n-Itam ag s]øn-°p-∂Xv ]›n-a-L-´-a-e-\n-c-I-fmWv. Cu ae-I-fpsS ASn-hmcw ag-°m-Sp-I-fmWv. Ing-°p-`m-KsØ ae-t©-cn-hp-Iƒ ]Sn-™m-dp-`m-KsØ At]-£n®v hc≠ {]tZ-i-am-Wv. sXt°m´v h¿j-Øn¬ F´v,H≥]-Xp-amkw I\Ø ag e`n°pw. hS-°p-`mKØv 4 amkw \o≠p-\n-¬°p∂ sX°p-]-Sn-™m-d≥ a¨kq-Wn-eqsS Ipd-®p-a-gtb e`n-°p-∂p≈q. ag-bpsS Cu G‰-°p-d-®n¬ ImcWw ]›n-sa-L-´-Øns‚ ]Sn-™mtd ae-s©-cn-hp-Iƒ Xnßn\n-d™ ]®n-e-°m-Sp-Ifpw Ingt° ae-s©-cn-hp-I-fn-te°v hcpw-tXmdpw {ItaW Cu¿∏w Ipd™v hc≠ {]tZ-i-ambn amdp-Ibpw sNøp∂p. kky-e-Xm-Zn-I-fpsS sshhn≤yw G‰hpw Db¿∂ \nebn-se-Øp-∂Xv sXt° A‰Øv tIc-f-Ønse kº-∂-amb ag-°m-Sp-I-fnseØptºm-gm-Wv. hmWnPy-]-c-ambn G‰hpw {][m-\ -hr-£-amb tX°v kpe-`-ambn hf-cp-∂Xv anX-ambn ag-e-`n-°p∂ Cu¿∏-ap≈ {]Ir-Xn-Z-Ø-amb h\-ß-fn-emWv. C¥y-bn¬ ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-Øns‚ \n[n-Ipw`w F∂ \ne-bn¬ Ing-°≥ lnam-ebw Ign™m¬ sXm´-SpØ ÿm\w ]›n-a-L-´-Øn\v Ah-Im-i-s∏-´-XmWv. BtKm-f-X-e-Øn¬ ssPhssh-hn-≤y-`o-jWn t\cn-Sp∂ H∂mbn AwKo-I-cn-°-s∏-´n-´p≈ ]›n-a-L-´sØ {ioe-¶-bpsS ]®∏v taJe (Wet zone) hsc \ofp∂ `qan-im-kv{X-]-c-amb AXns‚ ÿnXnbpw IW-°n-se-SpØv ISpØ ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-`o-jWn t\cn-Sp∂ temIsØ F´v {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ H∂mbn ]›n-a-L-´sØ hne-bn-cp-Øp∂p (Myers et al 2000). 18˛mw \q‰m-≠ns‚ a≤yw apX¬ `q{]-Ir-Xn-bn-ep-≠m-bn-´p≈ henb am‰hpw Db¿∂ P\-km-{μ-Xbpw IW-°n-se-SpØv ]›n-a-L-´-kw-c-£-Whpw Ahn-SsØ hn`-h-ß-fpsS kpÿn-c-hn-\n-tbm-Khpw ASn-b-¥nc {]m[m-\y-a¿ln-°p∂p. I¿Æm-SIw, tIcfw, Xan-gv\mSv kwÿm-\-߃ Dƒs∏-Sp∂ Z£n-W-ta-J-e-bn¬ \S-Ønb Hcp ]T-\-{]-Imcw 1920˛1990 Ime-L-´-Øn¬ Ahn-SsØ X\Xv kky-Pm-e-ß-fpsS 40 iX-am\w \jvS-s∏-Sp-Itbm B ÿew CX-c-B-h-iy-߃°mbn cq]-am‰w hcp-Øp-Itbm sNbvXn-´p-s≠∂mWv. (Menon & Bawa 1997) hfsc ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

8


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

hen-sbmcp {]tZ-iØv h\-Øn-s‚bpw hr£-ß-fp-sSbpw Bh-c-W-ap-s≠-¶nepw ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ 7 iX-am-\-Øn-e-[nIw ÿeØv Ct∏mƒ {]mY-anI kky-Pm-e-B-h-c-W-an√. L´-Øns‚ 15 iXam-\-tØmfw kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-ß-fn-epƒs∏-Sp∂p. henb `qXe sshhn-[yhpw (G‰hpw Dbcw IqSnb sImSp-ap-Sn-bmb B\-ap-Sn-bpsS Dbcw kap-{Z-\n-c-∏n¬ \n∂v 2695 ao‰-dmWv.) hyXykvX Af-hn-ep≈ ag e`y-Xbpw (Ingt° ae-s©-cphn¬ 50 sk.ao. apX¬ ]Sn-™mtd ae-t©-cp-hn¬ 700 sk.ao. hsc) tN¿∂v Chn-SsØ kky˛PohPme sshhn≤yw k¶o¿Æ-am-°p∂p. \nXy-l-cnX DjvW-ta-Jem h\-߃, tNme-a-c-°m-Sp-Iƒ, ]p¬ta-Sp-Iƒ, sN¶¬ ]oT-`q-an-Iƒ,. hc≠ hr£-°m-Sp-Iƒ, hc≠ apƒs®Sn h\-߃, XpS-ßnb-h-sb√mw ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ btY-jvS-ap-≠v. Ch-bn¬ ]eXpw kky-ß-fp-sSbpw P¥p-°-fp-sSbpw Bhm-k-tI-{μ-sa∂ \ne-bn¬ hfsc {]m[m-\y-a¿ln-°p∂p. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v alm-cm-jv{S-bnse sN¶¬ ]oT-`qan A]q¿Δ kky˛ Poh-Pm-e-ß-fpsS hnf-\n-ehpw Im´p-t]mØv t]mse-bp≈ henb kkvX-\n-I-fpsS ta®n¬]p-d-ß-fp-amWv. ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ sX°p-`m-K-Øp≈ tNme-h-\ßfpw ]p¬ta-Sp-Ifpw A\p-]-ahpw `mhn Imem-hÿm hyXn-bm-\-Øn¬ \n¿Æm-b-I-]-¶p-≈-h-bpamWv. ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ \n∂v Ing-t°m´pw ]Sn-™m-tdm´pw Hgp-Ip∂ \nc-h[n \Zn-Iƒ°pw Acphn-Iƒ°pw Hmc-Øp≈ \n_n-V-h-\-߃ Db¿∂ Xe-Øn-ep≈ kky-ß-fp-sSbpw P¥p-°-fpsSbpw sshhn-[y-am¿∂ Bhm-k-tI-{μ-ßfpw CS-\m-gn-I-fp-amWv. Xmgv∂ {]tZ-i-ß-fn-ep≈ Cu h\-ßfpw NXp-∏p-{]-tZ-i-ßfpw C∂v ISpØ `ojWn t\cn-Sp∂p. \mw Adn-bp∂ kky-ß-fp-sSbpw P¥p-°-fp-sSbpw ssh]p-ey-Øn¬ \n∂v ssPh sshhn[y-Øns‚ Imcy-Øn¬ ]›n-a-L-´-Øn-\p≈ {]m[m-\yhpw A]q¿Δ-Xbpw a\- n-em-°m-hp-∂-XmWv. (Gunavardene et al 2007)

GXm≠v 4000 C\w ]pjv]-s®-Sn-Iƒ AYhm cmPysØ samØw ]pjv]n-°p∂ sNSn-h¿§ß-fpsS 27 iX-am\w ChnsS ImWmw. 645 \nXy-l-cn-X-hr£ C\-ß-fpsS 56 iX-am\w ]›n-a-L´-Øn¬ am{Xw ImWp-∂-h-bmWv. sNdp kky-hn-`m-K-Øn¬ 850˛1000 C\-߃ Dƒs∏-Sp∂p. ChbpsS sshhn[yw AXym-I¿j-I-amWv. Ch-bn¬ 28 iX-am\w A]q¿Δ C\-߃ Dƒ∏sS 682C\w ]mb-ep-Ifpw 43 iX-am\w A]q¿Δ -C-\-߃ Dƒ∏sS 280 C\w h¿Æ-e-Xm-Zn-Ifpw Dƒs∏-Sp∂p. \s´-√n-√mØ hn`m-K-Øn¬s]-Sp∂ Pohn-I-fn¬ 350 C\w Ddp-ºp-Ifpw (20 iX-am\w AhnsS am{Xw ImWp-∂h), 330 C\w (11 iX-am\w AhnsS am{Xw ImWp∂p) Nn{X-i-e-`-ßfpw, 174 C\w (40% AhnsS am{Xw ImWp-∂h) Xpºn-Ifpw, 269 C\w (76% AhnsS am{Xw ImWp-∂h) H®pIfpw ChnsS Is≠-Ønbn´p-≠v. 288 C\w a’y-ßsf Is≠Øn-bn-´p-≈-Xn¬ 41 iX-am\w Cu taJ-e-bn¬ am{Xw ImWp-∂-h-bmWv. 220 C\w D`-b-Po-hn-I-fpsS Bhm-k-tI-{μ-amWv ]›n-aL´w. Ch-bn¬ 78 iX-am-\hpw ChnsS am{Xw ImWp-∂-h-bmWv. CubnsS ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ sX°p-`m-KØv Is≠-Ønb Ct¥m-sa-U-Km-kvI¿ _‘-ap≈ ]pXnb h¿§-Øn¬s]´ Xhf (Nasikabactrachus sahyadrensis ) {]mNo\ tKm≠vhm-\≥ Xmgv-h-gnsb kwc-£n-°p-∂-Xn¬ Cu taJe-bv°p≈ {]m[m\yw hy‡-am-°p∂p. tIbvkn-enb≥ sshcp≤y (caecilian diversity)Øns‚ ImcyØn¬ Cu taJ-e-bv°p≈ ÿm\w A\p-]-a-amWv. ImcWw cmPysØ 20 C\-ß-fn¬ 16Dw ChnsS am{Xw ImWp-∂-h-bmWv. 225 C\w Dc-K-ß-fn¬ 62 iX-am\w ChnsS am{Xta D≈q. ]›n-a-L-´Øns‚ sX°≥a-e-\n-c-I-fn¬ am{X-ap≈ Uropeltidae hn`m-K-Øn¬s]´ ]mºp-Iƒ {]tXyI ]cma¿iw A¿ln-°p∂p. 500 tesd C\w ]£n-I-sfbpw 120 C\w kkvX-\n-I-sfbpw ChnsS Is≠Øn-bn-´p≠v. Gjy≥ B\-I-fpsS FÆ-Øn¬ H∂mw-ÿm\w ]›n-a-L-´-Øn-\mWv. ISph, Im´pt]mØv, Ipdp-°≥ F∂nh Dƒ∏-sS-bp≈ hnhn[ kkvX-\n-Ifpw ChnsS [mcm-f-ap≠v. Ipcp-ap-fIv, Gew, amhv, πmhv, hmg XpS-ßn-b-h-bpsS Im´n-\-߃ ChnsS kar-≤-ambn ImWmw. Cu ssPhk-ºØv h¿j-ß-fmbn \ap°v h≥t\-´-amWv \¬In-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂Xv. Ipcp-ap-fIv, Gew, Nμ\w, B\-s°mºv XpS-ßnb h\-D-ev]-∂-߃°pw ]›n-a-L´w {]i-kvX-amWv. Ign™ \q‰m-≠p-ap-X¬ {]tXy-In®pw C°-gn™ Zi-I-ß-fn¬ Cu sshhn[yw XpS¿®bmbn XI¿® t\cn-Sp∂p. Cu Ime-b-f-hn¬ \nc-h[n kky-Po-h-Pme kaq-l-߃ GXm≠v ]q¿Æ-am-bn-Øs∂ A{]-Xy-£-ambn. ]mh-\Xzw Iev]n-°-s∏-´n-´p≈p Imhp-Iƒ, Ipf-߃, \ZnIƒ F∂n-h-bpsS kwc-£-W-Øn-\mbn XpS¿∂p-h-cp∂ {]mNo\ coXn-bp-sSbpw ]mh-\-ambn Icp-X-s∏-´p∂ kkvX-\-h¿§-Øn-epƒ∏-sS-bp≈ \nc-h[n P¥p-h¿§-ß-fpsS kwc-£-tWm-]m-[n............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Ifpw ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-Øns‚ hnhn[ LS-I-ßsf C∂pw ^e-{]-Z-ambn kwc-£n-°-s∏-Sp∂p. Chbv°v ]pdta kao-]Z- i - I - ß - f - n-embn cq]w \¬In-bn-´p≈ h\y-ar-Kk - t- ¶-Xß - ƒ, tZiob ]m¿°pIƒ, ISph dnk¿Δp-Iƒ F∂nh hgn AXn-thKw A{]-Xy-£-am-bn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p∂ kky-Po-hPme sshhn-[y-sØ kwc-£n-°m≥ Ign-bp∂p. \nc-h[n h\y-Po-hn-I-fpsS FÆw h¿≤n-°m≥ Cu \S-]-Sn-Iƒ klm-bn-®n-´p≠v. F∂m¬ Zp:JI-c-sa∂p ]d-b-s∏´ Cu \S-]-Sn-Iƒ aqew a\pjy\pw h\y-Po-hn-Ifpw XΩn-ep≈ G‰p-ap-´¬ h¿≤n-®nt´ D≈q. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]c-º-cm-KX Irjn-co-Xn-b-\p-k-cn®v Xmgv-h-c-I-fn¬ s\√pw ae-s©-cn-hpI-fn¬ [m\y-ß-fp-amWv Irjn sNbvXn-cp-∂Xv. ]c-º-cm-KX ^e-k-ky-hn-f-I-fn¬ ae-I-fn¬ ASbv°bpw Xoc-tZ-iØv sXßpw amhpw πmhp-sams° hym]-I-ambn Irjn- sN-bvXn-cp∂p. {]Ir-XnZ-Ø-amb ]p¬s®-Sn-Iƒ \nd™ {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ BSp-am-Sp-I-tfbpw Fcp-a-I-tf-bp-sams° [mcm-fambn hf¿Øn-bn-cp∂p. F∂m¬ \nXy-l-cnX h\-ta-J-e-bn¬ CXv I≠n-cp-∂n√. Ing-ßp-h¿§-ßfpw [mcmfw ^e-hr-£-ßfpw Cu taJ-e-bn-te°v IS-∂p-h-∂Xv bqtdm]y≥ kzm[o-\-Øm-emWv. tXbne, Im∏n, d∫¿, Iip-h≠n, ac-®o\n, Dcp-f-°n-gßv, F∂n-h-bmWv CXn¬ {][m\w. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse \nXy-l-cnX h\-߃ kztZ-i-am-bp≈ Gew, Ipcp-ap-fIv F∂nh C∂v tXm´w hnf-Iƒ F∂ \ne-bn¬ hfsc hym]-I-ambn Irjn sNbvXp hcp-∂p≠v. {]apJ Kncn-h¿§ Bhm-k-tI-{μ-ß-fm-bn-cp∂ {]Ir-Xn-Z-Ø-amb \nXy-l-cn-X-h-\-߃ sh´n-\n-cØn-bmWv \mw C∂p ImWp∂ ]e ]pXnb tXm´-ßfpw hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-Øn-´p-≈Xv. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse BZy-Im-esØ {][m-\- h\ Dev]-∂-߃ Gew, Ipcp-ap-fIv, B\-s°mºv F∂n-h-bm-bn-cp∂p. a≤y-Im-e-L-´-Øn¬ ]›na Xoc-Xp-d-ap-J-ß-fn¬ \n∂v [mcm-f-ambn tX°p-XSn-Iƒ Ib-‰p-aXn sNbvXn-cp∂p. 17˛mw \q‰m-≠n¬ O{X-]Xn inh-Pn-bpsS admØ t\h¬ No^pIƒ (Angres) hf¿Øn-sb-SpØ tX°n≥Im-Sp-I-fmWv BZy-Im-e-tXm-´-ß-sf∂v tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn´p≠v. {_n´o-jp-Im-cpsS hc-thm-sS-bmWv hr£-߃ h≥tXm-Xn¬ NqjWw sNøm≥ XpS-ßnbXv. sdbn¬sh …o∏-dp-Iƒ°pw a‰pw th≠n \nXy-l-cn-X-h-\-ßfpw tX°p-tXm-´-߃ h®p-]n-Sn∏n-°m≥ th≠n a‰v \n_n-V-h-\-ßfpw sh´n-am‰n. CØ-c-Øn-ep≈ Bh-iy-߃ h¿≤n-®-tXmsS AXp-hsc {Kma-k-aq-l-߃ ]cn-]m-en-®n-cp∂ h\-߃ hn`-Pn®v {Kma-`q-an-sb∂pw k¿°m¿ DS-aÿ-X-bn-ep≈ dnk¿Δv h\-ß-sf∂pw \ma-I-cWw sNbvXp. Aßs\ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse AXn-hnim-e-amb ta®n¬]p-d-ßfpw h\-ßfpw kaqlw Iø-S°n Iptd h\-`qan kzIm-cy-hy-‡n-I-fn-epsaØn. ]n¬°m-eØv Ch AanX NqjWw aqew \in®p. t]∏¿, ssπhpUv, t]mfn-ss^-_¿, Xos∏´n XpSßn h\w A[n-jvTnX hyh-km-b-߃°pth≠n dnk¿hv h\-ß-fpsS NqjWw AXns‚ D®m-h-ÿ-bn-se-Øn-bXv 1950˛1980 Ime-L-´-ØnemWv. sh´n-am-‰p-∂-hbv°p ]Icw hr£-߃ h®p-]n-Sn-∏n®v XpS¿®-bmb h\-h¬°-cWw \SØm-sa-∂mWv \n›-bn-®n-cp-∂-sX-¶nepw AXv \S-∂n√.h\-ß-fpsS Aan-X-Nq-jWw XpS¿∂p-sImt≠-bn-cp∂p. AXm-bXv h\-kw-c-£Ww h\ B{I-a-W-Øn\v hgn-amdn. {]Ir-Xn-Z-Ø-h-\-߃ h≥tXm-Xn¬ sh´n-am‰n, bq°m-en-]v‰kv, At°jy tXm´-߃ ]Sp-Øp-b¿Øn. tcmK-߃ ]nSns]´v bq°m-en-]v‰kv tXm´-߃ \in®p. X¬^-e-ambn 1980Iƒ°v tijw dnk¿Δv h\-ß-fn¬ \n∂p≈ hnf-sh-Sp∏v Ipd™p. {ItaW h\-A-[n-jvTnX hyh-km-b-߃ ]ƒ∏v, ]ƒ∏v hpUv, XSn F∂nh hntZ-i-ß-fn¬ \n∂v Cd-°p-aXn sNøm≥ XpSßn. CXn\p ]pdta Irjn°pw \Zo-XS ]≤-Xn-Iƒ°p-th-≠nbpw h≥tXm-Xn¬ dnk¿Δv h\-߃ Itødn. hfsc Imew ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ \n∂v Ipcp-ap-fIv, Gew, B\-s°mºv, tX≥, sagpIv XpSßnb h\-D-ev]-∂-߃ tiJ-cn-®n-cp∂p. Ip´, h´n -s\-bvØn\pw a‰p-ambn ChnsS \n∂p-ap≈ Cu‰ XpS-ßn-bh D]-tbm-Kn-®n-cp∂p. ae-I-fnse XSn-Iƒ D]-tbm-Kn-®n-cp∂ I∏¬\n¿Ωm-W-ime-Iƒ ]›n-a-Xo-cØv {]h¿Øn-®n-cp∂p. XSn-sIm≠v, Ifn-∏m-´-߃ \n¿Ωn-°p∂ Ic-Iu-i-e-hn-ZKv[-cp-ap-≠m-bn-cp∂p. h\-hn-`-h-ß-fpsS e`yX KWy-ambn Ipd-bp-Ibpw B\-s°m-ºns‚ hn\ntbmKw ]q¿Æ-ambn \ntcm-[n-°p-Ibpw sNbvX-tXmsS Cu {]h¿Ø-\-߃ Gsd-°psd Ah-km\n®p. ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬\n-∂p≈ h\-D-ev]-∂-ßsf ASn-ÿm-\-am-°n-bp≈ ]e hyh-km-b-ßfpw Bcw-`n-®Xv kzmX-{¥y-Øn\v ap≥]p≈ Zi-I-ß-fn-em-bn-cp∂p. XSn-an-√p-Iƒ, HmSv, I´-I-º-\n-Iƒ,

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10


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

t]∏¿, t]mfn-ss^-_¿, Xos∏´n, ssπhpUv, Sm\nßv Iº-\n-Iƒ F∂nh Ch-bn-epƒs∏Spw. `{Zm-hXn Ão¬πm‚p-t]mse ae-I-fnse [m\y-hn-`-h-߃ ASn-ÿm-\-am-°n-bp≈ ]pXnb hyhkm-b-ßfpw Db¿∂p-h-∂p. ]›n-a-L´ h\-hn-`-h߃°v Xmßm≥ Ign-bm-Ø-hn[w Cu hyh-kmb-߃ hf¿∂p hep-Xm-b-t∏mƒ Chbv°p Cd-°p-a-Xnsb B{i-bn-t°-≠-Xmbpw Irjn-`q-an-bn¬ hr£-߃ hf¿Øn-sb-Sp-t°-≠-Xmbpw h∂p. C¥y D]-`q-J-fi-Øn¬ ]Xn-°p∂ ag-bpsS knwl-`m-Khpw ]›n-a-L-´-Øn-emWv e`n-°p∂Xv. Z£nW D]-`q-J-fi-Ønse {]ap-J-\-Zn-I-fmb IrjvW, tKmZm-hcn, Imthcn F∂nh D¤hn-°p-∂Xpw Chn-sS-\n-∂mWv. Ch-bv°p-]p-dta ]›n-a-Xo-cØv ]Sn-™m-tdm´v Hgp-Ip∂ At\Iw sNdn-b-\-Zn-Iƒ ChnsS \n∂m-cw-`n-°p∂p. ]c-º-cm-K-X-ambn Ch-bnse Pew sNdn-b-Ip-f-ßfpw Nmep-Ifpw \n¿Ωn®v AXn-eqsS Xmgv-hm-c-ß-fnse s\¬Ir-jn°pw AS-°-Ir-jn°pw Pe-tk-N-\Øn-\mbn D]-tbm-Kn-®n-cp∂p. F∂m¬ {_n´o-jp-Im-cpsS hc-thmsS hc≠ {]tZ-i-߃ \\bv°m\pw Cu Pe-t{km-X- p-I-fpsS IpsØm-gp-°n¬ \n∂v sshZypXn Dev]m-Zn-∏n-°m-\p-ambn ]e h≥InS \Zo-XS ]≤-Xn-I-fpw \S-∏m°n. kzmX-{¥ym-\-¥cw CØcw ]≤-Xn-I-fpsS FÆw KWy-ambn h¿≤n®p. alm-cm-jv{S-bnse apwss_ apX¬ sIm¬lm-∏q¿ hsc-bp≈ \Zo-X-S-ßfn¬ ImWp-∂-Xp-t]mse C∂v Hs´√m \Zo-X-S-ß-fnepw CØcw ]≤-Xn-Iƒ Db¿∂p Ign™p. Bw_n-hmen (Amby Valley), ehmk (Lavasa) XpS-ßn-bb-t]mse CØcw Pe-kw-`-c-Wn-{]-tZ-i߃ kpJ-hm-k-tI-{μ-ß-fmbpw dntkm¿´p-I-fmbpw hnI-kn-∏n-®p-h-cp∂p. ASpØ Ime-Ømbn I≠p-h-cp∂ as‰mcp hnI-k\ kwcw`w ]›n-a-L-´-a-e-\n-c-I-fpsS s\dp-I-bn-te°v tdmUp-sh´n AhnsS Im‰m-Sn-b-{¥-߃ (Windmills) ÿm]n-°p-∂-XmWv. Cu taJ-e-bnse ]cn-ÿn-Xn°pw Pet{km-X- n\pw {]Xn-Iq-e- B-LmXw krjvSn-°p-∂-XmWv Cu \S-]Sn. ]›n-a-L´ ae-\n-c-Iƒ Ccp-º-bncv, amwK-\okv, t_mIvssk‰v F∂n-h-bm¬ kº-∂-amWv. ChnsS \n∂v {]tXy-In®v tKmh-bn¬ \n∂v Ch h≥tXm-Xn¬ J\\w \SØn Abn-cmbn Xs∂ Ib-‰p-aXn \S-Øp∂p. Ccp-º-bn-cns‚ hne {Iam-Xo-X-ambn IpXn-®p-b-cp-Ibpw Xmc-X-tay\ KpW\n-e-hmcw Ipd™ Abn-cn-\p-t]mepw Bhiyw h¿≤n-°p-Ibpw sNbvX-Xns‚ ^e-ambn F√m \nb-a-ß-tfbpw Im‰n¬ ]dØn J\\w hym]-I-am-bn-cn-°p∂p. CXv ISpØ ]cn-ÿnXn \miØn\pw kmaq-ly-kw-L¿j-Øn\pw Imc-W-amIpw. Chn-SsØ Xo¿∞m-S-\-tI-{μ-߃ ]≠p-ap-X¬ Xs∂ ]›n-a-L-´-Øn-te°v P\-e-£-ßsf BI¿jn-®p-h-cp∂p. tIc-f-Ønse i_-cn-ae, I¿Æm-S-I-Ønse am[-th-iz-c-ae, alm-cm-jv{S-bnse alm-_-te-iz¿ F∂n-h-bmWv Ch-bn¬ apJyw. ]nev°m-eØv \nc-h[n hnt\m-Z-k-©m-c-tI-{μßfpw ChnsS Db¿∂p-h-∂n-´p≠v. \oe-Kn-cn-bnse Du´n, tIc-f-Ønse tX°Sn h\y-Pohn kt¶Xw F∂nh DZm-l-cWw. ae-I-fnse kpJ-hm-k-tI-{μ-ß-fnepw tXm´-ß-fnepw Hgn-hp-Ime hk-XnIfpw SqdnÃv dntkm¿´p-Ifpw \n¿Ωn-°p-∂Xv Ct∏mƒ ]Xn-hm-bn-´p≠v. ]›n-a-L-´Ønse ]md-s°-´p-Ifpw i‡-amb agbpw sh≈-Øns‚ IpsØm-gp-°n¬ Hen-®pt]m-Ip∂ tdmUp-Ifpw \n_n-U-h-\-ßfpw ChnsS KXm-KX hm¿Øm-hn-\n-abw _p≤n-ap-´n-em°p∂p. Cu A{]m-]y-X-bpsS X{¥-]-c-amb B\p-Iqeyw apX-se-Sp-ØmWv O{X-]Xn inhPn i‡-amb admØ kmaymPyw ]Sp-Øp-b¿Øn-bXv. KXm-KX˛hm¿Øm-hn-\n-ab kuI-cy-߃ ]›na-L-´-Øns‚ Dƒ{]-tZ-i-ß-fn-te°v IS-∂p-sN-∂Xv {_n´ojv `c-W-Im-e-ØmWv. kzmX-{¥ym-\¥cw h≥InS \Zo-X-S-]-≤-Xn-Ifpw J\-\-]-≤-Xn-Ifpw Bcw-`n-®-tXmsS KXm-KX hm¿Øm-hn-\nab kuI-cy-ßfpw h≥tXm-Xn¬ h¿≤n®p. {]Ir-Xn-ZØ Bhm-k-tI-{μ-߃ XΩn-ep≈ _‘w XS- -s∏-Sp-Øn-sIm≠v ae-Iƒ°v IpdpsI tdmUp-Ifpw sdbn¬]m-X-Ifpw \n¿Ωn-®n-´p≠v. sXm´v InS-°p∂ ka-X-e-{]-tZ-i-ß-fp-ambn Xmc-Xayw sNøp-tºmƒ ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ P\hmkw Xosc Ipd-hmWv. kpJ-I-c-a-√mØ `qX-ehpw ae-º-\n-bpsS IS-∂m-{I-a-W-hp-amWv CXn\p≈ {][m-\-Im-cWw. s\¬Ir-jnbpw tIc-Ir-jnbpw \nd™ ka-X-e-{]-tZ-i-߃ P\-hmk tI{μ-ß-fm-sW-¶nepw Ing-°p≈ sU°m¨ ]oT-`q-an-bn¬ P\-km-{μX Ipd-hm-Wv. ]›n-a-L-´Ønse P\-hm-k-tI-{μ-߃ hep-∏-Øn¬ sNdpXpw NnX-dn-°n-S-°p-∂-h-bp-amWv.henb ]´-W߃ Ing-°p-hiw {][m-\-\-Zn-I-fpsS Ic-bntem ]›n-a-Xo-cØv Xpd-ap-J-ß-fmbn {]h¿Øn-°p∂ \Zo-ap-J-ß-fntem BWp-≈Xv. KXm-KX hm¿Øm-hn-X-cW cwK-Øp-≠m-bn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p∂ {ZpXK-Xn-bn-ep≈ am‰-ßfpw kº-∂-cmb hen-sbmcp a≤y-hn-`m-K-Øns‚ DZ-bhpw ae-Iƒ CSn-®p-\n-c............................................................................................................................................................................................................

11


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Øm\pw DgpXp adn-°m\pw ]cym-]vX-amb F¿Øv aqhnßv sajy-\-dn-I-fpsS e`y-Xbpw ]›n-a-L´sØ Hgn-hp-Ime hk-Xn-Ifpw dntkm¿´p-Ifpw \nd™ \K-c-ß-fmbn am‰n-s°m-≠n-cn-°p∂p. X¬^-e-ambn {]Ir-Xn-ZØ kky-Po-h-Pme kaq-l-Øns‚ D∑q-e-\hpw {]tZ-i-hm-kn-I-fpsS \njv°m-k-\hpw kw`-hn-°p∂p. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse Bfp-Iƒ ]≠p-ap-X¬ Ah-cpsS ]m¿∏nSw, Imen-Øo‰, C‘\w(hndIv) F∂n-hbv°v ]q¿Æ-ambpw B{i-bn-®n-cp-∂Xv {]Ir-Xn-Z-Ø-amb h\-ßsf Bbn-cp∂p. Ah¿°v Bh-iy-amb t]mjIw e`n-®n-cp-∂Xv th´-bmSn In´p∂ amwkm-lm-c-Øn¬ \n∂m-bn-cp∂p. h\hpw h\y-Po-hn-Ifpw \in-®-tXmsS Cu P\-k-aq-l-Øns‚ Btcm-Kyhpw `oj-Wn-emWv. ChcpsS Pohn-X-Øn-ep-≠m-bn-´p≈ sa®w tcmK-ß-fn¬ \n∂v {]tXy-In®v ae-º-\n-bn¬ \n∂p≈ tamN-\hpw KXm-KX hm¿Øm-hn-\n-ab cwK-Øp-≠mb hnI-k-\-hp-amWv. tIc-f-Øn-sem-gn®v as‰mcn-SØpw B[p-\nI Btcm-Ky-kw-c-£W˛hnZym-`ymk kuI-cy-߃ Imcy-ambn Ch-cn-te-s°Øn-bn-´n√. tIc-f-Øn¬ C°m-cy-Øn-ep-≠m-bn-´p≈ ]ptcm-KXn hfsc sas√-bmWv. ChnsS P\kwJym h¿≤-\-hnepw KWy-amb Ipd-hp≠v. apwss_bv°v hS-°p≈ UmwKvkv, Xms\ Pn√-I-fnse Nne CS-ß-fnepw hb-\mSv, \oe-Kncn taJ-e-bnepw am{X-amWv ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ Kncn-h¿§-°m¿ IqSp-X-em-bp-≈Xv. inem-bpK \mbm-SnI-fmb bYm¿∞ tNme \mbv°-∑msc \oen-Kn-cn-bn¬ am{X-amWv ImWm≥ Ign-bpI. ]›n-a-L´-]-cn-ÿnXn \io-I-c-W-Øns‚ Xn‡-^-e-߃ Gsd A\p-`-hn-°p-Ibpw hnI-k-\-Øns‚ B\pIqeyw hfsc ]cn-an-X-ambn am{Xw e`n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXXv Cu Kncn-h¿§-°m¿°mWv. Cu Aic-W-hn-`m-K-ß-ƒ°v sa®-s∏´ ]cn-K-W\ e`n-°m-\mbn cq]w \¬Inb PESA, FRA \nb-a-߃ \S∏m-°p-∂Xv ÿm]nX Xmev]-cy-°m¿ XS-bp-Ibpw sNbvXp. a\p-jy-\n¿ΩnX aqe-[-\-Øns‚ IpsØm-gp-°n¬s∏´v ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse {]Ir-Xn-ZØ aqe[\w Hen-®p-t]mbn. CXv ]cn-ÿn-Xn°v ISpØ BLm-X-ta¬∏n°p-Ibpw kmaq-ly-aqe[\-Øns‚ A[x]X-\-Øn\v Imc-W-am-hp-Ibpw sNbvXp. F∂m¬ CXn-s\mcp A\p-Iq-e-h-i-hp-ap≠v. taev]d™ am‰-ß-fpsS ^e-ambn cmPysØ G‰hpw Db¿∂ km£-c-Xbpw hfsc Db¿∂ ]cnÿnXn Ah-t_m-[hpw ]›n-a-L´ \nhm-kn-Iƒ°v kn≤n®p. ChnsS P\m-[n-]-Xy-ÿm-]-\-߃ hfsc i‡-amWv. a\p-jy-tijn Db¿Øp-∂-Xnepw ]©m-bØv cmPv ÿm]-\-߃ i‡n-s∏-SpØp-∂X - nepw tIcfw C¥y-bn¬ H∂mw ÿm\-ØmWv. {Kma-k` - I - f - n¬ \n∂p≈ ]mTw Dƒs°m≠psIm≠v `qhn-\n-tbm-K- \bcq]o-I-c-W-Øn-\mbn tKmh CubnsS doPn-b-W¬ πm≥ 2021 \v cq]w \¬In-bXv hfsc {it≤-b-amWv. hfsc {i≤-tbmsS ]cn-ÿnXn kulr-]-c-amb Hcp hnI-k-\]-Ÿm-hn-te°v {]th-in-°p-∂-Xn\v cmPysØ hfsc A\p-tbm-Py-amb Hcp taJ-e-bmWv ]›n-aL´w.

8. kpÿn-c-ambn hnI-kn-∏n-°pI ˛ {i≤m-]q¿Δw ]cn-c-£n°pI ]›n-aL - ´- Ø - nse πm≥kvIo-ap-Iƒ°v tI{μ-km-ºØ - nI klmbw e`y-am-°p-∂X - n\p ]pdta Cu taJ-e-bnse {]h¿Ø-\-߃ \nb-{¥n-°p-∂-Xn\v ^e-{]-Z-am-sbmcp kwhn-[m\w IqSn G¿s∏Sp-Ø-W-sa∂v Cu taJ-e-bp-ambn _‘-s∏´ Ht´sd t]¿ \n¿t±-in®p. AXm-bXv ]›n-a-L-´Øns‚ AXn-cp-Iƒ°p-≈n¬ Nne {]h¿Ø-\-߃ ]q¿Æ-ambn \ntcm-[n-°p-Ibpw AXn-cp-Iƒ°v ]pdØv Ch ]q¿Æ-ambn A\p-h-Zn-°p-Ibpw sNøpI F∂-Xm-bn-cp∂p Dt±iw. F∂m¬ hnI-k\ {]{In-bsb XS- -s∏-Sp-Øp∂ \n¿t±-i-ß-tfmSv kan-Xn°v tbmPn-∏n-√m-bn-cp∂p. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v alm-cmjv{S kwÿm-\Øv Hcp ^mwlukv \n¿Ωn-°W - s - a-¶n¬ Irjn-bn-SØ - n\v Ipd-™Xv 2G°¿ hnkvXo¿Æ-ap-≠m-bn-cn-°-W-sa-∂-XmWv \n_-‘\. F∂m¬ ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ \ne-hn-ep≈ ESA Ifn¬ H∂mb alm-_-te-iz-dn¬ 80 iX-am\w I¿j-I¿°pw 2 G°-dn¬ Xmsg am{Xta Irjn-`qan-bp≈q. X¬^-e-ambn Ign™ 60 h¿j-ambn Imcy-amb hnI-k\w D≠m-bn-´n-√mØ P\-km-{μX-tb-dnb tKmX≥knse (Gaothance) IpSn-ep-I-fn¬ sR-cp-ßn-°-gn-bm≥ Ch¿ \n¿_-‘n-X-cmbn. Cu \n_-‘-\-bn¬ Imtem-Nn-X-amb am‰w thW-sa∂ Ah-cpsS apd-hnfn ]cn-l-cn-°-s∏-Sm-Xn-cn°p-tºmƒ Xs∂ kº∂¿°p-th-≠n-bp≈ _w•m-hp-Ifpw tlm´-ep-Ifpw \n¿_m[w ]Wn-Xpb¿Øp-∂Xv Ahsc h√msX Akz-ÿ-cm-°p∂p. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

t_mIvkv˛1 : tems´ MIDC cmk-hy-h-km-b-irw-J-ebpw Zmt_mƒ IS-en-Sp-°ns‚ aen-\o-I-c-Whpw ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£W {]ÿm-\-ßsf temI-sa-ºmSpw \bn-®n-´p-≈Xv k¿°m-cp-Itfm hyh-km-b-ßtfm A√ P\-ß-fm-sW-∂-XmWv A\p-`-h-km£yw. BI-bm¬ ]cn-ÿnXn kwc£-W-A-h-tem-I\ `c-W-\n¿Δ-lW {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn¬ ]c-am-h[n P\-]-¶m-fnØw Dd-∏p-h-cpØp-I-bmWv Bhiyw. CXn-\mbn tI{μ ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\whIp∏v a{¥m-ebw G¿s∏-Sp-Ønb Pn√m-Xe ]≤-Xn-bmWv ]cym-h-c≥hm-ln\n (Paryavaran Vahini). Cu ]≤-Xn-{]-Imcw aen-\o-IcWw, h\-\-io-I-cWw XpS-ßnb ]cn-ÿn-Xn-{]-iv\-߃ hne-bn-cpØn Pn√m-I-e-IvS¿°v dnt∏m¿´psNøm-\p≈ A[n-Imcw B {]tZ-isØ Hmtcm ]uc\pw \¬In-bn-´p≠v. Cu dnt∏m¿´n¬ Pn√m-I-e-IvS¿ hni-Z-amb At\z-jWw \SØpw. 1990 Ifn¬ Cu ]≤Xn Z£nW I∂-S-t]m-se-bp≈ Pn√-I-fn¬ hfsc ^e-{]-Z-ambn \S-∏m-°n-bn-cp∂p. CXns‚ ASn-ÿm-\Øn¬ 11˛mw ]©-h-’c ]≤-Xn-bpsS ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w Ãnb-dnwKv IΩn‰n "]cym-h-c≥hmln\n' 11˛mw ]≤-Xn-bn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Ø-W-sa∂v i‡-ambn ip]m¿i sNbvXp. alm-cmjv{S k¿°m¿ DtZym-K-ÿ-cp-ambn 2010 sk]vXw-_¿ 30 \v apwss_-bn¬ \S-Ønb N¿®-bn¬ P\]-¶m-fn-Ø-tØmsS ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£W A]-{K-Y\ {]h¿Ø-\-߃ \S-Øp∂ Fs¥¶nepw ]≤-Xn-Iƒ cXv\-Kncn, kn‘p Zp¿K Pn√-I-fn¬ \S-°p-∂pt≠m F∂ {io. am[hv KmUvKn-ens‚ tNmZy-Øn\v cXv\-Kncn Pn√m If-IvS-dpsS t\Xr-Xz-Øn¬ Pn√m ]cn-ÿnXn kanXn CØcw {]h¿Ø-\-߃ Gs‰-SpØv \S-Øp-∂p-s≠-∂mWv adp-]Sn e`n-®Xv. {ItaW CXpw C√m-Xmbn. Lote MIDC F∂ Hcp cmk-hy-h-kmb irwJ-e-bp-ambn _‘-s∏´v tems´ A`ymkv Km´v F∂ t]cn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£W {]h¿Ø\w \S-°p-∂-Xmbpw Adn-bn®p. alm-cmjv{S kwÿm\ aen-\o-I-cW \nb-{¥W-t_m¿Uns‚ klm-b-tØmsS {io. am[h-Km-UvKn¬ At∏mƒØs∂ cXv\-Kncn Pn√m If-IvS-dp-ambpw tems´ A`ymkv Km´p-ambpw _‘-s∏´p. 2010 HIvtSm-_¿ 5 \v {io. KmUvKn¬ tems´ A`ymkv Km´p-ambn N¿® \SØn. XpS¿∂p \S-Ønb ÿe-k-μ¿i-\-Øn¬ Hcp s]mXp-am-en\y kwkvI-c-W-im-ebpw kao-]-{]tZ-i-ßfpw [mt_mƒ IS-en-Sp°pw At±lw kμ¿in-°p-Ibpw ]e-cp-ambpw N¿®-\-S-Øp-Ibpw sNbvXp. apwss_-bn¬ \S∂ tbmK-Øn¬ DtZym-K-ÿ¿ \¬Inb hnh-c-߃°v hncp-≤-ambn A`ym-kv Km´v {]h¿Ø-\-c-ln-X-am-sW∂pw 2 h¿j-ambn tbmKw tNcp-I-t]mepw D≠m-bn-´ns√∂pw Is≠Øn. aen-\o-I-cWw sIm≠v s]mdp-Xn-ap-´nb tIm´m-hmse hnt√-Pns‚ Hcp {]Xn\n-[nsb A`ymkv Km´n¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Ø-W-sa∂ Ah-cpsS apd-hn-fn-t]mepw A[n-Ir-X¿ sNhns°m-≠n√. amen-\y-kw-kvI-cW ime-bn-se-Øp∂ amen-\y-߃ th≠-hn[w kwkvI-cn-°m\p≈ Ignhv AXn-\n-√m-bn-cp∂p. Akw-kvIr-X-am-en\yw Ihn-s™m-gpIn tIm´m-hmse {KmaØn-te-s°m-gp-Ip∂ Acp-hn-I-fn¬ sN∂p-tN-cp-∂-Xmbn {io. KmUvKn-en\v ImWm≥ Ign™p. Cu ÿnXn-bn¬ a\w-s\m¥v B {Kma-Ønse km¿]m©v Acp-hn-bnse aen-\-Pew IpSn®v Bfl-l-Xy°v {ian®p. At±-lsØ DS≥ apwss_-bnse Bip-]-{Xn-bn-se-Øn-®-Xp-sIm≠v Poh≥ c£n-°m≥ Ign™p. CXp-sIm≠pw tIm´m-hme {Kma-Øns‚ {]iv\-Øn\v ]cn-lm-c-ap≠m-bn√. am{X-hp-a√ cmk-hy-h-km-b-im-e-I-fn¬ \n∂p≈ I´n-bmb Ah-in-jvS-߃ aÆpambn Ie¿Øn ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-e-bn¬ X≈p-∂-Xmbpw {]tZ-i-hm-kn-Iƒ ]d™p. ]e hyhkm-b-im-e-Ifpw cmk-am-en-\y-߃ Ipg¬In-W-dp-I-fn-te°v ]ºvsN-øp-∂-Xp-hgn `qK¿`-P-ehpw aen-\-s∏-Sp-∂-Xmbn a\- n-em-°m≥ Ign™p. CØcw hy‡-amb aq∂v kw`-h-߃ ]pd-ØpsIm-≠p-h-∂n´pw Hcp \S-]-Sn-bp-ap-≠m-bn√. "tJZv' ]´-W-Øn\v ip≤-Pew \¬Ip∂ "s_mdmPv' AW-s°-´n¬ cmk-am-en-\y-߃ Sm¶-dn¬ sIm≠ph∂v X≈nb kw`-hhpw ASp-ØnsS D≠mbn. CXp-aqew ]´-W-Øn-te-°p≈ Pe-hn-X-cWw BgvN-I-tfmfw apS-ßn-bn´pw CXn\v ]n∂n¬ {]h¿Øn-®-hsc Is≠-Øm≥ Ign-™n√. "tems´' bn¬ \n∂p≈ cmk-a-en-\o-I-cWw aqew "Zmt_mƒ' IS-en-Sp-°nse a’y-k-ºØpw KWy-am-bn Ipd™p. a’y-sØm-gn-em-fn-Iƒ CXpaqew Zpcn-X-Øn-emWv. {]iv\-߃ C{X-tbsd cq£-am-bn´pw ]cn-l-cn-°m≥ {ian-°msX aen\o-I-c-W-\n-b-{¥-W-t_m¿Uv Ah-cpsS B^okv "tems´' bn¬ \n∂v Nn]ve\nte°v am‰n cwKw hnSp-I-bmWv sNbvXXv.

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13


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

hnI-k-\-{]-{In-b-bn¬ P\-ßsf -]-¶m-fn-I-fm-°p-∂n-s√∂p am{X-a√ ISpØ aen-\o-I-cWw t]mse-bp≈ Imcy-ß-fn¬ {]Xn-tj-[n-°m-\p≈ Ah-cpsS Ah-Im-isØ X{¥-]q¿Δw ASn-®a¿Øp-I-bmWv A[n-Ir-X¿ sNøp-∂Xv."PbvXm-]q¿' t{]mP-IvSn-s\-Xn-sc-bp≈ ka-c-Øn¬ 2011 BZyw Hcp t]m-eokv tIm¨Ã-_nƒ HmSn® \yq¢n-b¿ ]h¿ tIm¿∏-td-js‚ Po∏n-Sn®v Hcp {]t£m-`-Imcn sIm√-s∏-Sp-∂-Xp-hsc cXv\-Kncn Pn√-bn¬ aen-\o-I-c-W-Øn-s\-Xnsc A{I-amk‡-amb ka-c-ß-sfm∂pw D≠m-bn-´n√. "tems´' cmk-^m-IvS-dn-I-fn¬ \n∂p≈ Ak-l-\o-bamb aen-\o-I-c-W-Øn-s\-Xnsc Db¿∂ i‡-amb {]Xn-tj-[sØ ]cm-P-b-s∏-Sp-Øm-\mbn 28/08/2007\pw 21/10/2009\pw CSbv°v 191 Znhkw B {]tZ-iØv 5 t]cn¬ IqSp-X¬ Iq´w IqSp-∂Xv XS-™p-sIm≠v Pn√m-I-f-IvS¿ \ntcm-[-\m⁄ ]pd-s∏-Sp-hn®p. Cu hyh-kmbirwJe 11000 t]¿°v sXmgn¬ \¬Ip-tºmƒ Chn-SsØ a’y-sØm-gnem-fn-I-fn¬ 20000 t]cmWv CXp-aqew sXmgn¬c-ln-X-cm-bXv. AXn-cq-£-amb CØcw {]iv\߃ ]cn-l-cn-°-s∏-SmsX InS-°p-tºmgpw hyh-km-b-irw-J-e-bnse Hcp DtZym-K-ÿ≥ Rßtfm-Sp-]-d-™Xv kao-]-Øp≈ 550 slIvS-dn¬ Hcp ]pXnb s]t{Sm-sI-an-°¬ hyh-kmb irwJe ÿm]n-°m≥ ]≤Xn Xøm-dmbn hcp∂p F∂mWv. ]›n-a-L-´-Øn\v Np‰pw am{X-a√ cmPy-Øp-S-\ofw \mw ImWp-∂Xv kaq-lsØ Hgn-hm-°nbp≈ hnI-k-\hpw ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-Whpw ssItIm¿Øv \oßp-∂-XmWv. hnI-k-\sØ kw_‘n® Xocp-am-\-sa-Sp-°m-\p≈ A[n-Imcw ]©m-bØv cmPv ÿm]-\-߃°pw \K-c-]m-eI¿°pw \¬In-s°m-≠p≈73, 74 `c-W-L-S\m t`Z-K-Xn-I-fpsS A¥:kØbv°v hncp-≤-ambn hnI-k-\-Xocp-am-\-߃ C∂v P\-ß-fn¬ ASn-t®-ev∏n-°p-I-bmWv sNøp-∂Xv. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v cXv\-Kncn Pn√-bnse ]e-{Km-a-]-©m-b-Øp-Ifpw ]©m-bØv kan-Xn-Ifpw cXv\-Kn-cn-Xm-eq°v ]©m-bØv Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ ÿm]-\-ßfpw ]cn-ÿnXn {]iv\-ß-fp-ambn _‘-s∏´v ]m m-°nb {]ta-b-

t_mIvk 2 : _n.B¿.Sn. ae-bnse tkmfnKm Kncn-P-\-߃ \oe-Kn-cn°v Ing°v I¿Æm-S-I-Øn-ep≈ h\-\n-_n-U-amb {]tZ-i-amWv BRT ae-Iƒ. "tkmfnK' Kncn-P-\-ß-fpsS ]c-º-cm-KX hmk-ÿ-e-am-WnXv. \mbm´pw Irjn-bp-sam-s°-bm-bn-cp∂p AhcpsS D]-Po-h-\-am¿§w. NºI ac-°q´w \nd™ B h\-{]-tZiw ]cn-ip≤n Iev]n-®mWv Ah¿ kwc-£n-®p-t]m-∂Xv. F∂m¬ B {]tZiw h\y-ar-K-k-t¶-X-ambn {]Jym-]n-®-tXmsS Kncn-P-\߃°v \mbm´v \S-Ømt\m Irjn-sN-ømt\m Ign-bmsX t]mbn. Aßs\ D]-Po-h-\-Øn\mbn tX≥, Huj-[-k-ky-߃ XpS-ßn-bh Ah¿ tiJ-cn-°m≥ XpS-ßn. Cu kabw cwKØp-h∂ ' hnth-Im-\-μ-Kn-cn-P\ Ieym-W-tI{μw' F∂ k∂≤ kwL-S\ Chsc kwL-Sn∏n®v h\-hn-`-h-߃ \nb-{¥n-X-ambn kam-l-cn®v kwkvI-cn®v hn]-W\w sNøp-∂-Xn\v kwhn[m-\-ap-≠m°n. Kncn-h¿§-°m¿ h\-hn-`-h-߃ tiJ-cn-°p∂ coXn-tbbpw AXv krjvSn-°p∂ BLm-X-sØbpw ]‰n ]Tn® ATREE F∂ imkv{X-ÿm-]\w Is≠-Øn-bXv CXv kpÿn-c-amsW-∂mWv. h\ hn`-h-߃ kwkvI-cn®v hn]-W\w sNøp-∂-Xn-\m¬ Cu Im´p-a-°-fpsS hcpam-\-Ønepw h¿≤-\-hp-≠mbn. IjvS-sa∂p ]d-bs´ hnev]-\-°mbn h\hn`-h-߃ tiJ-cn°p-∂Xv h\w-h-Ip∏p \ntcm-[n-®-tXmsS "tkmfn-Kmkn"s‚ PohnXw {Xni-¶p-hn-embn.

߃ kwÿm-\-k¿°m¿ ]q¿Æ-ambn Ah-K-Wn-°p-I-bmWv sNbvXXv. Cu Pn√-bn¬ Xs∂ Hcp cmk-hy-h-kmb hnI-k-\-Øns‚ Imcy-Øn¬ _‘-s∏-´-hsc Hgn-hm-°n-bp≈ hnI-k\{]{In-bbpsS {]Xy£ DZm-l-cWw t_mIvkv 1˛¬ hnh-cn-°p∂p. {]IrXn kwc-£Ww C¥y≥ kaq-l-Øns‚ kº-∂-amb ]mc-º-cy-amWv. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse X\Xv hr£-e-Xm-Zn-Iƒ°v hnip-≤n-I-ev]n-®mWv Ah¿ kwc-£n-®p-t]m-∂Xv. ssPh-ssh-hn-≤yØns‚ \mi-Øn\v Imc-W-°m¿ Xt±-i-hm-kn-I-fm-sW∂pw AXn-\m¬ Ahsc ]c-am-h[n Hgnhm°n thWw kwc-£W ]≤-Xn-Iƒ \S-∏t- °-≠X - p-sa∂ [mc-Wb - mWv "kwc-£n-Xt- a-Je"Ifmbn {]Jym-]n-®p-sIm-≠p≈ HutZym-KnI \S-]-Sn-Iƒ. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v t_mIvkv 2 ImWpI. h\w hIp-∏p-am-{X-amWv ]©m-bØv cmPv ÿm]-\-ß-fp-ambn kl-I-cn-°mØ GI k¿°m¿ hIp∏v. kmaq-ly-h-\-h¬°-cW hn`mKw C°q-´-Øn¬s]-Sp-∂n√. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

14


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

hnI-k\ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ Ab-hn-√mØ N´-°q-´n¬ HXp°n \n¿Ø-cp-sX∂v C∂v ]cs° AwKoI-cn-°-s∏-´n-´p≈ Imcy-amWv. {]mtZ-inI ÿnXn-K-Xn-Iƒ IW-°n-se-SpØv ka-b-_-‘n-X-amb \n_-‘-\-I-tfmsS {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-Øns‚ ]q¿Æ-]-¶m-fn-Ø-tØmsS Bbn-cn-°Ww ]≤-XnIƒ cq]-I-ev]-\-sN-øm≥. CXmWv {]mtZ-inI ]¶m-fnØ amt\-Pvsa‚ v (Adaptive co-management). {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-Øns‚ B{K-l-߃°-\p-kr-X-ambn ]mcn-ÿn-Xn-Ihpw kmaq-lyhpw kmºØn-I-hp-amb kml-N-cy-߃ IW-°n-se-SpØv hnI-k-\-]-≤-Xn-I-fnse Hmtcm C\hpw thWtam th≠tbm F∂v \n›-bn-°Ww. AØcw Hcp amt\-Pvsa‚ v coXn hnI-k-\hpw kwc-£-Whpw ssItIm¿Øp-t]m-Im≥ klm-bn°pw. Cu kao-]-\sØ kw_-‘n® N¿®-bv°mbn t_mIvkv˛3 ImWpI.

t_mIvkv 3 : {]mtZ-inI ]¶m-fnØ amt\-Pvsa‚ v kmaqly˛]cn-ÿnXn LS-I-ß-fpsS `c-W-\-S-Øn-∏n-\mbn kzoI-cn-®n-´p≈ Hcp \qX\ kao-]-\-amWv {]mtZ-inI ]¶m-fnØ amt\-Pvsa‚ v (Adaptive co-management). ]¶m-fnØ amt\Pvsa‚ns‚ A\p-`-h-km-[y-X-Ifpw Iq´m-bva-bpsS A\-¥-km-[y-X-Ifpw Dƒs°m-≠p-sIm≠v Ah-Im-i-ßfpw DØ-c-hm-Zn-Xz-ßfpw Iq´mbn ]¶n-Sp-∂-XmWv CXns‚ khn-ti-jX. ]c-kv]c-]q-c-I-amb Cu kao-]\w Imcy-\n¿Δ-l-W-Ønse \qem-am-e-Iƒ Hgn-hm°n A\p-`-h-]-T\w Du¿÷-kz-e-am-°p∂p. k¶o¿Æ-kw-hn-[m-\sØ eLq-I-cn-°m≥ {]mtZ-inI ]¶m-fnØ amt\Pvsa‚n\v Ignbpw. Gsd i‡-amb kmaqly˛]cn-ÿnXn kwhn-[m-\sØ ]cn-t]m-jn-∏n-°m≥ tijnbpw Db¿∂ Xe-Øn¬ N´-ß-fp-tSbpw t{]m’m-l-\-ß-fp-tSbpw ]n≥_-ehpw D≈ kzbw kwL-Sn-X-amb `c-W-kw-hn-[m-\-am-bmWv CXns\ ImWp-∂Xv. CXns‚ apJy-k-hn-tij-X-Iƒ NphsS ]d-bp∂p. sNøp∂ {]hr-Øn-I-fn¬ \n∂v ]mTw Dƒs°m-≈m≥ t{]cn-∏n-°p∂p. hyXykvX hn⁄m-\-im-J-Isf kwtbm-Pn-∏n-°p∂p. taJ-em-Sn-ÿm-\-Ønepw tZio-b-X-e-Ønepw hnhn[ hn`m-K-߃ XΩn¬ tbmPn-®v {]h¿Øn-°m\pw A[n-Imcw ]¶n-Sm\pw klm-bn-°p∂p. arZp amt\-Pvsa‚ v kao-]\w. Imem-Im-e-ß-fn¬ e`n-°p∂ kmaq-lyhpw ]mcn-ÿn-Xn-I-hp-amb Adn-hp-I-tfmSv {]Xn-Icn-°p∂ hnI-k\w kpÿn-c-am-°p∂ `c-W-k-ao-]-\sØ Cu khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ t{]m’m-ln∏n-°p∂p. {]mtZ-in-I-ambpw tZio-b-X-e-Ønepw Xev]-c-{Kq-∏p-Ifpw hy‡n-I-fp-am-bp≈ Bib-hn-\n-abw ]e Xe-ß-fn-ep≈ ÿm]-\-ß-fpsS hnI-k\w am‰-ßfn-eqsS ]mT-߃ Dƒs°m≈m\pw ]co-£-W-߃°v DX-Ip∂ X{¥-ßfpw ÿm]-\-ßfpw cq]-I-ev]-\-sNbvXv hnI-kn∏n-°pI F∂n-h-sb√mw CXn-epƒs∏-Sp∂p. hnI-k\ {]{In-b-sbbpw Ah-bpsS ^e-sØbpw hne-bn-cp-ØpI, Du¿÷-Øn\v {]tXyI {]m[m\yw \¬IpI, kmaq-ly-aq-e-[-\-Øns‚ ]¶v, kmaq-ly-]-cn-ÿnXn `c-W-kw-hn-[m-\-Øn\v Du∂¬ \¬In-bp≈ A¿∞-]q¿Æ-amb kwhmZ-߃ F∂nh {]mtZ-inI ]¶m-fn-Ø-am-t\-Pvsa‚ns‚ {]tXy-I-X-I-fmWv.

]s£ F∂n´pw C∂pw \Ωƒ ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-WsØ hnI-k-\-Øn¬ \n∂v thdn´v ImWp∂ Ah-ÿ-bn¬ AI-s∏-´n-cn-°-bmWv. CXns‚ ]cn-WnX ^ew \ΩpsS \b-߃ Hcp hiØv Nne taJ-e-I-fn¬ A\n-b-{¥nX hnI-k-\sØ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p-tºmƒ a‰v Nne taJe-I-fn¬ XXz-Zo-£-bn-√mØ ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-W-Øn\v ]n¥pW \¬Ip∂p. Cu {]{In-b-bn¬ "kwc-£n-X-ta-J-e-Iƒ' F∂ t]cn¬ \mw ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-Øns‚ Xpcp-Øp-Iƒ ÿm]n-°p∂Xv Chbv°p ]pdsØ ]cn-ÿnXn \io-I-c-W-Øns‚ B alm-k-ap-{Z-Øn-emWv. "kwc-£n-X-taJe'Ifn¬ Hcp ]p¬s®-Sn-bpsS Ce-t]mepw \o°-cp-sX∂v hmin-]n-Sn-°p∂ \mw AXn-\p-]p-dØv aen-\o-I-cW \nb-{¥-W-\n-b-a-߃ t]mepw ]men-°m≥ Xøm-dm-Im-ØXv XnI®pw A\p-Nn-XamWv. C∂sØ"A\n-b-{¥nX hnI-k-\hpw XXz-Zo-£-bn-√mØ ]cn-ÿn-kw-c-£-Whpw' F∂ kao]-\Øn-\p-]-Icw "kpÿn-c-hn-I-k-\hpw {i≤m-]q¿Δ-ap≈ ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-Whpw' F∂ ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

15


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

\ne-bn-te°v \ΩpsS hnI-k\ kwc-£W {]h¿Ø-\-߃ hn`m-h\ sNø-s∏-S-W-sa-∂mWv kan-Xn-bpsS A`n-{]mbw. {]mtZ-inI kml-N-cy-߃°-\p-k-cn-®p≈ hnI-k\˛ kwc-£W {]h¿Ø-\-ß-ƒ cq]-I-ev]\ sNøp-∂-Xn\v {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-ß-fpsS ]q¿Æ-]-¶m-fnØw A\nhm-cy-amWv. Xp≠w-Xp-≠-ambn hn`-Pn-°-s∏-SmØ XpS¿®-bmb AXn-cp-I-fp≈ H∂n\pw Aan-X{]m-[m\yw Iev]n-°mØ ]¶m-fnØ kao-]-\-amWv kanXn C°m-cy-Øn¬ ip]m¿i sNøp-∂Xv. ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ AXn¿Øn-Isf ]‰n\mw kwkm-cn-°p-tºmgpw Cu AXp-cp-Iƒ°v ]pd-Øp≈ {]tZ-i-ß-fnepw {]mtZ-inI ]¶m-fnØ amt\-Pvsa‚ v coXn kzoI-cn-t°-≠-Xm-sW-∂mWv kan-XnbpsS A`n-{]mbw.

9. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJ-e-Iƒ ]cn-ÿnXnaen-\o-I-cWw \nb-{¥n-°m\pw XS-bm\pw ]cn-ÿn-Xn-bpsS KpW-ta∑ sa®-s∏SpØn kwc-£n-°m\pw Bh-iy-sa∂v tXm∂p∂ F¥v \S-]-Sn-kzo-I-cn-°m\pw 1986se ]cn-ÿnXn (kwc-£W) \nb-a-Ønse 3˛mw hIp∏v tI{μ-]-cn-ÿnXn ˛h\w-h-Ip-∏n\v A[n-Imcw \¬Ip∂p. Cu e£yw t\Sp-∂-Xn-\mbn GsX-¶nepw taJ-e-bn¬ hyh-km-btam kwkvI-c-Wtam ]mSns√∂pw AYhm Nne ap≥I-cp-X-ep-Iƒ°p hnt[-b-ambn am{Xta ]mSp-≈q-sh∂pw tI{μ k¿°mcn\v \n›-bn°mw. (sk£≥ 3(2) (v) Hcp {]tZ-i-Øns‚ ssPh-ssh-hn≤yw (hIp∏v V) B {]tZi-Øns‚ ]c-am-h[n A\p-h-Z-\o-b-amb amen-\y-\n-t£]w (hIp∏v ii) ]cn-ÿnXn kulr-Z-]-c-amb `qhn-\n-tbmKw (hIp∏v VI) kwc-£n-X-ta-J-e-bp-am-bp≈ AIew (hIp∏v Viii) F∂n-h-bpsS ASnÿm-\-Øn¬ hyh-km-b-ßfpw kwkvI-c-Whpw \ntcm-[n-°m\pw Ah-bpsS ÿm\w \nb-{¥n°m\pw ]cn-ÿnXn (kwc-£W) \nb-a-Ønse (1986) sk£≥ 5(1) tI{μ-k¿°m-cn\v A[nImcw \¬Ip∂p. alm-cm-jv{S-bnse Hcp Xoc-tZ-i-{Km-a-amb apdpZv˛Pm≥Pn-d-bn-emWv 1989¬ Cu\n-b-a-Ønse hyh-ÿ-Iƒ BZy-am-bn {]tbm-Kn-®Xv. alm-cm-jv{S-bnse Xoc-{]-tZ-i-amb Zlm\p Xmeq-°n-emWv "]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZiw' F∂ ]Zw 1991¬ BZy-ambn D]-tbm-Kn-®Xv. XpS¿∂v alm-cmjv{S ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse alm-_-te-iz¿˛]©-K\n, amtX-c≥ ae-Iƒ t]mse-bp≈ ]e {]tZ-i-ß tfbpw Cu KW-Øn-epƒs∏-SpØn hn⁄m-]\w sNbvXp. ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-c-ambn Hcp {]tXyI {]tZ-isØ kwc-£n-°pI F∂ Dt±-i-tØmsS Nne kmaq-ly-kw-LS- \ - I - ƒ ap≥ssI FSp-ØXp aqetam h\y-Pohn kt¶-Xß - ƒ°pw \mj-W¬ ]m¿°pIƒ°pw 10 In.ao. Np‰-f-hn-ep≈ {]tZ-i-߃ IqSn kwc-£n-°-W-sa∂ C¥y≥ t_m¿Uv t^m¿ ssh¬Uv sse^ns‚ 2002se {]ta-b-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øntem BWv ]e {]tZ-i-ß-tfbpw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJ-e-I-fmbn {]Jym-]n-®n-´p-≈Xv. ]mcn-ÿn-XnI {]m[m-\y-ap≈ taJ-e-/{]-tZiw, ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZiw/taJe F∂nßs\ ]e ]Z-{]-tbm-K-߃ Ign™ Iptd h¿j-ß-fmbn Cu cwKØv IS-∂p-h-∂n-´p≠v. tI{μ-]-cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw 2000¬ \ntbm-Kn® {]Wm_v sk≥ IΩn‰n C¥y-bn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn {]m[m-\y-ap≈ {]tZ-i-߃ \n›-bn-°m≥ P¥p˛kky-C-\-߃, ssPh Bhm-k-hyhÿ, `qX-e-kz-`mhw F∂n-h-bpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ Nne am\-Z-fi-߃°v cq]w \¬In-bn´p≠v. Hcp {]tZ-i-Øns‚ ]cn-ÿnXn {]m[m\yw \n¿Æ-bn-°p-∂-Xn\v IW-°n-se-Sp-t°≠ apJyL-S-IIw AhnsS hwi-\miw kw`-hn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ C\-߃ Dt≠m F∂-XmWv. Ds≠¶n¬ Ahsb ]q¿Æ-ambn kwc-£n-°Ww F∂mWv sk≥I-Ωn-‰n-bpsS ip]m¿i. ]pjv]-sN-SnIƒ, a’y-߃, Xh-f-Iƒ, ]£n-Iƒ, kkvX-\n-Iƒ XpS-ßn hwi-\m-i-`o-jWn t\cn-Sp∂ 2000Øntesd C\-߃ ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ Ds≠-∂-mWv IW°v. th≠{X ]T\w \S-Øn-bn-´n√mØ {]mWn-h¿§-Øn¬s∏´ 1000Øntesd C\-߃ thsd D≠mIpw. hwi-\miw kw`-hn-®psIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ Ch \nXy-i-ey-{]-tZ-i-ß-fm-b tdmUvsskUv Dƒs∏sS ]›n-a-L-´-Øn-ep-S-\ofw hym]n-®p-In-S-°p∂p. sk≥ IΩn‰n \n¿t±-in-®n-´p≈ am\-Z-fi-{]-Imcw ]cn-ÿnXn {]m[m-\yap≈ taJ-e-bmbn {]Jym-]n-°m≥ th≠ F√m KpW-K-W-ßfpw ]›n-a-L-´-Øn-\p≠v. sk≥IΩn‰n \n›-bn® am\-Z-fisØ Cu IΩn‰n ]q¿Æ-ambn ]n¥p-W-bv°p-Ibpw ]›n-a-L´w apgph≥ ]cn-ÿnXn {]m[m-\y-ap≈ taJ-e-bmbn {]Jym-]n-°-W-sa∂v ip]m¿i sNøp-Ibpw sNøp∂p. ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-W-\n-b-a-Ønse hyh-ÿ-Iƒ {]Imcw ]›n-a-L-´-Øn\v samØ-Øn¬

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16


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

GIo-Ir-X-kz-`m-h-ap≈ \nb-{¥-W-߃ {]Jym-]n-°m-\m-hn√, BI-bm¬ ]›n-a-L-´sØ samØw ]e-ta-J-e-I-fmbn Xcw Xncn-°m-\mWv kanXn Dt±-in-°p-∂Xv. AXm-bXv ]c-ÿn-Xn-]-c-ambn G‰hpw henb {]m[m-\y-ap≈ tkm¨˛1, Db¿∂ {]m[m-\y-ap≈ tkm¨˛2, _m°n-h-cp∂ kmam\yw {]m[m-\y-ap≈ tkm¨˛3. kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-ß-fmbn {]Jym-]n-®n-´p-≈-hbv°v A\ptcm-[-am-bmWv Cu Xcw-Xn-cnhv. Ah XpS¿∂pw h\y-Po-hn-kw-c-£-W-\n-b-a-Ønse \nb-{¥-W߃°v hnt[-b-amWv. Bb-Xn-\m¬ ]›na-L-´-Ønse kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-߃ tkm¨-˛1, tkm¨-˛2, tkm¨-˛3 F∂nh thdn´v ImWn-°m-\mbn 4 \nd-ß-fn¬ tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p≈ `q]-SamWv kanXn Xøm-dm-°n-bn-´p-≈-Xv.

9.1. ]›n-a-L´ Um‰m t_kv taev∏-d™ 3 tkmWp-Iƒ°p≈ Um‰m t_kv c≠v coXn-bn¬ Xøm-dm°mw. \ne-hn-ep≈ kwc-£n-X-ta-Je irwJ-esb ASn-ÿm-\-s∏-Sp-Ønbpw sk≥I-Ωn‰n ip]m¿i sNbvX ASnÿm-\-tcJ ÿnXn-hn-h-c-ß-fpsS Nn´-bmb am∏nwKpw sdt°m-UnwKpw ASn-ÿm-\-s∏-Sp-Ønbpw. cmPy-Øn-\v samØ-ambn ASn-ÿm-\-tcJ ÿnXn-hn-h-c-ß-fpsS Nn´-bmb am∏nwKpw sdt°m-Unßpw \S-Ø-W-sa∂pw k¿°m¿ GP≥kn-Iƒ°p ]pdta CX-c-ÿm-]-\-߃, k¿Δ-I-em-im-e-Iƒ, k∂-≤-kw-L-S-\-Iƒ, hy‡n-Iƒ F∂n-h-scsb√mw ]s¶-Sp-∏n®v hn]p-e-amb Hcp Ah-tem-I-\]-cn-]m-Snbpw s\‰v-h¿°pw cq]-I-ev]-\-sNbvXv \S-∏m-°-W-sa∂pw 2000¬Xs∂ sk≥I-Ωn‰n ip]m¿i sNbvXn-cp∂p. Cu kanXn CsXmcp sh√p-hn-fn-bmbn Gs‰-Sp-°p-Ibpw `qX-e-kz-`mhw, ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y -L-S-I-߃ F∂nh kw_-‘n® e`y-amb hnh-c-߃ tIm¿Øn-W°n 2200 tesd {KnUp-Iƒ°v 5 an\n´v x 5 an\n´v As√-¶n¬ 9 In.ao x 9 In.ao. F∂ IW-°n¬ ÿe-]-c-amb Um‰m-t_kv hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°p-∂-Xn¬ hfsc apt∂-dp-Ibpw sNbvXp. CXn-\mbn Ah-ew-_n® hkvXp-Xm-]-c-amb {]h¿Ø-\-coXn (Methodology) hym]-I-amb imkv{Xob ]cn-tim-[-\bvIv hnt[b-am-°m≥ th≠n C¥y-bnse {]apJ imkv{X B\p-Im-en-I-amb"Id‚ v kb≥kn's‚ 2011 P\phcn e°-Øn¬ {]kn-≤o-I-cn-®n-cp∂p.( Gadgil M. et al. 2011). CXns‚ Hcp kw£n-]vX-cq]w t_mIvkv˛4¬ sImSp-Øn-´p≠v. Cu Um‰m-t_kv hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°m≥ kzoI-cn® {]h¿Ø-\-coXn-bpsS hni-Zmw-i-߃ A[ymbw 20¬ ImWmw. ]qs\-bnse BVIEER Dw sIm¬lm-∏q-cn-se DEVRAAI bpw hnI-kn-∏n-s®-SpØ hni-Z-amb hn⁄m\ ASn-Ø-dbv°v kam-\-amWv kanXn cq]w \¬Inb Um‰m-t_kpw.

t_mIvkv 4 : ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ am∏n-ßn\v Ah-ew-_n® {]h¿Ø-\-coXn (kw{Klw, KmUvKn¬ apX¬ t]¿, 2011 : Id‚ v kb≥kv) tI{μ ]cn-ÿ-nXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw \ntbm-Kn® ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn hnZ-Kv[-k-an-XnbpsS Hcp {][m\ Npa-Xe ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-߃, Is≠-ØpIbpw Ahsb kwc-£n-°m≥ Bh-iy-amb \S-]-Sn-Iƒ ip]m¿i-sN-øp-Ibpw sNøpI F∂XmWv ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ßsf \n¿Δ-Nn-°m-\p≈ am\-Z-fisØ kw_-‘n-t®m Ahsb Xncn-®-dn-bp-hm-\p≈ am¿§sØ kw_-‘nt®m BtKm-f-X-e-Øn¬ Hcp ka-hmbw D≠m-bn-´n-s√∂v kanXn ]n∂oSv a\-kn-em°n. Bb-Xn-\m¬ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i-ßfpsS am∏n-ßn\v ap≥]v CXn-\mbn Hcp {]h¿Ø-\-coXn hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-t°-≠Xv AXy-¥mt]-£n-X-ambn. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS am∏n-ßn\pw Ahsb \n¿Δ-Nn-°m-\p-ambn Hcp ka-hm-b-Øn-se-Øm≥ Cu kanXn \S-Ønb N¿®-I-fp-tSbpw IqSn-bm-tem-N-\-I-fp-tSbpw hnhcw CXn-ep≠v. CXv {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°p-∂-Xns‚ Dt±iw c≠mWv.H∂v Bi-b-]-c-ambpw {]h¿Ø-\-coXn kw_-‘n®pw kanXn FØn-t®¿∂n-´p≈ \nK-a-\-ßsf kw_-‘n®v hnZKv[-cn¬ \n∂v \n¿t±-i-ßfpw A`n-{]m-b-ßfpw kzcq-]n-°pI, c≠v˛cmPy-Øn-\-IØpw ]pdØp-ap≈ ssPh˛kº∂ taJ-e-I-fnse ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i-ß-fpsS am∏n-ßn\v Hcp s]mXp-\S- ] - Sn {Iaw F∂ \ne-bn¬ Cu {]h¿Ø-\c - o-Xnsb t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI. Cu {]h¿Ø\-co-Xn°v am\-Z-fi-am-t°≠ LS-I-ßfpw Cu am\-Z-fi-ß-fpsS kwbp‡ hn\n-tbm-K-ØneqsS ]›n-a-L´w t]mse AXn-hn-]p-e-am-sbmcp taJ-e-bn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i߃ th¿Xn-cn-°p-∂Xpw kw_-‘n® \n¿t±-i-߃ NphsS tN¿°p∂p.

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17


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

1. Poh-im-kv{X-L-S-I-߃ : ]cn-ÿXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i-߃ th¿Xn-cn-°p-∂-Xn\v Poh-imkv{X-]-cambpw kmwkvIm-cn-I-ambpw D≈ kmZr-iyhpw kº-∂-Xbpw IW-°n-se-Sp-°-W-sa∂v R߃ \n¿t±-in-°p∂p. (a) ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-k-º-∂X : Poh-Pm-e-ß-fpsS h¿§-{Kq-∏p-I-fnepw hyXykvX t{iWn-Ifnepw D≈ sshhn≤ykº-∂X (b) hwi-]-c-amb A]q¿ΔX : FÆ-Øns‚ hen-∏-Ønepw hnX-c-W-Ønepw h¿§-]-c-amb {]mXn-\n-[yØnepw D≈ A]q¿ΔX (c) hmk-ÿ-e-k-º-∂X : `qX-e-L-S-I-ß-fpsS ÿe-]-c-amb sshhn≤yw (d) Dev]m-Z-\-£-aX : samØ-Øn-ep≈ PohIW (biomass) Dev]m-Z-\-£-aX. (e) Poh-im-kv{X-]-c-ambpw ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-c-ambpw ]q¿Δ-ÿnXn {]m]n-°m-\p≈ Ign-hns‚ IWs°-Sp∏v : A]q¿Δ kky-Pme {]mXn-\n[yw (f) kmwkvIm-cn-Ihpw Ncn-{X-]-c-hp-amb {]m[m\yw : {]tZ-i-Øns‚ ]cn-Wma Ncn-{X-aq-eyhpw kmwkvIm-cn-I-N-cn{X aqeyhpw. 2.

`qan-im-kv{X-]-chpw Imem-h-ÿm-]-c-hp-amb LS-I-߃ : Hcp {]tZ-i-Øns‚ {]Ir-Xn-ZØ-amb a¿Ω-ÿm-\-ßsf hne-bn-cp-Øm-\p≈ LS-I-߃ CXn-epƒs∏-Sp∂p. {]tZ-iØns‚ Ncnhv, Dbcw, kz`mhw XpS-ßn-bh Xmsg ]d-bp∂ aq∂v LS-I-ß-fn¬ D] -tbm-Kn°mw.

(a)

`qX-e-k-hn-ti-j-X-Iƒ : {]tZ-i-Øns‚ Ncnhv, Dbcw, kz`mhw XpS-ßn-bh

(b)

Imem-h-ÿm-]-c-amb khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ : Imem-h-ÿ-bpsS kz`mhw, ag-e-`yX XpS-ßn-bh

(c)

Zpc-¥-km-[yX : Dcpƒs]m-´¬, Im´pXo XpS-ßnb {]IrXn Zpc-¥-߃

3. _‘-s∏-´-h-cpsS hne-bn-cp-ج : s]mXp-P-\-߃, Xt±-i-ÿm-]-\-߃ {]tXy-In®v Pn√m ]©m-b-Øp-I-fpsS, {Kma-Xe cmjv{Sob kwL-S-\-Iƒ F∂nh ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-sa∂v Icp-Xp-∂-h-bpsS ]´nI Xøm-dm-t°-≠Xpw Ah {][m-\-L-S-I-ß-fmbn IW-°n-se-Sp-t°-≠-Xp-ap≠v. (sk£≥ 20¬ hnh-cn-®n-´p≈ {]h¿Ø-\-coXn kqNn-∏n-°p-∂Xv taev]-d™ ÿnXn-hnh-c-߃ ]q¿Æ-ambn kam-l-cn-°mt\m sk≥ IΩn‰n \n¿t±-in® am\-Zfiw ]q¿Æ-ambn Dƒs°m-≈mt\m ka-b-]-cn-anXn aqew Ign-™n-´n√.

F∂n´pw Kuc-h-X-c-amb ]e t]mcm-bva-Ifpw Ct∏mgpw _m°n-bmWv. B\-I-fpsS k©mc-]-Y-sam-gn®v Pohn-I-fpsS hmk-hy-h-ÿ-bpsS XpS¿® kw_-‘n® hnh-c-߃ tU‰m-t_-kn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-tØ-≠-Xm-bp≠v. Acp-hn-Iƒ, \Zn-Iƒ a‰v NXp-∏p-{]-tZ-i-߃, `qK¿`-Pew XpS-ßn-bhsb kw_-‘n® ÿnXn hnh-c-ßfpw ]q¿Æ-a√. Pe-Po-hn-I-fpsS Bhm-k-hy-hÿ, Pe-t{km-X p-Iƒ F∂nh Is≠Øn kwc-£n®v, kpÿn-cX \ne-\n¿Øm≥ {i≤m-]q¿Δ-ap≈ {]h¿Ø\w Bh-iy-amWv. Rß-fpsS {i≤ tI{μo-I-cn-°-s∏-´Xv ae-{º-tZ-i-ß-fn-em-b-Xn-\m¬ ]›n-a-Xo-cØn-s‚bpw Xoc-k-a-X-e-ß-fp-sSbpw {]iv\-߃°v th≠{X ]cn-K-W\ \¬Im≥ Ign-™n-´n√. F∂n-cp-∂mepw cmPy-Øm-Zy-ambn s]mXp-P\ - ß - ƒ°v e`y-am-bn-´p≈ kpXm-cy-hpw hn]p-ehpw ÿem[n-jvTn-X-hp-amb kp{]-[m\ ]cn-ÿnXn am\-Z-fi-߃ Dƒs°m-≈p∂ Hcp Um‰m-t_kv C∂v \ap-°p≠v. Hcp {]tXyI {]tZ-iØ - ns‚ ]cn-ÿnXn {]m[m-\y-Øns‚ hyXykvX Xe-߃ imkv{Xob-ambn th¿Xn-cn-°m-\p≈ ASn-ÿm-\-ambn CXv D]-tbm-Kn°mw. ]cn-ÿnXn ktN-X-\Xzw Hcp imkv{Xo-b-]Zw am{X-a√ AXv am\-h-cm-in-bpsS hen-sbmcp DXvI-WvT-bm-sW∂v kanXn Xncn-®-dn-bp∂p. {]tXy-In®pw Hcp {]tZ-iØv F¥v kw`-hn-°p∂p AXn-te-XmWm A`n-Imayw F∂-Xns\ kw_-‘n® hy‡-amb [mcW D≠m-hpI F∂Xv Hcp

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18


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

imkv{Xob Um‰m-t_-kns‚ `mKw F∂Xp am{X-a√ AXv {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-Øn-\p-≠m-tI≠ Adn-hmWv. AXp sIm≠mWv kanXn ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse GsX√mw {]tZ-i-߃ "]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-Je"Ifmbn IW-°m-°-W-sa-∂Xp kw_-‘n®v _‘-s∏´ hy‡n-I-fp-sSbpw ÿm]\-ß-fp-sSbpw A`n-{]m-bhpw \n¿t±-i-ßfpw £Wn-®Xv.F¥p-sIm≠v Ah¿ C{]-Imcw Icp-Xp∂p F∂pw Cu taJ-e-Iƒ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ambn HutZym-Kn-I-ambn {]Jym-]n-°-W-sa-¶n¬ {]mtZinI Bh-iy-ß-f-\p-k-cn®v Fs¥ms° \nb-{¥-W-߃ G¿s∏-Sp-Ø-W-sa∂pw kan-XnXn AhtcmSv Bcm-™n-cp∂p. CXn\v {]Xn-I-c-W-ambn ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ hnhn[ `mK-ß-fn-ep≈ {Kma-]-©m-b-Øp-Ifn¬ \n∂pw k∂-≤-kw-L-S-\-I-fn¬ \n∂pw kan-Xn°v \nc-h[n \n¿t±-i-߃ e`n-®n-cp∂p. Chbn¬ 2 \n¿t±-i-߃ {]tXyI {i≤ A¿ln-°p∂p. (1) kn‘p-Zp¿§ Pn√-bnse "kmh-¥v-hmSn' tZmUm-am¿§v Xmeq-°p-I-fnse 25 {Kmaß-fnse {Kma-k-`-Iƒ Ah-cpsS {]tZiw "]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZi' ambn {]Jym-]n-°-W-sa∂v {]ta-b-Øn-eqsS Bh-iy-s∏´p. (2) inhmPn k¿Δ-Iem-ime \S-Ønb Hcp Kth-j-W-]-T-\-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ "alm-cmjv{S klym{Zn ]cnÿnXn Zp¿_-et- a-Je' cq]o-Ic - n-°W - s - a∂v sIm¬lm-]q-cnse Hcp k∂-≤k - w-LS- \ - b - mb DEVRAAI \n¿t±-in®p. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i-Øn\v \ne-hn-ep≈ \n¿Δ-N-\-a-\p-k-cn®v Ah¿ Cu \n¿t±iw apt∂m-´p-h-®Xv. F∂m¬ hyXykvX Xe-Øn-ep≈ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i-ambn ]›n-a-L-´sØ apgp-h≥ IW-°m-°m≥ kanXn Xocp-am-\n-®p-I-gn-™n-cp∂p. ]pXp-Xmbn ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i-ambn {]Jym-]n-°-W-sa∂v Bh-iy-s∏´v e`n® \n¿t±-i-߃ ]´nI˛2ep≠v. taJe˛1, taJe˛2, taJe˛3 F∂v th¿Xn-cn-®n-´p≈ {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ kanXn ASn-b-¥n-c-\S-]Sn Bh-iy-s∏-Sp-tºmƒ ]´nI˛2¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p≈ {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS Imcy-Øn¬ kanXn Hcp {]tXy-I-\-S-]-Snbpw \n¿t±-in-°p-∂n√. {][m-\-ambpw aq∂v Imc-W-ß-fm-em-WnXv.H∂m-a-Xmbn Ch-bpsS AXn-cp-Iƒ \n¿Æ-bn-°pI A{X Ffp-∏-a√. c≠m-a-Xmbn Ch-bv°p-th≠n Hcp `cW kwhn-[m\w cq]-I-ev]\ sNøpI F∂Xpw Ffp-∏-a√. aq∂m-a-Xmbn {]Jym-]n-°-W-sa∂v \n¿t±in-°-s∏-´n-´p≈ {]tZ-i-ß-tf-°mƒ ]cn-K-W\ A¿ln-°p∂ ssk‰p-Iƒ ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ thsd D≠mImw. ka-b-]-cn-anXn aqew Ch-sb√mw Is≠-Øm≥ kan-Xn°v Bhn√. ]´nI 2 : ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i-ambn {]Jym-]n-°m≥ ]pXp-Xmbn e`n® \n¿t±-i-߃ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i߃alm-cmjv{S temWm-hme˛J≠me alm-cmjv{S klym{Zn kmh-¥v-hmSn, tZmUm-am¿Kv Xmeq-°nse 25 {Kma߃ tKmh klym{Zn kwc-£nX taJ-ebv°v Np‰p-ap≈ {]tZ-i-߃ I¿Æm-SI klym{Zn IpS-Pm{Zn IpSIv kwc-£n-X-ta-J-ebv°v Np‰p-ap≈ {]tZ-i-߃ Xan-gv\mSv hm¬∏md kwc-£n-X-ta-J-ebv°v Np‰p-ap≈ {]tZ-i-߃ ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

19


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i߃sImssS-°-\m¬ \oe-Kn-cn-Pn√ tIcfw a≠-tIm¬ ]\-ØSn ss]X¬ae {_“-Kncn˛Xncp-s\√n hb-\mSv _mWm-kpc˛Ip‰ymSn \ne-ºq-¿˛ta-∏m-Snsske‚ vhmen-˛\yq Aa-c-ºew incp-hmWn s\√n-bm-ºXn ]o®n ˛ hmgm\n AXn-c-∏n≈n ˛ hmg-®m¬ ]qbw-Ip´n ˛ aq∂m¿ Im¿Uaw ln¬kv s]cn-bm¿ IpfØq-]pg AK-kvXy-ae kwc-£n-X-ta-J-ebv°v Np‰n-ep-ap≈ {]tZiw

10. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZi AXn¿Øn \n¿Æbw ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse 2200Hmfw hyXy-kvX-{]-tZ-i-ß-fn¬ h\y-ar-K-k-t¶-X-߃, \mjW¬]m¿°p-Iƒ, F∂nh Dƒs∏-´-hsb kwc-£n-X-{]-tZ-i-ß-sf∂pw, kanXn cq]w \¬Inb Um‰m-t_-kns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-c-amb {]m[m\yw IW-°n-se-SpØv taJe˛1, taJe˛2 taJe˛3F∂pw th¿Xn-cn-°m-sa-∂mWv kanXn \n¿t±-in-°p-∂Xv. kmaq-lyhpw ]cnÿn-Xn-]-c-hp-ambn aqey-ta-sd-bp≈ "kwc-£n-X-{]-tZ-i-߃' Is≠-Øm≥ Gsd -{i-ahpw kabhpw th≠n-h-∂Xn\m¬ kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-߃°v kam-\tam AXn-ep-]-cntbm khn-ti-j-XI-fp≈ Htc kwÿm-\sØ {]tZ-i-ßsf ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿∫e taJe H∂n¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øm≥ kanXn \n¿t±-in-®p. Ch-bpsS hnkvXo¿Æw 60% Øn¬ Ihn-b-cp-sX∂pw _m°n kwÿm-\Øns‚ hnI-k-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-߃°v \o°n shbv°-W-sa∂pw kanXn ip]m¿i sNbvXp. td‰nßn¬ G‰hpw Xmsg hcp∂ 25 % taJe 3 epw _m°n taJe 2epw Dƒs∏-Sp-Ø-W-sa∂pw kanXn \n¿t±-in®p. AXm-bXv kwc-£nX {]tZiw, taJe1, taJe2, F∂n-h-bn-embn 75% {]tZi-ßsf Dƒs∏-Sp-Ø-W-sa-∂mWv R߃ \n¿t±-in-®Xv. ae-{º-tZ-i-ß-fpsS 66% h\-ambn \ne\n¿Ø-W-sa-∂-Xm-bn-cp∂p Rß-fpsS tZiob e£yw. ]›n-a-L´w {]tXyI khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ \nd™ ae-tbm-c-am-b-Xn-\m¬ 75% {]tZiw CØ-c-Øn¬ ]cn-c-£n-°-s∏-tS-≠-Xm-sW∂v R߃ ip]m¿i sNbvXp. ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ sX°pw hS°pw XΩn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn khn-ti-j-X-bpsS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

20


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Imcy-Øn¬ henb A¥-c-ap-≈-Xn-\m¬ KpP-dmØv Um¶pw tIcf Ajm-ºp-a-e-Ifpw Htc-X-cØn¬ ImWm≥ Ign-bn√ BI-bm¬ Hmtcm kwÿm-\-sØbpw {]tXy-I-ambn IW-°n-se-SpØmWv ip]m¿i-Iƒ°v cq]w \¬In-bXv. ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ AXn¿Øn Xoc-{]-tZ-i-hp-ambn tN¿∂p-h-cp∂ kwÿm-\-ß-fn¬ AXn¿Øn \n¿Æ-b-{]-{In-b-bn¬ Xoc-{]-tZ-i-]-cn-ÿnXn aqeyßfpw Zu¿_-ey-ßfpw {]Xn-^-en-°m-Xn-cn-°m-\mbn Xoc-Øp-\n∂v 1.5 In.ao. hoXn-bn¬ hn´mWv kanXn AXn¿Øn \n¿Æbw \S-Øn-bXv.

Npcp-°-Øn¬ 1.

]›n-a-L´ taJe \n¿Æ-bn-®Xv Hmtcm kwÿm-\-Øn\pw {]tXy-I-am-bmWv.

2.

\ne-hn-ep≈ kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-߃ \mem-asØ {]tXyI hn`m-K-am-bmWv ]cn-K-Wn-°p∂Xv.

3.

kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-߃°v ]pd-Øp-≈-h-bv°mWv taJe˛1, taJe˛ 2, taJe˛3 ]Zhn \¬In-bXv.

4.

\ne-hn-ep≈ kwc-£n-X {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ Dƒs∏Sp∂-h-bn¬ G‰hpw Ipd™ td‰n-ßn\v kam-\tam AXn-ep-]-cntbm td‰n-ßn-\p-≈-hsb am{X-amWv taJe H∂n¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-ØnbXv.

5.

\Zn-I-fpsS D¤-h-ÿm-\-߃, ]oT`q-an-Iƒ ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-W-Øn¬ AXn-bmb Xmev]cyw {]I-Sn-∏n-°p∂ kaqlw A[n-h-kn-°p∂ {]tZ-i-߃ F∂nh ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]tZ-i-ß-fmbn ]cn-K-Wn-t°-≠-XmWv.

6.

\ne-hn-ep≈ kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-ß-fp-sSbpw taJe H∂n-s‚bpw samØ hnkvXo¿Æw BsI-bp≈ {]tZ-i-Øns‚ 60%¬ IqSm≥ ]mSn√.

7.

\ne-hn-ep≈ kwc-£n-X-{]-tZ-i-Øn-s‚bpw taJe˛1, taJe˛2 F∂n-h-bp-sSbpw BsI hnkvXo¿Æw GI-tZiw 75% Bbn-cn-°Ww.

8.

taJe ˛3s‚ hnkvXo¿Æw BsI hnkvXo¿Æ-Øns‚ 25%tØmfw Bbn-cn-°Ww.

]›n-a-L-´-Ønse kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-߃ taJe˛1, taJe˛2,taJe˛3 F∂n-h-bpsS If¿am-∏p Iƒ kwÿm-\m-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ Nn{X-߃ 2 apX¬ 7 hsc-bn¬ \¬In-bn-´p≠v. 5

an\n´v X 5 an\n´v As√-¶n¬ 9 In.ao. x 9 In.ao. F∂ ka-N-Xp-c-sØ-bmWv Um‰m-t_kv ASn-ÿm-\-am-°n-bn-´p-≈Xv. CXn\v {]Ir-Xn-ZØ Pe-t{km-X- p-I-fpsStbm, hnt√Pv, Xmeq°v t]mse-bp≈ `c-W-bq-Wn-‰p-I-fp-sStbm AXn¿Øn-bp-ambn bmsXm-cp-_-‘-hp-an√. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-Je H∂v, c≠v, aq∂v F∂n-h-bpsS AXn¿Øn hy‡-ambn \n¿Æ-bn°p-∂-Xn\pw Hcp {]tZ-im-[n-jvTnX amt\-Pvsa‚ v ]≤-Xn°v cq]w \¬Ip-∂-Xn\pw kq£va-P-et{km-X- p-I-fp-sSbpw {Kma-ß-fp-sSbpw AXn¿Øn IW-°n-se-Sp-Øp-ap≈ Hcp taJ-em-kw-hn-[m\-Øn\v cq]w \¬Ip-I-bmWv A`n-Imayw. ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n \ne-hn¬ hcptºmƒ hnim-em-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-ep≈ ]¶m-fnØ {]{In-b-bn-eqsS AtXm-dn´n \n¿Δ-ln-t°≠ NpXe-bm-WXv. F∂m¬ BZy-Np-h-Sp-hbv∏v F∂ \ne-bn¬ R߃ \S-Ønb A]-{K-Y-\-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ taJe H∂n-s‚bpw c≠n-s‚bpw aq∂n-s‚bpw {]mcw-`]-cn[n Xm¬Im-en-Iambn hn⁄m-]\w sNø-W-sa∂v R߃ ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-e-b-tØmSv ip]m¿i sNøp∂p. Cu AXn¿Øn \n¿Æbw Xmeq°v/ tªm°v Xe-Øn¬ \S-Øp-∂-XmWv DNnXw. Cu ImgvN-∏mSns‚ ASn-ÿm-\Ø - n¬ ]›n-aL - ´- Ø - nse 134 Xmeq-°p-It- fbpw R߃ taJe H∂ntem c≠ntem aq∂ntem Bbn Dƒs∏-SpØn Xmeq-°ns‚ Gdn-b-]¶pw DNn-X-amb taJ-e-bn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-ØnbmWv CXn\v cq]w \¬In-bXv. tKmh Hgn-sI-bp≈ kwÿm-\-ß-fnse Cu taJe cq]o-I-c-W-Øns‚ Npcp-°w, -]-´nI 3epw 4epw Pn√-I-fp-sSbpw Xmeq-°p-I-fp-sSbpw hni-Zmw-i-߃ A\p-_‘w c≠nepw aq∂nepw e`n°pw ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

21


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Nn{Xw 2

Nn{Xw 3

taJe 1 Dw 2 Dw 3 Dw, kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-ßfpw ˛ Xmeq-°-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

22


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Nn{Xw 4

Nn{Xw 5

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23


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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24


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]´nI 3 : taJ-e-I-fn-te°v \n¿t±-in-®n-´p≈ {]tZiw 50% Øn¬ A[n-I-ap≈ ]›n-a-L-´-Pn-√-Iƒ kwÿm\w

Pn√-Iƒ

taJe H∂nse Xmeq-°p-Iƒ

taJe c≠nse Xmeq-°p-Iƒ

taJe aq∂nse Xmeq-°p-Iƒ

KpP-dmØv

3

1

1

1

alm-cmjv{S

10

32

4

14

tKmh

2

_m[-I-a√

_m[-I-a√

_m[-I-a√

I¿Æm-SI

11

26

5

tIcfw

12

15

2

8

Xan-gv\mSv

6

9

2

2

samØw

44

83

14

37

12

50 iX-am-\tam AXn-e-[n-Itam {]tZiw ]›n-a-L´ AXn¿Øn-°p-≈n¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-bn´p≈ Xmeq-°p-Iƒ am{Xta ]´nI 3¬ tN¿Øn-´p≈q. taJe H∂n-s‚tbm, c≠n-s‚tbm \nehmcw Iev]n-°-s∏-Sp∂ {]tZ-i-߃ Dƒs∏´ Xmeq-°p-I-ƒ ]´nI 3¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øm-Øh ]´nI \men-emWv Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≈Xv. tKmh-bpsS Imcy-Øn¬ 1 an\n´v X 1 an\n´v ka-N-Xp-c-am-Wv D]-tbm-Kn-®n-´p-≈Xv. tKmh-bpsS hen-∏-°p-dhv ]cnKWn®v taJ-em-h-Xv°-c-W-Øn\v ]cn-ÿnXn khn-ti-j-X-bmWv A√msX Xmeq-°√ B[m-c-am-°n-bn-´p-≈Xv. (A\p-_‘w H∂v ImWpI) Cu taJ-e-Iƒ tKmh-bn-en-t∏mƒ \S-∂p-h-cp∂ taJem πm≥ 2021˛se ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-Jem-h¬°-c-W-hp-ambn ka-RvP-k-s∏-SWw. ]´nI 4 : taJe H∂n-te°pw c≠n-te°pw \n¿t±-in-°-s∏-´n-´p≈ {]tZiw 50% Øn¬ Xmsg D≈ ]›n-a-L-´ Pn√-Iƒ kwÿm\w

]›n-a-L-´-Ønse Pn√-Iƒ

taJe H∂n¬ s]Sp-∂h

taJe c≠n¬ s]Sp-∂h

KpP-dmØv

2

˛

4

alm-cmjv{S

11

6

23

tKmh

˛

˛

˛

I¿Æm-SI

15

1

22

tIcf

9

2

16

Xan-gv\mSv

˛

˛

˛

-

* A\p-_‘w 2, 3 ImWpI CXp-t]mse Dƒs∏-Sp-tØ≠ {Kma-]-©m-b-Øp-Isf Is≠Øn hn]p-e-amb Hcp ]¶m-fnØ {]{In-b-bn-eqsS taJe H∂n-s‚bpw c≠n-s‚bpw AXn-cp-Iƒ \n›-bn-°p-Ibpw {]tZ-im-[n-jvTnX amt\-Pvsa‚ v πm\n\v cq]w \¬Ip-Ibpw sNtø-≠Xv ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n-bmWv. AØ-c-Øn¬ G‰hpw Xmsg X´n-ep≈ Hcp kwcw-`-amWv t_mIvkv 5¬ sImSp-Øn-´p-≈Xv. ]´nI 5¬ sImSp-Øn-´p≈ kn‘p-Zp¿Kv Zn√-bnse 25 {Kma-ß-fnse {Kma-k-`-Iƒ Ah-cpsS ]©m-bØv {]tZiw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ambn {]Jym-]n-°-W-sa-∂m-h-iy-s∏´v {]tabw ]m m°n ka¿∏n®p. CØ-c-samcp {]ta-b-Øns‚ kw£n]vX cq]w t_mIvkv 6¬ ImWmw.

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25


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

t_mIvkv 5 : Xmsg X´n-ep≈ Hcp kwcw`w kn‘p Zp¿K Pn√-bnse 25 {Kma-k-`-Iƒ Ah-cpsS ]©m-bØp {]tZiw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ambn {]Jym-]n-°-W-sa-∂m-h-iy-s∏´v {]tabw ]mkm°n. Cu {Kma-k-`m-tbmK-ß-fn¬ bYm¿∞-Øn¬ F¥p N¿®-bmWv \S-∂-sXt∂m icn-bmb \S-]-Sn-{Iaw ]men-®mtWm Cu tbmK-߃ tN¿∂-sXt∂m kan-Xn°v Adn-bn√. F∂m¬ Cu {Kma-ß-fnse kμ¿i\w hy‡-am-°p-∂Xv Cu {]ta-b-߃°v Dd® P\-]n-¥pW Ds≠-∂mWv Xß-fpsS ]©m-b-Øns\ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i-ambn {]Jym-]n-°-cp-sX-∂m-h-iy-s∏´v {]tabw ]m m-°nb \nch[n ]©m-b-Øp-Iƒ Ahn-sS-X-s∂-bp≠v. XpS¿∂p \S-Ønb N¿®-bn¬ \n∂v a\- n-em-°nbXv c≠v Xocp-am-\-߃ XΩn¬ Xpe\w sNøm≥ P\-߃ {ian-°p∂p F∂mWv. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i-ambn {]Jym-]n-°-s∏-´m¬ Xß-fpsS ]©m-bØv J\\ `oj-Wn-bn¬ \n∂v c£-s∏-S-W-sa∂v Biz-kn-°p-∂-tXm-sSm∏w ]©m-bØv {]tZiw h\w-h-Ip-∏ns‚ Icm-f-lkvX-Øn-e-a-cp-sa∂ `bhpw Ah¿°p≠v. P\-]-¶m-fn-Ø-an-√mØ hnI-k-\-Øn\pw P\sØ Hgn-®p-\n¿Øn-bp≈ kwc-£-W-Øn\pw CXv DØa DZm-l-c-W-amWv. P\-]-¶m-fn-Ø-tØm-sSbpw kl-I-c-W-tØm-sSbpw D≈ hnI-k-\-Øn\v˛ kwc-£-W-kw-`w-`-ß-fn-eqsS am{Xta ]cn-ÿnXn kpÿn-c-Xbpw P\-ku-lr-Z-hn-I-k-\hpw ssIh-cn-°m≥ Ignbq. Cu coXn-bmWv A`n-Imayw F∂mWv kan-Xn-bpsS A`n-{]mbw Xß-fpsS ]©m-bØv ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-sa∂v hn⁄m-]\w sNø-Ws - a∂v {]tabw ]m m-°nb 25 {Kma-]© - m-bØ - p-Ifpw Um‰m-t_kv {]Imcw taJe H∂n¬ Dƒs∏´ {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS Hcp irwJ-e-bmWv.

]´nI 5 : kn‘p-Zn¿K Pn√-bnse ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ß-fmbn \n¿t±-in-°-s∏-´h Xmeq°v

hnt√-Pp-Iƒ

tZmUm-am¿Kv

^ptIcn, tImƒ-km¿, Ip{ºm¬, kmtkmfn, I¬s\ DKm-UPv, skmemsº, X¬°Xv _n.sI. tIm\m¬, [¿]n

kmh¥v hmSn

tIkcn, U_n¬, Ak-\nsb. ]m´vsh˛aPvtKm¨, DtUen, sUKvsh, _em-h¬, k¿am-se, H‰m-h-s\, ^≥km-hmsU, Xtºmfn, tIm¨jn,\¶¿Smkv, s\then, ]Svsh

t_mIvkv 6 : {Kma-k-`-I-fpsS {]ta-b-Øns‚ {]k-‡-`mKw h\w kwc-£-W-Øn\pw {Kma-Øns‚ hnI-k-\-Øn\pw NphsS ]d-bp∂ LS-I-߃ ]cn-K-Wn-t°-≠-Xp≠v. Pe-t{km-X- p-I-fpsS hnI-k\w. {Kma-ß-fn¬ h‰mØ Acp-hn-Iƒ \ap°v th≠p-thm-f-aps≠-¶nepw Ch Imcy-£-a-ambn D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xn\v ]≤-Xn-bp-≠m-hWw. Bkq-{X-W-an-√mbva aqew th\¬°m-eØv Irjn-bn-S-߃°v B-h-iy-Øn\v sh≈w e`n°p-∂n√. sNdnb AW-Ifpw _≠p-Ifpw \n¿Ωn®v sh≈w sI´n-\n¿Øm-hp-∂-tX-bp≈q. k¿°m¿ DtZym-K-ÿ¿ CXp-kw-_-‘n®v {Kma-ß-fn¬ {]mY-anI \nco-£-W-ßfpw ]›m-Øe At\z-jW - ß - fpw \S-Øn-bn-´p≠v. A°m-cW - Ø - m¬ Pe-t{km-X  - p-If - psS hnI-k\ - Ø - n\v ap≥KW\ \n›-bn-t°-≠Xv AXym-h-iy-amWv {Kma-Ønse Hmtcm hm¿Un\pw CXp-≠m-IWw. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse {Kma-ß-fn¬ h‰mØ \ocp-d-hp-Iƒ th≠p-thm-f-ap≠v. Cu Acp-hn-Ifn¬ sNdnb Pe-ssh-Zyp-X-]-≤XnIƒ \n¿Ωn®v sshZypXn Dev]m-Zn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNømw. CXns‚ km[y-Xsb ]‰n ]T\w \S-tØ-≠-Xp≠v. Iip-amhv, AS° tXm´-ß-fpsS Ct∏m-gsØ Ahÿ sa®-s∏-Sp-ØWw. ^e-h-£-^-e-`q-bn-jvT-Xbv°v th≠ Petam h\tam C√mØ CS-ß-fn¬

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26


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

ag-sh-≈sØ B{i-bn-®p≈ kky-h\ - h - ¬°-cWw hnI-kn-∏n°mw. CXn\v k¿°m-cn¬ \n∂p≈ ^≠pw ]cn-io-e-\hpw thWw. Ct∏mƒ \ap°v th≠{X kky-\-gvk-dn-Iƒ C√. taev]-d™ kky-h-\-h¬°-c-W-Øn\v Xt±-io-b-amb kky-\-gvkdn \ap°v hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp°mw. Nne kzbw-k-lmb {Kq∏p-Iƒ°v CXn¬ \n∂v BZm-bhpw e`n°pw. hnt√Pv Sqdnkw: \ΩpsS {Kma-Ønse ]®∏v, tXm´-߃, {]mNo\ Xd-hmSv hoSp-Iƒ F∂n-h- hnt\m-Z-k-©m-cn-Isf BI¿jn-°p-∂p. apwss_bn¬ Xma-k-am-°n-bn≈ "X¬°Øv' kztZ-in-Iƒ ]´-W-Ønse Ah-cpsS kplr-Øp-°-fp-ambn ChnsS FØm-dp≠v. Cu {Kmaw Hcp hnt\mZ k©mc tI{μ-ambn hnI-kn-∏n-°m-\p≈ F√m km[y-X-I-fp-ap≠v. a\p-jy\pw h\y-ar-K-ßfpw XΩn-ep≈ kwL¿jw: X¬IØv {Kmaw h\-tØmSv tN¿∂v InS-°p∂ {]tZ-i-amWv. tXm´-߃ h\-ß-fm¬ Np‰-s∏-´n-cn-°p∂p. Awt_m-fnbv°pw Xn√mcn°pw CS-bv°p≈ Cu h\-{]-tZiw h\y-arK kº-∂-amWv. At\-I-h¿j-ß-fmbn Cu h\yar-K-߃°n-S-bn-embn Pohn-°p∂ R߃ Cu ASpØ Ime-Ømbn Ipcßv, B\, ]p≈n∏pen F∂n-h-bpsS ieysØ t\cn-tS≠n hcp-∂p≠v. Cu {]tZ-i-Øn\v Hcp hnI-k-\-]-≤Xn Xøm-dm-°p-tºmƒ Cu {]iv\hpw IqSn IW-°n-se-Sp-°Ww. ImcWw XpS¿∂pw Cu h\y-Po-hnIƒs°m∏w Ign-bm≥ B{K-ln-°p-∂-h-cmWv R߃. Rß-fpsS {]tZiw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e{- ]-tZ-ia - m-bX - n-\m¬ Chn-SsØ hnI-k\ - ] - ≤ - Xn Xøm-dm-t°-≠Xv k¿°mcpw {Kma-hm-kn-Ifpw Iq´m-bn-´mWv. ssa\nßv s{]mP-IvSp-Ifpw a‰pw Poh\v lm\n-Ic - a - m-sW∂v am{X-a√ \ΩpsS hcp-am\ t{kmX- n-s\bpw AXv \in-∏n-°p∂p. CØcw t{]mP-IvSp-Iƒ°p-]I - cw R߃ B{K-ln-°p-∂Xv Rß-fpsS {Kmaw Hcp ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e{]-tZ-ia - mbn {]Jym-]n-®p-Im-Wm-\mWv.

11. \ne-hn-ep≈ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-Iƒ A\p-`-h-]m-T-߃ \n¿±n-jvS-]-cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i-ß-fn¬ a\p-jys‚ {]h¿Ø\w \nb-{¥n-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ bmsXmcp am¿§-tc-Jbv°pw {]Wm_v sk≥ IΩn‰n cq]w \¬In-bn√. F∂m¬ Cu tPmen ]n∂oSv ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw kzbw Gs‰-SpØp. ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-W-\n-b-a-Ønse 5˛mw hIp-∏p-{]-Imcw `qhn-\n-tbm-K-Øn-t∑¬ a{¥m-ebw \nb-{¥Ww G¿s∏-SpØn. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ambn {]Jym-]n-°m-\p≈ Hcp \n¿t±iw e`n-®m¬ km[m-c-W-bmbn a{¥m-ebw hn⁄m-]\w Xøm-dm°n s]mXp-P-\-ß-fn¬ \n∂pw _‘-s∏´ kwÿm\ k¿°m-cn¬ \n∂pw {]Xn-Ic - Ww Bcmbpw. `qan Hcp kwÿm-\h - n-jb - a - m-bX - n-\m¬ hn⁄m-]\ - Ø - n¬ hn`m-h\ sNbvXn´p-≈-Xp-t]mse `qhn-\n-tbmKw Nn´-s∏-SpØn Hcp taJ-e-hn-I-k\ ]≤Xn Xøm-dm-°m≥ _‘s∏´ kwÿm\ k¿°m-cn-t\mSv Bh-iy-s∏Spw. P\-]-¶m-fnØw Dd-∏p-h-cpØn kwÿm-\-k¿°m¿ taJ-em-hn-I-k-\-]-≤-Xn°v A¥na cq]w \¬Ipw. Cu ]≤Xn \n¿Δ-l-W-Øns‚ ta¬t\m-´-Øn-\mbn a{¥m-ebw cq]o-I-cn-°p∂ D∂-X-Xe Ah-tem-I\ kan-Xn-bn¬ an°-t∏mgpw {]mtZ-inI {]mXn-\n[yw D≠m-bn-cn-°n√. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿∫e {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS cq]o-I-cWw KpW-I-c-amb ]cn-Wn-X-^-e-߃ {]Zm\w sNøp-∂-tXm-sSm∏w Cu kwhn-[m-\-Øn¬ A]m-I-X-Ifpw [mcm-f-ap≠v. CXn¬ G‰hpw Kuc-hap≈ {]iv\w Cu kwhn-[m\w DtZym-Kÿ \nb-{¥n-X-ßsf {Iam-Xo-X-ambn B{i-bn-t°≠n hcp∂p F∂p-≈-XmWv. {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-Øns‚ ]¶m-fnØ Ipdhpw kpXm-cy-a-√mØ DtZymKÿ {]h¿Ø-\hpw DØ-c-hm-ZnXz Ipdhpw Agn-a-Xnsb ]cn-t]m-jn-∏n-°p∂p. X¬^-e-ambn kaq-l-Ønse Zp¿_e hn`mKw ISpØ ]oT-\-Øn\pw Nqj-W-Øn\pw hnt[-b-am-Ip∂p. AtX kabw kº-∂cpw i‡cpw \nb-{¥-W-߃ Im‰n¬ ]d-Øp∂p. CXv {]mtZ-inI FXn¿∏n\pw kwL¿j-Øn\pw Imc-W-am-Ip∂p. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

27


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

alm-cmjv{S kwÿm-\Øv 4 ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿∫e taJ-eI - f - mWv cq]o-Ic - n-®Xv. apcpSv˛Pm≥Pnd, Zl\p Xmeq°v, amtX-c≥, alm-_-te-iz¿˛]©-K\n F∂n-h-bm-Wnh. XpS¿ \S-]-Sn-Iƒ kzoI-cn°p-∂-Xn¬ tI{μ ˛ kwÿm\ k¿°m¿ A[n-Ir-X¿ Hcp-t]mse hnap-J-cm-sW-∂-XmWv A\p`hw. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v 19˛12˛1996¬ Zl\ Xmeq°v ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£W AtXm-dn‰n cq]o-I-cn®Xv Hcp h¿j-tØ-°mWv. XpS¿∂v BZyw c≠v amk-tØ°pw ]ns∂ aq∂v amk-tØ°pw XpS¿∂v Bdp amk-tØ°pw Imem-hp[n Zo¿Ln-∏n®p. AtXm-dn-‰n-bpsS Ah-tem-I-\-tijn IW°n-se-SpØv CsXmcp ÿncw kwhn-[m-\-am-°-W-sa∂v ]cn-ÿnXn ˛ h\w a{¥m-e-b-tØmSv A`y¿∞n-s®-¶nepw ho≠pw 6 amk-tØ°p IqSn Imem-h[n \o´mt\ a{¥m-ebw Xøm-dm-bp≈q. XpS¿∂v tImSXn CS-s]-S-en-eq-sS-bmWv ]cn-ÿnXn (kwc-£W) \nb-a-Ønse (1986) hyh-ÿIƒ {]Imcw \n¿t±-i-ßfpw a‰pw \¬Im-\p≈ A[n-Imcw AtXm-dn-‰n°v kn≤n-®Xv. alm-_-te-iz¿ ˛ ]©-K\n D∂-X-Xe Ah-tem-I\ kan-Xnbpw XpS¿®bv°v t\cn´ XS hpw A[n-Im-c-an-√m-bvabpw aqew ISpØ {]Xn-k-‘n-bn-embn. alm-_-te-iz¿ D∂-X-Xe kanXnbpambpw a‰v {]h¿Ø-I-cp-ambpw Cu kanXn \S-Ønb N¿®-I-fnepw {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-hpambn \S-Ønb N¿®-I-fnepw kμ¿i-\-ß-fnepw Hcp kΩn{i {]Xn-I-c-W-amWv e`n-®Xv. \n¿`mKy-h-im¬ 2002 apX¬ 2005 hsc CØ-c-samcp kan-Xntb \ne-hn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂n√. ap≥]-Xn-hn¬ \n∂v hyXy-kvX-ambn \ne-hn-ep≈ sNb¿am≥ {io.tZhv Kp]vX-bpsS t\Xr-Xz-Øn¬ kanXn AwK-߃ P\-ß-fn-te-s°-Øm\pw Ah-cpsS {]iv\-߃ ]cn-l-cn-°m\pw Xøm-dmbn. CØcw kan-Xn-I-fpsS kao-]-\-Øn¬ h∂ ]mI-∏n-g-Iƒ aqew ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿∫e taJ-e-Iƒ ]pdta \n∂v Ah-cpsS ta¬ ASn-t®-ev]n-°-s∏-´-Xm-sW∂pw Xßsf ]oUn-∏n-°m\pw NqjWw sNøm\p-ap≈ Agn-a-Xn-°m-cmb DtZym-K-ÿ-cpsS Hcp-]m-[n-bm-Wn-sX∂pw P\-߃ [cn-®p-h-imbn. kz¥w Irjn-bn-S-Øn¬ Ipg¬In-W¿ Ipgn-°m≥ A\p-aXn e`n-°m≥ DtZym-K-ÿ¿°v 20,000 cq] ssIIqen sImSp-t°-≠n-h-∂Xv kw_-‘n® ]cmXn Cu kan-Xn°v e`n-®n-cp∂p. alm-_-te-iz¿ ˛ ]©-K\n taJ-e-I-fn¬ ]´nI h¿§-°mcpw ]c-º-cm-KX h\-hm-kn-Ifpw [mcm-f-ap-≠m-bn-cp∂p. BI-bm¬ h\m-h-Im-i-\n-baw A©p-h¿jw ap≥]v Ch¿°v \S-∏m-t°-≠-Xm-bn-cp∂p. C°m-cyØn¬ bmsXmcp {ia-hp-ap-≠m-bn-´n√. NqjWw XpS-cm≥ th≠n Bbn-cp∂p CsX∂v A\p-am-\n°Ww. kz¥w {Kma-Øn-te-°p≈ ]gb hgn-Iƒ t]mepw h\w-h-Ip∏v {S©p-Iƒ Ipgn®v XS- s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xmbn ]cmXn Db¿∂n-cp∂p. XpS¿∂v {io. am[hv KmUvKn¬ t\cn´v Cu hnjbw ]cntim-[n®p. ssIIqen hmßn-sIm≠v At∏m-tg°v Cu {S©p-Iƒ aÆn´v \nc-∏m-°n-b-XmWv ImWm≥ Ign-™Xv. apwss_ ]cn-ÿnXn B£≥ {Kq∏v amtX-c-\n¬ Ah¿ Xs∂ {]tam´v sNøp∂ Hcp ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿∫e taJe kμ¿»n-°m≥ t]meokv kwc-£Ww tXSn-b-Xn¬ \n∂v CXnse P\-]-¶m-fn-Ø-Øns‚ A`mhw a\- n-em-°m-hp-∂-XmWv. (Kapoor, M: K Kohli and M Menon 2009) 7, 8, 9 t_mIvkp-Iƒ Cu A\p-`-h-߃ ]¶p-sh-bv°p∂p.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

t_mIvkv 7: Zlm\p Xmeq°v ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£W AtXm-dn‰n 1994se 231˛mw \º¿ dn´v Xo¿∏m-°n-sIm-≠p≈ kp{]ow tImSXn hn[n-bpsS Npcp°w. ""]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿∫-e-amb Zlm\p Xmeq-°ns‚ kwc-£-W-Øn\v kwÿm\ k¿°m-cnt‚bpw a‰v kzX{¥ Ãm‰yq-´dn AtXm-dn-‰n-bp-tSbpw XpS¿®-bmb Ah-tem-I\w Bh-iy-amWv. tI{μ-k¿°m¿ 1996¬ ]pd-s∏-Sp-hn® hn⁄m-]-\-Ønse hyh-ÿ-Iƒ°v hnt[-b-ambn tI{μk¿°m¿ AwKo-I-cn-°p∂ Su¨/ doPn-b-W¬ πm≥ \S-∏m-°m≥ kwÿm-\-k¿°m-cn\v _m[yX-bp≠v. Zlm\p taJ-e-bp-ambn _‘-s∏´v tI{μ-k¿°m¿ ]pd-s∏-Sp-hn® c≠v hn⁄m-]-\-ßfnse hyh-ÿ-Iƒ°v hnt[-b-ambn \n¿±njvS πm≥ \S-∏m-°m≥ alm-cmjv{Sm k¿°m-cn-t\mSv \n¿t±-in®p. Cu hn[n-\ym-b-Øn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p≈ NEERI ip]m¿i-Iƒ kwÿm\ k¿ °m¿ ]cn-K-Wn®v \S-∏m-t°-≠-XmWv.'' Ah-tem-I-\-Øn-\mbn apwss_ sslt°m-S-Xn-bn-te°v am‰nb B dn´v s]‰o-j≥ Ct∏mgpw AhnsS IpSp-ßn-°n-S-°p-I-bmWv. dn´ns‚ \º¿ 981/1998. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-amb Zlm\p Xmeq-°ns‚ kwc-£-W-Øn\pw aen-\o-I-cW \nb-{¥W-Øn\pw Bh-iy-amb A[n-Im-c-ß-fp≈ Hcp AtXm-dn‰n (]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£W \nb-aØnse 3 (3) hyhÿ {]Imcw) cq]o-I-cn-°m\pw tI{μ-K-h¨sa‚n-t\mSv kp{]ow tImSXn \n¿t±-in®p. Hcp dn´-tbUv sslt°m-SXn PUvPn-bpsS t\Xr-Xz-Øn-ep≈ Cu AtXm-dn-‰n-bn¬ Pe-]-T\w, kap{Z ]T\w, D]-cn-Xe˛Pe-]-cn-ÿnXn, ]cn-ÿnXn F©n-\n-b-dnMv, hnI-k\w, ]cn-ÿnXn Bkq-{XWw, hnhc kmt¶-XnI hnZy F∂o taJ-e-I-fnse hnZ-KvXsc AwK-ßfmbpw tI{μ-k¿°m¿ \nb-an-°-W-sa∂pw tImSXn \n¿t±-in®p. 1986se ]cn-ÿnXn (kwc£W) \nb-a-Ønse hnhn[ hIp-∏p-Iƒ {]Imcw \n¿t±-i-߃ \¬Im\pw \S-]Sn FSp-°m\pw D≈ A[n-Imcw Cu AtXm-dn-‰n°v \¬I-W-sa∂pw \n¿t±-in-®n-cp∂p. 1996 Unkw-_¿ 20\Iw AtXm-dn‰n cq]o-I-cn-°-W-sa-∂m-bn-cp∂p \n¿t±iw. ap≥I-cp-X¬ XXzhpw aen-\o-I-cWw \S-Øp-∂-h¿ AXns‚ hne \¬I-W-sa∂ XXzhpw AtXm-dn‰n \S -∏m-°Ww. NEERI bpsS ip]m¿i-Ifpw Zlm\p Xmeq-°ns‚ taJem ]≤-Xnbpw Zlm\p]-´WØns‚ hnI-k\ ]≤-Xnbpw AtXm-dn‰n \S-∏m-°Ww. Aßs\ 19/12/1996 se hn⁄m-\-{]-Imcw Zlm\p Xmeq°v ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£W AtXm-dn‰n tI{μ ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw cq]o-I-cn®p. XpS-°-Øn¬ Hcp h¿j-am-bn-cp∂p AtXm-dn-‰n-bpsS Imem-h[n. XpS¿∂v BZyw 2 amkhpw ]n∂oSv 3 amkhpw XpS¿∂v 6 amkhpw Zo¿Ln-∏n®p. Ah-tem-I\ Npa-Xe Imcy-£-a-ambn \n¿t±-in-°m≥ th≠n AtXm-dn‰n Hcp ÿncw kwhn-[m-\-am-°-W-sa∂v a{¥m-e-b-tØmSv A`y¿∞n-®n-cp∂p. F¥m-bmepw a{¥m-ebw 6 amk-tØ-°p-IqSn Imem-h[n Zo¿Ln-∏n®p. AXn\p-tijw kp{]ow tImS-Xn-bn¬ a{¥m-ebw ka¿∏n® dn´ns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ C\n Hcp DØ-chv D≠m-Ip-∂-Xp-hsc AtXm-dn-‰n-bpsS Imem-h[n kp{]ow tImSXn Zo¿Ln-∏n®p. AtXm-dn-‰n-bn¬ s]mXp-k-aq-lsØ {]Xn-\n-[m\w sNbvXv Hcp -k-∂≤ kwL-S\m {]Xn\n-[n-bm-Wp-≠m-bn-cp-∂Xv. F∂m¬ Ign™ 16 h¿j-ambn CXv Hgn™p InS-°p-I-bmWv. AtXm-dn-‰n-bpsS khn-tj-X-Iƒ

AtXm-dn-‰n-bpsS tbmK-߃ Xpd∂ tbmK-ß-fmWv. {]tZ-i-hm-kn-Iƒ, {]h¿Ø-I¿, _‘s∏´ k¿°m¿ hIp∏v DtZym-K-ÿ¿, t{]mPIvSv GP≥kn-Iƒ F∂n-h-cpsS km∂n-≤yØn-emWv {]iv\-߃ N¿® sNøp-∂Xv. AtXm-dn-‰n°v e`n-°p∂ F√m ]cm-Xn-Ifpw Cu thZn-bn¬ N¿® sNø-s∏Spw. A£-cm¿∞-Øn¬ CsXmcp s]mXp IqSn-bm-tem-N-\bmWv. F√m-h-cp-tSbpw km∂n-≤y-Øn¬ N¿® sNbvsX-Sp-°p∂ Xocp-am-\-߃ IrXyambn \S-∏m°pw. CXp-hsc F√m Xocp-am-\-ßfpw ssIsIm-≠Xv sFIy-I-WvtT-\-bmWv. AtXm-dn-‰n-bpsS tbmK-ß-fn¬ 70 apX¬ 100 hsc {]tZ-i-hm-kn-Iƒ kw_-‘n-°p-Ibpw Ah-cpsS {]iv\-߃ ]cn-l-cn-°-s∏-Sp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p≠v.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

AtXm-dn‰n apdp-sI-∏n-Sn-°p∂ A\p-]-a-amb Hcp am\-Zfiw ]≤-Xn-bpsS kmaq-ly-{]-Xn-_-‘-X-bmWv. ]≤-Xn-Iƒ _m[n-°p∂ {]tZ-i-ß-fnse P\߃°v kam-P-a-μn-c-߃, kna‚ v `WvTm-c-߃, _kv-Ãm‚ v sjUp-Iƒ, Pnwt\-jy-߃, skan-tØcn, Ipg¬In-W-dp-Iƒ, k©-cn-°p∂ Bip-]{Xn hm\p-Iƒ, t{Smam sk‚-dp-Iƒ, asÆm-en∏v XS-bm≥ kwhn-[m-\-߃ XpSßnb kmaq-ly-ku-I-cy-߃ sNbvXp-sIm-Sp-°-W-sa∂v _‘-s∏´ DtZym-Kÿ¿°v \n¿t±iw \¬In-bn-´p≠v. Cu kmaq-ly-ku-I-cy-߃ hnI-kn-∏n°m≥ ]≤Xn DS-a-Ifpw s]mXp-P-\-ßfpw kl-I-cn®v apt∂m´p t]mIp∂p F∂-Xp-Xs∂ kt¥m-j-I-c-amWv. sa®-s∏´ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-°p≈ Ah-Imiw `c-W-L-S\m 21˛mw B¿´n-°nƒ ]cnK-Wn-°p∂ Ahn-`mPy LS-Ia - mWv. AXmWv Pohn-°m-\p≈ Ah-Imiw. AXn\m¬ CXn\v Np‰p-]mSpw Pohn-°p∂ Bfp-I-fpsS ta¬ {]tXyI {i≤ ]pe¿Øp∂p. sX¿Ω¬ ]h¿ πm‚p-I-fn¬ \n∂pw a‰v hyh-km-b-im-e-I-fn¬ \n∂pw han-°p∂ ]pIbpw a‰pw ]cn-ÿn-Xn-bn-te¬∏n-°p∂ BLmXw A]{K-Yn-°m-\mbn imco-cnI BtcmKy ]cn-tim-[\ \S-Øp-∂p≠v. C°m-cy-Øn¬ ]≤Xn DS-a-Ifpw kmaq-ly-kw-L-S-\-Ifpw s]mXp-P-\-ßfpw AtXm-dn-‰nsb klm-bn-°p-∂p≠v. {]tZ-isØ kv{XoIƒ°pw Ip´n-Iƒ°pw ^mIvSdn sXmgnem-fn-Iƒ°pw th≠n BtcmKy kwL-S-\-Ifpw saUn-°¬ Iymºp-Ifpw AtXm-dn‰n kwL-Sn-∏n-°p-∂p≠v. C¥y≥ `c-W-L-S-\-bpsS 51mw hIp∏v Dd∏p-\¬Ip∂ sa®-s∏´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn‰n {]Zm\w sNøp∂p. Pohn-°m-\p≈ Ah-Imiw ap≥\n¿Øn ap≥Iq¿ h\ h¬°c-Whpw ap≥Iq¿ ]p\-c-[n-hm-khpw F∂ ]pXnb Bi-b-amWv AtXm-dn‰n kzoI-cn-®n-´p-≈Xv. CXn\p≈ `qan apt∂-Xs∂ Is≠-Øn-bn-´p-≈-Xm-sW-∂mWv k¿°m¿ GP≥kn-Iƒ ]d-bp-∂Xv. BI-bm¬ Cu Bi-b-Øn¬ ASn-bp-d®v apt∂-dp-I-bmWv A`n-Im-ayw. -Im-cWw _Z¬ h\-h¬°-c-Whpw ]p\-c-[n-hm-khpw A\pt]£-Wo-b-amWv. cmjv{S-]n-Xmhv apt∂m´v h® ]ªnIvv {SÃv F∂ kwhn-[m\w (Public Trust Doctrine) C¥y≥ kp{]ow tImS-Xnbpw Ata-cn-°≥ kp{]ow tImS-Xnbpw C∂v AwKoI-cn-®n-´p≠v. CX-\p-k-cn®v kwÿm-\tam k¿°mtcm {]Ir-Xn-hn-`-h-ß-fpsS DS-a-If√, adn®v {SnÃn-Iƒ am{X-amWv. AXp-sIm≠v CXv s]mXp-\-∑-bv°p-th≠n D]tbm-Kn-t°-≠Xv tÉns‚ IS-a-bmWv. AXm-bXv kzIm-cy-hy-‡n-I-fp-sSbpw ÿm]\-ß-fp-sSbpw kzm¿∞ Xmev]-cy-tØ-°mƒ s]mXp D]-tbm-K-Øn-\mbn Cu hn`-h߃ ]p\¿hn-X-cWw \S-ØWw. kp{]ow tImSXn 1996 HIvtSm-_¿ 31se DØ-chpw {]Imcw dn´v s]‰o-j≥ Xo¿∏m-°msX {]iv\w samØ-Øn¬ Ah-tem-I\w sNøm≥ \n¿t±-in-®p-sIm≠v apwss_ sslt°m-S-Xn°v ssIamdn. Zl\p Xmeq-°n¬ {]h¿Øn-°p∂ aen-\o-Ic-W-ap-≠m-°p-∂Xpw Btcm-Ky-Øn\v lm\n-I-c-hp-amb hyh-km-b-ßsf \nb-am-\pkrXw ssIImcyw sNø-W-sa∂pw tImSXn \n¿t±-in®p. C°m-cy-Øn¬ tI{μk¿°m¿ hn⁄m-]-\-߃, Su¨/taJem πm\p-Iƒ, NEERI dnt∏m¿´v F∂nh IqSn IW-°n-se-Sp-°-W-sa∂pw tImSXn Bh-iy-s∏´p. AtXm-dn-‰n°v {]iv\-߃ ssIImcyw sNøm≥ CXv hfsc klm-b-I-ambn. \n¿`m-Ky-h-im¬ Iev°cn D]tbm-Kn®v Du¿t÷m-ev]m-Z\w \S-Øp∂ Chn-SpsØ πm‚ v bmYm¿∞-Øn¬ IS-enemWv ÿnXn sNøp-∂Xv. X∑qew ChnsS Hcp FGD (Flue Gas Desulfurizer) πm‚ v ÿm]n-t°-≠Xv AXy-¥m-t]-£n- -X-am-bn-cp∂p. A¥-co-£-a-en-\o-I-c-W-ap-≠m°p∂ ^vssf Bjm-bn-cp∂p Kuc-h-I-c-amb as‰mcp {]iv\w. Cu πm‚ v AtXm-dn‰n-bpsS kq£va \nco-£-W-Øn-emWv. ^vssf Bjns‚ 70% Ct∏mƒ D]-tbm-K-s∏Sp-Øp-∂p≠v. _m°n 30% Fßs\ D]-tbm-K-s∏-Sp-Øm-sa-∂Xp kw_-‘n®v N¿®Iƒ \S-∂p-h-cp∂p.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

t_mIvkv 8 : alm-_-te-iz¿ ]©-K\n ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿∫e taJe (HLMC -˛ High Land Monitoring Committee - D∂-Xm[n-Imc ta¬t\m´

kanXn sNb¿am≥ {io. Un. taØ Ah-X-cn-∏n-®Xv) kw£n]vX ]›m-Øew ae-ap-I-fnse {]i-kvX-am-sbmcp hnt\m-Z-k-©m-c-tI-{μ-amWv alm-_-te-iz¿ ]©-KWn. DØ-c-]-›na L´-Ønse CØ-c-Øn-ep≈ GI tI{μw IqSn-bm-WnXv. Cu taJ-ebv°v Hcp kº∂ {]IrXn ss]Xr-I-ap≠v IrjvW, sImbv\ \Zn-Iƒ Chn-sS-bmWv D¤-hn-°p-∂Xv. hnt\mZ-k© - m-cn-If - psS _mlp-eyhpw AXp-ambn _‘-s∏´ A\-[n-IrX IpSn-tb-‰hpw tlm´¬ \n¿ΩmWhpw h\-\-io-I-c-Whpw Jc-am-en-\y-ßfpw KXm-K-X-Ip-cp-°p-sa√mw Cu {]tZ-i-Øn\v ISpØ `oj-Wn-bmWv. Cu A\n-b-{¥nX hnI-k-\-Øns‚ Zqjy-^-e-߃ IW-°n-se-SpØv Chn-SpsØ 123.96 NXp-c-{i-In-tem-ao-‰¿ {]tZiw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿∫e taJ-e-bmbn {]Jym-]n-®p-sIm≠v 2001 P\ph-cn-bn¬ tI{μ ]cn-ÿnXn h\w a{¥m-ebw hn⁄m-]\w ]pd-s∏-Sp-hn®p. \nb-{¥n-X-amb kpÿnc hnI-k-\hpw ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-Whpw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm≥ th≠n-bm-bn-cp∂p CXv. IrjvW Pe X¿° ss{S_yq-W-ens‚ ASp-Ø-Im-e-Øp-≠mb hn[n alm-_-te-iz¿ ]©-KWn ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿∫e taJ-e-bpsS {]m[m\yw h¿≤n-∏n-°p∂p. "A¬am´n' AW-s°-´n-t\bpw AXns‚ hrjvTn {]tZ-i-ß-sfbpw kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw Gsd {]m[m-\y-ap-≈-h-bmWv IrjvW, sImbv\ \Zn-Iƒ. IrjvW \Zn-bnse "t[mw, _m¬°m-hSn AW-s°-´p-Ifpw' , sImbv\ \Zn-bnse Pe-kw`-c-Wnbpw hfsc {i≤m-]q¿Δw ]cn-c-£n-®m¬ am{Xta A¬am´n AW-s°-´n\v ta¬`m-K-Øp≈ {]tZ-isØ ag-°m-eØv {]f-b-s°-Sp-Xn-bn¬ \n∂v c£n-°m≥ Ignbq. AXp-sIm≠v Xs∂ alm-_-te-iz¿ ]©-KWn ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿∫e taJ-e-bpsS kwc-£Ww hfsc {]m[m-\ya¿ln-°p∂p. a¨kq¨ ImeØv alm-_-te-iz-dn¬ e`n-°p∂ 8000 an.ao ag-sh≈w Chn-SsØ h\-{]tZ-i-ßfpw 9 ]oT-`q-an-Ifpw a‰pw tN¿∂mWv hen-s®-Sp-°p-∂Xv. Chn-SpsØ Imem-hÿ hyXnbm-\-Øns‚ ^e-ambn ag e`y-X-bnepw Imem-h-ÿ-bnepw Imhy-amb am‰w kw`-hn-®n-´p≠v. Cu taJ-eb - psS ]cn-ÿnXn \Zo-XS {]m[m-\y-Øn\p ]pdta {]Xn-h¿jw ChnsS FØp∂ 10 e£w hnt\m-Z-k-©m-cn-Iƒ°v Bh-iy-amb Db¿∂ \ne-hm-c-ap≈ Xmak˛`£W kuIcy-ßfpw ChnsS Hcp-t°-≠-Xm-bn-´p≠v. CXn\p ]pd-ta-bmWv Xt±-i-hm-kn-I-fpsS Pohn-Xm-h-iy-߃. tamWn-´-dnßv IΩ-‰n-bpsS {]h¿Ø\w

D∂-X-Xe Ah-tem-I-\-k-an-Xn-bpsS BZy \nb-a\w 2002 apX¬ 2005hscbpw c≠m-asØ \nb-a\w 2008 apX¬ 2012 hscbpw Bbn-cp∂p. kan-Xn-bpsS {][m\ Xocp-am-\-߃ NphsS

{]h¿Ø\ ˛ hnI-k-\m-[n-jvTnX Xocp-am-\-߃ : 1. taJ-em-πm≥ D∂-X-Xe kanXn taJ-em-πm≥ hni-Z-ambn ]cn-tim-[n-°p-Ibpw Nne Iq´n-tt®¿°-epIfpw t`Z-K-Xn-Ifpw hcpØn tI{μ ]cn-ÿnXn h\w a{¥m-e-b-Øn\v ka¿∏n®p. a{¥m-ebw CXv ]q¿Æ-ambn AwKo-I-cn® tijw hn⁄m-]\w sNøm-\mbn alm-cmjv{S k¿°m-cn\v \¬In. Cu taJ-e-bnse sh≈-®m-´-ß-tfbpw Acp-hn-I-tfbpw kw_-‘n®v Hcp k¿sΔ \S-Øm\mbn 2010 am¿®n¬ {io. tUhoUv Im¿tUm-kns‚ t\Xr-Xz-Øn¬ D∂-X-Xe kanXn Hcp D]k-an-Xnsb \ntbm-Kn®p. D]-k-anXn k¿sΔ sNbvX Acp-hn-I-fpsS Dd-hn-S-ß-tfbpw 12 sh≈®m-´-ß-tfbpw taJem amÿ πm\n¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p≠v. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿∫e taJ-ebv°v

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31


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Np‰p-ap≈ Icp-X¬ taJ-e-bpsS AXn¿Øn bp‡n klambn \n¿Æ-bn-°p-∂-Xns\ ]‰n s{]m.Pbv kma¥v, s{]m.hnPbv ]c©vss] F∂n-h¿ ]T\w \SØn hcn-I-bmWv. ]T\w ]q¿Ønbm-bm¬ DNn-X-amb ip]m¿i-Iƒ k¿°m-cn\v ka¿∏n°pw. 2. Sqdnkw amÿ πm≥ Sqdnkw amÿ πm\n¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-tØ≠ Imcy-߃ D∂-X-Xe kanXn Xocp-am-\n®v almcmjv{S Sqdnkw hnI-k\ tIm¿∏-td-j\v \¬In-sb-¶nepw tIm¿∏-td-j≥ CXp-hsc amÿπm≥ Xøm-dm-°n-bn-´n√. taJem amÿ πm\n¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-tØ≠ Hcp {][m\ C\-am-WnXv. 3. hnI-k\ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ ]©-KWn, alm-_-te-iz¿, Su¨jn∏v AS-°-ap≈ hnI-k\ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ°v A¥n-a-cq]w \¬Ip-∂-Xn-\p≈ am¿§ tcJ-Iƒ D∂-X-Xe kanXn, alm-cmjv{S \K-cm-kq{XW Ub-d-IvS¿°v \¬In-bn-´p≠v. Ch¿ Xøm-dm-°p∂ hnI-k\ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw AwKoI-cn®p Ign-™m¬ Ah D]-ta-Jem amÿ πm\p-I-fmbn IW-°m°pw. 4. Imem-hÿm hyXn-bm\ ]T\ C≥Ãn-‰yq´v Imem-h-ÿ-bn-ep-≠m-Ip∂ am‰-߃ {lkz-Ime Zo¿L-Ime ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ \nco-£n°p-∂-Xn-\mbn B[p-\nI D]-I-c-W-ßfpw kwhn-[m-\-ß-fp-ap≈ Hcp C≥Ãn-‰yq´v alm-_-te-izdn¬ ÿm]n-°-W-sa∂v Xocp-am-\n®p. alm-_-te-iz-dn-ep≈ sa‰o-cn-tbm-f-Pn-°¬ hIp-∏ns‚ hf-∏n¬ CXv ÿm]n-°m-\mWv Xocp-am\w. 5. ]pXnb {KmaoW hmk-ÿ-e-߃ alm-cmjv{Sm k¿°m-dns‚ {]Jym-]\w sshIp-∂-Xp-aqew ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿∫e taJ-ebnse 12 {Kma-߃ `cW-]c - hpw hnI-k\ - ] - c - h - p-amb \nc-h[n {]iv\ß - ƒ t\cn-Sp-∂p≠v. \n¿±njvS taJ-e-bn¬ hoSp-Iƒ°m-bp≈ At]-£-Iƒ°v AwKo-Imcw \¬Im≥ kØmd Pn√m If-IvStdmSpw Cu t`Z-KXn taJem amÿ πm\n¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øm≥ \K-cm-kq-{XW Ub-d-IvS-tdmSpw D∂-X-Xe kanXn AXns‚ Ign™ tbmK-Øn¬ ip]m¿i sNbvXp. Cu {]tZ-i-ß-fn-te°v tdmUv kuI-cy-apƒs∏-sS-bp≈ ASn-ÿm\ kuI-cy-߃ e`yam-°m≥ Cu Xocp-am\w klm-b-I-am-Ip-sa-∂mWv {]Xo£. 6. ]cn-ÿnXn Ah-t_m[w Hcp t_m[-h¬°-cW ]cn-]m-Snbv°v cq]w \¬Ip-Ibpw adm-Øn-bnepw Cw•o-jnepw A®-Sn® eLp-tc-J-Ifpw knUn-Ifpw, ^nen-ap-Ifpw a‰pw P\-ß-fp-ambn \nc-¥cw _‘-s∏Sp∂ k¿°m¿ B^o-kp-I-fnepw {Kma-]-©m-b-Øp-I-fnepw tlm´-ep-I-fnepw kvIqfp-I-fnepw hnX-cWw sNøp-Ibpw sNbvXp. CXv Ct∏mgpw XpS¿∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂p. D∂-X-Xe kan-XnbpsS {]h¿Ø-\-߃ Dƒs∏-Sp∂ sh_vssk‰v DS≥ XpS-ßp-∂-XmWv. ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£Ww kw_-‘n® {]iv\-ß-fpsS hymJym-\-Øn-\mbn Hmtcm tI{μ-߃ alm-_-te-iz-dnepw ]©-KWn-bnepw ÿm]n-®n-´p≠v. CØcw IqSp-X¬ tI{μ-߃ taJ-e-bn-em-I-am\w ÿm]n-®n-cn-°p-IbmWv. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿∫e taJ-esb kw_-‘n®v hni-Zo-I-cn-°m\pw Ah-cpsS {]Xn-I-cWw Adn-bm-\p-ambn kvIqƒ hnZym¿∞n-Iƒ, A≤ym-]-I¿, {]n≥kn-∏¬am¿ XpS-ßn-b-hsc ]s¶-Sp∏n-®p-sIm-≠p≈ skan-\m-dp-Iƒ kwL-Sn-∏n-°p-I-bp-≠mbn. 7. {]tZ-i-hm-kn-I-fpsS ]¶m-fnØw D∂-X-Xe kan-Xn-bpsS Hmtcm tbmK-Øn\p apºpw {Kq∏p-I-fmbn kwth-Zn-°p-∂-Xn\v {]tZ-i-hm-kn-I-fpsS tbmKw hnfn-®n-cp∂p. Xt±-i-`-c-W-ÿm-]-\-ß-fnse Poh-\-°m¿, kvIqƒ A≤ym-]-I¿, k∂≤ kwL-S-\-Iƒ, kPoh {]h¿Ø-I¿, tlm´¬ Atkm-kn-tb-j≥, SmIvkn, IpXn-c-h≠n DSa Atkm-kn-tb-j≥. kv{Sm_dn ˛ D¬]m-Z-I-kw-Lw, Sq¿ Hm∏-td-‰¿am¿, F∂nh¿ CXn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-∂p. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿∫e taJ-esb kw_-‘n® hni-Zmw-i-߃ AXns‚ Ncn-{X-]-chpw `qanim-kv{X-]-chpw, Poh-imkv{X ]chpw, ]mc-º-cy-]-c-hp-amb hnh-c-߃ F∂nh Ch¿ e`y-am-

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32


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

°n-bn-cp∂p. {]mtZ-in-I-amb _p≤n-ap-´p-Ifpw \n¿t±-i-ßfpw D∂-X-Xe kan-Xn°v a\- n-em°m≥ CXv hgn-sbm-cp°n. kan-Xn-bpsS Xocp-am-\-ß-fn¬ CXv {]Xn-^-en-°p-∂p-ap≠v. sa®-s∏´ Bi-b-kw-hm-Z-Øn-\mbn {]tZ-i-hm-kn-I-fpsS k∂-≤-kw-L-S-\-Iƒ cq]o-I-cn°p-∂-Xns\ R߃ ]c-am-h[n t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p∂p. 8. Ct°m Sqdn-ksØ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p∂p kpJ-hmk ]c-º-cm-KX Sqdn-k-Øn¬ \n∂v ]cn-ÿnXn˛kmwkvIm-cnI˛Im¿jnI kulrZ Sqdn-k-Øn-te°v amd-W-sa∂v D∂-X-Xe kanXn _‘-s∏´ F√m GP≥kn-I-tfbpw DZvt_m[n-∏n-°p∂p. CXn-\mbn ssKUp-I-fpsS {]tXyI tbmKw hnfn-°p-Ibpw Ah-bv°mbn Hcp ]cnio-e\ inev]-ime kwL-Sn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. {]Ir-Xn-`wKn Bkz-Zn-°p-∂-Xn-te°pw IpXnc-k-hm-cn-bn-te°pw a‰pw Sqdn-Ãp-Isf Xncn-®p-hn-Sm-\mbn tlm´-ep-I-fpsS klm-b-tØmsS amXrIbpw Xøm-dm°n. \nb-{¥-W-Xo-cp-am-\-߃ sh∂m XSm-I-Øn\v IpdpsI tdm]vsh ÿm]n-°m-\p≈ \n¿t±iw D∂-X-Xe kan-XnbpsS apºmsI FØn-b-t∏mƒ alm-cm-jv{S-bnse tdm]v-shbvkv \nb-a-Øn\v FXn-cm-I-bm¬ A\p-aXn \ntj-[n®p. icn-bmb \S-]Sn {Ia-߃ ]men-°m-sXbpw kan-Xn-bp-sStbm ]cnÿnXn h\w a{¥m-e-b-Øn-s‚tbm A\p-aXn hmßmsX ]©-K-Wn-bn¬ Hcp Aayq-kvsa‚ v ]m¿°v ÿm]n®p. Cu ]m¿°p-aq-e-ap-≠m-Ip∂ sISp-Xn-Iƒ ]c-am-h[n Ipd-bv°m≥ D∂-X-Xe kanXn {ian-®p-hc - p∂p. CXn-\mbn Nne Xncp-ج \S-]S- n-Iƒ kzoI-cn-°m≥ _‘-s∏´ GP≥kntbmSv \n¿t±-in-®n-cn-°p-I-bmWv. CØcw A\-`n-em-j-Wo-b-amb hnI-k\w `mhn-bn-ep-≠m-Ins√∂v taJ-em-am-ÿ πm≥ Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp∂p. A\-[n-IrX \n¿Ωm-Whpw a‰pw XS-bm-\mbn AwKo-IrX hnI-k\ πm\p-Iƒ°p-am-{Xta sshZypXn IW-£≥ Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ kuI-cy-߃ \¬Imhq F∂v Xocp-am-\n-®n-´p≠v. hym]Iambn Zpcp-]-tbmKw sNøp∂ Xe-Nm-bv°m-s\m-cn-Shpw hni-∏-S-°m≥ am¿§hpw F∂ XXzw ]pXnb am¿§-\n¿t±-i-߃ Dƒs∏´ taJ-em-am-ÿ πm≥ hn⁄m-]\w sNøp-∂-Xp-hsc Xmev°men-I-ambn ac-hn-∏n-®n-cn-°p-I-bmWv. `oam-Im-c-amb ]c-ky-t_m¿Up-Iƒ \nb-a-hn-cp-≤-ambn hym]-I-ambn ÿm]n-®n-´p-≈-Xmbn ImWm≥ Ign™p. CXv {]Ir-Xn-Z-Øhpw a\p-jy-\n¿Ωn-X-hp-amb ss]XrI ImgvN-Iƒ adbv°p∂p. A\-[n-Ir-X-ambn ÿm]n-®n-´p≈ F√m t_m¿Up-Ifpw \o°w sNøm≥ Xocp-am\n®p. s]mXp-a-cm-aØv hIp∏v ASp-Ø-Im-eØv CØcw 58 t_m¿Up-Iƒ \o°w sNbvXp. a‰p hIp-∏p-Ifpw Cu hgn°v \oßp∂p. D∂-X-Xe kan-Xn-bpsS saº¿ sk{I-´dn IqSn-bmb kXmc If-IvS¿ 50 ssat{Im-Wn¬ Ipd™ πmÃnIv k©n-Ifpw a‰pw \ntcm-[n-°p-Ibpw CØcw \S-]Sn kzoI-cn-°m≥ ap\n-kn∏m-en-‰n-I-tfmSpw CXc GP≥kn-I-tfmSpw Bh-iy-s∏-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp. Cu \n¿t±iw ewLn°p-∂-h-¿°p≈ ]ng h¿≤n-∏n-°m\pw Xt±-i-`-c-W-ÿm-]-\-ß-tfmSv Bh-iy-s∏-´n-´p≠v. πmÃnIv k©n-I-fpsS D]-tbmKw Ipd-bv°m-\mbn ]mepw IpSn-sh-≈hpw a‰pw henb Af-hn¬ kw`-cn°m-sa∂v tlm´-ep-Ifpw dkn-U≥jy¬ kvIqfp-Ifpw kΩXn-®n-´p≠v. t]∏¿˛XpWn˛NW k©nIƒ \n¿Ωn-°m≥ sNdp-InS Dev]m-Z-Isc t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p-∂p≠v. ]Wn-bpsS ]ptcm-KXn alm-_-te-iz-dn-epw- ]-©-K-Wnepw kzoth-Pv {So‰vsa‚ v πm‚p-Iƒ ÿm]n-°m-\p≈ XpI alm-cm-jv{S-k¿°m¿ A\p-h-Zn-®n-´p≠v. ]s£ Ch-bpsS ]Wn hfsc aμ-K-Xn-bn-emWv. ]©K-Wn-bpsS Imcy-Øn¬ ]Wn Xr]vXn-I-c-a-s√-∂p-am-{X-a√ icn-bmb Zni-bn-ep-a-√. ]Wn-bpsS ]ptcm-KXn kw_-‘n® {]Xn-amk dnt∏m¿´v D∂-X-X-e-k-an-Xn°v \¬I-W-sa∂v ap\n-kn-∏¬ Iu¨kn-ep-I-tfmSv Bh-iy-s∏-´n-´p≠v. tdmUp-I-sfbpw {Sm^nIv ]cn-]m-e-\-sØbpw kw_-‘n® Hcp πm≥ Xøm-dm-°¬ D∂-XXe kanXn \n¿t±-in-®n-´p≠v. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-bv°p-≈n¬ P\-߃°v hnizm-k]q¿Δw B{i-bn-°m-hp∂ Hcp s]mXp-K-Xm-KX kwhn-[m-\-Øn\v cq]w \¬Ip-Ibpw hml-\-

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

߃°v CXc Du¿÷w D]-tbm-Kn-°m-\p≈ km[yX Bcm-bp-bp-amWv ]≤Xn e£yw. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-esb Hcp ssPh Irjn-ta-J-e-bmbn cq]m-¥-c-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xn\m-h-iy-amb ]≤-Xn-I-sfbpw \S-]-Sn-{I-a-ß-sfbpw kw_-‘n® Btem-N-\-bn-emWv D∂-X-Xe kanXn. lnam-N¬{]-tZiv k¿°m¿ hnP-b-I-c-ambn \S-∏m-°nb amXr-I-bmWv CXn\v ASnÿm-\-ambn kzoI-cn-°pI. ssPh Irjn-bn¬ πmÃnIv Hgn-hm-°p-∂-Xp-t]m-se-bp≈ {]iv\߃ {]mtZ-inI I¿jI kaq-l-hp-ambn IqSn-bm-tem-Nn®v Xocp-am-\n°pw.

D∂-X-Xe kanXn IqSp-X¬ Imcy-£-a-am-°m-\p≈ \n¿t±-i-߃ A.

alm-_-te-iz¿˛]©-K-Wn- ta-J-e-bv°p≈ {]tXyI \n¿t±-i-߃

1.

kp{]nw-tIm-SXn DØ-c-h-\p-k-cn®v "h\w t]mse-bp≈' {]tZ-i-ß-fmbn k¿sΔ sNbvX {]tZ-i-߃ h\-ambn Xs∂ IW-°m-°Ww. CØcw ÿe-ß-fn¬ Fßs\ hnI-k-\m\p-aXn \¬In-sb∂v kwÿm\ k¿°m-cn-t\mSv At\z-jn-°-W-sa∂v D∂-Xe kanXn ]cn-ÿnXn h\w a{¥m-e-b-tØm-Sm-h-iy-s∏´p. kz¥w ÿesØ h\-߃ kwc-£n-®hsc in£n-°m≥ ]mSn√. hni-Z-amb πm\p-ambn tI{μ ]cn-ÿnXn h\w a{¥m-e-b-Øns\ kao-]n-°p∂ Zo¿L-amb \S-]-Sn-{I-a-߃ Hgn-hm°n Ch¿°v kz¥w `qan-bn-t∑¬ AhImiw A\p-h-Zn®p \¬tI-≠-XmWv. `qD-S-a-I-fpsS sshj-ay-߃ Hgn-hm-°m-\mbn CØcw At]-£-Iƒ ]cn-KWn-°m-\p≈ A[n-Imcw D∂-X-Xe kan-Xn°v \¬IWw.

2.

h\w kw_-‘n® k¿sΔ πm\p-Iƒ Dƒs∏-Sp-ØmsX taJe amÿπm-\p-Iƒ ]q¿Æ-amhn√. taJem amÿπm-\p-Iƒ {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°p-∂-Xnse Ime-Xm-akw Hgn-hm-°m-\mbn k¿sΔ am∏p-Iƒ BZyw sh_vssk-‰n¬ {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°Ww. XpS¿∂v AwKo-I-cn® am∏pIƒ Xl-kn¬Zm¿, h\w-h-Ip∏v, If-IvS¿, hymJym\ tI{μ-߃ F∂o B^o-kp-I-fn¬ e`y-am°mw.

3.

Sqdnkw amÿπm≥ Xøm-dm-°¬ Npa-X-e-s∏´ kwÿm\ Sqdnkw hIp∏v Xøm-dm-°p∂ πm≥ tI{μ-]-cn-ÿnXn h\w-a-{¥m-e-Øn-s‚bpw Sqdnkw a{¥m-e-b-Øn-s‚bpw AwKo-Imcw e`n-®-tijw D]-ta-Je πm\mbn IW-°m°mw. Zo¿L-amb 8 h¿j-߃°p-ti-jhpw Cu πm≥ Xøm-dm-°p∂ tPmen Bcw-`n-®n-´n√. Cu {]iv\w kwÿm\ k¿°m-cns‚ D∂-X-Xe-ß-fpsS {i≤-bn¬ sIm≠p-h-tc-≠-Xp≠v.

4.

^≠ns‚ A]- c ym- ] v X - X - a qew kwc- £ W, t_m[- h ¬°- c W ]cn- ] m- S n- I ƒ°pw {Sm≥kvt]m¿´v˛{Sm^n-Ivπm-\p-Iƒ Xøm-dm-°m≥ I¨kƒ´‚p-Imsc \ntbm-Kn-°m\pw D∂X-Xe kan-Xn°v km[n-°p-∂n√. CXn-\mbn kan-Xn°v {]tXyIw ^≠v A\p-h-Zn-°m≥ ]cn-ÿnXn h\w a{¥m-ebw kwÿm-\-k¿°m-cn\v \n¿t±iw \¬IWw. CXn\p ]pdta XØp-ey-amb klmbw tI{μ-a-{¥m-e-bhpw A\p-h-Zn-°Ww. C°m-cy-Øn-\mbn Bkq{XnX hnI-k\ Iu¨kn¬ _P-‰ns‚ Hcp iX-am\w \o°n-sh-®p-sIm≠v XpS-°-anSmw. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-bpsS kwc-£-W-Øn-\mbn IrjvW-hmen B£≥ πm\n-s‚bpw ln¬-G-cnb hnI-k\ πm\n-s‚bpw ^≠pw D]-tbm-K-s∏-Sp-ØWw.

B.

1.

D∂-X-Xe kan-Xn-Iƒ°p≈ s]mXp-\n¿t±-i߃ LS-\bpw Imem-h-[nbpw : kan-Xn-bpsS Npa-X-e-Iƒ ]q¿Øn-bm-Ip-∂-Xn\v 2 h¿j-Im-em-

h[n Xosc A]-cym-]vX-amWv. Imem-h[n Ipd-™Xv 3 apX¬ 5 h¿jw hscsb¶nepw B°-Ww. ssPhsshhn≤yw, Pntbm-^n-knIvkv, sslt{Um-fPn, kmaq-ly-km-º-ØnI imkv{Xw XpS-ßnb taJ-e-I-fnse hnZ-Kv[-tcbpw Dƒs∏-Sp-Ø-Ø-°-hn[w A\p-tZym-Kÿmw-K-ß-fpsS {]mXn-\n[yw h¿≤n-∏n-°Ww. ae-{º-tZ-i-ß-fpsS hf¿®bv°v DtØ-P\w ]I-cp-∂Xv Sqdn-k-am-I-bm¬ Ct°m-Sq-dn-k-Ønse hnZ-Kv[s\ IqSn Dƒs∏-Sp-ØWw., IrjvW-hmen hnI-k\ tIm¿∏-td-js‚ amt\-Pnßv Ub-d-IvS-sd-IqSn ka-Xn-bn¬ AwK-am°p-∂Xv Gsd DNn-X-am-bn-cn°pw. D∂-X-Xe kan-Xn-bpsS hep∏w \nb-{¥n-°m≥ Nne k¿°m¿ DtZym-K-ÿsc Hgn-hm-°mhp-∂-XmWv. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v ]cn-ÿnXn {]iv\-hp-ambn bmsXmcp _‘-hp-an-√mØ ap\n-kn∏¬ `cW Ub-d-IvS¿. AXp-t]m-se-Xs∂ kan-Xn-tbm-K-Øn\v FØm≥ Ign-bmØ ]cn-ÿnXn ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

hIp∏v sk{I-´dn. kanXn AwK-amb aen-\o-I-c-W-\n-b-{¥-W-t_m¿Un-s\-bmWv sk{I-´dn Xs‚ {]Xn-\n-[n-bmbn \ntbm-Kn-°pI. 2.

in£m \S-]-Sn-°p≈ A[n-Imcw : ]cn-ÿnXn (kwc-£W) \nb-a-Ønse (1986) 5˛mw hIp-∏p-{]-Imcw Ip‰-°m¿s°-Xnsc ^e-{]-Z-amb in£m-\-S-]-Sn-Iƒ kzoI-cn-°m-\p≈ A[nImcw D∂-X-Xe kan-Xn°v \¬IWw. 1995 se 202˛mw \º¿ dn´v s]‰oj-\nse 2001 se I.A. \-º¿ 659, 669 t]Pv 9 ]mc (ii) ¬ tI{μ Fw]-thUv IΩn-‰n-bpsS ip]m¿i-I-fn¬ C{]-Imcw ]d-bp∂p. ""]cn-k-YnXn (kwc-£W) \nb-a-Ønse (1986) 19˛mw hIp-∏-\p-k-cn®v ]cm-Xn-Iƒ ^b¬sNøm-\p≈ A[n-Imcw am{Xta D∂-X-Xe kan-Xn°v \¬In-bn-´p≈p. Xoc-tZi taJe amt\Pvsa‚ v AtXm-dn-´n-Iƒ°pw a‰pw \¬In-bn-´p-≈-Xp-t]mse \nb-a-Ønse 5,10 hIp-∏p-Iƒ{]Im-c-ap≈ A[n-Im-c-߃ IqSn kan-Xn°v \¬IWw. CXv kan-Xn-bpsS {]h¿Ø\w IqSpX¬ kpK-ahpw Imcy-£-a-hp-am°pw.

3.

kmº-ØnIw : D∂-X-Xe kan-Xn°v Bh-iy-amb ^≠v tI{μ-kw-ÿm\ k¿°m-cp-Iƒ \¬Ip-∂n√. CXp-aqew {]tXyI t{]mP-IvSp-Iƒ Gs‰-Sp-°mt\m I¨kƒ´≥kn-Isf \ntbmKn-°mt\m t_m[-h¬°-cWw \S-Ømt\m ]cn-ÿnXn kw_-‘n® Kth-j-W-Ønt\m kan-Xn°v Ign-bp-∂n√. kXy-Øn¬ A\p-tZym-K-ÿmw-K-߃ Ah-cpsS kz¥w ]Whpw CX-c- am¿§-ßfn-eq-sS-bp≈ XpI-bp-am-Wv kanXn {]h¿Ø\Øn-\mbn hn\n-tbm-Kn-°p∂Xv.

4.

GtIm-]\w : F√m D∂-X-Xe kan-Xn-I-fn-sebpw A\p-tZym-K-ÿmw-K-߃°p-th≠n ]cnÿnXn h\w-a-{¥m-ebw XpS¿®-bmbn inev]-im-e-Iƒ \S-Øp-∂Xv GtIm-]\w sa®-s∏Sp-Øm≥ klm-bn°pw. _‘-s∏´ kwÿm-\sØ ]cn-ÿnXn hIp∏v sk{I-´dn, \n¿±njvS ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n, ]cn-ÿnXn h\w-a-{¥m-ebw tZiob A¥¿tZ-iob hnZ-Kv[¿ F∂n-h-sc-sb√mw CXn¬ ]s¶-Sp-∏n-°Ww.

5.

\n¿Δ-lWw : D∂-X-Xe Ah-tem-I-\-k-an-Xn-bp-sSbpw saº¿ sk{I-´-dn-Iq-Sn-bmb IfIvS¿ Hgn-sI-bp≈ k¿°m¿ DtZym-K-ÿ-cmb AwK-ß-fmcpw Xs∂ ÿnc-ambn kan-Xntbm-K-Øn¬ ]s¶-Sp-°m-dn√. D∂-X-Xe kan-Xn-bpsS \n¿t±-i-߃ Xt±i ÿm]-\-߃ Kuc-h-ambn FSp-°m-dn-s√-∂-XmWv Rß-fpsS A\p-`hw. kwÿm\ k¿°m-cp-I-fpsS \ne-]mSpw hyXy-kvX-a√. kanXn Xocp-am-\-߃ thK-Øn¬ \S-∏m-°m≥ \n¿t±iw \¬IWw. kanXn Xocp-am-\-߃ IrXy-ambn \S-∏m-°p-∂pt≠m F∂v ]cn-tim-[n-°m≥ _‘-s∏´ kwÿm\ hIp-∏p-Iƒ XpS¿®-bmbn {]h¿Ø\w hne-bn-cp-ØWw.

C.

\n¿±njvS ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n

D∂-X-Xe kan-Xn-Iƒ t\cn-Sp∂ _p≤n-ap-´p-Iƒ a\- n-em-°m≥ ]›n-a-L´-hn-ZKv[ -k-anXn-bpsS sNb¿am≥ {ian-®n-´p-s≠-∂p-≈Xv Xo¿®-bmbpw {]Io¿Øn-°-s∏-tS-≠-XmWv. Cu ka-nXn-bpsS Imem-h[n {lkz-am-b-Xn-\m¬ AXns‚ F√m-N¿®-I-fnepw D∂-X-Xe kanXnIƒ°v ]s¶-Sp-°m≥ Ign-bp-am-bn-cp-∂n√. \n¿±njvS ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n \ne-hn¬ hcp-tºmƒ _‘-s∏´ D∂-XXe kan-Xn-Iƒ°v AtXm-dn-´n-bp-ambn XpS¿®-bmbn Bi-b-hn-\n-abw \S-Øm≥ kwhn-[m-\sam-cp-°p-∂Xv {]tbm-P-\-I-c-am-bn-cn°pw. am{X-hp-a√ D∂-X-Xe kan-Xn°v ]cn-ÿnXn h\w a{¥m-e-b-tØm-Sp≈ DØ-c-hm-Zn-Xzhpw Ah-bpsS {]h¿Ø-\hpw AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS s]mXp-\nb-{¥-W-Øn-em-bn-cn-°Ww. AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS {]h¿Ø\ taJe hfsc hn]p-e-am-b-Xn-\m¬ kq£va-X-e-Øn¬ hnI-k-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-ßsf Ah-tem-I\w sNøm≥ AtXm-dn-´n-°m-hn√. BIbm¬ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-Iƒ°mbn D∂-Xe Ah-tem-I\ kan-Xn-Iƒ t]mse-bp≈ `c-W-bq-Wn-‰p-Iƒ cq]o-I-cn-°Ww. AtXm-dn-´n-bn¬ k¿°m¿ CXc k∂≤ kwL-S-\-Iƒ, hnt\m-Z-k-©mc taJ-e-bn-sebpw kmaq-ly-km-º-ØnI taJ-e-bn-sebpw hnZ-Kv[¿ F∂n-hsc IqSn kmt¶-XnI hnZ-Kv[¿°p ]pdta Dƒs∏-Sp-tØ-≠-Xp≠v.

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t_mIvkv 9 : alm- _ - t e- i z¿ ]©- K \n taJ- e - b nse ]uc- P - \ - ß - f psS {]Xn-Ic - Ww am[hv KmUvKn¬ Xøm-dm-°nbXpw {]mtZ-inI I¿jI-\mb kptc-jv ]nw-Ksf t{ImUo-I-cn-®Xpw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJ-e-Isf kw_-‘n® ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ cq]-I-ev]\ sNøp-∂Xpw \S∏m-°p-∂Xpw hfsc tI{μo-Ir-X-amb coXn-bn-emWv. ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-c-amb e£y-߃ Fßs\ sa®-s∏´ \ne-bn¬ ssIh-cn-°m-sa-∂-Xnepw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJem AtXm-dn-‰n-I-fpsS ssZ\w-Zn\ {]h¿Ø-\-Ønepw Xt±-i-hm-kn-Iƒ°v bmsXmcp ]¶p-an√. e£y-an´ A\-[n-IrX \n¿Ωm-W-ß-fn¬ an°Xpw XmXv°m-enI sjUp-Itfm, sXmgpØpItfm Bbn-cp∂p. ssIIq-en-sIm-Sp-°m≥ hnk-Ω-Xn-®-hsc _en-bm-Sp-I-fm°n. AtX-k-abw {Sm≥kvt]m¿´v Ãm‚n-\-SpØv A\p-a-Xn-bn-√msX \n¿Ωn-®p-sIm-≠n-cp∂ Hcp tlm´-ense \S-]Sn-I-fn¬ \n∂v Hgn-hm°n ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-bpsS cq]-tcJ Xøm-dm-°n-bXpw \n¿t±-i߃ ka¿∏n-®Xpw apwss_ Bÿm-\-am-bp≈ Ipd-®p-t]-cmWv. {]tZ-i-hm-kn-Iƒt°m {]tXyIn®v I¿j-I¿°pw BZn-hm-kn-Iƒ°pw CXn¬ bmsXmcp ]¶pw D≠m-bn-cp-∂n√. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJ-e-bpsS Dt±-i-sa-∂-Xns\ ]‰n-t]mepw Xt±-i-`-cW ÿm]-\-ß-fnse sXc-s™Sp-°-s∏´ AwK-߃ Dƒ∏-sS-bp≈ {]tZ-i-hm-kn-Iƒ°v bmsXmcp [mc-W-bp-an-√m-bn-cp∂p. Kmhvenkv, tImfnkv, [hmZv ap…n-߃ XpSßn hnZqc Dƒ{]tZ-isØ IpSn-ep-I-fn¬ Xma-kn°p∂ Xt±-io-bsc Ahn-sS-\n∂v Hgn-∏n-°m≥ t]mhp-I-bm-sW∂ Inwh-Z¥n ]cØn DtZym-Kÿ¿ B ]mh-ßsf NqjWw sNbvXp. Im´p-\n-hm-kn-Isf h\-Øn¬ \n∂-I-‰p-∂Xv {]Xn-Iqe ^e-ap-f-hm°pw. AtX-k-abw I≈-∏-W-°mcpw I≈-°-S-Øp-Im-cp-sa√mw h≥In-S-tlm-´-ep-Ifpw a‰pw \n¿Ωn-®p-sIm-t≠-bn-cp∂p. t_mws_ t]mbn‚p-t]mse Sqdn-kv‰p-Iƒ°v at\m-l-c-Zr-iy߃ ImWm-\p≈ kwhn-[m-\-Øns‚ A‰-Ip-‰-]-Wn-Iƒ t]mepw h\w-h-Ip∏v DtZym-K-ÿ¿ {i≤n-®n√. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-Je F¥v t\´-amWv e£y-an-Sp-∂-sXt∂m AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS {]h¿Ø\w F¥m-sWt∂m P\-߃°v Adn-hp-≠m-bn-cp-∂n√. Nne cmjv{Sob t\Xm-°ƒ°pw Ign™ Hcp h¿j-ambn AhnsS h∂p-Xm-a-kn-°p∂ GXm\pw hnZym-k-º-∂¿°pw A√msX s]mXp-P-\-߃°v ]cn-ÿn-Xn-Zp¿_e taJ-esb ]‰n H∂pw Adn-bp-am-bn-cp-∂n√. Ah¿°v BsI Adn-bm-am-bn-cp-∂Xv t`m∏m-en-sebpw apwss_-bnsebpw Nne B^o-kp-I-fmWv Chn-SsØ Imcy-߃ \nb-{¥n-°p-∂-sX-∂p-am-{X-amWv. {]tZ-ihm-kn-I-fn¬ \n∂v Ign-bp-∂Xpw AI∂p \n°p∂ coXn-bmWv h\w-h-Ip∏v DtZym-K-ÿ¿ kzoIcn-°p-∂Xv. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-Je ]≤-Xn-bn-eqsS {]tZ-i-hm-kn-Iƒ°v Xm¬]-cy-ap≈ F¥v ]≤-Xn-I-fmWv D≠m-Im≥ t]mIp-∂-sX-∂Xp kw_-‘n®v cmjv{Sob t\Xm-°ƒ°p-t]mepw [mcW D≠m-bn-cp-∂n√. Acp-hn-I-fpsS kwc-£Ww AYhm ]p\:ÿm]\w, ssPh Irjn t{]m’m-l\w. aÆnse Im¿_-Wns‚ Afhv Ipd-bv°¬ Im¿jnI cmk-h-kvXp-°-fpsS D]-tbmKw Ipd-bv°¬, DuSp-hgn-Iƒ°v t{]m’m-l\w XpS-ßnb hnim-e-Xm-Xv]-cy-߃ ]q¿Æ-ambpw Ah-K-Wn®p. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJe Npa-Xe, \n¿ΩmW {]h¿Ø-\-ßfpw acw-sh´pw \nb-{¥n°m≥ am{X-ambn Npcpßn. Hcp \gvkdn DS-a-Iq-Sn-bmb kptcjv ]nwKsf kztZ-in-I-fmb kky C\-߃ {]N-cn-∏n-°m≥ {iaw \SØn. F∂m¬ Cu Bi-b-tØmSv DtZym-K-ÿ¿ kl-I-cn®n√. D∂-X-Xe Ah-tem-I\ kan-Xn-bp-sSbpw DtZym-K-ÿ-cp-sSbpw Npa-X-e-Isf ]‰n P\ßsf Adn-bn-®n√. CXv henb Agn-a-Xn°v Ah-k-c-sam-cp°n. cmjv{Sob t\Xm-°ƒ°p-t]mepw Ch-cpsS Npa-X-e-Iƒ Ahy-‡-am-bn-cp∂p. ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-W-Øn¬ Xev∏-c-cmb {]mtZinI t\Xr-Xz-sØ-t]mepw H´pw t{]m’m-ln-∏n-®n√. _‘-s∏-´-h¿ Ch-sc-sb√mw i{Xp-°-sft]m-se-bmWv I≠n-cp-∂Xv.

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36


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Ahn-sS- `qanbp≈ ]pd-ta-\n-∂p≈ kº-∂-cpsS Xmev∏-cy-ßfpw hmWn-Py-Xm-ev]-cy-ßfpw kwc-£n-°m-\m-bn-cp∂p. dh\yq˛h\w DtZym-K-ÿ¿°v Xmev]cyw. ssPhsshhn-≤y-\n-baw, kky- C-\-kw-c-£-Whpw I¿jI Ah-Im-i-ßfpw kw_-‘n® \nbaw kmaq-ly-h-\-hn-`-h-߃, h\- A-h-Im-i-\n-baw XpS-ßn ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£W {]h¿Ø\-ß-fn¬ Xt±-i-hm-kn-Iƒ°v kPo-h-]-¶m-fnØw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp∂ \nb-a-߃ \S-∏m-°mt\m AXp kw_-‘n®v P\-߃°v Adnhv ]I-cmt\m {ia-ap-≠m-bn√. Cu \nb-a-ß-fnse hyh-ÿ-Iƒ \S-∏m-°m≥ {]mtZ-inI t\XrXzw Xøm-dm-bn-cp-∂p-sh¶nepw Ahsc kl-I-cn-∏n-®n√. \n¿Ωm-W-{]-h¿Ø-\-ß-sfbpw hmWn-Py- Sq-dnkw tem_n-tbbpw klm-bn-°p∂ kao-]\-amWv DtZym-K-ÿcpw cmjv{So-b-t\-Xr-Xzhpw XpS¿®-bmbn kzoI-cn-®p-t]m-∂Xv. ISpØ Agn-aX - n-bn-eqsS Irjn-`qan Im¿jn-tI-Xc Bh-iy-߃°mbn am‰p-∂- {]-h¿Ø\w C∂pw AhnsS \n¿_m[w \S-°p∂p. AtX kabw hoSp-If - psS sNdnb A‰-Ip-‰] - W - n°pw \ma-am{X \n¿Ωm-Wß - ƒ°pw InW¿ Ipgn-°m\pw a‰pw henb ssIIq-en-bmWv km[m-c-W-°m-cn¬ \n∂v CuSm-°p-∂Xv. kptcjv ]nwKsf kz¥w \gvkd - n-bnse sNSn-Isf kwc-£n-°m-\m-bn apf-sIm≠v \n¿Ωn® sjUv A\-[n-Ir-X-\n¿Ωm-W-am-sW∂v Ah¿ ap{Z-IpØn. ]s£ s]mfn-°m≥ t\m´okv e`n°pw ap≥]v ]nwKsf AXv s]mfn-®p-am‰n. CsXms° AhnsS ]Xnhv kw`-h-ß-fmWv. Hcp Ipg¬ InW¿ Ipgn-°m≥ A\p-aXn e`n-°m≥ 20,000 cq]-bm-Ws{X ssIIqen. Xpd- mb InW-dm-sW¶n¬ XpI CXnepw IqSpw. ae-ap-I-fnse `qan \n-c-∏m-°m≥ A\p-aXn \¬Ip-∂Xv ssIIq-enbpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-emWv. hoSns‚ hcm¥ Aev]w \o´-W-sa-¶n¬ \n¿≤-\-I¿j-I≥ 1000˛1500 cq] ssIIqen \¬IWw. h\-Øm¬ Np‰-s∏´ ]gb {Kma-ß-fn-te°v ]≠p-ap-X¬ D≠m-bn-cp∂ tdmUp-Iƒ sI´n-bS®pw P\-ßsf ]oTn-∏n-°p∂p. ap≥]v Pot∏m Imf-h-≠n-Itfm t]mbn-cp∂ tdmUp-Iƒ h\w-h-Ip∏v {S©p-Ifpw a‰pw Ipgn®v D]-tbm-K-iq-\y-am-°n-bn-cn-°p∂p. CXv \∂m-°m≥ A\p-h-Zn-°-W-sa-¶n¬ AXn\pw ssIIqen sImSp-°Ww. A\p-aXn C√mØ {Kma-ß-fn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ {Kmao-W¿ ISpØ ]oV-\-Øn-\n-c-bm-Ip∂p. Ign™ 40 h¿j-ß-fn¬ P\-kwJy KWy-ambn h¿≤n-®n-s√-¶nepw Cu {Kma-˛Du-cp-IfpsS hnkvXo¿Æw IqSn-bn-´n√. P\-kw-Jym-h¿≤-\-hn-\-\p-k-cn®v ]pXnb \n¿Ωm-W-߃ Bh-iy-am-sW-¶nepw AXn\v A\p-aXn \¬Ip-∂n√. em‚ vdh\yq tImUnse hyh-ÿ-{]-Imcw Ipd-™Xv Htc-°¿ Irjn-`q-an-bp≈ I¿j-I\v Hcp ^mw lukv \n¿Ωn-°m≥ A\p-aXn \¬Ipw. F∂m¬ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-bn¬ c≠v G°-dn¬ Ipdhv `qan-bp-≈-h¿°v ^mw lukn\v A\p-aXn e`n-°n√. Chn-SsØ I¿j-I-cn¬ 80%Øn\pw c≠v G°-dn¬ Xmsg -am-{Xta `qan-bp≈q. Ch¿°v ^mwlu-kn\v A\p-aXn e`n-°m-Ø-Xp-aqew Dƒ{Km-a-ß-fnse IpSn-ep-I-fn¬ sRßn-sR-cpßn Ign-bm≥ Ch¿ \n¿_-‘n-X-cm-bn-cn-°p∂p. \nb-a-hn-cp-≤-amb \n¿ΩmWw, acw-sh´v, Ccpºv jod-dp-sIm≠v tIm´-t]m-se-bp≈ then \n¿ΩmWw XpS-ßnb \nb-a-ew-L-\-߃ hfsc hym]-I-amWv. cw` tlm´¬kv ss{]h‰v enan-‰Uv sh´n-am-‰n-bXv 3000 hr£-ß-fmWv. ss{_‰v em‚ v tlm´¬ hn]p-eo-I-cn-°m\pw CXp-t]mse [mcmfw ac-߃ apdn-®p-am‰n. t_mkv hnt√-Pn¬ \nbaw ewLn®v \n¿Ωm-W-߃ \S-°p-∂p≠v. alm-_-te-iz-dnse 4 henb tπm´p-I-fn¬ Ccpºp-jo-‰p-sIm-≠p≈ then-a-d-bv°p-≈n¬ A\-[n-IrX \n¿Ωm-Xmhpw acw-sh´pw \S-°p∂p. a‰v \n¿t±-i-߃ {]h¿Ø-\ß - f - n¬ {]mtZ-inI P\-Xsb ]¶m-fn-If - m-°p-Ibpw t_m[-h¬°-cWw t{]m’m............................................................................................................................................................................................................

37


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

ln-∏n-°p-Ibpw thWw. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJe ]cn-]m-Sn-If P\-߃°v A\p-Iq-e-amb Ah-k-c-߃ {]Zm\w sNøWw. h\w, dh-\yq-h-Ip∏v DtZym-K-ÿ-cpsS ISpw-]n-SpØw B {]tZi-Øns‚ kmaqly˛]cn-ÿnXn Xpe-\m-hÿ XInSw adn-°p∂p. Cu \ne-]m-Sp-Iƒ AhnsS Pohn-°p∂ {Kmao-Wcpw I¿j-Icpw BZn-hm-kn-I-fp-sa√mw ]≤Xn {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn¬ \n∂v AI-∂p-t]m-Ip∂p. P\-߃ {]tXy-In®v hnZym-k-º-∂-cmb bph-P-\-ßfpw Nn¥m-io-e-ap≈ t\Xr-Xzhpw ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-kw-c-£Ww A\p-t]-j-Wo-b-am-sW∂v Xncn-®-dn-™n-´p≠v. kwL¿j-Øns‚ ]mX-hn´v k¿°m¿ DtZym-K-ÿ¿ P\-]-¶m-fn-ØsØ t{]m’m-l-∏n-°p-∂psh∂ Hcp kao-]\w kzoI-cn-®m¬ Btcm-Ky-I-c-amb ]cn-ÿn-Xn-e-£y-߃ t\Sm≥ AXv Gsd klm-b-I-amIpw. Cu e£y-߃ a\- n¬ kq£n-®p-sIm≠p Xs∂ IqSp-X¬ sXmgn-e-h-k-c-߃ krjvSn°m\pw {ian-°Ww. C°m-cy-Øn¬ Irjn°v hen-sbmcp ]¶v hln-°m≥ Ignbpw. ssPh-Irjnsb {]tXy-In®v ^e-h¿§-Ir-jnsb t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°Ww. Bh-iy-amb kmt¶-XnI klmbw hn]-W\ kuIcyw F∂nh e`y-am-°Ww. Im¿jnI D¬∏-∂-߃ kwkvI-cn®v tISp-Iq-SmsX BI¿j-I-am°n ]mbv°p-sNbvXv hn]-W\w \S-Øn-bm¬ I¿j-I-cpsS hcp-am\w KWy-ambn h¿≤n-∏n-°m≥ Ignbpw. Im¿jnI {]h¿Ø-\-߃, Ct°m˛sl¬Øv Sqdnkw h\-Ønse {S°nwßv F∂nh sXmgn-e-h-kcw KWy-ambn h¿≤n-∏n-°p∂p. hnZym-`ymkw, {]mtZ-inI BZn-hm-kn-I-fpsS Ic-Iu-ie hkvXp-°-fpsS \n¿ΩmWw t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°¬ F∂n-h-bn-eq-sS \n¿[-\-cpsS PohnXw sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ km[n°pw. CXn\mbn Hcp C≥Ãn-‰yq´v ÿm]n-°Ww. ]q\-bv°-Sp-Øp≈ tJm¿]mSn {Kma-Øn¬ \n∂p≈ 200Hmfw saPnjy-∑m¿ alm-_-te-iz-dnepw ]©-K-Wn-bnepw Spdn-Ãp-Iƒ°p ap∂n¬ amPnIv ImWn®v \√-h-cp-am\w D≠m-°p-∂p≠v. CXp-t]mse ]m´pw kwKo-Xhpw Iem-]-cn-]m-Sn-Ifpw Ah-X-cn-∏n-°m≥ {]tZ-isØ bph-P-\-ßsf ]cn-io-en-∏n-°m-hp-∂-XmWv. h\-Ønse IpSn-ep-I-fn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂-h-cpsS sNdnb {Kma-k-`sb h\m-h-Im-i-\n-b-aØnse hyh-ÿ-Iƒ kw_-‘n®v t_m[-h¬°-cn-°Ww.

12. kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS Icp-X¬ IhNw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-bp-ambn _‘-s∏´ as‰mcp {]h¿Ø-\-k-c-Wn°v hgn-Xp-d-∂Xv C¥y≥ t_m¿Uv t^m¿ ssh¬Uv sse^v 2002¬ AwKo-I-cn® Hcp {]ta-b-amWv. h\y-ar-K-k-t¶X-߃, tZio-b-]m¿°p-Iƒ XpS-ßnb kwc-£n-X-{]-tZ-i-ß-fpsS AXn¿Øn-bn¬ \n∂v 10 In.ao. Np‰-f-hn-ep≈ {]tZiw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-bmbn {]Jym-]n-°-W-sa-∂m-bn-cp∂p {]ta-bØnse hnjbw. CXp-kw-_-‘n-®vtI{μ ]cn-ÿnXn h\w a{¥m-ebw kwÿm-\-k¿°m-cp-IfpsS \n¿t±iw £Wn®p . ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJ-e-Iƒ th¿Xn-cn-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ am\-Zfiw \n›-bn-®p-sIm-≠p≈ {]Wm_v sk≥ IΩn‰n (2000) dnt∏m¿´v At∏m-tg°v e`n-®n-cp∂p. ÿnXn hnhc ASn-ÿm-\-tcJ tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw imkv{Xo-b-amb am∏nßv \S-Øp-Ibpw hn]p-e-amb Ah-tem-I\ - ˛Nn¥m ] - c - n-]m-Snbpw s\‰v h¿°pw cq]-Ie - v]\ sNøp-Ibpw CXn¬ k¿°m¿ GP≥knIƒ°pw ]pdta a‰v ÿm]-\-߃, k¿h-I-em-im-e-Iƒ k∂-≤-kw-L-S-\-Iƒ B {]tZ-i-Øp≈ hy‡n-Iƒ F∂n-h-sc-°qSn `mK-`m-°m-°-W-sa∂pw dnt∏m¿´n¬ \n¿t±-in-®n-cp∂p. F∂m¬ CØc-samcp hn⁄m\ ASn-Ød krjvSn-°-s∏-´n√. F∂m¬ Cu hgn°v kzmK-Xm¿l-amb Hcp {iaw kzbw \S-Øn-bXv ]qsW-bnse `mcXn hnZym-]o-Tv C≥Ãn-‰yq´v Hm^v F≥h-tdm¨sa‚¬ dnk¿®v B‚ v FUyp-t°-j-\nse Fw.Fkv. kn. hnZym¿∞n-bmb Biniv Iq¿s∂ BWv. ]›n-a-L-´Øn-teXv Dƒs∏sS alm-cm-jv{S-bnse 16 kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-߃ Ct±lw kμ¿in-°p-Ibpw C°m-cy-Øn¬ ]cn-l-cn-°-s∏-tS≠ {]iv\-߃ Dƒs°m-≈n®v Hcp {]_‘w Xøm-dm-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. 2004 emWv Cu {]_‘w ka¿∏n-®Xv. At±-l-Øns‚ ssKUm-bn-cp∂p tUm. Cdm®v _dq®. Kth-j-W-^-e-߃ Dƒs∏-SpØn {]kn-±o-I-cn® hni-Z-amb tcJ amlm-cmjv{S h\w hIp∏n\v ka¿∏n®p. (Bharucha et el. 2011) 2005 se Hcp tImSXn DØ-c-hns\ XpS¿∂v Cu {]kn-≤o-I-c-W-hp-ambn IqSn-bm-tem-Nn®v ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

38


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

bp‡-amb \n¿t±-i-ßfpw ka¿∏n-°m≥ h\w-h-Ip∏v DtZym-K-ÿ¿°v {]n≥kn-j¬ No^v I¨k¿th-‰¿ IØ-b®p. XpS¿∂v a\- n√m a\-t msS cm[m-\-Kcn h\y-ar-K-k-t¶Xw, Ntμmfn tZio-b-]m¿°v, sImbv\ h\y-ar-K-k-t¶Xw F∂n-h-bpsS Imcy-Øn¬ Nne \S-]-Sn-Iƒ kzoIcn®p. tImSXn DØ-chv (2005) h∂v 6 h¿jw Ign-™n´pw Ct∏mgpw CXv A]q¿W-ambn XpScp∂p. ]›n-a-L´ kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ Cu hgn°v \S∂ {]h¿Ø-\-ßsf ]‰n-bp≈ hnhcw tiJ-cn-°m≥ kanXn (WGEEP) \S-Ønb {ia-Øn¬ alm-cmjv{S kwÿm-\Øp am{Xta Fs¥¶n-ep-sams° \S-∂n-´p≈q F∂v hy‡-ambn. "sIm¬lm∏q¿' k¿°n-fnse kwc-£nX {]tZ-ißsf kw_-‘n® Ipd®v hnh-c-߃ kan-Xn°v e`n®p. Ahn-SsØ Npa-X-e-°m-cmb t^mdÃv I¨k¿th-‰¿am¿ Fw. sI. dmhp, kmbv {]Imiv F∂n-h¿ Imcy-߃ hni-ZoI-cn®p X∂p. Ip¿s∂ {]_-‘-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øntem inhPn k¿Δ-I-em-im-e-bnse ^m°¬‰nbpw Kth-j-W-hn-Zym¿∞n-Ifpw \S-Ønb ]T-\-ß-fpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øntem bmsXmcp \S-]-Snbpw kzoI-cn-®n-´n-s√∂v Ch¿ hy‡-am°n. alm-cm-jv{S-h\w hIp∏v imkv{Xo-b-amb ÿnXn-hn-h-c-°W-°p-Iƒ tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´n-s√∂pw Ch¿ Adn-bn®p. kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-Øp-\n∂v 10 In.ao. Np‰-f-hn-ep≈ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse Ingp-°mw-Xq-°mb ]md-s°-´p-Ifpw kwc-£n-X-h-\-{]-tZ-i-ßfpw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ambn IW-°m-°-cp-sX∂v c≠v h\w-h-Ip∏v DtZym-K-ÿ¿ D]-tZ-in-®-Xmbn Cu ao‰n-ßns‚ an\n-´vkn¬ ImWp∂p. CXv kzoIm-cy-a√, ImcWw {]W_v sk≥ IΩn-‰n-bpsS am\-Z-fi-{]-Imcw Ingp-°mw-Xq-°mb ae-Ifpw \Zn-I-fpsS {]`-h-tI-{μ-ßfpw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-eamWv. kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-߃°v Np‰p-ap≈ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i-ß-fpsS am∏nßv CXphsc \S-Øm≥ Ign-™n-´n-s√∂v 2011 BK-Ãn¬ h\w hIp∏v kan-Xnsb Adn-bn®p. Cu kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-߃°v Np‰pw Hcp amt\-Pvsa‚ v kwhn-[-m\w cq]-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xn\v h\w hIp∏v \S-Ønb {iahpw Xr]vXn-I-c-am-bn-cp-∂n√. Cu {]iv\-ß-fn-t∑¬ s]mXp-P-\-ß-fpsS A`n-{]mbw £Wn®p sIm≠p≈ Hcp hn⁄m-]\w 2010 BKkv‰v ˛ sk]vXw-_-dn¬ {]kn-≤o-Icn®p. 10 In.ao. taJ-e°v samØ-Øn-ep≈ amt\-Pvsa‚ v kwhn-[m\w Cu hn⁄m-]-\-Øn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-bn-cp∂p. sIm¬l-]q-cnse kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-Øn\v Np‰p-ap≈ Icp-X¬ taJ-e-bv°m-bp≈ \n¿±njvS-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v N´-߃ t_mIvkv 10¬ sImSp-Øn-´p≠v.

t_mIvkv 10 : kwc-£n-X-h-\-Øn-t\mSv _‘-s∏´ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZi-Øn-\p-th≠n sIm¬lm-]q¿ ssh¬Uv sse^v Unhn-js‚ \n¿±n-jvS-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v N´-߃ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v taJ-e°v 10 In.ao.\p≈n¬ Hcp Intemao‰dn\p-≈nse {]tZiw Icp-X¬ taJ-e-bmbn {]Jym-]n-°Ww. Cu taJ-e-bn¬ bmsXmcp \n¿ΩmW {]h¿Ø- \ - ß fpw ]mSn√. Icp- X ¬ taJe kzX- { ¥hpw lcn- X m- ` - \ n- d - ™ - X p- a mbn \ne-\n¿ØWw. Cu taJ-e-bn¬ bmsXmcp hn[ i_vZ-a-en-\o-I-c-Whpw ]mSn√. ChnsS Ir{Xna shfn® D]m-[n-Iƒ ]mSn-√. ChnsS Hcp hyh-kmb ÿm]-\hpw D≠m-I-cpXv. ChnsS ]md-Izm-dn-Itfm J\-\tam ]mSn√. CXn-\m-bp≈ ]pXnb \n¿t±-i-߃ kzoI-cn°p-Ibp-ac - pXv. kzImcy dh-\yq-`q-an-bnepw Pn√m If-IvS-dpsS A\p-a-Xn-bn-√msX ChnsS acw-sh´pw ]mSn√. {]IrXn ss]XrIw I¿i-\-ambn ImØp-kq-£n-°Ww. Cu {]tZ-isØ sh≈-®m-´-߃, Kpl-Iƒ F∂n-hbv°v am‰w hcp-Øm≥ ]mSn√. hwi-\miw t\cn-Sp∂ kky-C-\-ßsf c£n-°m≥ {]tXyIw {iaw thWw. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

39


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

tIm´-Iƒ t]mse-bp≈ am\h ss]Xr-I-߃ kwc-£n-°-s∏-SWw. hymh-km-bnI ÿm]-\-߃°pw hmk-Kr-l-߃°pw th≠n {]Ir-Xn-ZØ Pe-t{km-X p-Isf Aan-X-ambn NqjWw sNøp-∂Xv \ntcm-[n-°Ww. \nb-{¥n-°m\pw {i≤n-°Ww. πmÃn-Ins‚ D]-tbmKw \ntcm-[n-°Ww. ae-s©-cp-hp-I-fnse \n¿Ωm-W-߃ \ntcm-[n-°Ww. aen-\-P-ehpw a‰pw imkv{Xo-b-ambn ssIImcyw sNøWw. Jc-am-en-\y-߃ IØn-°p-∂-Xp-hgn D≠m-Ip∂ aen-\o-I-cWw \ntcm-[n-°Ww. hml-\-߃ ]pd-Øp-hn-Sp∂ ]pI-bn¬ \n∂p≈ aen-\o-I-cWw \nb-{¥n-°Ww.

Cu amt\-Pvsa‚ns‚ N´-ß-fn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn kulr-Z-]-chpw kzmK-Xm¿l-hp-amb ]e \n¿t±i-ßfpw Dƒs∏-´n-´p-s≠-¶nepw CXp kw_-‘n®v DtZym-K-ÿ¿ {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-hp-ambn Imcyamb N¿®-I-sfm∂pw \S-Øn-bn-´n√. X∑qew CXp-kw-_-‘n® [mcmfw Bi-b-°p-g-∏hpw Ahy‡-Xbpw \ne-\n¬°p∂p. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v ' ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-bn¬ bmsXmcp Ir{Xna shfn® D]m-[n-Ifpw ]mSn√ F∂ \n¿t±iw 10 In.ao. taJ-e-bnse hoSp-I-fn¬t]mepw sshZypXn hnft°m Xncn-bn-´-hn-f-°p-Itfm asÆ-Æ-hn-f-°p-Itfm ]mSn√ F∂ hymJym-\-Øn-\n-S-bm-°p∂p. Cu taJ-e-bn¬ \nc-h[n {Kma-ßfpw a‰v ÿm]-\-ß-fp-ap≠v. CØcw \nb-{¥-W-ßsf P\ -߃ ImWp-∂Xv DtZym-K-ÿ¿°v Ahsc ]oUn-∏n-°m\pw ssIIqen CuSm-°m\pw D≈ D]m-[nbm-bn-´mWv. taev]-d™ \nb-{¥-W-߃ ]mh-ßsf ]oUn-∏n-°m\pw NqjWw sNøm\pw Imc-W-am-Ipsa∂pw kº-∂cpw kzm[o-\-ap-≈-hcpw CsXms° adn-I-S-°p-sa∂pw ImWn®v \nc-h[n ]cm-XnIƒ kan-Xn°v (WGEEP) e`n-®n-cp∂p. X¬^-e-ambn sIm¬lm-]q¿ Pn√-bnse kwc-£n-X-{]-tZ-i߃°p Np‰p-ap≈ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-Je F∂ Bibw \ncm-I-cn-®p-sIm≠v 2010 HIvtSm_¿ 6 \v sIm¬lm-]q¿ Pn√m ]cn-jXv {]tabw ]mkm°n. 2010 HIvtSm-_¿ 11,12 Xnø-Xn-I-fn¬ kanXn sIm¬lm-]qcpw kao-]-{]-tZ-i-ßfpw kμ¿in-®-t∏mƒ X߃ {]Ir-Xn-kw-c-£-W-Øn\v A\p-Iq-e-am-sW∂pw CXn-s\-Xn-cmbn {]h¿Øn-°p-Ibpw Xßsf ]oUn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂Xv h\w hIp-∏m-sW∂pw ImWn®v \nc-h[n ]cm-Xn-Iƒ Fgp-Xnbpw hm°mepw R߃°v e`n®p. "hmbv' Xmeq°v ]©m-b-Ønse Hcp {]ap-JmwKw Fgp-Xn-X∂ ]cm-Xn-bn¬ ]d-bp-∂Xv Cw•ojv CuÃv C¥ym Iº-\n-bp-tS-Xn-t\-°mƒ `oI-c-am-Wv h\w hIp-∏ns‚ `cWw F∂mWv. CØcw ]cm-Xn-Iƒ D∂-bn-®p-sIm≠v kn‘p-Zp¿K-bnse hnhn-[-cm-jv{Sob ]m¿´n-t\-Xm°fpw 2010 HIvtSm-_¿ 6 apX¬ 10 hsc Xnb-Xn-I-fn¬ R߃°v \nth-Z-\-߃ \¬In-bn-cp∂p. CtX kn‘p-Zp¿K Pn√-bnse 25 hnt√Pv {Kma-k-`-Iƒ Xß-fpsS {]tZiw "]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e{]-tZi'ambn {]Jym-]n-°-W-sa-∂m-h-iy-s∏´v {]tabw ]mkm-°n-bn-cp∂p F∂Xv {]tXyIw {i≤nt°-≠-XmWv. HIvtSm-_¿ 9 \v ]e {Kma-ßfpw kμ¿in-°m\pw "]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i'sa∂ Bi-b-Øns‚ hni-Zmw-i-߃ Xt±-io-b-cp-ambn N¿®-sN-øm\pw kan-Xn°v A-h-k-c-ap≠mbn. Ah-cpsS {Kma-Øn¬ CXp kw_-‘n®v I¿°-i-amb bmsXmcp \nb-{¥-W-hp-ap-≠m-Ins√∂v Ah¿°v hy‡-am-°n-sIm-SpØp. ]Icw Ah¿ A\p-tbm-Py-sa∂v Icp-Xp∂ ]cn-ÿnXn ˛ P\-ku-lr-Z-]-c-amb Hcp amt\-Pvsa‚ v kwhn-[m\w \n¿t±-in-°-W-sa∂pw Ah-tcmSv Bh-iys∏´p. AX-\p-k-cn®v ]e {Kma-ßfpw Ah-cpsS \n¿t±-i-߃ kan-Xn°v ka¿∏n®p.

12.1 `oam-i-¶¿ h\y-k-t¶Xw alm-_-te-iz¿˛]©-KWn ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJ-e-bnse kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-߃°v Np‰n-ep-ap≈ 10 In. ao. {]tZ-iw, ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ambn {]Jym-]n-®-Xv IrjvW \Zn-bpsSbpw AXns‚ {][m\ t]mj-I-\-Zn-bmb sImbv\-bp-sSbpw {]`-h-ÿm-\-Øn-\-Sp-Øp≈ ]›na L´-Ønse \nXy-l-cn-X-h-\sØ kwc-£n-°m≥ klm-b-I-ambn. CXn\v hS-t°m-´p≈ \nXy-lcnX h\-{]-tZ-i-amWv `oam-i-¶¿ h\y-k-t¶Xw. IrjvW-\-Zn-bpsS as‰mcp {][m\ ssIh-gn-bmb ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

40


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

`oam-\Zn D¤-hn-°p∂ ae-ap-I-fnse Hcp {]mNo\ ]pWy-h-\-am-WnXv. Cu kwc-£nX {]tZ-iØn\v Np‰pw Hcp ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJe ÿm]n-°m≥ 2002 \ptijw Hcp \S-]-Snbpw kzoIcn-®n-´n√. F∂m¬ alm-cm-jv{S-bnse h\y-Pohn hn`mKw {]n≥kn-∏¬ No^v t^mdÃv I¨k¿th‰¿ 19.8.2004 \v \mKv]q¿, \mknIv, apwss_, Aa-cm-hXn No^v I¨k¿th-‰¿am¿°-b® IØn¬ C{]-Imcw ]d-bp∂p. "C¥y≥ t_m¿Uv t^m¿ ssh¬Uv sse^ns‚ 2 {]ta-b-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm\-Øn¬ F√m kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-߃°pw Np‰p-ap≈ 10 In.ao. ÿew' ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJe-bm-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ \n¿t±iw tI{μ-k¿°m¿ Bh-iy-s∏-´n-´p≠v. CXp kw_-‘n® \S-]-Sn-Iƒ 2004 HmsS ]q¿Øn-bm-°Ww. F∂m¬ CXn-\Iw C°m-cy-Øn¬ Hcp \S-]-Snbpw FSp-Ø-Xmbn ImWp-∂n√. F∂m¬ \mK-]q¿ sslt°m-SXn \n¿t±-i-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ F√m kwc£n-X-{]-tZ-i-ß-fpsS Np‰pw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-bmbn {]Jym-]n-t°-≠-Xns‚ Bh-iy-IX \n›-bn-°m-\mbn h\w hIp∏v DtZym-K-ÿ¿, k∂-≤-kw-L-S-\-Iƒ, ssh¬Uv sse^v hm¿U-∑m¿ F∂n-h¿ Dƒs∏´ kanXn cq]o-I-cn-°m≥ F√m ssh¬Uv sse^v hm¿U-∑m-tcmSpw Bh-iys∏--Sp-∂p. Bh-iy-s∏-Sp∂ Fhn-sS-sb-¶nepw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJ-e-bmbn {]Jym-]n-t°≠ Bh-iy-ans√-¶n¬ AXn-\p≈ Imcy-Im-c-W-߃ hy‡-am-°n-bn-cn-°Ww. CXn-t∑-ep≈ dnt∏m¿´v 30-˛10-˛2004 \Iw ka¿∏n-°-W-sa∂pw \n¿t±-in-®n-cp∂p. CXn-\p-tijw "F\¿tIm¨' (ENERCON) F∂ Iº-\n-bpsS Hcp hn‚ v an¬ ]≤Xn (Im‰n¬ \n∂v sshZyp-Xn-D-ev]m-Zn-∏n-°p-∂Xv) Cu {]tZiØv \ne-hn¬ h∂p. tImS-Xn-bn¬ ]e tIkp-Iƒ \ne-hn-ep≈ Cu ]≤Xn X¿°-hn-j-b-ambn. X¬^-e-ambn ]cn-ÿnXn h\w hIp-∏p-a-{¥n-bpsS tNº-dn¬ 2011 am¿®v 24 \v tN¿∂ kanXn, (WGEFP) tbmKØn¬ Cu ]≤-Xn-bpsS Imcyw {]tXyIw At\z-jn-°m≥ kan-Xn-tbmSv a{¥n \n¿t±-in®p. AXns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ alm-cmjv{S h\w hIp-∏nse {]n≥kn-∏¬ No^v I¨k¿th-‰¿ (P\-d¬), ]qs\-bnse h\y-Po-hn-hn-`mKw {]n≥kn-∏¬ No^v I¨k¿th-‰¿, No^v I¨k¿th‰¿ F∂n-h-cn¬ \n∂v Cu ]≤-Xnsb ]‰n-bp≈ hni-Zmw-i-߃ tiJ-cn-°m≥ kan-Xn Xocp-am\n®p. F\¿tIm¨ ]≤Xn kw_-‘n® tcJ-Ifpw am∏p-Ifpw `oa-i-¶¿ h\y-Po-hn-k-t¶-X-Øn\p Np‰pw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-Je ÿm]n-°m-\p≈ \n¿t±-ihpw ka¿∏n-°m-\m-h-iy-s∏-´p-sIm≠v 2011 G{]n¬ 7 \v Ch¿s°√mw kanXn IØ-b®p. am[hv KmUvKn-en\v 2011 G{]n¬ 14 \pw d\n t_m¿P-kn\v 2011 tabv 19\pw Cu {]tZtiw kμ¿in-°m≥ th≠ kuI-cy-߃ h\w-h-Ip∏v Hcp°n-s°m-SpØp. kμ¿i-\-th-f-bn¬ CXp-ambn _‘-s∏´ tcJ-Iƒ e`y-am-°-W-sa∂v \n¿t±-in®n-cp-\\p. F∂m¬ `oam-i-¶¿ h\y-ar-K-k-t¶-XsØ kw_-‘n-°p∂ Hcp tcJbpw Ct∂-hsc {io. KmUvKn-en\v e`y-am-°n-bn-´n√. ]qsW-bnse t^mdÃv I¨k¿th-‰¿ {io. kn≥l 2011 Pq¨ c≠n\v {io. KmUvKn-en-t\mSv hy‡n-]-c-ambn ]d-™Xv CXp-kw-_-‘n® Hcp-tc-Jbpw alm-cmjv{S h\w-h-Ip-∏ns‚ Hcm-^o-knepw Is≠-Øm≥ Ign-™n-s√-∂mWv. F∂m¬ "F\¿tIm¨' ]≤-Xnbp-ambn _‘-s∏´ IØn-S-]m-Sp-Ifpw {io. Imse ^-b¬ sNbvX tIknse \nb-a-\-S-]-Sn-I-fepw AS-ßnb ^b¬ {io. d\n t_m¿P--kn\v e`n®p. CXn-\p-]p-dta ]≤Xn {]tZ-i-Øn\v sXm´p≈ ' Nmkv' hnt√Pv \nhm-kn-bmb Un.sI. Imse hnh-cm-h-Imi \nb-a-{]-Imcw tiJ-cn® Iptd A[nIw tcJ-Iƒ kan-Xn°v ssIamdn. hmkvX-h-Øn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJ-e-bpsS cq]o-I-cWw ]q¿Øn-bm-Ip-∂-Xp-h-scbpw h\m-h-Im-i-\n-baw \S-∏m-°p∂Xphscbpw Cu ]≤-Xn°v ¢nbd≥kv \¬Imt\ ]mSn-√m-bn-cp∂p. ÿe-]-cn-tim-[-\-bn-eq-sSbpw D]-{Kl Nn{X-ß-fn-eq-sSbpw hfsc hy‡-ambn a\- n-em°m≥ Ign-s™mcp Imcyw Im‰m-Sn-b-{¥-߃ ÿm]n® ae hfsc henb ag-e-`yX D≈Xpw ssPh-ssh-hn-[y-k-º-∂-amb \nXy-l-cnX h\-߃ \nd-™-Xp-amWv. am{X-hp-a√, CXv `oa-i-¶¿ h\y-ar-K-k-t¶-X-Øns‚ XpS¿®bpw alm-cm-jv{S-cpsS kwÿm-\-ar-K-amb ae-_m¿ ae-b-Æms‚ ]m¿∏n-S-k-t¶-X-hp-amWv.b Cu hkvXp-X-I-sf-sb√mw tcJ-s∏-Sp-Ønb {]mtZ-inI t^mdÃv td©v B^o-k¿ Cu ]≤-Xn°v A\p-aXn \¬I-cp-sX∂v ip]m¿i sNbvXn-cp∂p. ]s£, taep-tZym-Kÿ¿ Ct±-l-Øns‚ ip]m¿i adn-I-S∂v bYm¿∞ hkvXp-X-Iƒ Zp¿hym-Jym\w sNbvXv ]≤Xn°v ¢nb-d≥kv \¬In. h≥tXm-Xn-ep≈ h\w \io-I-c-W-Øn\v ]pdta 28000 hr£-߃ sh´n-am-‰n-bn-´p-s≠-∂mWv h\w hIp-∏ns‚ IW°v. dnk¿Δv h\-Ønse ae-Iƒ CSn-®p-\n-c-Øn-bp≈ hoXn-tb-dnb tdmUp............................................................................................................................................................................................................

41


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

\n¿ΩmWw, \ne-hm-c-an-√mØ tdmUp-\n¿Ωm-Whpw tdmUnse IpØn-d-°-ßfpw aqe-ap≈ asÆmen∏pw Dcpƒs]m-´epw Cu aÆpw I√pw h≥tXm-Xn¬ sN∂-Sn-bp-∂-Xp-aqew ^e-`q-bn-jvT-amb Irjn°pw IrjvW-\-Zn-bpsS t]mj-I-\-Zn-I-fpsS Pe-kw-`-c-Wn-Iƒ°pw D≠m-Ip∂ \mi-\-jvS-ßfp-sa√mw Im‰m-Sn-b{¥ ]≤-Xn-bpsS tZmj-^-e-ß-fmWv. Cu ae-I-fn-te°v \nb-a-hn-cp-≤-ambn P\-߃°v {]th-i\w \ntj-[n-®p-sIm≠v h\w-hIp∏v Im‰m-Sn-b{¥ ]≤Xn DS-a-ÿ-cp-ambn HØp-tN-cp-I-bm-bn-cp∂p. F√mw h\w-h-Ip-∏ns‚ A\pa-Xn-tbmsS BsW∂p hcp-Øm≥ Iº\n ]≤Xn {]tZ-iØv t_m¿Up-Ifpw sN°vt]m-Ãp-Ifpw ÿm]n-®n-cp∂p. Cu ae-I-fn¬ [mcmfw ]c-º-cm-KX h\-hm-kn-I-fp≠v. h\m-h-Im-i-\n-b-a-{]-Im-cap≈ Ch-cpsS Ah-Im-i-߃ AwKo-I-cn-°-s∏-´n-s√∂v am{X-a√ \q‰m-≠p-I-fmbn AhnsS hkn°p∂ ae-bn-ep≈ Ah-cpsS kzX-{¥-k-©mcw \nb-a-hn-cp-≤-ambn XS-bp-Ibpw sNbvXp.

12.2 AXn¿Øn-\n¿Æ-b-Øn\v P\m-[n-jvTnX kwhn-[m\w ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJ-e-I-fpsS cq]o-I-c-W-Øn\pw \S-Øn-∏n\pw k¿°m¿ GP≥knIsf am{Xw B{i-bn-°p-∂Xv DNn-X-a-s√∂v kanXn (WGEEP) hniz-kn-°p∂p. ]Icw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-I-fpsS A¥na AXn¿Øn \n¿Æ-b-Øn\v (kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-߃°v Np‰p-ap≈ {]tZ-i-ßfpw bqsWkvtIm ss]XrI ssk‰pIfmbn \n¿Æ-bn-®n-´p-≈h Dƒs∏sS) kq£va-P-et{km-X- p-Ifpw hnt√Pv AXn¿Øn-Ifpw IW-°n-se-Sp-Øp-sIm≠v \nb-{¥nX t{]m’m-l-\-L-SI-ß-f-S-ßnb Hcp kwhn-[m\w thW-sa-∂mWv kan-Xn-bpsS A`n-{]mbw. CXv {Kma-]-©m-b-ØpIƒ, Xmeq°v ]©m-b-Øp-Iƒ, Pn√m-]-©m-b-Øp-Iƒ, \K-c-]m-en-I-Iƒ F∂o Xt±-i-ÿm-]-\ß-fp-sSbpw {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-Øn-s‚bpw ]¶m-fn-Ø-tØm-sSbpw ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXmdn-´n-bpsS kwÿm-\-Xe AtXm-dn-´n-bp-sSbpw Pn√m-I-Ωn-‰n-I-fp-sSbpw s]mXp-hmb ta¬t\m-´Ønepw {]h¿Øn-°p∂ Hcp kwhn-[m-\-am-bn-cn-°Ww. tKmh doPn-b-W¬ πm≥ 2021 Xøm-dm°nb thf-bn¬ CXn\v kam-\-amb Hcp {]{In-b-bmWv \S-∂Xv. Cu ]≤Xn Bkq-{X-W-Øns‚ BZy-]-Sn-bmbn tKmh kwÿm-\sØ {]IrXn hn`-h-߃ Pew, `qan F∂n-h-bpsS hn]p-e-amb tU‰m-t_kv Xøm-dm°n. ]s£ ]›n-a-L´ tU‰m-t_-kns‚ Imcy-Øn¬ \n∂v hyXy-kvX-ambn CXv s]mXp-P-\-߃°v e`y-am-bn-´n√. Cu hnh-c-߃ Nne {Kma-k-`-Iƒ°v ssIamdn `qan-bpsS hn\n-tbm-K-coXn kw_-‘n®v Ah-cpsS \n¿t±-i-ßfpw IqSn IW-°n-se-SpØv Ah-km-\-πm≥ Xøm-dm-°p-I-bm-bn-cp∂p. F∂m¬ {Kma-k`m \n¿t±-i-ß-fn¬ \n∂v am‰w thW-sa∂v tXm∂n-bt∏mƒ C°mcyw ho≠pw {Kma-k-`-I-fp-ambnN¿® sNøm≥ tKmh k¿°m¿ Xøm-dm-bn√. F∂n-cp-∂mepw ]›n-aL - ´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n°v amXr-Ib - m-°m-hp∂ H∂m-WnXv. AtXmdn-´n°v amXr-I-bm-°m-hp∂ Hcp amXrIm ]≤-Xn-bmWv tIcf kwÿm\ ssPh-ssh-hn-≤yt_m¿Uns‚ '' DSp-º-t©me Xmeq-°nse ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-k-º∂ {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS kwc-£Ww.'' kw_-‘n® ]≤Xn. {Kma-]-©m-b-Øp-Iƒ, Xmeq-°p-]-©m-b-Øp-Iƒ, Pn√m ]©m-b-Øp-Iƒ,\Kc-]m-en-I-Iƒ, alm-\-K-c-]m-en-I-Iƒ, XpSßn hnhn[ Xe-ß-fnse Xt±i ÿm]-\-ß-fnse ssPhssh-hn-≤y-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v IΩn-‰n-bpsS A[n-Im-c-Ønepw {]h¿Ø-\-Ønepw A[n-jvTn-X-amb \S-]Sn-{I-a-amWv ChnsS Ah-ew-_n-®Xv. _‘-s∏´ Xt±i `c-W-ÿm-]-\-Øn-eqsS CXv kwÿm\ ssPh-ssh-hn≤y t_m¿Up-I-fp-am-bpw, tZiob ssPh-ssh-hn≤y AtXm-dn-´n-bp-ambpw _‘-s∏´n-cn-°p∂p. C¥y-bv°m-I-am\w _m[-I-amb 2002 se ssPh-ssh-hn≤y amt\-Pvsa‚ v IΩn-‰n-IfpsS LS\ ]›n-a-L-´-Øn\v samØ-Øn¬ A\p-tbm-Pyhpw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJe H∂v, c≠v, aq∂v F∂n-h-bpsS AXn¿Øn kw_-‘n® A¥na Xocp-am-\-Øn-se-Øp-∂-Xn\v kpXmcyhpw ]¶m-fn-Ø-]-c-hp-amb kwhn-[m-\-Øns‚ cq]-tcJ Xøm-dm-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ i‡-amb ASnØ-d-bmbpw ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-chpw kmaq-ly-hp-amb {]mtZ-inI ]›m-Ø-e-Øn-\-\p-k-cn®v Ch-bpsS amt\-Pvsa‚ v kwhn-[m\w cq]-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ am¿§-ambpw CXv {]h¿Øn-°p∂p. hfsc kzmKXm¿l-amb Cu ]¶m-fnØ {]{Inb ]q¿Æ-cq-]-Øn-em-Im≥ ka-b-sa-Sp°pw. hfsc A`n-Im-ayamb Cu amXrI kzoI-cn-°-W-sa∂v kanXn i‡-ambn ip]m¿i sNøp∂p. AtX kabw ]›na-L-´-Ønse hne-a-Xn-°m-\m-ImØ {]IrXn ss]Xr-I-߃ kwc-£n-°m≥ tI{μ ]cn-ÿnXn h\w a{¥m-ebw ASn-b-¥nc \S-]Sn kzoI-cn-°Ww. CXn-\mbn a{¥m-ebw kanXn Xmeq°v XeØn¬ ip]m¿i sNbvX {]Imcw taJe H∂n-s‚bpw c≠n-s‚bpw aq∂n-s‚bpw AXn-cp-Ifpw

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42


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]´nI Bdn¬ \n¿t±-in-®n-´p-≈-Xp-t]mse A\p-tbm-Py-amb \nb-{¥nX kwhn-[m-\hpw Dƒs∏SpØn ]cn-ÿnXn (kwc-£W) \nb-a-Ønse hyh-ÿ-Iƒ {]Imcw DS≥ hn⁄m-]\w ]pd-s∏Sp-hn-°Ww.

13. taJemXe -{]-h¿Ø-\-߃°p≈ am¿§-tcJ hnime N´-°q-Sn-\p-≈n¬ \n∂p-sIm≠v kwth-Z\ £a-X-bpsS Afhpw {]mtZ-in-I-amb ]cn-ÿnXn˛kmaq-ly-]-›m-Ø-ehpw IW-°n-se-Sp-Øp-sIm≠v hnhn[ t{KUp-Iƒ AYhm X´pIƒ Bbn Xncn-°p∂ Hcp kao-]-\-amWv C°m-cy-Øn¬ kanXn kzoI-cn-°p-∂Xv. G‰hpw Db¿∂ kwth-Z-\-£-a-X-bp≈ {]tZ-isØ, ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJe H∂v, AXn¬ Ipdhv kwth-Z\ £a-X-bp≈ {]tZ-isØ taJe c≠v anX-amb kwth-Z-\-£-a-X-bp≈ {]tZ-isØ taJe aq∂ vF∂v hn`-Pn-®Xv Cu ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-emWv. {Kma-k-`-Iƒ hsc FØp∂ Hcp ]¶m-fnØ {]{Inb CXn-\mbn apt∂m-´p-sh-bv°p-∂-tXm-sSm∏w Hcp XpS-°-sa∂ \ne-bn¬ bp‡n-k-l-amb am¿§-tcJbpw \n¿t±-in-°p∂p. DtZym-K-ÿ¿, hnZ-Kv[¿, kaqlw hy‡n-Iƒ XpS-ßn-b-h-cp-am-sb√mw \SØnb hni-Z-amb IqSn-bm-tem-N-\-I-fpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-emWv Cu am¿K-tc-Jbv°v cq]w \¬InbXv. ]´nI 6 ¬ CXv kw{K-ln-®n-cn-°p∂p.

]´nI 6 : taJ-em-X-e-Øn-ep≈ \n¿±njvS am¿§-tc-J-Iƒ(6) hn`mKw

taJe˛1

]›n-a-L-´-Øn-ep-S\ofw

P\n-XI - a - m‰w hcp-Ønb hnf-Iƒ A\p-hZ- n-°c - pXv. IS-If - nepw hmWnPy-ÿm-]-\-ß-fnepw Sqdn-Ãp-tI-{μ-ß-fnepw ap≥K-W-\m-Sn-ÿm-\ Øn¬ (3h¿j-Øn¬ IqSmsX) πmÃnIv _mKp-I-fpsS D]-tbmKw- L´w L´-ambn Ah-km-\n-∏n-°Ww.

`qhn-\n-tbmKw

taJe˛2

taJe˛3

Pe-t{km-X- p-Iƒ Pem-i-b-߃ {]tXyI hmk-tI-{μ-߃, `qanim-kv{X-]-c-ambn {]tXy-I-X-I-fp-≈-bn-S-߃ ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-kº-∂-amb ÿe-߃, hnip-≤-h-\-߃ F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn¬ bmsXm cp IS-∂p-I-b-‰hpw A\p-h-Zn-°-cpXv. {]tXyI kmº-ØnI taJ e-Iƒ A\p-h-Zn-°-cpXv ]pXnb kpJ-hm-k-tI-{μ-߃ A\p-h-Zn°-cpXv s]mXp-ÿ-e-߃ kzIm-cy-`q-an-bm-°-cpXv h\w -Ir-jn-`q-an-Iƒ cq]m-¥c - s - ∏-Sp-Øm≥ A\p-h-Zn-°-cpXv. Irjn-`qan h\-amtbm hr£- h n- f - I ƒt°m D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xn\pw {]tZ-i-hm-knI-fpsS P\-kwJym h¿≤-\-hns\ IpSnbn- c p- Ø p- ∂ - X n\pw CXv _m[-I-a√. \ne-hn-ep≈ tlm´ep- I ƒ, dntkm¿´pIƒ F∂n- h - b psS Imcy-Øn¬, ]›n-a-

h\w Irjn-`q-an-Iƒ cq ]m-¥-c-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ A \p-hZ- n-°c - p-X.v Irjn-`qan h\-amtbm hr£-hn-fIƒt°m D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂-Xn \pw {]tZ-i-hmkn-I-fpsS P\-kw-Jymh¿≤-\-hns\ IpSn-bn-cpØp∂-Xn\pw CXv _m [-I-a-√.

kmaqly˛kmº-Øn-I]-cn-ÿnXn \n_-‘-\Iƒ°pw BLmX A ]-{K-Y-\-Øn\pw hnt[b-ambn Irjn-`qan Ir jn- b n- X c Bh- i y߃°v am‰p-∂Xv A \p-h-Zn°pw.

\ne-hn-ep≈ tlm´-epIƒ, dntkm¿´p- I ƒ F∂n- h bpsS ImcyØn¬ ]›na-L´ ]cnÿnXn kv]pSw sNbv

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43


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

hn`mKw

taJe˛1

taJe˛2

taJe˛3

L´ ]cn- ÿ nXn sX-Sp-°p-∂ ]cn-ÿnXn h\w AtXm-dn´n -a-{¥mAtXm-dn‰n kv]pSw- e-b-Øns‚ Sqdnkw \bw XpS-cmw. sN- b vsX- S p- ° p- ∂ ]cn- ÿ nXn h\w a{¥m-e-b-Øns‚ Sqdnkw \bw Xp Scmw. AtXm- d n- ´ n°v k a¿∏n-°p∂ tdmUv, a‰-Sn-ÿm-\-ku-I-cyhn-Ik - \ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ \S- ∏ m°pw ap≥]v {]mtZ-inI Bkq-{XW AtXmdn-´n-Iƒ ]cn-tim-[n-°p-Ibpw CXn-\mbn ]cn-ÿnXn°v sImSp-t°≠ hnebpw P\- Ø n\p≈ t\´hpw X Ωn¬ A]- { K- Y n®v t\m°p- I bpw th Ww. _n¬Unßv tImUp-Iƒ lcnX kmt¶-XnI hnZy bpw lcn-X- \n¿Ωm-Wkm-a-{Kn-Ifpw

Ão¬ kna‚ v, aW¬ XpS-ßn-b-h-bpsS D]-tbmKw ]c-am-h[n Ipd®v Pe-kw--c-£W-Øn\pw ]mc-º-tcy-Xc Du¿÷ D¬]m-Z-\-Øn\pw Pekw-kvI-c-W-Øn\pw Du∂¬ \¬Ip∂ ]cn-ÿnXn kulr-Z-\n¿ ΩmW kma-{Kn-Ifpw \n¿Ωm-Wc - o-Xnbpw Ah-ew-_n-®p≈ _n¬UnwKv tImUn\v ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n cq]w \¬I-Ww.

ÿe-Øns‚ Xpd- mb {] tZ-isØ em‚ v k vtI ∏n ßpw hnI-k-\hpw kwkvIc-Whpw

]cn-ÿnXn kulrZ `h-\\ - n¿Ωm-WØ - ns‚ {Ko≥_n¬ Unw-Kvk¿´n^n-t°-js‚ am¿K-tc-J-Iƒ {]Imcw AwKo-I-cn-°-s∏-´n-´p≈ ta¬ aÆv kwc-£Ww, hr£-kw-c-£Ww XpS-ßnb \n¿ΩmW/hnI-k\-co-Xn-Iƒ kzoI-cn-°Ww. GRIHA ( Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment) tbm a‰v A\p-tbm-Py -tIm tUm t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°Ww NXp- ∏ p- \ n- e - ß fpw sh≈- s °- ´ p- I fpw \nI- Ø p- I bpw hntZ- i kky˛hr£ C\-߃ \Sp-Ibpw sNøp-∂Xv Dt]-£n-°Ww. {Ku≠n¬ HmSpw I√pw ]mIp-∂Xpw kna‚n´v Dd-∏n-®n-cn-°p-∂Xpw ]c-am-h[n ]cn-an-X-s∏-Sp-ØWw. AYhm Aßs\ sNbvXm¬ Xs∂ apI-fn¬ hogp∂ sh≈w ASn-bn-te°v Acn-®n-d-ßm≥ kuI-cy-ap≠m-°Ww.

amen-\y-kw-kvI-cWw

Btcm-Ky-Øn\v lm\n-I-c-am-b-hbpw cmk-am-en-\y-ßfpw ssPh-saUn-°¬ amen-\y-ßfpw ]p\:Nw{I-aWw \S-Øm-hp∂ hkvXp-°fpw ssIImcyw sNøm-\p-]-bp-‡-amb kwhn-[m-\-߃ hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp°m-\p≈ Npa-Xe Xt±i `cW ÿm]-\-߃°v \¬IWw.

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44


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

hn`mKw

taJe˛1

taJe˛2

Btcm-Ky-Øn\v lm \n-Ic - a - m-btXm, cmkam-en-\y-ßtfm kw kv°-cn-°p∂- bq-Wn ‰pIƒ ]mSn√

aen-\-P-e-kw-kvI-cWw

Btcm-Ky-Øn\v lm\nI-ca - m-btXm, cmk-am-en\y-ßtfm kwkv°-cn°p∂- bq- W n‰pIƒ ]mSn√

taJe˛3 ]p\xNw{I- a - W - Ø n \pw amen-\y-kw-kvI-cW- Ø n- \ p- a p≈ bq Wn‰p-Iƒ aen-\o-I-cW-\n-b-{¥W t_m¿ Up- I - f psS hyh- ÿ Iƒ°v hnt[-b-ambn taJe 3 ¬ ÿm]n °mw. sXm´-Sp-Øp ≈ taJe˛H∂n\pw c ≠n\pw IqSn CXv D]I-cn-°Ww.

F√m-hn[ sI´n-Sß - ƒ°pw aen-\P - e - k - w-kvIc - W kwhn-[m\w \n¿_‘n-Xa - m--°W - w. sI´n-SØ - ns‚ hen-∏a - \ - p-kc - n®v CXn\p kzoI-cn-°p∂ kmt¶-XnI hnZy hyXy-kvX-am-Imw. {]tZ-i-Øns‚ kz`m-h-a-\p-k-cn®v aen-\-Pew kwkv°-cn®v ho≠pw D]-tbm-Kn-°p-Itbm doNm¿Pv sNøp-Itbm dnssk°nƒ sNøp-I-tbmBhmw. km[n-°p-sa-¶n¬ CXn¬ \n∂v Du¿÷w hos≠-Sp-°m\pw A\p-h-Zn-°-Ww.

Pew

Xt±-i-`-c-W-ÿm-]-\-X-e-Øn¬ Pe-hn-`h amt\-Pvsa‚n-\p≈ hntI{μo-IrX ]≤-Xn-Iƒ Xøm-dm-°Ww. hfsc Db¿∂ {]tZ-i-Øp≈ Pem-i-b-ßfpw Pe-t{km-X- p-Ifpw kwc-£n-°Ww. Pe-ssh-ZypX ]≤-Xn-I-fp-sSbpw h≥InS Pe-tk-N\ ]≤-Xn-I-fpsSbpw \ne-\n¬∏n-\mbn Ah-bpsS hrjvSn-{]-tZ-i-߃ {i≤m-]q¿Δw ]cn-]m-en-°Ww. kaq-l-]-¶m-fn-Ø-tØmsS \Zn-I-fpsS Hgp°pw Pe-Øns‚ KpW-ta∑bpw sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm\mbn imkv{Xo-b-am¿§-߃ Ah-ew-_n-°Ww. A\p-tbm-Py-amb kmt¶-XnI am¿§-ß-fp-]-tbm-Kn®pw s]mXp-P-\t_m-[-h¬°-c-W-Øn-eq-sSbpw Pe-kw-c-£W {]h¿Ø-\-߃ \S-ØWw. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse \Zo-X-S-ß-fn¬ \Zn-Iƒ KXn-Xn-cn-®p-hn-Sm≥ A\ph-Zn-°-cpXv.

Irjn

ssPh-Ir-jn-co-Xn-Iƒ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°Ww. ae-s©-cn-hp-I-fn¬ (30 iX-am-\-Øn¬ IqSp-X¬ Ncnhv) hm¿jnI hnf-Iƒ Irjn-sN-øp-∂Xv \ncp-’m-l-s∏-Sp-ØWw. Zo¿L-Ime hnf-Iƒ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°Ww. aÆnse Im¿_¨ tiJ-c-WØn\v t{]m’m-l\ klmbw \¬I Ww. ]c-º-cm-KX Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°m≥ klmbw \¬IWw. ]mc-º-cy-Im¿jnI hnf-I-fpsS Dev]m-Z\w h¿≤n-∏n-°m≥ hnØp¬]m-Z-\w, Iq´p-Irjn k{º-Zmbw F∂nh t{]m’m-ln-∏n°Ww. {i≤m-]q¿Δ-ap≈ Irjn- co-Xn-Iƒ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°Ww. .

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45


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

hn`mKw

arK-kw-c-£Ww

taJe˛1

taJe˛2

taJe˛3

5 h¿j-Øn-\p-≈n¬ cmk-Io-S-\m-in-\n-IfpsS/If-\m-in-\n-IfpsS D]- t bmKw Ah-km-\n-∏n-°Ww.

8 h¿j- Ø n- \ p- ≈ n¬ cmk-Io-S-\m-in-\n-I-fp sS/ If-\m-in-\n-I-fpsS D]- t bmKw \n¿Ø Ww.

10 h¿j-Øn-\p-≈n¬ cmk- I o- S - \ m- i n- \ n- I fpsS/If- \ m- i n- \ n- I fpsS D]-tbmKw \n¿ ØWw.

A\p-Iqe klm-btØmsS 5 h¿j-Øn\p-≈n¬ cmk-h-f-ßfpsS D]- t bmKw Ah-km-\n-∏n-°Ww

A\p-Iq-ey-k-lm-btØmsS 8 h¿j-Øn-\p≈n¬ cmk-h-f-{]-tbm Kw \n¿ØWw.

A\p- I qe klm- b tØmsS 10 h¿j-Øn\p- ≈ - f n¬ cmk- h f {]tbmKw Ah-km-\n∏n-°Ww.

I∂p-Im-en-I-fpsS \mS≥ P\p- p-I-fpsS kwc-£-Ws®e-hn-\mbn "kwc-£W tkh-\-Nm¿Pv' F∂ \ne-bn¬ t{]m’m-l-\-[-\-klmbw \¬IpI." cmk-h-f-߃°v \¬Ip∂ k_vknUn I∂p-Im-en-I-fpsS kwc-£W-Øn\pw _tbm-Kymkv, ssPh-hfw F∂n-h-bpsS Dev]m-Z-\-Øn-\pambn hn\n-tbm-Kn-°pI. kwc-£n-X{- ]-tZ-iß - ƒ°v shfn-bn-ep≈ h\-ta-®n¬]p-dß - fpw s]mXphmb ]p¬ta-Sp-Ifpw ]p\:ÿm]n°pI. {]Xn-Iqe Imem-h-ÿ-tbbpw kml-N-cy-ß-tfbpw AXn-Po-hn-°m≥ Ign-bp∂ C\-ßsf t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI.If-hn-`m-K-Øn¬s]-Sp∂ an° kky-ßfpw ImenØo-‰bm-I-bm¬ tdmUns‚ hi-ß-fnse \mWy-hn-f-Iƒ°v If-\m-in\n {]tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xv \ntcm-[n-°pI. tXbne tXm´-ß-fnse shfn-ÿ-e-߃ Imen-Iƒ°v ta®n¬ ÿeß-fmbn D]-tbm-Kn-®m¬ e`n-°p∂ ssPh-hfw tXbne tXm´-߃°v {]tbm-P-\-s∏Spw.

a’y-k-ºØv

a’y-ßsf sIm√m-\mbn ssU\-an´v t]mse-bp≈ kvt^mS-I-h-kvXp°ƒ D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xv I¿i-\-ambn \nb-{¥n-°pI. Pem-i-b-ßfn¬ a’y-G-Wn-Iƒ hbv°pI. ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v IΩn-‰n-I-fp-sStbm a’y-sXm-gn-emfn kwL-ß-fp-sStbm \nb-{¥-W-Øn¬ Ipf-ß-fnepw a‰pw {]mtZ-inI a’y-C-\-ßsf hf¿Øp-∂-Xnepw kwc-£n-°p-∂-Xn\pw kwc-£-Wtk-h-\-Nm¿Pv F∂ \ne-bn¬ t{]m’m-l-\-[\k-lmbw \¬IpI. ssPh-ssh-hn≤y amt\-Pvsa‚ v IΩn-‰n-I-fpsS klm-b-tØmsS Ae¶m-c-a-’y-ß-fpsS hn]-W\w \nb-{¥n-°pI.

h\-h¬°-cWw k¿°m¿ h\ Ah-Im-i\ - n-baw AXns‚ ]q¿Æ-A¿∞-Øn¬ P\-ßf - n-se-Øn®v `qan Ah-cpsS Bh-iy-ßsf klm-bn-°pI. \ne-hn-ep≈ kwbp-‡-h\w ]cn-]m-e\ ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ°p-]-Icw h\-A-h-Imi \nb-a-{]-Im-c-ap≈ kmaq-ly-h-\-hn-`h hyh-ÿ-Iƒ kzoI-cn-°pI.

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46


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

hn`mKw

taJe˛1

taJe˛2

bq°m-en-]v‰kv t]mse-bp≈ hntZ i C\-ß-fpsS GIC- \ - t Xm- ´ - ß ƒ ]m Sn√.

taJe˛3

bq°m-en-]v‰kv t]msebp≈ hntZi C\-ßfpsS GI C\ tXm´ßƒ ]mSn√.

bq°m-en-]v‰kv t]mse-bp≈ hntZi C\-ß-fpsS GI C\ tXm´-߃ ]mSn√.

hwi-\miw t\cn-Sp∂ IoS- \ m- i - C - \ n- I ƒ/ C\- ß - f psS Irjn I f - \ m - i n - \ n - I ƒ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI. {]tbm-Kn-°-cpXv IoS-\m-in-\n-I-fp-sSbpw H u j - [ - k - k y - ß - If-\m-in-\n-I-fp-sSbpw fpsS NqjW-Øn\v {]tbm-Kw -\n¿ØWw. ISpØ \nb-{¥-W- Huj-[-k-ky-ß-fpsS ߃ G¿s∏-Sp-ØpI NqjW-Øn\v ISpØ

hwi-\miw t\cn-Sp∂ C\- ß - f psS Irjn t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI. IoS-\m-in-\n-I-fpsSbpw If-\m-in-\n-Ifp-sSbpw {]tbm-Kw \n¿ØWw.

Huj-[-k-ky-ß-fpsS \nb-{¥Ww G¿s∏-Sp- NqjW-Øn\v ISpØ ØpI. \nb-{¥Ww G¿s∏-SpØpI.

h\-h¬°-cWw kzIm-cy- h\-A-h-Im-i-\n-b-a-Øn≥ Iogn¬ sNdp-InS ]c-º-cm-KX kzImcy `qan `qDS-aI - ƒ°p≈ Ah-Im-iß - ƒ AwKo-Ic - n-°pI. sNdp-InS DS-aI - ƒ°v {]Ir-Xn-ZØ ImSp-Iƒ kwc-£n-°p-∂-Xn\pw Ip∂n≥ sNcp-hp-I-fn¬ hm¿jn-I-hn-f-Iƒ am‰n kok-W¬ C\-߃ Irjn sNøp-∂-Xn\pw "kwc£W tkh-\-Nm¿Pv' C\-Øn¬ t{]m’m-l\[\klmbw A\p-h-Zn-°pI. {]Ir-Xn-ZØ ImSp-Iƒ kwc-£n-°p∂-Xn\v sNdp-InS `qD-S-a-Iƒ°v \nIpXn Cfhv \¬Ip-Itbm ]m´w ]pXp-°n- \¬IpItbm sNøpI. h\-h¬°-cWw kzIm-cy- bq°m-en-]v‰kv t]m se- b p≈ hntZi `qan C\-ß-fpsS GI C \-tXm-´-߃ ]mSn√. \ne- h n- e p≈ CØ cw tXm´-ß-fn¬ hw i-\m-i` - o-jWn t\cnSp∂ C\-߃ sh®p]n-Sn-∏n-°Ww. t\c sØ ]p¬ta-Sp-I-fmbn- zcp-∂h ]p¬ta-SpI-fm-°n am-‰Ww.

bq°m-en-]v‰kv t]msebp≈ hntZi C\-ßfpsS GI C\-tXm-´ßƒ ]mSn√. \ne-hnep≈ CØcw tXm´ß- f n¬ hwi- \ m- i - ` ojWn t\cn-Sp∂ C\߃ sh®p- ] n- S n- ∏ n°Ww. t\csØ ]p¬ ta-Sp-If - m-bn-cp-∂h ]p¬ ta-Sp-I-fm-°n -am-‰Ww.

bq°m-en-]v‰kv t]mse-bp≈ hntZi C\-ß-fpsS GI C\tXm- ´ - ß ƒ ]mSn√. \ne-hn-ep≈ CØcw tXm´-ß-fn¬ hwi-\mi-`o-jWn t\cn-Sp∂ C\-߃ sh®p-]n-Sn-∏n°Ww. t\csØ ]p¬ ta- S p- I - f m- b n- c p∂h ]p¬ ta-Sp-I-fmhwi- \ m- i wt\cn- S p∂ °n -am-‰Ww. IoS-\m-in\n/If-\m- C\-߃ h®p-]n-Sn-∏n- hwi-\m-iwt\cn-Sp∂ in\n {]tbmKw ]m °p-∂Xv t{]m’m-ln- C\-߃ h®p-]n-Sn-∏nSn√ ∏n-°Ww. °p-∂Xv t{]m’m-lnH u j - [ - k - k y - ß - J\- \ - Ø n\v \nb- { ¥ ∏n-°Ww. fpsS NqjWw I¿i- Ww G¿s∏-Sp-ØWw. J\-\-Øn\v \nb-{¥ \- a mbn \nb- { ¥n- IoS-\m-in-\n-Iƒ/If-\m- Ww G¿s∏-Sp-ØWw. °Ww. in- \ n- I ƒ L´w L´- IoS-\m-in-\n-Iƒ/Ifambn Hgn-hm-°Ww.

\m- i n- \ n- I ƒ L´w

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47


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

hn`mKw

taJe˛1

taJe˛2

hwi- \ miw t\cnSp∂ C\-߃ h®p]n-Sn-∏n-°p-∂Xv t{]m’m-ln-∏n°Ww. ssPh-ssh-hn[yw

taJe˛3 L´- a mbn °Ww.

Hgn- h m-

kzImcy `qan, ssPh-ssh-hn[y amt\-Pvsa‚ v IΩn-‰n-I-fpsS A[o\-Xb - n-ep≈ `qan, kwbp‡ Irjn-`qan kmaq-ly-h\ - h - n-`h - ` - qan F∂nhn-S-ß-fn¬ ssPh-ssh-hn-[y- L-S-I-߃ kwc-£n-°p-∂-Xn\pw hnip≤ ImSp-Iƒ kwc-£n-°p-∂-Xn\pw "kwc£-W- tk-h-\-Nm¿Pv' F∂ \ne-bn¬ t{]m’m-l\[\klmbw \¬IWw. h\y-Po-hn-Iƒ aqe-ap-≠m-Ip∂ IjvS-\-jvS-߃°v \jvS-]-cn-lmcw \¬Im≥ ssPh- ssh-hn-[y-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v IΩn-‰n-Iƒ°v {]tXyI ^≠v e`y-am-°Ww.

J\\w

J\-\Ø - n\v ]pXnb J\-\-Øn\ ]pXnb ssek≥kv \¬I- ssek≥kv \¬ cpXv IcpXv Ct∏mƒ \S-°p∂ J\\w 2016 HmsS ]q¿Æ- a mbn Ahkm-\n-∏n-°Ww. J\n- I - f psS ]cnÿn-Xn-]-chpw kmaq- l y- ] p- \ - c - [ nhm-k-]-c-hp-amb ]≤- X n- I ƒ Ahkm-\n-∏n°Ww.

ta¬]-d™ samd-t´mdnbw Hmtcm tIkpw ]cn-tim-[n®v ]p\¿ \n¿Æ-bn°mw.

\ne- h n- e p≈ J\- \ Øn\v sa®-s∏´ J\\ D]m-[n-Iƒ kzoI-cn-°pIbpw I¿i-\-\n-b-{¥Whpw tkmjy¬ B Un‰pw G¿s∏- S p- Ø pA\-[n-Ir-X- J-\\w Ibpw thWw. DS-\Sn Ah-km-\n- J\n-Iƒ°m-bp≈ ]cn∏n-°Ww ÿn- X n- ] - c hpw kmaqly- ]p-\c-[n-hm-k-]-chp-amb hni-Za - mb ]≤Xn- I ƒ Ah- k m- \ n- ∏ n°Ww.

ka-X-e-ß-fn¬ e`y-a√mØ A]q¿Δ C\w [mXp-°ƒ°p-th≠n am{Xta ]pXnb J\ \w A\p- h - Z n- ° m- \ m hq. CXv I¿i\ hyhÿ- I ƒ°pw tkm jy¬ BUn- ‰ n\pw hnt[-b-am-bn-cn-°Ww. Kncn-h¿§-°m-cp-sSbpw a‰p-≈-h-cp-sSbpw ap≥Iq- ´ n- b p≈ Adnthm-sS-bpw Ah-cpsS Ah-Im-i-߃ AwKoI-cn-®p-sIm-≠p-am-bn-cn°Ww CXv.

\ne- h n- e p≈ J\- \ Øn\v sa®-s∏´ J\ \ D]m-[n-Iƒ kzoIcn-°p-Ibpw I¿i-\-\nb- { ¥- W hpw tkm \nb-a-hn-cp-≤-amb J\ jy¬ BUn‰pw G¿ \w DS-\Sn \n¿ØWw s ∏ - S p - Ø p - I b p w thWw. \nb-a-hn-cp-≤-amb J \\w DS-\Sn \n¿ ØWw

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48


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

hn`mKw

taJe˛1

taJe˛2

taJe˛3

Izmdn-Ifpw aW¬ J\-\- \ne- h n- e p≈h ]cnhpw ÿn-Xn-bp-sSbpw kmaq-ly-{]-XymLmX-ß-fp-sSbpw t]cn¬ DS-\Sn ^e{]- Z - a mb coXn- b n¬ \nb-{¥n-°-Ww. Izmdn-Iƒ°pw, aW¬ J\-\-Øn\pw ]pXnb ssek≥kpIƒ \¬I-cpXv

\ne-hn-ep-≈h I¿i\ \nb- { ¥- W - ß ƒ°pw tkmjy¬ HmUn-‰n\pw hnt[-b-ambn sa®-s∏SpØn XpS-cmw.

\ne-hn-ep-≈Xpw ]pXnb-Xp-amb Izmdn-Ifpw aW¬ J\- \ hpw I¿i\ \nb- { ¥- W ߃°pw tkmjy ¬ BUn-‰n-ßn\pw hnt[bhpw Kncn-P\ - ß - f - psS Ah-Im-i-ßsf l\n°msX bpam-I-Ww.

aen- \ o- I - c W hyh- k m- b - ]pXnb aen-\o-I-cW ߃ (Nph∏v/Hmd©v) hyh-km-b-߃ (Nph∏v,Hmd©v hn`mKw) ]mSn√. \ne- h n- e p- ≈ - h sb 2016 BIp-tºm-tg°v "0' aen-\o-I-c-W-Ønse-Øn-°p-Ibpw ISpØ \nb- { ¥- W Øn\pw tkmjy¬ BUn-‰n\v hnt[-ba - mIp-Ibpw thWw..

]pXnb aen- \ o- I - c W hyh-km-b-߃ (Nph∏v,Hmd©v hn`mKw) ]mSn√. \nehn- e p- ≈ - h sb 2016 BIp-tºm-tg°v "0' aen\o-Ic - W - Ø - n-se-Øn-°pIbpw ISpØ \nb-{¥W-Øn\pw tkmjy¬ BUn-‰n\v hnt[-ba - m-IpIbpw thWw..

I¿i\ \nb- { ¥- W ßfpw tkmjy¬ BUn-‰n\pw hnt[-bam°n ]pXnb hyhkm-b-߃ XpSßmw.

aen-\o-I-c-W-an-√mØ hyh- ISpØ \nb-{¥-Wkm-b-߃ (]®, \oe) ߃°pw tkmjy¬ BUn-‰n\pw hnt[-bam-bn-cn-°Ww.

]®/\oe hyh- k m- b - ]®/\oe hyh-km-bßsf t{]m’m- l n- ßsf t{]m’m- l n∏n°mw. ∏n°mw.

{]mtZ-inI ssPh-hn`- h m- [ n- j v T n- X - a mb hyh-km-b-ßsf t{]m’m-ln-∏n°mw. I¿i- \ - \ n- b - { ¥- W Øn\pw tkmjy¬

sshZypXn/Du¿÷w

{]mtZ-inI ssPh-hn-`hm-[n-jvTn-X-amb hyhkm-b-ßsf t{]m’mln-∏n°mw. I¿i-\\ - n-b{¥- W - Ø n\pw tkm jy¬ BUn-‰n\pw hn t[bam-bn-cn-°Ww.

{]mtZ- i nI ssPhhn-`-hm-[n-jvTn-X-amb hyh-km-b-ßsf t{]m’m- l n- ∏ n°mw. I¿i- \ - \ n- b - { ¥- W Øn\pw tkmjy¬ BUn-‰n\pw hnt[bam-bn-cn-°Ww.

sshZypXn Dev]m-Z-\-Øns‚ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-chpw kmaq-ly-]-c-hp-amb {]Xym-Lm-X-ß-sf-]-‰nbpw BUw-_-c-߃°v sshZypXn D]-tbmKn-°p-∂Xv Ipd-bvt°-≠Xns‚ Bh-iy-I-Xsb ]‰nbpw sshZypXn D]-t`m-‡m-°sf t_m[-h¬°-cn-°pI. sshZypXn D]-t`m-K-cw-KsØ anX-s∏-Sp-Ø-ens\ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pIbpw, hnhn-[-ta-J-e-I-fnse Du¿÷-Im-cy-£-aX Db¿Øp-Ibpw sNøpI. H´pw ]mgm-°msX ]c-am-h[n Imcy-£-a-X-tbmsS Du¿÷ D]-t`mKw \S-Øp∂ sI´n-S-߃ sshZypXn D]-I-c-W-߃, tamt´m-dp-Iƒ XpS-ßn-bh t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°m≥ hym]-I-amb {]NcW-]-cn-]m-SnIƒ \S-ØpI.

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49


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

hn`mKw

taJe˛1

taJe˛2

taJe˛3

sshZypXn hntI-{μo-Ic - W - s - Øbpw kutcm¿÷ D - ] - t- bm-Ks - Øbpw t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI. Hgp- ° p≈ \Zn- I fn¬ ]c- a m- h [n 3 ao‰¿ Db- c - Ø n¬ XS- b W \n¿Ωn®v ssat{Im Pe-sshZypXn D¬]m- Z \w \SØn (Run off the river schemes) Kncnh¿§-°m-scbpw {]m tZ-inI kaq-l-Øn \pw tXm´w tImf-\nIƒ°pw sshZypXn e`y-am°mw. {Kma-k`- b psS A\p- a - X ntbm-sSbpw ]›n-aL´ AtXm-dn-´n-bpsSbpw F√m ¢nbd≥kpw hmßn-bp-ambn-cn-°Ww CXv \S∏m-°m≥. ]pXnb s{]mP-IvSn\p-th≠n \Zn- KXn Xncn®v hnSp-I-tbm t^mdÃv ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip-Itbm ]mSn √. Hgp-°ns\ B{i-bn®p≈ sshZypXn D¬]m-Z\ kvIoapIƒ BZy-sØ tbm c≠m-a-sØtbm \Zn-{]-hm-l-[mc-Ifn¬ A\p- h - Z n- ° cpXv.

Kncn- P - \ - k - a q- l - Ø ns‚bpw Xt±i ÿm]\-ß-fp-sSbpw D]-tbmK-Øn\v XS-bW A\ph-Z-\o-b-amWv

NphsS ]d-bp∂ \n_‘-\-Iƒ°v hnt[-bambn h≥InS Du¿ ÷ DXv]m-Z-\-πm‚pIƒ A\p-h-Zn°mw.

15 ao‰-dn¬ IqSp-X¬ Dbc- a p≈ AW- s °- ´ pItfm ]pXnb sX¿a¬ πm\p-Itfm ]mSn-√.

1. Bg- Ø n- e p≈ k ©nX BLm- X - ]T\w 2. hmlItijn kº‘n® ]T\w (am\-Zfi-߃ ] ›naL´ AtXm- d n´n \n›bn°Ww)

10 apX¬ 25 saKm-hm´v hsc-bp-Sp≈ (10 saKmslSvkv hsc) Pe-sshZypX ]≤-Xn-Iƒ A\ph-Z-\o-b-amWv. 3. G‰hpw Ipd™ kwÿm\ ]cn-ÿnXn t^mdÃv ¢nb-d≥kv AtXm-dn´n Pn√m ]cn- 4. \Zn- b psS ]cnÿnXn IΩn- ‰ n- I ƒ, ÿnXn Bh-iy-߃ ]›n-IL - ´ ]cn-ÿnXn Dƒ∏sS Xmtgm-´p≈ AtXm- d n´n F∂n- h - Bh-iy-amb Hgp-°n bpsS ¢nb- d ≥kn\v s‚ hne-bn-cp-ج. hnt[- b - a mbn F√m ]≤-Xn-Iƒ°pw A\p- I¿i- \ - \ n- b - { ¥- W Øn\pw tkmjy¬ aXn \¬Imw. BUn-‰n\pw hnt[-b\Zo- X - S sØ kw_ambn. \ne- h p- e p≈ ‘n® BLmX ]T-\Du¿÷ Dev ] m- Z - \ Øn- \ p- t ijw Hgpπm‚p- I ƒ°v {]h¿ °p≈ \Zn- K Xnbn¬ (run off the river) Øn°mw.

{]h¿ Øn-°p∂ Pe- hni-Z-amb ]T-\-Ønssh-ZypX ]≤-Xn-I-fm- \p-tijw am{Xta Im ‰m-Sn-]-≤-Xn-Iƒ hmw. hni-Z-amb ]T-\-Øn-\p- ]mSp≈q.

tijw am{Xta Im‰m- \ne-hn-ep≈ sX¿a¬ Sn-]-≤-Xn-Iƒ ]mSp≈q. ]h¿ πm‚p- I fnse Bfp-Iƒ kzbw \Saen- \ o- I - c Ww "0' Øp∂ sNdp- I nS \ne-hn-ep≈ sX¿a¬ B°-Ww. kq£va- P - e - s sh- ]h¿ πm‚p-Ifnse aenZypX ]≤XnIƒ \o- I - c Ww "0' B°- \ne-hn-ep≈ AW-sI´p- I - f psS Pem- b i A\p-h-Z-\o-b-amWv. Ww. {]h¿Ø\w Xmtg°v 10saKm-hm-´n≥ IqSp- X ¬ Pew HgpXmsgbp≈ ]pXnb °m≥ ]cym-]vX-amb sNdp-InS Pe-sshcoXn-bn¬ ]p\x-{I-ao-IZypX ]≤- X n- I ƒ cn-°-Ww. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

50


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

hn`mKw

taJe˛1

taJe˛2

taJe˛3

A\p-h-Z-\o-b-am-Wv. ]pXnb sX¿a¬ ] h¿ πm‚p-I-sfm ∂pw A\p-h-Z-\o-b-a√ \ne- h n- e p≈ sX¿ a¬ ]h¿πm‚p-Iƒ °v I¿i-\-amb ]cnÿnXn \nb-{¥Ww G¿s∏-Sp-ØpI. ^vssf Bjv/I - ´- I - ƒ D≠m-°p∂ \ne-hnep≈ coXn-°p-]p-dsa tdmUv \n¿Ωm- W Øn\pw a‰pw ^vssf Bjv D]- t bm- K n°p∂ coXn \ne-hn-ep≈ sX¿a ¬ πm‚p- I ƒ t{]m ’m-ln-∏n-°Ww. h≥InS Im‰m-Sn-b{- ¥ ]-≤-Xn-Iƒ ]mSn√. hntI-{μo-I-cW Du¿ ÷- B- h - i y- ß ƒ °mbn ku tcm¿÷ t{kmX- p-Isf t{]m’m-ln∏n-° Ww. Hcp Du¿÷-D¬∏m-Z\ ]≤-Xn-°p-th-≠nbpw \Zn-I-fpsS KXn Xncn°p-hm≥ A\p-h-Zn-°n√. \ne-hn¬ Aßs\ Ds≠-¶n¬ AXv DS≥ Ah-km-\n-∏n°pw. Pe-t{km-X v kw_-‘n® XXz-ß-fpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ AWs°-´ns‚ hrjvSn-{]-tZiw L´w L´-ambn kw]p-jvS-am°n kwc£n°Ww. XpS¿®-bmbn 3 h¿jw C{]-Imcw sNømXn-cp-∂m¬ \ne-hnep≈ ]≤-Xn-bpsS {]h¿Ø\w Ah-km-\n-∏n°pw. A\p-h-Zn® Ime-]-cn-[n-I-gn™Xpw {]h¿Ø-\-£-aX C√m-Ø-Xpamb AW-s°-´p-I-fp-sSbpw (30˛50 h¿jw) sX¿a¬πm‚p-I-fp-sSbpw {]h¿Ø\w L´w-L-´-ambn Ah-km-\n-∏n°pw. Pn√m ]cn-ÿnXn IΩn-‰n-I-fpsS I¿i\ \nb-{¥-W-Øn¬ Xt±i ÿm]-\ß - f - p-sSbpw ]h¿t_m¿Up-If - p-sSbpw kwbp-‡m-`n-ap-Jy-Ønem-bn-cn°pw F√m hn`mKw s{]mPIvSp-Ifpw {]h¿Øn-°pI.

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51


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

hn`mKw

taJe˛1

taJe˛2

KXm-KXw

AXym- h - i y- a p≈ CS- ß - f n- e mbn ]p Xnb sdbn¬th sset\m henb tdmUp- I tfm ]m Sn√. A\p-h-Zn-®m¬ Xs∂ AXv ISp-Ø\n- b - { ¥- W - ß - f psSbpw tkmjy¬ BUn-‰n\pw hnt[b-am-bn-cn°pw

AXym-hi - y-ap≈ CS-ßfn- e mbn ]pXnb sd bn¬th sset\m hen b tdmUp-Itfm ]mSn√. A\p- h - Z n- ® m¬ Xs∂ AXv ISp-Ø-\n-b-{¥-Wß-fp-sSbpw tkmjy¬ BUn-‰n\pw hnt[-b-ambn-cn°pw

Sqdnkw sNep-Øp ∂ BLmXw ]cam- h [n eLq- I - c n°m≥ th≠n ]cnÿnXn h\w a{¥me-b-Øns‚ Ct°m Sqdnkw \bw ]›na- L ´ ]cn- ÿ nXn AtXm-dn´n t`Z-KXn hcpØnbXp-{]Imcw A\p-h-Zn-°p∂-h. amen- \ y- k w- k v I - c W-Øn\pw KXm-KX- \ n- b - { ¥- W - Ø n \pw Pe-D-]-tbm-KØn\pw I¿i\ \n b-{¥Ww thWw.

Sqdnkw amÿ πm\ns‚bpw tkmjy¬ BUn- ‰ n- s ‚bpw ASnÿm- \ - Ø n¬ I¿i\ \nb- { ¥- W - ß ƒ G¿ s∏-Sp-ØpI. Hcp {]tZi- Ø n\v Xmßm- h p∂ tijn-bp-sSbpw kmaqly- ] - c n- ÿ nXn hnebpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn ¬ thWw amÿπm-\n \v cq]w \¬Im≥

taJe˛3 ISpØ \nb- { ¥- W Øn\pw tkmjy¬ BUn-‰n\pw hnt[-bambn AXym- h - i yap≈ ]pXn-bt- dm-Up-I fpw sdbn¬th sse \pw A\p-h-Zn°mw.

ISpØ \nb- { ¥- W ߃°pw tkmjy¬ ]pXnb sslth- BUn-‰n\pw hnt[-b-amIfpw FIvkv{]kv bn tdmUp-Iƒ sa®-s∏thIfpw Hgn- h m- Sp-Øm≥ A\p-h-Zn°pw. °Ww. Sqdnkw

hnZym-`ymkw

Sqdnkw amÿ πm\ns‚bpw tkmjy¬ BUn-‰n-s‚bpw ASnÿm-\-Øn¬ I¿i\ \nb-{¥-W-߃ G¿ s∏-Sp-ØpI. Hcp {]tZi-Øn\v Xmßm-hp∂ tijn-bp-sSbpw kmaqly- ] - c n- ÿ nXn hnebpsS ASn- ÿ m- \ Øn¬ thWw amÿ πm- \ n\v cq]w \¬ Im≥

{]mtZ-inI ]cn-ÿnXn {]iv\-ß-fp-tSbpw, `qan, Pew, hmbp XpSßnb {]IrXn hn`-h-ß-fpsS \io-I-c-W-Øn\pw Pe-a-en-\o-I-c-WØn\pw CS-h-cp-Øp∂ hnI-k-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-ß-fp-sSbpw ]cn-lm-cØn\pw \nb-{¥-W-Øn\pw {]m[m\yw Iev]n-®p≈ hnZym-`ymk ]cn-]m-Sn-I-fn-eqsS Ip´n-I-sfbpw bph-P-\-ß-tfbpw {]mtZinI ]cnÿn-Xn-bp-ambn _‘-s∏-Sp-ØWw. {]mtZ-inI kaq-lsØ ]¶m-fn-bm°n ]cn-ÿnXn hnZym-`ym-k-]≤-Xn-Isf ]¶m-fnØ ]cn-ÿnXn A]-{K-Y-\-Øn-\p≈ Hcp-]-I-cW-am°n {]mtZ-inI ssPh sshhn≤y amt\-Pvsa‚ v IΩn-‰n-Iƒ°v P\-Iob ssPh-ssh-hn≤ cPn-Ã-dpIƒ Xøm-dm-°m≥ Ignbpw. Hcp \Zn-bpsS am¿§-Øn-ep-S-\o-f-ap≈ kvIqfp-I-fn¬ hnZym¿∞n-IfpsS "dnh¿ ¢_p-Iƒ' cq]o-Ic - n®v th≠ t{]m’m-l\w \¬IWw. Irjn-]-T\w kvIqfp-I-fn¬ hym]-I-am-°Ww.

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52


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

hn`mKw imkv{Xhpw kmt¶-XnIimkv{Xhpw

taJe˛1

taJe˛2

taJe˛3

AW-s°-´p-Iƒ, J\n-Iƒ, Sqdnkw, `h-\-\n¿ΩmWw XpSßn F√m ]pXnb ]≤-Xn-I-tfbpw kw_-‘n®v BLm-Xm-]-T\w \SØn B {]tZiw AXn\v Xmßm≥ Ign-bp∂ tijn-°p-≈n-em-sW∂v I≠m¬ am{Xta A\p-aXn \¬Imhq. lcnX kmt¶-XnI hnZy-Ip-‰-a-‰-Xm-°m≥ Kth-jWw \S-Øp-Ibpw AXv km[m-c-W-°m-c\v Xmßm≥ Ign-bp-∂-Xm-°p-Ibpw thWw. ]cn-ÿn-Xn-bpsS Ne\ A]-{K-Y\ kqN-I-߃°v Kth-j-W-ÿm]-\-߃, k∂-≤-kw-L-S-\-Iƒ {]mtZ-inI kaqlw F∂n-h¿ HØptN¿∂v cq]w \¬IWw.

hn⁄m-\ -am-t\-Pvsa‚ v

]›n-a-L-´-k-anXn Xøm-dm-°nb ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn A]{K-Y-\-Øn\v P\-ß-fp-sSbpw {]tXy-In®v hnZym¿∞n-k-aq-l-sØbpw ]s¶-Sp-∏n®v Xpd-∂Xpw kpXm-cyhpw ]¶m-fn-Ø-]-c-hp-amb Hcp ]cnÿnXn Ah-tem-I-\-kw-hn-[m-\-Øn\v cq]w \¬IWw. \Zn-Isf kw_-‘n® ÿnXn-hn-h-c-°-W-°p-Iƒ ka-bm-k-a-b-ß-fn¬ ]pXp-°p-Ibpw \Zo-X-S-X-e-Øn-ep≈ hnh-c-ßfpw ]cn-ÿnXn kw_‘n® ÿnXn hnh-c-ßfpw kwtbm-Pn-∏n-°p-Ibpw thWw.

13.1 taJem πm\p-Ifpw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-Ifpw ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-e-bpsS samØ-Øn-ep≈ Bkq-{X-Whpw hnI-k-\hpw \n¿±njvS ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJ-e-I-fpsS N´-°q-´n¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-tØ-≠-Xp≠v. C°m-cy-Øn¬ tI{μ-k¿°m-cnse dn´. No^v Su¨ P\-d¬ πm\¿ s{]m^. FUvKm¿ dnt_tdm hnI-kn-∏n-s®-SpØ kao-]\ - t- cJ t_mIvkv II ¬ ImWmw.

t_mIvkv \º¿ 11 : taJem πm\p-Ifpw ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´nbpw (s{]m^. FUvKm¿ dnt_tdm Xøm-dm-°n-bXv) A.

`c-W-L-S-\-bpsS Iognse Un.-]n.-kn-Ifpw / Fw.-]n.-kn.-Ifpw

1.

1992 se 73, 74 `c-W-L-S\m t`Z-KXn \nb-a-߃ Pn√m-B-kq-{XW kan-Xn-Ifpw (DPC) sat{Sms]mfn-‰≥ Bkq-{X-W-I-Ωn-‰n-Ifpw (MPC) F∂ Bi-b-Øn\v cq]w \¬In. Aßs\ C¥y-bnse `c-W-Pn-√-Iƒ°p-≈n¬ 1950¬ ]©-h¬k-c- ]-≤-Xn-Iƒ DZ-bw-sN-bvX-tXmsS BWv k_v Pn√-I-fmb Xmeq-°p-Iƒ°v A\p-_-‘-ambn hnI-k-\-tªm-°p-Iƒ \ne-hn¬ h∂Xv. Un.]n.knIfpw Fw.]n.kn.Ifpw e£y-an-Sp-∂Xv Xmsg Xew apX¬ apI-fn-tem´p≈ ]¶m-fnØ hnI-k-\-amWv. Pn√-bnse hnI-k\ tªm°p-Iƒ°p-≈n¬ ap\n-kn-∏m-en‰n-I-sfbpw hnt√Pv ]©m-b-Ø-p-I-sfbpw \n¿Δ-Nn-°p∂ Ce-{Œ¬ hm¿Up-Isf ASn-ÿm\-am-°n-bm-WnXv. Cu {XnXe kwhn-[m-\Ø - n¬ `c-W] - c - a - mb Bh¿Ø-\a - n√. Un.]n.kn.IfpsSbpw Fw.]n.knI-fp-sS-bpw-]-cn[n _‘-s∏´ Pn√-bmWv.

2.

`c-WL - S- \ - m-t`-ZK - Xn {]Imcw Fw.]n.kn.Ifn¬ Ipd-™Xv aq∂n¬ c≠pw (2 /3), Un.]n.knIfn¬ \men¬ aq∂pw(3/4)AwK-߃ \ntbm-PI afi-em-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ sXc-s™-Sp-°s∏-´-h-cm-bn-cn-°Ww. CXn¬ Xs∂ aq∂n-sem-∂p-t]¿ (1/3) h\n-X-I-fm-bn-cn-°Ww. ]cn-anX-amb `qan hnhn[ hIp-∏p-I-fpsS ]≤-Xn°v D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xp kw_-‘n® X¿°-߃ ]cn-l-cn-°m-\p≈ kwhn-[m-\-sa∂ \ne-bn¬ Un.]n.knIfpw Fw.]n.kn.Ifpw Ah-cpsS

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A[n-Im-c-]-cn-[n-°p-≈n-ep≈ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ \n¿±njvS hnI-k\ t^m¿am-‰n¬ Xøm-dm°n kwÿm\ k¿°m-cns‚ ]cn-K-W-\bv°v ka¿∏n-°Ww. F∂mepw {Um^vSv πm\ns‚ kmwK-Xy-Øn¬ Bi-b-°p-g∏w \ne-\n-ev°p∂p. 3.

C∂v an° kwÿm-\-ß-fnepw Un.]n.knIƒ \ne-hn-ep-s≠-¶nepw Ah-bpsS Npa-X-e-Iƒ ]cn-an-X-amWv. tIcfw, I¿Æm-SIw, alm-cmjv{S, KpP-dmØv kwÿm-\-ß-fn¬ {XnXe ]©m-bØv cmPv kwhn-[m-\-amWv \ne-hn-ep-≈Xv. hnt√Pv ]©m-b-Øp-Ifpw Pn√m ]©mb-Øp-Ifpw AS-ßnb ZznXe ]©m-bØv cmPv kwhn-[m-\-amWv tKmh-bn-ep-≈Xv. AhnsS tªm°v ]©m-b-Øp-Iƒ C√.

4. \ne-hn¬ tIm¬°-Ø-bn¬ am{Xta sat{Sm s]mfn-‰≥ Bkq-{X-W-k-anXn (Fw.]n.kn) {]h¿Øn-°p-∂p≈p. Hcp Zi-e-£-Øn-e-[nIw P\-kw-Jy-bp≈ F√m sat{Sm s]mfn-‰≥ kn‰n-Iƒ°pw Fw.]n.kn cq]o-I-cn-°-Wsa-∂mWv `c-W-L-S\ A\p-im-kn-°p-∂Xv. 2001se IW-°-\p-k-cn®v CØcw 35 kn‰n-Iƒ C¥y-bn-ep≠v. Fw.]n.knIƒ cq]o-I-cn-°mØ kwÿm-\-߃°v 12˛mw ]©-h-’-c-]-≤-Xn-°m-eØv Ph-l¿em¬ s\{lp \K-c-hn-I-k\ ]≤Xn (JNNURM) bn¬ \n∂p≈ {]tXyI klmbw XS-™p-h-bv°m-\n-S-bp≠v. Fw.]n.kn. cq]o-I-c-W-Øn-ep-≈ {][m\ XS w A[n-Im-cm-Xn¿Øn kw_-‘n®v Un.]n.knIƒ, Pn√m ]©m-bØv, ap\n-kn-∏¬ tIm¿∏-td-j-\p-Iƒ, F∂n-h-Iƒ XΩn-ep≈ X¿°-amWv. 5.

CXn-s\mcp ]cn-lm-c-am-bn-´p-≈Xv Pn√ H∂msI Fw.]n.kn.bpsS ]cn-[n-bn-epƒs∏-Sp-ØpI F∂-XmWv. ChnsS Pn√ ]©m-b-Øp-Iƒ, {Um^vSv hnI-k\ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ Fw.]n.kn°v dnt∏m¿´p sNøWw.

B.

ÿe-]-c ]≤Xn-I-fpsS ]¶v (taJem˛\K-c-]-≤-Xn-Iƒ)

1. Fw.]n.knIfpw Un.]n.knIfpw hn`m-h\ sNbvX `cW-L-S-\m-t`-Z-KXn taJem \nt£] hnI-k\ Bkq-{X-W-Øns‚ {]iv\-߃°v ]cn-lmcw ImWm≥ {ian-s®-¶nepw CXv `qanbpsS hn\n-tbm-K-Øn-ep-≠m-°p∂ kΩ¿±-Øn\v t]mwhgn I≠n√. h¿≤n-®p-h-cp∂ `qan Zu¿e-`yhpw ss]Xr-I-aq-ey-ap≈ ÿe-ß-fnse ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i-߃ kwc£n-°m-\p≈ _m[y-Xbpw Cu {]iv\-Øns‚ cq£X h¿≤n-°p∂p. 2. Cu {]iv\-Øn\v Hcp ]cn-lm-c-sa∂ \ne-bn¬ tI{μ-\-K-c-hn-I-k\ a{¥m-ebw Hcp amXrI ÿe-]c hnI-k-\-B-kq-{XW \nb-a-Øn\v cq]w \¬In-bn-´p≠v. Pn√m-X-e-Øn¬ taJ-emπm-\p-Ifpw ap\n-kn-∏¬/]©m-b-Øp-X-e-πm-\p-Ifpw {]mtZ-in-I-X-e-Øn¬ hm¿Up-Xe πm\pIfpw Dƒs∏´ Hcp kwtbm-PnX ÿe-]c Bkq-{XW kwhn-[m-\-am-WnXv. 20 h¿jsØ Zo¿L ho£-W-tØmsS cq]-I-ev]\ sNbvX 5 h¿j-hn-I-k-\-]-≤-Xn-I-fm-Wn-Xn-ep-≠mhpI. Hmtcm taJ-e-bn-sebpw hyXykvX `qan D]-tbm-Khpw GsX√mw `qan GsX√mw Bh-iy-߃°v hn\n-tbm-Kn-°m-sa-∂Xp kw_-‘n® ]´n-Ibpw Hmtcm taJ-e-bv°p-ap≈ hnI-k\ \n-b{- ¥W \n_-‘\ - I - fpw CXn-ep-≠mIpw. hfsc {][m-\s - ∏-s´m-cp-Imcyw kwÿm\sØ `qhn-\n-tbmKw \n›-bn-°p∂ GI-\n-baw CXp am{X-am-bn-cn-°p-sa-∂-XmWv. CXp aqew ]e \nb-a-߃°p Iogn¬ hnI-k-\-]-≤XnIƒ Xøm-dm-°p-∂-Xp-aq-e-ap≈ Bi-b°p-g∏w Hgn-hmIpw. taJe˛\Kc Bkq-{XW \nb-a-Øn≥ Iognse ]≤Xn \n¿Δ-N\w Xmsg-]-dbpw {]Im-c-amWv. 3.

Hcp s{]mPIvSv AYhm kvIow F∂m¬ GsX-¶nepw Hcp tI{μ˛ kwÿm-\-\-b-a-Øn≥ Iogn¬ GsX-¶nepw Hcp \n›nX {]tZ-iØv \S-∏m-°p∂ ]≤Xn F∂¿∞w. KXm-KXw, a‰v ASn-ÿm\ hnI-k\ LS-I-߃, Su¨jn-∏p-Iƒ, `h-\-\n¿ΩmWw, hyh-km-b-߃, hmWnPyw, ÿm]-\-߃, hnt\m-Z-D-]m-[n-Iƒ, ]g-©≥ cq]-tc-J-I-fpsS ]p\¿\n¿ΩmWw, ss]Xr-X-kw-c-£Ww XpSßn _‘-s∏´ \nb-a-Ønse hyh-ÿ-{]-Im-c-ap-≈-sX√mw CXn-epƒs°m-≈n-°Ww.

4.

ÿe-]-c-B-kq-{XW N´-°qSpw Hcp t{]mPIvSv/kvIoapw XΩn¬ hyXym-k-ap≠v,

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C.

]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n (WGEA)

1.

C¥y-bnse CXc ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-߃s°m∏w ]›n-a-L-´-Øn-\p-th-≠nbpw Hcp ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n cq]o-I-cn-°m≥ ]cym-]vX-amb Ah-k-c-am-WnXv. C¥y-bnse 650 Hmfw Pn√-I-fpsS aq∂n-sem∂v (1/3) ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ß-fmWv. Chn-sSsb√mw hnI-k-\-Øn\v Hcp ]n≥_e ]¶m-Wp-≈Xv. as‰m-cp-hn-[-Øn¬ ]d-™m¬ C¥ybnse Pn√-I-fpsS aq∂n-sem∂pw hnI-k\ kulr-Z-]-c-amWv. ChnsS ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e-sa∂ Bibw hfsc {i≤m-]q¿Δw thWw \S-∏m-°m≥. a‰p Pn√-I-fn¬ hnI-k-\hpw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-Xbpw XΩn¬ k¥p-e\w D≠m-hp-Ibpw thWw.

2.

Ncn{X {]m[m-\y-ap≈ ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS A[n-Im-c-]-cn-[n-bn¬ KpPdmØv, alm-cmjv{S, tKmh, I¿Æm-SI, tIcf, Xan-gv\mSv F∂o 6 kwÿm-\-ß-fnse \nc-h[n Pn√-Iƒ Dƒs∏Spw Cu Pn√-Iƒs°√mw tIc-fØ - n-sebpw tKmh-bn-sebpw t]mse ÿe-]-c-ta-Jem πm\p-Iƒ Bh-iy-amWv. Cu Pn√-Iƒ°v Pn√m-Xe `pX-e-hn-\n-tbm-K -πm-\p-Iƒ Xøm-dm-°n-bm¬ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-`q-hn-\n-tbmK taJ-e-Ifpw a‰v `qhn-\ntbm- K - t a- J - e - I fpw AXn¬ hy‡- a mbn AS- b m- f - s ∏- S p- Ø n- b n- ´ p- ≠ mIpw. _‘- s ∏´ kwÿm-\sØ _‘-s∏´ Pn√-bpsS ÿe-]-c-ta-Jem πm\n¬ ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS AXn¿Øn hy‡-ambn ImWn-®n-cn-°Ww. X∑qew hnI-k-\-{]-h¿Ø\-߃°v AtXm-dn-´n-bn¬ \n∂v ¢nb-d≥kv hmtß-≠-Xv GsXms° {]tZ-i-Øn-\msW∂v CXn¬ \n∂v a\- n-em°mw.

3.

]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n Hcp s{]mPIvSv kwhn-[m-\-amWv. A√msX Hcp `qhn-\ntbmK N´-°qSv kwhn-[m-\a - √. `qhn-\n-tbmK N´-°q-Sn-\p≈ hyhÿ Dƒs∏Sp-∂Xv kwÿm\-Øns‚ taJe \K-c-hn-I-k\ Bkq-{XW \nb-a-Øn-emWv. AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS ]≤Xn Xøm-dm-°p∂ apdbv°v GsX-¶nepw {]tZiw Zp¿_-e-am-sW∂v Ah¿ Icp-Xp-∂p-sh-¶n¬ AXv taJ-em-hn-I-k\ πm\n¬ \n¿_-‘-ambpw ImWn-®n-cn-°Ww. \n›nX ka-b-]-cn-[n°p-≈n¬ GsXms° {]tZ-i-ß-fmWv ]cn-c-£n-t°-≠-sX∂pw GsXm-s°-bmWv kwc£n-t°-≠-sX∂pw {]tXyI \n_-‘-\-ItfmsS GsXms° {]tZ-i-߃ hnI-kn-∏n-°msa∂pw ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n°v Xocp-am-\n°mw. CXv Hmtcm Pn√m-Xe taJem-πm-\nepw Dƒs∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw thWw. "s{]mPIvSv' F∂ ]Zhpw "N´-°qSv' F∂ ]Zhpw XΩn-ep≈ hyXymkw Xncn-®-dn-bm≥ CXv klm-bn°pw. `qhn-\n-tbmK taJe ÿe-]c hnI-k\ πm\ns‚ Ahn-`m-Py-L-S-I-ß-fmWv.

4.

]›n-aL - ´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n Hcp ZiIw ap≥]v \ne-hn¬ h∂n-cp∂p F¶n¬ "ehmk'/ "Aw_n-hmen' taJem ]≤-Xn-I-fpsS cq]w hfsc hyXy-kvX-am-hp-am-bn-cp∂p. AXm-bXv BtKm-f-]-ckyw \¬In-bp≈ dnb¬ FtÉv Xmev]-cy-Øn\p ]Icw AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS ]cn-ÿnXn \n_-‘-\-Iƒ°p hnt[-b-am-Ip-am-bn-cp∂p. BI-bm¬ AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS ]≤Xn-Iƒ hnP-bn-°-W-sa-¶n¬ Ah kwÿm-\-ta-Jem \K-c-hn-I-k\ Bkq-{XW \nb-aØns‚ ]›m-Ø-e-Øn¬ hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-Ø-h-bm-IWw. am{X-a√ "hnI-k\w' F∂ Bib-Øn¬ ]cn-c-£-Whpw kwc-£-Whpw IqSn Dƒs∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw thWw.

5.

"kwc-£W ]›m-Ø-e-Ønse hnI-k\w' F∂ Bi-b-Ønse "ÿe-]-c-hn-I-k\ Bkq{XWw' F∂ ]pXnb Nn¥m-k-c-Wn-bn¬ AtXm-dn´n t{]mP-IvSpIƒ°v hnPbn°m≥ Ignbpw. A\p-Iqe LS-I-ß-fmb h\-ta-Je, ]e-hpcp Irjn-bn-d-°m-hp∂ Irjn-`qan, NXp-∏p-Iƒ, Pe-t{km-X - p-Iƒ {]Ir-Xn-ZØ - hpw a\p-jy-\n¿Ωn-Xh - p-amb ]cn-ÿnXn F∂nh \nb-{¥-W-c-ln-X-ambn am∏nßv \S-Ønbpw KXm-KXw, ASn-ÿm\ hnI-k\ LS-I-߃ XpS-ßnbh A\p-tbm-Pyhpw t{]m’m-l-\-]-c-hp-amb hnI-k\ \n_-‘-\-I-tfmsS AXpambn kwtbm-Pn-∏n®pw AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS t{]mP-IvSp-Iƒ h≥hn-P-b-am-°p-hm≥ Ignbpw.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

14. ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n 1986se ]cn-ÿnXn (kwc-£W) \nb-a-Ønse 3˛mw hIp-∏p-{]-Im-c-ap≈ F√m A[n-Im-cß-tfmSpw IqSn tI{μ ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw \nb-an® \nb-a-km-[y-X-bp≈ ÿm]-\-amWv ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n. ]›n-a-L´w AXn-hn-im-e-amb Hcp taJ-e-bmWv. CXv 6 kwÿm-\-ß-fnepw 44 Pn√-I-fnepw 142 Xmeq-°p-I-fn-ep-ambn hym]n®p InS-°p∂p. AXp-sIm-≠pXs∂ kwÿm-\-k¿°m-cp-Ifpw tI{μ-]-cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-e-bhpw kwbp-‡-ambn \nb-an°p∂ 6 kwÿm\ ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n-I-fn-eqsS thWw ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n°v AXns‚ Npa-X-e-Iƒ \n¿Δ-ln-°m≥. kwÿm\ ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n-Iƒ kwÿm\ ssPh sshhn-≤y-t_m¿Up-I-fp-ambpw aen-\o-I-cW \nb-{¥W t_m¿Up-I-fpambpw kwÿm-\-B-kq-{XW t_m¿Up-I-fp-ambpw ASpØ _‘w ]pe¿Øp-Ibpw Bkq-{XW IΩo-j≥ ]©-h¬kc ]≤-Xn-I-fn-eqsS e`y-am-°p∂ ^≠p-]-tbm-Kn®v ]›n-a-L´ hnI-k\ ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ \S-∏m-°p-Ibpw thWw. F√m ]›n-a-L´ hnI-k\ ]≤-Xn-Ifpw kwÿm-\- ]-›na-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n-IfpsS klm-b-tØmsS kwÿm\ k¿°m¿ Xøm-dm-°p-Ibpw ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS am¿K-\n¿t±i {]Imcw hnI-kn-∏n-s®-SpØ kpÿn-c-hnI-k-\m-[n-jvTnX kvIoap-Iƒ°v ]n≥_ew \¬Im-\mbn D]-tbm-Kn-°p-Ibpw thWw. tI{μ-]-cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw \nb-an® D∂-X-Xe Ah-tem-I-\-k-an-Xn-I-fpsS klmb-tØm-sS-bmWv Ct∏mƒ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS `cWw \S-Øp-∂Xv. kp{]nw-tImSXn DØ-c-hn-eqsS \nb-an-°-s∏´ Zlm-\-Xm-eq°v ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS Imcy-sam-gn-®m¬ \nb-{¥-Wm-[n-Im-c-an-√m-Ø-Xn-\m¬ taev]-d™ `c-W-kw-hn-[m\w ]cm-P-b-amWv. kmº-ØnI˛ a\p-jy-hn-`-h-Øns‚ A]-cym-]vX-Xbpw CXns\ Zp¿_-e-am-°p∂p. Nne tIkp-I-fn¬ XpS¿®bmbn Ign™ Iptd h¿j-ß-fmbn D∂-X-Xe kanXn \ne-hn-en√. ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn hnZKv[ kan-Xn°v (WGEEP) ]Icw F√m-]-›n-a-L´ Pn√-I-fnepw Pn√m ]cn-ÿnXn kan-Xn-Iƒ cq]o-I-cn°-W-sa-∂mWv Rß-fpsS \n¿t±iw. Cu Pn√m-I-Ωn-‰nIƒ Pn√m ]©m-bØv ssPh-ssh-hn-≤yam-t\-Pvsa‚ v IΩn-‰n-Ifpw Pn√m πm\nßv IΩn-‰n-I-fp-ambn kl-I-cn®v {]h¿Øn-°Ww. Pn√mXe ssPh-ssh-hn≤y amt\-Pvsa‚ v IΩn-‰n-Iƒ -ssP-h-ssh-hn≤y \nb-a-{]-Imcw \nban® Ãm‰yq-´dn IΩ-n‰n-I-fmWv. A√msX D∂-X-Xe Ah-tem-I-\-k-an-Xn-I-sf-t]mse h¿j-ß-fmbn {]h¿Ø-\an-√mØ AUvtlm°v kan-Xn-I-f√. AXp-sIm≠v ]c-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-e-bhpw kwÿm\ ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n-Ifpw \ntbm-Kn-°p∂ hnZKv[ AwK-ß-fpsS klm-b-tØmsS Pn√m-Xe ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v IΩn-‰n-I-tfmSv ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS Npa-X-e-Iƒ \n¿Δ-ln-°m≥ Bh-iy-s∏-Sm-hp-∂-XmWv. {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn¬ kpXm-cy-Xbpw Xpd∂ kao-]-\hpw ]¶m-fn-Øhpw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm≥ ]›na-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n {i≤n-°Ww. CXn-\p≈ G‰hpw \√ am¿§w "]cym-h-c≥ hmln\n' kvIow ]p\-cp-÷o-hn-∏n-°p-Itbm ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-I-cmbn {]h¿Øn-°m≥ k∂-≤-X-bp≈ Xt±-i-hm-kn-I-fpsS kanXn cq]o-I-cn®v Pn√-bnse ]cn-ÿnXn Ah-ÿ-bpsS {]mY-anI Ah-temI\w \S-Øp-I-bmWv. Cu ]cym-h-c≥ hmln\n thmf‚n-b¿am¿°v kwc-£-W-Ønepw kpÿn-chn-I-k-\-Ønepw ]cn-ÿnXn ]p\:ÿm]-\-Ønepw Xmsg X´n¬ P\-ßsf {]m]vX-cm-°p-∂-Xn¬ hen-sbmcp ]¶v hln-°m-\mIpw. F√m Pn√-I-fnepw ]cn-ÿnXn Hmw_p-Uvkvams\ \nb-an-°m≥ AtXm-dn´n \S-]-Sn-sb-Sp-°Ww. B{‘-bnse alm-flm-Km‘n tZiob {Kmao-W-sXm-gn-ep-d∏v \nba-Øns‚ amXr-I-bn¬ F√m ]cn-ÿnXn {]iv\-߃°pw _m[-I-amb Hcp tkmjy¬ BUn‰v kwhn-[m\w G¿s∏-Sp-ØWw. e`y-am-bn-´p≈ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse `qX-e-hn-h-c-߃ ssPh sshhn-≤y-L-S-I-߃ F∂nh kam-l-cn®v 5 an\n´v x 5 an\n´v As√-¶n¬ 9 Inao x 9 Inao ka-N-Xp-c-Øn-ep≈ 2200 bqWn-‰p-Iƒ°v ÿe-]c Um‰m-t_kv hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°p-∂-Xn¬ D∂-X-Xe kanXn henb ]ptcm-KXn t\Sn. e`y-am-bn-´p≈ a‰v ]e Um‰m-t_-kp-Iƒ IqSn IW-°n-se-SpØv Cu Um‰m-t_kv IqSp-X¬ hn]peo-I-cn-°m≥ AtXm-dn´n {ian-°Ww. hyh-km-b-ß-fpsS taJe `q]-S-߃°p-th≠n Xøm-dm°nb Um‰m- t _kpw CX- c - i m- k - { Xob LS- I - ß fpw, kv I qƒ˛tImtfPv Xe- Ø nse ]cnÿnXn˛hnZym-`ym-khpw P\-ß-fpsS ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-c-Pn-ÿ {]h¿Ø-\-ßfpw Um‰m-t_kv hn]p-eo-I-cn-°p-∂-Xn\v IW-°n-se-Sp°mw. Bkvt{S-en-b-bnse "dnh¿hm®v kvIoap"IfpsS amXrI............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

bn¬ ]›n-a-Um‰m _m¶ns‚ XpS¿®-bmb hn]p-eo-I-c-W-Øn\v P\-]-¶m-fnØw t{]m’m-ln-∏n°Ww. CXn-\mbn h\-ta-J-e-bn¬ {]h¿Øn-°p-∂-Xn\v C∂v Kth-j-I¿ A\p-`-hn-°p∂ A\ymb-amb _p≤n-ap-´p-Iƒ Hgn-hm-°m≥ AtXm-dn´n klm-bn-°Ww. P\-ß-fpsS At]-£-Iƒ°p th≠n-t]mepw ImØn-cn-°m\mImsX hnh-cm-h-Imi \nbaw A\p-im-kn-°p-∂-Xp-t]mse {]k‡-amb hnh-c-߃ Ime-Xm-akw IqSmsX e`y-am-°m≥ _‘-s∏´ k¿°m¿ GP≥kn-I-fn¬ AtXm-dn´n kΩ¿±w sNep-ØWw. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v hyh-km-b-߃°m-bp≈ Pn√m-Xe taJem `q]-S-߃ tI{μ-]-cn-ÿnXn h\w a{¥m-ebw DS≥Xs∂ ]c-ky-s∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw sh_vssk-‰n¬ {]kn-≤-s∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw AXns\ ]›n-a-L´ Um‰m-_m-¶p-ambn _‘n-∏n-°p-Ibpw thWw. ]cn-ÿnXn BLm-X- A-]-{K-Y-\hpw ¢nb-d≥kv {]{In-bbpw ASn-apSn ]cn-jv°-cn-°m≥ AtXm-dn´n ap≥ssI FSp-°Ww. ]c-nÿnXn BLm-X -A-]-{K-Y-\hpw ¢nb-d≥kpw Bh-iy-ap≈ t{]mP-IvSp-I-fpsS ]´nI ]p\:]cn-tim-[n-°p-Ibpw Ct∏mƒ Hgn-hm-°-s∏-´n-´p≈ hn‚ van-√p-Ifpw sNdp-InS Pe-ssh-Zyp-X-]-≤-Xn-Ifpw Dƒs∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw Cu {]{Inb kpXm-cy-am-°p-Ibpw thWw. am{X-hp-a√ kvIqƒ˛ tImtfPv Xe-Ønse ]cn-ÿnXn hnZym-`ym-khpw P\-ß-fpsS ssPh -ssh-hn-≤y-c-Pn-ÿ \S-]-Sn-Ifpw Cu ¢nb-d≥kv {]{In-b-bp-ambn _‘-s∏-Sp-ØWw. \ne-hn-ep≈ t{]mP-IvSvXe ¢nb-d≥kv {]{In-b-bv°p-]-Icw samØ-Øn-ep≈ ImgvN-∏m-Sns\ t{]m’m-ln-∏n°p-Ibpw Bh¿Ø\ BLmX A]-{K-Y-\-coXn Ah-ew-_n-°p-Ibpw thWw. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]cn-ÿnXn ]p\xÿm]\w, kpÿn-c-hn-I-k\w, kwc-£Ww F∂n-hbn¬ Xmsg-\n∂v apI-fn-te-°p≈ Hcp ]¶m-fnØ kao-]-\sØ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°Ww. Cu ImgvN∏m-tSmsS 73,74 `c-W-L-S\m t`Z-K-Xn-I-fn-eqsS e£y-an´ P\m-[n-]-Xy-{]-{In-bmb A[n-Im-c-hn-tI{μo-I-c-WsØ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°Ww. ]›n-a-L´ kwÿm-\-ß-fn-sem-∂mb tIcfw C°m-cy-Øn¬ {it≤-b-amb t\´w ssIh-cn-®n-´p≠v. a‰v F√m ]›n-a-L´ Pn√-I-fnepw Cu amXrI kzoI-cn-°m≥ AtXm-dn´n ap≥ssI FSp-°Ww. ssPh sshhn≤y amt\-Pvsa‚ v IΩn-‰n-I-fn-eqsS ssPh-ssh-hn≤y \nbaw \S-∏m-°p∂ Imcy-Ønepw tIcfw hfsc ap∂n-emWv. F√m ]›n-a-L´ Pn√-I-fnepw {Kma-]-©m-b-Øp-Iƒ, Xmeq°v ]©m-b-Øp-Iƒ, Pn√m-]-©m-b-Øp-Iƒ, \K-c-]m-en-I-Iƒ, alm-\-K-c-]m-en-I-Iƒ F∂o Xe-ß-fn¬ ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v IΩ-‰n-Iƒ cq]o-I-cn-°m≥ AtXm-dn‰n {ian-°Ww. AXpt]mse ssPh-ssh-hn≤y amt\-Pvsa‚ v IΩn-‰n-Iƒ°v t{]m’m-l-\-sa∂ \ne-bn¬ ssPh-sshhn-≤y-\n-baw A\p-h-Zn-°p∂ "k¿Δokv Nm¿÷v' CuSm-°m≥ A\p-h-Zn-°Ww. tIc-f-Ønse DSp-º-t©me Xmeq-°nse ssPh-ssh-hn-[y-k-º-∂-amb {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS kwc-£-W-am-Xr-I-bn¬ kwc-£-W-]-cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°p-∂-Xn\v Cu ÿm]-\-ß-sfsb√mw ]¶m-fn-I-fm-°Ww. Cu ssPh-ssh-hn-[y-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v IΩn‰n-Iƒ Im¿jnI ssPh sshhn-≤y-sØ-IqSn {i≤n-°-Ww. Cu ]›m-Ø-e-Øn¬ 2001se kky-kw-c-£W I¿jI Ah-Im-i-\n-b-a-Ønse hIp-∏p-Iƒ hfsc {]k-‡-amWv. Hcp tZiob P\n-XI ^≠v cq]o-I-cn-®n-´p≠v. CXn\v [mcmfw ^≠pw e`y-amWv. Xt±i hnf C\-ß-fpsS P\n-XI kwc-£-W-Øn\v ]©m-b-Øp-X-e-Øn¬ Cu ^≠v D]-tbm-Kn°m-hp-∂-XmWv. ]cn-ÿnXn ]p\-ÿm-]-\-Øn¬ alm-flm-Km‘n {KmaoW sXmgn-ep-d-∏p-]-≤Xn \nb-a-Øn\v henb kw`m-h\ sNøm≥ Ignbpw. CXn-¬ {]h¿Øn-Iƒ Gs‰-Sp-°p-∂-Xn\v {Kma-k-`-Iƒ IqSn A\p-aXn thW-sa∂ \n¿t±iw kzmK-Xm¿l-amWv. ]´nI {]tZi\nb-a-Øn-s‚bpw h\- A-h-Imi-\n-b-a-Øn-s‚bpw ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ {Kma-k-`-Iƒ i‡n-s∏-Sp-ØWw. h\ Ah-Im-i-\n-b-a-Øn≥ Iogn¬ kmaq-ly- h-\-\n-b-a-Øns‚bpw Iogn¬ kmaq-ly-h\ hn`-h-\n¿t±-i-ßfpw PESAbpw \S-∏m-°p-∂Xv AtXm-dn´n t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°Ww.(Extension of Panchayat Raj to the Scheduled Areas Act)

{]IrXn kwc-£-W-Øn-e-[n-jvTn-X-amb {]h¿Ø-\-߃ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°m≥ \nb-{¥-Wßfpw {]Xn-Iqe t{]m’m-l-\hpw F∂ coXn-°p-]-Icw hnip≤ -h-\-߃ F∂ ]c-º-cm-KX Bi-b-Øns‚ ]›m-Ø-e-Øn¬ B[p-\nI kml-N-cy-߃°-\p-k-cn-®p≈ {]h¿Ø-\-ß-tfbpw XpS¿®-bmb kwc-£-Wm-[njvTn-X-amb {]h¿Ø-\-ß-tfbpw AtXm-dn´n t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°Ww. kz¥w `qan-bn¬ I≠¬°mSv kwc-£n-°p∂ I¿j-I\v kwc-£W k¿Δokv Nm¿Pv \¬Ip∂ tIcf ssPh sshhn-[y-t_m¿Uns‚ \S-]Sn DZm-l-c-W-am-sb-Sp°mw. kwc-£W ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Npa-Xe - b - n-ep≈ DtZym-Kÿ ¿°pw kmt¶-XnI hnZ-Kv[¿°pw iº-fØ - n\pw a‰v B\p-Iq-ey-߃°pw Po∏v, `h-\-\n¿ΩmWw F∂n-hbv°pw th≠n ^≠v hn\n-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xns‚ Imcy-£-a-Xsb ]‰n AtXm-dn´n hkvXp-\n-jvT-amb hne-bn-cp-ج \S-ØWw. C°m-cy-Ønse Imcy-£-aX hfsc tami-am-sW-∂Xv kwi-b-an-√mØ Imcy-amWv. Db¿∂ aqey-ap≈ ssPh-ssh-hn-[y-L-S-I-ß-fpsS kwc-£-W-Øn\v {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-Øn\v A\p-Iqe t{]m’m-l\w \¬Im-\mbn Hcp \n›n-Xk-a-b-]-cn-[n-bn-te°v, Cu ^≠v ]p\¿hn-\y-kn-°Ww. ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-Øns‚ {]tXyI LS-Iß - ƒ°v kwc-£W - a - qeyw \n›-bn-°m≥ Hcp s]mXpk-ao-]-\-Øn\v cq]w \¬Im\pw ]e {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-Øn\pw A\p-h-Zn-® {]tZ-i-Øn-\p-≈n¬ ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-Øns‚ \ne A]-{K-Yn-°m≥ B{i-bn-°m-hp-∂Xpw kpXm-cy-hp-amb Hcp kwhn[m\w kwL-Sn-∏n-°m\pw ]e kmt¶-XnI LS-I-߃ Bh-iy-amWv. h\ A-h-Im-i-\n-b-a-Øn≥ Iogn-ep≈ kaq-l-h-\-hn-`-h-߃°pw ]©m-bØv {]tZ-iØv A\p-h-Zn-®n-´p≈ ssPh-ssh-hn≤y-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v IΩn-‰n-Iƒ°pw CXv thWw. F√m-X-e-Øn-ep-ap≈ hnZym-`ymk ÿm]-\-߃°v AXm-bXv hnt√Pv ss{]adn kvIqƒ apX¬ k¿Δ-I-em-im-e-Iƒ hsc C°m-cy-Øn¬ Hcp {][m\ ]¶v hln-°m≥ Ignbpw. Ch-sb√mw \n›-b-ambpw ]cn-ÿnXn hnZym-`ym-k-Øns‚ ]mTy-`m-KØnse {][m-\-L-S-I-ß-fm-bn-cn-°Ww. `mhn-bn¬ {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fpsS GtIm-]-\-Øn-\p-am-{X-ambn Hcp sNdnb hn`mKw DtZym-K-ÿsc \ne-\n¿Øn-s°m≠v {]Ir-Xn-hn-`-h-ß-fpsS kwc-£-Whpw amt\-Pvsa‚pw ]q¿Æ-ambn {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-Øn\v hn´p-sIm-Sp-°m≥ Ign-bWw. Aß-s\-bm-I-bm¬ ssPh-ssh-hn-≤ysØ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°m-\mbn sNe-gn-°p∂ XpI Cu kaq-l-ß-fn-te°v FØpw. kwc-£W {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn-te¿s∏-´n-´p≈ \n¿≤-\¿°v {]Xn-^ew \¬Im\pw AXp-hgn kmaq-ly-\oXn Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm\pw ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-kw-c-£-W-Øn\v A\pIq-e-am-sbm-c-hÿ ]cs° krjvSn-°m\pw Ignbpw.

14.1.\nb-a-]-c-amb N´-°qSvv ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n (WGEA) ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ambn \n¿t±-in-°-s∏-´n-´p≈ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]c-amb BLm-X-ßsf ]‰n a\- n-em-°m\pw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-X-bpsS G‰-°p-d-®n-e-\p-k-cn®v taJe˛H∂v, c≠v, aq∂v F∂v th¿Xn-cn-°m-\p-ambn ]›n-a-L-´-Øn\v samØ-Øn¬ Hcp D∂-XXe AtXm-dn´n cq]o-I-cn-°-W-sa∂ \n¿t±-i-ap-≠mbn. CsXm-sSm∏w Hmtcm kwÿm-\-Øn\pw kwÿm-\-Xe AtXm-dn-´n-Ifpw Pn√-I-fn¬ Pn√m-]-cn-ÿnXn IΩn-‰n-Ifpw D≠m-I-W-sa∂pw \n¿t±in-°-s∏´p. ]›n-a-L´ kwÿm-\-ß-fnse F√m hn`mKw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ß-fn-sebpw {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fpsS Bkq-{X-Whpw \n¿Δ-l-Whpw \nb-{¥-W-hp-amWv ]›n-a-L-´-]-cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS Npa-Xe.

cq]o-I-cWw ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-W- \n-b-a-Ønse (1986) {]k‡ hIp-∏p-Iƒ {]Imcw tI{μ ]cnÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw _‘-s∏´ kwÿm\ k¿°m-cp-ambn IqSn-bm-tem-Nn-®mWv AtXm-dn‰n cq]o-I-cn-t°-≠Xv.

AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS {]h¿Ø\w h\y-Po-hn-kw-c-£-W-\n-baw (1972), h\w kwc-£W \nbaw (1980), ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£W-\n-baw (1986) A\p-k-cn®v ]pd-s∏-Sp-hn-®n-´p≈ DØ-c-hp-Ifpw hn⁄m-]-\-ßfpw, ssPh-sshhn-≤y-\n-baw (2002), hmbp-\n-baw(1981), Pe-\n-baw(1974), ]´n-I-h¿§hpw CX-c-]-c-º-cm-KX h\hm-kn-Iƒ (h\ Ah-Imiw AwKo-I-cn-°¬) \nbaw (2006), ]©m-bØv (]´nI taJ-e-bn-te°v hym]n-∏n-°¬ \nbaw (1996) Ah-bpsS N´-߃ F∂n-hbv°v A\p-tcm-[-am-bn- thWw ]›n-aL´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n {]h¿Øn-°m≥. AXm-bXv ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ß-fnse IS-∂p-I-b-‰-Øn-s\-Xnsc a‰v ]cn-ÿnXn \nb-a-߃s°m-∏-ap≈ Hcp AUo-jW¬ \nb-a-am-bn-thWw Cu hn⁄m-]-\sØ IW-°m-°m≥. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS LS\ hnhn[ hnj-b-ß-fnse {]K¤¿, hnhn[ taJ-e-I-fnse {]K-¤¿, _‘-s∏´ a{¥m-eb {]Xn-\n-[n-Iƒ F∂n-hsc AtXm-dn-´n-bn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-ØWw. hnj-b-ß-fn¬ imkv{Xw, [\-X-Xzimkv{Xw, \nbaw, tkmtjym-fPn F∂n-hbpw taJ-e-I-fn¬ h\-imkv{Xw, Pe-imkv{Xw, aÆv imkv{Xw, Irjn, `qhn-\n-tbmKw, ]cn-ÿnXn F∂n-hbpw Dƒs∏-SpØWw. ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n-bn¬ NphsS ]dbpw {]Imcw 24AwK-ß-fmWv D≠m-bncn-°pI.

A\p-tZym-K-ÿmw-K-߃ 1.

sNb¿am≥ :˛Ign-bp∂Xpw ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-bn¬\n-∂p≈ dnt´¿Uv sNbvX kp{]nw-tImSXn PUvPn-bm-bn-cn-°Ww. sNb¿am≥. sXfn-bn-°-s∏´ hy‡n-Xzhpw kwc-£-W-tØmSpw \n¿≤-\-cpsS kpÿnc hnI-k-\-tØmSpw B`n-ap-Jy-ap-≈-h-cm-bn-cn-°Ww.

As√-¶n¬ ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-bn¬ \n∂p≈ {]apJ kky-im-kv{X-⁄\pw Ign™ 25 h¿j-ß-fmbn Cu taJ-e-bpsS kwc-£-W-Øn\v KWy-amb kw`m-h-\-Iƒ \¬Inb Bfp-am-bn-cn-°Ww. 2.

]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ kwc-£-W-Øn-\mbn KWy-amb kw`m-h-\-Iƒ \¬Inb kwc-£-W-kky-im-kv{X-⁄≥.

3.

]›n-a-L´ kwÿm-\-ß-fnse ]cn-ÿnXn \nb-a-ß-sf-]‰n Bg-Øn¬ Adn-hp≈ A`n-`mj-I≥ AYhm ]cn-ÿnXn \nb-am-≤ym-]-I≥/s{]m^-k¿.

4.

Hcp {]apJ kmaqly imkv{X-⁄≥/[\-X-Xz-im-kv{X-⁄≥/tkmtjym-fPn

5.

Hcp {]apJ Irjn imkv{X-⁄≥/s{]m^-k¿

6.

Hcp {]apJ em‚ vkvtI]v Ct°m-f-PnÃv

7.

{]apJ Kncn-h¿§ {Kq∏ns‚ Hcp {]Xn-\n[n( Hmtcm kwÿm-\-Øp-\n∂pw sdmt´-j≥ ASnÿm-\-Øn¬)

8˛13. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse Hmtcm kwÿm-\-Øp-\n∂pw AhnsS ]›n-a-L-´-]-cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-WØn\v Imcy-amb kw`m-h\ \¬In-bn-´p≈ Hmtcm kaql {]Xn-\n[nIƒ hoXw. 1 apX¬ 5 hsc-bp-≈-h¿ Ign-bp∂Xpw ]›n-a-L-´-kw-ÿm-\-ß-fn¬ \n∂p-≈-h-cm-bn-cn°Ww.

DtZym-K-ÿmw-K-߃ 14.

tI{μ-]-cn-ÿnXn ˛ h\w a{¥m-e-b-Ønse Hcp AUo-j-W¬ sk{I-´dn (FIvkv H^otjym)

15.

tI{μ aen-\o-I-cW \nb-{¥-W-t_m¿Uv sNb¿am≥ (FIvkv H^otjym)

16.

]›n-a-L´/]cn-ÿnXn Imcy-߃ ssIImcyw sNøp∂ tI{μ Bkq-{XW IΩo-j≥ saº¿ (FIvkv H^otjym)

17.

tZiob ssPh sshhn≤y AtXm-dn´n sNb¿am≥ (FIvkv H^otjym)

18.

saº¿ sk{I-´dn (^pƒssSw). tPmbn‚ v sk{I-´dn/ kbn‚nÃv ˛ PnbpsS t{KUn-ep≈ Hcm-^o-ksd AtXm-dn-´n- sN-b¿am-\p-ambn Btem-Nn®v tI{μ-]-cn-ÿnXn ˛h\w a{¥m-ebw sU]yq-t´-j-\n¬ \nb-an-°Ww.

19˛24. kwÿm\ ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn t_m¿Up-I-fpsS saº¿ sk{I-´-dn-Iƒ

AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS A[n-Im-c-߃ 1.

CsXmcp Ãm‰yq-´dn AtXm-dn-´n-bmWv. CXns‚ ip]m¿i-Iƒ km[m-c-W-\n-e-bn¬ AtX ]Sn AwKo-Ic - n-°s - ∏Spw. (tZiob h\y-Pohn t_m¿Uns‚ amXr-Ib - n-em-Wn-Xpw). t_m¿Uns‚ ip]m¿i-Iƒ kp{]nw-tIm-SXn t]mepw t`Z-KXn sNøm-dn√.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.

]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-bn¬ ]cn-ÿn-Xn°v tIm´w X´p∂ `qhn-\n-tbm-K Bkq-{X-Ww, hyh-km-bß - f - p-sSbpw CXc {]h¿Ø\-ßf - p-tSbpw ÿm\-\n¿Æbw F∂n-hs - b√mw AtXmdn-´n-bpsS A[n-Im-c-]-cn-[n-bn¬s]Spw.

3.

_‘-s∏´ kwÿm-\-hp-ambn IqSn-bm-tem-Nn®v ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn hnZ-Kv[-k-anXn ip]m¿i sNøp∂ {]tZ-i-ßsf ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJ-e-I-fmbn \n›n-X- k-a-b-]-cn-[n°p-≈n¬ AwKo-I-cn-°m-\p≈ A¥na A[n-Imcw AtXm-dn-´n-bn¬ \n£n-]vX-amWv. ]cnÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-IfpsS hyXykvX \ne-hm-csØ kw_-‘n® Xo¿∏p-I-ev]n-°p-∂Xv Hcp IqSn-bm-tem-N\ {]{In-b-bn-eqsS ka-b-_-‘n-X-ambn (6 amkw) Bbn-cn-°Ww.

4.

Hcp Imcyw AwKo-I-cn-®p-sImt≠m, X≈n-s°mt≠m FSp-°p∂ GXv Xocp-am-\hpw \nb-a\-S-]-Sn-Ifpw XnI®pw kpXm-cyhpw ]pd-s∏-Sp-hn-°p∂ DØ-c-hp-Ifpw \n¿t±-i-ßfpw kzbw hy‡-X-bp-≈-Xp-am-bn-cn-°-Ww. Ah-km\ Xo¿∏p-I¬]n-®p-I-gn-™m¬ AXv s]mXp-P-\-ßfpsS Adn-hn-te-°mbn {]kn-≤-s∏-Sp-Ø-Ww.

5.

]›n-a-L-´-Ønse kwÿm\ AtXm-dn-´n-bn¬ Fs¥-¶nepw X¿°-ap-≠m-bm¬ AXn¬ A¥na Xocp-am-\-sa-Sp-°m-\p≈ A[n-Imcw Cu AtXm-dn-´n-°m-Wv. kwÿm\ AtXm-dn-´nI-fpsS A∏-te‰v AtXm-dn´n IqSn-bm-Wn-Xv.

6.

]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y-\-Øn\v ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ A{I-Un-‰Uv I¨kƒ´‚p-amsc \ntbm-Kn-°m\pw Ah-cpsS `mKØv sX-‰p-Ip-‰-ßtfm hogvNtbm D≠m-bm¬ Ah-cpsS `mKw IqSn tI´-tijw Atbm-Ky-cm-°m\pw AtXm-dn-´n°v A[n-Im-c-ap-≠v.

7.

]›n-a-L-´-Øn\v lm\n-I-c-am-bn-´p≈ GXv {]h¿Ønbpw \ntcm[n-°m\pw \nb-{¥n-°m\pw _‘-s∏´ kwÿm\ k¿°m-cnt\m GP≥kn-Iƒt°m \n¿tZiw \¬Im\pw Ah ]men°p∂p F∂v Dd∏p hcp-Øm\pw AtXm-dn-´n°v A[n-Im-c-ap-≠v.

8.

hn⁄m-]-\-Ønse GXv ImcysØ kw_-‘n-®p-ap≈ kwi-b-߃ Zqco-I-cn-°m≥ AtXmdn-´n°v A[n-Im-c-ap-≠v.

9.

]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-W-\n-b-a-Ønepw CX-c-]-cn-ÿn-Xn-\n-b-a-ß-fnepw \n¿tZ-in-°p∂ ]ngbpw a‰v in£m-\-S-]-Sn-Ifpw \n›-bn-°m≥ AtXm-dn-´n°v A[n-Im-c-ap-≠v.

10.

Hcp Xocp-am-\-Øn-se-Øm≥ Bh-iy-amb tcJ-Iƒ kwÿm-\-˛-tI{μ Kh¨sa‚p-I-fn¬\n∂v Bh-iy-s∏-Sm≥ AtXm-dn-´n°v A[n-Im-c-ap-≠v. knhn¬ \S-]-Sn-{I-a-Ønse (Civil Procedure Code) hyh-ÿ-Iƒ {]Im-c-ap-ff A[n-Imcw AtXm-dn-´n-°p-≠v.

AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS {]h¿Ø\w 1.

]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£W \nb-a-Øn-sebpw (1986) a‰v ]cn-ÿnXn kw_-‘-amb \nb-a-ßfpsSbpw hyh-ÿ-Iƒ°v hnt[-b-am-bmWv AtXm-dn´n {]h¿Øn-°p-∂-Xv.

2.

Pn√m ]cn-ÿnXn IΩn-‰n-bp-ambn IqSn-bm-tem-Nn®v ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-bv°p-th≠n kwÿm\-k¿°m¿ Xøm-dm-°p∂ `qhn-\n-tbmK amÿ πm≥ AtXm-dn´n AwKo-I-cn-t°≠Xv.

3.

]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ssPh-ssh-hn[yw kwc-£n-°m\pw kpÿn-c-hn-I-k\w t{]m’m-ln∏n-°m\pw th≠n-bp≈ amÿπm≥ hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-t°-≠Xv AtXm-dn-´n-bmWv. hnt√Pv, Xmeq°v, Pn√m-X-e-Øn¬ Xmsg \n∂v apI-fn-te°v F∂ kao-]-\-tØmsS Bbn-cn-°Ww amÿπm≥ Xøm-dm-t°-≠Xv.

4.

]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]cn-ÿn-Xn-tbbpw Ahn-SsØ kaq-l-ß-fpsS kmaqly Ah-ÿ-tbbpw kw_-‘n®v {]Xn-Iqe ^e-ap-f-hm-°p∂ {]h¿Ø-\-߃ \nb-{¥n-°p-∂-Xn\v kzoI-cn-t°≠ ]cn-an-X-amb \ne-hmcw AtXm-dn´n \n›-bn®v \¬IWw.

5.

]›n-aL - ´- Ø - ns‚ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-bn¬ Ne-\ß - f - p-≠m-°m≥ Ign-bp∂ {]h¿Ø-\ß - sf t{]m’mln-∏n-°m\pw Kth-jWw GtIm-]n-∏n-°m\pw A]-{K-Yn-°m\pw AtXm-dn-´n°v Npa-X-e-bp≠v.

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6.

]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ kwc-£-W-Øn\pw hnI-k-\-Øn\pw Bh-iy-amb {]h¿Ø-\-߃ Gs‰Sp-°m≥ ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-W-\n-b-a-Ønse 3(2) hIp-∏p-{]-Imcw AtXm-dn-´nsb Npa-X-es∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p≠v.

7.

"sjUyq-fn-¬' Dƒs∏´ \n_-‘-\-Iƒ°pw \nb-{¥-W-߃°pw hnt[-b-am-bn-thWw AtXmdn´n {]h¿Øn-°m≥. hfsc \n¿Æm-bI cmPy-c£m Bh-iy-߃ Hgn-®p-≈-h-bpsS ImcyØn¬ Cu \n_-‘-\-Iƒ I¿i-\-ambn ]men-®n-cn-°Ww.

8.

Hcp taJ-e-bn¬ A\p-h-Z-\o-b-amb t{]mP-IvSp-I-fpsS Imcy-Øn¬ Hcp Bh¿Ø\ BLmX-k-ao-]-\-am-bn-cn-°Ww AtXm-dn´n kzoI-cn-t°-≠Xv. taJe Bkq-{XW {]{Inb B taJ-e-bnse {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fp-sSbpw t{]mP-IvSp-I-fp-sSbpw ]c-am-h[n FÆhpw hen-∏hpw kz`m-hhpw IqSn \n›-bn-°p-∂p-s≠∂v AtXm-dn´n Dd-∏p-h-cp-ØWw.

9.

]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS kwc-£-W-Øn\pw kpÿn-c-Xbv°pw \nb-{¥-W-Øn\pw th≠n-bp≈ Cu hn⁄m-]-\-Ønse Bh-iy-߃°v th≠-Xm-sW∂v tXm∂p∂ GXp NpaX-ebpw AtXm-dn-´n°v Gs‰-Sp°mw.

kwÿm\ AtXm-dn-´n-Iƒ 1.

_‘-s∏´ kwÿm\ k¿°m-cn-t\mSpw A∏Ivkv AtXm-dn-´n-tbmSpw IqSn-bm-tem-Nn®v tI{μ Kh-¨sa‚mWv kwÿm\ ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n-Iƒ cq]n-I-cn-°p-∂Xv.

2.

kwÿm\ AtXm-dn-´n-I-fn¬ imkv{Xw, [\-X-Xz-imkv{Xw,\nbaw, tkmtjym-fPn F∂o hnj-b-ß-fnse hnZ-Kv[¿ h\-imkv{Xw, Pe-imkv{Xw, aÆvimkv{Xw, Irjn, `qhn-\n-tbmKw, ]cn-ÿnXn XpS-ßnb taJ-e-I-fnse hnZ-Kv[¿, _‘-s∏´ hIp-∏p-I-fnse {]Xn-\n-[n-Iƒ F∂n-h-cpƒs∏-Sp∂p.

kwÿm\ AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS LS\ BsI 11 AwK-ß-fmWp-≠mhpI. A\p-tZym-K-ÿmw-K-߃ 1.

sNb¿am≥ Hcp dn´-tbUv sslt°m-SXn PUvPn-bp-sStbm Ign-hXpw ]›n-a-L´ taJ-ebn¬ \n∂p≈ {]apJ ]cn-ÿnXn hnZ-Kv[t\m Bbn-cn°pw.

2.

Ign-hXpw ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-bn¬\n-∂p≈ {]ap-J-\mb Hcp ]cn-ÿnXn ˛\nb-a-hn-Z-Kv[≥

3.

taJ-e-bnse {]ap-J-\mb ]cn-ÿn-Xn-hn-Z-Kv[≥

4˛6

kwÿm-\sØ {]ap-J-cmb kmaq-ly-{]-h¿Ø-I¿

DtZym-K-ÿmw-K-߃ 7.

kwÿm-\-a-en-\o-I-cW \nb-{¥-W-t_m¿Uv sNb¿am≥ (FIvkv H^otjym)

8.

kwÿm\ ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w-h-Ip-∏ns‚ {]n≥kn-∏¬ sk{I-´dn (FIvkv H^otjym)

9.

kwÿm\ Bkq-{X-W-t_m¿Uns‚ Hcp {]Xn-\n[n

10.

kwÿm\ ssPh-ssh-hn≤y t_m¿Uns‚ sNb¿am≥ (FIvkv H^o-tjym)

11.

saº¿ sk{I-´dn (^pƒssSw) tPmbn‚ v sk{I-´dn/ AssUz-k¿ ˛ Pn t{KUn-ep≈ Hcp B^o-ksd kwÿm\ k¿°m-cn\v sU]yq-t´-j-\n¬ \nb-an°mw. {]tXyI £Wn-Xm-°ƒ: tkh\w AXy-¥m-t]-£n-X-amWv F∂v tXm∂p∂ ]£w k¿°m¿ DtZym-Kÿ t- c-tbm, Nne hnj-bßfn¬ {]mho-Wy-ap≈ hnZ-Kv[t- c-tbm. sNb¿am\v {]tXyIw £Wn-®p-h-cp-Øm-hp-∂-Xm-Wv.

kwÿm\ AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS A[n-Im-c-߃ 1.

Hcp \n›nX {]{In-b-bn-eqsS AtXm-dn´n°v ap∂n-se-Øp∂ ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn kw_‘n® X¿°-Øn-t∑¬ Xocp-am-\-sa-Sp-°m-\p≈ A[n-Imcw kwÿm-\-A-tXm-dn-´n-°mWv.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.

Hmtcm Pn√bpw ]cn-ÿnXn Hmw_p-Uvkvams\ \nb-an-°m-\p≈ A[n-Imcw kwÿm\ AtXmdn-´n-°mWv. alm-flm-Km‘n sXmgn-ep-d-∏p-]-≤-Xn-bpsS Hmw_p-Uvkvams\ \nb-an-°p∂ amXrI-bn-ep≈ Cu Hmw_p-Uvkvam-\mWv Pn√m ]cn-ÿnXn IΩn-‰n-bpsS sNb¿am≥.

3.

]›n-a-L-´-Øn\v tIm´w X´p∂ GXp-{]-h¿Ønbpw \ntcm-[n-°m\pw \nb-{¥n-°m\pw Bhiy-amb GXv \n¿t±-ihpw \¬Im\pw AXv ]cn-]m-en-°s∏Sp∂p F∂v Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm-\pap≈ A[n-Imcw kwÿm\ AtXm-dn-´n-°p≠v.

4.

]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ kwc-£-W-Øn\pw hnI-k-\-Øn\pw th≠n GXp {]h¿Ø\w Fs‰-Sp°m\pw ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-W-\n-b-a-Ønse 3(2) hIp-∏-\p-k-cn-®p≈ F√m A[n-Im-c-ßfpw AtXm-dn-´n°v \¬In-bn-´p≠v.

5.

]cn-ÿn-Xn-\n-baw (1986), _‘-s∏´ a‰v \nb-a-߃ F∂nh A\p-im-kn°pw {]Imcw \nba-ew-L-I-cn¬\n∂v DNn-X-amb ]ng CuSm-°m\pw, a‰v in£m-hn-[n-Iƒ \S-∏m-°m\pw AtXmdn-‰n°v A[n-Im-c-ap-≠v.

6.

Hcp Xocp-am-\-Øn-se-Øp-∂-Xn-\p-th≠n tI{μ-k¿°m-cn\pw kwÿm-\-k¿°m-cn\pw _‘s∏´ GP≥kn-I-fnepw \n∂v F¥v tcJ Bh-iy-s∏-Sm\pw AtXm-dn-´n°v A[n-Im-c-ap-≠v. knhn¬ \S-]-Sn-{I-a-Ønse hIp-∏p-Iƒ {]Im-c-ap≈ A[n-Im-c-߃ kwÿm\ AtXm-dn-´nbn¬ \n£n-]vX-amWv.

Pn√m ]cn-ÿnXn IΩn‰n 1.

kwÿm\ k¿°mcpw ]›n-a-L´ AtXm-dn-´n-bp-ambn IqSn-bm-tem-Nn®v Hmtcm ]›n-a-L´ Pn√-bnepw kwÿm\ AtXm-dn´n Hcp Pn√m-]-cn-ÿnXn IΩn‰n cq]o-I-cn-°Ww. kz¥w A[n-I-c-]-cn-[n-bn-ep≈ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-esb kw_-‘n-°p∂ GXv X¿°hpw ]cn-tim-[n®v ]cn-l-cn-°m-\p≈ Npa-Xe Cu Pn√m IΩn-‰n-°mWv.

2.

imkv{Xw, [\-XX - z-imkv{Xw, \nbaw, tkmtjym-fPn F∂o hnj-bß - f - n-sebpw h\-imkv{Xw, Pe-imkv{Xw, aÆv-imkv{Xw, Irjn, `qhn-\n-tbmKw, ]cn-ÿnXn F∂o taJ-e-I-fn-sebpw hnZ-Kv[cpw _‘-s∏´ hIp-∏p-I-fnse {]Xn-\n-[n-Ifpw Dƒs∏-´-Xm-bn-cn-°Ww Cu Pn√m-IΩn-‰n-Iƒ.

3.

]cn-ÿnXn Ah-t_m[ thmf‚n-b¿amsc (]cym-h-c≥ hmln\n As√-¶n¬ HmW-ddn h\yPohn (hm¿U∑m-cpsS amXr-I-bn¬) Pn√ IΩn‰n \nb-an-°Ww. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]cnÿnXn {]m[m-\y-sØ-∏‰n P\-ßsf t_m[-h¬°-cn-°p-Ibpw Ah-sc-°qSn ]¶m-fn-I-fm°n ÿnXn-K-Xn-Iƒ A]-{K-Yn-°p-I-bp-amWv Ch-cpsS {][m\ Npa-Xe.

Pn√m ]cn-ÿnXn IΩn-‰n-bpsS Npa-X-e-Iƒ 1.

]›n-a-L´ amÿ πm\ns‚ Pn√m-Xe Bkq-{XW GP≥kn-bmWv Cu Pn√m-I-Ωn‰n Bkq{XW {]{Inb Xmsg-\n∂v apI-fn-te-°m-bn-cn-°Ww. hnhn[ hIp-∏p-I-fpsS πm\p-Iƒ Pn√mX-e-Øn¬ amÿπm-\p-ambn kwtbm-Pn-∏n-°p-∂-Xn-\m-h-iy-amb ]cn-tim-[-\bpw hne-bn-cpØepw \S-tØ-≠Xpw Pn√m IΩn-‰n-bmWv.

2.

{i≤-bn¬s]-Sp∂ GsXmcp X¿°hpw ]cn-tim-[n®v kwÿm-\-A-tXm-dn-´n-bpsS {i≤-bn¬ sIm≠p-h-tc-≠Xv Pn√m-I-Ω-‰n-bmWv. Hcp X¿°-Øn¬ H∂n-e-[nIw Pn√-Iƒ Dƒs∏-´n-´ps≠-¶n¬ AXv t\cn´v kwÿm\ AtXm-dn-´n°v \¬IWw.

AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS Imem-h[n 1.

F√m AtXm-dn-´n-I-fn-sebpw IΩn-‰n-I-fn-sebpw AwK-ß-fpsS Imem-h[n 5 h¿j-amWv.

tImS-Xn-hy-h-lmcw 1.

AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS A[n-Im-c-s∏´ DtZym-K-ÿ≥ \n¿±njvS coXn-bn¬ ^b¬ sNøp∂ ]cmXn-I-fn-t∑¬ am{Xta tImSXn tIkv FSp-°mhq.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

2.

]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿn-Xn°v tZmj-ambn _m[n-°p-∂tXm hn⁄m-]-\-Øn\v hncp-≤tam Bb GsXmcp {]iv\-Øn-t∑epw Pn√m IΩn-‰nt°m kwÿm\ AtXm-dn-´nt°m A∏Ivkv AtXmdn-´nt°m \n›n-X-t^m-d-Øn¬ t\m´okv \¬Im≥ GsXmcp ]uc\pw Ah-Im-i-ap≠v.

AtXm-dn-´n-I-fpsS kmº-ØnI kzbw-`-cWw A∏Ivkv AtXm-dn-´n°pw kwÿm\ AtXm-dn-´n-I-sfbpw Pn√m-I-Ωn-‰n-Iƒ°pw kmº-ØnI kzbw-`-cWw tI{μ-k¿°m¿ Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp∂p. Ch-cpsS {]h¿Ø-\-Øn\p th≠ ^≠v tI{μ kwÿm\ k¿°m-cp-Iƒ kzcq-]n®v \¬Ipw. CXn-\p-]p-dsa ]ng C\-Ønepw a‰pw e`n-°p∂p. XpI-bpsS Hcp `mKhpw Ch-bpsS {]h¿Ø-\-Øn-\p-th≠ ^≠v tI{μ˛kwÿm-\-k¿°m-cp-Iƒ kzcq-]n®v \¬Ipw. CXn-\p-]p-dta ]ng C\-Ønepw a‰pw e`n-°p∂ XpI-bpsS Hcp-`m-Khpw ChbpsS {]h¿Ø-\-sN-e-hn-\mbn D]-tbm-Kn°mw.

X¿°-]-cn-lmcw 1.

hn⁄m-]-\-Ønse \n_-‘-\-Iƒ GsX-¶nepw hy‡ntbm GP≥kntbm ewLn-°p-∂Xmbn B¿s°-¶nepw ]cm-Xn-bp-s≠-¶ntem sjUyq-fn¬ ]d-™n-´p≈ am¿§-tc-J-Iƒ°v hncp-≤-ambn ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ßsf tZmj-I-c-ambn _m[n°p∂ Fs¥-¶nepw hnh¿Ø\w D≠m-bmtem B¿°pw Pn√m ]cn-ÿnXn IΩn-‰ntbm kwÿm\ AtXm-dn-´ntbm apJm-¥ncw \n¿±njvS ^md-Øn¬ ]cmXn Xøm-dm°n _‘s∏´ A[n-Ir-Xsc kao-]n°mw.

2.

]cmXn e`n®v 30 Znh-k-Øn-\Iw _‘-s∏´ AtXm-dn´n AYhm IΩn‰n CXn-t∑¬ \S-]Sn FSp-t°-≠Xpw ]c-am-h[n 6 amk-Øn-\p-≈n¬ Xo¿∏v Iev]n-t°-≠-Xp-amWv. Nne {]tXyI tIkp-I-fn¬ 6 amk-Øn¬ IqSp-X¬ kabw th≠n-h-cn-I-bm-sW-¶n¬ AXn-\p≈ ImcWw hy‡-am-°n-bn-cn-°Ww. _‘-s∏-´-h¿°v As√-¶n¬ Ah-cpsS {]Xn-\n-[n-Iƒ°v ]d-bp-hm\p-≈Xv tIƒ°m-\p≈ Ah-kcw IqSn \¬IWw.

]›naL´ ^ut≠-j≥ 1.

]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS D]-tk-h-\-ßsf kmº-Øn-I-ambpw A√m-sXbpw klm-bn-°m-\mbn AtXm-dn´n apJm-¥ncw Hcp ]›n-a-L´ kwc-£-W-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v ^ut≠j\v tI{μ-k¿°m¿ cq]w \¬IWw.

2.

Btcm-Ky-I-c-amb ]cn-ÿnXn \nK-a-\-ß-fn-se-Øp-∂-Xn\v Bh-iy-amb hnZKv[ D]-tZ-ißfpw hnh-c-ßfpw e`n-°p-∂-Xn-\mbn IqSp-X¬ Kth-j-Whpw ÿe-k-μ¿i-\hpw A]-{KY-\-ßfpw \S-Øp-∂-Xn\v Cu ^≠v hn\n-tbm-Kn-°m-hp-∂-XmWv.

]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS N´-°qSv 1.

AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS e£yw kw_-‘n® tÉvsa‚ v

2.

Ah-Xm-cnI

3.

\n¿Δ-N-\-߃

4.

AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS LS\

5.

AwK-ß-fpsS Imem-h-[nbpw tkh-\-hy-h-ÿ-Ifpw

6.

Poh-\-°m-cpw, DtZym-K-ÿcpw

7.

A[n-Im-c-߃

8.

Npa-X-e-Iƒ

9.

AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS \S-]-Sn-{Iaw

10.

AtXm-dn-´n-°p≈ [\-k-lm-bhpw hmbv]-Ifpw ^≠ns‚ LS-\bpw

11.

AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS A°u≠vkpw BUn‰pw.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

12.

AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS hm¿jnI dnt∏m¿´v

13.

]m¿e-sa‚n¬ hbvt°-≠-hm¿jnI dnt∏m¿´pw BUn‰v dnt∏m¿´pw.

14.

kwÿm-\-A-tXm-dn-´n-bpsS LS\

15.

Pn√m ]cn-ÿnXn IΩn-‰n-bpsS LS\

16.

]›n-a-L´ kwc-£W,amt\-Pvsa‚ v amÿ πm≥

17.

]cn-ÿn-Xn-Zp¿_e taJ-e-bpsS am‰hpw t`Z-K-Xnbpw

18.

]›n-a-L´ kwc-£-W-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v ^ut≠-j≥ cq]o-I-cWw.

19.

Iº-\n-bpsS Ip‰-߃

20.

HutZym-KnI IrXy-\n¿Δ-l-W-Øn¬ DtZym-K-ÿ¿°p≈ kwc-£Ww.

15. BXn-c-∏n≈n, Kpfinb Pe-ssh-ZypX ]≤-Xn-Iƒ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJe H∂nepw c≠nepw henb Pem-i-b-ß-fp≈ AW-s°-´p-Iƒ°v ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Icp-sX∂mWv Cu kan-Xn-bpsS (WGEEPbpsS) \n¿t±iw. slm¶-Sl≈ AW-s°´v Dt]-£n-®p-sIm≠v Kpfinb ]≤-Xn-bn¬ sh≈-Øn-\-Sn-bn-em-Ip∂ {]tZ-iØns‚ hnkvXo¿Æw 80 iX-am-\-ambn Ipd-bv°m-sa∂v I¿Æm-SI ]Δ¿ tIm¿∏-td-j≥ \n¿t±-in®n-´p≠v. ]s£, ]≤-Xn-bn¬ \n¿t±-in-°-s∏-´n-´p≈ s_´mUvv Ipamcn AW-s°´pw taJe H∂nemWv hcp-∂Xv. AXp-t]mse BXn-c-∏n≈n AW-s°-´ns‚ ÿm\hpw taJe H∂n-emWv.AXpsIm≠v Cu c≠v ]≤-Xn-Iƒ°pw ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \¬I-cp-sX-∂mWv ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-e-b-tØm-Sp≈ Rß-fpsS ip]m¿i. am{X-hp-a√, ]´n-I-PmXn˛a‰v ]c-º-cm-KX h\-\nhmkn(h\-Ø-t∑-ep≈ Ah-Imiw)\nb-a-{]-Im-c-ap≈ \S-]-Sn-Iƒ Cu c≠p-ta-J-e-bnepw C\nbpw ]q¿Øn-bm-bn-´n√. BI-bm¬ Cu c≠v ]≤-Xn-Iƒ°pw ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip-∂Xv XnI®pw A\p-Nn-X-amWv.

15.1. BXn-c-∏n≈n ]≤Xn 1.

kwÿm-\sØ sshZypXn D]-tbmKw ]c-am-h-[n-bn-se-Øp∂ sshIo´v 6 apX¬ 10 hscbp≈ ka-bsØ sshZypXn Zu¿e`yw t\cn-Sm-\mbn 163 saKm-hm´v Dev]m-Z-\-ti-jn-bp≈ Hcp Pe˛sshZypX AW-s°´v Nme-°pSn ]pgbv°v IpdpsI Xriq¿ Pn√-bn¬ \n¿Ωn-°m\mWv tIcf kwÿm\ hnZyp-—‡n t_m¿Uv ]≤Xn Xøm-dm-°n-bn-´p-≈Xv.

2.

ChnsS \n¿Ωn-°m-\p-t±-in-°p∂ tIm¨{Io‰v AW-s°-´ns‚ Dbcw 23 ao‰dpw \ofw 311 ao‰dp-amWv. ChnsS sh≈-Øn-\-Sn-bn-em-Ip∂ {]tZ-i-Øns‚ hnkvXo¿Æw 104 slIvS-dm-sW¶nepw Bh-iy-amb samØw-h-\-ta-J-e-bpsS hnkvXo¿Æw 138 slIvS-dmWv. AW-s°-´n¬ \n∂p≈ sh≈w 6.4 ao‰¿ hymkhpw 4.69 In.ao \of-hp-ap≈ SW-en-eqsS ]mbn-®mWv Umw ssk‰n\v hS-°p-]-Sn-™mdv IÆ≥Ip-gn-tXmSn\p apI-fn-ep-ff {][m\ ]h¿lu-kn-se-Øn°p-∂X - v. ]h¿lu-kn¬\n∂v IÆw-Ipgn tXm-Sn-se-Øp∂ Pew H∂-cIn.ao. k©-cn®v ho≠pw Nme-°pSn ]pg-bn-seØpw. 3.4 ao‰¿ hymkhpw 50 ao‰¿ \of-hp-ap≈ 2 s]≥tÃm-°mWv ]Δ¿ lukn-te°v \¬Ip-∂Xv. Ch-bpsS tijn 2 x 80 saKm-hm-´mWv. CXn-\p-]p-dta AWs°-´nt\mSv tN¿∂v 50 ao‰¿ Xmsg 1.5 saKm-hm´v tijn-bp≈ c≠v P\-td-‰-dp-Iƒ IqSn ÿm]n-®mWv ]≤-Xn-bpsS samØw Dev]m-Z-\-tijn 163 saKm-hm-´mbn \n›-bn-®n-´p-≈Xv.

]≤-Xn-bpsS ]›m-Øew 1.

tI{μ- ]-cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw Cu ]≤-XnIƒ°v 20/1/1998 ¬ ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kpw 22˛12˛1997¬ H∂mw L´ h\w ¢nb-d≥kpw 16/12/1999¬ c≠mw-L´ h\w ¢nb-d≥kpw \¬Inbn-cp∂p.

2.

aq∂v s]mXpXm-ev]-cy-l¿Pn-I-fpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ _lp. tIcf sslt°m-SXn Cu ¢nb-d≥kp-Iƒ kkvs]‚p sNbvXp. sS‚¿ \S-]-Sn-I-fnse {Ia-t°-Sp-Ifpw ]cn-ÿnXn

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

kwc£W \nb-a-Øns‚ ewL-\-amWv a{¥m-e-b-Øns‚ ¢nb-d≥kv F∂pw Nq≠n-°m-´nbmWv CXv tImSXn kkvs]‚ v sNbvXXv. \S-]-Sn-{Iaw ]p\: ]cn-tim-[n-°m≥ hnZyp-—‡n t_m¿Uvkn-t\mSpw t\csØ \¬Inb A\p-aXn ]n≥h-en®v a{¥m-e-b-Øns‚ 1994 se ]cn-ÿnXn BLm-X-A-]-{K-Y\ hn⁄m-]\hpw, 10˛4˛1997 se AXns‚ t`Z-K-Xnbpw (17˛10˛2001se tIcf sslt°m-S-Xn-hn[n) {]Imc-ap≈ s]mXp-hmb sXfn-sh-Sp∏v \SØn AXns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nbd≥kv ]p\:]cn-tim-[n-°p-hm\pw tI{μ-K-h-s◊‚n-t\mSpw tImSXn \n¿t±-in®p. 3.

AXp-{]-Im-c-ap≈ \S-]-Sn-bpsS `mK-ambn 6˛2˛2002 ¬ tIcf kwÿm\ aen-\o-I-cW \nb{¥W t_m¿Uv Xriq-cn¬ sh®v s]mXp-sX-fn-sh-Sp∏v \SØn. t{Sm∏n-°¬ s_m´m-Wn-°¬ Km¿U≥kv B‚ v dnk¿®v C≥Ãn-‰yq´v 1996¬ \S-Ønb ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y-\Øns‚ hnizm-ky-X-bnepw ]cn-ÿn-Xn-bnt∑epw ssPh sshhn-≤y-Øn-t∑epw D≠m-Im-hp∂ BLm-XsØ-]-‰nbpw, bYm¿∞-Pe e`y-Xsb kw_-‘n® kmt¶-Xn-I-amb {]mtbm-Kn-IX-sb-]-‰nbpw sXfn-sh-Sp-∏n\v lmP-cm-b-h¿ [mcmfw kwi-b-ß-fp-∂-bn-°p-Ibpw DXv°WvT Adn-bn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. CtX XpS¿∂v sXfn-sh-Sp∏v \S-Ønb kanXn Xt±i ÿm]-\߃, hnhn[ k¿°m¿ hIp-∏p-Iƒ, \Zo-X-S-Ønse {]tZ-i-hm-kn-Iƒ F∂n-h-cp-ambn Bib-hn-\n-abw \SØn _rl-Ømb as‰mcp ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\w IqSn \S-Øm≥ s]mXp-sX-fn-sh-Sp∏v kan-Xn-\n¿t±-in®p.

4.

_rl-Ømb ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\w \S-Øm≥ hnZyp-—‡n t_m¿Uv 2002 P\ph-cn-bn¬ hm´¿ B‚ v ]h¿ I¨kƒ´≥kn k¿Δo-kkv C¥y enan-‰-Uns\ Npa-X-e-s∏SpØn. Ch¿ Xøm-dm-°nb dnt∏m¿´ns‚ B[n-Im-cn-I-X-tbbpw hnizm-ky-X-sbbpw Nme°pSn ]pg kwc-£-W-k-anXn tNmZyw sNbvXp.

5.

ta¬∏-d™ I¨kƒ´≥kn Xøm-dm-°nb dnt∏m¿´n¬ \yq\-XI - ƒ [mcm-fa - p-s≠∂pw ssPhssh-hn-≤y-]-T-\-Øn\v Ah¿ kzoI-cn® am¿§w sX‰m-sW∂pw Btcm-]n®v hnZyp-—‡n t_m¿Uv sslt°m-S-Xn-bn¬ kXy-hm-Mvaqew ka¿∏n®p. s]mXp-sX-c-s™-Sp∏v ]m\¬ \n¿t±-in® GP≥kn-I-fp-ambn I¨kƒ´‚p-am¿ bmsXmcp IqSn-bm-tem-N-\bpw \S-Øn-bn´n-√∂pw kXy-hm-Mvaq-e-Øn¬ hy‡-am-°n-bn-cp∂p.

6.

F¥m-bn-cp-∂mepw 10˛2˛2005 \v hnZyp-—‡n t_m¿Un\v ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw ho≠pw ¢nb-d≥kv \¬In. CXn-s\-Xnsc BXn-c-∏n≈n {Kma-]-©m-bØpw \n¿±njvS AWs°-´p-h∂m¬ G‰hpw Zpcn-X-a-\p-`-hn-t°≠n hcp∂ ImS¿ Kncn-P-\-ßfpw tN¿∂v s]mXp XmXv]cy-l¿Pn ^b¬sNbvXp. CXn\v ASn-ÿm-\-ambn ]d-™n-cp-∂Xv c≠m-asØ ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y-\-dn-t∏m¿´v s]mXp-P-\-ß-fn¬ \n∂v ad-®p-sh®p F∂pw CXn-t∑¬ s]mXp sXfn-sh-Sp∏v \S-Øn-bn√ F∂p-amWv.

7.

Aßs\ ]≤-Xn°v c≠m-aXv \¬Inb ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv 23˛3˛ 2006 ¬ _lp. tIcf sslt°m-SXn Unhn-j≥ _©v d±m°n. hnZyp-—‡n t_m¿Uv Xøm-dm-°nb ]cn-ÿnXn BLm-X-A-]-{K-Y\ dnt∏m¿´v ]c-ky-s∏-Sp-Øn-b-tijw AXn-t∑¬ s]mXp-sX-fn-sh-Sp∏v \S-Øm≥ tImSXn tIc-f-kw-ÿm\ aen-\o-I-cW \nb-{¥-W-t_m¿Un-t\mSv Bh-iy-∏´p.

8.

Aßs\ \n¿±njvS BXn-c-∏n≈n Pe-ssh-ZypX AW-s°-´ns\ kw_-‘n® c≠m-asØ s]mXp-sX-fn-sh-Sp∏v 15.6.2006 ¬ Nme-°p-Sn-bn¬ \SØn. Nme-°p-Sn-]pg kwc-£-W-k-anXn ]›n-a-L´ kan-Xn°v ka¿∏n® \nth-Z-\-Øn¬ ]d-bp-∂Xv s]mXp-sX-fn-sh-Sp-∏n¬ ]s¶SpØ 1200 e[nIw t]cn¬ Bcpw Xs∂ ]≤-Xnsb A\p-Iq-en®v kwkm-cn-®n-cp-∂n-s√∂mWv. s]mXp sXfn-sh-Sp∏v ]m\-en\v ka¿∏n® 252 \nth-Z-\-ß-fn¬ ]≤-Xnsb A\p-Iqen-°p-∂-hcpw {]Xn-Iq-en-°p-∂-hcpw XΩn-ep≈ A\p-]mXw 1:9 BWv. s]mXp-sX-fn-sh-Sp∏v Nm\-ens‚ an\n´vkv GI-I-WvT-am-bn-cp-∂n-s√∂pw ]m\-ense 5 t]cn¬ 3 t]cpw ]≤-Xnsb FXn¿Øp-sh∂pw, CXn¬ 2 t]¿ AW-s°´v \n¿Ωm-W-Øns‚ sISp-Xn-Iƒ t\cn-´-\p-`-hnt°≠n hcp∂ P\-ß-fpsS {]Xn-\n-[n-I-fmb BXn-c-∏≈n {Kma-]-©m-bØv {]kn-U≠pw Nme-°pSn tªm°v ]©m-bØv {]kn-U-≠p-am-sW∂pw kwc-£W kan-Xn-bpsS \nth-Z-\Øn¬ hy‡-am-°p∂p.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

9.

]≤-Xn-s°-Xn-cmb P\-tcmjw ho≠pw Db¿∂p. XpS¿∂v ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw \ntbm-Kn® A©w-K-]-cn-ÿnXn Ah-tem-I\ kanXn, Umw ssk‰pw A\p-_‘ {]tZ-ißfpw kμ¿in-°p-Ibpw ]≤-Xnsb FXn¿°p-∂-h-cp-ambpw hnZyp-—‡n t_m¿Uv DtZym-Kÿ-cp-ambpw 2007 G{]n-en¬ Nme-°p-Sn-bn¬ sh®v N¿® \S-Øp-Ibpw sNbvXp. ASpØ Znhkw Xriq¿ Su¨ lmfn¬ Ch¿ Hcp s]mXpsXfn-sh-Sp∏pw \SØn. A∂sØ hnZyp—‡n t_m¿Uv sNb¿am\pw CXn¬ kw_-‘n®p. ]≤-Xnsb FXn¿°p-∂-h-cn¬ \n∂v AXn-\p≈ hy‡-amb Imc-W-߃ At\z-jn-°msX IΩn‰n as‰mcp s]mXp-sX-fn-sh-Sp∏v \S-Øp-I-bmWv sNbvXXv.

10.

IΩn-‰n-bpsS dnt∏m¿´ns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-e-b-Ønse \Zo-X-S]-≤-Xn-Iƒ°m-bp≈ hnZ-KvZ-k-anXn 18/7/2007¬ ]≤-Xn°v ho≠pw ¢nb-d≥kv \¬In.

11.

ho≠pw CXn-s\-Xnsc s]mXp-Xm-ev]-cy-l¿Pn-Iƒ ^b¬ sNø-s∏´p. ImS¿ Kncn-h¿§-°mcpsS {]Xn-\n-[n-bmb {ioaXn KoXbpw Hcp sslt{Um-fPn F©n-\o-b-dmb {io. kn.Pn. a[p-kq-Z-\\pw BWv l¿Pn-Iƒ ^b¬ sNbvXv. ]cn-ÿnXn, ssPh sshhn-≤y-{]-iv\hpw AXv Ah-cpsS PohnX kwhn-[m-\-Øn¬ krjvSn-t®-°m-hp∂ BLm-X-hp-amWv {ioaXn KoX tNmZyw sNbvXXv. {io.a[p-kq-Z-\≥ D∂-bn® {]iv\w ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\hpw AXn-\mbn D]-tbm-Kn® sslt{Um-f-Pn-°¬ Um‰m-t_-kns‚ km[p-X-bp-amWv.

12.

tIcf kwÿm\ ssPh-ssh-hn≤y t_m¿Uv Cu {]iv\w hni-Z-ambn N¿®-sN-øp-Ibpw B taJ-e-bnse kº-∂-amb ssPh-ssh-hn≤yw IW-°n-se-SpØv ]≤-Xn-s°-Xn-cmb Xocpam\w ssIsIm-≈p-Ibpw hnZyp-—-‡n-t_m¿Uns\ {]Xn-tN¿Øv tIc-f-ssl-t°m-S-Xn¬ kXy-hm-Mvaqew ^b¬ sNøp-Ibpw sNbvXp.

13.

sslt°m-S-Xn-bnse 2 Unhn-j≥ _©v 2008 epw 2009epw c≠v {]mhiyw tIkv tI´p. hn[n°mbn ImØn-cn-°p∂p.

14.

Cu ]≤-Xn-°mbn tIcf k¿°m-cn¬ \n∂p-b-cp∂ kΩ¿±w aqew ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse a‰v Nne ]≤-Xn-Iƒs°m∏w CXp-IqSn ]cn-tim-[n®v ip]m¿i \¬Im≥ ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn kan-Xn-tbmSv ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw Bh-iy-s∏-´n-cn-°-bmWv.

kμ¿i-\-ßfpw IqSn-bm-tem-N-\-Ifpw 1.

]›n-a-L´ kanXn 2011 P\p-hcn 29 \v \n¿±njvS Umw ssk‰pw Pem-i-b-ta-J-ebpw, s]mIe-∏m-d-bn-sebpw hmg-®m-en-sebpw Kncn-h¿§ tI{μ-ßfpw Ah-bpsS kao-]-{]-tZ-i-ßfpw Xpºq¿apgn taP¿ Cdn-tK-j≥ t{]mPIvSpw kμ¿in®p. ImS¿ Kncn-h¿§-°m-cpsS {]Xn-\n-[nI-fp-ambpw BXn-c-∏n≈n ]©m-bØv A[n-Ir-X-cp-ambpw kan-Xn-bp-sS-]-{X-°p-dn-∏p-I≠v FØnb s]mXp-P-\-ß-fp-ambpw kanXn N¿®-Iƒ \SØn.

2.

CXn-\-]p-dta kanXn hn]p-e-amb Hcp kmt¶-XnI kwhm-Zhpw kwL-Sn-∏n®p. hnZyp-—-‡nt_m¿Uv Nme-°p-Sn-]pg kwc-£-W-k-anXn, \Zn Kth-j-W-tI{μw, tIcf imkv{X-km-lnXy-]-cn-jXv, tIcf h\w Kth-jW C≥Ãn-‰yq´v, {]IrXn kwc-£W ^ut≠-j≥, Pe-tkN\w, Kncn-h¿§-hn-I-k\w, h\w˛h\y-Pohn, Sqdnkw hIp-∏p-I-fn¬ \n∂p≈ DtZym-K-ÿ¿, dn´-b¿ sNbvX h\w-h-Ip∏v DtZym-K-ÿ¿, h\w-kw-c-£-W-k-anXn, hnZyp-—-‡n-t_m¿Uv B^o-tkgvkv Atkm-kn-tb-j≥ F∂n-h-bn¬ \n∂p≈ hnZ-Kv[¿ XpS-ßn-b-h¿ CXn¬ kw_-‘n®p. hmkvX-h-Øn¬ ]≤-Xnsb FXn¿°p-∂-hcpw A\p-Iq-en-°p-∂-hcpw XΩnep≈ BZy-B-ib kwhm-Z-am-bn-cp∂p CXv.

3.

N¿®-bn¬ ]s¶-SpØ F√m-hn-`m-K-ß-fp-sSbpw A`n-{]m-b-߃ kanXn tcJ-s∏-SpØn. IqSpXmbn GsX-¶nepw hnh-c-߃ \¬Im-\p-s≠-¶n¬ AXv sNb¿am\v C sabn¬/t]mÃv Bbn \¬Im\pw sNb¿am≥ A`y¿∞n®p.

4.

Kncn-P-\-߃, BXn-c-∏n≈n ]©m-bØv, s]mXp-P-\-߃, hnZyp-—‡n t_m¿Unse hnZKv[¿, kwÿm\ ssPh sshhn-≤y-t_m¿Uns‚ 26˛ 9˛2007 se 14˛maXp ao‰nw-Kns‚ an\n´vkv, ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\ dnt∏m¿´p-Iƒ, aq∂v s]mXp sXfn-sh-Sp-∏p-I-fpsS hni-Zmwi-߃, ]≤-Xn-bpsS kmt¶-Xn-I-amb {]mtbm-Kn-I-Xsb kw_-‘n-®p-b¿∂ kwi-b-߃,

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sshZypXn {]iv\-Øn-\p≈ a‰v t]mwh-gn-Iƒ, tIcf sslt°m-SXn DØ-c-hp-Iƒ F∂n-hbn-se√mw hfsc hni-Z-ambn hne-bn-cp-Øn-b-Xns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ kanXn NphsS ]dbp∂ \nK-a-\-ß-fn-se-Øp∂p.

ssPh-ssh-hn≤yw 1.

A]q¿Δ \Zo-Xoc h\-ssP-h-hy-hÿ : Nme-°p-Sn-]p-g-bnse \Zo-Xo-c -h\ ssPhhyhÿ ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ {]tXy-In®pw tIc-f-Øn¬ AXy-]q¿Δ-amWv.

2.

ssPh hyh-ÿ-bnse Xt±-io-bX (endemism) : \n¿±njvS Umw ssk‰n¬ \Zo-Xoc h\ ssPh-hy-h-ÿ-bn¬ ChnsS am{Xw ImWp-∂Xpw AXy-]q¿h-hp-amb 155 C\w kky-ßfpw RET (Rare, Endangered and Threatened) hn`m-K-Øn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp∂ 33 C\w kky-ßfpw D≠v.

3.

Xt±-iob C\-ßfpsS kº-∂X : ]≤Xn {]tZiw Xt±-io-b-amb (endemic) \nc-h[n A]q¿Δ kky-Po-h-Pm-e-ß-fm¬ kar-≤-amWv. 21% kky-ßfpw (508 C\-ß-fn¬) 16% Nn{Xi-e-`-ßfpw (54¬), 53% D`-b-Po-hn-Ifpw (17¬), 21 %Dc-K-ßfpw (19¬), 13% ]£n-Ifpw (98) ¬, 14% kkvX-\n-Ifpw (22¬) Cu hn`m-K-Øn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-∂p.

4.

Syzygium occidentalis, Atuna Travancorica

F∂o hwi-\miw t\cn-Sp∂ \Zo-X-S-hr-£-߃

Chn-sS-bp≠v. 5.

tIc-f-Ønse A]q¿Δ C\w kky-߃ : Gymnema Khandalense, Lagenandra nairii F∂o kky-߃ tIc-f-Øn¬ BXn-c-∏-≈n-bn¬ am{Xta D≈q.

6.

Bhm-k-tI-{μ-ß-fpsS XpS¿® : hmg-®m¬˛BXn-c-∏≈n taJ-e-bnse \Zo-Xo-c-Im-Sp-Iƒ Xmgv∂ ˛ Db¿∂ Xe-ß-fn-ep≈ Bhm-k-tI-{μ-ßsf XΩn¬ _‘n-∏n-°p∂p.

7.

Db¿∂ kwc-£-W-aqeyw : t]m≠n-t®-cn-bnse {^©v C≥Ãn-‰yq´v tIc-f-Øn-\p-th≠n Xøm-dm-°nb ssPh-ssh-hn[y kwc-£-W-X-{¥hpw I¿Ω-]-≤-Xnbpw A\p-k-cn®v hmg-®mens‚ (]≤-Xn-{]-tZiw) kwc-£W aqeyw 75% tØmfw Db¿∂-XmWv. tIc-f-h\w KthjW C≥Ãn-‰yq´v \S-Ønb ]T\ {]Imcw hfsc Db¿∂ ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-aq-ey-ap≈ {]tZi-amWv hmg-®m¬. hfsc hni-Z-amb Hcp ssPh sshhn≤y amt\-Pvsa‚ v πm\pw Cu {]tZi-Øn-\mbn C≥Ãn-‰yq´v Xøm-dm-°n-bn-´p≠v.

8.

]£n-kw-c-£Ww : (i) tIc-f-Øn¬ Is≠-Øn-bn-´p≈ 486 C\w ]£n-I-fn¬ 234 FÆhpw hmg-®m¬˛BXn-c-∏n≈n taJ-e-bn-em-Wp-≈Xv. (ii) tIc-f-Øn¬ ImWp∂ 4 C\w tlm¨_n√p-Ifpw (ae-_m¿ t{K tlm¨_n¬, t{K tlm¨_n¬, ae-_m¿ ss]Sv tlm¨_n¬, t{K‰v C¥y≥ tlm¨_n¬) BXn-c-∏n≈n˛hmg-®m¬ taJ-e-bn¬ D≠v. (iii) ae-_m¿ ss]Sv tlm¨_n-√ns‚ hwi-h¿≤-\hv \S-°p∂ c≠v tI{μ-ß-fmWv tIc-f-Øn-ep-≈Xv. AXn¬ H∂v BXn-c-∏n-≈n-bnse \Zo-Xo-c-Im-Sp-Ifpw as‰m∂v Bdfw h\y-ar-K-k-t¶Xhp-amWv. (iv) ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ am{Xw ImWp∂ Xt±-io-b-amb 16 C\w ]£n-I-fn¬ 12 C\hpw BXnc-∏n≈n˛hmg-®m¬ taJ-e-bn-ep≠v.

9.

{][m\ ]£n-tI{μw : hmg-®m¬˛tjmf-bm¿ taJ-esb 1995 ¬ Xs∂ BtKm-fm-Sn-ÿm-\Øn¬ {]ap-J-]£n tI{μ-ambn tIw{_n-UvPnse t_¿Uv sse^v C‚¿\m-j-W¬ sXcs™-Sp-Øn-´p-≈-XmWv.

10.

Db¿∂ a’y-ssh-hn≤yw : tIc-f-Øn¬ tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p≈ 210 C\w a’y-ß-fn¬ 104 C\-߃ Nme-°pSn ]pg-bn-ep≠v. Ch-bn¬ ISpØ hwi-\m-i-`o-jWn t\cn-Sp∂ 9 C\ßfpw, hwi-\m-i-`o-j-Wn-bp≈ 22 C\-ßfpw Dƒs∏-Sp∂p.

11.

Nme-°p-Sn-bn¬ am{X-ap≈ a’y-߃ : tIc-f-Øns‚ a’y-k-º-Øns\ ]‰n-bp≈ ]T-\Øn¬ I≠ 210 C\w ip≤-P-e-a-’y-ß-fn¬ 23 C\-߃ Nme-°p-Sn-]p-g-bn¬ am{X-ap-≈-hbmWv.

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12. ]pXnb a’y- C\߃ : ]pXp-Xmbn Is≠-Øn-bn-´p≈ 5 C\w a’y-߃ Osteochilichthys longidorsalis, Travancoria elongata Horabagrus nigrocollaris, Puntius chalakudiensis, Salarias reticulatus CXm-Zy-ambn Nme-°p-Sn-]p-g-bn¬ Is≠-Øn-bn-´p≠v.

13.

AXy-]q¿Δ a’y C\w : Nme-°p-Sn-]p-g-bn¬ am{Xw ImWp∂ AXy-]q¿Δ a’y-C-\-amb Osteochilichthys longidodrsalis s‚ FÆw Ign™ c≠v Zi-I-Øn-\p-≈-fn¬ 99 %hpw \in-®pI-gn™p.

14.

]≤Xn {]tZ-isØ a’y-_m-lpeyw : Nme-°pSn ]pg-bn-ep≈ 99 C\w a’y-ß-fn¬ 68 C\hpw ImWp-∂Xv ]≤-Xn-{]-tZ-i-Øm-sW∂v ]T\w hy‡-am-°p∂p.

15.

a’y -{]-P-\\ {]tZiw : BXn-c-∏n≈n˛hmg-®m¬ taJe At\Iw kq£va Bhm-k-tI{μßsfm-cp°n Hs´√m a’y-C-\-߃°pw A\p-tbm-Py-amb hwi-h¿≤-\-tI-{μ-ambn {]h¿Øn-°p∂p.

16.

a’y-Ip-Sn-tb‰w : Nne-bn\ a’y-߃ ]pg-bn¬ Hgp-°n-s\-Xnsc apI-fn-te°pw a‰p-Nn-eh Xmtg°pw IpSn-tbdn Ah-bpsS Pohn-X-Nw-{I-aWw ]q¿Øn-bm-°p∂p. BI-bm¬ AWs°´v \n¿ΩmWw Ch-bpsS \ne-\nev]v {]Xy-£-Øn¬ Xs∂ C√m-Xm°pw.

17.

Nme-°p-Sn-]pg a’y-k-t¶Xw : ]pg-bnse kº-∂-amb a’y-ssh-hn-≤yhpw taev]-d™ {]m[m-\y-ßfpw IW-°n-se-SpØv Nme-°pSn ]pg-sb, a’y-P-\n-XI t{kmX- p-Iƒ°m-bp≈ tZiob _yqtdm Hcp a’y kt¶-X-ambn {]Jym-]n-°m≥ ip]m¿i sNbvXn-cn-°-bmWv.

18.

D`-b-Po-hn-I-fpsS kq£vahmk-ÿew : tSmd‚ v Xh-f-sb-t]mse sh≈w Ib-dn-°n-S-°p∂ s]mØp-I-fnepw a‰pw Pohn-°p∂ Nne D`-b-Po-hn-Iƒ°v ]≤Xn IΩo-j≥ sNøp-∂-tXmsS Ah-bpsS hmk-ÿew \jvS-s∏Spw. tSmd‚ v Xhf (Micrixalus saxicolus) ]≤Xn hgn apßnt∏m-Ip∂ Dcp≠ ]md-°-√p-Iƒ°n-Sbn¬v am{X-amWv ImWp-∂-Xv.

19.

Fen-^‚ v dnk¿Δv : tI{μ ]cn-ÿnXn a{¥m-ebw "t{]mPIvSv Fen-^‚ v' Bbn \n¿Æ-bn®n-´p≈ Fen-^‚ v dnk¿Δv˛ 9 ¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-∂-XmWv Cu ]≤Xn {]tZiw apgp-h≥.

20.

B\-I-fpsS IpSn-tb-‰-]mX : ]d-ºn-°p-f-Øp-\n∂v ]qbw-Ip´n h\-Øn-te°v Atßm-´p-antßm´pw B\-Iƒ k©-cn-°p∂ am¿§w ]≤-Xn-bpsS ^e-ambn sh≈-Øn-\-Sn-bn-emhpw.

21.

knwl-hm-e≥ Ipc-ßp-Iƒ : ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ hwi-\miw t\cn-Sp∂Xpw Nne ImSp-I-fn¬ am{Xw ImWp-∂-Xp-amb knwl-hm-e≥Ip-c-ßp-Iƒ hkn-°p-∂Xv Cu ]pg-°cbnse ImSp-Ifn-emWv. 13 FÆ-ap≈ Hcp Iq´-am-bmWv Chsb I≠Xv.

22.

apf- B-a-I-fpsS hmk-ÿew : hwi-\m-i-`o-jWn t\cn-Sp∂ apf- B-a-Iƒ IqSp-X-ep≈ GI-ÿew CXmWv.

23.

]pg-tbmc ImSp-Iƒ°v \miw : ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-Ømepw Xt±-io-bhpw A]q¿Δhpw hwi\m-i-`o-jWn t\cn-Sp∂hbp-amb kky-Po-e-Pm-e-ß-fmepw kº-∂-amb 28.4 slIvS¿ ]pgtbm-c-Im-Sp-I-fmWv AW-s°´pw A\p-_-‘-{]-h¿Ø-\-ßfpw aqew \in-®p-t]m-hpI.

24.

sNdnb Pohn-Iƒ°v \miw : ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-k-º-∂-amb Cu Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bnse sNdnb Pohn-I-fpsS FÆhpw hnh-chpw tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ Imcy-amb bmsXmcp {Iahpw CXp-hsc D≠m-bn-´n√. Ct∏mƒ Xs∂ ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y-\-Ønepw C°mcyw Dƒs∏-´n-´n√. ]e khn-ti-j-X-I-fp-ap≈ Cu \Zo-hy-h-ÿ-bnse kº-∂-amb kq£va Bhmk-hy-hÿ CXp-hsc Is≠-Øm¬ Ign-bmØ h¿§-Øn¬s]´ {]tXy-In®v \s´-√n-√mØ C\w Pohn-Isf ChnsS Is≠-Øm≥ Ign-bp-sa∂ {]Xo£ \¬Ip∂p.

Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bnse BLmXw 1.

Bhm-k-hy-hÿ XInSw adn-°pw : AW-s°-´ns‚ \n¿ΩmWw AW-bpsS apI-fn-te°pw Xmtg-°p-ap≈ \Zo-XS kwhn-[m-\-Ønse Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿsb ]mtS XInSw adn°pw. AXmbXv \Zn Hcp Poh- p‰ Bhm-k-hy-hÿ F∂-Xn-t\-°mƒ shdp-samcp \oscm-gp°p kwhn[m-\-ambn A[:]Xn°pw.

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2.

Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿbv°v Pe-sam-gp°v AXy-¥m-t]-£nXw: \Zn-bnse Pe-Øns‚ Hgp°v sabvam-k-Øn¬ Ipd-™Xv 7.26 cumec (cubic meter per second) BKÃn¬ 229.97 IypsaIv \pw at≤y Gdnbpw Ipd™pw Ccn-°p-∂-Xn-\m-emWv A\-h[n kky-Po-h-Pm-e-ß-fpsS hnf-\n-eambn Cu taJe \ne-\n-ev°p-∂Xv.

3.

Bhmk hyh-ÿ-bnse hyXn-bm-\-߃ : AW-s°´v \n¿Ωm-W-Øn\v \oscm-gp°v 7.75 IypsaIv Bbn \nP-s∏-Sp-Øm-\mWv \n¿t±iw. sshZypXn \n¿Ωm-W-Øn-\mbn sh≈w C{]-Imcw hgn-Xn-cn-®p-hn-Sp-∂Xp aqew Bhk hyh-ÿ-bmsI Xmdp-am-dmIpw. {]tXy-In®pw Umwssk-‰n\pw AW-s°-´n-eqsS Hgp-In-sb-Ønb Pew ho≠pw Nme-°p-Sn-]p-g-bn¬ tNcp∂ `mKhpw XΩn-ep≈ 7.89 In.ao. \of-Øn¬ Cu taJ-e-bnse Pe-Øns‚ Hgp°v h¿jw apgph≥ 7.75 Iypsa°mbn \nb-{¥n-X-s∏-Sp-Ibpw sNøpw.

IpSn-sh≈˛Im¿jn-I-{]-iv\-߃ 1.

IpSn-sh≈ e`y-Xsb _m[n°pw: AW-s°-´ns‚ \n¿Ωm-Whpw AW-s°-´n¬ 20 aWn°q-tdmfw sh≈w sI´n-\n¿Øn-b-tijw Iptds» Xpd-∂p-hn-Sp-∂Xpw XpS¿∂v cm{Xn-bn¬ 4 aWn-°q¿ CS-hn´v 5 ˛ 8 XhW IqSp-X¬ sh≈w Hgp-°n-hn-Sp-∂Xpw {]Ir-Xn-Z-Ø-amb Pe\n¿§-a-\-sØbpw Pe-tk-N-\-sØbpw Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-sbbpw _m[n-°p-Ibpw sNøpw.

2.

Xriq¿, Fd-Wm-Ipfw Pn√-I-fnse 20 Xt±-i-`-c-W-ÿm-]-\-ß-fn-embn hym]n-®p-In-S-°p∂ 14000 slIvS¿ Irjn-ÿew Pe-tk-N-\-Øn-\mbn B{in-bn-°p-∂Xv Nme-°pSn \Zo ssUth¿j≥ kvIoan-s\-bmWv (CRDS). hnZyp-—‡n t_m¿Uns‚ IW-°p-{]-Imcw BXnc-∏n≈n ]≤-Xn-bpsS {][m\ Pe-t{km-X- mb s]cn-߬°pØv Pe-ssh-Zyp-X-]-≤-Xn-bn¬ \n∂v ag Ipd™ amk-ß-fn¬ 20 aWn-°q¿ 6.2˛7.6 IypsaIvv (Cumec) hscbpw sshZypXn Bhiy D®-ÿm-bn-bn-em-Ip∂ sshIo´v 6 apX¬ 10 aWn-hsc 4 aWn-°q¿ 36 ˛38 IypsaIv hsc-bp-amWv sh≈w Xpd-∂p-hn-Sp-∂Xv. BXn-c-∏n≈n ]≤Xn \S-∏m-bmepw 20 aWn-°q¿ 7.65 IypsaIv 4 aWn-°q¿ 36 ˛ 38 IypsaIv \oscm-gp-°p-≠m-Ip-sa∂mWv hnZyp-—‡n t_m¿Uv Dd∏v ]d-bp∂p. AXm-bXv Nme-°pSn dnh¿ssU-th¿j≥ kvIoan-te°v Bh-iy-Øn\v sh≈w e`n-°p-sa∂v kmcw.

3.

Pew Hgp-Ip-∂-Xnse Cu hyXymkw Xs∂ (7.65 ˛ 38 IypsaIv) Pe-tk-N-\sØ {]Xn-Iq-eambn _m[n-°p-sa-∂-Xn-\m¬ Nme-°pSn ]pg kwc-£W kanXn Cu IW-°p-Isf tNmZyw sNøp-Ibpw sISp-Xn-Iƒ Fsd cq£-am-bn-cn-°p-sa∂v Nq≠n-°m-´p-I-bpw-sN-øp∂p. 1970˛71 apX¬ 2001˛02 hsc-bp≈ \oscm-gp-°ns‚ IW-°p-{]-Imcw Ct∏m-gp≈ \oscm-gp°v Unkw_¿ apX¬ G{]n¬ hsc 14.92 IypsaIv hcq F∂pw Ah¿ A`n-{]m-b-s∏-Sp∂p. s]cn߬°p-Ønse P\-td-‰-dp-I-fpsS A‰-Ip-‰-∏-Wn-bpsS sjUyqƒ {]Imcw Unkw-_-dn\pw G{]n-en\pw at≤y 20 aWn-°q-dnse icm-icn \oscm-gp°v 7.65 IypsaIvv Bbn- Ipd-bp-Ibpw 4 aWn-°q-dn-teXv 50 IypsaIv Bbn IqSp-Ibpw sNøpw. CXv ssUth-gvk≥ kvIoan¬ \n∂p≈ Pe-tk-N\ - sØ em`-Ic - a - mbn _m[n°pw. 20 aWn-°q-dnse \oscm-gp°v 7.65 IypsaIvv Bbm¬ ssUth-gvj≥ kvIoanse Pe-tk-N-\m-h-iy-߃ \nd-th-‰m≥ Ign-bn√. Pe-sam-gp°n-ep-≠m-Ip∂ Cu hyXn-bm\w ]≤-Xn-bpsS hrjvSn-{]-tZ-isØ `qP-e-Øns‚ Afhv Ipdbp-Ibpw Pew InW-dp-I-fnse Pe-\n-c∏v Xmgp-∂-Xn-\m¬ IpSn-sh≈ {]iv\w cq£-am-hpIbpw sNøpw. 2011 P\p-h-cn-bn¬ Nme-°p-Sn-bn¬ \SØnb kmt¶-XnI kwhm-Z-Øn¬ hnZyp—‡n t_m¿Uv Cu hmZ-K-Xn-Iƒ tNmZyw sNbvXn-´p-an√.

4.

\n¿±njvS AW-s°-´n\v Xmtgm-´p≈ ]©m-b-Øp-I-fn¬ Ct∏mƒXs∂ Pe-Zu¿_eyw A\p`-h-s∏-Sp-∂p≠v. Xoc-Øp-\n∂v 20 In.aoD-≈n¬ hsc-bp≈ {]tZ-i-ß-fnse InW-dp-I-fn¬ D∏ns‚ Awiw Ct∏m-gp≠v. ho≠pw Hcp AW-s°-´ns‚ IqSn \n¿Ωm-Whpw Pe-sam-gp°n¬ ho≠pw D≠m-Ip∂ am‰-ßfpw ÿnXn IqSp-X¬ Kpcp-X-c-amIpw.

Kncn-h¿§-°mcpw {]iv\-ßfpw 1

Kncn-h¿§ Ducp-Isf ]≤Xn hep-Xmbn _m[n-®n-cp-∂n-s√-¶nepw Ahn-SsØ Bhm-k-hy-hÿsb {]Xn-Iq-e-ambn _m[n°pw. AW-s°´v \nd-™m¬ Ch-cpsS hmk-ÿ-e-ß-fn¬ sh≈w Ib-dp-Ibpw sNøpw.

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2.

hmg-®m¬ t^mdÃv Unhn-j-\n¬ 413 N.In.ao‰dn¬ ÿnXn-sN-øp∂ 8 ImS¿ Ducp-°-fp≠v. CXn¬ 56 IpSpw-_-ß-fp≈ hmg-®m¬, 23 IpSpw-_-ß-fp≈ s]mI-e-∏md Ducp-°ƒ \n¿±njvS BXn-c-∏n≈n ]≤-Xn-bpsS Db¿∂ BLm-X-ta-J-e-bv°p-≈n-emWv.

3.

ImS¿ Kncn-h¿§w Z£n-tW-¥y≥ h\-ß-fnse G‰hpw A]-cn-jvIrX hn`m-K-am-bmWv IcpX-s∏-Sp-∂Xv. Hcp Im∏ncn ss]XrIw Ch-cn¬ {]I-S-amWv. th´-bmSn `£Ww kam-l-cn°p∂ Ch¿ h\-Øn-\p-≈nepw Nme-°pSn \Zo-X-S-Ønse ae-tbm-c-ß-fnepw HXp-ßn-°qSp∂p. Ch-cpsS P\-kwJy 1500 e[nIw hcn√. ap≥]v ]Sp-Øp-b¿Ønb ]e AW-s°-´pIƒ°pw th≠n ]e-t∏mgpw Chsc Ah-cpsS X\Xv Ducp-°-fn¬ \n∂v ]ngp-sX-dn-b-s∏-´ncp∂p.

4.

56 IpSpw-_-ß-fp≈ hmg-®m¬ Kncn-h¿§-Ducv, Kncn-h¿§-k-l-I-cW kwLw, ss{S_¬ dknU≥jy¬ F¬.]n. kvIqƒ F∂nh AW-s°-´n\v 400 ao‰¿ D≈n-emWv. 23 IpSpw-_-ß-fp≈ s]mI-e-∏md Kncn-h¿§ Ducv Pe-kw-`-c-Wn-bpsS AXn-cn-emWv. Pe-kw-`-cWn \nd-™m¬ Iptd hoSp-Iƒ sh≈-Øn-\-Sn-bn-emIpw.

5.

]´n-I-h¿§˛CXc ]c-º-cm-KX h\-hmkn (h\-A-h-Imiw AwKo-I-cn-°¬) \nb-a-Ønse hyh-ÿ-Iƒ {]Imcw Im´p-Pm-Xn-°m¿°v h\-Øn¬ Pohn-°m\pw k©-cn-°m-\p-ap≈ AhImiw kwc-£n-°m≥ bmsXmcp \S-]-Snbpw kzoI-cn-®n√.

]≤-Xn-bpsS kmt¶-XnI {]mtbm-Kn-IX 1.

Nme-°pSn ]pg-bnse \Zo-X-S-K-th-j-W-tI-{μhpw Nme-°pSn ]pg kwc-£W kan-Xnbpw NphsS ]d-bp-∂-h-bpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ ]≤-Xn-bpsS kmt¶-XnI {]mtbm-Kn-I-Xsb tNmZyw sNøp∂p. ]›n-a-L´ kanXn Nme-°p-Sn-bn¬ kwL-Sn-∏n® kmt¶-XnI kwhm-ZØn¬ Ch Jfin-°m≥ hnZyp-—‡n t_m¿Un\v Ign-™-Xp-an√.

2.

Pe-Øn-s‚bpw sshZypXn Dev]m-Z-\-Øn-s‚bpw e`yX Pe-e-`y-X-bpsS hyXykvX Afhv.

a)

Pe-e-`yX 1999 Un.]n.B¿ A\p-k-cn®v 1269 Fw.kn.Fw.(an-ey¨ Iyp_nIv ao‰¿)

b)

Pe-e-`yX 2003 Un.]n.B¿. A\p-k-cn®v 1169 Fw.kn.Fw.

c)

Pe-e-`yX kn.Uªnbp.kn. A\p-k-cn®v 1056 Fw.kn.Fw.

3.

Cu IW-°n-se√mw CS-a-e-bm¿ ssUth¿j≥ kvIoan-te°v Xncn®p hnSp∂ sh≈-Øns‚ Afhv ]cn-K-Wn-®-Xmbn ImWp-∂n√. Nme-°p-Sn-bnse \Zo-XS Kth-j-W-tI{μw hnh-cm-hIm-i-\n-b-a-Øn-eqsS hnZyp-—‡n t_m¿Un¬ \ns∂-SpØ IW-°-\p-k-cn®v CS-a-e-bm¿ ssUth¿j≥ kvIoan-te-°p≈ sh≈w Ign-®m¬ 750 Fw.kn.Fw. Pew am{Xta BXn-c∏≈n AW-s°-´n-seØq.

4.

2003 Un.]n.B¿. (1169 Fw.kn.Fw.Pew) A\p-k-cn®v tI{μ-ssh-ZypXn AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS IW-°p-Iq-´-en¬ BXn-c-∏n≈n ]≤-Xn-bn¬ \n∂v {]Xn-h¿jw 233 Zi-e£w bqWn‰v sshZypXn-bmWv Dev]m-Zn-∏n-°m≥ Ign-bpI. Pe-e-`yX 750 Fw.kn.Fw. am{X-am-b-Xn-\m¬ sshZypXn Dev]m-Z-\hpw AX-\p-k-cn®v Ipdbpw.

s]cn-߬Ip-Ønse 1987 apX¬ 2006 hsc-bp≈ (hnh-cm-h-Im-i-{]-Imcw e`n-®Xv) \nXy-hpap≈ sshZypXn Dev]m-Z-\-Øn-s‚bpw \oscm-gp-°n-s‚bpw ÿnXn-hn-h-c-°-W-°p-I-fpsS A]-{KY-\-{]-Imcw BXn-c-∏n-≈n-bnse sshZypXn Dev]m-Z\w CS-a-e-bm-dn-te°v Pew Xncn-®p-hn-´m¬ 170 Zi-e£w bqWn‰pw As√-¶n¬ 210 Zi-e£w bqWn‰pw Bbn-cn°pw. 5.

ag-Ip-d-hp≈ Unkw-_¿˛sabv amk-ß-fn¬ CS-a-e-bm¿ ssUth¿j≥ kvInw IqSn ]cn-KWn-®m¬ sshZyp-tXm-ev]m-Z\w 25 Zie£w bqWn-‰n¬ Ipd-hm-bn-cn°pw. hnZyp-—‡n t_m¿Uv Ah-Im-i-s∏-Sp-∂-Xp-t]mse CS-a-e-bm¿ ssUth¿j≥ kvInw \n¿Øn-bm¬ Ahn-sS-\n∂p≈ 60 Zi-e£w bqWn‰v sshZypXn \jvS-s∏-Sp-I-bm-bn-cn°pw ^ew. AXm-bXv BXnc-∏n≈n ]≤Xn bmYm¿∞y-am-bm¬ ag-bn-√mØ amk-ß-fn¬ kwÿm-\sØ samØw sshZypXn Dev]m-Z-\-Øn¬ KWy-amb \jvSw D≠mhpw.

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

70


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

kan-Xn-bpsS ip]m¿i Cu taJ-e-bpsS ssPh-ssh-hn≤y kº-∂X, Db¿∂ kwc-£-W-aqeyw, 5 ]pXnb C\߃ Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ a’y-k-º-Øns‚ {]m[m\yw, hwi-\miw t\cn-Sp∂ 22 Xt±-iob C\-ßfp-tSbpw ISpØ \miw t\cn-Sp∂ 9 C\-ß-fp-sSbpw kmao]yw, ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse 75%, ]£n-C\-ß-fp-tSbpw, Bhm-k-tI{μw kwÿm-\-Øns‚ as‰mcp `mKØpw ImWm≥ Ign-bmØ \Zntbmc Bhm-k-hy-hÿ, ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-Ønepw Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bnepw ]≤Xn hcp-Øp∂ ]cn-l-cn-°-s∏-Sm-\m-ImØ hyXn-bm-\-߃, AW-s°-´n\v Xmtgm-´p≈ {]tZ-i-ß-fnse Pe-tkN\ IpSn-sh≈ {]iv\-߃, tNmZyw sNø-s∏-Sp∂ ]≤-Xn-bpsS kmt¶-Xn-I-amb {]mtbm-Kn-IX, ]≤-Xn-bn¬ \n∂v e`n-°p∂ ]cn-an-X-amb sshZypXn, ImS¿ Kncn-P-\-ß-fpsS Bhm-k-tI-{μ-ßfn¬ krjvSn-°p∂ am‰-߃, ssPh-B-hm-k-tI-{μ-ß-fnse tkh-\-ßfpw ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-c-amb sNehpw IqSm-sX-bp≈ Db¿∂ \n¿ΩmW sNehv, 2001 HIvtSm-_¿ 17 se tIc-f-ssl-t°m-SXn \n¿t±iw "e£y-an´ sshZypXn Dev]m-Z\w Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm-\mbn \ne-hn-ep≈ Pe-ssh-ZypX ]≤Xn-I-fpsS A‰-Ip-‰-∏Wn \SØn Ah-bpsS ]q¿Æ Dev]m-Z-\-tijn hos≠-Sp-°pI, hnX-c-W\jvSw ]c-am-h[n Ipd-bv°pI, sshZypXn tamjWw XS-bp-Itbm ]q¿Æ-ambn Hgn-hm-°p-Itbm sNøpI' F∂o hkvXp-X-Iƒ IW-°n-se-SpØv BXn-c-∏n≈n˛hmg-®m¬ {]tZiw kwc-£n-°m\pw \n¿±njvS BXn-c-∏n≈n Pe-ssh-ZypX ]≤-Xn°v A\p-aXn \ntj-[n-°m\pw kanXn tI{μ-]-cnÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-e-b-tØmSv ip]m¿i sNøp∂p. am{X-hp-a√ Nme-°pSn ]pgsb Hcp a’yssh-hn≤y kº-∂-ta-J-e-bmbn {]Jym-]n®v tIc-f-Ønse DSp-º-t©me Xmeq-°nse ssPhssh-hn≤y kº∂ {]tZ-i-ßsf kwc-£n-°p∂ amXr-I-bn¬ kwc-£n-°-W-sa∂pw kanXn ip]m¿i sNøp∂p.

15.2 Kpfinb Pe-ssh-ZypX ]≤Xn ]≤Xn I¿Æm-S-I-Ønse lm ≥, Z£n-b-W-I-∂S Pn√-I-fn¬ Kpfinb \Zo-X-S-Øn¬ 200 saKmhm´v (613 Zi-e£w bqWn‰v) tijn-bp≈ Hcp Pe-ssh-ZypX ]≤Xn \n¿t±-i-Øn\v I¿Æm-SI ]h¿ tIm¿∏-td-j≥ cq]w \¬In. ]≤-Xn°v 3 L´-ß-fmWv \n¿t±-in-°-s∏-´Xv. BZy-L-´-Øn¬ sb´n-\-tlmsf, sIcn-tlmsf, sl¶S l≈, s_‰-Ip-amcn Acp-hn-I-fpsS 178.5NXp-c{i Intem-ao‰¿ hrjvSn-{]-tZ-is - Øbpw c≠mw L´-Øn¬ Ipam-c[ - mc, en¶-Øvtlmsf Acp-hn-If - psS 78 N.In.ao. hrjvSn {]tZ-i-sØbpw aq∂mw-L-´-Øn¬ Ipam-c-lsf, A_n≥ _ncp-tlmsf Dƒ∏-sS-bp≈ 6 Acp-hn-I-fpsS 70 N.In.ao. hrjvSn-{]-tZ-i-sØbpw Pew ]≤-Xn-°mbn D]-tbm-Kn-°m-\m-bn-cp∂ e£yw. h¿j-Øn¬ icm-icn 975 Zi-e£w N.ao. ag e`n-°p∂ 323.5 N.In.ao. hrjvSn-{]-tZ-i-amWv ]≤-Xn-°mbn \n¿t±-in-°-s∏-´Xv. Cu taJe c≠v L´-ambn hnI-kn-∏n-°m-\mWv Dt±-in-®Xv. H∂mw L´-Øn¬ sb‰n-tlmsf, sIdn-tlmsf, slm¶-S-l≈, s_‰-Ip-amcn Acp-hn-Iƒ XΩn¬ _‘n-∏n®v Ah-bnse sh≈w kam-l-cn-°pI. Ch-bn¬ sNdnb XS-b-W-Iƒ \n¿Ωn®v sh≈Øns‚ Hgp°p \nb-{¥n®v Pew sb‰n-\-tlm-sf-bn¬ \n∂v SW¬hgn s_‰-Ip-amcn Pe-kw-`-c-Wnbn¬ FØn-°p∂p. Ahn-sS-\n∂v Pew 7.8 In.ao.\of-ap≈ SW-en-eqsS as‰mcp Pe-kw-`-c-Wn-bnse-Øp∂p. Ahn-sS-\n∂v 850 In.ao. \of-ap≈ {]j¿ jm^vSn-eqsS c≠v s]≥tÃm°v hgn sh≈w `qK¿` ]h¿ lukn-se-Øn-°p∂p. 200 saKm-hm´v hoX-ap≈ c≠v bqWn-‰mWv ]Δ¿lu-kns‚ Dev]m-Z-\-tijn. c≠mw-L-´-Øn¬ c≠v SW-ep-I-fmWv hn`m-h\ sNbvXn-´p-≈Xv. Hcp SW¬ ISpa\l≈-bn-sebpw kao-]-{]-tZ-i-ß-fn-sebpw Pew 13 In.ao. AI-se-bp≈ sb´o-\-tlmsf XS-bW-bnse SW-en¬ FØn-°p∂p. c≠m-asØ SW¬ en¶Øv tlmsf, Ipam-c-[mc Acp-hn-Ifnse Pew 15 In.ao. AI-se-bp≈ s_‰-Ip-amcn dnk¿thm-b-dn-se-Øn-°p∂p. c≠mw-L-´-Øn¬ sh≈w Xncn-®p-hn-Sm≥ 5 ao‰¿ Db-c-ap≈ sNdnb XS-b-W-I-fmWv \n¿t±-in-°-s∏-´n-´p-≈Xv. H∂mwL´w ]q¿Øn-bm-°p-tºmƒ 90iX-am\w Pew e`n-°p∂ h¿j-Øn¬ 653 Zi-e£w bqWn‰pw ]≤Xn ]q¿Øn-bm-Ip-tºmƒ 1136 Zi-e£w bqWn‰pw sshZypXn Dev]m-Zn-∏n-°m≥ Ignbpw. H∂mw L´-Øns‚ \n¿Ωm-W-sN-ehv 926. 50 tImSn cq]-bmWv. ]≤-Xn-bpsS khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ ]´nI 7¬ ImWpI. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

71


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]´nI˛7 : Kpfinb ]≤-Xn-bpsS khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ sb´o-\-tlmsf XS-bW

sIcn-tlmsf XS-bW

sl¶-Z√ XS-bW

s_‰-Ip-amcn AW-s°´v

A£mwiw

120 51'40''

12050'30''

12'490 29''

12'470 09''

tcJmwiw

750 43'20''

75042'44''

75042'23''

75040'10''

hrjvSn-{]-tZiw ^pƒ dnk¿thm-b¬

60.50 N.In.ao.

27.00 N.Inao.

8.50 N.In.ao.

35.00 N.Inao.

EL 750

seh¬ dnh¿s_Uv

ao.

EL 763 ao.

EL 745 ao

EL 740.ao.

seh¬

EL738 ao.

EL 758 ao.

EL 730 ao.

EL720 ao.

XS-bW seh¬

EL743.50 ao.

EL759.40 ao.

˛˛˛

EL681 ao.

Umw am-XrI

tIm¨{Io‰v

tIm¨{Io‰v

kΩn{iw

kΩn{iw

Umans‚ Dbcw

15 ao

8ao.

32 ao.

62.ao.

Umans‚ \ofw

80 ao.

68ao.

152.40 ao.

575ao.

kv]n¬shbpw

\ofw 36 ao.

\ofw 53ao.

\ofw 60ao.

\ofw 45ao.

tK‰p-Ifpw

10 x 8 ao. 3 tK‰p-Iƒ

Ihn-s™mgp Ip∂ ssS∏v

12 x 10 ao 4 tK‰p-Iƒ

12x10 ao‰¿ 3 tK‰p-Iƒ

\oscm-gp-°ns‚ Unssk≥

525 Iyp.ao.sk.

360 Iyp.ao.sk.

1544 Iyp.ao.sk. 954 Iypao.sk.

{]fbw

˛˛˛

˛˛

˛˛˛

˛˛˛

icm-i-cn-a-g-e-`yX

163 M cum

28 M cum

120 M cum

sh≈-Øn-em-hp∂ {]tZiw

11.54 slIvS¿

40.sl.

133 slIvS¿

86 M cum

0.09.sl.

tdmUp-Iƒ \ofw 100 In.ao. hoXn 10 In.ao.

100 slIvS¿

AW-s°´v ]h¿lukv, CX-c- L-S-I-߃

170 slIvS¿.

a‰v D]-tbmKw

15 slIvS¿

(Izmdn, ^o¬Uv B^okv, bm¿Uv)

SW¬ Ipgn® hkvXp-°-fpsS tÃm°v bmUv

275 slIvS¿

(d±m-°nb slm¶-Sl - ≈ Umans‚ sh≈-Øn-\S- n-bn-em-hp∂ (523.80slIvS¿) {]tZ-iß - ƒ ChnsS Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´n√.) `qK¿` ]h¿lukv ssS¿ss_≥

{^m≥kokv S¿ss_≥

ÿm]n-X-tijn

200 saKm-hm´v

At{]m®v SW¬

965ao. "Un' BIr-Xn-bn-ep≈ 7 ao. hymkw

Du¿÷w hm¿jn-I -i-cm-icn

1136 Zi-e£w bqWn‰v

sNehv samØw sNehv

926.50 tImSn cq]

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

72


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]›m-Øew Kp≠nb Pe-ssh-Zyp-X-]-≤Xn I¿Æm-SI k¿°m¿ I¿Æm-SI ]h¿ tIm¿∏-td-j\v A\ph-Zn-®p-sIm-SpØXv 6˛10˛1998 emWv. XpS¿∂v tIm¿∏-td-j≥ hnhn[ hIp-∏p-I-fn¬ \n∂v ¢nbd≥kv hmßn. 28˛9˛ 2006 ¬ I¿Æm-SI a’y-_-‘\ hIp-∏n-s‚bpw, 10˛3˛2008¬, tI{μ B¿°ntbm-f-Pn-°¬ k¿tΔbpsSbpw, 16.04.2008¬, I¿Æm-SI BtcmKy IpSpw-_-t£-a-h-Ip-∏n-s‚bpw, 25˛4˛2008¬ tI{μ sshZypXn AtXm-dn-‰n-bp-sS-bpw, 02-˛05-˛2008 ¬ I¿Æm-SI Pe-hn-`h hIp-∏ns‚bpw 06.06.2008¬ I¿Æm-SI k¿°m-cn-s‚bpw ¢nb-d≥kv t{]mP-IvSn\v e`n®p. ]≤-Xn-tbmSv cmPy-c£ a{¥m-e-b-Øn\v FXn¿∏n-s√∂ IØv 7˛7˛2009epw e`n®p. lm ≥ Pn√-bnse kIv-te-iv]pc Xmeq-°nse slm¶-S-l-≈-bn¬ 6˛6˛ 2008¬ \S∂ s]mXpsX-fn-sh-Sp-∏n¬ lm ≥,Z£nW I∂S Pn√-I-fnse Pn√m `c-W-IqSw, \n¿±njvS ]≤Xn _m[n°p∂ P\-߃ F∂n-h¿ lmP-cmbn A`n-{]m-b-߃ tcJ-s∏-SpØn. I¿Æm-SI kwÿm\ aen\o-Ic - W \nb-{¥-Wt- _m¿Uv s]mXp-sX-fn-sh-Sp∏v tbmK-Øns‚ \S-]Sn {Ia-Øns‚ tIm∏n 27˛9˛2008 \v ]cn-ÿnXn˛ h\w a{¥m-e-b-Øn\v \¬In.I¿Æm-SI ]h¿ tIm¿∏-td-j≥ 6˛11˛ 2008¬ _rlØmb ]cn-ÿnXn BLm-X-A-]-{K-Y\ dnt∏m¿´pw ]cn-ÿnXn h\w a{¥m-e-b-Øn\v ka¿∏n®p. 21˛11˛2008¬ IqSnb hnZKv[ Ah-tem-I-\-k-an-Xn-bpsS 20˛masØ tbmKw ]≤-Xn°v ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip∂ Imcyw ]cn-K-Wn®p.Z£n-W-I-∂S Pn√-bn¬ IqSn Hcp s]mXp-sX-fn-sh-Sp∏v \S-Ø-Wsa∂v a{¥m-ebw \n¿t±-in®p. Z£nW I∂S Pn√-bnse ]pØq¿Xm-eq-°nse kncn-_m-Kpep hnt√-Pn¬ 25˛3˛2009¬ Hcp s]mXp-sX-fn-sh-Sp∏v \SØn. CXns‚ \S-]-Sn-{I-a-ß-fpsS Hcp tIm∏n 18˛4˛2009 ¬ aen-\o-I-cW \nb-{¥-W-t_m¿Uv ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-e-b-Øn\v ka¿∏n®p. 15˛6˛ 2009¬ tN¿∂ ]cn-ÿnXn A]-{K-Y\ kan-Xn-bpsS 27˛maXv tbmKw ]≤-Xn°v ¢nb-d≥kv sImSp-°p∂ Imcyw ]cn-K-Wn®p. C°m-cy-Øn¬ a{¥m-ebw D∂-bn® {]iv\-߃°v ]h¿tIm¿∏-td-j≥ 29˛9˛2009¬ adp-]-Snbpw \¬In. tI{μ-]-cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-e-b-Ønse Pe-ssh-ZypX ]≤-Xn-Iƒ°pw \Zo-X-S-߃°pam-bp≈ hnZKv[ A]-{K-Y\ kan-Xn-bpsS D]-k-anXn apºmsI ae-\mSv P\-]c slmdm´ kanXn ]≤-Xn-bpsS tZmj-߃ Nq≠n-°m´n 5˛12˛2009¬ ]cmXn ka¿∏n®p. {]apJ ]cn-ÿnXn hmZnbpw "Nn]vtIm' {]ÿm-\-t\-Xm-hp-amb {io. kpμ¿em¬_-lp-KpW s_‰-Ip-am-cn-bn¬ {]Xn-tj-[-{]-IS\w \S-Øp-Ibpw 21˛12˛2009¬ slm¶Y√ hnt√-Pn¬ {]Xn-tj-[-tbmKw tNcp-Ibpw sNbvXp. ASp-Ø-Zn-hkw lm ≥ Su-Wn¬ ae-\mSv P\-]c slmdm´ kan-Xn-bpsS t\Xr-Xz-Øn¬ h≥ {]Xn-tj[ dmenbpw tbmKhpw \S∂p. {]mtZ-inI Xe-Øn¬ 2004 ˛2006 Ime-L-´-Øn¬ CØcw \nc-h[n {]Xn-tj-[-{]-I-S-\-ßfpw tbmK-ßfpw kwL-Sn-∏n-°-s∏´p.

]›n-a-L´ kan-Xn-bpsS kμ¿i-\-ßfpw IqSn-bm-tem-N-\-Ifpw kanXn sNb¿am≥ s{]m^.am[hv KmUvKn-ens‚ £W-{]-Imcw tUm.Sn.hn.cma-N{μ(]›na-L´ I¿Ω kanX AwKhpw C¥y≥ C≥Ãn-‰yq´v Hm^v kb≥knse lcn-ÿnXn imkv{X-tI-{μØnse kb‚n-^nIv B^o-kdpw) s{]m^. Fw.Un. kp`mjv Nμ≥ (I¿Æm-SI ssPh-ssh-hn-≤yt_m¿Uv AwKw) {io. lcojv `´v (_mw•q-cnse HmW-ddn ssh¬Uv sse^v hm¿U≥) F∂nhcpw a‰v Kth-j-Icpw Dƒs∏´ kwLw 2010 BKÃv 29 apX¬ 31 hsc \n¿±n-jvS-Kp-finb Pessh-ZypX ]≤-Xn-{]-tZiw kμ¿in®p. {]tZ-i-hm-kn-I-fpsS {]Xn-\n-[n-Ifpw Ah-tcm-sSm-∏-ap-≠mbn-cp∂p. 2010 BKÃv 31 \v kwLw slm¶-Y√ hnt√-Pn¬ \S-Ønb s]mXp-sXfnshSp-∏n¬ A\h[n {]tZ-i-hm-kn-Iƒ kw_-‘n-°p-Ibpw \n¿±njvS ]≤-Ynsb kw_-‘n®v Ah-cpsS ImgvN∏mSpw A`n-{]m-bhpw Adn-bn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. XpS¿∂v s{]m^. am[hv KmUvKnepw kanXn AwKw {ioaXn hnZym-\m-b°pw sk]vXw-_¿ 16 \v t{]mPIvSv ssk‰v kμ¿in-°p-Ibpw 17 \v {]tZ-i-hm-kn-I-fp-ambn IqSn-bm-tem-N\ \S-Øp-Ibpw sNbvXp.

]≤Xn {]tZ-isØ ssPh-ssh-hn≤yw lm ≥ Pn√-bnse "kIvtfjv]pc' Xmeq-°n¬ 1400 ao‰¿ Db-c-Øn¬ \n∂p-¤-hn-°p∂ Ipam-c-[mc \Zn-bpsS Hcp D]-\-Zn-bmWv Kpfin-b-\Zn. I¿Æm-S-I-bn¬ a≤y-]-›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ ]Sn-™mtdm´vv Hgp-Ip∂ c≠v \Zn-I-fmWv t\{Xm-h............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Xnbpw Ipam-c-[m-cbpw. sb´o-\-tlmsf, sIºv tlmsf Acp-hn-Iƒ tN¿∂v cq]-s∏-Sp∂ Kpfinb-\-Zn-bn-te°v ISp-am-s\-tlmsf, slm¶-S-l≈ Acp-hn-Iƒ Hgp-In-sbØn Ch H∂mbn Hgp-Ip-IbmWv sNøp-∂Xv. Kpfin-b-bpsS hrjvSn-{]-tZ-iØv Pq¨ apX¬ sk]vXw-_¿ hsc \√ ag e`n°pw. Cu \Zo-XSw \nXy-l-cn-X-h-\-ß-fp-tSbpw A¿≤-\n-Xy-l-cnX h\-ß-fp-sSbpw hoXn Ipd™ {]tZ-i-amWv. Cu \nXy-l-cnX h\-ßsf c≠v apJy-Xcw h\-ß-fmbn Xncn°mw. 0 apX¬ 850 ao‰¿ hsc Db-c-Øn-ep-≈-hbpw 650 apX¬ 1400 hsc ao‰¿ Db-c-Øn-ep-≈-hbpw. ChnsS ImWp∂ hr£-߃ Fs¥-¶nepw {]mtZ-inI kz`m-h-ssh-in-jy-ap-≈-htbm ]≤-Xn-aqew sh≈Øn-\-Sn-bn-em-Ip-∂-htbm A√. ChnsS G‰hpw IqSp-X¬ ImWp∂ hr£-߃ Vateria Indica, Elaeocarpus Tuberculatus F∂n-h-bmWv. XS-Øn¬ ImWp∂ h\-Øn-te-sdbpw hf¿®-bpsS c≠mwL-´-Øn-ep-≈-h-bmWv. [mcmfw ]p¬ta-Sp-Ifpw ChnsS ImWmw. ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ Cu¿∏w \nd™ ]Sn-™m-dp-`m-KsØ ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-sØ-bmWv Cu taJe {]Xn-\n-[m\w sNøp-∂Xv. ChnsS ImWp∂ hr£-e-Xm-Zn-I-fn¬ 36%hpw D`-b-Po-hn -I-fn¬ 87%Dw a’y-ß-fn¬ 41% ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ am{Xw {]tXy-I-X-bmWv. h\y-Po-hn-kw-c-£-W\n-b-a-Øns‚w (1972) H∂mw sjUyq-fn¬ s]Sp-Øn-bn-´p≈ ]e arK-ßfpw Chn-sS-bp≠v. Kpfinb XS-Ønse ssPh-ssh-hn≤y khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ NphsS ]dbpw {]Imcw kw{Kln°mw.(kpIp-am¿ & i¶¿ 2011) a.

kky-߃ : 43 C\w hr£-ß-fm¬ kº-∂-amWv Cu {]tZiw. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse a‰v ag°m-Sp-I-fmb Ips{μ-apJv (I¿Æm-SI), sske‚ v hmen (tIcf) F∂n-h-bvs°m-∏-sa-¶nepw Chn-SsØ h\-ssh-hn≤yw Ipf-bv°mSv˛ap≠≥Xpssd ssSK¿ dnk¿Δnse (Xan-gv\mSv) sk¶¬tX-cn-s°m-∏-sa-Øn√. Xmgv-hm-c-ß-fn¬ ÿnXn-sN-øp-∂-Xn-\m¬ s_‰-Ip-am-cn-bnepw slm¶-Sm-l-≈n-bnepw Kpfinb XS-Øn-te-Xn-t\-°mƒ sa®-s∏´ coXn-bn-emWv hr£-߃ CS-Xq¿∂v hf-cp-∂Xv.]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ Is≠-Ønb 18 C\w kky-ß-fn¬ 16 C\-߃ L´-Øn-ep-S\ - ofw ImWp-∂h - b - mWv. Atlantia Wightii F∂ C\w I¿Æm-SI - b - nepw tIc-fØ - nepw am{Xhpw Pinganga dicksonii F∂ C\w I¿Æm-S-I-Øn¬ am{Xhpw ImW-s∏-Sp∂p. ]s£ Kpfinb XS-Ønse ssPh-hy-hÿ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse a‰v Xmc-Xay h\-{]-tZ-i-ß-fmb Ips{μ-apJv, sske‚ v-hmen F∂n-h-tb-°mƒ Xmgv∂ \ne-hm-c-Øn-ep-≈-XmWv. Hcp ]s£ Kpfin-b-bn¬ h≥tXm-Xn¬ hr£-߃ apdn-®p-am-‰p-∂-Xp-sIm-≠m-bn-cn°mw CXv.

b.

sNdp-{]m-Wn-Iƒ: sd\n Fw. t_m¿Pkpw kwLhpw Hcp sNdp-k-ky-Øn¬ (Humboldtia brunonis) Is≠-Ønb, imkv{X-Øn-\p-Xs∂ ]pXnb Adn-hmb Hcn\w Cu® (Braunsapis bislensis) ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse Cu h\-ß-fn¬ am{Xw I≠p-h-cp∂p.

c.

a’y-߃: Ipam-c-[mc, t\{Xm-h-Xn-X-S-߃ a’y-k-º-Øn-\m¬ kº-∂-am-b-Xn-\m¬ Cu \Zn-I-fpsS kwc-£-W-Øn\v {]tZ-i-hm-kn-Iƒ henb ap≥K-W\ \¬Ip∂p.

d.

D`-b-Po-hn-Iƒ: Cu ]T-\-Øn¬ 21 C\w D`-b-Po-hn-Isf Is≠-Øn-bn-´p-≈-Xn-¬ 18 FÆw ]›na L´-Øn¬am{Xw ImWp-∂-h-bmWv. 2FÆw Kpfin-b-X-S-Øn¬ am{X-ap-≈-hbpw.

e.

]£n-Iƒ: Cu ]T-\-Øn¬ 69 C\w ]£n-Isf Xncn-®-dn-™-Xn¬ 6 FÆw ]›n-a-L-´Øn¬ am{X-ap-≈-h-bmWv.

f.

kkvX-\n-Iƒ: h\y-Pohn kwc-£-a-\-b-a-Øns‚ H∂mw sjUyq-fn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p≈ ]e kkvX-\n-Ifpw Kpfinb XS-Øn¬ D≈-h-bmWv. knwl-hm-e≥ Ipcßv, {Smh≥Iq¿ AÆm≥, \oe-Kn-cn-Ip-cphn F∂nh \Zo-X-S-Ønse hoXn-Iq-Snb `mKØv I≠p-h-cp-∂p-≠v. F∂m¬ ]≤-Xn-{]-tZ-iØv \S-Ønb ssPh sshhn-≤y-]-T-\-Øn¬ CXv tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn´n√. AXp-t]m-se-Xs∂ ISp-hI - f - psS kmao]yw Chn-sS-\n∂v dnt∏m¿´p sNbvXn-´p≠v. I¿ÆmS-I-bnse ssakq¿ B\ dnk¿Δn¬ D≈{X Cs√-¶nepw ]≤Xn {]tZ-iØv Gjy≥-B-\bpsS kmao]yw dnt∏m¿´v sNø-s∏-´n-´p≠v. t]mPIvSv Fen-s^‚ns‚ `mK-amb ]pjv]-Kncn h\y-Pohn kt¶-X-Øn\v ]pd-ØmWv Kpfinb XSw. ssakq¿ Fen-^‚ v dnk¿Δn\pw lmk≥k-t¢-jv]p¿˛amwK-fq¿ \mj-W¬ sslthbv°pw CS-bv°p≈ {]tZ-isØ B\-IfpsS k©m-c-]-Y-Øn¬ Kpfinb XS-Øn-\p≈ {]m[m-\y-sØ-]‰n CXp-hsc At\z-jWw

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

\S-Øn-bn-´n√. tI{μ-k¿°m¿ AwKo-I-cn-®n-´p-≈Xpw ' k©m-c-Øn-\p≈ Ah-Imiw ˛ C¥ybnse B\-bpsS k©m-c-]-Y-߃' F∂ {]kn-≤o-I-c-W-Øn¬ Dƒs∏-´n-´p-≈-Xp-amb k©m-c-]-Y-ß-fn¬ Ct∏mgpw CXv Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´n√.(Menon et al. 2005)

Kpfinb XS-Ønse `qhn-\n-tbm-K-L-S\ \Zo-X-S-Ønse `qhn-\n--tbm-K-Øn¬ Gew, Im∏n-tXm-´-߃ F∂nh Dƒs∏-Sp∂p. Cu tXm´ß-fn¬ XW-en-\mbn Nne X\Xp hr£-߃ \ne-\n¿Øn-bn-´p≠v. Ah-bpsS XW-en-emWv Cu¿∏w btYjvSw th≠ Ge-Irjn. DW-ßnb Ge-Øn\v Intembv°v 1500 cq]-hsc hne-bp-≈Xn-\m¬ Cu \mWy-hn-f-bn¬ \n∂v \√ BZmbw e`n°pw. Kpfinb XS-Ønse sNdpXpw hepXp-amb I¿j-I¿ Ge-Ir-jn-°m-cmWv. sNdpXpw hep-Xp-amb Chn-SsØ Im∏n-tØm-´-߃ a≤y]-›n-a-L-´-Ønse a‰n-S-ß-fn-se-t∏mse Chn-sSbpw hen-sbmcp kmº-ØnI t{kmX- mWv. ChnSsØ kzIm-cy-h≥InS FtÃ-‰p-I-fpsS \s√mcp `mKw h\-am-sW-¶nepw A\-[n-IrX Itø-‰-ØneqsS Chn-SsØ h≥a-c-ß-sf√mw apdn-®p-am-‰n-°-gn™p. (kpIp-am¿ & i¶¿ 2010) ChnsS A\-[nIrX Itø‰w hym]-I-am-b-Xn-\m¬ hne-]n-Sn-∏p≈ hr£-ß-sf√mw A{]-Xy-£-am-bn-°-gn™p. AXp-t]mse Xs∂ hym]-I-amb h\w Itø‰w \n_n-U-h-\-ß-fpsS \ne-\n¬]ns\ Xs∂ A]I-S-Øn-em-°n-bn-cn-°p∂p.

ip]m¿i 1.

c≠v L´-ambn \S-∏m-°m-\p-t±-in-°p∂ aq∂v Xe-ß-fp≈ Kpfinb ]≤Xn \Zo-X-S-Ønse `q{]-Ir-Xn-bn¬ henb am‰-߃ krjvSn°pw. ]≤-Xn-aqew hen-sbmcp `q{]-tZiw sh≈Øn-\-Sn-bn-em-Ip∂p F∂p am{X-a√ CtXm-S-\p-_-‘n-®p≈ sI´n-S-ß-fp-tSbpw tdmUp-I-fpsSbpw \n¿Ωm-Whpw henb BLmXw krjvSn°pw.

2.

\Zo-X-S-Ønse Pe-L-S-\-Xs∂ ]≤Xn am‰n-a-dn°pw. hnJymX t£{X-\-K-c-amb "kp{_“Wy"bnte-°p≈ apJy-Pe t{kmX- mb "Ipam-c-[mcm' \Zn s_‰-Ip-amcn AW-s°-´nte°v Xncn-®p-hn-Sp-∂-Xp-aqew AhnsS Pe-£maw A\p-`-h-s∏Spw. t£{Xw kμ¿in-°p∂ `‡-P-\-߃°v CXv henb _p≤n-ap-´mIpw. `q{]-Ir-Xn-bnse am‰-߃ hrjvSn-{]-tZiØv krjvSn-°p∂ BLm-X-sØ-∏-‰nbpw Pew hgn-Xn-cn-®p-hn-Sp-∂-Xns\ ]‰nbpw D≈ t{]mPIvSv dnt∏m¿´nse ]cm-a¿iw hy‡-a√. Ct∏mƒ kar-≤-ambn Pe-sam-gp-Ip∂ Acp-hn-Iƒ ag°m-eØp am{Xw sh≈-ap-≈-h-bm-bn-amdpw. (icm-hXn \Zo-X-S-Øn¬ kw`-hn-®-Xp-t]mse) AXp-t]mse Xmtgm-´p≈ Pe-\n¿§-a-\-Ønse hyXn-bm\w {]tZ-i-hm-kn-I-fpsS PohnXw _p≤n-ap-´n-em°pw.

3.

{][m\ `qK¿` ]h¿lu-kn-te-°p≈ SW¬ \n¿Ωn-°p-∂Xv {]mY-anI h\-ta-Je - b - n-emWv. Kpfinb XS-Øn¬ Ah-ti-jn-°p∂ {]mY-anI \nXy-lc - n-Xh - \ - Ø - n\v iey-am-sW-∂X - n-\m¬ CXv A`n-ej - W - o-ba - √.

4.

]›n-a-L´ kanXn ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-Je˛H∂v Bbn Xcw-Xn-cn-®p≈ {]tZ-i-ØmWv Kpfinb Pe-ssh-ZypX ]≤Xn \n¿t±-in-°-s∏-´n-´p-≈Xv. Cu taJ-e-bn¬ henb tÃmtdPv Umap-Iƒ ]mSn-s√-∂mWv kanXn ip]m¿i sNbvXn-´p-≈Xv.

5.

ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-\-jvShpw BLm-Xhpw KW-\o-b-am-I-bm¬ ]≤Xn \S-∏m-°m≥ A\p-h-Zn°-cp-sX-∂mWv kanXn ip]m¿i sNøp-∂Xv.

16. cXv\-Kncn, kn‘p-Zp¿§ Pn√-Iƒ alm-cm-jv{S-bnse cXv\-Kncn, kn‘p-Zp¿K Pn√-I-fnse J\\w, Du¿÷ D¬]m-Z\w, aen-\oI-c-W-hy-h-km-b-߃ F∂n-h-bpsS XpS¿hn-I-k-\-Øn\v A\p-tbm-Py-amb amXrI \n¿t±-in-°W-sa∂v kan-Xn-tbmSv Bh-iy-s∏-´n-cp∂p. \nc-h[n J\-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-ßfpw sshZypX ]≤-XnIfpw aen-\o-I-cW hyh-km-b-ßfpw Cu taJ-e-bn-ep-S-\ofw ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-c-ambpw kmaq-ly-ambpw krjvSn-®n-´p≈ BLmXw hfsc Kuc-h-ap-≈-XmWv. CXp-aqew aen-\-am-Ip-Ibpw Pe-\n-c∏v XmgpIbpw sNøp∂p. Pe-t{km-X- p-I-fn-te°v amen\yw Hgp-In-sb-Øp∂p, ASn-°Sn sh≈-s∏m°w D≠m-Ip∂p. ^e-`q-bn-jvS-amb Irjn-`qan \jvS-s∏-Sp∂p. a’y-k-ºØv \in-°p∂p. h\-\-io-I............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

cWw h¿≤n-°p∂p. A]q¿Δ kky-߃°v hwi-\miw kw`-hn-°p∂p. hmbp-a-en-\o-I-cWw, i_vZa-en-\o-I-cWw, KXm-KX kwhn-[m\w, Xmdp-am-dm-Ip∂p. A]-I-S-߃ h¿≤n-°p∂p. izmk-tIm-itcm-K-߃ IqSp∂p. XpS-ßn-b-h-sb√mw Cu BLm-X-ß-fn¬ s]Spw. Cu A]-I-Sm-h-ÿ-bpsS Kuchw Dƒs°m-≠p-sIm≠v CXv {i≤m-]q¿Δw A]-{K-Yn®v ASn-b-¥n-c-]-cn-lmcw ImtW-≠Xp≠v. CXv shdp-samcp \nb-a-{]-iv\-a√. \nb-a-hn-cp-≤-{]-h¿Ø-\-ß-fpsS {]iv\-amWv. DZm-l-c-WØn\v J\-\-°m¿ Ah-cpsS i‡n D]-tbm-Kn®v hgn-X-S-bp-∂Xv XS-bp-Ibpw hgn-bn¬ henb Ipgn-Iƒ krjvSn-°p-∂-Xmbpw I¿j-I¿ ]cm-Xn-s]-Sp∂p. \nb-a-]-c-ambn A\p-h-Z-\o-b-am-b-Xnt\-°mƒ F{Xtbm henb Af-hn-emWv hyh-km-b-im-e-I-fn¬ \n∂p≈ aen-\o-I-cWw. CXpaqew henb kmaq-ly-A-kz-ÿX {]tZ-iØp \ne-\n-ev°p∂p. {Ia-k-am-[m\ kwhn-[m\w \nba-hn-cp≤ {]h¿Ø-\-ßsf kwc-£n-°m-\mbn Zpcp-]-tbmKw sNøp∂p F∂v P\-߃ ]cm-Xns]-Sp∂p.

16.1. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-X-bpsS \ne-hmcw cXv\-Kncn, kn‘p-Zp¿K Pn√-I-fpsS Hcp `mKw am{Xta ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬s]-Sp-∂p≈q. kanXn-bpsS Um‰m-t_-kns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ Cu `mK-ßsf taJe˛H∂v, c≠v, aq∂v F∂v Xcw Xncn-®n-´p≠v. kan-Xn-bp-ambn hfsc kl-I-c-W-Øn¬ {]h¿Øn-°p∂ sIm¬lm-]q-cnse hnIk\ Kth-jW t_m[-h¬°-cW B£≥ C≥Ãn-‰yq-´nse Hcp kwLw imkv{X-⁄cpw {]h¿ØIcpw "alm-cmjv{S klym{Zn ]c-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZiw' cq]o-I-cn-°p-∂-Xn\pw Hcp \n¿t±iw apt∂m-´p-h®p. inhmPn k¿Δ-I-em-im-e-bnse Kth-jW hnZym¿∞n-I-fpsS {]_-‘-ß-fn¬ \n∂pw Kth-j-W-]-≤-Xn-I-fn¬ \n∂pw e`n® ÿnXn-hn-h-c-°-W-°p-I-fp-sSbpw ÿe-k-μ¿i-\-ß-fp-tSbpw ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ kXmc, kmKvfn, sIm¬lm-]q¿, cXv\-Kncn, kn‘p-Zp¿K Pn√-I-fnse Nne {]tZ-i-߃ IqSn ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJe˛H∂v, c≠v, aq∂v¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øm≥ ip]m¿i sNbvXp. cXv\-Kncn, kn‘p-Zp¿K Pn√-I-fnse {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS Imcy-Øn¬ Cu ip]m¿i kanXn kzoI-cn-®p. ]›n-a-L-´-Øn-ep-S-\ofw CØcw {]h¿Ø-\-ßsf t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°Ww.

16.2. ]cn-ÿnXn `cW \n¿Δ-l-W-Ønse t]mcmbva kanXn ÿe-k-μ¿i-\-th-f-bnepw A√m-sXbpw k¿°m¿ DtZym-K-ÿ¿, hyh-kmb {]Xn\n-[n-Iƒ, ]©m-bØv cmPv ÿm]-\-ß-fnse sXc-s™-Sp-°-s∏´ AwK-߃, kwÿm\ \nb-ak-`mw-K-߃, ]m¿e-sa‚w-K-߃, imkv{X-km-t¶-XnI hnZ-Kv[¿, I¿j-I¿, a’y-sXm-gn-em-fn-Iƒ, Ic-Iu-i-e-sXm-gn-em-fn-Iƒ, hymh-km-bnI˛tXm´w sXmgn-em-fn-Iƒ F∂n-h-cp-ambn \S-Ønb Bi-b-hn-\n-a-b-Øn-se√mw hy‡-am-sbmcp Imcyw ]cn-ÿnXn `c-W-\n¿Δ-l-W-Ønse ISpØ t]mcm-bva-I-fmWv. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v P¿Ω-\n-bpsS kmº-ØnI˛kmt¶-XnI klm-b-tØmsS \ne-hn-ep≈ hyh-km-b-ß-fpsS taJ-em-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-ep≈ `q]-S-ap-≠m-°m≥ tI{μ˛kwÿm\ aen-\o-I-c-W\n-b-{¥W t_m¿Up-Isf Npa-X-e-s∏-SpØn. cmPysØ F√m Pn√-Iƒ°pw Hcp ÿe-]c Um‰mt_-kn\v Ch¿ cq]w \¬In. \ne-hnse aen-\o-I-c-W-\n-e-hmcw,]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-c-ambpw kmaq-lyambpw D≈ Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-߃, aen-\o-I-cW \ne C\nbpw Db¿Øp-∂Xv A`n-Im-ay-a-√mØ {]tZ-i-߃, hnhn[ \ne-hm-c-Øn-ep≈ hmbp-a-en-\o-I-c-Whpw, Pe-a-en-\o-I-c-Whpw D≈ A\ph-Z-\o-b-amb hyh-km-b-߃ F∂nh kw_-‘n-s®√mw {]tXyI `q]-S-߃ Xøm-dm-°n-bn-´p≠v. Nne ]cn-an-Xn-Iƒ Ds≠-¶n¬ t]mepw CXv hfsc hne-s∏´ Hcp kw`m-h-\-bmWv. ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]c-ambpw kmaq-ly-ambpw kpÿn-c-hn-I-k\w ssIh-cn-°m≥ CXn-eqsS km[n°pw. F∂m¬ ISpØ kΩ¿±sØ XpS¿∂v ]cn-ÿnXn h\w a{¥m-e-b-Øn\v CXv ]c-ky-s∏-Sp-Øm-\m-bn√. X¬^-eambn cXv\-Kn-cn-bpsS taJ-em-`q-]Sw CXp-hsc {]kn-≤-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ Ign-™n√. Bh¿Øn®v ]e {]mhiyw Bh-iy-s∏-´n-´mWv kan-Xn-°p-Xs∂ Hcp tIm∏n e`n-®Xv. ]e-Ipdn Bh¿Øn®v Bhiy-s∏-´n´pw ]›n-a-L´ Pn√-I-fpsS `q]Sw CXp-hsc kan-Xn°v e`y-am-°n-bn-´n√. ]cn-ÿnXn h\w a{¥m-ebw Ign-hXpw thKw Cu tcJ-Iƒ {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°Ww. cXv\-Kncn Pn√-bpsS `q]Sw ]cn-tim-[n-®m¬ hyh-km-b-ß-fpsS ÿm\w \n¿±njvS am\-Z-fi-߃°v hncp-≤-am-bmWv \n›bn-®n-´p-≈-sX∂v ImWmw. CXv ASn-b-¥n-c-ambn ]p\:]cn-tim-[n-t°-≠-Xp≠v. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

cXv\K - ncn, kn‘p Zp¿K Pn√-If - nse {]I-Xn-hn-`h - ß - f - p-tSbpw a‰v tijn-If - p-sSbpw {]m[m\yw IW-°n-se-Sp-Øp-sIm≠pw `qhn-\n-tbmK ap≥K-W-\-Iƒ \n›-bn-®p-sIm≠pw Cu Pn√-Iƒ°mbn alm-cmjv{S k¿°m¿ Hcp taJ-em-πm≥ Xøm-dm-°n-bn-´p≠v. CXnse \n¿t±-i-ß-sf√mw Xs∂ Ct∏mƒ hym]-I-ambn ewLn-®p-h-cn-I-bmWv. CXpw ASn-b-¥n-c-ambn ]p\:]cn-tim-[n-°Ww. ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip∂ \ne-hn-ep≈ kwhn-[m\w Xosc A]-cym-]vX-amWv. ]cnÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\w ssPh-ssh-hn≤y˛ kmaqly˛kmº-ØnI {]iv\-߃ hne-bn-cpØp-∂-Xn¬ hfsc Zp¿_-e-amWv. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse hf¿® apc-Sn® hr£-ßfp≈ i‡-amb Im‰p-ho-ip∂ {]tZ-i-ßsf Duj-c-`qan F∂v ap{Z-IpØn Ch¿ Xg-bp-∂p. ]s£ Cu ]oT-`q-an-Iƒ ssPh-ssh-hnZy kº-∂-amWv. s_m´m-Wn-°¬ k¿sΔ Hm^v C¥y ap≥ Ubd-IvS¿ tUm. k©∏-bpsS A`n-{]m-b-Øn¬ Cu ]oT-`q-an-I-fpsS hen∏w IW-°n-seSp°ptºmƒ \ΩpsS X\Xv kky-e-Xm-Zn-I-fpsS kº-∂-am-sbmcp Ie-h-d-bm-Wn-sX-∂mWv. Pew AI-tØ°pw ]pd-tØbv°pw Hgp-Im≥ ]mI-Øn¬ sNfn-h-c-ºp-Iƒ \n¿Ωn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xp-t]m-se-bp≈ ]cn-ÿnXn kw`m-h-\-I-fpsS {]m[m\yw Ah-K-Wn-°-s∏-Sp∂p. tKmhbv°v sXm´v sX°p≈ DØc I∂S Pn√-bnse AK-\m-in\n Agn-ap-JsØ ]‰n CubnsS \S-Ønb ]T-\-{]-Imcw CXns‚ hm¿jnI aqeyw 5.6 tImSn cq]-bmWv. ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\w ]e {]k‡ {]iv\-ßfpw ]cn-K-Wn-°p-∂n√ . DZm-l-cW-Øn\v sshZypX t{]mP-IvSp-I-fn¬ \n∂p≈ hnX-c-W-sse-\p-Iƒ°v Ahbv°v Iosg-bp-ff amhv, Iip-amhv tXm´-ß-fnepw ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse h\-ß-fnepw henb BLm-X-ta-ev]n-°m≥ Ignbpw. ]s£ CXv, Ah-K-Wn-°-s∏-´n-cn-°mWv. AXp-t]mse Xs∂ {S°p-I-fn¬ tdmUp-am¿§hpw Peam¿§hpw I∏-ep-I-fn¬ IS¬am¿§hpw sIm≠p-t]m-Ip∂ Abn-cp-Iƒ ISpØ ]cn-ÿnXn, kmaqly-{]-iv\-߃ krjvSn-°p-∂p≠v. Chbpw th≠-hn[w ]cn-K-Wn-°-s∏-Sp-∂n√. s]mXp-sX-fn-sh-Sp∏v thf-bn¬ e`n® hne-s∏´ hnh-c-߃ IW-°n-se-Sp-Øn-´n√. CXv henb kmaq-ly-A-kz-ÿ-Xbv°pw `n∂-Xbv°pw Imc-W-am-bn-´p≠v. DZm-c-l-c-WØn\v kn‘p-Zp¿Knse Iem-s\-hn-t√-Pn¬ Hcp J\n-bp-ambn _‘-s∏´v 20˛9˛2008¬ BZy-s]m-Xp-sX-fn-sh-Sp∏v \SØn. Cu kabw adm-Øn-bn-ep≈ ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\ dnt∏m¿´v Xøm-dm-Im-Xn-cp-∂-Xn\m¬ sXfn-sh-Sp∏v am‰n-sh®p. A]-{K-Y\ dnt∏m¿´v adm-Øn-`m-j-bn¬ e`y-am-°n-b-tijw 11˛10˛2008 ho≠pw s]mXp-sX-fn-sh-Sp∏v \SØn. J\-\sØ FXn¿Øp-sIm≠v {Kma-]-©m-bØv sFIy-IWvtTy\ AwKo-I-cn® {]tabw sXfn-sh-Sp-∏p-th-f-bn¬ ka¿∏n®p. ]pdta Xmsg-]-d-bp∂ FXn-c`n-{]m-b-ßfpw Db¿∂p-h∂p. 1. "Iems\' \Zn-bnse aen-\o-I-cWw aqew tKmh-bv°-SpØ N≠-enbn¬ Cu \Zn-bnse Pe-hn-X-cW kvIow Ah-Xm-f-Øn-embn (2) Iem-s\-bnse {]Ir-Xn-ZØ Pe-t{km-X- p-Isf B{ibn-®p≈ ^e-h¿§-Ir-jn sshj-ay-Øn-embn. s]mXp-sX-fn-sh-Sp-∏ns‚ an\p´vkv e`y-am-°n-bXv 57 Znhkw Ign-™mWv. J\-\Ø - n-s\-Xn-cmb sFIy-IW - vtTy\ AwKo-Ic - n® \n¿t±iw \ne-\n¬°th 2009 am¿®v 17 \v alm-cmjv{S k¿°m¿ J\-\-Øn\v ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \¬In. kpXm-cyhpw ]¶m-fnØ A]-{K-Y\ kwhn-[m-\hpw \ne-hn-en-√m-Ø-Xn-\m¬ ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Iptºmƒ hyhÿ sNøp∂ \n_-‘-\-Iƒ hy]-I-ambn ewLn-°-s∏-Sp∂p. Ign™ GXm\pw h¿jß-fmbn ]cn-ÿnXn kw_-‘-amb ka-c-]-cn-]m-Sn-I-fpsS kncm-tI-{μ-amWv cXv\-Kncn Pn√. {Kma˛Xmeq°v ˛Pn√m ]©m-b-Øp-I-fn-sebpw ap\n-kn-∏m-en-I-fn-sebpw {]mtZ-inI AwKßsf Dƒs∏-SpØn ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v IΩn-‰n-Iƒ cq]o-I-cn-°-W-sa∂v 2002 se ssPhssh-hn-≤y-\n-baw A\p-im-kn-°p∂p. {]mtZ-inI ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y- hn`-h-߃ tcJ-s∏-SpØpIbpw Ahn-SsØ Im¿jnI {]h¿Ø-\-߃ \nb-{¥n-°p-Ibpw A\p-h-Z-\o-b-amb D]-tbm-K-߃°v If-£≥ Nm¿Pv Npa-Øp-Ibpw sNøpI F∂Xv Cu IΩn-‰n-I-fpsS Npa-X-e-bmWv. Cu IΩn-‰nIƒ°v ^e-{]-Z-amb Hcp s]mXp-th-Zn-bmbn {]h¿Øn-°m\pw {]mtZ-inI ]cn-ÿnXn amt\Pvsa‚nepw Ah-tem-I-\-Ønepw kp{]-[m-\-]-¶p-h-ln-°m\pw Cu IΩn-‰n-Iƒ°v Ignbpw. \n¿`mKy-h-im¬ ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-\n-baw alm-cmjv{S kwÿm-\Øv \S-∏n-em-°m≥ bmsXmcp \S-]Snbpw CXp-hsc kzoI-cn-®n-´n√. tKmh-bn-em-sW-¶n¬ CXv \S-∏n-em-°n-bXv H´pw Xr]vXn-I-c-amb \ne-bn-e√. Cu IΩn-‰n-Iƒ F√m-X-e-Ønepw DS-\Sn {]h¿Ø-t\m∑pJ-am-°Ww.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

cXv\-Kncn, kn‘p-Zp¿K Pn√-I-fnse _lp-`q-cn-]-£hpw D]-Po-h-\-Øn-\mbn B{i-bn-°p∂ Sqdnkw, a’y-_-‘\w, kky-^-e-Irjn, Irjn XpS-ßnb ]c-º-cm-KX kmº-ØnI taJ-e-I-fpambn Ct∏m-gsØ J\\w, hyh-km-b-߃, sshZyp-X-]-≤-Xn-Iƒ Dƒ∏-sS-bp≈ {]h¿Ø-\-߃ ISpØ kwL¿j-Øn-emWv. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v Cu taJ-e-bn¬ \n∂v h≥tXm-Xn¬ amºgw Ib‰n Ab-bv°p-∂p≠v. Cu ASp-Ø-Im-eØv A¬t^m¨km amº-g-Øns‚ Ib-‰p-a-Xn°v t•m_¬ Pn.F.]n k¿´n-^n-t°-j≥ \n¿_-‘n-X-am°n. Cu BtKmf \ne-hm-c-a-\p-k-cn®v Cu amt¥m-´ßƒ°p kao]w Iev°-cn-b-[n-jvTnX Du¿t÷m-Xv]m-Z\ πm‚p-Iƒ Dƒ∏-sS-bp≈ hmbp-a-en-\o-IcW hyh-km-b-߃ D≠m-°m≥ ]mSn√. CX-\p-k-cn®v sX¿a≥ ]Δ¿πm‚p-I-fn¬ \n∂p≈ aen\o-I-cWw X¬°mew Cu tXm´-ßsf kmc-ambn _m[n-°n-s√-¶nepw Ib-‰p-aXn hn]-Wn-bn-ep≠m-hp∂ \jvSw kky-^-e-Ir-jnsb {]Xn-Iq-e-ambn _m[n°pw. Cu Hcp kmaqly kwL¿jmhÿ IW-°n-se-SpØv `mhn kmº-ØnI hnI-k-\-Øn¬ P\-ßsf ]q¿Æ-ambn hnizm-k-Ønse-Sp-°Ww. hnhn[ hymh-km-bnI, hnZyp-—‡n,J\-\-]-≤-Xn-Iƒ°p-th≠n h≥tXm-Xn¬ `qan Gs‰-Sp°p-∂Xv henb kwL¿j-Øn-\n-S-bm-°p-∂p≠v. "sPbvXm-]q¿' taJ-e-bn¬ Fa¿P≥kn hIp-∏pI-fp-]-tbm-Kn®v I¿j-I-cn¬ \n∂v `qan Gs‰-SpØv Kpcp-X-c-amb kmaq-ly-kw-L¿j-Øn-\n-S-bm-°nbn-´p≠v. P\-ßsf sX‰n-≤-cn-∏n®pw Ah-cpsS CwKn-X-Øn-s\-Xn-cmbn \n¿_-‘n®pw {]h¿Ø-\߃ ASn-t®¬∏n-°p-∂Xn\v DZm-l-c-W-߃ [mcm-f-ap≠v. cXv\-Kncn Pn√-bn¬ Hcp Ct°m-Sqdnkw dntkm¿´v XpS-ßm-s\∂ [mcW ]cØn P\-ß-fn¬ \n∂v hmßnb `qan-bn¬ Ct∏mƒ Hcp Iev°cn A[n-jvTnX Du¿÷ Dev]m-Z-\-\n-ebw ÿm]n-°m≥ Btem-Nn-°p∂p. a’y-_-‘-\ta-J-e-bn-te-°p≈ a’y-sXm-gn-em-fn-I-fpsS ]c-º-cm-KX a’y-_-‘-\- co-Xn-Iƒ ^nt\m-eIvkv _ew-{]-tbm-Kn®v AS-∏n-°p∂p. `qhp-S-a-I-fpsS ]q¿Æ-k-Ω-X-tØmsS thWw F∂ \n_-‘-\tbmsS BsW-¶n¬t]mepw Ahsc Adn-bn-°msX `qtc-J-I-fn¬ "a‰v Ah-Im-i-߃' F∂-Xn¬ J\\w IqSn-t®¿ØXv 2006¬ am{X-amWv Ah-cpsS {i≤-bn¬ s]s´-sX∂v kn‘p-Zp¿K Pn√bnse "Xtºmfn' hnt√Pv \nhm-kn-Iƒ ]d-bp∂p. \nb-a-hn-cp-≤-amb Cu "F≥{Sn'am‰n In´m≥ 2007 ¬ Ah¿°v acWw hsc D]-hmkw Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ \o≠-k-a-c-]-cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ kwL-Sn-∏n-t°≠n-h∂p. aen-\o-I-cW \nb-{¥Ww t]mse-bp≈ \nb-a-߃ \S-∏m-°p-∂-Xn-ep-≠mb ]cm-P-bhpw kmaqly Akw-Xr-]vXn°v Imc-W-am-bn-´p≠v. cXv\-Kncn Pn√-bnse "tems´'bnse cmk-hy-hkmb FtÃ-‰n¬ ÿm]n-®n-´p≈ s]mXp-hmb amen-\y-kw-kvI-c-W-πm‚n\v Ahn-SsØ apgp-h≥ amen-\yßfpw kwkvI-cn-°m-\p≈ tijn Cs√∂p am{X-a√ CXns‚ {]h¿Ø\w ]cm-P-b-hp-amWv. 2010 HIvtSm-_-dn¬ ÿew kμ¿in® ]›n-a-L-´-k-an-Xn°v Cu πm‚n¬ \n∂v kwkvI-cn-°mØ amen-\y-߃ Ihn-s™m-gpIn "tIm´m-hmse' hnt√-Pn¬ IpSn-sh-≈-sa-Øn-°p∂ Acp-hn-I-fn¬ sN∂p-tN-cp-∂-Xmbn ImWm≥ Ign™p. Cu {]iv\-Øn\v ]cn-lmcw ImWm-Ø-Xn¬ {]Xn-tj[n®v tIm´m-hmsebnse "k¿]m©v' B aen-\-Pew IpSn®v Bfl-l-Xy°v {ian®p. At±-lsØ DS≥ apwss_-bn¬ FØn®v Poh≥ c£n-s®-¶nepw "tIm´m-hmse"sb {Kkn-®n-´p≈ aen-\o-I-c-W{]-iv\-Øn\v ]cn-lm-c-ap-≠m-bn√. 2000¬ 30Hmfw kvIqƒ hnZym¿∞n-Iƒ tems´-bv°-SpØv hnjhm-XIw izkn®v At_m-[m-h-ÿ-bn-embn. F∂m¬ CXn\v DØ-c-hm-Zn-I-fmb sIan-°¬ Iº-\n°m¿ Cu Ip´n-Isf Bip-]-{Xn-bn¬ FØn-°m≥t]mepw apt∂m´v h∂n√. hyh-km-b-ß-fn¬ \n∂p≈ lm\n-I-c-amb Jc-am-en\yw aÆpambn Iq´n-°p-g®v Lm´v taJ-e-bnse Ip∂n≥N-cp-hp-Ifnse tdmUp-I-fpsS hi-ß-fn¬ \nt£-]n-°p-∂-Xmbn P\-߃ Adn-bn®p. Cu ASpØ ImeØv "tJZv' SuWnse IpSn-sh≈ t{kmX- mb"s_mdmPv' AW-s°-´n¬ lm\n-I-c-amb cmk-am-en\yw Sm¶-dn¬ sIm≠p-h∂v X≈nb kw`-h-ap-≠mbn. CXp-aqew SuWnse Pe-hn-X-cWw BgvN-Itfmfw apS-ßn-sb-¶nepw CXn\v Imc-W-°m-cm-bhsc ]nSn-Iq-Sm≥ {ia-ap-≠m-bn√. tems´-bn¬ \n∂p≈ cmk-a-en-\o-I-cWw aqew "Umt_mƒ' IS-en-Sp-°nse a’y-k-º-Øn¬ KWy-amb Ipdhp-≠m-bn-´p≠v. a’y-sXm-gn-em-fn-Iƒ°v henb sXmgn¬ \jvS-Øn\v CXp Imc-W-am-bn-´p≠v. Cu {]iv\-߃°p \Sp-hn¬ alm-cmjv{S aen-\o-I-cW \nb-{¥-W-t_m¿Uv BsI kzoIcn® \S-]-Sn AXns‚ tems´ B^okv Zqsc-bp≈ Nnπ-\n-te°v am‰n ÿm]n-®-XmWv. CXp-aqew ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

aen-\o-I-c-W-Øn-s\-Xnsc ^e-{]-Z-amb \S-]Sn FSp-°m-\p≈ km[y-Xbpw C√m-Xmbn. aen-\o-Ic-W-Øn-s\-Xnsc i‡-amb {]Xn-tj-[-ßfpw ka-c-ßfpw cq]w sIm≈p-tºmƒ apwss_-t]meokv \nb-a-Ønse 37(1)(3) N´-{]-Imcw Bfp-Iƒ Iq´w-Iq-Sp-∂Xv XS™v P\-Iob {]t£m-`sØ ASn-®-a¿Øm-\mWv A[n-Ir-X¿ {ian-°p-∂Xv. 2008˛2009 ¬ cXv\-Kncn Pn√-bn¬ 191 Znh-k-amWv Cu DØ-chv {]m_-ey-Øn¬ hcp-Øn-bXv. aen-\o-I-c-W-{]-iv\-߃ C{X cq£-ambn \nev°ptºmgpw cmk-hyhkmb irwJ-e-bnse Hcp B^o-k¿ Adn-bn-®Xv CXn-\-Sp-Øp≈ 550 slIvSdn¬ Hcp ]pXnb s]t{Sm˛sIan-°¬ tImwπIvkv ÿm]n-°m≥ ]≤Xn Xøm-dmbn hcp∂p F∂mWv. hnI-k-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-߃ bYm¿∞-Øn¬ kaq-l-Øn\v apgp-h≥ {]tbm-P-\-s∏-Sp∂p F∂v Dd-∏ph-cp-Øm\pw CXns‚ t\´-߃ Nne ÿm]nX XmXv]-cy-°m¿ X´n-sb-Sp-°m-Xn-cn-°m\pw `mhn kmº-ØnI hnI-k-\-Øns‚ ]mX-\n¿Æ-bn-°m≥ A¿∞-]q¿Æ-amb P\-]-¶m-fn-Ø-ap≈ Hcp kwhn-[m-\-Øn\v cq]w \¬tI-≠-Xp≠v. C¥y≥ `c-W-L-S-\-bpsS 73,74 t`Z-K-Xn-Iƒ Xmsg X´n-ep≈ P\-ß-fpsS im‡o-I-cWw e£y-an-s´-¶nepw AXv {]h¿Øn-]-Y-Øn-se-Øn-bn√. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v cXv\-Kncn Xmeq°v ]©mbØv kanXn Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ ]e {Kma-]-©m-bXv kan-Xn-Ifpw ]cn-ÿnXn kw_-‘-amb ]e {]ta-b-ßfpw ]m m-°n-sb-¶nepw kwÿm-\-k¿°m¿ AXv ]q¿Æ-ambn Ah-K-Wn-°p-I-bmWv sNbvXXv. Xmsg-X-´n-ep≈ P\-ß-fpsS im‡o-I-cWw Hcp bmYm¿∞y-am-°m≥ \mw {ian-t°-≠nbn-cp∂p. cXv\-Kncn, kn‘p-Zp¿Kv ˛ tKmh t]mse-bp≈ h\-{]-tZ-i-ß-fn-sebpw ae-{º-tZ-i-ß-fnsebpw P\-ßsf im‡o-I-cn-°m-\p≈ \nb-a-amWv 2006se ]´n-I-h¿K˛a‰v ]mc-º-cy-h-\-\nhmkn(h\-Øn-t∑-ep≈ Ah-Imiw) \nbaw. h\ Ah-Im-i-\n-b-a-Øns‚ C∂sØ Ahÿ alm-cmjv{S Dƒs∏sS F√m-bn-SØpw {]iv\-k-¶o¿Æ-amWv. Cu ASp-Ø-Im-eØv ]q¿Øn-bm°nb kIvtk\ IΩn‰n dnt∏m¿´n¬ CXns‚ hni-Zmw-i-ß-fp≠v. ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y-\-Øn-\mbn CXp-hsc \S-Ønb ]T-\-ß-fn¬ Hcp kabw Hcp {]iv\w am{Xw F∂ kao-]\w kzoI-cn-°p-Ibpw AXns‚ Bh¿Ø\ BLm-X-߃ AhK-Wn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXXv henb t]mcm-bva-bmbn. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v Hcp Iev°cn A[n-jvTnX Du¿÷ DXv]m-Z\ πm‚n¬ \n∂p≈ A¥-co-£-a-en-\o-I-c-WsØ H∂m-bn-I-≠m¬ AsXmcp ]s£ kzoIm-cy-am-tb°mw. F∂m¬ Nne Ime-ß-fn¬ ]e πm‚p-I-fn¬ \n∂v ]pdw X≈p∂ ]pIbpw a‰pw Hcp ae-{º-tZ-i-Øns‚ XS-Øn¬ h∂-Sn-bp-tºmƒ AXv Xo¿Øpw Ak-l-\o-bamhpw AXp-t]mse Xs∂ Hcp J\n-bn¬ \n∂v Hcp {S°n¬ tdmUn-eq-sS-bp≈ Abncv ISØv henb KXm-K-X°p-cp°v D≠m-Im-Ø-Xn-\m¬ kln-°m≥ Ign-t™-°pw. F∂m¬ 5 J\n-I-fn¬ \n∂p≈ Abncv ISØv H∂n-®p-\-S-∂m¬ AXv ISpØ KXm-K-X-°p-cp-°n\pw A]-I-S-߃°pw CS-bmIpw. s]mXpsh Ah-K-Wn-°-s∏-Sp∂ as‰mcp LSIw ssPh sshhn-Zy-Øns‚ hnhn[ LSI-ß-fpsS \ne-\n-ev∏n\v AXy-¥m-t]-£n-X-amb Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bpsS XpS¿®-bmWv. Chn-sSbpw Ah-bpsS Bh¿Ø-\-^ew Akzo-Im-cyhpw Hmtcm-∂ns‚ BLmXw kzoIm-cy-hp-amWv. CØcw Imc-W-ß-fm¬ cXv\-Kncn, kn‘p Zp¿K -Pn-√-I-fn-sebpw tN¿∂p-In-S-°p∂ tKmh kwÿm-\sØbpw hymh-km-bn-Ihpw J\-\-]-chpw, Du¿÷ Dev]m-Z-\-]-chpw Bb {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fpsS Bh¿Ø\ BLmXw ]cn-tim-[n-°-s∏-tS-≠-XmWv.

16.3 ip]m¿i-Iƒ J\\w, Du¿÷-D-ev]m-Z\w, aen-\o-I-c-W-hy-h-km-b-߃ alm-cm-jv{S-bnse cXv\-Kncn, kn‘p-Zp¿K Pn√-I-fnse J\\w, Du¿÷-D-ev]m-Z\w, aen-\oI-c-W-hy-h-km-b-߃ F∂n-h-bpsS XpS¿hn-I-k-\-Øn\v A\p-tbm-Py-amb ]mX \n¿t±-in-°m≥ kan-Xn-tbmSv Bh-iy-s∏-´n-cp∂p. ssPh-]-c-ambn kº-∂-sa-¶nepw Zp¿_-e-amb Cu Pn√-Iƒ t\cn-Sp∂ \nc-h[n {]iv\-ßsf hfsc {i≤m-]q¿Δw kao-]n-t°-≠-Xp-≠m-bn-cp∂p. Cu Pn√-IfpsS Ing-°p-`mKw am{Xta ]›n-a-L-´-Øn-epƒs∏-´n-cp-∂p≈q. kanXn Cu {]tZ-i-ß-fnse ]cnÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-I-fpsS AXn¿Øn \n¿Æbw ]q¿Øn-bm-°p-Ibpw XpS¿ hnI-k-\-]-≤-Xn............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Iƒ°p≈ am¿§-\n¿t±-i-߃°v cq]w \¬Ip-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp∂p. Pn√-bnse ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-ebv°mbn kanXn NphsS ]d-bp∂ ip]m¿i-Iƒ \n¿t±-i-n-°p∂p. a.

]cn-ÿn-Xn-Zp¿_-e-ta-Je H∂nepw c≠nepw J\-\-Øn\v ]pXnb ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip-∂-Xn\v A\n-›nX Ime samd-t´m-dnbw {]Jym-]n-°pI.

b.

taJe H∂n¬ \n∂v 2016- HmsS J\\w ]q¿Æ-ambpw Ah-km-\n-∏n-°pI.

c.

taJe c≠n¬ \ne-hn-ep≈ J\\w ISpØ \nb-{¥-W-Øn\pw ^e-{]-Z-amb tkmjy¬ BUn-‰n\pw hnt[-b-ambn am{Xw XpS-cpI.

d.

taJe H∂nepw c≠nepw Iev°cn A[n-jvTnX Du¿÷ Dev]m-Z\ πm‚p-Iƒ Dƒ∏sS "Nph∏v, Hmd©v' hn`m-K-Øn¬s]´ hyh-km-b-߃°v A\p-aXn \¬IcpXv.

e.

Ct∏mƒ \ne-hn-ep≈ "Nph∏v, Hmd©v' hn`m-K-Øn¬s]´ hyh-km-b-߃ taJe H∂nepw c≠nepw 2016 HmsS "0"aen-\o-I-cWw F∂ \ne-bn-te°v amdWw. ^e-{]-Z-amb tkmjy¬ BUn‰v kwhn-[m-\-Ønte Ch {]h¿Øn-∏n-°m-\mhq.

Bh¿Ø\ BLmX A]-{K-Y\w ]›n-a-L-´-Øn\v shfn-bn-ep≈ cXv\-Kncn, kn‘p Zp¿K Pn√-I-fnse ka-X-e-ß-fn-sebpw Xoc-tZ-i-ß-fn-sebpw ssPh-Zu¿_-ey-Øns‚ \ne-hm-csØ kw_-‘n® hnh-c-߃ kanXn hym]I-ambn kam-l-cn-®n-´n√. F∂m¬ Cu taJ-e-I-fn¬ kanXn \S-Ønb ]cn-an-X-amb At\z-j-Wß-fpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ Cu {]tZ-i-߃ ISpØ ]mcn-ÿn-XnI, kmaq-ly-k-Ω¿±-Øn\v ASna-s∏-´n-cn-°-bm-sW∂v a\- n-em-°m≥ Ign™p. BI-bm¬ Cu taJ-e-bnse hnhn[ hnI-k\ {]h¿Ø-\-ßsf kw_-‘n®v hfsc {i≤m-]q¿Δ-ap≈ Hcp Bh¿Ø\ BLmX A]-{K-Y\w \S-Ø-W-sa∂v kanXn \n¿t±-in-°p∂p. Cu ]T\w alm-cm-jv{S-bnse sdbvKUv Pn√-bn-sebpw tKmh kwÿm-\-sØbpw t]mse tKmh-bnse "\mj-W¬ C≥Ãn-‰yq´v Hm^v Hmjymt\m{Km^nbpsS t\Xr-Xz-Øn¬ \S-Øp-∂-XmWv \√Xv. CsXmcp kmt¶-Xn-Im-[n-jvTnX ]T\w am{X-amIcp-Xv. ]cn-ÿnXn {]iv\-ßsf kw_-‘n®v Ahn-SsØ P\-߃°p≈ hy‡-amb Adnhpw Ah-cpsS hnI-k\ taml-ßfpw IqSn IW-°nse-Sp-Øn-cn-°Ww. C°m-cy-Øn¬ ]´n-I-h¿§˛a‰v ]c-º-cm-KX h\-hmkn (h\-Øn-t∑-ep≈ AhImiw)\nbaw \S-∏m-°m≥ Kncn-h¿§ t£a-h-Ip-∏p-Iƒ°v Bh-iy-amb klmbw \¬Im≥ kwÿm\ h\w hIp-∏p-Iƒ°v tI{μ ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w- a-{¥m-ebw \n¿t±iw \¬IWw. Cu \nb-a-Ønse kmaqly h\-hn-`-h-\n-_-‘-\-Iƒ {]tZ-isØ ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-W-Øn¬ P\߃°v {]tXyI ]¶pw {]m[m\yhpw Dd-∏p-h-cpØpw. F√m Xt±i ÿm]-\-ß-fnepw ssPhssh-hn≤y amt\-Pvsa‚ v IΩn-‰n-Iƒ (BMC) cq]o-I-cn-°p-∂p-s≠∂v ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw Dd-∏p-h-cp-ØWw. ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-\n-b-a-Øn¬ hyhÿ sNbvXn-´p≈ t]mse "If-£≥ Nm¿Pv' Npa-Øm\pw B XpI {]mtZ-inI hnZym-`ym-k-ÿm-]-\-ß-fp-ambn tN¿∂v {]mtZ-in-I-ssP-h-\nebpw ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-hn-`-h-ßfpw tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øm\pw _n.Fw. knIƒ°v \¬Ip-Ibpw thWw. CXv kz¥w ]cn-ÿnXn {i≤m-]q¿Δw kwc-£n-°m≥ {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-Øn\v DtØ-P-\-am-hp-Ibpw \n¿±njvS Bh¿Ø\ ]cn-ÿnXn BLm-X-A-]-{K-Y-\-Øn\v Bh-iy-amb hnh-c-߃ e`y-am-°pIbpw sNøpw. \n›-b-ambpw i‡-amb Hcp imkv{Xo-b-ÿm-]\w CXns‚ ]q¿Æ-Np-a-Xe Gs‰-Sp-°pIbpw CXn-te-°m-h-iy-amb imkv{Xo-bhpw kmt¶-Xn-I-hp-amb ÿnXn-hn-h-c-°-W-°p-Iƒ e`y-am°p-Ibpw thWw. Cu Npa-Xe Gs‰-Sp-°m≥ tKmh-bnse \mj-W¬ C≥kv‰n-‰yq´v Hm^v Hmjymt\m {Km^n-tbmSv Bh-iy-s∏-Sm-hp-∂-Xm-sW∂pw kanXn ip]m¿i-sN-øp∂p. cXv\-Kncn, kn‘p-Zp¿Kv Pn√-I-fnse ka-X-c-ß-fnepw Xoc-tZ-iØpw J\-\-Øn\pw Nph∏v, Hmd©v hn`mKw hyh-km-b߃°pw Du¿÷-D-ev]m-Z\ πm‚p-Iƒ°pw ]pXp-Xmbn ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip-∂-Xn\v G¿s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p≈ samd-t´m-dnbw Cu Pn√-I-fpsS hml-I-tijn kw_-‘n® A]-{K-Y\w

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]q¿Øn-bm-Ip-∂-Xp-hsc \o´-W-sa∂pw kanXn ip]m¿i sNøp∂p. Cu ]T-\-Ønse Is≠-Øep-I-fpsS shfn-®-Øn¬ samd-t´m-dnbw ]p\:]cn-tim-[n-°m-hp-∂-XmWv.

17. tKmh-bnse J\\w tKmh-bn¬ J\-\-Øn\v ]pXnb ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip-∂-Xn¬ G¿s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p≈ samd-t´mdnbw ]p\-]-cn-tim-[n-°m-\m-h-iy-amb klm-bhpw hne-bn-cp-Øm≥ ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw kan-Xn-tbmSv \n¿t±-in-®n-cp∂p. C°m-cy-Øn¬ kan-Xn-bpsS \nK-a\ - ß - fpw A]-{K-Y\ - ß - fpw NphsS ]d-bp-∂-hsb ASn-ÿm-\-s∏-SpØn D≈-h-bmWv. kan-Xn-°p-th≠n Xøm-dm-°nb tcJ-Iƒ (R.Kerkar, 2010; N. Alvares, 2010; G Kalampavara, 2010) 2010 sk]vXw-_-dn¬ kanXn kwL-Sn-∏n® _‘-s∏-´-h-cpsS inev]-ime. tKmh ^ut≠-j\pw tKmh Soapw kan-Xn-°p-th≠n Xøm-dm-°nb tcJ-Iƒ 2010 sk]vXw-_-dnepw 2011 P\p-h-cn-bnepw tKmh-bnse J\\ taL-e-bn¬ kanXn \SØnb kμ¿i-\-ßfpw J\n DS-a-Iƒ, amt\-P¿am¿, {Kma-hm-kn-Iƒ, k∂-≤-kw-L-S-\-Iƒ F∂n-h-cp-am-bn-\-S∂ Bi-b-hn-\n-a-b-ßfpw. tKmh-bnse J\-\sØ ]‰n \S-Ønb hnhn[ ]T-\-߃ (TERI,1997; Goa Foundation, 2002; TERI, 2006; CSE, 2008; NCAER, 2010; GMOEA Reports; Basu, 2011; Mukhopadhyay & Kadekodi, 2011, TERI, DISHA Study on going)

\nco-£-Wßfp-sSbpw hni-I-e-\-ß-fp-sSbpw ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ tKmh-bnse ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-Je H∂v, c≠v, aq∂vIfn¬ J\-\-Øn-\mbn ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip-∂-Xn\v tamd-t´m-dnbw {]Jym-]n-°-W-sa∂v kanXn ip]m¿i sNøp-∂p. ]m\¬ \n¿W-bn-®Xp {]Imcw taJe H∂n¬ L´w L´-ambn 2016 HmsS J\\ {]h¿Ø-\-߃ Ah-km-\n-∏n-°-Ww. tKmh-bnsebpw _‘-s∏´ a‰n-S-ßfn-sebpw J\\ {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fp-≠m-°p∂ kmaq-lyhpw ]mcn-ÿn-XnI-hp-amb tZmj-^-e-߃ C√m-bva-sN-øp-∂-Xn-te-°mbn kanXn \n¿tZ-in-°p∂ ip]m¿i-Iƒ hnZKv[ ]m\¬ dnt∏m¿´ns‚ c≠mw hmey-Øn¬ tN¿Øn-´p-≠v. ÿnXn-K-Xn-Iƒ sa®-s∏-Sp-Øp∂ apdbv°v tamd-t´m-dn-b-Øn¬ Abhv hcp-Øm-\p-am-Ipw.

17.1 Ah-ÿbpw am‰hpw Sqdnkw hyh-kmbw Ign-™m¬ tKmh-bnse c≠m-asØ henb hyh-kmbw J\-\hpw Izmdn-bnwßv hyh-km-b-hp-amWv. ]q¿Æ-ambpw Ib-‰p-aXn sNøp∂ Ccpºv Acncv hyh-kmbw C¥y-bpsS hntZ-i-\m-W-b-h-c-hnepw sXmgn-e-h-k-c-kr-jvSn-bnepw KWy-amb ]¶v hln-°p-∂p≠v. 2009˛2010¬ CXn¬ \n∂v kwÿm\˛ tI{μ-k¿°m-cp-Iƒ°v e`n® dh-\yq-h-cp-am\w bYm-{Iaw 500 tImSn cq] 2000 tImSn cq] F∂n-ß-s\-bmWv. CXn¬ \n∂v kwÿm\ k¿°m-cn\v e`n® hcp-am\w 1999/00 hne-\n-e-hm-c-Øn¬ 4.7%hpw 2007/08 \ne-hm-c-Øn¬ 10.1% hpw BWv. J\\w Izmdn-bnßv taJ-eb - n¬ \n∂p≈ hcp-am-\Ø - n¬ {][m\w Ccpºv Abn-cns‚ J\-\Ø - n¬ \n∂mWv. 1992˛2009 Ime-L-´-Øn¬ tKmh-bnse Ccpºv Abncv Dev]m-Z-\-Øn-ep-≠mb h¿≤\ Nn{Xw 8 hy‡-am-°p∂p. 1992¬ 12.1 Zi-e£w sa{SnIv SÆm-bn-cp∂ Ccpºv Abncv Dev]m-Z\w 2009 Bbt∏m-tg°v 41.1 Zi-e£w sa{SnIv SÆn-seØn. Ign™ 5 h¿jsØ am{Xw Dev]m-Z\ h¿≤-\hvv 20 Zi-e£w sa{SnIv S¨ BWv. CXn-\p-]p-dsa GI-tZiw 10 Zi-e£w sa{SnIv SÆns‚ A\-[nIrX J\\w \S-∂n-´p-≠m-Ip-sa∂pw IW-°m-°p∂p. tKmh-bn¬ \n∂p≈ Ccp-º-bncv apgp-h≥ Ib-‰p-aXn sNøp-I-bmWv. CXn≥ 89 iX-am\w ssN\-bn-te°pw 8 iX-am\w P∏m-\n-te-°p-amWv Ib‰n Ab-bv°p-∂Xv.

17.2. J\-\-Øns‚ Imev]m-Sp-Iƒ tKmh-bnse J\-\-ta-Je {][m-\-ambpw ]›n-a-L-´-Øn-emWv (Nn{Xw 9) sX°p-In-g°v hS°p-]-Sn-™mdv Zni-bn¬ 65 In.ao. \of-Øn¬ hym]n-®p-In-S-°p∂ J\-\-ta-J-e-bpsS hnkvXo¿Æw 700 N.In.ao‰-dmWv. Ncn-{X-]-c-amb \nb-{¥W ss]Xr-I-ap-≈-Xn-\m¬ Ccpºv Abncv J\n-Iƒ ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Nn{Xw 8 tKmh-bnse Ccp-º-bncv Dev]m-Z\w (1992˛2009)

]m´-hy-h-ÿ-bn¬ 100 slIvS-dn¬ Xmsg tI{μo-I-cn-°-s∏-´n-´p≈ C¥y-bnse GI kwÿm\w tKmh-bmWv. FÆ-a‰ ]m´-J-\n-Iƒ \n¿÷o-h-am-bn-cp-s∂-¶nepw Ccp-º-bncv ssN\-bn¬ \n∂p≈ Bhiyw h¿≤n-®t- XmsS Ch {]h¿Ø-\k - ÷ - a - m-°m-\p≈ {iaw \S-∂p-hc - p∂p.tKmh-bnse J\\ {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fpsS ^e-amb {][m\ kpÿnc Imev]m-Sp-Iƒ NphsS sImSp-°p∂p. tKmh-bpsS taJe πm≥ 2021 epw CXv AwKo-I-cn-°-s∏-´n-´p≠v. J\-\-Øn-\p≈ ]m´m-h-Imiw Fsdbpw h\yar-K-k-t¶-X-߃°pw h\-ta-J-e-Iƒ°pw Np‰n-ep-amWv D≈Xv. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v h\y-Pohn kt¶X-Øn\v c≠v In.ao. Np‰-f-hn¬ 31 ]m´-ß-fp≠v. CXn¬ 7FÆw {]h¿Øn-°p∂p. Hcp-In-tem-ao-‰¿ Np‰-f-hn¬ 13 ]m´-ß-fp≠v. Cu taJ-e-bn¬ \nb-a-hn-cp-≤-ambn {]h¿Øn-°p∂ J\n-I-fp-ap≠v. 1988˛1997 Ime-L-´-Øn-\n-S-bn¬ J\\w aqew 2500 slIvS¿ h\-ß-fmWv \jvS-s∏-´Xv. F∂m-en∂p-hsc ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ \jvS-s∏´ h\-ß-fpsS Afhv Xn´-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ bmsXmcp ]T-\hpw \SØn-bn-´n√. 1940 Ifn¬ Xs∂ h≥tXm-Xn¬ J\\w XpS-ßnb "_nt°mfnw' Xmeq-°ns‚ ]e `mK-ß-fnepw h\-߃ Cs√-∂p-Xs∂ ]dbmw. "kØmcn', km≥Kpw Xmeq-°p-I-fnepw J\\w h\sØ Imcy-ambn _m[n-®n-´p≠v. J\-\sØ XpS¿∂p-≠m-Ip∂ `qhn-\n-tbm-K-Øn-sebpw `qXe-Øn-sebpw am‰ßƒ Cu taJ-ebnep-≠m-°n-bn-´p≈ ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-\jvSw hfsc Kuc-h-ap≈-XmWv.

apIƒ∏-c-∏nse Pew _m¿Pp-Iƒ sP´n-Ifn¬ km[-\-߃ I‰p-Ibpw Cd-°p-Ibpw sNøp-tºmƒ apIƒ∏-c-∏nse Pew aen-\o-I-cn-°-s∏-Sp∂p. \Zn-I-fpsS ASn-Ø-´n¬ amen-\y-߃ ASn-bp-∂Xpw s]mgn-Iƒ cq]s∏-Sp-∂Xpw (atfimhn˛kzmdn s]mgn-irw-Je) _nt°menw, kmKzenw \Zn-I-fn¬ sh≈-s∏m-°ap-≠m-°p∂p. Ip-∂Xpw amen-\y-߃ h∂p hogp-∂Xv Pe-tI-{μ-߃°-Sp-Øm-I-bm¬ tKmh-bn¬ h¿j-°m-eØv Ch sh≈-Øn-te°v HgpIn FØp∂p. Xpd- mb J\\w Pe-Øns‚ KpW-Ønepw Af-hnepw henb am‰-ap-≠m-°p∂p. am{X-hp-a√ `qkz-`m-h-Ønepw `qhn-\n-tbm-K-Ønepw kky-P¥p-cq-]-Ønepw hyXn-bm-\-߃ krjvSn-°p∂ J\-\-ta-J-e-bn¬ NphsS ]d-bp∂ c≠v {]iv\߃ {i≤-bn¬s]-´n-´p≠v. J\n-I-fnse Ah-in-jvS-ßfpw Ahn-sS-\n∂v ]pdw-X-≈p∂ sh≈w s\¬Ir-jn°v D] -tbm-Kn-°p∂Xpw Cu Irjn-`q-an-I-fpsS kpÿn-c-^-e-`q-bn-jvT-Xbv°v `oj-Wn-bmWv. J\n-I-tfm-S-\p-_-‘n-®p≈ Ipgn-I-fn¬\n∂v HgpIn Irjn-`q-an-I-fn-se-Øp∂ sh≈w aen\o-I-cW{]iv\w IqSp-X¬ cq£-am-Ip∂p.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Nn{Xw 9 tKmh-bnse J\-\m-\p-aXn \¬Inb {]tZ-i-߃ (tKmh ^ut≠-j≥ 2010)

`qPew J\n-I-fn¬ \n∂v KWy-amb Af-hn¬ sh≈w ]ºp-sNbvXv If-tb-≠-Xp-≈-Xn-\m¬ J\-\{]-h¿Ø-\-߃ `qP-esØ {]Xn-Iq-e-ambn _m[n-°p∂p. tKmh-bnse J\-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-߃ Ahn-SsØ {]mtZ-inI Pe \nesb {]Xn-Iq-e-ambn _m[n-°p-∂-Xmbn ]e ]T-\-ßfpw sXfn-bn®n-´p≠v. (MS Swaminathan 1982; TERI, 1997; GT Marathe, IIT; BS Chawdhri & AG Chachadi; NEERI Report; Regional Plan of Goa 2021) J\n-I-fn¬ \n∂v Pew C{]-Imcw Hgp-°n-°-f-bp-∂-Xp-aqew InW-dp-Iƒ h‰p-Ibpw ho´m-h-iy-Øn\pw Irjn°pw Pew e`n-°msX hcp-Ibpw sNøp∂p. CXv {]tZ-i-hm-knI-fpsS Pohn-XsØ kmc-ambn _m[n-°p∂p. J\\w aqe-ap≈ Pe-Zu¿e`yw tcJ-s∏-Sp-Ø-s∏-´n´p≠v.(TERI, 1997; TERI 2002). `qPe \ne-bnse am‰-߃ G‰hpw tZmj-I-c-ambn _m[n-°p-∂Xv kv{XoI-fpsS Btcm-Ky-sØ-bmWv (TERI, 2006).

Ah-in-jvS-Iq-ºmcw J\n-I-fn¬ \n∂p≈ Ah-injvSw ae-s©-cn-hp-I-fn¬ Ip∂p-Iƒt]m-se-bmWv Iq´n-bn-Sp∂Xv. Cu Ah-injvSw ho≠pw J\\w sNbvXv ssN\-bn-te-bv°-bv°p-∂p≠v. Ipgn-s®-Sp-°p∂ km[\w cmPy-Øn\v ]pd-tØbv°v sIm≠p-t]m-Ip-∂-Xn-\m¬ J\n-I-fnse Abncv Xo¿∂p-I-gn™m¬ Ch Fßs\ aqSpw F∂Xv hfsc {][m-\-s∏´ Hcp sh√p-hn-fn-bmWv.

hmbp-hns‚ KpW-ta∑ I¿Æm-S-I-bn¬ \n∂p≈ [mXp-°ƒ h≥tXm-Xn¬ tdmUv am¿§hpw sdbn¬am¿§hpw tKmhbn-te°v sIm≠vt]mbn Ahn-SsØ {]mtZ-inI Abn-cp-ambn Iq´n-°-e¿Øn \ne-hmcw Iq´n............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

bmWv "a¿apKmthm' t]m¿´v {SÃv hgn Ib-‰p-aXn sNøp-∂Xpw tKmh-bnse 5 kvt]m©v Ab¨ πm‚p-Iƒ°v FØn-®p-sIm-Sp-°p-∂Xpw. Ct∏mƒ \S-∂p-h-cp∂ Hcp ]T\ {]Imcw (TERI)tKmhbnse PM10 \mbn sIm≠p-t]m-Ip∂ temUp-I-fn¬ 39 iX-am\w J\n-ta-J-e-bn¬ \n∂pw 25% hyh-km-b-Øn¬ \n∂p-am-sW-∂mWv TERI bpsSw Ct∏m-gsØ ]T\w hy‡-am-°p-∂Xv. Ccpºv Abn-cp-Iƒ {S°p-I-fn¬ F≥.F®v. 4 F hgn DkvKm Hmbn¬ FØn®v AhnsS \n∂v _m¿°p-Ifn¬ t]m¿´v {SnÃn-se-Øn-®mWv Ib‰n Ab-°p-∂Xv. {S°p-I-fn¬ Hmh¿temUv Ib‰n XpWn-bn´v aqSmsX Xeßpw hneßpw ]mbp-∂Xv ISpØ KXm-K-X-°p-cp°v krjvSn-°p-Ibpw Ah-bpsS k©m-c-]m-X-bn-ep-S-\ofw ]cn-ÿnXn {]iv\-߃ krjvSn-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂p. Cu KXm-KX ]mXbn¬ \nc-h[n A]-I-S-ß-fmWv \nXyhpw D≠m-Ip-∂Xv. A¥-co-£-a-en-\o-I-cWw tKmh-bnse J\-\-ta-J-ebnepw KXm-KX CS-\m-gn-bnepw hfsc Db¿∂ \ne-bn¬ ImWp-∂Xv {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-ß-fpsS Btcm-KysØ lm\n-I-c-ambn _m[n-°p-∂-Xmbn ]T-\-߃ hy‡-am-°p∂p.

Irjn `qPew A\n-b-{¥n-X-ambn NqjWw sNøp-∂Xpw hen-sbmcp {]tZ-iØv Ah-in-jvS-ßfpw s]mSnbpw ASn-bp-∂Xpw Irjn-bn-S-ßsf \in-∏n-°p-Ibpw PohnXw {]Xn-k-‘n-bn-em-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂p. J\-\-{]-tZ-i-߃°v Xmsg-bp≈ Irjn-bn-S-ß-fn¬ J\n-I-fn¬ \n∂v Hgp-In-sb-Øp∂ Ahn-in-jvS-߃ h∂-Sn-bp-∂-Xp-aqew Irjn-tbm-Ky-a-√m-Xm-hp∂p. CXv J\-\-°mcpw I¿j-Icpw XΩn-ep≈ \nc-¥c kwL¿j-Øn\v CS-bm-°p∂p. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v kmwKyw Xmeq-°nse sImfw_ hnt√-Pn¬ t]m¿®p-Ko-kp-Im-cpsS ImeØv A\p-h-Zn® J\n-Iƒ hnt√-Pns‚ 75% ÿeØmbn hym]n-®p-In-S-°p∂p. Ch-bn¬ ]eXpw {]h¿Øn-®p-h-cp-∂-h-bmWv. Npcp-°-Øn¬ Cu Im¿jn-I-{Kmaw ]q¿Æ-ambn Xs∂ J\n-Iƒ hngpßpw F∂ `oXn-bn-emWv. ChnsS {]mtZ-inI kwL¿jw ]Xn-hmWv. CXp-t]m-ep≈ as‰mcp {Kma-amWv "Iudw'. ]›n-a-L´ kan-Xn°v ka¿∏n® tcJ-bn¬ sI¿sI¿ (2010) C{]-Imcw ]d-bp∂p “tKmh-bnse Npcp°w Nne {Kma-߃ am{Xta Z£nW tKmh-bnse Ihmsc Iyq∏-anse t]mse ssPh-ss]-Xr-I-ap≈ hnip-≤-tXm-´-ßfpw, Pekp-e-`-amb Acp-hn-Ifpw kº-∂-h-\-ßfpw \nd-™-h-bm-bp≈p. F∂m-en∂v h¿≤n-®p-h-cp∂ J\\ {]h¿Ø-\-߃aqew IhmscbpsS \ne-\n-ev]p-Xs∂ A]-I-S-Øn-emWv.'' Irjnbpw J\-\hpw, P\-ßfpw J\-\-I-º-\n-Ifpw XΩn¬ C∂v \nXm-¥-i-{Xp-X-bn-emWv. `qanbpw Pohn-Xhpw J\nIƒ Ih¿s∂-Sp-Ø-h¿°v \ne-hn-ep≈ \nb-a-{]-Imcw \¬Ip∂ \jvS-]-cn-lmcw Xocw A]cym-]vX-amWv. kwÿm-\-Øns‚ samØw B`y-¥c Dev]m-Z-Øn¬ J\\w \¬Ip∂ kw`m-h-\sb ]‰n tIƒ°p-∂-h¿ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-chpw kmaq-ly-hp-amb Cu {]iv\-߃ ImWp-∂n√. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v 1996/97 ÿnXn-hn-h-c-°-W-°p-I-fpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ tKmh-bnse J\-\-Øns‚ BLm-X-sØ]‰n \S-Ønb hni-Z-amb ]T-\-{]-Imcw ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-chpw kmaq-ly-hp-amb BLm-X-Øns‚ hne X´n-°-gn-®m¬ CXv kwÿm-\-Øns‚ samØw B`y-¥c D¬]m-Z-\-Øn-te°v \¬Ip∂ kw`mh\(bYm¿∞ hcp-am\w) shdpw 15% am{X-amWv. (Noronha, 2001; TERI 2002) . NCAER dnt∏m¿´n\v (2010) {]Xn-I-c-W-ambn Cu ASp-ØnsS ]pd-Øp-h∂ tcJ-Iƒ {]Imcw C°m-cy-Øn-ep≈ hchv˛sNehv A\p-]mXw tKmh-bnse J\-\sØ Hcp Xc-Ønepw A\p-Iq-en-°p-∂n√. (Basu 2011, Mukhopadhyay & Kadekodi 2011)

17.3 `c-W-]-c-amb {]iv\-߃ h\-A-h-Imi \nb-a-Ønse kmaq-ly-h-\-hn-`hw kw_-‘n® \n_-‘-\-Iƒ tKmh-bn¬ \S-∏m-°m-Xn-cp-∂-Xn\v bmsXmcp \ymbo-I-c-W-hp-an√. tKmh-bnse "Iyqs]w' Xmeq-°n¬s]´ "Iucw' {Kma-Ønse "tZh-s]m≥ tUm¶m¿' J\n ÿnXn-sN-øp-∂Xv. "shfn]vkv' F∂-dn-b-s∏Sp∂ ]´n-I-h¿§-°m-cpsS hnip≤ ÿe-amb Hcp-a-e-bn-emWv. i‡-amb {]mtZ-inI FXn¿∏ns\ adn-I-S∂pw h\m-h-Im-i-\n-b-a-Ønse hyh-ÿ-Iƒ ]q¿Æ-ambn ]men-°m-sXbpw ChnsS J\-\Øn\v A\p-aXn \¬In-bXv A£-¥-hy-amWv. ]e-hn-[-Øn-ep≈ \nb-a-hn-cp≤ J\-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-ßfpw tKmh-bn¬ \S-°p-∂p≠v. bmsXmcp hn[ ¢nb-d≥kpw C√m-sXbpw sX‰mb ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y-\-Øns‚ ]n≥_-e-Ønepw ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kn-\p-ap-ff hyh-ÿ-Iƒ Im‰n¬ ]d-Ønbpw ChnsS J\\w \S-°p∂p. ]cnÿnXn kw_-‘-amb \n_-‘-\-Iƒ ]mtS Ah-K-Wn®v A\p-h-Z-\o-b-amb ]cn-[n°v AXo-Xambn Abncv J\\w sNbvsX-Sp-°p-∂-Xmbn Btcm-]n®v \nc-h[n ]cm-Xn-Iƒ kan-Xn°v e`n-®n´p≠v.

]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\w ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ssPh-hy-h-ÿsb kwc-£n-°m-\p≈ \S-]-Sn-I-fpsS tI{μ-_n-μp-hmb ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{KY\ {]{Inb ]e \ne-bnepw A_-≤-P-Sn-e-am-sW∂v Is≠-Øm≥ Ign-™n-´p≠v. ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\ dnt∏m¿´p-I-fp-sSbpw s]mXp-sX-fn-sh-Sp∏v \S-]-Sn-I-fp-tSbpw KpW-\n-e-hm-c-an-√m-bva-bmWv Hcp {]iv\w. sX‰mb A]-{K-Y\ dnt∏m¿´v am{X-a√,s]mXp sXfn-sh-Sp-∏p-I-fpsS an\n-Svkn¬ t]mepw Ir{Xnaw Im´n-b-Xmbn Is≠-Øm≥ Ign™p. ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\ I¨kƒ´‚ v {Kma-߃ kμ¿in-°p-Itbm icn-bmb k¿sΔbpw ]T-\hpw \S-Øp-Itbm sNøm-Xn-cp∂ kw`-h-߃ R߃ ImWp-Itbm tIƒ°p-Itbm sNbvXn-´p≠v. ]≤-Xn-bpsS {]tW-Xm-°ƒ \ntbm-Kn® GP≥kn-I-fmWv ]e-t∏mgpw ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\ dnt∏m¿´p-Iƒ Xøm-dm-°p-∂-sX-∂-Xn-\m¬ ¢nb-d≥kv e`n-°m≥ X°-hÆw ÿnXn-hn-h-c-°-W-°p-Isf hf-s®m-Sn-°p∂ coXnbpw \nehn-ep≠v. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v tKmh-bnse "Iyqs]w' Xmeq-°nse "Iucw' {Kma-Ønse sUhms]m≥ tUm¶m¿ J\n-°p-th≠n Xøm-dm-°nb ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\ dnt∏m¿´n¬ hkvXp-Xbv°v hncp-≤-ambn J\-\-ta-J-e-bn¬ Hcp Pe-t{km-X pw Cs√-∂mWv tcJ-s∏-SpØn-bn-´p-≈Xv. kanXn ÿew ]cn-tim-[n-®-t∏mƒ Pe kar-≤n-bp≈ c≠v Acp-hn-Iƒ ImWm≥ Ign™p. ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-Øn-s‚bpw kmaqly˛kmº-ØnI LS-I-ß-fp-sSbpw Imcy-Øn¬ ]cnÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y-\-dn-t∏m¿´p-Iƒ Zp¿_-e-amWv. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v ]›n-a-L-´-Øn\v XpS¿®-bmbn Im‰-Sn-°p∂ hf¿® apc-Sn® hr£-ß-fp≈ {]tZ-isØ "Duj-c-`qan' Bbn ap{Z-IpØn Xg-bp-I-bmWv A]-{K-Y\ dnt∏m¿´n¬ sNømdv. ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-Øm¬ kº∂-amb Cu {]tZiw \nc-h[n kky-e-Xm-Zn-I-fpsS Bhm-k-tI-{μhpw I∂p-Imen Xo‰-IfpsS Hcp {][m\ t{kmX pw Np‰p-ap≈ Xmgv-h-c-I-fnse P\-Po-hn-X-Øn\v Du¿÷w ]Icp∂ Acp-hn-I-fpsS t{kmX- p-amWv. Xøm-dm-°-s∏-´n-´p≈ ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\ dnt∏m¿´p-Iƒ ]eXpw hnizm-k-tbmKy-a√. CØ-cp-WØn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn Ah-tem-I\ IΩn-‰n-bpsS ]¶v hfsc {][m-\-s∏-´XmWv. Cu IΩn-‰n-bpsS LS-\-bnse {][m\ A]m-IX \n¿±n-jvS-]-≤Xn ÿm]n-t°≠ {]tZ-isØ {]Xn-\n-[n-I-fmcpw IΩn-‰n-bn¬ D≠m-Im-dn-s√-∂-XmWv. X∑qew ]cn-ÿnXn Ah-tem-I\ kan-Xn°v B {]tZ-i-sØ-]‰n icn-bmb hnh-ctam ]pXnb ]≤Xn hcp-tºmƒ AhnsS D≠m-Im-hp∂ {]iv\-ß-sf-∏‰n hy‡-amb [mc-Wtbm e`n-°p-∂n√. kan-Xn-bpsS N¿®-Iƒ {][m-\-ambpw U¬ln-bn-emWv \S-°p-∂-sX-∂-Xn-\mepw ]e-t∏mgpw ÿe-kμ¿i\w D≠m-Im-dn-s√-∂-Xp-sIm≠pw {]mtZ-in-I-amb kΩ¿±-ßfpw DXv°-WvT-Ifpw kanXn-bpsS {i≤-bn¬s]-SmsX t]mIp∂p. sX‰mb ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\ dnt∏m¿´ns\bpw Ir{Xn-a-ambn Na® s]mXp sXfn-sh-Sp-∏n‚ an\n-Svkn-s\bpw B{i-bn-°p-∂n-S-tØmfw Imew samsØ \nb-{¥W {]{In-bbpw hrYm-hn-em-Ip-I-tb-bp≈q. ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv kw_-‘n® 2006 se hn⁄m-]\w SPCB sb shdpw t]mÃm-^okmbn Xcw-XmgvØn F∂v tKmh-t]m-ep≈ kwÿm-\-߃ Icp-Xp∂p. Cu ¢nb-d≥kv {]{In-b-bn¬ kwÿm\/{]mtZ-inI kzm[o\w IS-∂p-sN-∂-Xmbpw Icp-Xp∂p. a‰v Nne-bnS-ß-fn¬ SPCB {]mtZ-inI P\-X-bpsS Xmev]-cy-Øn\v hncp-≤-ambn ]cn-ÿnXn Ah-temI\ kan-Xnsb sX‰n-≤-cn-∏n-®-Xmbpw Icp-Xp∂p. ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw ¢nb-d≥kv sImSp-°p∂ tIkp-I-fn-sem-gnsI 2006\v tijw kwÿm\ k¿°m-cns‚tbm kwÿm\

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85


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

aen-\o-I-cW \nb-{¥-W- t_m¿Un-s‚tbm ImgvN-∏m-Sp-Iƒ CSw-]n-Sn-°m-dn-√. ]-≤Xn ÿm]n°m≥ kwÿm\ k¿°m-cns‚ A\p-aXn Bh-iy-am-sW∂ hyhÿ icn°pw C°m-cyØn¬ kwÿm-\-Øn-\p≈ "hot‰m' A[n-Im-c-amWv. CXv th≠-hn[w hn\n-tbm-Kn-°-W-sa∂-sa∂p am{Xw. ¢nb-d≥kn-\p-th≠n ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-e-b-Øn-\p-ta¬ ISpØ kΩ¿±w ]Xn-hmWv. t{]mP-Iv‰-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip-∂Xp aqew Ch-bpsS Bh¿Ø\ BLmXw Ah-K-Wn-°-s∏-Sp∂p. hyh-ÿ-Iƒ ]men-°-s∏-Sp-∂pt≠m F∂v ]cn-tim-[n-°msX Xs∂ ]pXnb ]≤-Xn-Iƒ°v ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip∂p. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥knepw aen-\o-I-c-W-t_m¿Uns‚ ]pXp-°¬ tcJ-bnepw \njv°¿jn-®n-´p-≈-Xn-e-[nIw Abncv J\-\-°m¿ AhnsS \ns∂ -Sp-°p-∂-Xmbn a\- n-em-°m≥ Ign™p. kpXm-cyhpw ]¶m-fn-Ø-]-c-hp-amb Hcp Ah-tem-I\ kwhn-[m-\-Øns‚ A`m-h-Øn¬ ]cnÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip-tºmƒ G¿s∏-Sp-Øp∂ hyh-ÿ-Iƒ ]e-t∏mgpw ewLn-°-s∏-Sp∂p. ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip-tºmƒ G¿s∏-Sp-Øp-s∂mcp hyhÿ kao-]-sØ-hn-sS-sb-¶nepw Pe-t{km-X- p-I-fp-s≠-¶n¬ Ahsb iey-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ ]mSn-s√∂pw Cu Pe-t{km-X- p-Iƒ°v Ccp-h-ihpw 50 ao‰¿ AI-e-Øn¬ CS-Xq¿∂v hf-cp∂ {]Ir-Xn-ZØ ImSp-Isf kwc-£n-°-W-sa∂p-amWv ]s£ ÿe-]-cn-tim-[-\-bn¬ ImWm≥ Ign-™Xv. Cu \n_-‘-\-I-sf√mw ]q¿Æambn ewLn-°-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂-XmWv. Acp-hn-Iƒ \n›ew, Ah-bpsS Hgn-°ns\ hgn-Xn-cn-®p-hn-´n-cp°p∂p. Acp-hn-°-c-bnse Ip‰n-°m-Sp-Iƒ \in-∏n-®n-cn-°p∂p. X∑qew J\-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-ß-sf-]‰n P\-ß-fpsS a\- n¬ i‡-amb Akw-Xr]vXn \ne-\n¬°p∂p. {]mtZ-inI ]cn-ÿn-Xn-tbmSv J\-\-°m¿ Im´p∂ Ah-K-W-\-bvs°-Xnsc Db-cp∂ i‡-amb FXn¿∏ns\ ]n¥p-W-bv°p-∂XmWv J\-\-Øn-s\-Xn-cmb s]mXp-Xm¬∏cy l¿Pn-Iƒ(t_mIvkv 12).

t_m2Ivkv 12 : tKmh-bnse J\\w: s]mXp-Xm-ev]-cy-l¿Pn-Iƒ Pew hS-°≥ tKmh-bnse "AUv-hm¬]m¬' hnt√Pv c≠v J\\ Iº-\n-Iƒs°-Xnsc s]mXp-Xm-ev]-cy-l¿Pn-Iƒ ^b¬ sNbvXp. ag-°m-eØv {Kma-Øn¬ XpS¿®-bmbn sh≈-s∏m-°-ap-≠m-Ip-∂-Xn-\p≈ ImcWw Cu Iº-\n-Iƒ Acp-hn-Iƒ hgnXncn®p-hn-Sp-∂-Xm-sW∂pw Ah-cpsS Irjn-bn-S-ß-fn¬ Pe-tk-N-\-Øn-\p≈ sh≈w XS-bp∂p F∂pw Btcm-]n-®m-bn-cp∂p l¿Pn-Iƒ. Irjn J\\ {]h¿Ø-\-߃ \n¿Øn-sh-bv°-W-sa∂ Bh-iy-hp-ambn Z£n-W-tKm-hbnse {Kma-hm-kn-Iƒ Ac Uk≥ s]mXp Xmev]-cy-l¿Pn-I-fmWv ^b¬ sNbvXXv. J\n-I-fn¬ \n∂v ae-s©-cp-hn-eqsS Hgp-In-sb-Øp∂ Ah-in-jvS-߃ ASn-hm-c-Øp≈ Irjn-`q-an-I-fn¬ h∂n-Sn™v Hmtcm h¿jhpw KWy-amb Afhn¬ Irjn `qan Xcn-imbn amdp∂p F∂-Xm-bn-cp∂p l¿Pn-°m-[mcw. hmbp, i_vZw, A]-ISw {Sn°v KXm-KXw (2010) J\n-I-fn¬ \n∂p≈ {S°p-Iƒ ]I¬ ka-bØp am{Xta HmSmhq F∂pw AXpw \n›nX aWn-°q-dn¬ am{Xta ]mSp≈q F∂pw \nb-{¥-W-ta¿s∏-SpØn-sIm-≠p≈ k¿°m¿ Xocp-am\w tImS-Xn- Aw-Ko-I-cn®p. P\-hm-k-ap≈ ÿe-ß-fn-eqsS IS-∂p-t]m-Ip-∂-Xn\v thK-X-\n-b-{¥Ww G¿s∏-Sp-Øm≥th≠n ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

86


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Hmtcm {S°nepw temUp sNøm-hp∂ Abn-cns‚ Afhv \n›b-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ th≠n. h\-߃ (A∏Ivkv tImS-Xn) c≠v h\y-ar-K-k-t¶-X-ß-fpsS hn⁄m-]\w (amssU, t\{Xm-hmen) ]n≥h-en-®-Xns\ tNmZyw sNbvXp-sIm≠v t\{Xm-hmen h\y-ar-Kk - t- ¶-XØ - n¬ \n∂v 55 J\n-Isf Hgn-hm-°n-bXv tNmZyw sNbvXpsIm≠v. J\n-Iƒ°pw hyh-km-b-]-≤-Xn-Iƒ°pw 2004 ¬ ap≥Iq¿ A\p-aXn \¬In-b-Xns\ tNmZyw sNbvXp-sIm≠v. h\y-ar-K-k-t¶-X-߃°pw tZiob ]m¿°p-Iƒ°pw 10 Intem-ao‰dn\p-≈n¬ F√m J\\ ]≤-Xn-Ifpw tZiob h\y-Pohn t_m¿Un¬ \n∂v F≥.H.kn hmß-W-sa∂v 2006¬ kp{]nw tImSXn DØ-c-hn-´n-cp∂p.

tKmh-bnse J\\ {]h¿Ø-\-߃ Cu sNdnb kwÿm-\-Øns‚ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-chpw kmaqly-hp-amb F√m koa-Ifpw ewLn-®n-cn-°p∂p. tKmh-bnse J\\w 17Zi-e£w S¨ Ihn™ 1996 ¬ Ahn-SsØ 4 J\\ {Kma-k-ap-®-b-ßfnse ho´p-Im¿°v J\-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-ß-tfm-Sp≈ at\m-`mhw ]´nI 8¬ ImWpI. samØw k¿sΔ sNbvX ho´p-Im-cn¬ 50iX-am\w J\-\w-sIm≠v {Kma-Øn\v bmsXmcp t\´hpw D≠m-bn-´n-s√∂v A`n-{]m-b-s∏´p. as‰mcp ]T\ k¿sΔ {]Imcw J\-\-c-lnX taJ-e-bp-ambn Xmc-Xayw sNbvXm¬ J\-\-ta-J-e-bnse P\-߃ IqSp-X¬ Akw-Xr-]vX-cmWv (TERI, 2002, Nanonha and Nairy, 2005). J\-\-{]-h¿Ø\ Ib-‰p-aXn 50 Zie£w IS-∂n-cn-°p∂ Ct∏mƒ Cu k¿sΔ \S-Øn-bm¬ ^ew Gsd `oI-chpw \ncm-im-P-\-Ihp-am-bn-cn°pw. ]´nI 8 : J\-\-tØm-Sp≈ k¿sΔ {]Xn-I-cWw J\\ kap-®bw*

{Kmao-W-cpsS {]Xn-I-cWw

]pXnb J\n-Iƒ

\ne-hn-ep≈ J\n-Iƒ

thWw

th≠

Adn-bn√

hnI-kn ∏n-°Ww

ac-hn∏n-°Ww

AS-®p]q-´Ww

Adn-bn√

I

33

41

26

40

42

13

8

II

33

34

33

45

24

11

16

III

36

28

36

47

40

3

10

IV

5

35

60

7

88

5

0

t{kmX v: hoSp-ho-Sm-¥c k¿sΔ ( TERI 1997), [mXp-D-ev]m-Z\w 17 Zi-e£w S¨

* kap-®bw I _nt°mfnw kap-®bw Øns‚ `mK-amWv.)

II

kp¿e-]mse,

III

tImSven,

IV

SptUm˛ _m´n (CXn-t∏mƒ s\‰m¿ h√n kt¶-X-

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87


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

17.4 ip]m¿i-Iƒ ip]m¿i˛1 : Zp¿_-e-amb ssPh-ta-J-e-bn¬ J\\w Hgn-hm-°pI. tKmh-bn¬ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse NphsS ]d-bp∂ ÿe-ß-fn¬ J\-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-߃ Hgnhm-°pI. h\y-Po-hn-\n-b-a-Ønse (1972) hIp-∏p-Iƒ{]-Im-chpw \ne-hn-ep≈ kp{]nw tImSXn DØc-hp-Iƒ {]Im-chpw tZio-b-]m¿°p-Ifpw h\y-Pohn kt¶-X-ßfpw Dƒ∏-sS-bp≈ kwc£nX {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ ]›n-a-L´ kanXn ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-Je˛H∂v F∂v \n›-bn-°-s∏-´n-´p-≈-Xp - t]m-sebp≈ {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬. Cu taJ-e-bnse J\n-I-fpsS ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kn¬ Hcp \n_-‘\ IqSn \n¿_-‘am°Ww. AXm-bXv ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-Je˛H∂n¬ 2016 ¬ J\\w Ah-km-\n-∏n°p-∂-Xp- hsc Hmtcm h¿jhpw {]h¿Ø\w 25 % h®v Ipd-®p-sIm-≠p-h-cWw. as‰m∂v J\n AS-®p- ]q-´nb tijw ]cn-ÿnXn ]p\-c-[n-hmkw Dd-∏m-°Ww. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-Je˛c≠n¬ \ne-hn-ep≈ J\\w XpScmw. ]pXnb ssek≥kv \¬Ip∂Xv ÿnXn-sa®s∏-´-tijw am{Xw. ip]m¿i ˛2: [mXp-Nq-j-W-Øn\v \nb-{¥Ww ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kn¬ A\p-h-Zn-®n-´p-≈-Xn¬ IqSp-X¬ Abncv J\\w sNøp∂ F√m J\n-Ifpw AS-®p-]q-´pI. ]cn-ÿnXn kmaqly DXv°WvT {]Xn-^-en-∏n-°p∂ Hcp ""I´v Hm^v'' kwhn-[m\w Ccp-ºbn¿ J\-\-Øn\v G¿s∏-Sp-ØpI. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-Je˛H∂nse Ct∏mƒ {]h¿Ø-\-an-√m-Ø-h-bpsS ssek≥kv DS-\Snbpw, {]h¿Øn-°p∂ F√m J\n-I-fp-tSbpw ssek≥kv 2016 epw d±m-°pI. h\y-ar-K-k-t¶-X-ß-fnse J\n-I-fnse ssek≥kv ÿn-c-ambn d±m-°Ww. J\n-Iƒ AS-®p]q-´n-bmepw tKmh-bnse ssek≥kv \ne-\n-ev°p-∂-Xm-bmWv tcJ-I-fn¬ ImWp-∂Xv. BIbm¬ M.M.D.R \nb-a-Ønse \memw hIp-∏v{]-Imcw Ah-km-\n-∏n-°Ww. t\{X-hmen h\yar-K-k-t¶-X-Øn¬ \n∂v J\n-Isf Hgn-hm-°n-s°m≠v If-IvSdpw dh-\yq-B-^o-kdpw ]pds∏-Sp-hn-®n-´p≈ F√m DØ-c-hp-Ifpw d±p-sN-øWw. CXv tI{μ Fw]-thUv IΩn-‰n-bpsS ip]m¿i IqSn-bmWv. IpSn-sh≈ Bh-iy-Øn\v D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ AW-s°-´p-I-fpsS hrjvSn-{]-tZ-i-Øp≈ J\nIƒ AS-®p-]q-´pI. aW¬J-\-\-Øn-\p≈ N´-߃ (Padmalal, 2011) aW¬ J\-\-Øn\v BUn‰v sNøWw. \Zn-I-fn-ep-S-\ofw aW¬ J\-\-Øn\v Ah[n G¿s∏-Sp-ØWw. samØ-Øn-ep≈ amt\-Pvsas‚ \Zn amt\-Pvsa‚n¬ \n∂v th¿Xn-cn®v ImWWw. CXn\v {]tXyI \nb-a-\n¿ΩmWw Bh-iy-amWv. \n¿Ωm-Wm-h-iy-߃°v B‰p-a-W-en\v ]Icw D]-tbm-Kn-°m-hp-∂h Is≠Øn t{]m’mln-∏n-°pI. \Zn-I-fp-sSbpw t]mj-I-\-Zn-I-fp-sSbpw Ic-bn¬ a\p-jys‚ IS-∂p-I-b‰w aqew \in®p t]mb {]Ir-Xn-Z-Ø-amb \Zn-tbm-c-°m-Sp-Iƒ ]p\-cp-Po-hn-∏n-°m≥ Bh-iy-amb \S-]-SnIƒ kzoI-cn-°pI. Ignhpw kzoImcy-X-bp-ap≈ Hcp ÿm]\w \S-Øp∂ ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ am{Xta \Zo-Xo-c-ß-fnse hnI-k\ {]h¿Ø-\߃°v, A\p-a-Xn-\¬Im-\mhq. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

88


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

tKmh-bn¬ J\-\-Øn\v Hcp {]tZ-iØv Hmtcm-∂nepw ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\w \S-Øp-∂-Xn\p ]Icw Hcp {]tZ-i-Øn\v samØ-Øn-ep≈ J\\{]h¿Ø-ß-fpsS Bh¿ Ø\ BLmXw a\- n-em-°m-\p≈ A]-{KY ]T\w \n¿_-‘n-X-am-°Ww. A\n- b - { ¥n- X - a mb [mXp- D - e v ] m- Z \w `qP- e - Ø ns‚ AanXNqjWw, Irjn- b psS ]p\ -cp-≤m-cWw sa®-s∏´ J\-\-co-Xn-Iƒ F∂n-h-sb√mw Cu dnt∏m¿´ns‚ `mKw 2¬ N¿®-sN-øp∂p.

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89


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

A\p-_‘߃ A\p-_‘w 1 : ]T-\-coXn Methodology employed in generating and interpreting the Western Ghats Database and assigning ESZs 1.Data Sets : 1.

Western Ghats boundary (shape file) obtained from Dr. Ganeshaiah, Member, WGEEP

2. India states, districts, talukas (shape file ) source : DIVA-GIS (http://www.diva- gis.org) 3. Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data for India (TIFF) at 90 m resolution. 4. Data on endemic plants, IUCN Red list Mammals, percent forest, unique evergreen elements, forest with low edge: (from Das et al., 2006) 25k grid (shape file) 5. Forest types of India (TIFF) 6. Protected Areas of Western Ghats Cover (shape file) Source: FERAL 7. Elephant Corridors of Western Ghats Cover (shape file) Source: Prof R Sukumar, CES, and WTI. 8. Endemic vertebrate data of Western Ghats Cover (Spread sheet) Source: Ranjit Daniels 9. Endemic Odonata data of Western Ghats Cover (shape file) Source: ZSI 10. Enhanced vegetation index of MODIS for North Maharashtra and Gujarat 11. Riparian Forests derived through drainage and forest cover 12. Important Bird Areas (IBAs) as point coverages Of these, data sets 1–5 and 8–12 were used for the geospatial analyses. For North Maharashtra and Gujarat, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) of MODIS was used as the forest vegetation data were not readily available. Use of Free and Open Source Software: Free and Open source geospatial tools (www.osgeo.org) were extensively used as given below Desktop GIS: Open jump, QGIS, SAGA, DIVA-GIS Database: PostgreSQL/ PostGIS Web GIS: OpenGeo Suite which is a complete web platform based upon Open Geospatial Standards (OGC) which includes GeoServer (GIS Server), PostgreSQL/PostGIS(Database), Geo Web Cache (Cache Engine), Geoexplorer (for Visualization of WMS layers), GeoEditor (Online editing geospatial data), and Styler (Online styling of the data). A web enabled searchable database has been a major contribution of this short-term project. In addition, through UNICODE, local language adoption has been showcased using Marathi as an example. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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In addition, using methods of spatial analyses on large landscape level data, an attempt was made to arrive at the relative importance of these seven attributes. This has been done using a programme called Spatial analyses in Macro Ecology (SAM) . However, this has been done only on a preliminary exploratory basis to showcase one possible way of reducing the dimensionality of the factors involved. Not much headway was made with this approach due to several operational constraints. 2. a. Data Cleaning Process:5 minute x 5 minute grid file generation for Western Ghats Cover (shape file) using Vector Grid plugin of QGIS b. 1 minute x 1 minute grid file generation for Western Ghats Cover of Goa state (shape file) using Vector Grid plugin of QGIS c. Rasterization of each attribute of ATREE data by applying Surface method usingRasterize (Vector to Raster) plugin of QGIS d. Generated slope map in TIFF format using GDAL library e. Generated shape files for following classes in Endemic Vertebrate data (RanjitDaniels, 2011) Ó Amphibians Ó Birds Ó Reptiles Ó Fish Ó Endemic Odonata (ZSI, 2011) 3. Uploading datasets into database: All the available and generated datasets were uploaded to the PostgreSQL/PostGIS database using QGIS as below. The vector datasets were uploaded to the database using the SPIT plugin of QGIS while raster datasets were uploaded using Load Raster to PostGIS plugin of QGIS. In case of Raster dataset, the data was stored into 64 x 64 blocks. 4. Vector/Raster analysis using PG Raster of PostGIS a. Vector/Raster analysis was done for elevation values from SRTM data using WKT Raster Queries. Following is the sample query for it. Sample Query: Create table <table name> as SELECT e.id,test.val, ST_Intersection(test.geom, e.geometry) AS gv FROM (SELECT (ST_DumpAsPolygons(ST_SetBandNodataValue(rast, 0))).geom, (ST_DumpAsPolygons(ST_SetBandNodataValue(rast, 0))).val FROM <Raster_table_name>) as test, <Grid_table_name> as e WHERE ST_Intersects(test.geom, e.geometry); 5. Grouping and averaging of pixel values based upon grids Thereafter, average elevation values were calculated for each 5' x 5' grid for each state in the Western Ghats and considered as a parameter. The steps 4–5 were performed for parameters such as maximum slope values, endemic plants, iucn max, unique percent, comp3 percent, forest percent values, area of riparian

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

forest (see explanation of parameter below) for each 5' x 5' grid for each state in the Western Ghats Cover. 6

Ranking the parameters generated

Assigned ranks for the following 8 parameters a. Endemic plants : Number of endemic plant species b. IUCN_max: Number of IUCN Red listed mammal species c. Unique percent: Percentage of area covered by unique evergreen ecosystems d. Comp3 percent : Percentage of area covered by relatively undisturbed forest with low edge e. Forest percent: Percentage of forest area f. Elevation g. Slope h. Riparian Forests/Vegetation

As there is an ecological gradient from north to south in the Western Ghats with changes in diversity and species richness as well as physical features, a normalization for every state was done for these parameters. Thus, scores were normalized for each state. For instance, the highest recorded altitude in a given grid in a state was given the maximal score and all other grids in that state were ranked in relative fashion. After normalization ranks were assigned on a scale from 1 to 10 based on the maximum value of each parameter for each state. 7.

Average of the ranks for all parameters

Subsequent to the rank generation, the average of the ranks for all parameters were calculated. If, for a grid, there is data for only for 5 parameters out of 8 parameters, then dividing the sum by the number of parameters assessed took care of the problem of data available for variable numbers of parameters per grid. 8.

ESZ assignment algorithm

1.

We treat Western Ghats regions of each state separately

a.

Existing Protected Areas are treated as a fourth separate category

b.

ESZ1, ESZ2 and ESZ3 status are assigned only to grids outside existing Protected Areas

c.

ESZ1 status are assigned only to such grids as have a score at least equalling, or higher than the lowest scoring grids falling within existing Protected Areas

d.

The extent of existing Protected Areas plus ESZ1will not normally exceed 60% of the total area

e.

The extent of ESZ3 will normally be around 25% of the total area

With these stipulations, we adopt the following procedure: Let p be the percentage of area falling under existing Protected Areas

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Let x be the percentage of area assigned to ESZ1 Let y be the percentage of area assigned to ESZ2 Let z be the percentage of area assigned to ESZ3 Obviously, p+x+y+z = 100 Now, we can visualize three scenarios in terms of value of p; [1] p>75, [2] 60<p<75, and [3] p<60. Normally p<60 will hold, but logically we must allow for the first two as well. [1] p>75: In this case, all areas outside existing Protected Areas will be assigned to ESZ3. No grids will be assigned to ESZ1 or ESZ2, as existing Protected Areas themselves exceed 75% of the region. x=0, y=0, z= (100–p); so that x+y+z+p= 0+0+(100–p)+p=100 [2] 60<p<75: In this case, we will assign the lowest scoring 25% of grids to ESZ3 and the balance grids to ESZ2. No grids will be assigned to ESZ1, as existing Protected Areas themselves exceed 60% of the region. Then, x=0, y=(75–p), z=25 leading to x+y+z+p= 0+(75–p)+25+p=100 [3a] p<60: This will be the normal case. In this case, we will assign the lowest scoring 25% of grids to ESZ3. The balance of (75–p) has to be assigned to ESZ1 and ESZ2 such that p+ESZ1=60. Since we accept that existing Protected Areas and ESZ1 should not exceed 60%, we have to assign all of the top scoring 60% grids that are outside existing Protected Areas to ESZ1, provided that the lowest score amongst these at least equals or is higher than the lowest score of the grids falling within existing Protected Areas. So, in this scenario of 60<p<75; x=(60–p), y=15, z=25, and x+y+z+p= (60–p)+15+25+p=100. [3b] One more special case, has to be considered for this scenario of p<60, namely that equating the lowest score of the grids falling within existing Protected Areas to the lowest score of the grids assigned to ESZ1 does not assign enough grids to ESZ1, so that (p+x)<60. In that case, the balance of the top scoring 75% grids that are outside existing Protected Areas, and grids assigned to ESZ1, will be assigned to ESZ2. So, y=75–(p+x), and will be more than 15%. Again, x+y+z+p= x+75–(p+x)+25+p=100 [4] An additional, score assignment device has been introduced. When we want to select some specific percentage of grids, say, lowest 25%, setting the threshold to a specific integral score may not yield the desired result. Then, we rank the parameters used to generate the scores in the order of their importance, and rework the scores by ignoring the least important parameters till roughly the desired percentage, say between 22 to 28, is reached. To make administration easy, the ESZ are extrapolated and reported for talukas. The assigned ESZ level to the taluka is the ESZ that covers the largest fraction of the taluka. In the case of Goa, because of its size and the use of 1 minute x 1 minute grids, ESZs are not reported for whole talukas, but by grids within talukas. The method is illustrated for Goa: a.

A WG database for Goa is prepared as discussed above

b.

The parameters are ranked on a 1-10 scale, with lowest at 1 and highest ecological significance at 10

c.

Composite scores – average for each grid- are calculated

d.

For arriving at ESZs, the grid scores were treated thus:

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

All grids having PAs are excluded for arriving at the ESZ1. Since these grids also have scores, a guiding strategy for demarcation of ESZ1 is the range of scores for PAs of a given state. Thus the average minimum threshold for Goa PAs is 4.92. Hence all grids having a score of above 4.92 get assigned to ESZ1.Thus 11 grids out of a total of 55 grids make the cut (20%). The grids with PAs are 21 in number and account for 38% of the total grids. ESZ1 and PAs together constitute 58%. the lowest quartile (approx. 25%) of these scores for grids was computed. For Goa , this score is 3.14 which means all grids below this core are assigned to ESZ 3. For Goa there are 12 grids under ESZ3 , which constitute about 22% of the area. The balance of grids are assigned to ESZ2. These are 11 in number (20%, a deviation of 5% from the suggested 15% of area). 9. Outputs The results obtained are presented as a.

A spatial depiction of ESZs grid-wise as well as taluka-wise and displayed on a colour palette , with Green showing ESZ1, Red showing ESZ2 and yellow showing ESZ3.

b.

Percent grids for a given score for each state both in a tabular and graphical notation

c.

Riparian forest scores for each state and in different elevation zones

d.

1' x 1' grid analysis for Goa to incorporate the results of the Goa Regional plan

e.

A Web GIS application

10. Information and Data Sources a.

Habitat related information in the form of shape files for parts of Mahrashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu: Mr Kiran , Arundhati Das, V Srinivasan and Dr Jagdish Krishnaswamy of ATREE Additional data from Ravindra Bhalla of FERAL and Bhaskar Acharya of CEPF

b.

Dr RJR Daniels of Care Earth: point locations of mammals, reptiles, birds, amphibians and fishes

c.

Dr K A Subramanian , ZSI: point locations of Odonata

d.

Prof R Sukumar: information on elephant corridors

e.

Dr K N Ganeshiah: Western Ghats boundary

f.

Dr P S Roy, Director, Indian Institute of Remote sensing, Dehra Dun: habitat information and shape files for Gujarat and Maharashtra

g.

Dr Bharucha and Shamita from BVIEER, Pune: data on parts of Maharashtra

h.

Dr K S Rajan , Open Source Geospatial Foundation – India chapter and IIIT, Hyderabad : geospatial statistical analyses

i.

Dr P V K Nair, KFRI: assistance in analyses for Kerala

j.

Santosh Gaikwad, Siva Krishna, Ravi Kumar, Ch.Appalachari, Sai Prasad of SACON: GIS work.

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A\p-_‘w 2 : ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e taJe ˛H∂v, taJe˛c≠v, taJe˛aq∂v F∂n-h-bn¬ hnhn[ ]›n-a-L-´-Xmeq-°p-Iƒ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øp-∂Xp kw_-‘n® \n¿t±iw.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

A\p-_‘w 4: Id‚ v kb≥kv t]∏¿ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-c-ambn {]tXyI {]m[m-\y-ap≈Xpw Zp¿_-e-hp-amb {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS am∏nßv: \n¿t±-in-°s∏´ am\-Zfiw am[hv KmUvKn¬: sNb¿am≥, ]›n-a-L´ ssPh-hn-cp-≤-k-anXn B¿.sP. cRvPnXv Zm\n-tb¬: sIb¿ F¿Øv {SnÃv, sNss∂ sI.F≥. KtWiø: saº¿, ]›n-a-L´ knanXn. Fkv. \tc-{μ-{]-kmZv˛ kenw-Aen, sslZ-cm-_mZv Fw.Fkv.B¿. aq¿Øn :\mj-W¬ dntam´v sk≥knßv sk‚¿ , sF.Fkv.B¿.H. kn.Fkv. Qm: \mj-W¬ dntam´v sk≥knßv sk‚¿ , sF.Fkv.B¿.H. _n.B¿.ctajv : C≥Ãn-‰yq´v {^m≥kokv Un t]m≠n-t®cn sI.F. kp{_-“-Wy≥: kpthm-f-Pn-°¬ k¿sΔ Hm^v C¥y, ]qsW

]T-\-kw-£n]vXw tI{μ-]-cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw \ntbm-Kn® ]›n-a-L-´-]-cn-ÿnXn hnZKv[ kan-Xn-bpsS Hcp e£yw ]›n-aL - ´- Ø - n-ep-S\ - o-fa - p≈ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-iß - ƒ Is≠-Øp-Ibpw Ahsb kwc-£n-°m-\p≈ \nb-{¥W \S-]-Sn-Iƒ \n¿t±-in-°p-I-bp-amWv. F∂m¬ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ßsf \n¿Δ-Nn-°m≥ BtKm-f-X-e-Øn¬ Hcp ka-hmbw Cs√∂pw AXn-\m¬ C°m-cyØn¬ kzoI-cn-°m-hp∂ am\-Zfiw Is≠-Ø-W-sa∂pw kan-Xn°v t_m[y-s∏´p. BI-bm¬ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i-ß-fpsS am∏nßv \S-Øp-∂-Xn\v apºv BZy-]Sn F∂ \ne-bn¬ CXn\v \n¿Δ-N-\hpw am\-Z-fihpw hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-t°-≠-Xp-≠m-bn-cp∂p. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-iß-fpsS am∏n-ßn\pw \n¿Δ-N-\-Øn\pw Hcp ka-hm-b-ap-≠m-°m≥ th≠n kanXn \S-Ønb \nch[n N¿®-If - p-tSbpw IqSn-bm-tem-N\ - I - f - p-sSbpw hni-Zmw-iß - f - m-Wn-Xn¬. Cu dnt∏m¿´ns‚ Dt±iyw c≠mWv. H∂v kanXn FØn-t®¿∂ Bi-b-]-chpw am\-Z-fi-]-c-hp-amb hni-Zmw-i-ßn-t∑¬ hn]p-e-amb Hcp hnZKv[ kaq-l-Øns‚ \n¿t±-i-߃ £Wn-°pI, c≠m-aXv Cu am\-Z-fißsf cmPy-Øn-\-IØpw ]pd-Øp-ap≈ a‰v ssPh-k-º-∂-{]-tZ-i-ß-fpsS am∏n-ßn-\m-bp≈ ÿmbnbmb \S-]Sn {Ia-Øns‚ am\-Z-fi-ambn t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZiw F∂ Bibw th≠ coXn-bn¬ \n¿Δ-Nn-°-s∏-´n-´n√. "ssPhssh-hn≤yw' F∂ ]Z-{]-tbmKw t]mse CXn\pw AwKo-Ir-X-amb Hcp \n¿Δ-N-\-an√. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e- {]tZ-iw, ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿∫e taJe, ssPh-]-c-ambn Zp¿_-e-amb ssPh-hy-hÿ, ]cnÿnXn Zp¿_e ssk-‰p-Iƒ Fs∂-√m-ap≈ {]tbm-K-߃ kwc-£-W-Øn-\p-th≠n kml-N-cy߃°pw kμ¿`-߃°pw A\p-tbm-Py-ambn D]-tbm-Kn-t°-≠-h-bmWv. ]e kμ¿`-ß-fnepw Ch D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xv {]tXyI \n¿Δ-N-\-an-√m-sXbpw ]e A¿∞-Øn-ep-am-bn-cn°pw (]´nI H∂v ImWpI) C°m-c-W-Øm¬ F√m kml-N-cy-߃°pw A\p-tbm-Py-am-hn-s√-¶n¬ t]mepw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i-ß-fpsS kz`m-h-k-hn-ti-j-߃°-\p-k-cn-®p≈ am\-Z-fi-ß-fpsS Hcp ]´nI Xømdm-°pI am{Xta t]mwh-gn-bp≈q. AØ-c-Øn-semcp am\-Z-fi-amWv ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-ißsf ieyw sNøm≥ ]mSn-s√∂pw ]pdta \n∂p≈ iey-ßtfm kzm[o-\-ßtfm D≠m-bm¬ Ah-bpsS ]q¿Δ-ÿnXn hos≠-Sp-°pI _p≤n-ap-´m-sW∂pw D≈ \nK-a\w. CØcw Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ßsf Xncn-s®-dn-bpI F∂Xv kan-Xn-bpsS Hcp Npa-X-e-bmWv. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ßsf Is≠-Øm≥ BtKm-f-X-e-Øn¬ Xs∂ hyXyÿ kμ¿`-ßfn¬ hyXyÿ am\-Z-fi-ß-fmWv D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-sX∂v kanXn Is≠Øn. {]tZ-i-Øns‚ ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

{]m[m\yw ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-ctam kmº-Øn-I-]-ctam F∂Xp {][m-\-amWv. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-isØ Xncn-®-dn-bp∂v {][m-\-ambpw AXns‚ kwc-£Ww Dd-∏m-°m-\m-sW-¶n¬ CXns‚ ssPh-]-chpw kmº-Øn-I-hp-amb {]tXy-I-X-Iƒ \n¿_-‘-ambpw ]cn-tim-[n-®n-cn-°Ww. cmPyØp-S-\ofw hnZ-Kv[-cp-ambpw a‰v _‘-s∏-´-h-cp-ambpw IqSn-bm-tem-N-\-Iƒ \S-ØpI hgn ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZiw F∂ Bibw ]p\:ch-tem-I\w sNøm\pw km[n-°p-sa-¶n¬ B Bi-bsØ ]p\¿\n¿Δ-Nn-°m\pw ]›n-a-L-´-Øn-ep-S-\ofw Ch-bpsS am∏n-ßn\v Hcp ka-hm-b-Øn-se-Øm-\pamWv kanXn {ian-®Xv. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i-ß-fpsS am∏n-ßn\v kanXn \S-Ønb \nc-h[n N¿®-I-fn-eqsS Dcp-Øn-cn™v h∂ am\-Z-fi-ß-fpsS hni-Zmw-i-ßfpw Ah-bnte-s°-Ønb Bi-b-]-c-amb ASn-ÿm-\hpw ChnsS hnh-cn-°p∂p.

]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-߃°v Hcp I¿Ω \n¿Δ-N\w s]mXp-hn¬ kzoIm-cy-amb Hcp \n¿Δ-N\w CXn\v C√m-Xn-cns° ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZi-Øn\v amIvan-√≥ Un£vWdn \¬Ip∂ \n¿Δ-N\w"{]Ir-Xn-Z-Ø-amb, ]cn-ÿn-Xn°v hfsc Ffp∏w D]-{Z-h-ap-≠m-°m≥ Ign-bp∂ {]tZiw'' F∂mWv. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-sa-∂m¬ hfsc Ffp∏w \in-∏n-°m≥ Ign-bp∂ ]cn-ÿnXn LS-I-߃ (bqWn-‰p-Iƒ) F∂v \n¿Δ-Nn-°msa-¶nepw hy‡-am-sbmcp \n¿Δ-N\w \¬Ip-∂-Xn¬ \n∂v R߃ hn´p-\n¬°m≥ B{K-ln°p∂p. F¥m-bn-cp-∂mepw {]h¿Ø-\-Øn-\m-h-iy-Øn\mbn ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-߃ ssPh-]-c-ambpw kmº-Øn-I-ambpw hfsc {][m-\-sa-¶nepw hfsc sNdnb iey-߃t]mepw {]Xym-Lm-X-߃ krjvSn-°p-sa-∂-Xn-\m¬ kwc-£Ww Bh-iy-am-sW∂pw R߃ Icp-Xp∂p. ssPh-]-c-ambpw kmº-Øn-I-]-c-ambpw kº-∂hpw hne-tb-dn-bXpw A\p-]-ahpw BI-bm¬ CXn\p-≠m-Ip∂ \mi-\-jvS-߃ A]-cn-lm-cy-amWv. CXns‚ ssPh-]-c-amb kº-∂X aqew a\p-jyk-aq-l-Øn\pw {]tZ-i-Øns‚ ssPh-kp-ÿn-cX \ne-\n¿Øp-∂-Xn\pw ssPh-ssh-hnZyw ]cnc£n-°p-∂-Xn\pw CXn\v kp{]-[m-\-amb ]¶v hln-°m≥ Ignbpw. Ah-bpsS "A\p-]-aXzw' ]e hn[-Øn-emWv. H∂m-aXv Ah Pohn-°p∂ kwhn-[m-\-Øns‚ Zp¿√-`Xzw aqew Ah \jvS-s∏-´m¬ hos≠-Sp-°pI _p≤n-ap-´mWv. as‰m∂v am\-h-cm-in°v Ah \¬Ip∂ tkh-\-ß-fnse Zp¿√-`-XzamWv. Imew sX‰n-h-cp∂ Imem-hÿm hyXn-bm-\-ßfpw a\p-jys‚ IS-∂m-{I-a-W-ßfpw hfsc s]s´∂v Chsb {]Xn-Iq-e-ambn _m[n°pw. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ßsf \n¿Δ-Nn-°m≥ ap≥]v \S-Ønb {ia-ß-fnepw Cu LS-I-ß-fpsS {]Xy-£tam ]tcm-£tam Bbn-´p≈ {]m[m-\ysØ-]‰n ]cm-a¿in-°p∂p. (]-´nI H∂v) Hcp hyXykvX ]Zm-hen Bh-iy-apt≠m? ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i-߃, kq£va kwth-Z-\-£-a-X-bp≈ {]tZ-i-߃ F∂-Xn-\p]p-dta ssPh-]-c-ambn hf-sc-b-[nIw {]m[m-\y-ap-≈-h-IqSnbmWv. Poh-im-kv{X-]-c-ambpw ssPh]-c-ambpw kmº-Øn-I-ambpw kmwkvIm-cn-I-ambpw Ncn-{X-]-c-ambpw Ah-bpsS aqeyw hfsc hepXmWv. am{X-hp-a√ {]Ir-Xn-]-c-ambpw ]pd-Øp-\n-∂p-ap≈ kΩ¿±-߃°v s]s´∂v Iogvs∏-Sp-Ibpw sNøpw. BI-bm¬ Ah-bpsS B¥-cn-I-aq-ey-sØbpw \mi-\-jvS-sØbpw Bkv]-Z-am°n ]e L´-Øn-ep≈ kwc-£-W-\-S-]-Sn-I-fmWv Bhiyw. as‰mcp Xc-Øn¬ ]d-™m¬ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e-{]-tZ-i-߃ ssPh-]-c-ambn kq£va kwth-Z-\-£-a-X-bp≈ {]tZ-i-߃ am{X-a√ Ah Pohimkv{X-]-c-ambpw ssPh-im-kv{X-]-c-ambpw {]m[m-\y-ap-≈h IqSn-bmWv F∂v {]tbm-K-ßfnepw \n¿t±-i-ß-fnepw Hcp kam-hm-b-ap-≠m-IWw. ssPh-]-c-amb kwth-Z-\-£-a-X-tb-°mƒ hfsc hn]p-e-amWv ssPh-]-c-ambn hfsc {]m[m-\y-ap≈ {]tZiw F∂ ]Z-am-sW-∂-Xn-\m¬ R߃ B ]Z-amWv \n¿t±-in-°p-∂Xv. Npcp-°-t∏cv ESA F∂v Xs∂ XpScpw., hcpw t]Pp-I-fn¬ ESA F∂ ]Zw A\z¿∞-am-Ip-∂Xv "ssPh-]-c-ambn {]m[m-\y-ap≈ {]tZiw' F∂mWv. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-{]-tZ-i-߃ F¥p-sIm≠v? C¥y-bn¬ kwc-£n-Xt- a-Je - I - ƒ \nc-h[ - n-bmWv. ssPh-afi e dnk¿Δp-Iƒ, tZiob ]m¿°pIƒ, h\y-Pohn kt¶-X-߃ F∂n-h-sb√mw IqSn ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-Øn-s‚bpw {]Ir-Xn-ZØ Bhm-kt- I-{μ-ßf - p-sSbpw kwc-£W - Ø - n\v ^e-{]-Za - m-sbmcp irwJe Xs∂ \ne-hn-ep≠v. Db¿∂ Xe-Øn-ep≈ ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-Øn-s‚bpw A]q¿Δ C\w Poh-Pm-e-ß-fp-sSbpw `qhn-Xm\-Øns‚bpw B{i-b-amb henb h\-{]-tZ-i-ß-fm-Wnh. F∂m¬ GXm\pw ssPh-a-fie dnk¿Δp-I............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

fpsS Imcy-sam-gn-®m¬ Cu kwc-£W ]≤-Xn-Iƒ°mbn {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS AXn-cp-Iƒ \n¿Æ-bn°m≥ imkv{Xob ÿnXn hnh-c-°-W-°p-Iƒ IW-°n-se-Sp-°tbm _‘-s∏-´-h-cp-ambn N¿® \SØp-Itbm D≠m-bn-´n√. adn®v t^mdÃv amt\-P¿am-cpsS _p≤n-bn¬ DZn® Imcy-ß-fpsS ASnÿm-\-Øntem Hcp Ncn-{X-]-c-amb Adn-hns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øntem BWv.( cmPm-°-∑m-cpsS th´ÿ-e-߃, knwlw Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ h\y-ar-K-ß-fpsS hmk-ÿ-e-߃, Pem-i-b-߃ XpS-ßnb Ncn-{X-]-c-amb Adn-hp-Iƒ) Xt±-i-hm-kn-Ifpw ]≤Xn {]W-bn-Xm-°fpw XΩn¬ Nne {]tZ-i-ßfn¬ ASn-°Sn kwL¿j-ap-≠m-Ip-Ibpw Nne kky˛Poh-Pm-e-ß-fpsS kwc-£-W-kw-hn-[m-\Øn¬ ]ng-hp-Iƒ Ds≠-¶nepw kzmX-{¥ym-\-¥c Ime-L-´-Øn¬ ssPh sshhn-≤y-kw-c-£-WØn-\mbn \o°n-sh-bv°-s∏´ ÿe-߃ kwc-£-W-e£yw t\Sm≥ ]cym-]vX-amWv. C{]-Imcw kwc-£W ssk‰p-fpsS ^e-{]-Z-amb Hcp irwJe \ne-hn-ep-s≠-¶n¬ ]ns∂' ssPh-]-c-ambn {]m[m-\y-ap≈ {]tZ-i-߃'' F∂ {]Jym-]-\-Øns‚ Bh-iysas¥∂ tNmZyw \ne-\n¬°p∂p. \ne-hn-ep≈ kwc-£W ssk‰p-I-fpsS irwJe A¤p-X-I-c-amw-hn[w ^e-{]-Zam-sW-¶nepw ap≥Iq-´n-Im-Wm≥ Ign-bmØ ]e {]iv\-ßfpw kwc-£-W-\-S-]-Sn-I-tfm-Sp≈ \ΩpsS \ne-]m-Sp-Isf kzm[o-\n-°p-∂p≠v. \ne-hn-ep≈ kwc-£W irwJe hym]n®v ap≥hn[n Hgn-hm°nbpw "ssPh-{]-[m\ {]tZ-i-ß-fn-eq-sS-bp≈ kao-]-\-Øn¬' {]iv\-߃ ]cn-l-cn®p \ne-hnep≈ ]≤-Xn-Isf klm-bn®pw \ap°v apt∂dmw. kwc-£W \S-]-Sn-I-fnse Ak-¥p-enX XXzw tZio-b-]m¿°p-Ifpw kwc-£W Imcy-ß-fn¬ hfsc {][m-\hpw ]e-{]-Zhpw BsW-¶n¬ IqSn Ch-cpsS cq]o-I-c-W-tØmsS a‰v ]e {][m-\-ta-J-e-I-fnepw \ΩpsS {i≤-]-Xn-bmsX t]mbn. AXy-]q¿Δ-amb ssPh-B-hm-k-tI-{μ-߃ hwi-\miw t\cn-Sp∂ kky-߃, a‰v Poh-Pme-߃ ]pXp-Xmbn cq]w sIm≈p∂ sshhn≤y tI{μo-Ir-Xhpw Pe-t{km-X- p-Iƒ \nd-™-Xpamb "tlm´vkvt]m-´p-Iƒ' F∂n-h-bvs°m∂pw \ne-hn-ep≈ kwc-£-W-\-S-]-Sn-I-fpsS {i≤ In´p∂n√. kam-\-X-I-fn-√mØ CØcw Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-Iƒ Is≠Øn {]iv\-߃ ]cn-l-cn-°m≥ {]tXyI \S-]-Sn D≠m-IWw. `wKn-bp-≈-Xn\v Ah-K-W\ h\-Øn-\p-≈n¬ Ncn-{X-]-c-ambpw kmwkvIm-cn-I-ambpw kmaq-lnIambpw {]k-‡n-bp≈ kwc-£Ww A¿ln-°p∂ \nc-h[n sNdnb bqWn-‰p-I-fp≠v. (I¿Æm-S-I-Ønse "bm\"bnep≈ NpÆm-ºp-I√v tiJcw \n¿`m-Ky-h-im¬ \ne-hn-ep≈ kwc-£W ssk‰p-I-fpsS irwJ-e-bn-eqsS Ahsb kwc-£n-°m≥ km[y-a√. ImcWw Ah hen-∏-Øn¬ sNdpXpw h\y-Po-hn-Ifpw a‰pw BI¿j-IXzw C√m-Ø-h-bp-amWv. ssPh sshhn≤y ss]XrI ssk‰p-I-fpsS Is≠-ج, kwc£W dnk¿Δp-Iƒ XpSßn ]e ]pXnb kwc-£W kao-]-\-ßfpw Db¿∂p-h-cp-∂p≠v. DZm-lc-W-Øn\v 1972 se h\y-Pohn(kwc-£W)\nb-a-Ønse hyh-ÿ-Iƒ {]Imcw ]mc-º-cy-ambn {]mtZ-inI kaqlw hf¿Øn-sb-SpØ hr£-tXm-´-ßfpw kwc-£n-°-s∏-tS-≠-XmWv. Xan-gv\mSv h\w hIp∏v Xncp-s\¬th-en-bn¬ "Xmw]-c-`-cWn' \Zn-°-c-bn¬ CØ-c-samcp DZyaw hnP-b-I-c-ambn \S-Øn-h-cp∂p F∂n-cp-∂mepw \n¿±njvS ""ESA'' kao-]\w Hcp-Iq´w kwc£-W-ta-J-e-Iƒs°m∏w Ah-K-Wn-°-s∏-Sp-am-bn-cp∂ Xm¬]-cy-߃IqSn ]cn-K-Wn-°p∂p. ZrjvSn-tKm-N-c-a-√mØ tkh-\-߃ hne-a-Xn-°-s∏-Sp-∂n√. \ne-hn-ep≈ kwc-£W he-b-Øn¬s]-SmØ Iptd taJ-e-Iƒ _m°n-bp≠v. Chbv°v ZrjvSn-tKm-N-c-a-√mØ F∂m¬ hne-s∏´ ]e tkh-\-ßfpw kaq-l-Øn\v \¬Im≥ Ignbpw. s]mXpsh {i≤n-°-s∏-SmsX t]mIp∂ Cu tkh-\-߃ ASn-b-¥n-c-ambn kwc-£n-°-s∏-tS-≠Xp≠v. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-Øn¬ H´pw kº-∂-a-√m-Ø hnim-e-amb ]p¬ta-Sp-Iƒ Aß-Ise P\-߃°v kpÿnc Irjnbpw Blm-c-h-kvXp-°fpw \¬Ip∂ \Zn-I-fpsS hrjvSn-{]tZ-i-ambn \ne-sIm-≈p∂p. hnip≤ ImSp-I-fmbn IW-°m-°-s∏-Sp∂ sNdnb `q{]-tZ-i-k-aq-lØn\v hfsc {][m-\-s∏´ Huj[ kky-߃ {]Zm\w sNøp∂p. Chsb B{i-bn-°m-hp∂ {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-߃°v Cu tkh-\-߃ hfsc {][m-\-amWv. BI-bm¬ Chsb ssPh-]-cambn {][m-\-s∏´ {]tZ-i-Øns‚ kp{]-[m-\-L-S-I-ß-fmbn ImWmw. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

102


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

hyXykvX amt\-Pvsa‚ v X{¥-ß-fpsS Bhiyw kwc-£nX {]tZi irwJ-e-bpsS amt\-Pvsa‚ v Ab-hn-√m-sØmcp kwhn-[m-\-amWv. AhbpsS {]h¿Ø-\-Øn¬ {]mtZ-inI P\-Xbv°v bmsXmcp ]¶p-an√. kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-irw-Je hym]n-°p-∂-Xn\v th≠n-h-cp∂ h≥ sNehpw a\p-jy-k-aq-lØn\v ]pdØv h≥Im-Sp-I-fpsS A`mhhpw IW-°n-se-Sp-XXv hyXykvX amt\-Pvsa‚ v kwhn-[m-\sØ ]‰n Nn¥n-°p-∂-XmWv {]mtbmKnIw. kwc-£-W-{]m-[m-\y-ap≈ ]e ÿe-ßfpw Ah-bpsS D]-tbmKw, kpÿn-cX/amt\-Pvsa‚ v F∂n-hsb kw_-‘n®v Hcp ka-hm-b-ap-≠m°n hyXykvX \n_-‘-\-I-fm¬ \nb-{¥n-°p-ImWv th≠Xv. AXm-bXv hyXy-kvXhpw ]g-°-ap-≈-Xp-amb amt\-Pvsa‚ v X{¥-ß-fp≈ kwc-£nX ssk‰p-I-fpsS Hcp irwJe \ap°v thWw. NphsS ImWp-∂-Xp-t]mse ssPh-{]m-[m-\y-ap≈ ÿe-ßsf AØcw hg-°-ap≈ amt\-Pvsa‚ v kwhn-[m\w sIm≠v Xncn-®-dn-bm-\mhpw. kwc£nX {]tZ-i-߃ AS-°nb kzbw t`Z-KXn sNøm-hp-\\ \nb-{¥-W-ß-tfmSv IqSnb ssPh-{]m[m-\y-ap≈ {]tZ-i-߃°v (ESA) cq]w \¬Im≥ Ignbpw. BI-bm¬ kwc-£n-°m-\p≈ {]tZ-i-߃ Xncn-®-dn-bp-∂-Xn\v \ne-hn-ep≈ kwhn-[m\w hn]p-eo-I-cn-t°-≠-Xp≠v. ssPh-ssh-hn≤y kº-∂-X-bnepw ssPh-]-c-ambn Zp¿_-e-amb {]tZ-iß-fnepw tI{μo-I-cn-°p-∂-Xn\v ]Icw "ssPh {]m[m-\y-ap≈ ÿe-߃' F∂ \n¿t±iw Xs∂bmWv IqSp-X¬ sa®w. kwc-£nX ssk‰p-Iƒ Is≠-Øp-∂-Xn\v s]mXp-hn¬ a’-c-Øn\p ]Icw kl-I-cWw F∂ kao-]-\-amWv ChnsS ImWm≥ Ign-bpI.

ssPh-{]m-[m\y {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS AXn¿Øn \n¿Æbw A.

AXn¿Øn \n¿Æ-bn-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ am¿§-߃

apI-fn¬ N¿®-sN-bvX-Xp-t]mse Hcp {]tZ-i-Øns‚ ssPh {]m[m\yw \n¿Δ-Nn-°p-∂-Xn\v aq∂v {][m-\-L-S-I-߃ ]cn-K-Wn-t°-≠-Xp≠v. B {]tZ-i-Øns‚ `qan-im-kv{X-]-chpw Imem-hÿm-]-c-hp-amb {]tXy-I-X-Iƒ, Pohimkv{X-]-c-amb khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ, kmaq-ly-kmw-KXyw (AhbpsS kmwkvIm-cn-Ihpw kmº-Øn-I-hp-amb Ncn-{X-]-c-hp-amb {]m[m\yw Dƒ∏sS) F∂n-h-bmWv Cu aq∂v LS-Iß - ƒ, Chsb Poh-\n-√mØ LS-Iß - ƒ, Poh-\p≈ LS-Iß - ƒ, kmaqly kmwkvImcnI LS-I-߃ F∂n-ßs\ hn`-Pn°mw. Cu LS-I-߃ a‰v {]h¿Ø-Icpw \n¿t±-in-°p-Ibpw D]-tbm-Kn-°p-I-Ibpw sNøp-∂p≠v. F∂m¬ Ct∏m-gsØ \ne-bn¬ ssPh-{]m-[m-\y-ap≈ ae-{º{]tZ-i-ß-fpsS AXn¿Øn \n¿Æ-bn-°m≥ Cu LS-I-߃ D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xn\v hy‡-amb cq]tc-J-bn√. Ch-bn-tem-tcm-∂nepw D]-tbm-Kn-t°≠ LS-I-ß-fpsS Hcp sk‰pw H∏w AXns‚ am\-Z-fihpw R߃ \n¿t±-in-°p∂p. AsXm-sSm∏w ssPh-{]m-[m-\y-ap≈ {]tZ-i-Øn\v {]tXyIn®v ]›n-a-L-´-sØ-t∏mse AXn-hn-im-e-amb Hcp {]tZ-i-Øn\v AXn-cp-Iƒ \n¿Æ-bn-°m≥ Cu am\-Z-fi-߃ Iq´n-tN¿Øv D]-tbm-Kn-°m-hp-∂-Xn-\p≈ am¿§-tc-J-Ifpw \n¿t±-in-°p∂p. 1.

Poh-im-kv{X-]-c-amb LS-I-߃ : ssPh-{]m-[m-\y-ap≈ {]tZ-i-Øns‚ AXn-cp-Iƒ \n¿Æbn-°p∂Xn\v NphsS ]d-bp∂ LS-I-ß-fpsS Poh-im-kv{X-]-chpw kmwkvImcn-I-hp-amb kº-∂-Xbpw A]q¿Δ-Xbpw ]cn-K-Wn-t°-≠-Xm-sW∂v R߃ \n¿t±-in-°p∂p.

a.

ssPh-ssh-hn≤y kº-∂X : Pohn-I-fpsS imkv{Xo-b-h¿§o-I-c-W-Øn-sebpw A[n-Imcw t{iWn-bn-sebpw sshhn-≤y-Ønse kº-∂X.

b.

h¿§-]-c-amb A]q¿ΔX : imkv{Xo-b-h¿§o-I-cW {]mXn-\n-Xy-Ønepw P\-kwJy-bpsS hen∏w, hnX-cWw F∂n-h-bn-ep≈ A]q¿ΔX

c.

Bhm-k-tI{μ kº-∂X : `qXe LS-I-ß-fpsS ÿe-]-c-amb sshhn-[yX.

d.

Dev]m-Z-\-£-aX : samØw ssPh-a-fie Dev]m-Z-\-£-aX

e.

Poh-im-kv{X-]-chpw ssPh-]-c-hp-amb Ah-ÿ-bpsS FÃn-ta‰v.

f.

kmwkvIm-cn-Ihpw Ncn-{X-]-c-hp-amb {]m[m\yw : B {]tZ-i-Øns‚ ]cn-Wm-a-]-c-amb Ncn-{X-aq-eyhpw kmwkvIm-cn-I-amb Ncn-{X-aq-eyhpw.

2.

`qan-im-kv{X-]-chpw Ncn-{X-]-c-hp-amb X´p-Iƒ: B {]tZ-i-Øns‚ {]IrXn \n¿Æm-b-

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

103


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

IXzw, ]cn-ÿn-Xn- Zp¿_-eX F∂nh hne-bn-cp-Øm-\p≈ X´p-I-fpsS km[y-Xm-]-cn[n CXnepƒs∏-Sp∂p. Ncnhv, Db-cw, h¿j-]mXw XpS-ßn-bh Xmsg-]-d-bpw {]-Imcw ]cn-K-Wn-°Ww. a.

`q{]-tZ-i-]-c-amb khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ : Ncnhv, Dbcw, kz`mhw XpS-ßn-bh.

b.

Imem-h-ÿm-]-c-amb khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ : h¿j-]mXw, ag-Zn-h-k-ß-fpsS FÆw

c.

Zpc-¥-km-[yX : Dcpƒs]m-´¬, Xo]n-SpØw XpS-ßnb {]IrXn Zpc-¥-߃.

3.

_‘-s∏-´-h-cpsS aqey-\n¿Æbw: ssPh--]-c-ambpw ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-c-ambpw Zp¿_-e-am-sW∂v Ah¿ Icp-Xp∂ {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS ]´nI Xøm-dm-°m-\mbn s]mXp-P-\-߃ Xt±-i-ÿm-]-\ß-fmb Pn√m-]-©m-b-Øp-Iƒ, hnt√Pv Xe cmjv{So-b-kw-L-S-\-Iƒ, CXc knhn¬ skmssk-‰n-Iƒ F∂n-h-cpsS A`n-{]mbw Bcm-tb-≠Xv hfsc {][m-\-amWv. CXv {][m\ LS-I-ß-fmbn D]-tbm-Kn-°Ww.

B.

ssPh-{]-[m\ ÿe-߃ \n›-bn-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ saØ-tUm-fPn

i.

]T-\-ÿ-esØ {KnUp-I-fm-°pI : ]e-t∏mgpw ssPh-{]m-[m-\y-ap≈ ÿe-ß-sf-∏‰n N¿®sN-øp-∂Xv H‰-s∏´ `qXe LS-I-߃t°m, {]tXyI ssk‰p-Iƒt°m, Bhmk tI{μ-߃t°m {]m[m\yw sImSp-Øp-sIm-≠mWv. CXp-aqew ssPh-{]m-[m-\y-ap≈ ÿe-ßsf \n›-bn-°p∂ {]{In-bbv°v Hcp Xm¬°m-enI kz`m-h-am-Wp-≈Xv. AXp-sIm≠v R߃ \n¿t±-in-°p-∂Xv ssPh{]-[m\ \n¿t±iw Is≠-Øm-\p≈ {]{In-bbv°v hnim-e-am-sbmcp {]tZ-i-sa-SpØv Hcp s]mXp-am\-Zfi hpw GIo-IrX saØ-tUm-fP - nbpw D]-tbm-Kn-°Ww. AX-\p-kc - n®v ]›n-aL - ´- Ø - nse ssPh{]-[m\ {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS am∏nwKv \S-Øp-∂-Xn\v AØ-c-samcp coXn R߃ ip]m¿i sNøp∂p. ChnsS \n¿t±-in-°-s∏-´n-´p≈ saØ-tUm-fnPn s]mXp-hmbn a‰v kam\ ÿe߃°pw D]-tbmKn°mw. ii)

ssPh-{]-[m\ ÿe-ß-fpsS hen∏w ap≥Iq´n \n›-bn-°pI, _p≤n-ap-´m-I-bm¬ \n¿±njvS ÿesØ A\p-tbm-Py-amb hen-∏-Øn-ep≈ "{KnUp"Ifm°n Ah-bpsS hen-∏-Øn-s‚bpw e`yamb Um‰-If - p-sSbpw ASn-ÿm-\Ø - n¬ hn`-Pn-°pI. ]›n-aL - ´- Ø - ns‚ Imcy-Øn¬ R߃ \n¿t±in-°p-∂X 5 an\n´v x 5 an\n´vv {KnUp-I-fmWv.ImcWw e`y-am-bn-´p≈ Um‰ Cu Af-hn-ep-≈-XmWv. iii)

{KnUp-I-fpsS aqey-\n¿Æbw : ]›n-a-L-´-ØnepS\ofw Hmtcm am\-Z-fi-Øn-\p-ap≈ ÿnXn-hn-h-c-°-W-°p-Ifpw a‰v hnh-c-ßfpw e`y-amWv. aq∂v LS-I-ß-fmbn {Iao-I-cn-°p∂ am∏pIƒ NphsS ]dbpw {]Im-c-amWv hnI-kn-∏n-®n-´p-≈Xv., 1)

Poh-imkv{X˛kmwkvIm-cnI ]mfn

a)

hwi-]-c-amb Poim-kv{X-k-º-∂X : Poh-ssh-hn≤yw Db¿∂-X-e-Øn-ep≈ ssPh {][m\ {]tZ-i-Øp≈ sshhn≤yw Ipd-hp-≈-h-tb-°mƒ {][m-\-ambn IW-°m-°Ww. Ah-e©v C‚Ivkv (Avalanche Index) kqNnI D]-tbm-Kn®v sshhn≤yw Af∂v Xn´-s∏-Sp-ØWw. PohnI-fpsS h¿§o-I-cW t{iWn-bnse sshhn-≤ysØ Cu kqNnI GtIm-]n-∏n-°p∂p. Cu {]tXyI kml-N-cy-Øn¬ Poh-ssh-hn-≤y-Ønse aqey-ßsf G‰hpw Ip-d-hmb H∂p-ap-X¬ G‰hpw IqSnb 10 hsc km[m-cW \ne-bn-em-°m\pw Ign-bp∂p. XpS¿∂v Hmtcm {KnUns\bpw AXns‚ ssPh-ssh-hn-[y-Øn\v A\p-]m-XnI-ambn km[m-cW \ne-bn-em-°-s∏´ aqey-ß-fp-ambn _‘n-∏n-°p∂p.

b)

h¿§-Ønse A]q¿hX

i)

hnX-c-W-Ønse A]q¿ΔX : G‰hpw A]q¿Δ-amb Pohn-h¿§-ß-fp≈ {]tZ-i-ßsf hfsc {][m-\-s∏-´-h-bm-bn-I-W-°m-°m\pw ImcWw Ch \jvS-s∏-´m¬ hos≠-Sp-°pI km[y-a√. Ah A[n-h-kn-°p∂ samØw {KnUn\v (P1) A\p-]m-Xn-I-ambn Hmtcm h¿§-Øn-s‚bpw FÆw IW°m°w. Hmtcm {KnUn-tebpw A]q¿Δ aqeyw B {KnUnse F√m h¿§-ß-fpsS aqey-hp-ambn Iq´Ww. AX-\p-k-cn®v h¿§-ß-fpsS A]q¿ΔX samØ-ap≈N {KnUn¬ aq∂n¬ am{X-ap-≈-hbpsS sdbv©v 1/4 \pw F√m {KnUn\pw D≈-h-cpsS sdbv©v 1.00 Bbn-cn°pw. h¿§-ß-fpsS Cu A]q¿Δ aqeyw Hmtcm {KnUn-ep-ap≈ h¿§-ß-fpsS (S) FÆ-h-pambn Iq´n-bm¬ Hmtcm {KnUn-\p............................................................................................................................................................................................................

104


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

ap-ff A]q¿Δ-aqeyw e`n°pw. Hmtcm {KnUn-ep-ap≈ {]Ir-Xn-Z-Ø-amb X\Xv h¿§-ßsf am{Xta ]cn-K-Wn-°mhq. ASpØ ImeØv IS∂v h∂-hsb Hgn-hm-°Ww. Hcp {KnUns‚ A]q¿Δ aqey-amb (Rvg) e`n-°m≥ S RVg

= n (Pi) i=I

ho≠pw Cu Rvg aqey-ßsf G‰hpw Ipd™ H∂v apX¬ G‰hpw IqSnb 10 hsc km[m-cW-\n-e-bn-em°n {KnUp-Iƒ°v \¬IWw. hnhn[ Poh-k-º∂ taJ-e-I-fnse Pohn-h¿§-ß-fpsS hnX-cWw kw_-‘n® Um‰m sk‰p-Iƒ e`y-am-sW-∂-Xn-\m¬ Ch-bpsS FÆw IW-°m-°m≥ Ffp-∏-amWv. ii)

Pohn-I-fpsS h¿§o-I-c-W-Ønse A]q¿ΔX : h¿§-h-c-amb t{iWn D]-tbm-Kn®v e`y-ambn-´p-ff Um‰m sk‰p-I-fn¬ \n∂v h¿§-]-c-ambn (Hcp ]s£ ]cn-Wm-a-]-c-ambn) A]q¿Δ-am-bhsb Is≠Ømw. ImcWw B IpSpw-_-Øn\v GI-KW khn-ti-j-X-bp-≠mIpw. Hmtcm {KnUnsebpw AØcw IpSpw-_-ß-fpsS FÆ-sa-SpØv H∂n\pw 10 \w at≤y km[m-cW \ne-bn-em°Ww. c)

Bhmk kº-∂X : a’y-߃ Dƒ∏-sS-bp≈ Pohn-I-fpsS sshhn-≤yhpw Bhmk hyhÿ-bnse kΩn-{im-h-ÿbpw XΩn¬ ]c-kv]cw _‘-s∏-´n-cn-°p∂p. \nc-h[n Pohn-Isf kw_‘n® ÿnXn-hn-h-c-I-W-°p-Iƒ e`y-a-s√-¶n¬ Db¿∂-X-e-Øn-ep≈ kΩn-{i-B-hm-k-hyÿ \nehn-ep≈ {]tZ-i-ßsf Poh-im-kv{X-]-c-ambn kº-∂-sa∂pw ssPh-[m\ {]tZ-i-sa∂pw IW°m°mw. Ct∏mƒ dntam´v sk≥kv Um‰m e`y-am-b-Xn-\m¬ ]›n-a-L´w t]mse hen-sbmcp {]tZ-i-Øns‚ kΩn{i Bhmk hyh-ÿsb Af-°m≥ Ignbpw. Hcp {KnUns‚ Bhm-k-hy-hÿ-bpsS kº-∂X (HRg) knwk¨ kqNnI D]-tbm-Kn®v IW-°m-°m≥ km[n°pw. ChnsS h¿§-Øn-\p-]-Icw `qXe coXnbpw h¿§-Øns‚ {^oIz≥kn°p ]Icw Ah A[n-h-kn-°p∂ {]tZ-i-Øns‚ A\p-]m-Xhpw IW-°n-se-Sp-°p∂p. L HRg =

n (Pi) ^ 2 i=I

ChnsS Pi `qX-e-L-S-I-Øns‚ A\p-]m-Xhpw L {KnUnse LS-I-ß-fpsS FÆ-hp-amWv.Cu aqey-߃ 1 apX¬ 10 hsc km[m-cW \ne-bn-em°n {KnUp-Iƒ°v \¬Ip∂p. d)

Dev]m-Z-\-£-aX : Hcp {]tZ-i-Øns‚ Dev]m-Z\ £aX {]Xn-\n-[m\w sNøp∂ h¿jØnepw \of-ap≈ Bh¿Ø-\-]-®∏v B {]tZ-i-Øns‚ kky-hr-£mZn sshhn-≤y-Øns‚ {]XoI-amWv. Poh≥ \ne-\n¿Øp∂ {]mY-anI Dev]m-Z-\-£-a-Xsb Cu kqNnI hy‡-am-°p-sa-∂-Xn\m¬ Um‰m sk‰p-Iƒ e`y-a-√mØ Hcp ]‰w Pohn-I-fpsS sshhn-ZysØ CXv {]Xn-\n-[m\w sNøpw. Chn-sSbpw Bh¿Ø\ ]®∏v Hmtcm {KnUp-ambn _‘-s∏-SpØn td©v 1 apX¬ 10 hsc km[m-c-W-\n-e-bn-em-°Ww. Cu am\-Zfiw ]p¬ta-Sp-Iƒ t]mse-bp≈ Bhmk hyh-ÿsb hne-Ip-d-®p-Im-Wp-Ibpw \nXy-l-cnX h\-߃t]m-se-bp-≈-hbv°v AanX {]m[m\yw Iev]n-°pIbpw sNøpw. Cu ap≥hn[n adn-I-S-°m≥ NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index) sb D]tbm-Kn-°m≥ ]e hgn-I-fp-ap≠v. CØcw Bhmk hyh-ÿ-I-fpsS {]m[m\yw Xncn-®-dn-bm≥ ]e hgn-I-fp-ap-≈-Xn-\m¬ NDVI bpsS Bh¿Ø\ aqey-߃°p-≈n¬ \nev°m≥ R߃ B{K-ln°p∂p. ImcWw CXv Poh≥ \ne-\n¿Øm-\p≈ ASn-ÿm\ Dev]m-Z-\-£-a-Xsb {]Xn-\n-[m\w sNøWw. e)

Poh-im-kv{X-]-c-ambpw ssPh-]-c-ambpw ]q¿Δ-ÿn-Xn-bn-se-Øm-\p≈ Ignhv: Hcp {]tZi-Øn\v AXns‚ X\Xv Poh-im-kv{X-L-S-\-bn¬ \n∂v F¥p-am{Xw hyXn-N-en-°m≥ Ign-bp-sa∂Xv hy‡-am-Ip-∂Xv \o≠-Im-e-b-f-hn¬ AXn\v ]q¿Δ ÿnXn {]m]n-°m-\p≈ ss\k¿§nI Ign-hmWv. X\Xp LS-\-bn¬ \n∂v IqSp-X¬ hyXnNen-°p-∂-hbv°v ]q¿Δ-ÿnXn {]m]n-°m............................................................................................................................................................................................................

105


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

\p≈ Ignhv Ipd-hm-bn-cn°pw. AXp-sIm≠v ssPh-]-c-amb kwth-Z-\-£-aX IqSp-X-em-bn-cn°pw. \ne-hn-ep≈ kky-hr-£m-Zn-I-fpsS A\p-]mXw IW-°m-°n-bm¬ AXv ssPh-L-S-I-Øns‚ ]q¿ΔÿnXn {]m]n-°m-\p≈ ss\k¿§n-I-amb Ign-hns‚ {]Xn-^-e-\-am-bn-cn°pw. Cu A\p-]m-XsØ F√m {KnUp-Iƒ°p-ambn \¬IpI. F∂n´v Ahsb td©v H∂v apX¬ (G‰hpw henb hyXnbm\w) 10 hsc (G‰hpw Ipd™ hyXn-bm\w) km[m-c-W-\n-e-bn-em-°pI. (f) kmwkvIm-cnI {]m[m\yw : Ncn-{Xmh-in-jvS-ßfpw kmwkvIm-cnI sshhn-≤yhpw D≈ {]tZi-ßsf ssPh {][m\ {]tZ-i-߃t]mse {][m-\-ambn IW-°m°mw. kmwkvIm-cnI {]m[m\yw aqey-\n¿Æbw \S-Øm≥ Ign-bn-s√-¶nepw Rß-fpsS A`n-{]m-b-Øn¬ G‰hpw ]g°w sN∂ Ah-in-jvS-߃°v Db¿∂ aqeyhpw (10) G‰hpw ]pXn-b-hbv°v Ipd™ aqeyhpw (1), Ah-injvS-ß-sfm-∂p-an-√mØ {KnUn\v 0(]qPyw) aqeyhpw BWv. 2)

`ua ˛ Imem-hÿ A´n-Iƒ (Geoclimatic layers)

a)

`qXe khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ : Ing-°mw-Xq-°mb Ncn-hp-Ifpw Dbcw IqSn-b-Xp-amb {]tZ-i-ßfn¬ IpsØm-en-∏p-If - p-≠mIpw. AhnsS {]IrXym D≈ asÆm-en-∏n\v km[y-Xt- bdpw. CØcw {]tZ-i-߃°v ]q¿Δ-ÿnXn {]m]n-°m-\p≈ Ignhv Ipd-hm-bn-cn°pw. ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-c-ambn kwth-Z-\-£-a-X-bp-≈-h-bmbn Cu {]tZ-i-ßsf IW-°m-°Ww. Hmtcm {KnUnepw 1 apX¬ (Ipd™ icm-icn Ncnhv/ Ipd™ icm-icn Dbcw) 10 hsc ( Db¿∂ Ncnhv/ henb Dbcw) Ncnhpw Db-chpw km[m-cW \ne-bn-em°n {KnUp-Iƒ°v \¬IWw (Nn{Xw c≠pw aq∂pw DZm-l-cWw)

b)

Imem-h-ÿm-]-c-amb khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ : Db¿∂ ag-e-`y-Xbpw Npcp-ßnb ag kokWpw D≈ {]tZ-i-߃ Hen-®p-t]m-Im≥ Gsd km[yX D≈XmWv. BI-bm¬ Chsb ]cn-ÿnXn-]-c-ambn kwth-Z-\-£-a-X-bp≈ {]tZ-i-ambn IW-°m-°Ww. (samØw hm¿jnI ag e`yX 3000 an.ao. IqSp-Xepw hc≠ kok¨ 6 amk-Øn¬ IqSp-X-ep-am-bm¬ hfsc \n¿Æmb-Ihpw ]q¿Δ-ÿnXn {]m]n-°m-\p≈ tijn hfsc Ipdhpw Bbn-cn°pw(Pascal 19988). Chsb Hmtcm-∂nepw 1 apX¬ (Ipd™ ag e`yX AYhm ag e`yX AYhm G‰hpw Ipd™ ag Zn\-߃) km[m-cW \ne-bn-em°n {KnUp-Iƒ°v \¬IWw.

c)

{]IrXn Zpc-¥-߃: lna-]mXw, A·n-t]m-se-bp≈ {]IrXn Zpc-¥-ßsf kw_-‘n-°p∂ e`y-amb F√m ÿnXn-hn-h-c-°-W-°p-Ifpw kam-l-cn®v {KnUp-abn _‘n-∏n®v 1 apX¬ 10 hsc km[m-cW \ne-bn-em-°Ww.

3) _‘-s∏-´-h-cpsS aqey-\n¿Æbw (Stakeholders analysis) ]›n-a-L´ kanXn {]mtZ-inI N¿®-Ifpw s]mXp sXfn-sh-Sp-∏p-Ifpw \S-Øp-Ibpw sh_v ssk‰n-eqsS Ah-cpsS {]Xn-I-cWw kzoI-cn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. s]mXp-P-\-ß-fn¬ \n∂pw Xt±iÿm-]\ - ß - f - n¬ \n∂pw CXp-t]mse {]Xn-Ic - Ww £Wn-°p-∂X - m-Wv. ]e-t∏mgpw CXv bYm¿∞ AXn¿Øn-Iƒ°p-≈n¬ \n∂m-bn-cn-°n√. BI-bm¬ Ch {KnUp-Iƒ°p \¬In {]tZiw 1 apX¬ 10 hsc km[m-cW \ne-bn-em-°Ww.

ssPh {][m\ {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS t{KUnßv ta¬]-d™ aq∂v LS-I-ß-fn¬ Hmtcm-∂n\pw F¥v {]m[m\yw \¬I-W-sa-∂-Xns\ kw_‘n®v ka-hm-b-Øn¬ FØm≥ Ign-™n-´n-√. AXp-sIm≠v CXv F√m-h-¿°pw kzoIm-cy-hp-a√. aq∂v am\-Z-fi-߃°pw Xpey {]m[m\yw Iev]n-°pI F∂-XmWv GI t]mwhgn. CØcw Hcp {]{In-b-bp-ambn apt∂m-´p-t]m-Im-\mWv R߃ B{K-ln-°p-∂Xv. ImcWw Hcn-°¬ ^ew ]pdØp h∂p Ign-™m¬ ]ns∂ XpS¿ N¿®-Ifpw ]p\¿aq-ey-\n¿Æ-bhpw ssPh-{]-[m\ {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS (ESA) ]p\: ]cn-tim-[-\bpw \S°pw. F¥m-bn-cp-∂mepw Ct∏m-g-tØbv°v Poh-im-kv{X-]-chpw `ua-Im-em-h-ÿm-]-chpw s]mXp-P\ ImgvN-∏mSv kw_-‘hpw Bb LS-I-ßsf NphsS ]´nI c≠nse t]mse hnI-kn-∏n®v t{KUv \n›-bn-°Ww. Poh-im-kv{X-L-S-I-Øn-s‚bpw ]cn-ÿnXn kwth-Z-\-£-a-X-bp-sSbpw s]mXp-P-\-aq-ey-\n¿Æ-b-Øn-s‚bpw ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ Hmtcm-∂n-s\bpw aq∂v LS-I-ß-fmbn Xncn®v XZ-\p-kr-X-ambn dm¶v sNøWw. Poh-im-kv{X-]-chpw `ua˛Imem-hÿm-]-c-hp-amb A´n-Iƒ H∂n-®p-tN¿Øv AXn-\p-ap-I-fn¬ s]mXp-P\ ImgvN-∏mSv kw_-‘n® ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

106


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

A´n-°qSn sh®v ssPh {][m\ {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS hyXykvX t{KUp-Iƒ Is≠Ømw. (]´nI2). Hcn-°¬ Cu {KnUp-Iƒ°v t{KUv/dm¶v \¬Inbn Ign-™m¬ ssPh-{]-[m\ ÿe-߃ th¿Xn-cn-°m-\mbn kam-\-t{K-Un-ep≈ {KnUp-Isf Xncn-®-dn-bm-\mIpw. ssPh-{]-[m\ ÿe-ß-fnembn Ahsb \nb-a-]-c-ambn {]Jym-]n°pw apºv Ch-bpsS AXn¿Øn-Iƒ hfsc hy‡-ambn \n¿Æ-bn-°p-Ibpw t^mdÃv amt\-Pvsa‚n¬ \n∂pw a‰v _‘-s∏-´-h-cn¬ \n∂p-ap≈ {]mtZ-inI hn⁄m-\-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ Ahsb hnI-kn-∏n-°p-hm\pw Ignbpw.

\nK-a-\-߃ ssPh-{]-[m\ ÿe-ß-fpsS am∏n-ßn-\mbn ChnsS \n¿t±-in-°-s∏-´n-´p≈ am¿§-\n¿t±-i߃ A¥n-a-a√ F∂pw IqSp-X¬ N¿®-Iƒ°p-ti-j-a-√msX CXv t\cn´v kzoI-cn-°m≥ Ign-bns√∂p R߃°-dnbmw. IqSp-X¬ hnZ-Kv[-cn¬ \n∂v CXp kw_-‘n®v {]Xn-I-c-W-߃ D≠mI-W-sa∂pw AXns\ XpS¿∂p \S-°p∂ N¿®-Iƒ IqSp-X¬ ka-hm-b-Øn-\p≈ am¿§-\n¿t±-i߃ hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°m≥ klm-b-am-Ip-sa∂pw R߃ {]Xo-£n-°p∂p. CsXm-sSm-∏w-Xs∂ ]›n-a-L-´-tØm-sSm∏w ssPh-{]-[m-\-ÿ-e-߃ IqSn am∏nßv \S-Øm≥ Bh-iy-amb Um‰msk-‰p-I-fpsS (datasets) kam-l-cWw IqSn kanXn \S-Øn-hcp∂p. CXp-kw-_-‘n® {Inbm-flI \n¿t±-i-߃ R߃ kzmKXw sNøp∂p.

\μn-]q¿Δw ]›n-a-L´ ssPh hnZ-Kv[- k-anXn AwK-ßsf {]tXy-In®pw tUm. B¿. kpIp-am¿, tUm.enPnb s\mtdmW, tUm. sd\n-t_m¿Pkv F∂n-h¿ hnhn[ L´-ß-fn¬ \¬Inb hne-s∏´ \n¿t±-i-߃°v, Cu dnt∏m¿´v Xøm-d-°m-\m-h-iy-amb ^≠v e`y-am-°nb tI{μ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-˛h\w a{¥m-e-b-Øn-\v, N¿®-Ifpw a‰pw kwL-Sn-∏n-°p-∂-Xn\v F√m klmb kl-I-c-W-ßfpw \¬Inb tUm. Pnhn. kp{_-“-Wy≥, hne-s∏´ \n¿t±-i-߃ \¬Inb ATREE, FERAL, {^©v C≥Ãn-‰yq´v F∂n-h-bnse kv‰m^v, _wK-fqcp SECbn¬ Kth-jWw \S-Øp∂ Ipamcn Bi, am∏p-Iƒ Xøm-dm-°p-∂-Xn¬ {]tXy-I-k-lmbw \¬Inb \mcm-bWn _m¿sh (I≥kmkv tÉv bqWn-th-gvkn‰n) F∂n-h¿s°√mw Rß-fpsS \n o-a-amb \μn tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp∂p.

]´nI 2 : A´n-I-fpsS amXrI

(layers)

aqey-\n¿Æ-b-Øn-\p≈ \n¿ZnjvS

{Ia-\-º¿

LS-I-߃

hn`mKw

aqeyw

1.

Poh-im-kv{X-]cw

* Poh-im-kv{X-]-c-ambn Db¿∂ aqeyw * Poh-im-kv{X-]-c-ambn Xmc-X-tay\ Db¿∂ aqeyw * Poh-im-kv{X-]-c-ambn Ipd™ aqey-£-aX D≈Xv

10

2.

3.

`ua-Im-em-h-ÿm-]cw

* ]cn-ÿnXn]c-ambpw `ua-Im-em-h-ÿm-]-c-ambpw Db¿∂ kwth-Z-\-£-aX. * anX-amb kwth-Z-\-£-aX D≈Xv * Ipd™ kwth-Z-\-£-aX D≈Xv

s]mXp-P\ ImgvN-∏mSv * s]mXp-P-\-Im-gvN-∏m-Sn¬ hfsc {][m\-s∏-´Xv * kmam\yw {][m-\-am-bXv * Ipd™ {]m[m-\y-ap-≈Xv.

5 0

10 5 0

10 5 0

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]´nI 1 : ssPh-{]-[m\ ÿe-߃ \n¿Æ-bn-°p-∂-Xn¬ D]tbm-Kn-®Xpw D]-tbm-Kn-°m≥ \n¿t±-in-®n-´p≈Xpamb ]Zm-henbpw LS-I-ßfpw D]-tbm-Kn® ]Zw

AS-ßnb AS-ßnb Poh im-kv{X ]cn-ÿnXn aqeyw tkh-\-aqeyw

]cn-ÿXn Zp¿ _-e {]-tZiw kwth-Z\ - £ - a - Xbp≈ ssP h-hy-hÿ ssPh-kw-th-Z\-ap≈ taJe

Bhm-k h - y-hÿ, kky-߃, a’y-߃, Dc-K-߃, ]£n-Iƒ, kkvX-\n-Iƒ Poh-sshhn[yw, `ojWn t\cn-Sp∂ h¿§-߃, h\w

_‘n-∏n°p∂ CS-\mgn-Iƒ `qI-º -ta-J-e-Iƒ `qP-e- ]p-\ -kw-`-cWw, sh≈w hnX-cWw, Bhm-k-hyhÿ

AS-ßnb AS-ßnb kmº-ØnI kmaq-lyaqeyw kmw-kvIm-cnI aqeyw kmaqly Bh-iy-߃ [\-XXz imkv{Xw Irjn-`qan {][m\ Bhmk tI{μ-߃

Duj-ckw-th-Z\ £aX

kky-hr-£ Kp-W-ta∑

ssPh-Zp¿ _e {]tZ-i߃ ({]W_v sk≥ IΩn‰n dnt∏m¿´v)

X\Xv {]tXyI kz`mhw Bhm-k-hyA]q¿h-X, hÿh\y-arK \mi-`o-jCS-\mgn, Wnbp \Zn-Iƒ˛ ≈h¿K-߃, NXp∏v ˛]p¬ ho´n¬ hf¿ ta -Sp-IfpsS Øp∂ C\-ß- D¤hw fpsS ]cn-Wm-a -tI-{μw, {]tXyI hwih¿[\ ssk‰p-Iƒ

a\pjy Ncn{Xw `qhn-\ntbmKw, khn-tij Irjn-bn-S߃, {][m-\-Ir-jnbn-S-߃, hnt\m-Z-taJe, kwLS\, P\-kwJy, Sqdnkw, aX-]-c-amb ÿe-߃

AS-ßnb kwth-Z\ £aX

aÆv, Pe-]T\w s]mXp-L-S-\, (Ncnhv, Dbcw) `qan-imkv{Xw Imem-hÿ {]f-b-km-[yX, `qIºw

aÆns‚ KpWta∑,(C\w, Bgw, Ncnhv) Imem-hÿ kqNnI (asÆm-en∏v, ag, hcƒ®) Adn-b-s∏hnip-≤-h-\SmØ Blm-c- ߃ k-ky-ß-fpsS tI{μw

]q¿Δ-ÿnXn {]m]n-°m\p≈ Ignhv Ipd™ IpØ-s\-bp≈ Ncn-hp≈ {]tZ-i-߃

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

108


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]´nI 3 : t{KUnßpw aqeyhpw kwtbm-Pn-∏n-°p∂ coXn A´n 1, 2¬ \n∂p≈ samØw aqeyw

s]mXp-P-\ I -- m-gvN ESA ∏m-Snse aqeyw t{KUv

kwc-£W \ne

10˛20

5˛10

t{KUv˛1

D≈n¬ bmsXmcp {]h¿Ø-\hp-an√msX Db¿∂ kwc-£Ww

˛5

t{KUv˛2

\nb-{¥nX {]h¿Ø-\-tØmsS Db¿∂ kwc-£Ww

5˛10

t{KUv˛3

\nb-{¥nX kwc-£Ww

0˛5

t{KUv˛4

\nco-£-W-Øn¬ \n¿ØpI

0-˛-10

References: 1. Saxena, M R., R Kumar, P. R. Saxena, R Nagaraja, S. C. Jayanthi, 2007 Remote sensing and GIS based approach for environmental sensitivity studies. A case study from Indian Coast. Internation Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. www.ispres.org. 2. Hemkumara, G P T S, 2009, GIS Based analysis on environmental sensitive areas and identification of the potential disaster hazardous locations in southern Sri Lanka. International Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 9:311-315. 3. MacDonald, A., 2000, Assessment of risk and identification of environmentally sensitive areas. Interspill Marseille 2000 Conference and Exhibition, www.interspill.com 4. Steiner, F., J Blair, L McSherry, S Guhathakurtha, J Marruffo, M Holm, 2000, A watershed at watershed: the potential for environmentally sensitive area protection in the upper San Pedro Drainage Basic (Mexico and USA). Landscape and Urban Planning, 49: 129-148 5. Capuzucca, J., 2001, Federal Hill: An extraordinarily environmentally sensitive and historically significant area. Executive Summary, August 2001. 6 Anon. 2008, Environmentally Sensitive Zones. (Maharastra Pollution Control Board), www.mpcb.gov.on 7. Lin, M, Yu Cao, Y. Tao, J. Shih, G. Yan, Y Lee, D. Xiao, S, Wang, H Chiu, 2006, Changing Landscapes: Monitoring Ecologically Sensitive Ecosystems in a dynamic semi-arid landscape using satellite imagery: A case study in Ejin Oasis, Western China. In Agricuture and Hydrology Applicatoions of Remote Sensing, edited by Kuligowski, R. and J S Parihar. 8. http://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/subsite/guidelines/introduction 9. http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/environmentally-sensitive-area 10. Ravikanth, G., Uma Shaanker, R., and Ganeshaiah, K.N., 2000. Conservation status of forests in India: a cause for worry? J. Indian Inst. Sci., 80: 591-600 11. Gadgil, M. and Meher-Homji, V.M. 1986, Role of protected areas in conservation In : V.L. Chopra and T.N. Khoshoo ed. Conservation of Productive Agriculture, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi. pp. 143-159) 12. Menon, V.,Tiwari, S. K., Easa P. S. and Sukumar, R. 2005, Right of Passage: Elephant Corridors of India. In (Eds.) Conservation Reference Series 3. Wildlife Trust of India, New Delhi. Pp 287. 13. Daniels, R J R and Vencatesan J (2008) Western Ghats: Biodiversity, People, Conservation. New Delhi, Rupa and Co. 14. Ganeshaiah, K.N., Chandrashekara, K. & Kumar, A.R.V., 1997, Avalanche index: A new measure of biodiversity based on biological heterogeneity of the communities. Curr. Sci., 73 (2): 128-133 15. Ganeshaiah, K.N., and Uma Shaanker, R., 2000. Measuring biological heterogeneity of forest vegetation types: Avalanche index as an estimate of biological diversity. Biodiversity ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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and Conservation., 9: 953-963 16. Ganeshaiah K N and Uma Shaanker, 2003, Sasya Sahyadri- A database on taxonomy, diversity and distribution of plants of Western Ghats. SEC, UAS Bengaluru. 17. Tews, J., U. Brose, V. Grimm, K. Tielborger, M. C. Wichmann, M. Shwager, and F. Jeltsch, 2003, Animal species diversity driven by habitat heterogeneity/diversity: the importance of keystone structures. Journal of Biogeography, 31: 79-92 18. Jean-Franc¸ ois Gue´ gan, Sovan Lek & Thierry Oberdorff, 1998, Energy availability and habitat heterogeneity predict global riverine fish diversity. Nature, 391: 382-384. 19. Kamaljit Bawa, Joseph Rose, Ganeshaiah. K.N., Narayani Barve, Kiran, M.C. and Uma Shaanker. R. 2002. Assessing Biodiversity from Space: an Example from the Western Ghats, India. Conservation Ecology. 6 (2): 7. 20. Waring, R. H., N. C. Coops, W. Fan, J. M. Nightingale, 2006, MODIS enhanced vegetation index predicts tree species richness across forested ecoregions in the contiguous U.S.A., Remote Sensing of Environment 103 (2006) 218–226 21 Gadgil, M. and Meher-Homji, V.M. 1986 Localities of great significance to conservation of India’s biological diversity Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Animal / Plant Sciences Supplement, pp. 165-180. 22. Pasacal, J P (1988) Wet evergreen forests of the Western Ghats. French Institute, Pondicherry, pp345. 23. Manka-White, L, 1997, Increasing awareness and accuracy in identifying environmentally sensitive areas within Cook Inlet, Alaska. International Oil Spill Conference, 946-947 24.Gad, A and A Shalaby, 2010, Assessment and mapping of desertification sensitivity using remote sensing and GIS. Case study: Inland Sinai and Eastern Desert Wadies. In US-Egypt Workshop on Space Technology and Geoinformation for sustainable development, Cairo, Egypt, 14-17, June 2010. 25. Subramanya K A, Framework for assigning ecological sensitivity to wetlands of the Western Ghats.- a report 26. http//www.westernghatsindia.org

Nn{Xw 1: ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ `qXe hnkvXrXn (Fkv.-F≥. {]km-Zv) www.westernghatsindia.org

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110


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Nn{Xw 2: ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ Dbcw (Fkv.-F≥. {]km-Zv) www.westernghatsindia.org

Nn{Xw 3: ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse h¿j-]mXw ASn-ÿm-\-am°n-bp≈ {KnUv hn`-P\w (Bi, sI.-F≥. KtW-iø) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

111


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]cn-injvS tcJ-Iƒ Annexures ]cn-injvS tcJ a

: ]›n-a-L´ hnZ-Kv[-k-an-Xn-bpsS

\nb-a\w \w.1/1/2010 ˛B¿. C.(C.Fkv. CkUv) `mcX k¿°m¿ ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw (B¿.C. Unhn-j≥) **** ]cym-h-c¨ `h≥ kn.Pn.H. tImwπIvkv temZn-tdmUv, \yqU¬ln˛110003 am¿®v 4, 2010

B^okv DØ-chv

hnjbw: ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn hnZKv[ kan-Xn-bpsS \nba\w

1.

]›n-a-L´ taJe X]vXn \Zo-apJw apX¬ I\ym-Ip-amcn hsc 1600 In.ao‰¿ \of-Øn¬ hym]n-®p-In-S-°p∂p. Xan-gv\mSv, I¿Æm-SIw, tIcf, tKmh, alm-cmjv{S, KpP-dmØv, (Umßv h\-Øns‚ `mK-߃) F∂o 6 kwÿm-\-ß-fn-embn 1.60 e£w N.In.ao‰-dmWv CXns‚ hnkvXo¿Æw.

2.

]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-bn¬ s]mXpsh 500 an.ao. apX¬ 7000 an.ao. hsc ag e`n-°p-∂p≠v. C¥y≥ D]-Zzo-]nse {][m-\-\-Zn-I-sf√mw D¤-hn-°p-∂Xv ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ \n∂mWv. Chbn¬ tKmZm-hcn, IrjvW, Imthcn, Imfn\Zn, s]cn-bm¿ F∂nh A¥¿kw-ÿm\ {]m[m\y-ap-≈-h-bmWv. Cu Pe-t{km-X- p-Iƒ Pe-tk-N-\-Øn\pw sshZypXn Dev]m-Z-\-Øn\pw th≠n D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂p. ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-bpsS GI-tZiw 30 iX-am\w h\-ß-fmWv. kky-P-¥p-Pm-e-ß-fpsS Hcp \n[n-Ipw`w IqSn-bmWv Cu taJe. cmPysØ 4 kp{]-[m\ ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-tI-{μ-ß-fn¬ H∂mWv ]›n-a-L´w. 1741 C\w ]pjv]n-°p∂ kky-ß-fpsSbpw 403 C\w ]£n-I-fp-sSbpw Bhmk tI{μw IqSn-bm-WnXv. Chn-sS-bp≈ h\y-Po-hnI-fn¬ ISph, B\, C¥y≥ Im´p-t]mØv, knwl-hm-e≥, Ipcßv, hb-\mSv Nm´-]£n, Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iq¿ Ba, hnj-]m-ºp-Iƒ, hnhn[ C\-Øn¬s]´ Imen-√mØ D`-b-Po-hn-Iƒ F∂n-h-bv°p-]p-dsa A]q¿Δ C\w hr£-ß-fp-ap≠v.

3.

Chn-SsØ ]mc-ºcy kky-^e hnf-I-fn¬ Ip∂n≥ {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ ASbv°, Ipcp-ap-fIv, Gew F∂n-hbpw Xoc-{]-tZ-iØv \mfn-tI-chpw H∏w amhv, πmhv F∂n-h-bp-ap≠v. a‰v {][m\ tXm´-hn-f-I-fn¬ tXbne, Im∏n, d∫¿, Iip-h≠n, acn-®o\n F∂nh Dƒs∏-Sp∂p. temI-Ønse G‰hpw henb \n_nU h\-ß-fn¬ H∂mWv Cu {]tZiw. t_mdn-hmen tZiob ]m¿°v. \mK¿tlmsf, tZio-b-]m¿°v, _‘n-∏q¿ tZiob ]m¿°v, AÆm-asse h\y-ar-K-k-t¶Xw, s]cn-bm¿ tZio-b-]m¿°v, F∂nh Cu taJ-e-bn¬ ÿnXn-sN-øp∂p.

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

112


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

4.

Cu taJ-e-bpsS ssPh ]cn-ÿnXn {]iv\-ß-fn¬ P\-kw-Jy-bpsS kΩ¿±w, `qan-bnepw h\-Ønepw Sqdnkw Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ hyh-km-b-ß-fpsS IS-∂p-I-b‰w \Zo-XS ]≤-Xn-Iƒ aqew sh≈-Øn-\-Sn-bn-em-Ip∂ h\-߃, h\-`q-an-bnse IpSn-tb‰w, J\-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-ß-ƒ, tXbne, Im∏n, d∫¿, bq°m-en-]v‰kv XpS-ßnb tXm´-ß-fp-≠m-°m≥ th≠n {]Ir-Xn-ZØ h\-߃ sh´n-\n-c-Øp-∂Xv, sdbn¬]mX, tdmUv \n¿ΩmWw t]mse-bp≈ ASn-ÿm\ hnI-k\ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ, asÆm-en∏v, Dcpƒs]m-´¬, Bhm-k-tI-{μ-ß-fpsS inYn-eo-I-cWw, AXn-thKw \in-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ ssPh sshhn≤yw F∂n-h-bmWv {][m\w.

5.

]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-c-amb kwth-Z-\-£-aX ssPh-]-c-amb {]m[m\yw, k¶o¿Æhpw A¥¿kwÿm\ kz`m-ha - p-≈X - p-amb CXns‚ `qan-imkv{Xw, Imem-hÿm hyXn-bm-\Ø - nse BLmXw F∂n-h-sb√mw IW-°n-se-SpØv Hcp ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn hnZKv[ kanXn cq]o-I-cn°m≥ Dt±-in-°p∂p.

6.

NphsS ]d-bp∂ AwK-ßsf Dƒs∏-SpØn ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn hnZKv[ kanXn CXn\m¬ cq]o-I-cn-°p∂p. Cu DØ-c-hns‚ XnbXn apX¬ Hcp h¿j-amWv kan-Xn-bpsS Imemh[n.

1.

s{]m^. am[hv KmUvKn¬ ap≥sN-b¿am≥, sk‚¿ t^m¿ Ct°m-f-Pn-°¬ kb≥kv, F˛ 18, kv{]nßv ^vfthgvkv, ]©-hSn, ]mj≥ tdmUv. ]qs\ 411008 alm-cmjv{S

2.

_n.sP.IrjvW≥ ko\n-b¿ AUz-t°‰v \o¬Kn-cokv sk‚¿ tlmkv]n-‰¬ tdmUv Du´n˛ 643001 Xan-gv\mSv

3.

4.

sNb¿am≥

saº¿

tUm. \μ-Ip-am¿ apIpμvv ImaXv Akn-Â v s{^m^-k¿ Unjm-Svsa‚ v Hm^v t_mSWn tKmh, bqWn-th-gvkn‰n tKmh

saº¿

tUm. sI.F≥. KtW-jø AtimIv {SÃv t^m¿ dnk¿®v C≥ Ct°m-fPn&F≥hn-tdm¨sa‚ v (ATREE) 659 5th F sab≥, sl∫m¬ _wK-fqcp 560 024 I¿Æm-SI

saº¿

tUm. \μ-Ip-am¿ ImaØv ]m\-en¬ \n∂v cmPn h®n-cp∂p. tUm.hn.Fkv. hnP-bs\ t\m¨ Hm^ojy¬ FIvkv]¿´v saº-dm-bmWv Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-bXv. tUm. B¿. hn. h¿Ω tIcf tÉv _tbm-ssU-th-gvkn‰n t_m¿Uv sNb¿am≥ F∂ \ne-bn¬ FIvkv Hm^otjym saº-dm-bn-´mWv Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-bXv. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

tUm. hn.Fkv. hnP-b≥ sNb¿am≥, tIcf _tbm ssUth-gvkn‰n t_m¿Uv ]≈n-ap°v, t]´ ]n.H. Xncp-h-\-¥-]pcw 695 024 tIcf s{]m^. {ioaXn. dn\n-t_m¿Pkv sk‚¿ t^m¿ Ct°m-f-Pn-°¬ kb≥kkv C¥y≥ C≥Ãn-‰yqSv Hm^v kb≥kv _wK-fqcp 560 012 I¿Æm-SI s{]m^.B¿. kpIp-am¿ sNb¿am≥, sk‚¿ t^m¿ Ct°m-f-Pn-°¬ kb≥kkv C¥y≥ C≥Ãn-‰yq´v Hm^v kb≥kv _wK-fqcp 560 012, I¿Æm-SI tUm. enPnb s\mtdmW Ub-d-IvS¿(dntkmgvkvkv & t•m_¬ skIyq-cn´n Unhn-j≥) Zn F\¿Pn & dntkm-gvkkv C≥Ãn-‰yq´v (TERI) Z¿_mcn tªm°v, C¥y lm_n-Im‰v sk‚¿, temZn-tdmUv \yqU¬ln 110 003 {ioaXn. hnZy Fkv. \mbIv \K-cnI tkh {SÃv , Kp¿hm-b≥Isc 574 217 _¬Ø-ßmSn Xmeq°v, Z£nW I∂S Unkv{SnIvSv I¿Æm-SI

saº¿ (FIvkv Hm^otjym)

saº¿

saº¿

saº¿

saº¿

10.

tUm.Un.sI kp{_-“Wyw s{]m^. Hm^v Iºyq-´¿ kb≥kv &. Hmt´m-ta-j≥ & Ct°m-f-Pn-°¬ kb≥kkv, C¥y≥ C≥Ãn-‰yq´v Hm^v kb≥kkv( dn´:) ^ut≠-j≥ t^m¿ AUzm≥kvsa‚ v Hm^v FUyp-t°-j≥ & dnk¿®v Pn˛5, kznkv tImwπIvkv, 33. tdkv tImgvkv tdmUv _wK-fqcp 560 001, I¿Æm-SI

11.

tUm. ]n.F¬. KuXw sNb¿am≥ \mj-W¬ _tbm-ssU-th-gvkn‰n AtXm-dn´n (NBA) (FIvkv H^otjym) 5th ^vtfm¿, TICEL, _tbm-]m¿°v, Xmc-aWn sNss∂ 600 113, Xan-gv\mSv

12.

s{]m^. Fkv.]n. KuXw sNb¿am≥ sk≥{S¬ s]meyq-j≥ I¨t{Smƒ t_m¿Uv (CPCB), ]cn-thjv `h≥ kn _n Un Iw Hm^okv tImwπIvkv CuÃv A¿Pp≥ \K¿, U¬ln 110 032

saº¿

saº¿ FIvkv H^otjym

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

13.

14.

tUm. B¿.B¿. \h¬Kp≠v Ub-d-IvS¿ kvt]kv Bπn-t°-j≥ sk‚¿ ( SAC) Al-Ω-Zm-_mZv 380 015, KpP-dmØv tUm. Pn.-hn. kp{_-“-Wy≥ AssUz-k¿ (R.E) an\nkv{Sn Hm^v F¨h-tbm¨sa‚ v & t^mdÃvkv \yqU¬ln

saº¿ (FIvkv H^otjym)

saº¿ FIvkv Hm^otjym

7.

kanXn NphsS ]d-bp∂ Npa-X-e-Iƒ \nd-th‰pw

i.

]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-bnse Ct∏m-gsØ ]cn-ÿnXn \ne-hmcw hne-bn-cp-ØpI

ii)

]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-bv°p-≈nse ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS AXn-cp-Iƒ \n›-bn°p-Ibpw ]cn-ÿnXn (kwc-£W) \nba (1986){]Imcw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-bmbn hn⁄m-]\w sNtø-≠Xpamb ip]m¿i sNøp-Ibpw sNøpI. \ne-hn-ep≈ {]Wm_v sk≥ IΩn‰n dnt∏m¿´v, tUm. Sn.Fkv. hnP-b-cm-L-h≥ IΩn‰n dnt∏m¿´v , _lp. kp{]nw tImSXn-bpsS \n¿t±-i-߃, tZiob h\y-Pohn t_m¿Uns‚ ip]m¿i-Iƒ ]cn-tim-[n-°p-Ibpw _‘-s∏´ F√m kwÿm\ k¿°m-cp-I-fp-ambn IqSn-bm-tem-Nn-°p-Ibpw sNbvX-ti-j-ambn-cn-°Ww ip]m¿i ka¿∏n-°¬.

iii)

]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-bpsS ]cn-c-£Ww, kwc-£Ww, ]p\-cp-÷o-h\w F∂nh kw_-‘n® ip]m¿i-Iƒ cq]-s∏-SpØp∂Xn\v ap≥]v P\-ßfpw _‘-s∏´ kwÿm-\-k¿°m-cp-I-fpambn hni-Z-amb IqSn-bm-tem-N\ \S-Øn-bn-cn-°Ww.

iv)

]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-bnse {]tXyI \n¿t±-i-߃ ]cn-ÿnXn (kwc-£W) \nba ( 1986) {]Imcw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-bmbn {]Jym-]n-®p-sIm≠v tI{μ-]-cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥mebw ]pd-s∏-Sp-hn-°p∂ hn⁄m-]\w ^e-{]-Z-ambn {]mh¿Øn-I-am-°m-\p≈ am¿§-߃ \n¿t±-in-°pI.

v)

taJ-eb - psS ]mcn-ÿn-XnI {]iv\ß - ƒ ssIImcyw sNøm\pw _‘-s∏´ kwÿm\ k¿°mcp-I-fpsS ]n≥_-e-tØmsS Ah-bpsS kpÿnc hnI-k\w Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm\pw Npa-X-e-s∏´ s{]m^-j-W¬, ]cn-ÿnXn (kwc-£W) \nba(1986) Ønse hyh-ÿ-Iƒ{]-Imcw cq]o-Icn-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ am¿§-\n¿t±-i-߃ ip]m¿i-sN-øpI.

vi)

]cn-ÿnXn ˛h\w a{¥m-ebw d^¿ sNøp-∂-Xpƒs∏sS ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-bnse ]cnÿnXn {]iv\-ß-fp-ambn _‘-s∏´ {]k-‡-amb GXp {]iv\hpw kan-Xn°v ssIImcyw sNømw.

8.

Bh-iy-sa-¶n¬ sNb¿ams‚ A\p-a-Xn-tbmsS GXv hnZ-Kv[s\/ H^o-jy-ens\ thW-sa¶nepw kan-Xn°v tIm˛Hm]vSv sNømw.

9.

kanXn cq]o-I-cW XobXn apX¬ 6 amk-Øn-\Iw kanXn AXns‚ dnt∏m¿´v ]cnÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw apJm-¥ncw tI{μ-k¿°m-cn\v ka¿∏n-°Ww.A[n-I-ambn Fs¥¶nepw ka¿∏n-°m-\p-s≠-¶n¬ AXv Cu Imem-h-[n°v tijhpw ka¿∏n°mw.

10.

kan-Xn-tbmKw U¬ln-bntem sNb¿am≥ Xocp-am-\n-°p∂ C¥y-bnse at‰-sX-¶nepw ÿetØm tNcm-hp-∂-XmWv.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

11.

tIm˛Hm]vSv sNbvX AwK-߃ Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ A\p-tZym-K-ÿmw-K-߃ kan-Xn-tbm-K-Øn¬ ]s¶-Sp-°p-∂-Xnt\m ssk‰p-Iƒ kμ¿in-°p-∂-Xnt\m D≈ Sn F/ Un F N´-{]-Imcw ]cnÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw hln°pw.

12.

tIm˛Hm]vSv sNbvX AwK-߃ Dƒ∏sS A\p-tZym-K-ÿmw-K-߃°v kan-Xn-tbm-K-Øn¬ ]s¶-Sp-°p-∂-Xn\v Znhkw 1000 cq] hoXw kn‰nßv ^o e`n°pw.

13.

tImw]o-‰‚ v AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS AwKo-Im-c-tØmSpw Cu a{¥m-e-b-Ønse C‚-t{K-‰Uv ss^\m≥kv Unhn-js‚bpw H. t\m´v DYNo. 407/AS& FA/ F0 XobXn 4˛3˛2010 {]Im-c-ap≈ A\p-hm-Z-tØmSpw IqSn-bmWv CXv ]pd-s∏-Sp-hn-°p-∂Xv. tUm.Pn.hn. kp{_-“Wyw AssUz-k¿ (R.E)

To

F√m AwK-߃°pw, _‘-s∏´ hIp-∏p-Iƒ°pw

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]cn-injvS tcJ b: {Ia\-º¿ 1

]cn-tim-[n® ]T\ tcJ-Iƒ

t]cv

hnjbw

hn._n. kh¿I¿ 464 cmjv{S-]Yv, ^vfm‰v ˛3 MSEDC enan. ]Δ¿lukv alm-flPn tamt´m-gvkn\v FXn¿hiw ]qs\˛411011, alm-cmjv{S

s{]m´IvSvUv Gcn-bmkv C≥ kt∏m¿´v Hm^v I¨k¿th-j≥ Hm^v _tbm-f-Pn-°¬ ssUth gvkn‰n B‚ v AZ¿ hmeyqkv Hm^v shkvt‰¨ Lm´vkv

2.

taml\ Pn.Fkv Akn-Â v s{]m^-k¿ (P\-‰nIvkv B‚ v πm‚ v {_oUnwKv) s]m∂w-t]´v 571216 Iq¿Kv Pn√, I¿Æm-SI C¥y, t^m¨ 08274˛249156 sam.:+91 9902273468 Un∏m¿´p-sa‚ v Hm^v t^mdÃv _tbm-fPn B‚ v {So Cw{]q-hvsa‚ v tImfPv Hm^v t^mdkv{Sn (UAS) _mwK-fq¿ t^m¨ : 08247 249370 EXT 215

Hm^v shkvt‰¨ Lm´vkv ssh¬Uv dnte-‰ohvkv Hm^v Iƒ´n th-‰Uv πm‚ vkv B‚ v t{Im]v P\ ‰-- nIvkv dntkm-gvkkv Hm^v Zn shtè Lm´vkv

3.

]fl-em¬ Un. sk‚¿ t^m¿ F¿Øv kb≥kv ÃUokv Xncp-h-\-¥-]pcw 695 031, tIcf

Aeyq-hn-b¬ km‚ v ssa\nßv Zn tIcf FIvkv]o-cn-b≥kv

4.

F≥. `mkvI-c≥ (B¿, kpIp-am-dns‚ kmt¶-XnI klm-b-tØmsS) Gjy≥ t\®¿ I¨k¿th-j≥ ^ut≠-j≥, Cs∂m-th-j≥ sk‚¿ C¥y≥ C≥Ãn-‰yq´v Hm^v kb≥kv _mwK-fq¿ ˛ 560012 Hm^v ZnCt°m-fPn Hm^v shtè Lm´vkv

Zn tÉv Hm^v Gjy≥ Fen^‚ vkv C≥ Zn shkvt‰¨ Lm´vk ktX¨ C¥y B‚ v C‰vkv Cwπn-t°-j≥kv Sp s{]mtam´v I¨k¿th-j≥ _m¬kwkv (...Cwt]-j≥kv L) Hm^v shtè Lm´vkv

5.

hn. `mkvI¿ s{]m^. Hm^v t^mdkv{Sn& t^m¿a¿ Ub-d-IvS¿ (dn´.) \mj-W¬ Ft^m-d-tÃ-j≥ & Ct¥m Uh-e-∏vsa‚ v t_m¿Uv doPn-b-W¬ sk‚¿, an\nkv{Sn Hm^v F≥hn-tdm¨sa‚ v & t^mdÃv , Kh.Hm^v C¥ybqWn-th-gvkn‰n Hm^v A{Kn-Iƒ®-d¬ kb≥kkv, _mwKvfq¿ 560 065

_m¬kwkv (Po-\kv: Cwt]-j≥kv F¬) Hm^v shtè Lm´vkv

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

6.

sI.F, kp{_-“-Wy≥ kb‚nÃv,kn kpthm-f-Pn-°¬ k¿sΔ Hm^v C¥y {]mWn hn⁄m≥ `h≥, Fw.tªm°v \yq Aen-t]m¿, I¬°´+91 9088039540

_tbm-ssU-ssh-gvkn‰n B‚ v -Ãm‰kv Hm^v dnh-ssd¬ Ct°m knÃwkv Hm^v shtè Lm´vkv

7.

B¿.sP.cRvPnXv Zm\n-tb¬kv amt\-PnwK {SÃn sIb¿ F¿Øv {SÃv \w. 5˛21st kv{So‰v Xnss√-KwK \K¿ sNss∂ 600 061

Ct°m-f-Pn-°en sk≥kn-‰ohv Gcn-bmkv B‚ v t_Uvkv Hm^v shtè Lm´vkv.

8.

Fkv.sI.Jfiqcn IFS Ub-d-IvS¿, F≥hn-tdm¨sa‚ v B‚ v ss¢am-‰nIv sNbn©v tkmjy¬ t^mdkv{Sn tImwπIvkv h´n-bq¿°mhv ]n.H. Xncp-h-\-¥-]pcw tIcf˛695 013

t^mdÃv amt\-Pvsa‚ v C≥ tIcf C≥ tIm¨SmIv‰vkv Hm^v C≥thmƒhnwKv t^mdkv{Sn B‚ v I¨k¿th-j≥ I¨tk≥kv t^m¿ shtè Lm´vkv.

9.

C. tkma-\m-Y≥ C¥y≥ Ãm‰n-Ãn-°¬ C≥Ãn-‰yq´v U¬ln

C≥sk‚ohv t_Uvkv At{Km πkv Sp t\®¿ I¨k¿th-j≥

10.

Fw.Un. kp`mjv N{μ≥ CES ^o¬Uv tÃj≥ hnthIv \K¿,IpwX 581 343 DØc I∂S

Hm¨ A≠¿ Ãm‰nßv B‚ tkhnßv Zn tk{IUv t{Kmhvkv Hm^v shkvt‰¨ Lm´vkv

A]¿W hm‰vsh

tdm°n tπt‰mkv (kvs]jy¬ t^m°kv Hm¨ shtè Lm´v B‚ v sIm¶¨ doP-\-td-j≥ Hm^v kv{Sowkv Hm^ shtè Lm´vkv

11.

BIOME,3416 Kpe-hmWn

alm-cmPv tdmUv

]qs\˛ 411004 12.

arWm-fn\n h\{io Ct°m-f-Pn-°¬ skmssk‰n ]qs\

13.

hnt\m-ZvIp-am¿ DWn-bm¬ IFS slUv. ]n.F. s\‰v h¿°v WL amt\-Pvsa‚ v B‚ v I¨k¿th-j≥ ssh¬Uv sse^v C≥Ãn-‰yq´v Hm^v C¥y ]n._n.\w. 18 N{μ-_m\n, sUdm-Uq¨ 248001 DØ-cm-JWvUv

Ct°m sUh-e∏v IΩn-‰okv: {Sm≥tπ-‰nßv Xnbdn C≥ Sp {]mIvSokv

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

14.

Zneo]v _n. s_mdm¬I¿ C≥U-kv{Sn-b¬ s]meyq-j≥ t^m¿a¿ saº¿ sk{I-´dn alm-cmjv{S s]meyq-j≥ I¨t{Smƒ t_m¿Uv 602 Aa¿ dkn-U≥kn kntbm¨ t{Smws_ tdmUv ]©m_v Jm´n, tUym\≥ apwss_˛ 400 088 C≥U-kv{Sn-b¬ s]mfyq-j≥

15.

F≥. A\n¬Ip-am¿ & Fw.sI. kXoiv \mcm-b-W≥ M/s kzman-\m-Y≥ dnk¿®v ^ut≠-j≥ IΩyq-Wn‰n At{Km˛_tbm ssUth-gvkn‰n sk‚¿, ]pØq¿ hb¬ ]n.H. hb-\mSv 673121, tIcf

ssUth-gvkn‰n, bqkv]m-t‰¨ B‚ v amt\-Pvsa‚ v Hm^v ssh¬Uv ^pUv πm‚ vkv Hm^v shtè Lm´vkv : F ÃUn Sp hb-\mSv Unkv{SnIvSv.

16.

\mcm-b-W≥ Pn.slKvsU BAIF Uh-e-∏vsa‚ v dnk¿®v ]qs\ 411058

{So πm‚nßv Hm¨ ss{]h‰v em‚kv

17.

tUm. EXv-hnIv ZØ tIm I¨ho-\¿ EIA tdmtkmgvkv & dkvt]m¨kv sk‚¿ F≥˛71, temh¿ {Ku≠v ^vtfm¿ t{K‰¿ ssIemkv˛1 \yqU¬ln

F s{^bnw-h¿°v t^m¿ EIA, dnt^mwkv C≥ Zn shtè Lm´vkv

18.

slm¥-h√n F≥ Ipamc & tah knßv kmen-amen sk‚¿ t^m¿ Hm¿Wn-tØm-fPn & \mNz-d¬ lnÃdn Bss\-I´n ]n.H. tImb-º-Øq¿ 641108 Xan-gv\mSv

Unkv{Sn-_yq-j≥, Ãm‰kv B‚ v I¨k¿ thj≥ Hm^v {]nta‰vkv Hm^v Zn shtè Lm´vkv

19.

B¿.Fkv. `√. PK-Zoiv IrjvW-kzman {io\n-hmkv sshZy-\m-Y≥ ^ut≠-j≥ t^m¿ Ct°m-f-Pn-°¬ dnk¿®v, AUz°kn & teWnßv AtimI {SÃv t^m¿ dnk¿®v C≥ Ct°m-fPn & F≥h-tdm¨sa‚ v

hƒ\-d-_n-en-‰okv Hm^v {In´n-°¬ Ct°m-kn-Ãwkv B‚ v k¿Δo-kkv C≥ Zn shtè Lm´vkv Sp Hmh¿em‚ ^vtemkv B‚ v sskUnsa≥j≥ UqdnwKv FIvkv{Sow sdbn¬ t^m¿ Ch≥ v.

20.

kvt\l-eX \mYv Io tè ^ut≠-j≥ t{Kmhvkv ln¬ tdmUv tIm´-Kncn, \oe-Kncn Xan-gv\mSv

ssehven-lpUv skIyq-cn´n C≥ shtè Lm´v ˛kwt\m´vkv B‚ UnkvI-j≥kv

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

21.

B¿.sP. cRvPnXv Zm\n-tb¬ amt\-Pnw-Kv{SÃn sIb¿ F¿Øv {SÃv \w. 5. 21st {Ão‰v Xnss√-Kw-K-\-K¿, sNss∂ 6000 061

kvs]jy¬ sl{dtdm Po\n‰n, em‚ tÃ]vkv B‚ v Ct°m-f-Pn-°¬ sk≥kn-‰n-hn‰n C≥ shtè Lm´vkv.

22.

Fw.Fkv. hoc-cm-L-h≥ ln¬ hyq t^¨ln¬ tdmUv sImssS-°-\m¬ 624101 Xan-gv\mSv

ln¬tÃ-j≥kv C≥ Zn shtè Lm´vkv sImssS-°-\m¬˛F tIkv ÃUn

23.

A\nX h¿§okv Xmac dnIvSn≥, kvt\l-eX \mYv sk¥n¬ {]kmZv kpan≥ tPm¿Pv Iokvt‰m¨ ^ut≠-j≥ tIm´-Kncn, \oe-Kn-cn Xan-gv\mSv

t\m¨ Snw_¿ t^mdkv t{]mUIvSvkv, FIvkv]o-cn-b≥kkv C≥ I¨k¿thj≥, F‚¿ss{]kv, ssehven KpUvkv B‚ v {SUo-j-W¬ t\mfPv C≥ Zn \oe-Kncn _tbm-kv]n-b¿ dnk¿Δv, shtè Lm´vkv.

24.

F≥.F. Ac-hnμv sI.hn. Kpcp-cmP kqcn-sk-Kmƒ, sk‚¿ t^m¿ _tbm ssUth-gvkn‰n B‚ v I¨th-j≥ , AtimI {SÃv t^m¿ dnk¿®v C≥ Ct°m-fPn B‚ v Zn F≥hn-tdm¨sa‚ v (ATREE) tdmb¬ F≥t¢hv {iocm-a-]pc, Pm°q¿ ]n.H. _mwKvfq¿ 560 064

Bw^n-_o-b≥kv Hm]v Zn shtè Lm´vkv

25.

Pn. chn-Im¥v I¨k¿th-j≥kv Hm^v t^mdÃv AtimI {SÃv t^m¿ dnk¿®v P\-‰nIv dntkmgvkkv C≥ shtè C≥ Ct°m-fPn B‚ v Zn F≥hn-tdm¨sa‚ v Lm´vkv tdmb¿ F≥t¢hv, {iocmw-]p¿ Pm°q¿ t]mÃv _mwKvfq¿ 560 0064

26.

F≥.F. a≤yÿ Ac-hnμv F≥.F. amem-tIm-fPn sk‚¿ ]q¿Æ-{]-⁄-tIm-tfPv DSp∏n 576101

em‚ v kvs\bn¬kv Hm^v shtè Lm´vkv.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

27.

iin-[¿ hnc-‡m-aØv, `‡n-`m-h\ cmP≥I¿ Un∏m¿´vsa‚ v Hm^v A{Kn-Iƒ®-d¬ F‚-tam-fPn bqWn-th-gvkn‰n Hm^v A{Kn-Iƒ®-d¬ kb≥kkv [¿hmSv 580 005

ssh¬Uv _okv Hm^v shtè Lm´vk:v t{Im]v s]mfn-t\-j≥ sU^n-kn‰vkv.

28.

F t{]men-tKm-ta\ Spth-Uvkv F kv‰m‰Pn U¬ln AUvan-\n-kvt{S-j≥ Hm^o-tkgvkv t^m¿ _tbm-Iƒ®-d¬ k¿ssh-h¬ ^vfm‰vkv skIvS¿ Un˛2 C≥ Zn shtè Lm´vkv. DDA kvt]m¿´vkv tImwπ-Ivkn\p kao]w hk¥v Ip©v \yqU¬ln 110070

Ieym¨ Ipam¿ N{I-h¿Øn

B-15 (8th^vtfm¿)

29.

sI.Fkv. hm¬Unb Ph-l¿em¬ s\{lp sk‚¿ t^m¿ AUzm≥kvUv kb‚n-^nIv dnk¿®v, _mwKvfq¿ 560 064

Pntbm-f-Pn-°¬ Hm^v {^bnw h¿°v B‚ v sSIvt‰m-WnIvkv Hm^v shtè Lm´vkv

30.

Un.sP. `´v Un∏m¿´vsa‚ v Hm^v t_m´Wn tKmh bqWn-th-gvkn‰n tKmh˛ 403206

tUmIyp-sa-t‚-j≥ Hm^v ssat{Im ^wK¬ ssUth-gvkn‰n C≥ Pn t^mdÃvkv t#m^v shtè Lm´vkv

31.

sI.B¿. {io[¿ Un∏m¿´va‚ v Hm^v _tbm kb≥ v amwKvfq¿ bqWn-th-gvkn‰n awKf KwtKm{Xn amwKvfq¿ 574 1994 I¿Æm-SI

AIzm-´nIv ^wssK C≥ Zn shtè Lm´vkv Id‚ v Ãm‰kv B‚ ^yq®¿ I¨tk≥kv

32.

kRvPohv \mbIv Zneo]v Ipam¿ Cw{]n´n., en®-t\m-fPn et_m-´dn \mj-W¬ s_m´m-Wn-°¬ dnk¿®v C≥kn-Ãyq´v (OSIR) dmW {]Xm]v am¿Kv DØ¿{]-tZiv

sse°¨ ssUth-gvkn‰n C≥ shtè Lm´vkv, \oUv t^m¿ Izm≠n-t‰-‰oh A -kvsa‚ v B‚ v I¨k¿th-j≥.

33.

F. kpμc "Im¿Øn-tIb' 1st ^vtfm¿ imcZ \Kc irwtJcn 577 139 I¿Æm-SI

•nw]vkkv Hm^v Zn lntÃm-dnIv B‚ v Zn t{]mt´m-ln-tÃm-dnIv doPn-b≥ Hm^ shtè Lm´vkv B‚ v Ct°m-fPn.

34.

cmtP{μ sI¿I¿ tIcn˛kØmcn tKmh˛ 403505

ssa\nßv ˛tKmh, sIm¶¨ (tkmjy¬ B‚ v Ct°m-f-Pn-°¬ Bkv]IvSvkv)

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

121


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

35.

•≥ Ie-hw-]md tKmh an\n-d¬ Hm¿ FIvkvt]m¿t´gvkv Atkm-kn-tb-j≥ ]n.H. t_mIvkv 113 hmt•m-_n¬UnwKv ]\mPn tKmh˛403001

ssa\nßv ˛Pntbm-f-Pn-°¬ B‚ v Ct°m -W-anIv s]gvk-]-IvSohv

36.

tUm. Ptb{μ eIva-{]p-°¿ KpP-dmØv Ct°m-f-Pn-°¬ skmssk‰n, 3rd ^vtfm¿, kn\¿Pn lukv kp`≥]pc, htUm-Zc 390023

sa\nw C≥ KpP-dmØv ˛ Cw]mIvSk v v Hm¨ _tbm-ssU-th-gvkn‰n

CtIz-j≥kv

Sqdnkw C≥ t^mdÃv Gcn-bmkv Hm^v shtè Lm´vkv

37.

A15 2 kn t{Kmkv 4th sabn≥ OMBR te Hu´,_\-kzmSn

_wK-fpcp 560 043 dnk¿®v Snw˛tdmkvtacn hniz-\mYv AXnYn N¬ Nm\n hcp¨ kt¥mjv k_nX temd≥kv AssUz-kdn Sow ˛sI.Sn. kptcjv 38.

am\kn Ic-¥n-Im¿ tIX-dn-Lm´ HbvtImkv 210, kn≤m¿∞v Sthgvkv tIm{XpSv ]qs\˛29

klym{Zn ˛shtè Lm´vkv˛B≥ Hmh¿ Uyq∏v Hm^v ss{]h‰v HmW¿jn∏v, sImta-gvky¬ sUh-e-]vsa‚ v B‚ C‰vkv Cw]mIvSv Hm¨ Ct°m-knÃw.

39.

tZh-{hXv taØ sNb¿am≥ HIN ]©-KWn alm-_-te-iz¿ \w404, jmeI Fw.sI.tdmUv apwss_ 400021

Sqdnkw sUh-e-]vsa‚ v kv{Sm‰Pn shtè Lm´vkv.

40.

hnizw-`¿ Nu[cn Hbm-knkv F≥hn-tdm¨ sa‚¬ ^ut≠-j≥ ]qs\

{In´n-°¬ A\m-en-knkv Hm^v F≥hn -tdm¨sa‚¬ Cw]mIvSvkv Ask-kvsa‚ t{]mkkv B‚ v F¨hn-tdm¨sa‚¬ ¢nb-d≥kv s{]mko-Un-b¿ C≥ C¥y.

41.

hnPbv ]c©v ss] tKmapJv F≥hn-tdm¨sa‚¬ {SÃv t^m¿ ktÃ-\-_nƒ Uh-e-]vsa‚ v, ]qs\.

{Xn´vkv Sp Zn shtè Lm´vkv Hm^ alm-cmjv{S: B≥ Hmh¿ hyp,

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

122


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

klm-b-I-tc-J-Iƒ

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn hnZKv[ kanXn dnt∏m¿´vv

`mKw 2

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127


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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn hnZ-Kv[-k-anXn dnt∏m¿´v -˛ c≠mw `mKw ]m\¬ dnt∏m¿´v c≠v `mK-ß-fmbn hn`-Pn-®n-cn-°p∂p ˛ `mKw I Dw `mKw IIDw. dnt∏m¿´ns‚ {][m\ `mK-amb `mKw 1 ¬ hni-I-e-\-hn-t[-b-am-t°≠ hkvXp-X-I-sf-∏‰n ka-{K-ambn {]Xn-]mZn-®n-cn-°p-∂p. `mKw 2 ¬ Bhs´, ]›n-a-L´ \nc-I-fpsS X¬ÿn-Xn, {][m\ dnt∏m¿´n¬ ]cma¿in-X-amb hnhn[ taJ-e-I-sf-∏-‰n-bp≈ hni-Z-hn-h-c-߃ F∂nh AS-ßn-bn-cn-°p-∂p. ]›na-L´ {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS kpc£ Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp-∂-tXm-sSm-∏w, F{]-Imcw ]cn-ÿnXn kulm¿Z-]chpw, kmaq-ln-Imw-Ko-Im-c-hp-ap≈ kpÿn-c-hn-I-k\w km[yam-°m-sa-∂pw, Ahsb `c-W-kwhn[m-\-Ønse hnhn[ \nb-{¥-W-X-e-ß-fp-ambn F{]-Imcw _‘-s∏-SpØmw F∂nh kw_-‘n® \n¿tZ-i-ß-tfm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bmWv dnt∏m¿´ns‚ 2˛mw `mKw D]-kw-l-cn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv.

1. ]›n-a-L´ Bhm-k-hy-hÿ ˛ X¬ÿnXn `qan-bnsS D¬∏Øn apX-en-tßm-´p≈ kpZo¿L-amb Ime-b-f-hn¬ kw`-hn® `ua-˛-ssP-h]cn-Wm-a-{]-{In-b-I-fp-tS-bpw, am\-h-kw-kvIr-Xn-bp-tSbpw hnI-k-\-L-´-ß-fp-tSbpw Hcp k¶o¿W D¬]∂amWv ]›n-a-L-´-\n-c-Iƒ. 255 Zie£w h¿j-߃°p- ap-ºv, tKm≠zm\ `qJfiw ]nf¿∂v C¥y-˛-a-U-KmkvI¿ Jfiw hS-t°m´v sX∂n-\o-ßm-\m-cw-`n-®-Xp- ap-X¬t° Cu {]{Inb-Iƒ°v Bcw`w Ipdn-®n-cn-°mw. ]∂¬h¿K-Øn¬s∏´ sNSn-Iƒ, Pnwt\m-kvt]-ap-Iƒ, XhfIƒ, Dc-K-߃ XpSßnb ssPh-hn-`m-K-߃ [mcm-f-ambn ImW-s∏-´n-cp∂ tKm≠zm\ `qJ-fiØn¬, ]t£, ]pjv]n-X-k-ky-߃, Cu®-Iƒ, Nn{X-i-e-`-߃, ]£n-Iƒ, kkvX-\n-Iƒ F∂nh s]mXpsh Ah-bpsS hnI-k-\-{]-{In-b-bpsS Zi-bn-em-bn-cp-∂p. 90 Zi-e£w h¿j-߃°p apºv C¥y≥ D]-`q-J-fi-Øn¬\n∂v aU-Km-kvI¿ Zzo]v th¿Xn-cn-™-Xns\ XpS¿∂p-≠mb kΩ¿ZØn¬\n∂mWv ]›naXoc-Øn\v kam-¥-c-ambn ]›n-a-L-´-\n-c-Iƒ Db¿∂p-h-∂-Xv. 65 Zie£w h¿j-߃°p apºv C¥y≥ Jfiw AXns‚ hS-t°m-´p≈ bm{X-bn¬ `qh¬°Ønse Hcp Zp¿_e taJ-e-bn-eqsS IS-∂p-t]m-Im-\n-S-bm-bn. B L´-Øn-ep-≠mb A·n-]¿h-Xkvt^m-S-\-ß-fm-Wv, U°m≥ taJ-e-bpsS ]nd-hn°v \nZm-\w. A·n-]¿h-X-kvt^m-S-\-ßsf XpS¿∂p-≠mb I\Ø [qfo-]-S-ew aqew `q{]-Xew XWp-°m-\n-S-bm°n; F∂p am{X-a-√, Znt\mk-dp-IfpsS hw-i-\m-i-Øn-\pw, AXns\ XpS¿∂v ]£n-I-fp-tSbpw kkvX-\n-I-fp-tSbpw B[n-]Xy-Øn\pw hgn-sX-fn-bn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. 55 Zi-e£w h¿j-߃°v apºv C¥y≥ Lfiw Gjy≥ h≥I-c-bp-ambn Iq´n-bn-Sn-°-s∏´p F∂v Icp-X-s∏-Sp-∂p. Imc-Ww, CXn-s\-Øp-S¿∂mWv Gjy≥ h≥I-c-bn¬ am{Xw ImW-s∏-´n-cp∂ ]£n-h¿K-ßfpw kkvX-\n-Ifpw, ]pjv]n-X-k-kyhn-`m-K-ßfpw C¥y≥ Jfi-Øn-te°pw hym]n-°m-\n-S-bm-b-Xv. lnam-e-b- ]¿h-X-\n-c-Iƒ Db¿∂p-h-cm-\n-S-bm-bXpw Cu Iq´n-bn-Sn-bpsS A\-¥-c-^-e-amsW∂p Icp-X-s∏-Sp-∂p. lnam-eb ]¿h-X-\n-c-Iƒ cq]w-sIm-≠-Xn\p tij-am-bn-cn-°mw, Hcp ]t£, Ime-h¿j-°m-‰p-Iƒ aptJ\ C¥ybn¬ hym]-I-amb Ime-h¿jw e`n-°m≥ XpS-ßnbXv. ]›n-a-L-´-\n-c-Iƒ Ime-h¿°m-‰p-Isf XS-™p-\n¿Øp-∂p. X≥aqew ]›n-a-L-´-{]-tZ-i-ßfn-se-√m-bvt∏m-gpw-Xs∂ Z£n-W-]q¿-th-jy-bn-te-Xn\p kam-\-amb Cu¿∏w \nd™ Imem-hÿ \ne-\n¬°p-∂p. am{X-a-√, ]q¿h-ln-am-e-b≥ {]tZ-i-ßfn¬ D≈-Xp-t]mse kº∂-amb ssPh km∂n-[yhpw Cu {]tZ-i-ß-fn-ep-≠v. ]q¿h lnam-e-b-{]-tZ-i-ß-fnse ssPh kº-Øn-t\m-fwXs∂ sshhn-[y-an-s√-¶n¬t]mepw C¥y-bnepw {ioe-¶-bnepw ImW-s∏-Sp-∂ H´p-an° kky-˛P-¥p-hn-`m-K-ßfpw ]›na-L-´-ta-J-e-bn¬ am{Xw Im-W-s∏-Sp-∂p. hnhn[ cmjv{S-߃°v AhcpsS X\Xv P\n-X-I-k-º-Øn-t∑¬ C°m-eØv ]c-am-[n-Imcw Ds≠-∂n-cn-t°, C¥y-bpsS G‰hpw aqey-h-Ømb ssPh-I-e-h-d-bmWv ]›n-a-L-´-\n-c-Iƒ F∂Xv AXoh {]m[m-\y-tØmsS ]cn-KWn-t°≠ hkvXp-X-bm-Wv. `qan-bpsS D¬]-Øn-°p-ti-jw, F{Xtbm Gsd h¿j-߃ Ign-™mWv B{^n-°≥ D]-`qJ-fi-Øn¬ \c-hwiw cq]w-sIm-≈p∂-Xv. Dt±iw 60,000 h¿j-߃°p apºmWv C¥y-bnse C∂sØ Xe-a-d-bpsS ]q¿hn-I¿ Chn-tS°v IpSn-tb-dn-∏m¿--Ø-Xv. XpS-°-Øn¬, kn‘p XpSßnb \Zo-X-S-ß-tfbpw hc≠ {]tZ-i-ß-tfbpw tI{μo-I-cn-®m-bn-cp∂p a\p-jy-hm-k-tI-{μ-߃ ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

\ne-\n-∂n-cp-∂-Xv. CØcw Bhm-k-tI-{μ-ß-fn¬ Dt±iw 10000 h¿j߃°p-apt∂ Xs∂ Irjn hym]I-am-hp-Ibpw X≥aqew X∂n-S-ß-fnse kzm`m-hn-I -`q-{]-Ir-Xn-bn¬ h≥ am-‰-߃ Ime-{ItaW D≠m-hp-Ibpw sNbvXp. F∂m¬ ]›naL-´-ß-fn-em-hs´ hfsc sshIn, Dt±iw 3000 h¿j-߃°p apºv am{X-amWv IpSn-tb‰w Bcw-`n-®-Xp-X-s∂. Ccp-ºp-sIm-≠p≈ Bbp-[߃ hym]-I-am-bXpw Cu Ime-L-´-Øn-em-Wv. Ccp-ºp-sIm-≠p≈ agp (]-c-ip) Fdn™v ]c-ip-cm-a≥ krjvSn-®-XmWv ]›n-a-Xo-chpw AhnsS \ne-\n¬°p∂ kwkvIr-Xn-bp-sa∂ sFXnlyw Hcp ]t£, Cu teml-bpK-Øns‚ kw`m-h\ - b - m-bn-cn-°mw. ]›n-aL - ´ {]tZ-ißfn¬ a\pjy Bhmkw ]ptcm-K-an-®-tXm-Sp-IqSn Xobp-tSbpw Ccp-ºnt‚bpw hym]-I-amb D]-tbmKw Ahn-S-ßfnse kkyPme-ßsf \n¿W-bn-°p-∂-Xn¬ kp{]-[m\ ]¶p-h-ln-®p.

`ua-˛-ssPh `qhn-`m-K-߃ ]›n-a-L´ Bhm-k-hy-hÿ hnZ-Kv[ -k-an-Xn-°p-th≠n Xøm-dm-°-s∏´ Hcp dnt∏m¿´n¬ ]mkvI¬ (1988), Um\n-b¬kv (2010) F∂n-h¿ \S-Ønb ]T-\-߃ D≤-cn-®p-sIm-≠v, samØw ]›n-a-L´ taJ-esb aq∂p {][m\ taJ-e-I-fn-embn hym]n-®p-In-S-°p-∂ HºXv `q{]-IrXn hn`mK-ß-fmbn Xncn-®n-cn-°p-∂p. kqd-‰v-˛-tKm-h, tKmh-˛-\o-e-Kn-cn, ]me-°mSv Npc-Øns‚ Z£n-W -`mKw F∂n-h-bmWv aq∂v {][m\ taJ-e-Iƒ. Ch-bn¬ hym]n-®p-In-S-°p-∂, ta¬ ]cm-a¿in® HºXp `qhn-`m-K߃ Xmsg ]d-bp-∂-h-bm-Wv: 1)

kqd-‰n\pw _¬Km-an-\p-an-S-bn¬ hym-]n-®p-In-S-°p∂ kqd-‰v-˛-tKmh sU°m≥ taLe ˛ L1

2)

]\m-Pn°pw Ipt{Z-ap-Jn-\p-an-S-bn-ep≈ tKmh-˛-\o-e-Kncn Iw{_n-b≥ ]q¿h [m¿hm¿ `qhn`mKw ˛ L2

3)

jntam-K ˛- - Ip-SP - m-{Zn-°pw, ssakq-cn\pw CS-bn-embn ÿnXn-sN-øp-∂, tKmh-˛\ - o-eK - ncn Imw{_nb≥ ]q¿h \okv (gneiss) D]-`q-J-fiw ˛ L3

4)

tKmh-˛-\o-e-Kncn taJ-e-bnse Imw{_n-b≥ ]q¿h Nm¿tWm-ss°‰v (charnochites) `qhn-`mKw (Im-k-d-tKm-Un\pw \oe-Kn-cn°pw CS-bn-embn ÿnXn-sN-øp∂Xv) ˛ L4

5)

tKmh˛\oe-Kncn taJ-e-bnse Ah-km-Z-inem `qhn-`mKw (a-e-_m-dn\pw Xr∏q-cn\pw CSbn¬) ˛ L5

6)

]me-°mSv Npc-Øn\v Z£nW `mK-Øp≈ Imw{_n-b≥ ]q¿h Nm¿tWm-ss°‰v `qhn-`mKw (B-\-a-ebv°pw ]g\n Ip∂p-Iƒ°pw CS-bn-embn sNt¶m´ Npcw hsc hym]n-®p-In-S°p∂p) - L6

7)

]me-°mSv Npc-Øn\v sX°v `mK-Øp≈ Imw{_n-b≥-˛-]q¿h \okv D]-`q-J-fi-hn-`mKw (a[pc apX¬ I\ym-Ip-am-cn-hsc ]q¿h-tc-Jmwiw 78o °v ]Sn-™m-dmbn ÿnXn-sN-øp-∂p) ˛ L7

8)

]me-°mSv Npc-Øn\v sX°p-`m-K-Øp≈ Imw{_nb≥ ]q¿h tIm≠-sse‰vkv (Khondalites) `qhn-`mKw sNt¶m´ Npc-Øn\v sX°p `mK-Ømbn Dt±iw Xncp-h-\-¥-]pcw hsc ]›naZni-bn¬ hym]n-®p-In-S-°p∂p ˛ L8

9)

]me-°mSv Npc-Øn\p sX°p `mK-Øp≈ Xmc-X-tay\ ]g°w Ipd™ Ah-km-Z-in-em`qhn-`mKw (sIm®n apX¬ Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iq¿ hsc) ˛ L9 ]›n-a-L´ \nc-I-fnse aq∂v {]-[m\ taJ-e-I-fp-tSbpw Ah-bn¬ hym]n®v InS-°p∂ HºXv hyXykvX `q{]-IrXn hn`m-K-ß-fp-tSbpw ÿm\w Nn{Xw 1¬ sImSp-Øn-cn-°p-∂p. HºXv `ua-˛-hn-`m-Kß-fn¬ G‰hpw hepXv kqd-‰v-˛-tKmh taJ-e-bm-Wv. samØw ]›n-a-L´ \nc-I-fpsS GI-tZiw aq∂n-sem-t∂mfw hnkvXrXn hcp∂ Cu `qhn-`mKw `qan]c-ambn GIkz`m-h-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-Xm-Wv. (L1 -˛ Nn{Xw ImWp-I) tKmh-˛-\o-e-Kncn taJ-e-bm-Is´ \mev hyXykvX `q{]-IrXn hn`m-K-߃ AS-ßp-∂-Xm-Wv. hnkvXo¿W-Øn¬ G‰hpw sNdpXv, ]me-°mSv Npcw taJ-e-bm-Wv. Cu taJ-e-bnepw \mev `q{]-IrXn taJ-e-Iƒ D≠v (L6 - L9). Cu \mev `qhn-`m-Kß - fpw H∂n-s\m∂v `n∂-{]-Ir-Xn-If - p-am-Wv. ]›n-aL - ´- Ø - nse G‰hpw Db¿∂ sImSp-ap-Sn-bmb B\-apSn Cu `qhn-`m-K-Øn-emWv ÿnXn-sN-øp-∂-Xv. ag e`y-X-

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130


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

sIm≠pw (DZm: hm¬--∏m-d) hfsc {lkz-amb hcƒ®m-th-f-Iƒ sIm≠pw (Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iqdn¬ CXv ct≠m aqt∂m amkw am{X-amWv ˛ ]mkvI¬ ˛ 1988) khn-ti-jX - b - m¿∂ ÿe߃

Cu `qhn-`m-K-Øn--ep-≠v. ag hfsc°pdhp am{Xw e`n-°p∂ hc-≠p-W-ßnb Ing-°≥ ]g-\nae (sIm-ssS-°-\m¬) t]mep≈ ]¿h-X-{]-tZ-i-ßfpw ]›n-a-L-´-\n-c-I-fn-ep-≠v. Nn{Xw 1. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse aq∂v {][m\ taJ-e-Ifpw Ah-bnse HºXv `q{]-IrXn hn`m-Kßfpw L1

kqd-‰v-˛-tKmh sU°m≥ taJe

L2

tKmh-˛-\o-e-Kncn Imw{_nb≥ ]q¿h [m¿hm¿ `qta-Je

L3

tKmh-˛-\o-e-Kncn Imw{_nb≥ ]q¿h s]\n≥kp-em¿ \okv taJe

L4

tKmh-˛-\o-e-Kncn Imw{_nb≥ ]q¿h Nm¿tWm-ss°‰v `qta-Je

L5

tKmh-˛-\o-e-Kncn ˛ ]g°w Ipd™ Ah-km-Z-inem `qta-Je

L6

]me-°mSv Np-c-Øn\v sX°p≈ Imw{_nb≥ ]q¿h Nm¿tWm-ss°‰v `qta-Je

L7

]me-°mSv Npc-Øn\v sX°p≈ Imw{_nb≥ ]q¿h \okv D]-`q-J-fi-ta-Je

L8

]me-°mSv Npc-Øn\v sX°p≈ Imw{_nb≥ ]q¿h tIm≠sse‰vkv taJe

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

131


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ L9

]me-°mSv Npc-Øn\v sX°p≈ ]g°w Ipd™ Ah-km-Z-inem taJe (A-h-ew_w: Um\n-b¬kv, 2010)

kky-Pmew ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-bnse `q{]-IrXn hn`m-K-ßfpsS Xcw-Xn-cnhpw Ahn-S-ß-fnse kkyPmeßfpsS km∂n-[yhpw XΩn¬ _‘-ap-≈-Xmbn ImWp-∂n-√. F∂m¬ Hcp {]tXyI {]tZ-iØns‚ InS-∏v, D∂-Xn, XXv{]-tZ-isØ khn-tij Imem-hÿ F∂nh {]kvXpX {]tZ-isØ kky C\-ßsf \n¿W-bn-°p-∂-Xn¬ kp{]-[m\ ]¶p hln-°p-∂p-≠p-Xm-\pw. XXv{]-tZ-iØv A\p-`-h-s∏-Sp∂ hcƒ®m-th-f-I-fpsS ssZ¿Ly-amWv {][m-\-ambpw Ahn-SsØ kky-h¿K-ß-sf, \ne-\n¬]p km∂n[yw F∂nh Xocp-am-\n-°p-∂-Xv. ]›n-a-L-´-{]-tZ-i-ßfn¬ ImW-s∏-Sp-∂ 11 C\w \nXy-l-cnX kky-h¿K-ßfn¬ Gsg-Æhpw L 3 `qhn-`m-K-Øn-emWv ImW-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. AXn\m¬ L 3 `qhn-`mKw BWv ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-bnse G‰hpw kky-Pmesshhn-[y-am¿∂ `qtaJe(1) ˛ (]´nI1) ]´nI 1: ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse hyXykvX `q{]-IrXn taJ-e-Ifpw Ah-bn¬ ImW-s∏-Sp∂ \nXy-l-cnX kky-h¿K-ßfpw kky-h¿Kw:

L1

L2

L3

L4

L5

L6

ssUsS-tdm-Im¿∏kv t_m¿Un-tem-Wn ssUsS-tdm-Im¿∏kv C≥Un-°-kv A\m-sIm-tfmk sU≥kn-^vtfmd ssUsS-tdm-Im¿∏kv C≥Un-°kv In≥Pntbm sU≥t{Um¨ ]ntW‰w lwt_mƒjz {_qtWm-Wnkv

+

ssUsStdm-Im¿∏kv C≥Un-°kv lwt_mƒjz {_qtWm n s]mkntem \yqtdm¨ C≥Un-°kv

+

ssUStdm-Im¿∏kv C≥Un-°kv Utbm kvss]tdmkv Im≥U-eo\ Utbm kvss]tdmkv DuIm¿∏

+

t]¿knb am{Im¥ Utbm kvss]tdmkv tlmfnKm¿W

+

L7

L8

L9

+

+

+

+

ssUsStdm-Im¿∏kv C≥Un-°kv t]¿knb am{Im¥

+

+

Iypte-Wnb FIvkm-dn-te‰ sakph s^dnb ]em-°nbw Fen-]v‰n°w sakph s^dnb ]em-°nbw Fen-]v‰n°w

+

+

(1)

Hcp {]tXyI `qhn`mK-Øn¬ A[n-h-kn-°p∂ H∂n-tesd hyXykvX Iayq-Wn-‰n-Iƒ°mbn ta¬ `qhn`m-K-Ønse ssPh t{kmX- p-Iƒ ]¶p-h-bvt°-≠n-h-cp-tºmƒ D≠m-hp∂ ]p\x-cp-÷o-h-\-ti-jnsb kqNn∏n-°m-\mWv ÿem-flI sshhn-[yX (Spatial heterogeneity) F∂-Xp-sIm≠v Dt±-in-°p-∂-Xv. {]mtZ-in-I-Xe-Øn¬ kw`-hn-°p∂ hwi-\m-iw, tZim-S-\w, IayqWn‰n Xcw-K-ßfnse (meta-community) Aÿn-cX F∂nh aqew Atem-kcw kw`-hn-°p∂ `qhn-`m-K-Øn¬ _o‰m-˛-ssU-th-gvkn‰n (Ct°m-hy-h-ÿ-I-fpsS sshhn-[y-h¬°-c-Ww) kw`-hn-°m-\p≈ km[y-Xbv°v {]k-‡n-tb-Ip∂p ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

132


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

saan-ssk-tem¨ Aº-te‰w knkn-Pnbw Iyqan\n BIv‰n-t\m-U^vt\ BwK-Ãn-t^m-fnb

+

Utbm kvss]tdmkv SPPssUtkm sskew ae-_m-dn°w ˛ t]¿knb am{Im¥

+

s]mkntem \yqtdm¨ C≥Un°w ]em-°nbw Fen-]v‰n°w ˛ tlm]nb s]mß

+

sj^vfod spp tKm¿tUm-Wnb H]v‰yqk˛ saen-tbm-tkma B¿t\m-´n-bm\

+

+

7

3

BsI

1

2

+

1

2

0

1

1

Ah-ew_w: Um\n-tb¬kv, 2010, ]´nI 3, t]Pv 8. L 7 `q{]-IrXn taJ-e-bn¬ \nXyl-cnX ag-°m-Sp-Iƒ ImW-s∏-Sp-∂n-√. F∂m¬, ]›n-a-L´-Ønse Hcp {]tXyI `q{]-Ir-Xn-ta-J-e-bpw, AXn¬ Ct∏m-gp≈ kky-Pm-e-ßfpw XΩn¬ At`Zy-amb _‘w C√mØ kml-Nc - y-Øn¬, hnhn[ `q{]-Ir-Xn-hn-`m-KØ - n¬ Ct∏m-gp≈ kky-C\߃ H∂p-In¬ \nc-¥c ]cn-{I-a-Øn-eqsS XXv{]-tZ-i-ß-fn¬ AXn-Po-h\w kn≤n-®-h-bmImw; AYhm ASp-Ø-Im-e-Ømbn a\p-jy¿ Ir{Xn-a-ambn \´p-h-f¿Øn-b-Xp-am-Imw.

ÿe-]-c-amb h¿K-ssh-hn-[yw, D∂-X-kw-c-£-W-aq-eyw, ]cn-ÿn-Xn-hn-tem-eX ssPh kam-\-X-I-fn-√mØ Hcp {]tZiw /AYhm Hcp Bhm-k-tI-{μ-Øn¬ Db¿∂ kwc£-W-aqeyw IqSn D≈-Xmbn IW-°m-°-s∏-Sp∂p F∂n-cn-°s´ B {]tXyI {]tZiw B ]cnÿnXn hnteme taJe F∂ KW-Øn¬ s]Sp-Ø-cp-sX∂v Um\n-tb¬kv (2010) hmZn-°p-∂p. (t]Pv 11). Db¿∂ kwc-£-W-aq-ey-ap-≈-Xmbn IW-°m-°-s∏-Sp∂ {]-tZ-i-ßfpw Ah-bnse khnti-j-amb kky-˛-P-¥p-h¿K sshhn-[yhpw XΩn¬ GsX-¶nepw Xc-Øn-ep≈ Hcp s]mcpØw AYhm A\p-cq-]X \ne-\n¬°p∂p F∂ \nco-£-W-Øn\v DØ-a-D-Zm-l-c-W-amWv ]›n-a-L-´{]tZ-i-߃ F∂v At±lw A`n-{]m-b-s∏-Sp-∂p. ]mkvI¬ (1988) th¿Xn-cn® aq∂v taJ-e-I-fn¬ tKmh-˛-\o-e-Kn-cn-{]-tZ-iw ]me-°mSv Npc-Øn\v sX°p≈ {]tZ-ihpw BWv G‰hpw ssPh sshhn[yw \nd-™-h. ]me-°mSv Npc-Øn\v sX°p≈ ssPh-ssh-hn-[y-Øns‚ Imcy-Øn¬ AXnhn-in-jvS-amb Ht´sd {]tZ-i-߃ ]me-°mSv Npc-Øn\v sX°p-`m-K-Øp≈ ]›n-a-L´ {]tZ-i-ßfn-ep-≠v. Hcp ]t£, ssPh-ssh-hn-[y-Øns‚ Imcy-Øn¬ AXp-ey-amb G‰-hp-tasd {]tZi-߃ Cu taJ-e-bn¬X-s∂-bm-Wv. ‘]cn-ÿn-Xn- hn-teme taJe’ F∂ KW-Øn¬ hcp-∂-hsb ap≥KW\m-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ {Ia-s∏-Sp-Øp-hm≥ XXv{]-tZ-i-ß-fp-ambn Ahn-SpsØ ssPh taJ-e-bv°p≈ s]mcpØw Gsd klm-b-I-am-hp-∂p. ]cn-ÿnXn hnteme taJ-e-Isf kwc-£n-°p-∂-Xn\pw ]cn]m-en-°p-∂-Xn\pw ssIs°m-≈p∂ \S-]Sn{Ia-ß-fn¬ ]mcn-ÿn-Xn-I-aq-ey-Øns‚ Imcy-Øn¬, ]Icw as‰m∂v Nq≠n-°m-Wn-°m-\n-√mØ CØcw taJ-e-Iƒ°v AXn-{]m-[m-\y-ap-≠v. ]›n-a-L´ {]tZ-i-߃°v Nne s]mXp-hmb {]Ir-X-߃ D≈-Xmbn ‘Um\n-tb¬kv’ \nco£n-°p-∂p. bp‡n-k-l-amb Cu \nco-£-W-߃ ]cs° AwKo-I-cn-°-s∏-´-h-bp-am-Wv. ]cn-ÿnXnhn-teme taJ-e-Isf Ah-bpsS khn-ti-j-X-I-fpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ {Iao-I-cn-°p-hm\pw Xcw Xncn-°p-hm\pw Cu \nco-£-W-߃ klm-b-I-hp-am-Wv.

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t_mIvkv 1 : ]›n-a-L-´-\n-cIfpsS s]mXp khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ 1600 In. ao‰¿ \of-Øn¬ sX°p-h-S-°mbn ÿnXn-sN-øp-∂ ]›n-a-L-´-a-e-\n-c-Isf 3 {][m\ taJ-e-I-fmbn Xncn-®n-cn-°p-∂p. tKmhbv°v hS-°p≈ {]tZ-iw, a[y-`m-K-Øp≈ tKmh \oe-Kn-cn-{]-tZ-iw, sX°p `mKØv ÿnXn-sN-øp-∂ ]me-°mSv Npc-Øn\v sX°p≈ ]›na-L-´-{]-tZiw F∂n-h-bm-W-h. ta¬]-d™ Hmtcm taJ-ebnepw Ht∂m AXn-e-[n-Itam hyXy-kvX-ßfmb `q{]-Ir-Xn-hn`m-K-߃ D≠v. 3 {][m\ taJ-e-I-fn-ep-am-bn, samØ-Øn¬, CØ-c-Øn-ep≈ 9 `q{]-Ir-Xnhn-`m-K-ß-fm-Wp-≈-Xv. tKmhbv°v hS-°p≈ `mKsØ L1 F∂ hn`m-K-Øn¬ s]Sp-Øn-bncn-°p-∂p. a[y-Øn-ep≈ tKmh-˛-\o-e-Kncn taJ-esb L 2 apX¬ L 5 hsc \mev hn`m-K-ßfmbn Xncn-®n-cn-°p-∂p. ]me-°mSv Npc-Øn\v sX°p-`m-K-Øp≈ ]›n-a-L´ {]tZ-i-ßsf L 6 apX¬ L 9 hsc-bp≈ \mev hn`m-K-ßfmbn Xncn-®n-cn-°p-∂p. aq∂v {][m\ taJ-e-I-fnse 9 {]Ir-Xn-hn-`m-K-ß-fn-embn 11 C\w \nXy-l-cnX kky-Pm-e߃ ImW-s∏-Sp-∂p. L 7 hn`m-K-Øn¬ \nXy-l-cnX kky-Pm-e-߃ H´pw-Xs∂ Im-W-s∏Sp-∂n-√, F∂m¬, L 3 hn`m-K-Øn-em-Is´ BsI-bp≈ 11 C\-ß-fn¬ 7 C\-ßfpw D≈Xmbn ImWmw. \nXy-l-cnX kky-Pm-e-ß-fpsS km∂n-[yw, B[nIyw F∂n-h-bn-t∑¬ Ah ImW-s∏Sp∂ {]tXyI `q{]-IrXn hn`m-K-Øn\v `ua-im-kv{X-]-c-amb Fs¥-¶nepw kzm[o\w D≈Xmbn ImW-s∏-Sp-∂n-√. adn-®v, ag-bpsS e`y-X, ag Xosc e`n-°mØ hc≠ thf-I-fpsS ssZ¿Lyw, ÿe-Øns‚ {]IrXw F∂n-hbv°v h≥ kzm[o-\-ap-≠p-Xm-\pw. `ua˛Im-em-hÿ hyXn-bm-\-߃ aqew D≠m-hp∂ _o‰-˛-ssU-th-gvkn‰n (C-t°m-hy-hÿ-I-fpsS sshhn-[y-h¬°-c-Ww) hr£-ßfpsS Iayq-Wn-‰n-tb-bm-Wv, ]£n-I-fpsS IayqWn-‰n-tb-°mƒ IqSp-X-embn _m[n®p ImWm-dp-≈-Xv. a‰p C\-Øn¬--s∏-´-h-bn¬ CØcw am‰-߃ F¥p-am{Xw _n‰m-˛-ssU-th-gvkn-‰n°v CS-bm-°p-∂p-sh-∂-Xns\ ]‰n-bp≈ hnhc-߃ hfsc ]cn-an-X-am-Wv. \nhm-kX - e hyXn-bm-\ß - t- fm-Sp≈ ]p\-cp-÷o-h\ - t- i-jn-bp-ambpw XZzmc ]cn-ÿnXn hnteme-X-bp-tSbpw Hcp hniz-k-\ob am\-Z-fi-amWv _o‰-˛-ssh-hn[yw (C-t°m-hy-h-ÿ-I-fpsS sshhn-[y-h¬°-c-Ww). Ah-ew_w: Umbn-t\¬kv (2010, t]Pv 13). kzm`m-hnI ]cn-ÿnXn hos≠-Sp-°¬ kw_-‘n-®m-sW-¶n¬ L 3 `q{]-IrXn hn`m-K-Øn\v ]cn-K-W-\ob ÿm\-ap-≠v. jntam-K°pw ssakq-cn\pw CS-bn-embn \o≠p-In-S-°p∂ IS¬Øocw IqSn Dƒs∏´ Cu taJ-esb sX°≥ I¿Wm-SI ]›n-a-L´w F∂v hfn-°p-∂-Xm-bn-cn°pw A`nIm-ay-sa∂v Um\n-tb¬kv A`n-{]m-b-s∏-Sp-∂p. Db¿∂ ag e`n-°p-∂-Xp- am-{X-a-√, {lkz-amb hcƒ®m-th-f-Ifpw hfsc Ipd™ tXmXn-ep≈ am\p-jnI CS-s]-S-ep-I-fp-amWv Cu taJ-e-bnse \nXy-lcnX kky-ssh-hn-[y-Øn\v \nZm-\-sa∂pw At±lw Iq´n-t®¿°p-∂p. L 3 taJ-e-bnse AXn-i-b-I-c-amb \nXy-l-cn-X-k-ky-ssh-hn-[y-Øn¬\n∂v hn`n-∂-ambn L 1 taJ-e-bnepw, L 2 taJe-bpsS hS-°p-`m-KØpw \nXy-l-cnX kky-hn-`m-K߃ Xzcn-X-K-Xn-bn¬ A{]-Xy-£-am-bn-s°m≠n-cn-°p∂ {]Xn-`mkw hnc¬Nq-≠p-∂Xv c≠v Imcy-ß-fn-te-°mWv ˛ kpZo¿L-amb hcƒ®mth-f-Iƒ, a\p-jys‚ hnth-I-c-ln-X-amb CS-s]-S-ep-Iƒ F∂n-h-bm-W-h. C°mcyw km[q-I-cn°m-\m-h-iy-amb {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°-s∏´ hnhc-߃ th≠{X Cs√¶n¬t]mepw CØcw hkvXp-XIƒ kw_-‘n®v ]mkvI-ens‚ \nco-£-W-߃ C\n ]d-bp∂ \nK-a-\-ß-fn-se-Øn-t®-cm≥ klm-b-I-am-Ip-sa∂v Um\ntb¬kv A`n-{]m-b-s∏-Sp-∂p.

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2000 an.-ao-‰tdm AXn-e-[n-Itam ag e`n-°p∂ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse Xmgv∂ {]tZ-i-ßfnse `qhn-`m-K-ßsf kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw, hcƒ®m-th-f-I-fpsS ssZ¿Lyw IpSp-t¥mdpw CØcw {]tZ-i-߃ Ah-bpsS kzm`m-hnI ÿnXn hos≠-Sp-°p∂ {]{Inb aμ-K-Xn-bn-em-hp-∂p. 3000 an.-ao-‰-dntem AYhm 5000 an.-ao-‰-dntem A[n-I-ambn ag e`n-°p∂ {]IrXn taJ-e-Iƒ, Hcp ]cn-[n-bn-tesd hcƒ®m-th-f-Iƒ \o≠p-\n¬°p-∂ Ah-k-c-ß-fn¬ {]I-S-am-bn-Xs∂ hc-≠p-W-ßp-∂p. Cu taJ-e-I-fnse \nXy-l-cn-X-k-ky-Pm-e-ß-fpsS kzm`m-hnI ]p\-cp÷o-h\w CØcw L´-ß-fn¬ {]Xn-Iq-e-ambn _m[n-°-s∏-Sm-dp-≠v. a\p-jym-hmk taJ-e-I-fn¬ hnf-am‰n Irjn-sN-ø¬, {]tXyI Bh-iy߃°m-bp≈ acw apdn-°¬ F∂n-h-bpsS ^e-ambn kzm`m-hnI kky-Pm-e-߃ h≥tXm-Xn¬ \in-∏n-°-s∏Sp∂p. IqSm-sX, Xobn-S¬, I∂p-Im-en-ta-°¬, F∂n-hbpw kzm-`m-hnI kky-Pm-e-߃°v `oj-Wn-bp-b¿Øp-∂p. Nne L´-ß-fn¬ CØcw kky-Pm-e-߃ Fs∂-t∂-°p-am-bn-Xs∂ \in-∏n-°-s∏-Sp-∂p. CØcw {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ Xc-t°-Sn-√mØ ag e`n°p∂p-s≠-¶n¬Iq-Sn, Xmc-X-tay\ sNdp hcƒ®m-th-f-Iƒ A\p-`-h-s∏-Sp-∂-bn-S-tØ-°mƒ kzm`m-hnI kky-Pm-e߃ \io-I-cW `ojWn t\cn-Sp-∂-Xm-bmWv ImW-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-bn¬ Xs∂ \∂mbn ag e`n-°p-∂ `q{]-IrXn hn`m-K-ß-fn¬ 6 amk-Øntesd \o≠p \n¬°p∂ hcƒ® A\p-`-h-s∏-Sp-∂-]£w Ah kzm`m-hn-I-ÿnXn hos≠-Sp°p∂ {]{Inb aμK-Xn-bn-em-hm-dp-≠v. \nXy-l-cnX h\-ß-fnse ImX¬ D≈ hr£-ßfn¬ CØcw {]Xn-Iqe Ah-ÿ-Iƒ A]-cn-lr-X-amb am‰-ß-fmWv D≠m-°p-∂-Xv. hcƒ®m thf-I-fpsS ssZ¿Lyw Hcp {]Ir-Xn-hn-`m-KsØ am‰na-dn-°p-∂Xv F{]-Im-c-sa∂v ]cn-tim-[n-°mw. BZy-L´- Ø - n¬ kar-≤a - mb kzm`m-hnI kky-Pm-eß - f - S- ß - p∂ Hcp {]tZiw (DZm; L 3), hcƒ®mthf-Iƒ \o≠p-\n¬°m-\m-cw-`n-°p-∂-tXmsS {ZpX-K-Xn-bn¬ ISpØ am‰ßƒ°vv hnt[-b-am-hp∂p (L 2 taJ-e-bn¬ CXmWv Ct∏mƒ kw`-hn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xv). hcƒ®m-th-f-Iƒ XpS¿∂pw \o≠p-\n¬°p-∂ Ah-ÿ-bn¬ kzm`m-hnI kky-Pm-e-߃ Fs∂-t∂-°pambn \in-°-s∏´ Ah-ÿbv°v hgn-am-dp∂p (DZm: L 1 taJ-e) C∂v ImWp∂ Xc-Øn¬ ssUsStdmIm¿∏kv C\-Øn¬s∏´ \nXy-lcn-X-k-ky-ß-fpsS B[n-]Xyw, ]›n-aL - ´- ] - ¿h-X\ - n-cI - ƒ Ah-bpsS kzm-`m-hnI ]cn-ÿn-Xnsb hos≠-Sp-°p∂p F∂-Xns‚ Hcp ip`-kq-N-\-bmbn hne-bn-cp-Ømw. ssUsStdm-Im¿∏-kns‚ B[n-]-Xy-ap≈ ]›n-a-L-´-\n-c-I-fnse \nXy-l-cnX kzm`m-hnI kky-Pmew hfsc Gsd Ime-߃°v apºv, Ct∏mƒ L 2 taJ-e-bn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-bn-cn-°p∂ DØ-cm-Jfiv Pn√ htc-tbm, AXp-a-s√¶n¬ AXn\p adp-]p-dØv sX°p ]Sn-™m-d≥ alm-cmjv{S hsctbm hym]n-®n-cp-∂p. ssUsStdm-Im¿∏kv C≥Un-°-kn\v B[n-]-Xy-ap≈ \nXy-l-cnX kky-Pm-e-Øn\v \mev hyXykvX D]-hn-`m-K-ß-fp-≠v. AXn-semcp D]-hn-`m-K-amWv ssUsS-tdm-Im¿∏kv C≥Un°kv ˛ t]¿knb am{Im¥ F∂n-h-bpsS B[n-]-Xy-ap≈ kky-Pm-ew. Cu D]-hn-`m-KØn¬\n∂v {ItaW t]¿knb a{Im-¥bv°v B[n-]-Xy-ap≈ kky-Pmew DØc I∂S {]tZ-iØv ASp-Ø-bnsS Is≠-Øp-I-bp-≠m-bn. Cu kky-Pm-e-hn-`mKØn¬ sNdnb tXmXn¬ ssUsS-tdm-Im¿∏kv C≥Un-°kv ImW-s∏-Sp-∂p-≠v. ASp-ØIm-e-Ømbn L 1 hn`m-K-Øn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp∂ tKmhbv°v hS-°p≈ `q{]-Ir-Xn-hn-`m-Kßfnepw t]gvkz a{Im-¥-bpsS B[n-]-Xy-a≈ \nXy-l-cn-X-h-\-߃ ImW-s∏-Sp-∂p-≠v. F∂m¬. ]mkvI¬ (1988)s‚ A`n-{]m-b-Øn¬ Cu C\w kky-ß-fpsS km∂n[yw hncfambn am{Xw ImW-s∏-Sp∂ H∂m-sW-∂m-Wv. saan ssktem¨ Aw_-te‰w ˛ knkn-Pnbw Iypan\n ˛ BIvSn-t\m-sU^vs\ BwK-Ãnt^m-fnb F∂o kky C\-߃°v {]map-Jy-a≈ aXn-cm≥, alm-_-te-iz¿ (a-lm-cm-jv{S) F∂n-hn-S-ßfnse \nXy-l-cn-X-h-\-ß-fn¬ Nne kμ¿`-ß-fn¬ t]gvknb a{Im-¥-bpsS km∂n-[yhpw ImW-s∏-Sm-dp-≠v. hnf-am‰n Irjn-sN-ø¬, \o≠p-\n¬°p∂ hcƒ®m-th-f-Iƒ, F∂n-h-bmWv alm-cmjvv{S kwÿm-\sØ \nXy-l-cn-X-h-\-ß-fnse kky-Pme-߃°v ]msS am‰w kw`-hn-°m-\p≈ Hcp {]aJ Imc-W-sa∂v ]mkvI¬ (1988) hne-bn-cp-Øp-∂p. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]›n-a-L´ \nc-I-fnse `p{]-Ir-Xn-hn-`m-K-߃ ˛ kzm`m-hnI ]cn-ÿnXn hos≠-Sp-°¬ I¿ÆmS-I, tKmh, alm-cmjv{S F∂n-hn-S-ßfnse ]›n-a-L´ \nc-I-fmWv G‰hpw Ipd™ hos≠-Sp-°¬ tijn {]I-Sn-∏n-°p-∂-sX∂v Um\n-tb¬kv Nq≠n-°m-´p-∂p. alm-cjv{S kwÿm\-Ønse L 1 hn`m-K-Øn-¬s∏´ ]›n-a-L-´-{]-tZ-i߃ CØ-c-Øn-ep-≈-h-bm-Wv. Chn-S-ß-fnse kzm`m-hnI \nXy-l-cnX ag-°m-Sp-Iƒ ]q¿W-ambpw sam´-°p-∂p-I-fmbn amdnbn-cn-°p-∂p. I¿ÆmS-I-bnse L 2, L 3 hn`m-K-Øn¬-s∏´ ]›n-a-L´ {]tZ-ißfm-h-s´, Ah-bpsS kzm`m-hnI ]cnÿnXn hos≠-Sp-°p-∂-Xns‚ hnhn[ L´-ß-fn-em-Wv. jntam-K, IpS-Pm{Zn taJ-e-bnse ]›n-aL´ ae-\n-c-I-fnse \nXy-l-cn-X-h-\-߃ hy‡-ambpw CØcw Hcp am-‰-Øns‚ L´-Øn-em-Wv. anI® ]cn-ÿnXn ]cn-]m-e\ coXn-I-fn-eqsS Cu hn`m-K-ß-fnse kzm`m-hnI ]cn-ÿn-Xn-ho-s≠Sp-°p-hm\pw Chsb Z£n-W-˛-]-›n-a-L´ taJ-e-I-fnse ]cn-ÿn-Xn°v kam-\-am-°p-hm\pw km[n°p-∂-Xm-Wv. F∂m¬, Aew-`m-h-]q¿W-amb kao-]\w kzoI-cn-®m¬ CØcw {]tZ-ißfnse ÿnXn IqSp-X¬ hj-fm-hm\pw Ch L 2 hn`m-K-Øn-tetbm AYhm L 1 h`m-K-Ønse Xs∂tbm ]cn-ÿn-Xn°v kam-\-amb ÿnXn-bn-te°v sNs∂-Øp-hm-\p≈ km[yX X≈n-°-f-bm-\m-hn√ F∂pw Um\n-tb¬kv A`n-{]m-b-s∏-Sp-∂p. L 3 `q{]-IrXn hn`mKw Db¿∂ _o‰mssh-hn[yw (C-t°m-hyq-lßfpsS sshhn-[yw) {]Z¿in∏n-°p-∂p. ÿe-]-c-ambn GI kz`m-h-ap≈ Cu `qhn-`m-K-Øn¬, ]t£, hnhn[ {]tZ-i-ßfnembn [mcmfw hyXykvX kzojo-kp-Isf Is≠-Øm-\m-bn-´p-≠v. ÿe-Øns‚ kzm`m-hnI ]cnÿnXn hos≠-Sp°p-hm-\p≈ Ignhv Ipd-™p-h-cp-∂p-sh-∂-Xns‚ BZy kqN-\-bm-Wn-sX∂v Um\ntb¬kv Nq≠n-°m-´p-∂p. Db¿∂ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-hn-tem-e-Xbpw CØcw {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS {]tXy-I-Xbm-Wv. ssPh-ssh-hn-[y-Øn\v \n¿Wmb-I-amb kky-k-ar-≤nsb kzm[o-\n-°p-∂Xv ]›n-a-L-´Øns‚ `qan-im-kv{X-]-c-amb {]tXy-I-X-I-f-√, adn®v ag e`y-X, hcƒ®m-th-f-I-fpsS ssZ¿Lyw, ÿe-Øns‚ {]mtZ-in-I-amb {]tXy-I-X-Iƒ F∂n-h-bm-Wv. AXp-sIm-≠p-Xs∂ ÿe-]-c-amb ssPh-ssh-hn[yw Cu LS-I-ß-fp-ambn _‘-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p. AXn-\m¬ Um\ntb¬kns‚ A`n{]m-b-Øn¬ ÿe-]-c-ambn GI-kz-`m-h-ap≈ Hcp `qhn-`mKw Db¿∂ Xe-Øn-ep≈ _o‰m--sshhn[yw {]I-Sn-∏n-°p-∂p-s≠-¶n¬, B `qhn-`mKw Atß-b‰w ]cn-ÿnXn {]m[m-\y-ap-≈-Xm-Wv.

a\p-jys‚ CS-s]-S-epIfpw ]mcn-ÿn-XnI {]Xym-Lm-X-ßfpw a\p-jy≥ Xs‚ ]Wn-bm-bp-[-߃sIm≠pw Bkq-{Xn-Xhpw kzm¿Y-]-c-hp-amb {]hr-ØnIƒsIm≠pw {]Ir-Xnsb \nc¥cw \in-∏n-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. et£m-]e - £w h¿j-߃sIm≠v ]›n-a-L-´-ß-fn¬ cq]-sa-SpØ khn-tij ]cn-ÿn-Xn-tbbpw a\p-jy≥ shdpsX hnSp-∂n-√. Ccpºp-sIm-≠p≈ Bbp-[-߃ Ic-K-X-am-b-tXmsS ImSp-sh-´n-sØ-fn-bn®v Irjn-bn-d-°m\pw Bcw`n®p. a\p-jys‚ CØcw {]hr-Øn-Iƒ \io-I-c-Wm-fl-I-am-sW-¶n¬IqSn a\x-]q¿h-amb {]Ir-Xnkw-c-£-W-am¿K-߃ ssIsIm-≈p∂ Htc Hcp Pohnh¿Khpw a\p-jy¿X-s∂-bm-Wv. Xmsg sImSpØn-cn-°p∂ ]›na-L-´-\n-c-I-fpsS ]Sn-]-Sn-bmb Ncn{Xw shfn-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p.

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136


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]´nI 2 : ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ Ncn{Xw ˛ Hcp s]mXp Ah-tem-I\w {Ia Ime-L´w \º¿

kp{]-[m\ kmaq-ly-amb am‰w

h\-hn-\n-tbmKw

kwc-£-W \S-]-Sn-Iƒ

1.

_n.-kn 1000 \v apºv

\mbm´pw a’y-_-‘\hpw

ssPh-hn-`-h-߃ tiJ-cn-°¬

hnip-≤-h-\-ß-fp-sS-bpw, Imhp-I-fp-sSbpw, hnip-≤-Pohn h¿K-ß-fpsSbpw kwc-£Ww

2

_nkn 1000 \Zo-Xo-c-ß-fnse apX¬ Im¿jn-I-hrØn _nkn ]ptcm-K-an-°p∂p 300 hsc

\Zo-X-S-߃ Irjn-°p-]-bp‡ am°p∂p

hnip-≤-h-\-ß-fp-sS-bpw, Imhp-I-fp-sSbpw, hnip-≤-Pohn h¿K-ß-fpsSbpw kwc-£Ww

3

_nkn 300 kap-{Zm-\-¥c apX¬ hym]mcw ]ptcmK FUn an°p∂p 300 hsc

Ipcp-ap-f-Iv, Gew XpSßn kpK-‘-{Zhy-ßfp-sSbpw a‰v {]Ir-Xn-hn-`-h-ßfpsSbpw hym]mcw ]ptcm-K-an-°p∂p

hnip-≤-h-\-ß-fp-sS-bpw, Imhp-I-fp-sSbpw, hnip-≤-Pohn h¿K-ß-fpsSbpw kwc-£Ww

4

300 FUn PmXn-hy-hÿ DS-seapX¬ 1500 Sp-°p-∂p, kwÿm-\FUn hsc ߃ cq]w-sIm-≈p∂p.

kpK-‘-{Z-hy-߃ kw`-cn-°p-∂p, \ZoX-S-ß-fn¬ kpK-‘{Z-hy-tXm-´-߃ ]ptcm-K-an-°p∂p.

hnip-≤-h-\-ß-fp-sS-bpw, Imhp-I-fp-sSbpw, hnip-≤-Pohn h¿K-ß-fpsSbpw kwc-£Ww. {]Ir-Xn-hn-`-hßfpsS D]tbmKw \nb-{¥-W-hn-t[-b-am°p∂p

5

6

{]Ir-Xn-hn-`-h-ßfpsS D]1500 FUn bqtdm-]y≥ tImf-\n- kpK-‘-{Z-hy tbmKw \nb-{¥-W-hn-t[-b-amapX¬ 1800 hm-gvN-bpsS kzm[o\w ßfpsS hym]mcw °p∂p. hnip-≤-h-\-ß-fp-sSFUn hsc Zriy-am-Ip∂p h¿[n-°p-∂p. bpw, Imhp-I-fp-sSbpw, hnipI∏¬ \n¿am-W≤-Pohn h¿K-ß-fp-sSbpw Øn\p th≠n XSn kwc-£Ww XpS-cp-∂p. IqSp-X¬ Bh-iyambn hcp∂p 1800 FUn apX¬ 1860 FUn hsc

{_n´ojv `c-W-Øn\v Iogn¬ ]c-º-cm-KX kmaq-ly-hy-h-ÿ-Iƒ XI-cp∂p

kzm`m-hnI tX°v XpS-ßn-b-h-bpsS A\n-b-{¥nX D]tbmKw

{]Ir-Xn-hn-`-h-ßfpsS D]tbmKw \b-{¥-W-hn-t[-b-am°p∂p.hnip-≤-h-\-ß-fp-sSbpw, Imhp-I-fp-sSbpw, hnip≤-Pohn h¿K-ß-fp-sSbpw kwc-£Ww Ipd-bp-∂p. {]IrXn hn`-h-߃ [mcmfw \in-∏n-°-s∏-Sp-I-IqSn sNøp∂p.

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137


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

{Ia Ime-L´w \º¿

kp{]-[m\ kmaq-ly-amb am‰w

h\-hn-\n-tbmKw

kwc-£-W \S-]-Sn-Iƒ

hnip-≤-h-\-ß-fp-sS-bpw, Imhp-I-fp-sSbpw, hnip-≤Pohn h¿K-ß-fp-sSbpw kwc£Ww ]cn-an-X-am-Ip-∂p. {]IrXn hn`-h-߃ [mcmfw \in-∏n-°-s∏-Sp-I-IqSn sNøp∂p.

7

1860 FUn apX¬ 1947 FUn hsc

{_n´ojv `cWw XpScp∂p; `q{]-`p-°fpw DtZym-Kÿ ta[mhnXzw ta¬t°mbva t\Sp∂p

hnfamdn Irjn sNø-en\v \ntcm[\w; h\-`qan Kh¨sa‚ v Gs‰Sp-°p∂p; h≥tXmXn¬ tX°vtXm´ßƒ h®v ]nSn-∏n°p-∂p

8

947 FUn apX¬ 1960 FUn hsc

kzX{¥ C¥y-bn¬ ]c-º-cm-K-X-amb kmaqly ta¬t°mbva XI-cp-∂p. hmWnPyhpw hyh-km-bhpw ta¬ss° t\Sp∂p

Irjn-°pw, \Zo-X- h\y-ar-K-kw-c-£-W-tI-{μßfpw tZiob DZym-\-ßfpw S-]-≤-Xn-Iƒ°pw th≠n-bp≈ `qhn- ÿm]n-X-am-hp-∂p. \n-tbmKw; h\-hn-`h-hyh-km-bØnepw hym-]m-cØnepw h∂ {ZpX]p-tcm-KXn

9

1960 FUn h\-hn-`-h-ßsf ASnapX¬ 1980 ÿm-\-am-°n-bp≈ FUn hyh-kmbw CSn-bp∂p hsc

h\-hn-`-h-ß-fpsS e`y-X Ipdhv {]IS-am-hp-∂p. bq°men]v‰vkv tXm´ßƒ hym]-I-am-hp∂p. \Zo-P-e-]-≤XnIƒ h≥tXmXn¬ ]ptcm-K-an°p∂p

hnip-≤-h-\ßfpw, ImhpIfpw hymh-km-bnI Bh-iy߃°p-th≠n, hym]-Iambn \in-∏n-°-s∏-Sp-∂p. IqSp-X¬ IqSp-X¬ h\y-ar-Kkw-c-£-W-tI-{μ-ßfpw tZiob DZym--\-ßfpw ÿm]n-X-am-Ip-∂p.

10

1980 apX¬ hnI-k\ {]{In-b-Ikzm`m-hn-I-h-\C∂v hsc fnse sshcp[yw {]I- ߃ A∏msS S-am-hp∂p sh´n-sØfn°p∂Xpw, Xnc-™v]nSn-®p≈ acw-apdnbpw aμ-K-Xn-bnem-hp-∂p. Pe-t{km-X- pIfpw `q\n-ehpw kzIm-cy-h¬°cWw t\cn-Sp-∂p. `qan Gs‰-Sp-°¬ kw_-‘n®v h≥tXm-Xn¬ X¿°-߃ DS-seSp-°p-∂p

h\y-ar-K-kw-c-£-W-tI-{μ-ßfpw tZiob DZym-\-ßfpw kwc-£nX ssPh-afi-eØn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. IqSmsX ]cn-ÿn-Xn-teme taJ-e-Iƒ°v IqSp-X¬ {]m[m\yw \¬Ip-∂p.

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138


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

{_n´ojv A[n-\n-thi ImeØpw ]n∂oSv kzmX-{¥ym-\-¥-c-Im-e-L-´-Ønepw hnI-k-\Øns‚ t]cn¬ a\p-jys‚ CS-s]-S-ep-I-fpsS B°hpw tXmXpw h¿[n-®p-sIm-t≠-bn-cn-°p-∂p. ]›n-aL - ´- Ø - ns‚ DØ-c`- m-Kßfn¬ D≠mb AXns‚ hnI-k\ - {- ]-{In-bI - ƒ C°m-cy-Øn\v km£yw \¬Ip∂p. C¥y-bpsS kmº-ØnI Xe-ÿm-\-amb apws_ \K-c-hp-am-bp≈ ASp∏w sIm≠mWv C{X-ta¬ am\p-jnI CS-s]-S-ep-Iƒ D≠m-b-sX∂v {io. hnPbv ]c©vss] (2011) ]›n-a-L´ Bhmk hyh-ÿm-]-T-\-k-anXn dnt∏m¿´n-\p-th≠n Xøm-dm-°nb {]tXyI teJ-\-Øn¬ Du∂n∏d-bp-∂p. {io. ]c-©vss]-bpsS (2011) A`n-{]m-b-Øn¬ ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ DØ-c-`m-K-ß-fn¬ apºp-≠n-´n-√mØ hn[w {ZpX-K-Xn-bn¬ D≠mb hnI-k-\-߃°v Bkv]-Z-am-bXv 3 Imcy-ß-fmWv: 1)

sdbn¬-th-bpsS \n¿amWw

2)

tdmUp-I-fpsS hnI-k\w

3)

AW-s°-´p-I-fpsS \n¿amWw

apws_-˛-Xm-s\, \mkn-Iv, ]qsW F∂o h≥ \K-c-ß-fnse hyh-km-b-kw-cw-`-߃°m-h-iyamb Akw-kvIrX hkvXp-°-fpsS kw`-c-Ww, Nqj-Ww, Iø-S-°¬ F∂n-hbv°v bYm¿Y-Øn¬ hgn Xpd-∂Xpw ta¬]d™ aq∂v kwK-Xn-I-fm-Wv. Cu ÿnXn C∂pw XpS¿∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. 1863 ¬ ]qsW hsc BZysØ sdbn¬]mX \n¿h-ln-°-s∏-´p. XpS¿∂v, 1865¬ apws_ apX¬ CKXv]pcn hsc c≠m-asØ sdbn¬]mX \ne-hn¬ h∂p. C¥y≥ D]-`q-J-fi-Ønse hn]-WnI-fnse A\¥-km-[y-X-I-fn-te°v Dƒ\m-Sp-I-fn¬\n-∂p≈ Im¿jn-tIm¬∏-∂-ßfpw h\-hn-`-hßfpw kpK-a-ambn sIm-≠p-sN-s∂-Øn-°p-∂-Xn\v Atß-b‰w D]-I-cn®p F∂-XmWv sdbn¬]mX \n¿h-ln-®p-sIm-≠p≈ {][m\ t\´w. XSn apX-emb h\-hn-`-h-߃ sdbn¬]mX hgn ]›n-a-L´ h\-{]tZ-i-ß-fn¬\n∂pw cmPy-Øns‚ ap°nepw aqe-bnepw FØn-t®¿∂p. sdbn¬]mX-bpsS hcthmsS temWm-hm-e, Jfi-e, aXn-cm≥ ae-tbmc ]´-W-߃ AXn-thKw hnI-kn®p. F∂m¬, DØc ]›n-a-L-´-{]-tZ-i-ß-fn¬ G‰hpw Ipd™ ka-bw-sIm≠v G‰hpw IqSnb hnkvXr-Xn-bn¬ Zqc-hym-]-I-amb {]Xym-Lm-X-߃ krjvSn-®Xv AW-s°-´p-I-fpsS \n¿am-W-amWv. {_n´ojp-ImcpsS Ime-ØmWv AW-s°-´p-Iƒ \n¿an-°m-\m-cw-`n-®-Xv. 1860¬ apws_-bnse hnlm¿ F∂ ÿe-Øm-bn-cp-∂p DØ-c] - › - n-aL - ´- Ø - nse BZysØ AW-s°´v ]Wn-XX - v. XpS¿∂v, 1947 hsc DØ-c-˛-]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ am{Xw 20 AW-s°-´p-Iƒ ]Wn ]q¿Øo-I-cn-®p. 1947\v tijhpw CXv XpS¿∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. 2009 Bb-t∏mƒ \n¿am-W-Øn-en-cn-°p-∂-h-b-S°w BsI AWs°-´p-I-fpsS FÆw 1821 Bbn Db¿∂p. CXn¬X-s∂, GI-tZiw 200-˛-Hmfw henb AW-s°-´pIƒ DØc ]›na-L´ {]tZ-i-ß-fn-em-Wv. h≥InS AW-s°-´p-Isf∏‰n-bp≈ tZiob dPn-Ã-dn¬ (2009)-\n∂v e`n® 165 Umap-I-fpsS hnh-c-߃ Xmsg tN¿°p-∂p.

]´nI 3 : hS-°≥ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse Umap-Iƒ ae≥Km-thm¨

Imb≥I≠

NmhvSn _pcmbv

Hmkm¿tJUv

eSn-]mU

PwtJUn N\Iv]q¿ Umw

hmJUv

]ps\-Km-thm¨

Ic¨Pvhm≥

KwKm-]q¿

]m¬tJUv

Afμn (\m-kn-Iv)

ISvh

aIvs\

U¿W

`¥m¿Zmc

hm¬tUhn

A∏¿ ss]S¿W

hSPv

]nw]m¬Km-thm¨tPmKv

tbUvKm-thm¨

sXm°¬hmSn

Unws`

NkvIm-ta≥

h¬hm≥

`ma-˛-AkvJXv

DIvkm≥

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

139


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

ap¬jn

inh-hmX

]mh\

]≥tj‰v

sSwLm¿

JUIvhmkve

`SvK¿

hc-kvK-thm¨

K≥Pvhm\n

\oc-˛-Zn-tbmJ¿

a¬lm¿ km-K¿

ho¿ Umw

D¿tamSn

tZmw _m¬°m\n

Im≥l¿

tam¿\m Umw

t\¿ Umw

sImbv\

Imkcn

Nt≠men

ISvhn

Xpƒjn (tIm¬lm-]q¿)

Ipw`n

t]mws_-b¿

Ie-Ωm-hmSn

Ip¿en

cm[m-\-Kcn

On{Xn

]SvKm-thm¨

Nnt°m{X

cIm-kvtIm∏v

P≥Kw-l´n

Xn√mcn

tKm≠q¿ Umw

A≥Pp\

ap‡n Umw

Jp¬sS

]p¿ta-t]U

Pmw^¬

It\men

L¨Uvte

tImØmcn

\≥{U

tZhv`mt\

_¿kmXv

tam´n-\√

c¨Kuen

B⁄en

\hmØ

NuKm-thm¨

emw Jm\n

l´n ho¿tJ¬

lc¨_mcn

_¿ZmJ

h¿jn

a¿Ifiv ]nw{]n

]≥kmc

H´q¿

t`Kp

ImIv\n

a¬K-thm¨

Ic≥Pvhm≥

I{_nb JSIv

JncmUv

kZ-K-thm¨e-Um®n

A≥Pvt\cn

Pwte-hmWn

ss\IvhmUn

t_m¿Zmbv hm‰v

temh¿ ]≥kmc

cmlpUv

`tS≥

Xte-K-thm¨{Sw-_Iv

h¬tUhn

cmta-iz-¿

temh¿ X]n

Sn≥Km¬hmUn

Zt\men

aln-cm-hmWn

sj≥hmUv

Jmcnb LpSn-L´v

Ae≥Un (\m-kn-Iv)

sbs\sc

Ihm-Xvkm¿

Ae-hm≥Un

]cp≥sU

jnhm≥

Xtemjn

As\s]w-Umc

Awt_men

DSvNn¬

Aw_n-Jm≥

tIm¨

hUPv

t_mdn

JtJc MI

_√m¬hmUn

t_e-]q¿

tJUv (C-K-Xv]p-cn)

el-tc-Ikmcn

Pm[-hvhmUn

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

140


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Nnte-hmUn

tIte-hmUn

`pK-thm¨

cRvPn-hmUn

Aw_n-Up-ame

hte≥

hmLvZc (Hm-´q¿)

A≥{U Umw

am¿s\-hmUn

aWn-IvtZmlv

dntl

KÕvth≥

Aw_n-Jm¬k

]nwt]men

t_m¿Km-thm¨

kmIp¿

ehm¿sU

a≥Umth

tKmsl

Itºmen

t`mkv

ap¬jn Hm¨apf

A≥Up¿

lUmjn

Nn©v hmUv

sItc-K-thm¨

tlmSIn

tjdn

tKmh-]p¿

lmUvjn-˛2

[¿tU-Un-Km¿

\nwavKm-thm≥ FIvcpJv

a¬K-thm¨

s^{_p-hcn 20 hsc

Ah-ew_w : ]cn-©vss], 2011

AW-s°-´p-I-fpsS \n¿am-W-tØm-S-\p-_-‘n®v km[m-c-W- K-Xn-bn¬ tdmUp-I-fpsS \n¿amWhpw \S-Ø-s∏-Sp-∂p. CXp-hgn, ]›n-a-L´ {]tZ-i-ß-fnse hnZqc taJ-e-Iƒ ]´-W-ß-fp-ambn _‘w ÿm]n-°m-\n-S-bp-hp-∂p. X≥\n-an-Øw, ]›n-a-L-´-{]-tZ-i-ß-fnse I\ym-h-\-߃ IqSpX¬ IqSp-X¬ Nqj-W-hn-t[-b-am-°-s∏-Sp-∂p. s]mXp KXm-KXw sa®-s∏Sp-Øp-∂-Xn-\pw, ]nt∂m°m-hÿ-bn-ep≈ {]tZ-iß-fpsS hnI-k-\-Øn-\p≈ t]cnepw \n¿an-°-s∏-Sp∂ Cu ]mX-Iƒ ]e-t∏mgpw h\-ta-J-e-Isf Xeßpw hneßpw hn`-Pn-°p-Ibpw AXn-eqsS h\-\-io-I-c-W-Øn-\pXs∂ B°w Iq´p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. klym-{Zn-bpsS {]tXyI `q{]-Ir-Xn-aqew X¬{]-tZ-i-ß-fn¬ Ipd™ hnebv°v `qan hmßn ]pXnb ]pXnb hymh-km-bnI DZym-\-߃ ÿm]n-°p-∂-Xmbn ]c©vss] Nq≠n-°m-Wn-°p-∂p. alm-cmjv{S hyh-kmb hnI-k\ tIm¿∏-td-js‚ sh_vssk‰v hnh-c-߃ D≤-cn-®p-sIm-≠v, hS°≥ ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ slIvS-dp-I-tfmfw hnkvXo¿W-Øn¬ hym]n-®p--In-S-°p-∂ hymh-kmbnI DZym-\-ß-fn¬ 30-tesd {]tXyI kpc£ A¿ln-°p∂ ]cn-ÿnXn taJ-e-Iƒ Ds≠∂v At±lw Nq≠n-°m-´p-∂p. CØcw hymh-km-bnI DZym-\-ß-fpsS \n¿amW L´-Ønepw \n¿amW tij-hp-amWv ]cn-ÿn-Xn°v h≥ BLm-X-߃ t\cn-tS≠n hcnI; Bhmk hyhÿ F{XtØmfw hnkvXrX-amtWm A{X-tØmfw I\-Ø-Xm-bn-cn°pw AXn\v Xmtß-≠n-h-cp∂ ]mcnÿn-XnI BLmXw F∂pw ]c©vss] Iq´n-t®¿°p∂p (t]Pv 18). Bw_n-hm-en, ehmU ]≤-Xn-I-sf-∏-‰nbpw Ch Db¿Øp∂ ]mcn-ÿn-Xn-I-˛-km-aqly {]iv\ß-sf-∏-‰nbpw ]c©vss] ]cm-a¿in-°p-∂p-≠v. CØcw ]≤XnIƒ Db¿Øp∂ Nne \b-]-camb {]iv\-߃ At±lw Nq≠n-°m-´p∂p (t]Pv 23). a)

s]mXp-P-\ßfn¬ \n∂v an®-`qan hmßm≥ kwÿm\ Kh¨sa‚ns\ A[n-Im-c-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn´p-t≠m? Cu an®-`qan kzImcy e£y-߃°p th≠n hn¬°p-hmt\m ]W-b-s∏-Sp-Øphmt\m km[n-°ptam?

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ b)

Xt±-i-hm-kn-Isf Iq´-tØmsS ]em-b\w sNøm≥ \n¿_-‘n-X-cm-°p∂ Xc-Øn¬ XnI®pw kzImcy hy‡n-I-fpsS \nb-{¥-W-Øn-ep≈ sNdp-]-´-W-߃ \n¿an-°p-hm≥ s]mXp ÿe߃ kzImcy kwcw-`-I¿°v hn¬°p-∂Xv kmaq-lnI \∑ F∂ KW-Øn¬s]-SpØn \ymboI-cn-°m-\m-hptam?

c)

\K-c-hn-I-k-\w, ae-tbmc kpJ-hmk tI{μ߃, dntkm¿Sp-Iƒ F∂n-h-bpsS hnI-k-\Øn\p th≠n klym-{Zn-bnse I\ym-h-\-ßfpw \Zn-I-fpsS \o¿adn {]tZ-i-ßfpw hn´p\¬Im-\m-hptam?

d)

CØcw AXn-{Zp-Xhpw ItTm-c-hp-amb hnI-k\ {]{In-b-Iƒ aqe-ap≈ ]mcnÿn-XnI BLmXw adn-I-S-°p-hm≥ th≠{X hos≠-Sp-°¬ tijn klym-{Zn-ta-J-e-Iƒ°pt≠m?

]cn-ÿn-Xnsb kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw G‰hpw hn\m-i-Im-cn-Iƒ a\p-jy-cmWv F∂p Xs∂b√, a\x-]q¿h-amb Bkq-{X-W-tØmsS {]Ir-Xnsb \in-∏n-°p∂ `qan-bnse Htc-sbmcp P¥phn`m-Khpw a\p-jy¿X-s∂-bm-Wv. ]›n-aL - ´- ß - f - psS khn-tij Bhm-kh - y-hÿ b - psS X¬ÿnXn Ah-tem--I\w sNøp-hm\pw Chbv°v BLm-Xt- a¬°m-Øh - n-[Ø - n¬ ]cn-ÿnXn kulm¿Z-]chpw kmaq-ln-Imw-Ko-Im-c-hp-ap≈ kpÿn-c-hn-I-k-\-]-≤-Xn-Iƒ \n¿tZ-in-°p-hm-\p-amWv ]›n-a-L´ Bhmk-hy-h-ÿm- hn-ZvKv[-]-T-\k-anXn cq]-h¬°-cn-®-Xv. ]›naL-´-ß-fpsS Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿm]-c-amb X¬ÿn-Xn-sb-∏‰n ]m\-ens‚ hne-bn-cp-ج Xmsg tN¿°p-∂p.

]›n-a-L´ Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bpsS X¬ÿnXn hne-bn-cp-ج ]›n-a-L-´-ß-fpƒs∏sS C¥y-bn¬ Fßp-ap≈ ]cn-ÿnXn hnteme taJ-e-Isf Xncn-®-dnbm≥ B[m-c-am-°n-bn-´p-≈Xv {]Wm_vsk≥ IΩn‰n dnt∏m¿´m-Wv. “`mc-X-Ønse ]cn-ÿnXn hnteme taJ-e-Isf th¿Xn-cn-®-dn-bp-∂-Xn-\pw tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xn-\p-ap≈ ASn-ÿm\ hnh-c߃” F∂-Xns\ B[m-c-am-°n-bmWv IΩn‰n dnt∏m¿´v Xøm-dm-°n-b-Xv. tI{μ h\w˛]-cn-ÿnXn a{¥m-e-b-Øns‚ Iogn¬ 2000 k]vXw-_-dn¬ BWv {]Wm-_vsk≥ dnt∏m¿´v Xømdm°n ka¿∏n°-s∏-´-Xv. {]kvXpX IΩn‰n dnt∏m¿´nse {][m\ ip]m¿i-Iƒ Ch-bmWv: 1)

C¥y-bnse `ua-˛-ssPh taJ-e-Isf kw_-‘n-°p-∂ ASn-ÿm\ hnh-c-߃ tiJ-cn°mt\m kw`-cn-°mt\m Bh-iy-amb ka{K ]≤-Xn-Iƒ C√. CØcw {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS ]cnÿn-Xn-]-c-amb khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ Dƒs°m-≈n-®p-sIm≠v Nn´-bmbn tcJ-s∏-SpØn kq£n°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ \S-]-Sn-Iƒ FSp-t°-≠-Xp-≠v.

2)

]cn-ÿnXnimkv{Xw, h\y-Pohnimkv{Xw apX-emb taJ-eI - f - n¬ sshZ-Kv[y-ap-≈h - ¿ Xptemw ]cn-an-X-am-Wv. CØcw imkv{X-im-J-I-fn¬ {]mho-Wy-ap-≈-hsc hm¿-sØ-Sp-°p-hm≥ Kthj-W-˛-hn-Zym-`ymk ÿm]-\-߃ ap≥ssI FSp-t°-≠-Xp-≠v.

3)

Kh¨sa‚ v GP≥kn-Iƒ, k¿h-I-em-im-e-Iƒ, K-h¨a‚ v CXc kwL-S-\-Iƒ, hy‡nIƒ, Xt±-i-hm-kn-Iƒ F∂n-h-cpƒs∏´ Hcp ka{K \nco-£-W- kw-hn-[m-\hpw {]h¿Ø\ irwJ-ebpw ASn-b-¥n-c-ambn cq]o-I-cn®v {]h¿Ø-\-am-cw-`n-t°-≠-Xp-≠v.

4)

ASn-b-¥n-c-L-´-ß-fn¬ Hcp {]tXyI ZuXy-sa∂ \ne-bn¬ ta¬]-d™ Imcy-߃ \S-∏nem-t°-≠-Xm-Wv.

{]mY-anI am\-Z-fi-߃ Xmsg ]d-bp∂ ASn-ÿm\ am\-Z-fi-ß-fn¬ GsX-¶nepw Hs∂-¶n-ep-ap≈ ÿe-߃/ {]tZ-i-߃ \ncp-]m-[nIw kwc-£n-°-s∏-´-h-bm-Wv F∂mWv {]Wm_v sk≥ IΩn‰n ip]m¿i. kv]ojo-kvX-e-Øn¬ 1)

Xt±-io-bX (endemism)

2)

hnc-fX (rarity)

3)

hwi-\miw kw`-hn® h¿K-߃

4)

\mS≥ C\ßfpsS bYm¿Y {]`-h-tI-{μ-߃

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Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿm-X-e-Øn¬ 5)

h\y-Po-hn-˛-C-S-\mgn

6)

khn-tij Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-Iƒ

7)

{]Xyp¬]m-Z-\-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´ khn-tij C\-߃

8)

ss\k¿KnI ]p\-cp-÷o-h-\-tijn hfsc Ipd-hp≈ ÿe-߃

9)

Imhp-Iƒ

10)

koam-h-\-߃

`ua-kz-`mh khntijX-I-fpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ 11)

A[n-hm-k-an-√mØ kap-{Z-Zzo-]p-Iƒ

12)

IpØ-s\-bp≈ Ncn-hp-Iƒ

13)

\Zn-I-fpsS D¬`-h-ÿm\w

ta¬]d™ Hmtcm ASn-ÿm\ LS-I-Øn\pw {]Wm-_vsk≥ IΩn‰n dnt∏m¿´n¬ (MOEF 2000) “\n¿h-N-\-ßfpw” “ImW-s∏-Sp-∂ taJ-e-Ifpw” \¬In-bn-cn-°p-∂p. Xt±-io-bX/ÿe-X¬]-cX

(Endemism)

\n¿h-N-\w: FsX-¶n-ep-samcp Pohn hn`mKw Hcp {]tXyI `ua taJ-e-bn¬ am{Xw ImW-s∏Sp-Ibpw temIØv as‰m-cn-SØpw ImW-s∏-Sm-Ø-Xp-amb Ah-ÿ. taJe : ÿe-X¬]-cX {]I-Sn-∏n-°p∂ {]tXyI ssPh-hn-`mKw ImW-s∏-Sp∂ taJ-e.- -AXns‚ F√m X\n-a-tbmSpw IqsS kwc-£n-°-s∏-tS-≠-XmWv. CØcw taJ-e-Isf th¿Xn-cn-°p-tºmƒ AhbpsS ssPh km{μ-X, \nhm-k-tI-{μ-Øns‚ sa®w, Nqj-W-\n-e-hm-cw, ]pXp-Xmbn h∂ptN¿∂ Pohn-h¿K-߃, tcmK-hm-l-I¿, am¬k-cyw, ]cm-Z-߃, aen-\o-I-c-W-Im-cn-Iƒ F∂nh F√mw IW-°n-se-Sp-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. ]›na-L-´-Ønse ÿnXn ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ am{Xw ImW-s∏-Sp∂ 1500 kv]ojn-kn-tesd ]pjv]n-X-k-ky-ßfpw Npcpßnb ]£w 500-˛-Hmfw Xt±-iob a’y-ßfpw, D`-b-Po-hn-Iƒ, Cg-P-¥p-°ƒ, ]£n-Iƒ, kkvX\n-Iƒ F∂n-h-bp-ap-≠v. CØ-c-Øn¬ ]›n-a-L-´-{]-tZ-i-ß-tfm-Sp-am{Xw {]tXyI ÿe-{]-Xn-]Øn ImWn-°p∂ AI-ti-cn-I-Ifpw ^wK-kp-Ifpw th≠{X Ds≠-¶nepw Ch-sb-∏‰n hfsc sNdnb tXmXn-ep≈ ]cn-⁄m-\ta D≈p. DZm-lcWØn\v {UmK¨ ^vssf F∂ Hcp C\w {]mWnh¿Kw HgnsI ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse H´p-an° Pe-{]m-Wn-I-sf-bpw∏-‰n-bp≈ ]cn-⁄m\w Ct∏mgpw ]cn-an-X-am-Wv. ]›n-a-L´ {]tZ-i-ßfn¬ H´p-an° CS-ß-fnepw CØcw Pohn-Isf ImWmw. Nne-bn\w Im-´p-tN-\-Iƒ, ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse a\p-jym-[n-hm-k-ap≈ ÿe-ß-fn¬ t]mepw ImWmw. CØ-cØn¬ tZi-X¬]-cX {]I-Sn-∏n-°p∂ Ht´sd kky-˛-P¥p h¿K-߃ ImW-s∏-Sp-∂ CS-amb-Xn-\m¬ ]›n-a-L´-{]-tZ-i-߃ Ah-bpsS X\n-a-tbmsS Xs∂ kwc-£n-°-s∏-tS-≠-Xm-sW∂v \n w-ibw ]dbmw. {]Wm-_vsk≥ IΩn‰n ip]m¿i-sNbvX {]Im-c-ap≈ ÿnXn-hn-h-c-°-W-°p-Iƒ GtIm-]n∏n-°p-hm-\p≈ {ia-ß-sfm∂pw 2000 apX¬ kzoI-cn-®n-´n-√. AXn-\m¬ AØcw ÿnXn-hn-h-c-°W-°p-Iƒ GtIm-]n-∏n-°pI F∂ {iaw ]›n-a-L´ Bhm-k-hy-hÿm hnZ-Kv[-k-anXn ]m\¬ XpS-ßn-h-bvt°-≠-Xp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. Xmsg ]d-bp∂ {]k‡ hnh-c-߃ tiJ-cn-°p-hm≥ kanXn°v Ign™p: 1.

ÿe-X¬]-cX {]I-Sn-∏n-°p∂ kky-߃: AØcw kky-kv]o-jo-kpI-fpsS FÆw

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2.

ÿe-X¬]-cX {]I-Sn-∏n-°p∂ Iti-cp-In-Iƒ (Vertebrates)

3.

ÿe-X¬]-cX {]I-Sn-∏n-°p∂ HtUm-tW‰ hn`m-K-Øn¬s]´ Pohn-Iƒ.

]›n-a-L-´-{]-tZ-i-ß-fpsS ]cn-ÿnXn hntem-eX hne-bn-cp-tØ-≠Xp kw_-‘n-®m-sW¶n¬ ta¬]-d™ hnh-c-߃ Xo¿®-bmbpw A]q¿W-amWv F∂v hnZKv[ kanXn a\- n-em°p∂p. hwi-\mi `oj-Wn-bp≈ h¿K-߃ (Endangered) \n¿h-N\w: kao-]-`m-hn-bn¬ hwi-\mi `ojWn t\cn-tS-≠n-h-cp∂ h\y kv]ojo-kp-I-sfbmWv CØ-c-Øn¬ hnti-jn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv. taJe: hwi-\mi `ojWn t\cn-Sp∂ kv]ojo-kp-Iƒ ImW-s∏-Sp∂ taJe Atem-kcw krjvSn°msX kwc-£n-°-s∏-tS-≠-Xm-Wv. CØcw kv]ojo-kp-Iƒ hnhn[ Jfi taJ-e-bn-em-bmWv hkn-°p-∂-sX-¶n¬, AØcw Hmtcm Jfihpw {]Y-a-]-cn-K-W\ \¬In Ah-bpsS hwi-km{μ-X-bpw, hmk-ssh-hn-[yhpw kwc-£n-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. ]›na-L-´-Ønse ÿnXn ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-e-bnse hwi-\mi `ojWn t\cn-Sp∂ H´-\-h[n ssPh hn`m-K-ß-fmWv Cu taJ-esb Hcp ssPh-ssh-hn[y Ie-hd F∂ A¥m-cmjv{S AwKo-Im-c-Øn-te°pb¿Øn-bXv. hwi-\mi `ojWn t\cn-Sp∂ Cu ssPh-h¿K-߃ ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-e-sbm-∂msI hym]n®p InS-°p-∂p. DZm-l-c-W-Øn-\v, Xh-f-bpsS H´\-h[n kv]ojo-kp-Ifpw Db¿∂ ae-{º-tZ-i-ßfn¬ hfcp∂ sNSn-h¿K-ßfpsS kv]ojo-kp-Ifpw. Ch hS-°≥ ]›n-a-L´ {]tZ-i-ßfnepw Z£nW ]›n-a-L-´-{]-tZ-i-ß-fnse tNme-Iƒ°v kao-]-ÿ-amtbm ]p¬ta-Sp-I-fnepw Hs° BWv ImWs∏-Sp-∂Xv. Ch hwi-\mi `oj-Wn-bn-emWv. AXn-\m¬ CØcw hwi-\m-i-`o-jWn t\cn-Sp∂ kv]ojo-kp-Iƒ [mcm-f-am-bp≈ ]›n-a-L-´-{]-tZ-i-߃ \n w-i-b-ambpw kwc-£n-°-s∏-tS-≠-hX-s∂-bm-Wv.- -Xmsg ]d-bp∂ {]k-‡-amb ÿnXn-hn-h-c°W-°p-Iƒ tiJ-cn-°p-hm≥ ]›n-aL´ Bhm-k-hy-hÿ hnZ-Kv[-k-an-Xn°v Ign™p: 1. sF.-bp.-kn.-F≥ ˛ amIvkv: sF.-bp.-kn-.-F≥ Nph∂ ]´n-I-bn¬s]-Sp-Øn-bn-cn-°p-∂ kkvX\nkv]o-jo-kp-I-fpsS FÆw. F∂n-cp-∂mepw ]›n-a-L-´-{]-tZ-i-ßfnse ]cn-ÿn-Xn- hn-tem-eX Xn´-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂Xn-te°v CXv hfsc A]q¿W-amb hnh-c-ti-J-c-W-am-sW∂v ]›n-a-L´ Bhmk-hy-hÿ hnZ-Kv[-k-anXn hne-bn-cp-Øp-∂p. hnc-fX (Rarity) \n¿h-N\w: hfsc sNdnb AwK-kw-Jy-tbm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bXpw X¬k-abw hwi-\mi `ojWn t\cn-Sp-∂n-s√¶n¬t]mepw Zp¿L-S-amb Pohn-X-km-l-N-cy-ßsf A`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ kv]ojokp-Iƒ Cu hn`m-K-Øn¬s]-Sp-∂p. taJe: hnc-f-amb kv]ojo-kp-Iƒ \nh-kn-°p∂ taJ-e-Iƒ Ah-bpsS X\n-a-tbmsS Xs∂ kwc-£n°-s∏-tS-≠-Xp-≠v. Hcp {]tXyI hnkvXo¿Ww ÿeØv CØcw kv]ojo-kp-I-fpsS FÆw, \nhm-k-ta-J-e-bpsS KpW-\n-e-hm-cw, Nqj-W-tXm-Xv, ]pXp-Xmbn h∂p-tN¿∂ kv]ojo-kp-IfpsS {]`m-hw, tcmK-Im-cn-Iƒ, CXc kv]ojo-kp-I-fp-am-bp≈ a¬kcw (competitors), ]cm-Z߃, amen-\y-߃ F∂nh IqSn IW-°n-se-Sp-Øp-thWw CØcw taJ-e-Isf th¿Xn-cn®v ImWp-∂-Xv. ]›na-L-´-Ønse ÿnXn hwi-\mi `ojWn t\cn-Sp-∂ kv]ojo-kp-I-fp-ambn hf-sc-tbsd kmay-ap≈ Ah-ÿm-hnti-j-amWv hnc-fX t\cn-Sp∂ kv]ojo-kp-Iƒ°pw D≈-Xv. AXn-\m¬, hwi-\m-i-`o-jWn t\cn............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Sp∂ GXm\pw kv]ojo-kp-Iƒ ImW-s∏-Sp∂ ]›n-a-L´ {]tZ-i-߃ kwc-£n-°-s∏-tS-≠-h-bmsW∂v \n w-ibw ]d-bmw. CXn-te°v ]›n-a-L´ ]T\ kan-Xn°v Xmsg-]-d-bp-∂ {]k‡ hnh-c-߃ tiJ-cn-°m≥ Ign-™p. 1. sF.-bp.-kn.-F≥. amIvkv: sF.-bp.-kn.-F≥. Nph∂ ]´n-Ib - n¬s]-Sp-Øn-bn-cn-°p∂ kkvX\n kv]ojo-kp-If - psS FÆw. F∂n-cp-∂mepw ]›n-a-L-´-{]-tZ-ißfnse ]cn-ÿnXn hntem-eX Xn´-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xn-te°v CXv hfsc A]q¿W-amb hnh-c-ti-J-c-W-am-sW∂v ]›n-a-L´ Bhm-k-hy-hÿ hnZKv[ kanXn hne-bn-cp-Øp-∂p. \mS≥ C\-ßfpsS bYm¿Y {]`-h-tI-{μ-߃ \n¿h-N\w: \mS≥ C\ßfpsS (h-f¿Øp-ar-K-ß-fpw, hnf-I-fpw) D¬`--hhpw ]cn-Wm-ahpw kw`-hn-®-Xpw, Ct∏mgpw Ah-bpsS kZriy C\-ß-tftbm k¥n-]-c-º-c-Itfm hln-°p-∂-Xmb ÿeamWv bYm¿Y {]`h-tI-{μ-߃. taJe: \mS≥hn-f-bn-\-߃ am{X-a√ \n¿h-N-\-Øns‚ ]cn-[n-bn¬ hnh-£n-°-s∏-Sp-∂Xv; CØcw hnjb-Øn¬ Ch hfsc \n¿Wm-b-I-am-sW-¶n¬t]mepw \mS≥ P¥p-h¿K-ßfpw Pe-Po-hn-Ifpw Ah-bpsS h\ym-h-ÿ-bn¬\n∂v Ct∏m-gp≈ Ah-ÿ-bn¬ FØn-b-t∏mƒ kw`-hn® P\n-XI hyXn-bm-\-߃ hni-I-e\w sNøp∂ ]£w, AXv Ch-bpsS h\y-h¿K-ßfn¬\n∂v \mS≥ P\p- p-Isf hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°p-∂-Xn\v {]tbm-P-\-s∏-Sp-Øm-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. CØcw C\-߃ XºSn-®n-cn-°p∂ taJ-e-Isf AXn-\m¬Xs∂ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-hn-teme taJ-e-I-fmbn IW-°m-°m-hp∂-Xm-Wv. ]›na-L-´-Ønse ÿnXn Icp-ap-f-Iv, Gew, {Kmºq, amß, N° F∂n-h-bpsS \mS≥ C\-ßfpsS kp{]-[m\ D¬`-htI-{μ-amWv ]›n-a-L-´-߃. \mS≥ kky-C-\-ßfpsS h\y-C-\߃ temI-Øn¬ G‰hpw IqSpX¬ ImW-s∏-Sp-∂Xv DØ-cI - ∂ - S Pn√-bn-em-Wv. ]p≥Sn-bkv (puntius) hn`m-KØ - n¬-s]-Sp∂ Ae¶mc a’y-ß-fpsS {]`-h-tI-{μ-amWv ]›n-a-L-´-߃. Ch ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-bn¬ F√m-bn-SØpw ImWs∏-Sp-∂p-≠p-Xm-\pw. AXn-\m¬ apgp-h≥ ]›n-a-L´ taJ-ebpw ]cn-ÿnXn hnteme taJ-ebmbn IW-°m-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. h\y-Pohn CS-\mgn \n¿h-N\w : a)

Ncn-{Xm-XoX ImeØv H∂m-bn-cp-∂Xpw Ct∏mƒ th¿s]´v InS°p-∂-Xp-amb ct≠m AXnte-sdtbm h\y-Pohn \nhmk tI{μ-ßsf XΩn¬ _‘n-∏n-°p-∂Xpw {]tXyI C\Øn¬s]´ P¥p-h¿K-߃°v Hcp ‘Nm¬’ Bbn h¿Øn-°p-∂-Xp-amb \of-Øn-ep≈ `qhn`m-K-sØ-bmWv h\y-Po-hn-˛C-S-\mgn F∂-Xp-sIm≠v hnh-£n-°p-∂-Xv. H‰-Xn-cn-™ Xp≠p{]tZiw hgn ]c-kv]cw _‘n-∏n-°-s∏-Sp-Ibpw AXn¬ kZr-iy-am-bn-´p≈ kky-Pm-e-߃ D≠m-bn-cn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXm¬ AØcw Xp≠p-{]-tZ-i-߃ Hcp CS-\m-gn-bmbn h¿Øn°pw.

b)

Acp-hn-Iƒ, ]pg-Iƒ, tXmSp-Iƒ, F∂n-hbpw Ah-bpsS Ic-{]-tZ-i-ßfpw Pe-Po-hn-IfpsS kpK-a-amb KXm-KXw km[y-am-°pI hgn kzm`m-hnI CS-\m-gn-I-fmbn h¿Øn-°p-∂p.

c)

ÿnctam Xm¬°m-en-Itam Bb \o¿®m-ep-Ifpw ]pg-Ifpw Nn{X-i-e-`-߃, ]£nIƒ, hΔm-ep-Iƒ, AÆm≥, Ipc-ß-∑m¿ F∂n-hbv°v k©m-c-]m-X-I-fmbn h¿Øn-°m-dp-≠v.

d)

XÆo¿X-S-߃, tZim-S-\-kz-`m-h-ap≈ Nne-bn\w \o¿]-£n-I-fpsS k©m-c-]-Y-sa-∂-Xnt\m sSm∏w Ah-bv°p≈ Blmcw IqSn Icp-Xn-h-bv°p-∂-h-bm-Wv. tZim-S-\-]-£n-I-fpsS k©m-c-]-Y-Øn-ep≈ CØcw XÆo¿X-S-߃ kwc-£n-°pI F∂Xv ]£n-kw-c-£WsØ kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw hfsc {][m-\-am-Wv.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

taJe : hyXyÿ C\-߃°pw Htc C\-Øn-se-Xs∂ hnhn[ D]-hn-`m-K-߃°pw hyXyÿ CS-\m-gn-I-fmWv ImW-s∏-Sm-dp-≈-Xv. AXn-\m¬Xs∂ CS-\m-gn-Isf th¿Xn-cn-®-dn-bp-∂Xv hfsc {ia-I-c-am-Wv. tZim-S-\-Øns‚ kz`m-hw, e£yw F∂n-hbpw IW-°n-se-Sp-t°-≠Xm-Wv. Imc-Ww, hyXykvX e£y-ßf - p≈ tZim-S\ - ߃°v Ah-bp-ambn _‘-s∏´ k©mc-]-Y-ß-fpsS kz`m-hhpw hyXy-kvX-am-bn-cn-°pw. th≠{X ka-b-sa-SpØv \S-Øp∂ hniZ-amb \nco-£-W-߃, CØcw CS-\m-gn-I-fpsS `qan-im-kv{X-]-c-amb AXn-cp-Iƒ \n¿Wbn-°m≥ Bh-iy-am-Wv. ]mcn-ÿn-XnI kΩ¿Zw A\p-`-hn-°p-∂ “Nm¿Øn-sIm-Sp-°-s∏´ C\߃°v” (designated) am{X-amWv ta¬]-d™ Imcy߃ _m[-I-am-hp-∂p≈p F∂Xv {]iv\w IqSp-X¬ k¶o¿W-am-°p-∂p. apsºt∂m \ne-\n-∂n-cp∂ k©m-c-]-Y-ß-fn¬ a\p-jys‚ IS-∂p-I-b-‰sØ XpS¿∂v {]kvXpX k©m-c-]-Y-Øm¬ _‘n-∏n-°-s∏-´n-cp∂ Bhm-k-ta-J-e-Iƒ ]c-kv]cw hnt—-Zn-°-s∏-´n-´p-≠mhmw F∂-XmWv Hcp km[y-X. hyXykvX kv]ojo-kp-I-fpsS hf¿®, AXn-Po-h\w F∂nh Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp-∂-Xn\v \nhmk-ta-J-e-Iƒ XΩn-ep≈ ]c-kv]-c-_-‘sØ ]‰n-bp≈ ]q¿W-amb hnh-c-߃ e`n-t°≠Xv Bh-iy-am-Wv. \ne-hn-ep≈ tZim-S-\-kz-`m-hhpw Ah-bp-ambn _‘-s∏´ k©m-c-]Y-ßfpw ta¬ kq-Nn-∏n-°-s∏´ Imc-W-߃sIm≠v Ch kw_-‘n® ]cn-]q¿W hnh-c߃ \¬Ip-hm≥ ]cym-]vX-a-√. Bkq-{Xn-X-amb \S-]-Sn-I-fn-eqsS a\p-jys‚ IS-∂p-Ib‰w Ipd-bv°p-hm\pw AXp-hgn kzm`m-hnI CS-\m-gn-Iƒ Xncn-®-dn-bp-hm\pw ]p\-cp-±o-]n-∏n°p-hm\pw Ah-k-c-߃ D≠m-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. ]›na-L-´-Ønse ÿnXn hnc-f-am-b-tXm, hwi-\miw kw`-hn-®tXm AXp-a-s√-¶n¬ hwi-\m-i-Øns‚ h°n-se-ØnbtXm Bb “Nm¿Øn-s°m-Sp-°-s∏´” (designated) kv]ojo-kp-I-fm¬ AXn-k-º-∂-amWv ]›na-L-´-{]-tZ-i-߃. CØcw kv]ojo-kp-I-fpsS Bhm-k-tI-{μ-ßfpsS XpS¿® {]apJ ]cn-K-W\ A¿ln-°p-∂ H∂m-Wv. h\-ta-J-eIsf Nn∂-`n-∂-am-°¬, ip≤-Pe Bhm-k-ta-J-e-I-fpsS XpS¿® \jvS-s∏-Sp-ج F∂nh ]cn-K-W-\m¿l-ß-fm-Wv. CØcw Imcy-߃ ]cs° \S-°p-∂-Xn-\m¬ ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-Iƒ samØ-am-bn-Xs∂ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-hn-teme taJ-e-I-fmbn IW-°m-t°-≠-XmWv. ]›n-a-L´ Bhm-k-hy-hÿ hnZKv[ kanXn Cu hnjbw k_-‘n®v Xmsg ]d-bp-∂ Um‰-t_kv tiJ-cn-®p. • Atem-k-c-s∏-Sp-Ø-s∏-SmØ h\-ta-J-e-bpsS hnkvXo¿W iX-am\w • \Zo-tbmc h\-{]-tZ-i-ßfpw kky-Pm-e-ßfpw • B\-Øm-c-Iƒ CXpw A]q¿W-amb hnh-c-ß-fm-sW∂v kanXn AwKo-I-cn-°p-∂p. khn-tij Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-Iƒ \n¿h-N\w: hfsc k¶o¿Whpw sshh[yw \nd-™-Xp-amb Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-I-fmWv khn-tij Bhm-khy-h-ÿ-Iƒ. Cu Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bnse ssPh, AssPh LS-I-߃ XΩn¬ AXn-kq-£vaamb ]c-kv]-cm-{in-XXzw D≠m-bn-cn-°pw. Cu Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bn-epƒ--s∏´ Pohn-Iƒ°v ssPthm¬]m-Z\ £a-X, {]tXyI B\p-Iq-ey-߃ F∂n-hbpw D≠m-bn-cn-°pw. C°m-c-W߃ aqew X\-Xmb ssPh-ssh-hn-[yhpw k¶o¿W-amb Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ, {]h¿Ø-\-ßfpw CØcw Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-I-fn¬ km[m-c-W-am-Wv. taJe: _‘-s∏´ A[n-hmk taJ-e-bnse AssPh LS-I-߃°p-≠m-hp∂ hyXn-bm-\-ß-tfmSv Atß-b‰w kwth-Z-\Xzw ]pe¿Øp-∂-h-bmWv khn-tij Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-Iƒ. AssPh LS-I-߃ ]e-t∏mgpw Kpcp-X-c-amb Aÿn-c-X-Iƒ°v hnt[-b-am-hm-dp≠v; ]e-t∏mgpw CXv kw`-hn-°p-∂Xv Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bpsS {]h¿Ø-\-]-cn-[n°pw A∏p-d-Øm-bn-cn-°mw. Hcp Bhm............................................................................................................................................................................................................

146


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

k-hy-hÿsb kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw \n¿Wm-b-I-amb AssP-h-L-SIw GXm-sW∂v Is≠Øp-Ibpw AXn\v F{]-Im-c-amWv B-hm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bpsS {]h¿Ø-\-ßsf Atem-k-c-s∏-SpØm-\m-hp-∂-sX∂pw Is≠-Øp-∂Xv CØcw Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-I-fpsS kwc-£-WsØ kw`‘n-®n-S-tØmfw ]c-a-{]-[m-\-am-Wv. Hcp kzm`m-hnI Bhm-k-hy-hÿ AXns‚ {]h¿Ø-\߃°mbn B{i-bn-°p∂ Pe-t{km-X- p-Iƒ, Im‰ns‚ Zni, Bhm-kh -- y-h-ÿ-bpsS A[n-hmk-ta-Je - I - ƒ°m-hi - y-amb a‰v AssP-hL - S- I - ß - ƒ F∂n-hsb Atem-kc - s - ∏-Sp-Øp-∂hn[-Øn¬ B Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿbv°v kao-]-Ømbn \S-Øp∂ GsXmcp {]h¿Ø-\-ß-tfbpw \nb-{¥nt°-≠-Xm-Wv. ip≤Pew \nd™ NXp-∏p-Iƒ (Swamps) Zp¿_-e-amb \oscm-gp-t°m-Sp-Iq-Snb sNfn-{]-tZ-i-ßfmWv Ch. ip≤-P-e-hm-ln-I-fmb Acphn-Iƒ, ]pg-Iƒ, F∂n-hbv°v ]pdta H‰-s∏´ Ipgn-I-≠-ßfpsS cq]-Ønepw Ch ImW-s∏-Sm-dp≠v. Ch-bn¬ ImW-s∏-Sp∂ kky-Pm-e-߃ A[n-I- ]¶pw Hu-j-[n-hn-`m-K-Øn¬-s]-´-h-bm-Wv. tZim-S-\-{]n-b-cmb \o¿t°m-gn-I-fpƒs∏sS AXn-k-º-∂-amb P¥p-ssh-hn-[yhpw CØcw NXp∏p-\n-e-ß-fn¬ ImWm-dp-≠v. khn-ti-j-amb kky˛-P-¥p-Pm-e-ßsf hln-°p∂p F∂-Xn\p ]pdta `qK¿`-P-e-hn-Xm\w ]cn-t]mjn-∏n-°p-Ibpw Nne kμ¿`-ß-fn¬ A[n-I-P-esØ ]pdw-X-≈p-Ibpw sNbvXp-sIm≠v Pe-]-cn-{IaWw \nb-{¥n-°pI F∂ [¿ahpw Cu NXp-∏p-Iƒ \n¿h-ln-°p-∂p. Nne {][m-\-s∏´ NXp-∏p-{]-tZ-i-ß-sf-∏‰n Xmsg ]d-bp-∂p. i

ancn-Ãn° NXp-∏p-h-\-߃ tIc-f-Øn¬ Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn¬ am{X-amWv CØcw NXp-∏p-h-\-߃ ImW-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. 300 ao‰-dn¬ Xmsg Db-c-ap≈ {]tZ-i-ß-fnse Acp-hn-I-fn¬, ssPhm-h-in-jvS-߃ \nd™ hfaÆv ASn-™mWv Ch cq]w-sIm≈p-∂-Xv. h¿j-Øns‚ c≠mw I\Ø ag e`n-°p-∂-Xpaqew an°-hmdpw sh≈-Øn-∂-Snbnemb Ah-ÿ-bn-emWv Ch ImW-s∏-Sm-dp-≈-Xv. CØcw NXp-∏p-{]-tZ-i-ß-fn¬ ancn-Ãn° C\-Øn¬-s∏´ hr£-ß-fmWv IqSp-X-embn ImW-s∏-Sp-∂Xv.

ii

Djva-ta-J-em-]¿hX {]tZ-ißfnse NXp-∏p-h-\-߃ ]¿h-X-\n-c-I-fpsS ASn-hm-c-Øn-epsS Hgp-Ip∂ Acp-hn-I-fn-emWv CØcw NXp-∏p-h-\-߃ ImW-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. Dcp-f≥ I√p-Itfm aWtem Bbn-cn°pw Ch-bn¬ ImW-s∏-Sp-I. DØ¿{]tZ-iv, ]›n-a-_w-Kmƒ, B mw F∂n-hn-S-ß-fnse lnam-e-b≥ ]¿-h-X-{]-tZ-i-ß-fn-emWv CØcw NXp-∏p-h-\-߃ k[m-c-W-bmbn ImWp-∂-sX-¶nepw tIc-f-Ønse \oe-Kn-cn-bnep≈ hb-\mSv t^mdÃv Unhn-j\p Iogn¬ hcp∂ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse Nne `mK-ß-fnepw Ch I≠p-h-cp-∂p.

]›na-L-´-Ønse ÿnXn ancn-Ãn° NXp-∏p-Iƒ Db¿∂ {]tZ-i-ß-fnse tNme ]p¬ta-Sp-Iƒ, hS-°≥ ]›n-a-L-´Ønse ]oT-`q-an-Iƒ F∂nh ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse hfsc {][m-\-s∏´ khn-tij Bhmk hyhÿ-I-fm-Wv. Cu Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-I-sf√mw Xs∂ h≥tXm-Xn¬ Iep-jn-X-am-°-s∏-´p-sIm-≠n-cn°p-∂ kml-N-cy-Øn¬ ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ hnim-e-amb `q`m-K-߃ Xo¿®-bmbpw ]cn-ÿnXn hnteme taJ-e-I-fmbn ]cn-K-Wn-°-s∏-tS-≠-h-bm-Wv. {]Xyp¬]m-Z-\-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´ khn-tij CS-߃ \n¿h-N\w: hI-Xn-cn®v \n›-bn-°-s∏´ {]tXyI kv]ojo-kp-I-fpsS {]Xyp¬]m-Z-\-Øns‚ GsX-¶nepw LS-I-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´ ÿe-ßfm-Wn-h. taJe: hI-Xn-cn®v \n›-bn-°-s∏´ kv]ojo-kp-I-fpsS {]Xyp¬]m-Z-\w, Ip™p-ßfpsS ]cn]m-e\w F∂n-h-bp-ambn _‘-s∏´ F√m ÿe-ßfpw, ta¬ kv]ojo-kp-Iƒ Dƒs∏-Sp∂ Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-Ifpw CXns‚ ]cn-[n-bn¬h-cp-∂p. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

147


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]›na-L-´-Ønse ÿnXn ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-e-bn¬ am{Xw ImW-s∏-Sp-∂Xpw hwi-\m-i-`o-jWn t\cn-Sp-∂-Xp-amb ip≤Pe a’y-߃ Ah-bpsS {]Xyp¬]m-Z-\-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´v \S-Øp∂ \o°-߃°v h≥tXmXn¬ XS- -߃ krjvSn-°-s∏-´p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. Bb-Xn-\m¬ samØw ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-ebpw ]cn-ÿnXn hnteme taJ-e-bpsS KW-Øn¬-s]-SpØn ]cn-c-£n-°-s∏-tS-≠-Xm-Wv. Cu hnj-b-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´v \Zn-tbmc h\-ta-J-e-I-tfbpw kky-Pm-e-ß-tfbpw kw_‘n® hnh-c߃ tiJ-cn-°m≥ ]›n-a-L´ Bhm-k-hy-hÿ hnZKv[ ]T-\-k-an-Xn°v Ign-™n´p≠v. ss\k¿KnI ]p\-cp-÷o-h-\-tijn Ipd™ ÿe-߃ \n¿h-N\w: t\cnb Atem-k-c-߃ sIm-≠p-t]mepw A]-cn-lr-X-amb tISp-]m-Sp-Iƒ°v Ffp∏w hnt[b-am-Ip∂ Bhm-k-hy-h-k-Y-Iƒ Cu hn`m-K-Øn¬--s]-Sp-∂p. taJe: CØcw hy-h-ÿ-I-fpsS ]cn[n Ah-bpsS kpc-£n-X-\n-e-\n¬]n-∂m-h-iy-amb th≠{X ÿe-hpw, hnI-k-\-km-[y-X-I-fp-a-S-°w, ta¬ Bhmkhyh-ÿsb kzm[o-\n-°p∂ AssPh-L-S-I-ßsf B{i-bn-®n-cn-°p-∂p. ]›na-L-´-Ønse ÿnXn ]p\-cp-÷o-h\ h\-sa-∂Xv hfsc k¶o¿Wamb Bi-b-amWv F∂v hcn-Inepw ]›n-a-L´ßfpsS Imcy-Øn¬ CXv F{X-am{Xw {]m-tbm-Kn-I-am-sW-∂-dn-bm≥ B¿.-sP.-B¿. Um\n-tb¬kv hfsc {i≤m-]q¿h-amb Hcp {iaw \S-Øn. At±-l-Øns‚ A`n-{]m-b-Øn¬, alm-cm-jv{S, tKmh, I¿Wm-SI F∂o kwÿm-\-ß-fnse ]›n-a-L´ {]tZ-i-߃ ]p\-cp-÷o-h-\-tijn hfsc Ipd™-h-bm-Wv F∂m-Wv. AXn-\m¬ Ch {]tXyI kwc-£Ww Bh-iy-s∏-Sp-∂p. Imhp-Iƒ \n¿h-N\w: aXm-[n-jvTn-X-hn-izm-k-߃°v A[n-jvTn-X-ambn Xe-ap-d-I-fmbn kwc-£n-®p-t]m-cp∂ h-\ taJeI-tf-tbm, {]Ir-Xym-bp≈ hr£-k-aq-l-tØtbm BWv “Im-hp-Iƒ” F∂-Xp-sIm≠v hnh-£n-°p-∂-Xv. taJe: ]cº-cm-K-X-ambn “Imhp-I-fpsS” `mK-ambn hcp∂ F√m ÿehpw CXns‚ ]cn-[n-bn¬ hcp-∂p. ]›na-L-´-Ønse ÿnXn Imhp-I-fpsS Ie-h-d-bmWv ]›n-a-L´ {]tZ-i-߃. I¿Wm-S-I-bnse IpSIv {]tZ-iØv Imhp-Isf kwc-£n-°m≥ \S∂ kwL-SnX {iawt]mse [mcmfw kwcw-`-߃ Ct∏m-gp-≠v. samØw ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-e-bnse Imhp-Iƒ {]tXyI ]cn-K-W\ A¿ln-°p-∂p. koam-h-\-߃ (Frontier forests) \n¿h-N\w: BZn-a-Im-e-Øp-≠m-bn-cp∂ Hcp ss\k¿KnI h\-{]-tZ-i-Øns‚ Ah-injvS iI-eßfmWv koam-h-\-߃. BZn-a-h-\-Øns‚ tijn-∏p-I-fmb Ch-bpsS ]cn-ÿnXn Xmc-X-tay\ Atemk-c-s∏-Sm-ØXpw AXn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂ ssPh-ssh-hn-[ysØ A∏msS ]cn-]m-en-°p-hm≥ Bhiy-am-b{X hnkvXm-chpw D≈-Xm-Wv. CØcw h\-{]-tZ-i-ßfpsS khn-tij {]Ir-Xn-°n-Wßp∂ Xc-Øn-ep≈ kv]ojo-kp-Iƒ Ch-tbmSv _‘-s∏´v Pohn-°p-∂p. taJe: CØcw ss\k¿KnI h\-˛-B-hm-k-hy-h-ÿbpw Ahsb kpc-£n-X-ambn \ne-\n¿Øm-\m-hiy-amb hnkvXrX ÿehpw Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bpsS hf¿®bpw CXns‚ ]cn-[n-bn¬ h-cp-∂p. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

148


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]›na-L-´-Ønse ÿnXn ]›n-a-L-´-ßfpsS ]Sn-™m-dp≈ Ingp°mw Xq°mb {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ CØcw h\-{]-tZ-i߃ ImW-s∏-Sp-∂p. Xmc-X-tay\ Atem-k-c-hn-ap-‡-amb X\Xp h\-{]-tZ-i-ß-fpsS hnkvXo¿W iX-am\w kw_-\v[n® Hcp Um‰-t_kv tiJ-cn-°p-hm≥ ]›n-a-L´ Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿm-hn-ZKv[ ]T\ kan-Xn°p Ign-™p-sh-∂Xv Cu L´-Øn¬ {]k-‡-amWv. IpØ-s\-bp≈ N-cn-hp-Iƒ \n¿h-N\w: 20 Un{Kntbm AXn-te-sdtbm D≈ ss\k¿KnI Ncn-hp-Iƒ Cu hn`m-K-Øn¬--s]-Sp-\-\p. taJe: Hcp `qhn-`m-K-Øns‚ Xnc-›o-\-X-e-Øn¬ \n∂v apI-fn-tet°m Xmtgt°m D≈ Ncn-hn-t\bmWv B {]tZ-i-Øns‚ Ncnhv F∂-Xp-sIm≠v A¿Y-am-°p-∂-Xv. X¬{]-tZ-i-Øns‚ Xnc-›o\-X-e-hp-am-bp≈ tImWob AI-e-amWv Ncn-hns‚ Af-hv. km[m-c-W-K-Xn-bn¬ F©n-\o-b-dnßv taJ-e-bnepw CtaPv t{]mk-knßvv kmt¶-Xn-I-hn-Zybnepw D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂ \maIcW coXn D]-tbm-Kn®vv Ncn-hp-Isf Xmsg ]d-bp∂ {]Imcw hn`Pn-®n-cn-°p-∂p. Ncn-h-Sn-ÿm-\-am-°n-bp≈ \maI-cWw Ncnhv

iX-am\w

hni-Zo-I-cWw

˛

0˛3

\nc-∏m-bXv

2o

3˛8

]Xn™ Ncnhv

4o

8 ˛ 15

Ncn-hp-≈Xv

8o

15 ˛ 25

sNdp-tXm-Xn¬

14o

25 ˛ 50

IpØ-s\-bp≈ Ncnhv

26o

50 ˛ 100

sN¶p-Ømb Ncnhv

45o

.> 100

Iogv°mw-Xq°v

hnZKv[ kanXn ip]m¿i-sNbvX 20o”, IpØs\ F∂ hn`m-K-Øn¬ s]Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≈-hbpsS apIƒ]-Ip-Xn-bn¬ hcp-∂-Xmbn ImWmw. Hcp ]¿h-X-Øn\v As√-¶n¬ Hcp Ip∂n≥ Ncp-hn\v hyXykvX Ncn-hp-X-e-ßfp≈ hyXykvX Jfi-߃ D≠m-Im-sa-∂-Xn-\m¬, ASnhmcw apX¬ apI-f‰w hsc-bp≈ hyXykvX Ncn-hp-I-fpsS BsI XpI-bmWv FSp-t°-≠-Xv. Xs∂-bp-a√, Ncn-hns‚ tImW-Iew AXv Fhn-sS-\n-∂mtWm Af-°p-∂Xv B _nμp-hn-te°p≈ Zqc-sØ-°qSn B{i-bn-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xn-\m¬, hyXykvX _nμp-°-fn¬ \n∂p≈ Af-hpIƒ Htc Ncn-hn-te-°p-Xs∂ FSp-t°-≠Xpw Bh-iy-amWv. CXn¬ GsX-¶nepw Hcp _nμphn¬\n-∂p≈ Afhv 20o A[n-I-cn-®m¬, B _nμp-hn\v apI-fn-ep≈ ÿesØ IpØ-s\bp≈ Ncnhv F∂ hn`m-K-Øn¬s∏-Sp-tØ-≠-Xm-Wv. kwc-£Ww \¬tI≠ {]tXyI taJe IW-°n-se-Sp-°p-tºmƒ IpØ-s\-bp≈ Ncn-hp-I-fp-ambn _‘-s∏´ \io-I-c-W-kz-`m-h-ap≈ {]IrXn LS-I-߃ IqSn IW-°n-se-Sp-t°-≠Xv AXym-h-iy-am-Wv. `qI-º-km-[y-X, Ah-injvS-ß-f-S-ßnb aW¬, IpsØm-gp-°ns‚ kΩ¿Zw, ta¬a-Æn-t∑-ep≈ I\w-IqSnb Bh-c-Ww, Ncn-hn\v Iosg-bp≈ hn≈-ep-Iƒ, I\w IqSnb hkvXp-°sf Xmßn-\n¿Øp∂ Zp¿_-e-amb {]Xew F∂nh CØ-c-Øn¬s∏-Sp-∂p. Hcp Ncn-hn\v taepw Iogp-ap≈ ]c∂ {]Xew aÆn-Sn®n¬ aqe-ap≈ hn]-Øn\v G‰hpw km[y-X-bp≈ {]tZ-i-am-Wv. Dcp-f≥ I√p-Ifpw, sNfn-\nd™ Ah-in-jvS-ßfpw Cu {]tZ-i-Øm-bn-cn°pw ASn-™p-Iq-Sp-∂-Xv. CØcw Ncn-hn-t\m-S\p-_-‘n-®p≈ ]c∂ {]X-e-߃ X∑qew kΩ¿Z-ta-J-e-I-fmbn h¿Øn-°p-∂p. AXn-\m¬ Hcp Ncn-hns‚ c≠v A‰ßfn¬\n∂v Npcp-ßn-bXv 500 ao‰-dn-\p-≈n-ep≈ AIew kΩ¿ZtaJe-bpsS KW-Øn¬s∏-Sp-∂p. ]¿h-X-tØm-S-\p-_-‘n-®p≈ Hcp Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bpsS Imcy-Øn¬ aÆn-Sn-®n¬/Dcpƒs]m-´¬ km[yX IW-°n-se-SpØv kΩ¿Z-ta-J-e-I-fpsS hym]vXn A¬]w IqsS Iq´n IW-°m-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

149


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]›na-L-´-Ønse ÿnXn IpØ-s\-bp≈ Ncn-hp-Iƒ [mcm-f-am-bn-´p≈ {]tZ-i-amWv ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-e. `mKy-h-im¬, Cu taJ-e-I-fpsS D∂Xn kw_-‘n® anI® Um-‰-t_kv \ap-°p-≈-Xn-\m¬ Ncn-hp-Ifpw D∂-XnIfpw kw_‘n® Um‰-t_kv tiJ-cn-°p-hm≥ ]›n-a-L´ Bhm-k-hy-hkvY hnZKv[ kan-Xn°v Ign-™n-´p-≠v. \Zn-I-fpsS D¬`-h-ÿm\w \n¿h-N\w: Hcp lnam-\n (glacier) ]¿h-Xw, Ip∂v, \ocp-d-h-Iƒ F∂n-ßs\ Fhn-sS-\n-∂mtWm Hcp \o¿t®me-bpsS Bcw`w Ipdn-°p-∂-Xv, AXns\ \Zn-I-fpsS D¬`-h-ÿm-\-ambn Icp-X-s∏-Sp-∂p. taJe: \Zn-I-fpsS kzm`m-hn-I-amb D¬`-h-ÿm-\-Øn¬ am{Xw HXp-ßp-∂-X√ \Zo-ap-J-ßsf∂ t]cn¬ kwc-£n-°-s∏-tS-≠-Xmb {]tZiw (D-Zm-l-c-W-ambn Hcp \ocp-dh s]m´n-∏p-d-s∏-Sp∂ kq£vaamb _nμp). adn-®v, \Zo-t{km-X- p-Isf \ne-\n¿Øp-Ibpw ]cn-t]m-jn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂ Pe-hp-ambn _‘-s∏-´-hbpw `qan-im-kv{X-]-c-hp-amb F√m LS-I-ß-sfbpw Cu hn`m-K-Øn¬ ]cn-K-Wn-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. AXn-\m¬ \Zn-Iƒ°v Pe-k-º-∂X \¬Ip∂ lnam-\n-Ifpw a™p-]mfn-Ifpw am{X-a√ \Zo-am¿K-Øn-ep≈ Nmep-Iƒ, hn≈-ep-Iƒ, Pe-]-cn-t]m-j-W-Øn-\m-h-iy-amb \ocp-d-h-Iƒ F∂n-hbpw kwc-£Ww A¿ln-°p-∂p. AXp-t]mse Xs∂ sNdp Acp-hn-Ifpw h¿j-°m-eØv am{Xw \nd-s™m-gp-Ip∂ \Zn-Ifpw kam-\-amb ]cn-K-W\ Bh-iy-s∏-Sp-∂p. ]›na-L-´-Ønse ÿnXn C¥y≥ D]-Zzo-]nse kam\X-I-fn-√mØ ss\k¿KnI PetKm]pc-amWv ]›n-a-L-´-]¿ΔX \nc-Iƒ. Ing-t°m´pw ]Sn-™m-tdm´pw Hgp-Ip∂ At\Iw Acp-hn-Iƒ D¬`-hn-°p-∂Xv ]›n-a-L´-Øn¬\n-∂m-Wv. AXn-\m¬, C¥y≥ D]-Zzo-]nse Pe-t{km-X- p-I-fpsS kpÿn-cX kw_-‘n®n-S-tØmfw AXn-\n¿Wm-b-I-amb `ua-˛-Pe ]cn-t]m-jI khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ AS-ßn-b-XmWv ]›naL´ taJe F∂Xn\m¬ Xo¿®-bmbpw Cu taJ-e-Iƒ ]cn-ÿnXn hnteme taJ-e-I-fmbn ]cnK-Wn®v kwc-£n-°-s∏-tS-≠-h-bm-Wv.

klm-bI {]am-W-߃ ]cn-ÿnXn hntem-e-Xsb kqNn-∏n-°p∂ LS-I-ßfn-te°v {i≤-bq-∂m≥ klm-bn-°p∂ Ggv {]am-W-L-S-I߃ Xmsg ]d-bp-∂p. kv]ojokv B[m-c-am-°n-bp-≈h 1.

A[nIw Adn-b-s∏-SmØ `£ym-h-iy-Øn-\p-]-tbm-Kn-°p kky-߃

Bhm-k-hy-hÿ B[m-c-am-°n-bp-≈h 2.

XÆo¿Ø-S-߃

3.

]p¬ta-Sp-Iƒ

`ua-˛-k-hn-ti-j-X-I-Iƒ B[m-c-am-°n-bp-≈Xv 4.

D]-cn-hrjvSn {]tZ-i-߃

5.

A[nIw IpØs\b√mØ Ncn-hp-Iƒ

6.

A[n-hrjvSn taJ-e-Iƒ

7.

Bhm-k-an-√mØ a‰p Zzo]p-Iƒ

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

150


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

A[nIw Adn-b-s∏-SmØ `£y-k-ky-߃ ImW-s∏-Sp∂ ÿe-߃ \n¿h-N\w: D∂X `£y-aq-eyhpw Im¿jn-I-aq-eyhpw D≈, F∂m¬ A[nIw Adn-b-s∏-SmØ kky-ßfpsS D¬`-h-hp-ambn _‘-s∏-´-tXm, AYhm Ah-bpsS h\y-P-\p- n¬--s∏´ ap≥Km-an-Iƒ ImW-s∏-Sp-∂tXm Bb {]tZ-i-ß-fm-Wn-h. taJe: ta¬ {]kvXm-hn® Xcw kky-߃ ImW-s∏-Sp∂ F√m taJ-ebpw CXns‚ ]cn-[n-bn¬-s]Sp-∂p. ]›na-L-´-Ønse ÿnXn Ce-s®-Sn-Iƒ, Ing-ßp-h¿K߃, ^e-h¿K kky-s®-Sn-Iƒ F∂o hn`m-K-Øn¬--s]-Sp-∂ ]pdw temI-Øn\v ]cn-an-X-⁄m\w am{X-ap≈ \m\m-PmXn `£y-k-ky-ß-fm¬ kº-∂-amWv ]›n-a-L-´-߃. CØcw kky-ßtfm AYhm Ah-bpsS h\y-P\p n¬s∏´ ap≥Km-an-Itfm [mcm-f-ambn ImWp∂ CS-sa∂ \ne-bn¬ ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-Iƒ ]cn-ÿnXn hnteme taJ-e-IfpsS KW-Øn¬s]Sp-tØ-≠-Xm-Wv. XÆo¿X-S-߃ \n¿h-N\w: sh≈-Øn¬ apßn-°n-S-°p-∂tXm AYhm Pew \nd-™tXm Bb {]tZ-i-ß-fmWv XÆo¿XS-߃. Ch kzm`m-hn-I-ambn D≠m-b-XmImw As√-¶n¬ a\p-jy-\n¿an-X-am-hmw. Ch ÿncambn ImW-s∏-Sp-∂-hbpw Xm¬°m-enI kz`m-h-ap-≈-hbpw D≠v. XÆo¿X-S-ßfnse Pew sI´n°n-S-°p-∂tXm Hgp-°p-≈tXm BImw. ip≤P-ew, Hmcp-P-ew, IS-tem-c-ta-J-e-I-fn¬ D∏p-sh≈w F∂n-ßs\ XÆo¿X-S-ßfnse Pe-Øn\v hnhn[ kz`mhw ImW-s∏-Spw. Ch-bnse PehnXm\-Øns‚ Bgw then-bn-d° ka-b-ß-fn¬ Bdv ao‰-dn¬ Ihn-bm-dn-√. taJe: XÆo¿X-S-ßfpsS kzm`m-hnI hnkvXrXn Dƒs°m-≈p∂ apgp-h≥ taJ-ebpw CXns‚ ]cn-[nbn¬ hcp-∂p. ]›na-L-´-Ønse ÿnXn {]Ir-Xym-b-≈Xpw a\p-jy-\n¿an-X-hp-amb H´-a-h[n XÆo¿X-S߃ ]›n-a-L-´-{]-tZ-i-ß-fnep-≠v. Pe-Po-hn-Iƒ, tZim-S-\-kz-`m-hn-I-fmb \o¿]-£n-Iƒ, F∂n-hsb kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw Gsd {]m[m-\y-ap-≈-h-bmWv ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse XÆo¿X-S-߃. Ch Cu {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ H´msI hym]n®v InS-°p-∂p. \o¿Ø-S-ß-fpsS Ie-hd F∂ \ne-bn¬ samØw ]›n-a-L-´-{]-tZ-i-߃ ]cn-ÿnXn hnteme taJ-e-I-fmbn IW-°m-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. ]p¬ta-Sp-Iƒ \n¿h-N\w: {Kman-t\m-bn-Up-Iƒ, t^m¿_p-Iƒ F∂n-ß-s\-bp≈ ]p¬s®Sn h¿K-Øn¬s∏´ kky-߃ ImW-s∏-Sp-∂, Ic-{]-tZ-i-ß-fnse Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-I-fmWv ]p¬--ta-Sp-Iƒ. taJe: I∂p-Im-en-Iƒ, h\y-ar-K-߃, ]£n-h¿K-߃ F∂nh D]-Po-hn-°p-∂, sNdptXm H‰-s∏-´tXm Ah-injvS cq]-Øn-ep-≈tXm Bb GsXmcp ]p¬ta-Sp-w Cu taJ-e-bpsS ]cn-[n-bn¬ hcp-∂p. DjvW-taJem ]p¬ta-Sp-Iƒ, antXm-jvaWta-Jem ]p¬ta-Sp-Iƒ F∂n-ßs\ Chsb hn`-Pn°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. antXmjvW taJem hn`m-K-Øn¬s∏-´-h-bn¬ Xs∂ ss\k¿KnI ]p¬ta-Sp-I-

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

151


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

sf∂pw A¿[-ss\-k¿KnI ]p¬ta-Sp-I-sf∂pw c≠v hn`m-K-ß-fp-≠v. A¿[-ss\-k¿Kn-I- hn`mKw ho≠pw ssht°m-en-\p-]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-h, tabm-\p-]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂h F∂n-ßs\ c≠mbn Xncn-®n-cn-°p-∂p. \n¿P-e-˛A¿[ \n¿Pe {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ Ahn-S-hn-sS-bmbn sNdnb kzm`m-hnI ]p¬ta-Sp-Iƒ ImWm-dp-≠v. CØcw {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ ]p¬{]-tZ-i-ß-fpsS \ne-\n¬]ns\ kzm[o\n-°p∂ {][m\ LSIw Imem-h-ÿ-bm-Wv. anX-amb tXmXn¬ I∂p-Imen tab-en¬ \n∂pw Ch-bpsS \ne-\n¬]n\v kΩ¿Zw D≠m-hm-dp-≠v. s]mXpsh ]d-™m¬, `qcn-`mKw ]p¬ta-SpIfpw (\n¿P-etam A¿[-\n¿P-e-tam, Pe-km-∂n[yw D≈tXm Db¿∂ taJ-e-I-fnep≈tXm antXmjvv-W-ta-J-e-bn-ep-≈tXm GXpw) Hcp-t]mse ISpØ \io-I-cW `ojWn t\cn-´p-sIm≠n-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv. hfsc sNdnb H‰-s∏´ Jfi-ßtfm AYhm kzm`m-hnI]p¬ta-Sp-Itfm Ah-injvS iI-e-ßtfm BWv C°m-eØv ImWm-\m-hp-∂-Xv. Cu hn`m-K-߃t]mepw I\Ø I∂p-Imen ta®n-ens‚ ^e-ambn KWy-amb am‰-߃°v ASn-s∏-´p-sIm≠v Ccn-°-bm-Wv. ]›na-L-´-Ønse ÿnXn kzm`m-hn-Itam AYhm a\p-jy-\n¿an-Xtam Bb Ht´sd ]p¬ta-Sp-Iƒ ]›n-a-L´ {]tZ-ißfn-ep-≠v. Huj-[-k-ky-ß-fpsS Ie-hd F∂ \ne-bnepw kky-`p-°p-I-fmb arK-ßfpsS Poht\m-]m[n F∂ \ne-bnepw Chbv°v Gsd {]m[m-\y-ap-≠v. ]›n-a-L´ taJe samØw Ch hym]n®p-In-S° - p-∂p. hnkvXr-Xa - mb ]p¬ta-Sp-Isf Dƒs°m-≈p-∂h - s - b∂ \ne-bn¬ apgp-h≥ ]›naL´ taJ-e-Ifpw ]cn-kvXnXn hnteme {]tZ-i-ambn ]cn-K-Wn-°-s∏-tS-≠-Xm-Wv. D]-cn- hrjvSn{]tZ-i-߃ (Upper catchment) \n¿h-N\w: Pew tiJ-cn®v ]pd-¥-≈m-\p-ff kw`-cWn cq]-Øn-ep≈ `q{]-tZi-amWv hrjvSn-{]-tZiw. km[m-c-W-bmbn ]¿Δ-X-Øns‚ Db¿∂ `mKtØm AYhm \Zn-bpsS D¬`-h-Øn-t\m-S-SpØ `mKtØm ÿnXn-sN-øp∂ Cu {]tZiw Hcp DØa ag-sh≈ kw`-c-Wn-bmbn h¿Øn-°p-∂p. ChnsS tiJ-cn-°-s∏-Sp∂ Pew H∂p-In¬ X¬{]-tZ-isØ aÆn¬ Du¿∂n-d-ßp-∂p; As√¶n¬ \Zn-bn-eqsS Xmtg°v HgpIn FØp-∂p. taJe: \Zn-bpsS ta¬ {]tZ-i-ßfn-embn ÿnXn-sN-øp∂ D]-cn-hrjvSn {]tZiw hyXykvX \Zn-I-fn¬ hyXykvX {]Ir-X-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-h-bm-Wv. \Zn-bpsS D¬`-h-ÿm-\w, kw`-c-W-{]-tZ-i-Øns‚ Ncn-hv, \Zn-bpsS ssIh-gn-Iƒ, {]Xn-h¿jw \Zn-bn-eqsS Hgp-In-t∏m-Ip∂ sh≈w, `ua-kz-`m-hw, aÆns‚ {]tXy-I-X-Iƒ, h\-hym]vXn F∂n-hsb B{i-bn-®mWv D]-cn-hrjvSn {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ sshhn[yw ImW-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. ]›na-L-´-Ønse ÿnXn ap≥ kqNn-∏n-®-t]mse ]›n-a-L-´ßƒ C¥y D]-Zzo-]ns‚ Hcp {][m\ Pe-k-ºpjvS tKm]pcamWv. Ing-t°m´pw ]Sn-™m-tdm-´p-sam-gp-Ip-∂ [mcmfw \Zn-Ifpw Chn-sS-bp-≠v. C¥y D]-Zzo-]nse \Zn-I-fpsS \ne-\n¬]ns\ kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw AXn-{]-[m-\-ßfmb D]-cn-hr-jvSn{]-tZ-i-߃ F∂ hn-`m-K-Øn¬s]-Sp-∂-h-bm-I-bm¬ samØw ]›n-a-L-´- ta-J-e-Iƒ Xo¿®-bmbpw ]cn-ÿnXn hnteme taJ-e-bn¬s∏-´-h-bmbn ]cn-K-Wn-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. A[nIw IpØ-s\-b-√mØ Ncn-hp-Iƒ \n¿h-N\w: 10O

tb°mƒ IpSp-X-ep-≈Xpw F∂m-¬ 20O tb°mƒ Ipd-hp-≈-Xp-amb Ncn-hp-{]-tZ-i-ß-fmWn-h. taJe: Xnc-›o\ Xe-Øn¬\n∂v 10O apI-fn-embn 20O ¬ Ihn-bmØ Ncn-thm-Sp-Iq-Snb {]tZ-i-߃ Dƒs∏-Sp-∂-XmWv Cu taJ-e. Ncn-hn\v apI-fnepw Xmsg-bp-ap≈ Xnc-›o\ {]X-e-߃ aÆnSn-®n¬, Dcpƒs∏m-´¬ F∂n-h-aq-e-ap≈ `q{]-IrXn hnt£m-`-߃°v km[y-X-tb-dp-∂-Xn-

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152


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

\m¬ A\p-tbm-Py-amb coXn-bn¬ kΩ¿Z km[y-Xm-ta-J-e-Iƒ Is≠Øn km[m-cW KXnbn¬ Ncn-hns‚ c≠v A{K-ß-fn¬ \n∂pw 200 ao‰¿ hsc-bp≈ Zqcw kΩ¿Z km[y-Xm-ta-Je-bmbn ip]m¿i- sNø-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p. ]¿ΔX {]tZ-i-ß-fnse Bhmk hyh-ÿ-I-fn¬ aÆn-Sn-®n-en\v km[y-Xbp≈ {]tZ-iß-fn¬ kΩ¿Z km[y-Xm-ta-J-e-Iƒ A¬]w IqSn hnkvXr-Xn-bn¬ IW-°m-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. sNcn-hns‚ sN¶p-Ømb kz`m-hw, aÆns‚ LS-\, sh≈w IpØn-sbm-en-°p-∂-Xns‚ i‡n, ta¬a-Æns‚ I\w, Ncn-hnse hn≈-ep-Iƒ, `mcw IqSnb hkvXp-°sf Xmßn-\n¿Øp∂ Zp¿_e {]Xew F∂nh ]cn-K-Wn-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. ]›na-L-´-Ønse ÿnXn sN¶p-ØmbtXm A{X IpØ-s\-b-√m-ØtXm Bb Ncn-hp-Iƒ [mcmfw ImW-s∏-Sp∂ taJ-e-bmWv ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e. ÿe-Øns‚ D∂Xn kw_-‘n® \s√mcp Um‰m-t_kv ssIhi-ap≠v. am{X-a-√, Ncn-hp-Ifpw ÿe-Øns‚ D∂-Xnbpw kw_-‘n® hnh-c߃ tiJ-cn-°p-hm≥ ]›n-a-L´ Bhm-k-hy-hÿm hnZ-Kv[-]-T-\-k-an-Xn°v Ign-™n-´p-ap-≠v. AXn-hrjvSn taJ-e-Iƒ \n¿h-N\w: {]Xn-h¿jw 200 sk‚n ao‰-dn-tesd ag e`n-°p∂ {]tZ-i-ß-fm-Wn-h. taJe: C¥y≥ Imem-hÿm hIp-∏ns‚-tbm, hnZqc kwth-Z\ kwhn-[m-\-ß-fp-sStbm \nco-£-W-{]Imcw km[m-cW KXn-bn¬ e`n-t°≠ ag-tb-°mƒ IqSp-X¬ ag e`n-°p∂ {]tZ-i-ßsf Cu KW-Øn¬ s]Sp-Ømw. F∂m¬, bmZr-›n-I-ambn Nne L´-ß-fn¬ am{Xw I\Ø ag e`n°p∂ ÿe-ßsf Cu KW-Øn¬\n∂v Hgn-hm-°n-bn-cn-°p-∂p. ]›na-L-´-Ønse ÿnXn C¥y≥ D]-Zzo-]ns‚ ss\k¿KnI Pe-k-º∂ taJ-e-bmb ]›n-a-L-´-ß-fn¬ {]Xn-h¿jw 200 sk.-ao. tesd ag e`n-°p-∂p. I\Ø ag e`n-°p∂ ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-bnse an° -ta-J-e-Ifpw AXn-\m¬Xs∂ ]cnÿnXn hnteme taJ-e-I-fm°n IW-°m-t°-≠-Xm-Wv.

]cn-ÿn-Xn-Zp¿_e taJ-e-I-fpsS Xcw-Xn-cn-°-en-\p≈ am\-Z-fi-߃ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse hyXykvX {]tZ-i-ß-fnse ]cn-ÿnXn hntem-e-X-bpsS Bt]-£nI \ne-hmcw hn-e-bn-cp-Øp-hm-\p≈ {ia-ß-fn-te¿s∏-´n--cn-°p-I-bmWv ]›n-a-L´ Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿm -hnZKv[]T-\-k-anXn. ta¬ {ia-ß-fpsS shfn-®-Øn¬ ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-sbm-∂msI ]cn-ÿnXn hnteme -{]tZ- i - ß - f m- b n- Ø s∂ IW- ° m- ° - W - s a∂ \nK- a - \ - Ø n- e mWv ]›n- a - L ´ Bhm- k - h yhÿmhnZKv[]T\ kanXn FØn-t®¿∂-Xv. F∂m¬, {]W-_vsk≥ \n¿tZ-in-®-Xp-t]m-se, ]cnÿnXn hntem- e X kw_- ‘ n® Um‰m- t _kv kwL- S n- ∏ n- ° p∂- X n\pth≠n Hcp tZiob anj≥t]mepw cq]o-I-cn-°m-\m-hmsX kan-Xn°v 2010¬ Xs∂ AXns‚ {]h¿Ø-\-߃ Bcw`n-t°-≠n-h∂p F∂Xv tJZ-I-c-amWvv. AXn-\p-]-cn, ]cn-ÿnXn hnteme taJ-e-I-fpsS ]cn-]m-e\-co-Xn-Iƒ kw_-‘n® \n¿tZ-i-ßsfm∂pw Xs∂ {]W-_vsk≥ IΩn‰n apt∂m´v h®n-cp-∂n-√. samØw ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-e-Iƒ°v H∂msI Hcp-t]mse A\p-tbm-Py-amb Hcp GIo-IrX hyhÿ F∂Xv A{]m-tbm-Kn-I-am-b-Xn-\m¬ ]cn-ÿn-Xn- hn-tem-eX kw_-‘n® hnhn[ Xe-߃ hnhn[ taJ-e-Iƒ°v Npa-X-e-s∏-Sp-Øn-s°m-Sp-°pI F∂ Hcp _lp-Xe kao-]\w ssIs°m-≈p-hm≥ kanXn Xocp-am-\n-®p. CXn-te-°m-bn, samØw ]›n-a-L´ taJ-esb kanXn 5 an\n´v X 5 an\n´v NXp-cß-fmbn hn`-Pn-°m≥ Xocp-am-\n-®p. hyXykvX taJ-e-I-fnse ]cnÿnXn hntem-e-X-bpsS Bt]-£nI \ne-hmcw kw_-‘n®v X¬k-abw Ffp∏w e`y-am-Ip∂ hnh-c-߃ D]-tbm-Kn-°p-Itb kzm`m-hnI-ambpw ]T-\-k-an-Xn°v km[y-am-hp-I. Ch C{]-Im-c-am-Wv. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

153


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

1.

ÿe-{]-Xn-]-Øn-bp≈ kky-߃: CØcw kky-C-\-ßfpsS FÆw

2.

sF.-bp.-kn.-F≥ amIvkv: sF.-bp.-kn.-F≥. Nph∂ ]´n-I-bn¬s∏Sp-Øn-bn-cn-°p∂ kkvX\n-I-fpsS FÆw.

3.

]Icw as‰m-∂n-√mØh (i-X-am-\-°-W-°n¬): tNme-h-\-߃t]m-se-bp≈ AXp-ey-amb \nXy-l-cnX Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-I-fpsS hnkvXo¿W iX-am-\w.

4.

I\ym-h-\-ß-fpsS hnkvXo¿W iX-am\w

5.

h\-hym]vXn iX-am-\-°-W-°n¬: h\-hn-kvXo¿W iX-am-\w.

6.

D∂Xn

7.

Ncnhv

8.

\Zn-tbm-c-h-\-{]-tZ-i-߃/ kky-Pm-e-߃

F∂m¬ Ct∏mƒ e`y-amb Cu ÿnXn-hn-h-c-°-W-°p-Iƒ h\-ta-J-e-bnse ssPh-ssh-hn[ysØ am{Xw Du∂n-bp-≈-Xm-sW-∂pw, Bhm-k-ta-J-e-I-fpsS XpS¿® XpS-ßnb {]iv\-ßsf Ah-K-Wn-°p-∂p-sh∂pw D≈ Imcy-Øn¬ X¿°-an-√. F∂m¬ X¬k-abw e`n-°p∂ ÿnXn-hnhc-°-W-°p-I-fn¬ {i≤ tI{μo-I-cn-°m≥ am{Xta kan-Xn°v Ct∏mƒ \n¿hm-l-ap-≈p. ]›naL´ Bhm-k-hy-hÿm AtXm-dn´n C°m-cy-Øn¬ th≠ \S-]-Sn-Iƒ ]n∂oSv kzoI-cn°pw F∂v kanXn {]Xym-in-°p-∂p. ag e`y-X, ag-°m-e-Øns‚ ssZ¿Lyw F∂n-hsb kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ hS-°v-˛-sX°v taJ-e-Iƒ°n-S-bn¬ h≥ A¥-c-ap-≠v. AXp-t]mse D∂-Xn, `ua-kz-`mhw F∂n-hbpsS Imcy-Ønepw hyXn-bm-\-ß-fp-≠v. AXn-\m¬Xs∂ ]cn-ÿnXn sshin-jvSy-Øns‚ ImcyØn-em-bmepw ]cn-ÿn-Xn-hn-tem-e-X-bpsS Imcy-Øn-em-bmepw kwÿm-\m--¥c hyXn-bm\w {]Xo£n-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. AtX ka-bw-Xs∂ ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-bn-sem-∂msI Xs∂ Bhm-k-ta-Jem kwc-£W {ia-߃ Hcpt]mse HsØm-cp-a-tbmsS \S-∏m-t°-≠-Xp-am-Wv. AXn-\m¬ Htc kwÿm\-sØ-Xs∂ hnhn[ taJ-e-I-fnse ]cn-ÿnXn hntem-eX kw_-‘n® Bt]-£n-I-Xe-߃ shtΔ-sd-Xs∂ hne-bn-cp-Øp-∂-XmWv A`n-Im-ayw. ]cn-K-W\m ]cn-[n-bn¬ hcp∂ h-kvXp-X-I-fpsS tIh-e-aq-ey-a-√, adn®v Bt]-£nI aqeyamWv ta¬ {]h¿Ø-\-Øn¬ {]k-‡-am-bn-´p-≈-Xv. Cu ImgvN-∏m-Sn‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ ta¬ kqNn-∏n® am\-Z-fi-߃ Hmtcm kwÿm-\-Øn\pw shtΔsd {Iam-\p-k-c-W-s∏-Sp-Øn. DZm-l-cW-am-bn, Hcp kwÿm-\Øv tcJ-s∏-Sp-Ø-s∏´ ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ D∂-Xn°v ]c-am-h[n kvtIm¿ 10 BWv F∂n-cn-°-s´, AtX kwÿm-\-Ønse a‰v NXz-c-ß-fnepw (grids) ap≥]-d™ ]cn-KW\m hkvXp-X-I-fpsS \ne-hmcw 1 apX¬ 10 hsc-bp≈ dm¶p-Iƒ sImSpØv \n›-bn-°p-∂p. AXn-\p-tijw Hcp NXz-c-Øn¬ (grids) e`y-am-bn-´p≈ ]cn-K-W\m hkvXp-X-Iƒ°v e`n® kvtImdns‚ icm-icn \n¿W-bn-°p-∂p. Cßns\ sNøp-tºmƒ, Hcp {]tXyI NXz-c-Øn\v 10 t\mS-SpØ Db¿∂ kvtIm¿ e`n®p F∂n-cn-°-s´ B kwÿm-\sØ kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw ap≥ kqNn-∏n® F´v ]cn-K-W\m hnj-b-߃, Ah-bpsS km∂n[yw hfsc Db¿∂ tXmXn¬ ImW-s∏-Sp∂p F∂v thWw Icp-tX-≠-Xv. ]cn-K-W\m hkvXp-X-I-fpsS aqeyw NXz-c-߃ tXmdpw Db¿∂ hyXn-bm\w ImWn-°p-I-bm-sW-¶n¬ ta¬ {]kvXm-hn® kml-N-cy-Øn¬ hen-sbmcp hn`mKw NXz-c-ß-fpsS BsI icm-icn aqeyw Xmgv∂-Xm-bn-cn-°pw. F∂m¬ BZyw ]d™ DZml-c-W-Øn¬ NXz-c-ß-fn¬ ]cn-KW\m hkvXp-X-I-fpsS aqey-߃ XΩn-ep≈ hyXn-bm\w sNdpXm-b-Xn¬ (F√mw Db¿∂ kvtIm¿ ImWn-°p-∂-Xn-\m¬) kzm`m-hn-I-ambpw NXz-c-ß-fpsS BsI aqeyw Db¿∂-Xm-bn-cn-°pw. KpP-dmØv kwÿm-\-Ønse ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-e-Iƒ ]cn-tim-[n-®m¬ C°mcyw H∂p-IqsS hy‡-am-°mw. Xmc-X-tay\ hnkvXrX taJ-e-bm-bn-´p-t]mepw ]cn-K-W\m hkvXp-X-I-fpsS Imcy-Øn¬ kam-\-amb aqeyw {]Z¿in-∏n-°p-∂p. X¬^-e-ambn kwÿm-\-Øns‚ kvtIm¿ \ne-hmcw 5˛7 ]cn-[nbn¬ \n¬°p∂p. F∂m¬, a‰v Nne kwÿm-\-ßsf kw_-‘n-®nS-tØm-fw, kvtIm¿ \ne-hmcw 3˛5 F∂ Xmgv∂ \ne-bn-em-Wv. Nne {][m-\-s∏´ ]£n-k-t¶-X-ßfpw CØ-c-Øn¬ Xmgv∂ kvtIm¿ {]Z¿in-∏-°p-∂Xmbn ImWp-∂p. hc≠ Ce-s]m-gnbpw ImSp-Isf At]-£n®v ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse \nXy-l-cnX ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

154


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

h\-߃ Xmgv∂ \ne-bn-ep≈ ]-£n-ssh-hn[yw {]Z¿in-∏n-°p-∂-Xmbn Um\n-tb¬--kv-˛-Km-UvKn¬ (1992) F∂n-h¿ Nq≠n-°m-´n-bXv Cu L´-Øn¬ {]k-‡-am-Wv. Hcp {]tXyI NXz-c-Øns‚ kwc-£W Bh-iy-IX B NXz-c-Øn\v e`n-®n-cn-°p-∂ kvtImdns‚ am{Xw ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ \n›-bn-°-cp-Xv. adn-®v, {]kvXpX {]tZ-i-Øp≈ a‰p NXzc-ßfpsS IqSn kvtIm¿ \n¿W-bn-®-Xn\p tijw am{X-am-bn-cn-°Ww X¬{]-tZ-i-Øns‚kwc£nX aqeyw \n›-bn-t°-≠-Xv. CXn-\Iw Xs∂ kpc-£nX taJem irwJ-e-I-fn¬ (Protected areas) Dƒ-s∏-Sp-Ø-s∏´ {]tZ-i-߃ D≠v ˛ h\y-ar-K-k-t¶-X-߃, \mj-W¬ ]m¿°p-Iƒ F∂nh CØcw hn`m-K-Øn¬s∏-Sp-∂p. CØcw taJ-e-Isf Dƒs°m-≈p∂ NXz-c-߃°pw kzm`m-hn-Iambpw Hcp kvtIm¿ D≠m-bn-cn-°p-at√m? CXns‚ ASn-ÿm-\Ø - n¬ ]›n-aL - ´ Bhmk hyhÿm hnZKv[ ]T-\-k-anXn kp{]-[m-\-amb Hcp Xocp-am\w ssIs°m≠p ˛ kwc-£nX taJem irwJe-bnse (Protected areas) Hcp NXz-c-Øn\v (grid) e`n-°p∂ G‰hpw Xmgv∂ kvtImsd-¶nepw e`n°p∂ NXz-c-ß-tfmSp (grids) IqSnb {]tZ-i-߃°v am{Xta ESZ 1 (]m-cn-ÿn-XnI hnteme taJe 1) F∂ Db¿∂ ]cn-ÿnXn hntem-eXm ]Zhn \¬Ip-I-bp-≈p.

Nn{Xw 2: KpP-dm-Ønse ]›n-a-L´ taJe

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155


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

DØc alm-cmjv{S

Z£nW alm-cmjv{S- ]cn-ÿnXnteme {KnUv

Nn{Xw 3: alm-cmjv{S-bnse ]›n-a-L-´ -ta-Je

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156


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

tKmh- ˛ Hcp an\n‰v x Hcp an\n‰v ]cn-ÿn-Xn-teme {KnUv

Nn{Xw 4: tKmh-bnse ]›n-a-L´ taJe

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157


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

I¿Æm-SI ˛ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-teme {KnUv

Nn{Xw 5: I¿Wm-S-I-bnse ]›n-a-L´ taJe

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158


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

tIcfw ˛ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-teme {KnUv

Nn{Xw 6: tIc-f-Ønse ]›n-a-L-´-ta-Je

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159


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

tIcf ˛ Xan-gv\mSv taJe

Nn{Xw 7: tIc-f-Ønepw Xan-gv\m-´p-ap≈ ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-e-Iƒ

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160


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]›n-a-L-´-ß-fnse BhmktaJ-esb Imem-hÿmhyXn-bm\w `mhn-bn¬ F{]-Imcw _m[n°mw? am\p-jnI hym]m-c-߃ krjvSn-°p∂ lcn-X-Kr-l-hm-XI {]`m-h-Øns‚ ]cn-W-X-^-eamWv Imem-hÿm hyXn-bm-\hpw ssPh sshhn-[y-Øn≥ta¬ AtX¬]n-°p∂ BLm-X-ßfpw F∂v temI-sam-´msI N¿®-sNø-s∏-´p-I-gn-™p. ssPh-ssh-hn-[y-k-º-∂-amb ]›n-a-L´ taJe-Ifpw Imem-hÿm hyXn-bm-\-Øns‚ BLm-X-ß-fn¬\n∂v hnap-‡-am-hm≥ CSn-bn-√. AXn\m¬, ]›n-a-L-´-ß-fnse hnhn[ {]tZ-i-ßfp-tSbpw Bhmk taJ-e-I-fp-sSbpw ]cn-ÿnXn hntem-eX kw_-‘n® hnj-b-ß-fn¬ C°mcyw IqsS ]cn-K-Wn-t°-≠-Xp-≠v. Imem-hÿm hyXn-bm\ BLm-X-ß-fpsS tamU-enßv C¥ybnse h\-ta-J-e-I-fn¬ Imem-hÿm hyXn-bm\w krjvSn-t®-°m-hp∂ BLm-X-ßsf ]‰n Nne tamU-enwKv ]T-\-߃ \S-∂n-´p≠v (c-ho-{μ-\mYpw a‰p-≈hcpw, 2006; NXp¿th-Znbpw a‰p-≈-hcpw, 2011). ]›n-a-L-´-ß-fpsS khn-ti-j-X-Isf IqSp-X¬ ]cn-K-Wn®psIm≠p≈ Hcp ]T-\hpw hfsc apºv \S-∂n-´p-≠v. 1997¬ \oe-Kncn ssPh-ta-J-e, DØc I∂S h\-hn-`-hßfpsS \o°w F∂n-h-bn-t∑¬ Imem-hÿm hyXn-bm-\-Øm¬ D≠m-Im-hp∂ BLm-X-ß-sf∏‰n cho-{μ-\mYpw a‰p-≈-hcpw \SØnb ]T-\-am-bn-cp∂p CXv. h¿[n-®p-h-cp∂ A¥-cn-£ Djvamhn-\-\p-k-cn®v ]¿Δ-X-ta-J-e-bn-ep≈ ]p¬°m-Sp-I-fpsS hnkvXr-Xn-bn¬ Ipdhp hcp-∂-Xmbpw Ces]m-gnbpw ImSp-I-fn-te°v apƒ°m-Sp-Iƒ AXn-{I-an®v hf-cm-\p≈ Hcp {]h-WX ImWn-°p-∂Xmbpw ImW-s∏-´p. Fw-]n-cn-°¬ Ãm‰n-Ãn-°¬ tamU-emWv CXn-\p-]-tbm-Kn® ]T-t\m-]m-[n. Cu taJ-e-bn¬ G‰hpw ASpØ Ime-Ømbn \S-Ø-s∏´ ]T\w (N-Xp¿th-Zn, 2011) C‚t{K-‰Uv _tbm-kv^n-b¿ knap-te-‰¿, V.2 ssU\m-anIv knap-te-j≥ tamU¬ D]-tbm-Kn-®p-≈-Xmbn-cp-∂p. DjvW-ta-Jem \nXy-l-cnX h\-߃, Djvv-W-ta-Lem Ce-s]m-gnbpw ImSp-Iƒ, kmh∂-Iƒ, ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]p¬ta-Sp-Iƒ F∂n-h-bmWv Imem-hÿmhyXn-bm-\sØ AXn-Po-hn®v \ne-\n¬°p-∂-h-sb∂v tamU¬ shfn-s∏-Sp-Øn-b-Xv. ]¿Δ-X-ta-J-e-bnse h\-߃, ]p¬ta-SpIƒ, A¿[-\n-Xy-l-cnX h\-߃, apƒ°m-Sp-Iƒ, Ce-s]m-gnbpw ImSp-Iƒ F∂n-h-tb-°mƒ IqSpX¬ AXn-Po-h-\-km-[yX ImWn-®Xv ap≥]-d™ hn`m-K-am-Wv. ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-I-fnse Imemhÿm hyXn-bm\w kw_-‘a - mb ]T-\ß - ƒ \S-Øp-∂X - n\mbn D]-tbm-Kn-®Xv doPn-bW - ¬ ss¢a‰v tamU¬, lm¿Uven sk‚¿ (Had RM 3) U.K. BWv. A¥-cn-£Ø - nse Im¿_¨ ssU HmIvsskUns‚ Afhv 2085¬ 750 ]n.-]n.-F. FØpw F∂v KWn-®mWv Hcp ]T\w (A2 kn\m-cn-tbm). as‰m∂n¬, (B2 kn\m-cn-tbm) A¥-cn-£-Ønse CO2 seh¬ 575 ]n.-]n.-Fw. F∂pw ]cn-K-Wn-®p. 2071 apX¬ 2100 hsc-bp≈ Ime-b-f-hnte°mWv tamU¬ {]h¿Øn-∏n-®-Xv. ]T\w \S-∂Xv 1985 a[yhpw. B2

BsI ]cn-K-Wn® 51 NXz-c-ß-fn¬ (grids) 26 FÆw (51%) A2 kn\m-cn-tbm-hnepw 16 FÆw kn\m-cn-tbm-hnepw hcp-∂-Xmbn knap-te-j≥ \S-Øn-b-t∏m¬ ImW-s∏-´p.

Ct∏m-gp≈ kky-Pm-e-L-S\ A2 kn\m-cntbm {]Imcw F{X-Imew hyXn-bm-\-hn-t[-b-am-Ipsa∂v Xmsg sImSp-Øn-cn-°p∂ Nn{X-߃ hni-Zo-I-cn-°p-∂p.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

apJy kkym-h-c-W-߃

Nn{Xw 8 ˛ IqSp-X-ep≈ kky-Pm-e-߃

]›n-a-L-´-Ønse h\-ßfppw Imem-h-ÿm-hy-Xn-bm-\hpw ˛ hnt[-bXz km[yXm tXmXv Imem-hÿm hyXn-bm-\-tØmSv Hcp {]tXyI h\-ta-Je F{]-Imcw {]Xn-I-cn-°p∂p F∂Xns‚ ASn-ÿm-\Ø - n¬ Hcp hnt[-bXz km[yXmkqNIw hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-Øn-´p-≠v. CXn≥ {]Imcw a)

Imem-hÿm]c-amb hyXn-bm\ kml-N-cy-ß-fn¬ {]kvXpX h\-ta-J-e-bnse kky-Pm-e߃ hyXn-bm-\-Øn\v hnt[-b-am-Ip-∂pt≠m?

b)

h\-ta-J-e-bnse {][m\ hr£-k-aqlw Hscm‰ C\-Øn¬s∏´XmtWm AYhm kΩn{i KW-Øn¬ s]´-htbm?

c)

B h\taJe \n_n-U-h-\-am-tWm, A√tbm? AXp-a-s√-¶n¬ Hcp Jfi-h-\-amtWm F∂o Imcy-߃ ]cn-tim-[n-°-s∏-Sp-∂p.

ta¬ kqN-Iß - f - n¬ \n∂v e`n-°p-∂ {]Xn-Ic - W - sØ Bkv]Z- a - m°n B h\-ta-Je hym]n®p InS-°p∂ NXz-c-߃°v 1 apX¬ 7 hsc-bp≈ kvtIm¿ \¬Ip-∂p. ‘1’ kqN-I-ambn e`n-°p-∂h G‰hpw Ipd™ hnt[-bXz km[yX {]I-Sn-∏n-°p-∂Xpw (Nn-{X-Øn¬ IdpØ \n-d-Øn¬ ImWn®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv 7 kqN-I-ambn e`n-°p-∂Xv G‰hpw IqSnb hnt[-b-Xz-km-[yX {]I-Sn-∏n-°p-∂Xpw BWv

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Imem-hÿm hnt[-bXzw

Nn{Xw 9 -˛ Imem-hÿm hyXn-bm-\-tØm-Sp≈ hnt[-bXz km[yX ]›n-aL - ´ taJ-eb - psS hS°pw a[y-`m-KØpw ÿnXn-sN-øp∂ {]tZ-ißfmWv Imem-hÿm hyXn-bm-\-tØmSv G‰hpw IqSp-X¬ hnt[-bXz km[yX ImWn-°p-∂-sX∂v ta¬ \nco-£Ww hy‡-am-°p∂p F∂v hcn-In-epw, Cu kqN-\-Isf Pm{K-Xt-- bmsS hni-I-e\w sNtø-≠-Xp-≠v. h\-{]-IrXn Nne-t∏m-sgms° ip`m-h-ÿ-bn-te°pw NphSv amdm-dp-≠v. DZm-l-c-W-Øn-\v, Pe-{]Xn-]Øn Ipd-™ kky-h¿K-߃ Hcp h\w Nne-t∏mƒ Cu¿∏m-[n-Iy-ap≈ kky-C-\-ß-fn-te°v NphSv amdn-tb-°mw. kq£va {]Xn-I-cW kz`m-h-ap≈ ]¿Δ-X-ta-Jem Bhmk hyh-ÿ-I-sf hni-I-e\w sNøm-\p-≈{X kmt¶-XnI kq£vaX Iºyq-´¿ knap-te-j≥ tamU-ep-Iƒ°v C√mØ Ah-ÿ-I-fnepw C{]-Imcw kw`-hn-°mw.

]¿ΔXtaJ-e-Ifnse tNme-°m-Sp-I-fp-tSbpw ]p¬ta-Sp-I-fp-tSbpw hnteme kz`mhw ]›n-a-L-´-ß-fn¬ ]p¬ta-Sp-I-tfbpw DjvW-ta-Jem h\-ß-tfbpw A\p-I-cn-°p-∂-Xn\v IBIS tamU-ep-Iƒ°v [mcmfw ]cn-an-Xn-Iƒ D≠v. AtXm-sSm-∏w, \oe-Kn-cn-bnepw AXn\p sX°p≈ ]›n-a-L´ {]tZ-i-ßfnepw {]map-Jy-ap≈ ]¿Δ-X-ta-Jem Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿsb th¿Xn-cn-®-dnbm\pw CØcw tamU-ep-I-fn¬ kwhn-[m-\-an-√. AXn-\m¬ ]¿Δ-X-ta-J-e-bnse tNme-h-\߃ F∂-dn-bs - ∏-Sp∂ \nXy-lc - n-Xh - \ - ß - t- fbpw B\-ae - , \oe-Kn-cn, ]f\n ae-If - nepw Ahbv°v sX°pw hS-°p-ap≈ ]¿ΔX \nc-I-fnepw kap-{Z-\n-c-∏n¬\n∂v 1800 ao‰-dn-tesd Db-c-Øn¬ ImW-s∏-Sp∂ ]p¬ta-Sp-I-tfbpw hntem-e-X-bpsS Imcy-Øn¬ {]tXyIw {]tXyIw ]cn-K-Wn-t°-≠-Xp-≠v. (kp-Ip-am¿ apX-em-b-h¿, 1985). ]ucm-WnI ImesØ kw`-hn-®n-´p≈ Imem-hÿm am-‰-߃°v A\p-kr-X-ambn tNme-°mSp-Iƒ ]p¬ta-Sp-Iƒ, F∂n-h-bpsS hym]-\-Øn¬ kt¶mN hnIm-k-߃ kw`-hn-®n-´p-s≠∂v Imem-h-ÿm-]-c-amb t^mkn¬ ]T-\-߃ sXfnhv \¬Ip-∂p. CØcw ]¿h-X-ta-Jem Bhmk hyh-ÿ-Isf kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw `mhn-bnse Imem-h-ÿm-hy-Xn-bm-\-߃ aqe-ap-≠m-Ip∂ BLm-X-߃ F{X -Im-e-am-bn-cn-°p-sa∂v {]h-Nn-°-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p. \oe-Kn-cn, ]f\n XpS-ßnb ]¿ΔX {]tZ-i-ßfnse ]p¬ta-Sp-I-fn¬ sshtZ-inI C\-ß-fmb Bkvt{S-en-b≥ hm‰n¬kv (A-

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

t°jy kv]ojo-kv) bq°m-en-]v‰kv (bq-°m-en-∏v‰kv kv]ojo-kv) F∂o C\߃ \´p-]n-Sn-∏n-®n´p-≠v. CØcw kky-߃ {]Imi kwt«-j-W-Ønse C3 ]mØv sh F∂ kwhn-[m-\-ap-]-tbmKn®v A¥-cn£w Im¿_¨ ssU HmIvsskUv h≥tXm-Xn¬ BKn-cWw sNøp-∂-Xns‚ ^eambn Db¿∂ hf¿®m-\n-c°v {]Z¿in-∏n-°p-∂p. A¥-cn£ Dujvam-hn-t\mSv lnXw ]pe¿Øp∂ At°jy kky-ßsf kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw Db-cp-∂ Dujvam-hv, tNme-°m-Sp-Isf AXn-{I-an®v At°-jym-h-\-߃ hym]-I-am-Ip-∂-Xn\pw Imc-W-am-Ip-∂p. Xs∂-bp-a-√, s]mXpsh aqS¬a™v Ipd™v hcp∂ kml-N-cy-Øn¬ X-Wp∏v IqSnb {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ hf-cp∂ ]p¬ta-Sp-I-fn-te°pw Ch hym]n-°p-∂p. C{]-Imcw kzm`m-hnI h\-ta-J-e-Ifpw ]p¬{]-tZ-i-ßfpw sshtZ-inI kkym[n-]-Xy-Øn≥ Iogn-e-a-cp-∂-Xn\v hy‡-amb kqN-\-I-fp-≠p-Xm-\pw. kvtIm®v {_qw (Cystisus scoparius) t]mep≈ hntZi C\w kky-ßfpw ASpØ Ime-Ømbn \oe-Kncn Ip∂p-I-fn¬ hym]I-am-Ip-∂X - mbn Is≠-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. kzm`m-hnI ]p¬ta-Sp-Iƒ°v kw`-hn-°p∂ hyXn-bm\w XZvÿe {]Xn-]-Øn-bp≈ hc-bm-Sv, \oe-Kncn ]∏n‰v XpS-ßnb P¥p-h¿K-ß-fpsS \ne-\n¬∏n-\mWv `ojWn Db¿Øp-I. ASpØ hn`m-K-Øn¬ ]›n-a-L-´sØ _m[n-°p∂ Nne {][m\ taJ-e-Isf Ah-temI\w sNøp-I-bpw. hnI-k-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-ß-sf∂ t]cn¬ X¬{]-tZ-i-ß-fn¬ \S-∂p-h-cp∂ ]cnÿnXn lXy-Isf \nb-{¥-W-Øn¬ sIm≠p-h-cp-hm-\p≈ ip]m¿i-Iƒ apt∂m-´p-h-bv°p-I-bpamWv ]›n-a-L´ Bhm-k-hy-hÿm hnZKv[ kan-Xn.

2. taJ-em-X-e-Øn-ep≈ ip]m¿i-Iƒ ]›n-a-L´ {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS ]cn-ÿn-Xn-hn-tem-e-X, hnI-k-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-߃ aqew D≠m-Imhp∂ ]mcn-ÿn-XnI BLm-X-߃ F∂n-hbv°v A\p-kr-X-amb Hcp _lp-Xe kao-]-\-am-Wv, Cu {]tZ-isØ hnI-k-\-{]-h¿Ø\ßsf kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw ]›n-a-L´ Bhm-k-hy-hÿm hnZ-Kv[-k-anXn ssIs°m-≠n-´p-≈-Xv. kan-Xn-bpsS ip]m¿i-{]-Imcw ]›n-a-L-´-{]-tZ-i-ßsf ]e taJ-e-I-fmbn Xncn-®n-cn-°p∂p. ]cn-ÿnXn hntem-eX G‰hpw IqSp-X-ep≈ taJ-e-Iƒ (ESZ 1), Db¿∂ ]cn-ÿnXn hnteme-X-bp≈ taJ-e-Iƒ (ESZ 2), anX ]cn-ÿnXn hntem-e-Xm-ta-J-e-Iƒ (ESZ 3). {Kma-ß-fpsS IqsS ]¶m-fn-Ø-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bp≈ hnI-k-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-ß-fm-bn-cn-°Ww Cu {]tZ-iß-fn¬ \S-tØ≠-sX∂v kanXn ip]m¿i-sN-øp-∂p. F∂p hcn-In-epw, Hcp XpS-°-sa∂ \ne-bn¬ dnt∏m¿Sns‚ H∂mw `mK-Ønse 6˛m-asØ ]´n-I-bn¬ hn]p-e-amb \n¿tZ-i-߃ \¬In-bn-cn-°p-∂p. hnhn[ taJ-e-Iƒ°p-th≠n Xøm-dm-°-s∏´ Cu \n¿tZ-i-߃ km[m-cW ]uc-∑m¿, kmaq-ly-kw-LS-\-Iƒ, AXm-Xp-ta-J-e-bnse hnZ-Kv[≥am¿, HutZym-Kn-I-hr-μ-߃ F∂n-h-tcm-Sp≈ hn]p-eamb N¿®-Iƒ°p-tijw Xøm-dm-°n-b-h-bm-Wv. XpS¿∂p hcp∂ D]-hn-`m-K-Øn¬, ]›n-a-L-´Ønse kp{]-[m-\t- a-Je - I - fpw Ah kw_-‘n® ]cn-KW - \ - m-hn-jb - ß - ƒ FSp-Øp-Im-Wn-®p-sIm≠v Ah-bv°p≈ \n¿tZ-i-ßfpw ASßn-bn-cn-°p-∂p. ]›n-a-L´ Bhm-k-taJem AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS ]¶pw ChnsS N¿®-sN-ø-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p.

2.1 Pe-hn-\n-tbmKw ]›n-aL - ´- t- a-Je - b - nse Pe-]c - n-]m-e\ - {- ]-h¿Ø-\߃ X¬{]-tZi-ßf - nse \Zn-If - psS Hgp°v sa®-s∏-Sp-Øp-I, hrjvSn {]tZ-ißsf anI® coXn-bn¬ kwc-£n-°pI F∂n-h-bp-ambn At`-Zyamw-hÆw _‘-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p. C¥y≥ D]-Zzo-]nse ]e {][m\ \Zn-I-fp-tSbpw D¬`-h-ÿm\w ]›n-a-L-´-amWv. Imth-cn, IrjvW, tKmZm-hcn F∂o \Zn-Iƒ sU°m≥ ]oT-`p-an-bn-eqsS Ing-t°m-s´m-gp-Ip-∂p. icm-h-Xn, t\{Xm-h-Xn, s]cn-bm¿, `mc-X-∏p-g XpS-ßnb Ime-h¿jm-{in-X-amb 100- Hmfw \Zn-Iƒ ]›n-a-L´-Øn¬ \n∂p¬`-hn®v IpØ-s\-bp-≈Xpw Xcw-Kn-X-hp-amb `q{]-tZ-i-ß-fn-eqsS HgpIn Ad-_n-°S-en¬ ]Xn-°p-∂p. Hcp GI-tZi IW-°p-{]-Im-cw, ]›n-a-L-´-{]-tZ-i-ß-fnse A©v kwÿm-\-

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

ß-fn-embn \nh-kn-°p∂ Dt±iw 245 Zi-e-£-tØmfw Bfp-Iƒ Ah-cpsS hyXykvX Pe-hn-\ntbm-K-߃°p-th≠n Cu \Zn-Isf t\cn-´m-{i-bn-°p-∂p. `qan-im-kv{X-]-c-am-bn, ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬\n∂p¬`-hn-°p∂ \Zn-IfpsS samØw hrjvSn-{]-tZiw C¥y-bpsS H´msIbp≈ hnkvXr-Xn-bpsS 40 iX-am-\-tØm-f-am-Wv. ]Sn-™m-tdm-s´m-gp-Ip∂ sNdp-\-Zn-I-fpsS XS-{]-tZiw ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ IpØ-s\-bp≈ ]Sn-™m-d≥ Ncn-hp-I-fn-em-bn-´mWv ÿn-Xn-sN-øp-∂-Xv, \Zo-X-SßfpsS 1/3 `mKhpw ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-Iƒ°p-≈n¬ Xs∂-bm-Wv. ]›n-a-L´w hn´pIgn-™m¬ ]ns∂ Xmgvhc-I-fn-eqsSbpw CS-\m-Sp-I-fn-eq-sSbpw Irjn-`q-an-I-fn-eq-sSbpw Hgp-In-bm-Wnh kap-{Z-Øn¬ ]Xn-°p-∂-Xv. Cu \Zn-Iƒ sIm≠p-h-cp∂ F°epw Nfnbpw D]-tbm-K-s∏-Sp-Øn-bmWv Xoc-˛-tZ-i-˛-Hm-cp-Pe a’y-_-‘\w \ne-\n-∂p-t]m-cp-∂-Xv. “kap{Zw ]¿h-X-Øn¬ \n∂m-cw-`n-°p-∂p, Xoc-tZ-i-Øns‚ ^e-`q-bn-jvTX \Zn-I-fnse kºØn-\-\p-k-cn®v” F∂n-Xym-Zn-bp≈ hmbvsam-gn-Iƒ Xoc-tZ-i-ß-fnse a’y-_-‘\w \SØn Pohn°p-∂-h¿°n-S-bn¬ D≈Xv Cu L´-Øn¬ kvac-Wo-b-am-Wv. Xpd∂ InW-dp-I-fpw, Pe-[m-c-I-fp-amWv Pe-tk-N-\w, IpSn-sh≈w XpS-ßnb Bh-iy-߃°pth≠n ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-e-bn¬ hym]-I-ambn D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ a‰v Pe-t{km-X- p-Iƒ. Nne-bn-S-ßen¬ ag-sh-≈-sImbvØpw \ne-hn-ep-≠v. knKq¿ ]oT-`q-an-bn¬ BZn-hm-kn-Iƒ°pw ZfnXv hn`m-K߃°pw th≠n-bp≈ [mcmfw IpSn-sh≈ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ tambm¿ \Znsb B{i-bn®v {]h¿Ø-\am-cw-`n-®n-´p-≠v. `qK¿`-P-e-hn-Xm\w XmWXpw hyXy-kvX-amb Pe-tk-N\ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ \ne-hn¬h∂Xpw aqew ASpØ Ime-Ømbn Ipg¬In-W-dp-Ifpw hym]-I-am-bn-´p-≠v. tIc-fsØ kw_-‘n®n-S-tØmfw `qK¿`-P-e-Øns‚ Afhv a‰v kwÿm-\-ßsf At]-£n®v Ipd-hm-Wv. Bgw Ipd™ InW-dp-I-fmWv ip≤-P-em-h-iy-Øn\p th≠n kwÿm-\Øv IqSp-X¬ D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xv. Ign™ GXm\pw h¿j-ß-fmbn `qK¿`-P-e-hn-Xm\w `bm-\-I-amw-hn[w Xmgv∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°-bm-Wv. \ocpd-h-I-fpsS timj-W-sØ-bmWv CXv kqNn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv. ]›n-a-L-´-kw-ÿm-\ßfn¬ IpSn-sh-≈w, Du¿tPm¬]m-Z-\w, Pe-tk-N\w, hyh-kmbw XpSßn-b-h-bv°p-th-≠n-bp≈ Pe Bh-iy-IX Db¿∂p-sIm-t≠-bn-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv. hnI-kn-®p-sIm-≠ncn-°p-∂ \K-cß - ƒ°pw hyh-km-bß - ƒ°pw th≠n Pe-tk-N\ - m-hi - y-߃°p≈ Umap-If - n¬\n∂v IqSp-X¬ IqSp-X¬ sh≈w Xncn-®p-hn-´p-sIm-≠n-cn-°-bm-Wv. incp-hm-Wn, I_-\n, ]o®n, ae-ºpg F∂o- A-Ws - °-´p-Ifense Pe-tk-N\ - m-hi - y-Øn-\p≈ Pew bYm-{Iaw tImb-ºØ - q¿, _mwKvfq¿˛-ssa-kq¿, Xr∏q¿, ]me-°mSv Pn√-I-fnse IpSn-sh-≈m-h-iy-Øn-\pw Pe-tk-N-\m-h-iy-Øn\pw Xncn®p-hn-´p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. apws_ \K-c-Øn-t‚bpw AXns‚ {]m¥-{]-tZ-i-ßfp-tSbpw \mƒ°p\mƒ h¿[n-®p-h-cp∂ Pe-hn-\n-tbmKw aqew alm-cmjv{S kwÿm-\Øv ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-e-bn¬ ]pXnb AW-s°-´p-Iƒ Bkq-{XWw sNbvXp-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. Ah-bn¬ NneXv \n¿amW-Øns‚ hnhn[ L´-ßfn-ep-am-Wv. ]n™mƒ, jm-bn, Km¿Kn, Imep, sshXWn F∂o AW-s°-´p-Iƒ ASpØ ImeØv \n¿an-°-s∏-´-hbm-Wv. \o¿®m-ep-Iƒ°v IpdpsI XS-bW ]WnXv IpSn-sh-≈m-h-iy-߃°pw Pe-tk-N-\-Øn\pw th≠n D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ ]Xnhv Imem-Im-e-ß-fmbn \Zn-bpsS Db¿∂ hrjvSn-{]-tZ-i-ß-tfm-SSpØv ÿnXn-sN-øp∂ tXbn-e, Im∏n-tXm-´-ßfn¬ ]Xn-hm-Wv. CXp-aqew \oscm-gp°v AXns‚ XpS-°-Øn¬Xs∂ XS- -s∏-Sm-\n-S-bm-hp-∂p. hnt\m-Z-k-©m-c-ta-J-e-bnse Bkq-{X-W-cm-ln-Xyhpw XXz-Zo-£-bn-√m-bva-bp-amWv h≥tXm-Xn-ep≈ Pe-Nq-j-W-Øn-te°v \bn-°p∂ as‰mcp LS-Iw. {_n´o-jp-Im-cpsS Imew-sXmt´ Imthcn \Zn-bpsS ssIh-cn-Iƒ°p IpdptI ]Wn-Xn-cn-°p∂ Pekw-`-c-Wn-I-tf-bmWv Du´n-bnse hnt\m-Z-k-©mc taJe B{i-bn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. IrjvW, Imthcn F∂o \Zn-I-fnse D]-cn-P-e-hpw, `qK¿`-P-ehpw Hcp-t]mse Du‰n-s°m≠n-cn-°p-∂p. I\Ø Pe-Nq-jWw aqew kap{Z-Øn¬ ]Xn-°p-∂X - p-hsc \oscm-gp°v \ne-\n¿Øm≥ Cu \Zn-Iƒ Gsd t¢in-°p-∂p-sh-∂Xv Hcp hkvXp-X-bm-Wv. \Zo-XS timjWw aqew sU¬‰m {]tZ-i-ß-fnse a’y-_-‘-\w, Irjn, D]-Po-h-\w, Bhmk taJe F∂n-h-sb√mw Xs∂ {]XnIqe {]Xym-Lm-Xß - ƒ G‰p-hm-ßn-s°m-≠n-cn-°b - m-Wv. 2001-˛2004 se hcƒ®m-h¿j-ßf - n¬ IrjvWm \Zn-bnse {]hmlw GXm≠v \ne® a´m-bn. ]Sn-™m-tdm-s´m-gp-Ip∂ \Zn-bpsS Imcy-Øn-emhs´ Xmsg-°p≈ Hgp°v Zp¿_-e-am-b-Xp-aqew CS-\m-Sp-Iƒt]mepw Hmcp-sh-≈-°-b-‰-Øns‚ `ojWn-bn-em-Wv. I-SpØ th\¬ amk-ß-fn¬ Hmcp-sh-≈-°-b‰w aqew IpSn-sh-≈-Øn¬ D∏p-I-b-dp............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

∂Xpw Irjn-\m-ihpw tIc-f-Øn¬ dnt∏m¿´v sNø-s∏-Sm-dp-≠v. tKmh-bn¬ I\Ø J\-\-Øns‚ ^e-ambn D]-cn-P-e-hn-Xm-\hpw `qK¿`-P-e-hn-Xm-\hpw Hcp-t]mse {]Xn-Iq-e-ambn _m[n-°-s∏´p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. Xmtgm-´p≈ {]hmlw Zp¿_-e-am-Ip-I-aqew \Zn-bpsS Iogv {]tZ-ißfn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂-h¿°v Bh-iy-Øn\v Pew e`n-°p-∂n-s√∂v am{X-a√ Pe-Øns‚ KpW-\n-e-hm-chpw tami-ambns°m≠n-cn-°-bm-Wv. J\n-bn¬\n∂pw ]pd-¥-≈-s∏-Sp∂ hkvXp-°ƒ \Zn-I-tfbpw Acp-hn-I-tfbpw aen-\o-I-cn-°p-∂p. J\-\hp-ambn _‘-s∏´ aen-\o-I-c-W-Øn\v Hcp DØa DZml-c-W-amWv Ip{Zn-apJv J\-\-{]-iv\w. ]›n-a-L´ ]¿h-X-\n-c-Iƒ°v a\p-jy C-S-s]-S-ep-I-fpsS Hcp \o≠ Ncn-{X-ap-≠v. CØcw CS-s]-S-ep-I-fpsS ^e-ambn t\cn´pw A√m-sX-bp≈ {]Xym-Lm-X-ß-fmWv Cu taJ-e-bnse Pe-t{km-X- p-Iƒ G‰p-hm-ßn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. ]›n-a-L-´-ß-fnse Pe-t{km-X- p-I-fn-t∑epw Ah-bpsS ]cn-]m-e\w kw_-‘n®pw D≠mb Nne CS-s]-S-ep-Ifpw {]Jym]\-ßfpw \o≠p-\n¬°p-∂ {]Xym-Lm-X-߃Xs∂ D≠m-°n-bn´p≠v. AXn¬ NneXv Npcp-°-Øn¬ Xmsg ]d-bp-∂p.

DXvIW - vTm-P\ - I - a - mb {]iv\ß - ƒ \Zn-I-fpsS hrjvSn-{]-tZ-i-ß-fnse h\-\-io-I-cWw h\-\-io-I-c-W-Øns‚ \o≠ Ncn-{X-ap≠v ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-Iƒ°v. XSn-hy-h-km-bw, \ZoXS-]-≤-Xn-Iƒ, tXm´-߃ F∂n-h-bv°p-th≠n \Zn-I-fpsS Db¿∂ hrjvSn{]tZ-i-ß-fn-ep≈ h\߃ hym]-I-ambn \in-∏n-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. \Zn-Iƒ°v Pehpw Ddhpw \¬Ip∂ sNdp \o¿®mep-Iƒ X≥aqew timjn-°s - ∏-Sp-Itbm \ne-bv°p-Itbm sNøm-\n-Sb - m-hp-∂p. h\-\i - o-Ic - W - Ø - ns‚ ^e-ambn Ime-h¿jw Ign-™m-ep-Ss\ sNdp \o¿®m-ep-Iƒ DW-ßn-hc - ≠ - p-t]m-Ip-hm\pw X≥aqew hym]-I-amb DW-°p-≠m-Ip-hm\pw D≈ {]h-WX ASp-Ø-Im-e-Ømbn hfsc {]I-S-am-Wv. \Zn-Ifnse {]hm-l-Øns‚ i‡n AXn-bmbn Ipd-bp-∂-Xn\pw hrjvSn-{]-tZ-i-ß-fnse h\-\-io-I-cWw Imc-W-am-Ip-∂p. ]›n-a-L´ {]tZ-i-ß-fnse \Zo-]-cn-]m-e\w ]›n-a-L-´-ß-fnse H´p-an° \Zn-Ifpw H∂p-In¬ AW-sI´n sh≈w XS-™p-\n¿-Ø-s∏-´-htbm, As√-¶n¬ Ah-bnse Pew a‰m-h-iy-߃°p-th≠n Xncn-®p-hn-S-s∏-´n-´p-≈-htbm BWv. Nne \Zn-I-fpsS Db¿∂ {]tZ-iØv sshZyp-X-D¬]m-Z-\-Øn\v th≠nbpw Xmgv∂ {]tZiØv Pe-tk-N-\-Øn\v th≠nbpw AW-Iƒ \n¿an-°p-∂p. DZm-l-c-W-Øn-\v, Imth-cn-bpsS Ing-t°ms´m-gp-Ip∂ ssIh-gn-I-fmb `hm-\n, I_-\n, tambm¿ F∂n-hbpw IrjvW \Zn-bpsS ssIh-gn-Ifmb _oa, XpwK, `{Z F∂n-hbpw AW-s°-t´m-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-h-bm-Wv. ]Sn-™m-tdm-s´m-gp-Ip∂ \ZnI-fmb icm-h-Xn, s]cn-bm¿ F∂o \Zn-I-fn¬ H∂n-tesd ÿe-ß-fn¬ AW-sI-´n-bn-cn-°p-∂p. tIc-fhpw Xan-gv\mSpw I£n-I-fmb ap√-s∏-cn-bm¿, ]d-ºn-°pfw AW-s°-´p-I-fnse Pew ]q¿W-ambpw Xncn-®p-hn-´n-cn-°-bm-Wv. F√m {]Ir-Xn-\n-b-a-ß-sfbpw ewLn-®p-sIm≠v ]Sn™mtdms´m-gp-Ip-∂ \Zn-Isf Ing-t°m´v Xncn-®p-hn-Sp-I-bmWv sNøp-∂-Xv. AW-s°-´p-Iƒ \Zo-Pe {]hm-lsØ am‰n-a-dn-°p-∂p F∂-Xn¬ X¿°-an-√. Xmtg°v HgpIp∂ sh≈-Øns‚ Af-hv, {]hm-l-th-Kw, \n›nX ka-b-Øn-\p-≈n¬ Hgp-In-t∏m-Ip∂ sh≈Øns‚ Af-hv, Pe-hn-Xm-\-\n-b-{¥-Ww, \Zn-{]-hm-l-Øn\v kzm`m-hn-I-ambn D≠m-Ip-∂ Db¿®-˛Xm-gvN-Iƒ F∂n-hsb I\Ø coXn-bn¬ am‰n-a-dn-°m≥ AW-s°-´p-Iƒ°v Ign-bpw. ]Sn-™mtdm´v Hgp-Ip∂ \Zn-I-fn¬ AW-s°-´p-Iƒ \n¿an-®n-´p-≈-h-bn¬, AW-s°-´p-Iƒ°v Xmsg-bmbn {]hm-l-th-K-X-bn¬ I\Ø hyXn-bm\w Zn\w-{]Xn kw`-hn-°m-dp-≠v. AW-s°-´p-I-fn¬ kar-≤ambn Pe-ap-≈-t∏mgpw (peak period) Pe-hn-Xm\w hfsc Xmgv∂n-cn-°p∂ Ah-k-c-ß-fn-ep-amWv CØcw hyXn-bm-\-߃ D≠m-Im-dp-≈-Xv. IpSn-sh≈ ]≤-Xn-I-fpw, sNdpXpw hep-Xp-amb Pe-tkN-\-]-≤-Xn-Ifpw am{X-a√ Pe-Ønse Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿbpw \Zn-tbm-S-\p-_‘n® a‰v taJ-e-Ifpw CXns‚ BLm-X-ta‰phmßm-dp-≠v. AW-s°-´ns‚ {]h¿Ø-\-ßfpw X≥aq-e-ap-≠m-Ip∂ {]XymLm-X-ßfpw, {]tXy-In®v \Zn-bpsS Iogv{]-tZ-i-ß-fn¬, _‘-s∏-Sp-Øn-sIm-≠p≈ ]T-\-߃ hfsc Ipd-hmWv. AXp-sIm≠v Xs∂ X≥aq-e-ap-≠m-Ip∂ {]iv\-߃ eLq-I-cn-°m-\p≈ \S-]Sn-Ifpw th≠-{X-bn-√. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

hyXykvX \Zn-Iƒ Iq´ntbmPn-∏n®v \Znsb Xncn-®p-hn-Sp∂ Ah-k-c-ß-fn¬ AW-s°-´n\v Xmsg \Zn-bpsS kzm`m-hnI Hgp°v A{]-Xy-£-am-hp-∂p. ap√-s∏-cn-bm¿ AW-s°´v CXn\v \s√mcp DZm-l-cW-am-Wv. ]Sn-™m-tdm-s´m-gp-Ip∂ s]cn-bm-dns‚ ssIh-gn-bmb ap√-s∏-cn-bm¿ Ing-°p-`mK-Øp≈ sshK \Zn-bn-te°v ]q¿W-ambpw Xncn-®p-hn-Sp-I-bm-Wn-hnsS sNøp-∂-Xv. CSp°n AWs°-´n-em-Is´ ag-°m-eØv e`n-°p-∂ A[n-I-Pew Hgp-°n-hn-Sm-\p≈ kv]n¬th t]mepw C√. alm-cmjv{S kwÿm-\sØ sImbv\ Pe-ssh-ZypX]≤Xn I, II, III F∂n-h-bnse Pew Du¿tPm¬]mZ-\-tijw ]Sn-™m-tdm-s´m-gp∂ sshinjvSn \Zn-bn-te°v Xncn-®p-hn-Sp-∂Xv Nnπ≥ {]tZ-iØv I\Ø sh≈-s∏m-°-Øn\v Imc-W-am-Ip-∂p. \Zo-Pew Xncn®v hnSp-∂-Xn\v Iosg hcp∂ \Zo`mKw hos≠-Sp-°m-\m-hm-Ø-hn[w h‰n-h-c-≠p-t]m-Ip-∂p. CXv \Zo-Pe Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-tbbpw \Zn-bpsS D]-cn-Xe {]hm-l-tØbpw am{X-a√ `qK¿`-Pew In\n-™n-d-ßp-∂-Xn-s\-t]mepw {]XnIq-e-ambn _m[n-°p-∂p. AW-s°´v \n¿amW-tØm-S-\p-_-‘n®v \S-Øp∂ `qan-I-tø-‰hpw h\-\-io-I-c-Whpw aqew XmgvhmcØv ÿnXn-sN-øp-∂ Pe-kw-`-c-Wn-I-fn¬ Ime-am-hp-∂-Xn\p apsº h≥tXm-Xn¬ F°¬ ASn-™p-Iq-Sm-\n-S-bm-hp-∂p. CSp°n AW-s°´v CXn\v \√ DZm-l-c-W-am-Wv. AW-s°´v \n¿amW-tØm-S-\p-_-‘n®v h≥tXm-Xn-ep≈ `qan Itø-‰-amWv CSp°n Umans‚ hrjvSn-{]-tZ-iØv \S∂n-´p-≈-Xv. \Zn-bpsS Xmgv∂ {]tZ-i-tØ-°p≈ Pe Bh-iy-I-X-Iƒ°-\p-k-cn-®-√, adn®v Du¿tPm¬]mZ\w kw_-‘n® Bh-iy-߃°v th≠n-bmWv Pe-ssh-Zyp-X-]-≤-Xn-Iƒ {]h¿Ø-\-k-÷-am-hp∂-Xv. X≥aqew {]Xn-Zn\w \Zo-{]-hm-l-Øn-ep-≠m-hp∂ hyXn-bm-\-߃ AW-s°-´n\v ta¬`m-KØp≈ \Zo-{]-tZ-ihpw Xmsg-bp≈ {]tZ-i-ßfpw XΩn-ep≈ X¿°-߃°v Imc-W-am-hp-∂p. AXpt]m-se, \Zo-Pew Xncn-®p-hn-Sp∂ kμ¿`-ßfn¬ Pew kzoI-cn-°p∂ \Zo-{]-tZ-iØv Znh-tk\ sh≈-s∏m-°-Øn\pw Xncn®phnS-s∏´ \Zn-bpsS XS-ß-fn¬ hcƒ®bv°pw Imc-W-am-Ip-∂p. CXv ]n∂oSv \Zo-P-e-]-cn-]m-e\w kw_-‘n® Ah-Im-i-X¿°-ß-fn-te°v \ofp-∂p. Cß-s\-sbm-s°-bm-sW-¶n-epw AW-s°-´p-Iƒ krjvSn-°p∂ Pe-kw-_-‘-amb {]iv\ßfpw Ch-bp-≠m-°p∂ ]mcn-ÿn-XnI BLm-X-ßfpw ]T-\-hn-t[-b-am-°p-∂-Xn-\m-h-iy-amb IrXyamb hnh-c-߃ Ct∏mgpw e`y-a-√ F∂-XmWv bmYm¿Yyw. sX‰mb `qhn-\n-tbmK coXn [mXp Abn-cp-Iƒ°pw {Kmss\-‰n\pw sh´p-I-√n\pw th≠n-bp≈ J\\w s]m°w Ipd™ {]tZ-i-ß-fnepw a≤y-`m-K-`q-an-bnepw Pe-Øns‚ e`y-X-tbbpw doNm¿Pn-t\bpw {]Xn-Iq-e-ambn _m[n-°p∂p. tKmh-bn¬ am{Xw k¿°m¿ IW-°-\p-k-cn®v 300 J\\ ssek≥kv \¬In-bn-´p≈-Xn-\m¬ ]Ip-Xn-bn-te-sdbpw Pe-t{km-X- p-Iƒ°-Sp-ØmWv. tKmh Akw-ªn-bn¬ tai-∏p-dØp-h® tcJ-{]-Imcw 182 J\\ ssek≥kp-I-fn-te-sdbpw "skeuenw AW-s°´v' F∂ h≥InS Pe-tk-N\ ]≤-Xn°v Hcp Intem-ao-‰-dn-\p-≈n-emWv. tKmh-bnse P\-kw-Jy-bpsS ]Ip-Xn-tbmfw hcp∂ Z£n-W-tKm-h-bnse 6 e£w P\-߃°v IpSn-sh≈w \¬Ip-∂Xv Cu AW-s°-´n¬ \n∂mWv. Z£nW I¿Æm-S-I-Ønepw DØc tIc-f-Ønepw "kpcwKw' F∂ t]-cn¬ I√p-a-e-Ifn¬ \ne-\n-∂n-cp∂ ]c-º-cm-KX Pe-tk-N\ kwhn-[m\w Cu ae-ap-I-fnse J\\w aqew \in®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°-bmWv. Cu taJ-e-bnse ]e \Zn-I-fpsS Cu I√p-a-e-I-fn¬ \n∂mWv D¤-hn-°p∂Xv. ]›n-a-L-´-\-Zn-I-fmb N{μ-Kncn, hf-]-´Ww, t\{Xm-hXn F∂nh Cu I√p-a-e-I-fn¬ doNm¿Pv sNøp∂ Pe-Øns‚ B\p-Iqeyw A\p-`-hn-°p-∂-h-bmWv. Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ hnf-If - psS LS\ Dƒ∏-sS-bp≈ Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ°v ]›n-aL - ´- Ø - nse Pe-hn-`h - a - m-t\-Pvsa‚n¬ Hcp ]¶v hln-°m-\p≠v. ae-s©-cn-hp-If - nse d∫¿, t\{¥-hmg Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ GI-h¿§ Irjnbpw ISpØ \new Dgp-Ip-Ibpw asÆm-en-∏n\pw {]tXy-In®pw hfsc hne-s∏´ ta¬aÆv \jvS-s∏-Sp-∂Xn\pw CS-bm°pw. sh≈w IqSp-X¬ Bg-Øn¬ Acn-®n-d-ßp-∂-Xn\pw CXv XS- -amWv. tXbne, Im∏n, Gew tXm´-߃°p-th-≠n-bp≈ h\-\-io-I-cWw ae-I-fnse Acp-hn-Iƒ h‰n-t∏m-Im≥ Imc-W-am-Ip-∂p≠v.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Xmgv-hm-c-ß-fnse NXp-∏p-Iƒ \nI-Øp-∂Xv Db¿∂ {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS ASn-hm-c-Øp≈ NXp-∏p-{]-tZ-i-߃ \nI-Øp-∂-Xp-aqew Db¿∂ hrjvSn {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ Pe-£maw D≠m-Ip-∂p≠v. ]e \Zn-Ifpw CØcw sNfn-Ip-≠p-I-fn¬ \n∂mcw-`n-°p-∂-Xn-\m¬ \Zn-bpsS Hgp-°p-Iq-´m≥ Ch Pew \¬Ip-∂p≠v. \oe-Kn-cn-bn¬ ^e-`q-bn-jvTamb Pe-k-º-∂-amb NXp-∏p-Iƒ IoS-\m-in-\n-I-fn-e-[n-jvTn-X-amb Irjn°pw, {Ko≥lukv ^mapIƒ \n¿Ωn-°m\pw `h-\-\n¿Ωm-W-Øn\pw a‰p-ambn cq]m-¥-c-s∏-Sp-Øp∂p. aW¬J-\\w ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse an° \Zn-Ifpw A\n-b-{¥n-X-amb aW¬ J\-\-Øns‚ Xn‡-^-e-߃ t\cn-Sp-∂-h-bmWv. Pe-\n-c∏v Xmgp-∂Xpw Pe-Øns‚ KpW-ta∑ \jvS-s∏-Sp-∂-Xp-amWv s]s´∂p≈ BLm-X-߃. Nne `mK-ß-fn¬ \Zn-bpsS ASn-Ø´v kap-{Z-\n-c-∏n¬ Xmsg Bb-Xn-\m¬ D∏p-sh≈w Ib-dp∂ {]iv\-ap≠v. \Zn-°-c-bn-ep≈ ]©m-b-Øp-I-fn¬t]mepw IpSn-sh-≈-£maw cq£-amWv. CØcw ]©m-b-Øp-I-fn¬ IpSn-sh≈ hnX-c-W-Øn-\mbn πm≥^≠v sNe-h-gn-t°≠n hcp∂p. a’y-ß-fp-sSbpw a‰v Pe-Po-hn-h¿§-ß-fp-sSbpw {]P-\-\-sØbpw hf¿®-sbbpw aW¬J\\w kmc-ambn _m[n-°p-∂p≠v.

ÿnXn s - a-®s - ∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ \S-]S- n-Iƒ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse Pe-hn-`h amt\-Pvsa‚ v hntI-{μo-I-cn°pIbpw \Zo-XS Bkq-{XWw \S∏m-°p-Ibpw sNtø≠ kabw AXn-{I-an-®n-cn-°p-∂p. sX‰mb `qhn-\n-tbm-K-co-Xnbpw am\h CS-s]-Sepw aqe-ap-≠m-bn-´p≈ BLm-X-߃ hfsc hy‡-amWv. hcƒ®-°m-eØv \Zn-I-fnse Hgp°v Ipd-bp-∂Xpw, Hgp-°nse G‰-°p-d-®n-ep-Ifpw Pe-\n-c∏v Xmgp-∂Xpw, Pe-Øns‚ KpW-ta∑ \jvS-s∏-Sp-∂-Xp-sa√mw Pe-hn-`-h-B-kq-{X-WØnepw amt\-Pvsa‚n-ep-sa√mw ]≤Xn A[n-jvTn-Xhpw Xm¬°m-en-I-hp-amb Hcp kao-]\w kzoIcn-°p-∂-Xns‚ {]Xy£ BLm-X-ß-fmWv. PesØ ssPh-hy-h-ÿ-bpsS Ahn-`m-Py-L-S-I-ambn ]cn-K-Wn-®p-sIm-≠p≈ {]I-S-am-sbmcp hyXn-bm\w \Zo-XS Pe-hn-`h amt\-Pvsa‚n¬ hcp-tØ≠ ka-b-am-WnXv. C°m-cy-Øn¬ kzoI-cn-°m-hp∂ Nne {][m\ \S-]-Sn-Iƒ NphsS hnh-cn-°p∂p. 1.

Xt±i kzbw-`-c-W-ÿm-]\ Xe-Øn¬ ASpØ 20 h¿j-tØ-s°-¶n-ep-ap≈ hntI-{μo-IrX Pe-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v ]≤-Xn-Iƒ hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°Ww. Pe-kw-c£ - Ww, h\-he - v°c - Ww, hrjvSn{]-tZ-i-ß-fpsS ssPh-]p-\-cp-≤m-cWw, ag-sh≈ kw`-cWw, {]f-b-P-e- \n¿§a\w, Pe- BUn-‰nßv, ]p\-cp-]t- bmKw XpS-ßn-bh - b - vs°-√m-ap≈ πm\p-Iƒ Pe-hn-`h amt\-Pvsa‚ v πm\n¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-ØWw. \Zn-I-fn-t∑-ep≈ B{in-XXzw Ipd®v doNm¿÷v sa®-s∏-Sp-ØpI F∂XmWv e£yw.

2.

Pe-kw-`-cWn {]h¿Ø\w ]p\-{I-ao-I-cn-°pI : AW-s°-´p-I-fp≈ \Zn-I-fnse Pe-kw-`c-Wn-I-fpsS {]h¿Ø\w ]p\-{I-ao-I-cn-°p-Ibpw a‰v \Zn-I-fnse Hgp°v \nb-{¥n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXv Hgp-°ns‚ i‡n sa®-s∏-Sp-ØpI. ^e-{]-Z-amb Hcp s]mXp-P\ A]-{K-Y\ kwhn[m-\-Øns‚ ]n≥_-e-tØm-Sp-IqSn am{Xta \S-∏m-°m-\mhq.

3.

]c-º-cm-KX Pe-kw`-cWw : "kpcwKw', InW-dp-Iƒ doNm¿Pv sNøpI, XpS-ßnb ]c-º-cmKX Pe-kw`-cW kwhn-[m-\-߃ ]p\-cp-÷o-hn-∏n-°pI.

4.

Xmgv-hmc NXp-∏p-Iƒ kwc-£n-°pI : \Zn-I-fpsS D¤h ÿm\-sa∂ \ne-bn¬ ae-ap-Ifnse Xmgv-hmc NXp-∏p-Iƒ kwc-£n-°pI. Ah C\nbpw \nI-Øp-Itbm dnb¬ FtÉv, Irjn hnI-k\w F∂n-hbv°v D]-tbm-Kn-°p-I-tbm-sN-øp-∂Xv \nb-{¥n-°pI. kmaq-ly-kwc-£-W-Øn-\p≈ "Ie-hd"Ifmbn Ahsb {]Jym-]n-°pI.

5.

aW¬ BUn‰nßv : aW¬ BUn-‰n-ßn\v ]¶m-fn-Ø-hy-h-ÿbpw I¿i-\-\n-b-{¥-W-ßfpw G¿s∏-Sp-ØpI.

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6.

aW¬ "Ah[n' {]Jym-]n-°pI : aW¬ J\-\-ap≈ \Zn-I-fn¬ aW¬ BUn-‰n-s‚bpw hne-bn-cp-Ø-en-s‚bpw ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ aW¬ "Ah[n' {]Jym-]n-°pI.

7.

J\\ taJ-e-bpsS ]p\-c-[n-hmkw : J\\w aqew \in® Pe-t{km-X- p-Iƒ ]p\-cp-÷o-hn∏n-°pI F∂ {]tXyI e£y-tØmsS J\\w \S-Ønb Iº-\n-Iƒ/GP≥kn-Iƒ Xs∂ J\-\-ta-J-e-bpsS ]p\-c-[n-hmkw \S-∏m-°Ww.

8

h\-hn-`-P-\-Øns‚ ssPh-]p-\-cp-≤m-cWw : tXm´w DS-a-Iƒ, Xt±i `c-W-ÿm-]-\-߃, h\w hIp∏v F∂nh HØp tN¿∂v tXbne,Im∏n Fkvt‰-‰p-I-fnse h\w hn`-P-\-Ønse ssPh-hy-h-ÿ-bp-sSbpw ae-ap-I-fnse Acp-hn-I-fp-sSbpw ]p\-cp-≤m-cWw km[y-am-°pI.

9.

hrjvSn {]tZi ]cn--c-£W πm\p-Iƒ : Pe-ssh-ZypX ]≤-Xn-I-fp-sSbpw h≥InS Pe-tkN-\-]-≤-Xn-I-fp-sSbpw Bbp v h¿≤n-∏n-°m-\mbn Ah-bpsS hrjvSn {]tZ-i-߃°v ]cnc£W πm\p-Iƒ Xøm-dm-°pI.

10.

\Zo-Xoc amt\-Pvsa‚ v: \Zn-I-fnse Hgp°pw Pe-Øns‚ KpW-ta-∑bpw sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\mbn kaq-l-]-¶m-fn-Ø-tØmsS \Zo-Xoc amt\-Pvsa‚ v \S-∏m-°pI.

11.

Pe-kw-c-£W \S-]-Sn-Iƒ : A\p-tbm-Py-amb kmt¶-Xn-I-hnZy {]tbm-Kn®pw s]mXp-P\ Ah-t_m-[-]-cn-]m-Sn-I¬ \S-∏m-°nbpw Pe-kw-c-£W \S-]-Sn-Iƒ kzoI-cn-°pI.

12.

bph-P\ ]¶m-fnØw : Ip´n-I-sfbpw bph-P-\-ß-sfbpw \Zn-I-fp-ambpw Pe-t{km-X- p-Ifp-ambpw _‘-s∏-Sp-Øp∂ hnZym-`ymk ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ°v cq]w \¬IpI.

\n¿±njvS AtXm-dn-´n-°p≈ ip]m¿i-Iƒ taev]d - ™ Imcy-ßf - n¬ \n¿±njvS ]›n-aL - ´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n°v i‡-amb ip]m¿iIfpw D]-tZ-i-ßfpw \¬Im≥ Ignbpw. AXn-te°v AtXm-dn-´n-°p≈ Nne {][m\ ip]m¿i-Iƒ NphsS. 1.

\Zn-I-fpsS hrjvSn {]tZ-i-߃ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ß-fmbn {]Jym-]n-°pI.

2.

]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ Ct∏mƒ \S-∂p-h-cp-∂Xpw ]q¿Øn-bm-°-s∏-´-Xp-amb ]e ]≤-Xn-Ifpw ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kpw h\w ¢nb-d≥kpw ewLn-®p-sImt≠m Hcp ¢nb-d≥kpw C√m-sXtbm BWv. alm-cm-jv{S-bnse Iep,jmbv AW-s°-´p-Iƒ DZm-l-cWw. hnZKv[ kan-Xn-bpsS AwKo-I-cn-°p∂ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ AtXm-dn´n ho≠pw ]cn-tim-[n-°Ww. `qan-im-kv{X-]-c-amb kml-N-cy-ß-fp-sSbpw ]cn-ÿnXn kwth-Z-\-£-a-X-bp-sSbpw \Zo-X-S-Øns‚ kz`m-h-Øns‚bpw F√mw ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-em-bn-cn-°Ww Cu ]cn-tim-[\.

3.

AtXm-dn´n \ne-hn¬ hcp-∂-Xp-hsc Pe t{kmX- p-I-fn¬ I\Ø BLmXw krjvSn-°m≥ km[y-X-bp≈ Ct∏mƒ \S-∂p-h-cp∂ AW-s°-´p-Iƒ°pw J\n-Iƒ°pw samd-t´m-dnbw {]Jym-]n-°Ww. AtXm-dn´n Cu ]≤-Xn-Iƒ kq£va-]-cn-tim-[\ \SØn Ah thWtam th≠tbm F∂v Xocp-am-\n-°p-∂X - n-\p-ap≥]v hym]-Ia - mb _lp-P\ - I - q-Sn-bm-tem-N\ - I - ƒ IqSn \S-ØWw.

4.

]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ \Zo-X-S-߃ XΩn-ep≈ KXn-am‰w taen¬ A\p-h-Zn-°-cp-Xv.

5.

Hmtcm kwÿm-\Øpw \Zo-X-S-ß-fpsS kmw]nƒ FSpØv NphsS ]d-bp-∂h kwÿm\ k¿°m-cp-I-tfmSv ip]m¿i sNøpI. \Zn kwc-£-W-Øn\v kmaq-ly-{]-ÿm-\-߃, Kth-j-W-ÿm-]-\-߃, k¿°m¿ CXc ÿm]-\-߃ F∂n-h-bvs°m∏w kaq-l-ß-sf-°qSn ]s¶-Sp-∏n-®p-sIm≠v ]cn-ÿnXn hn\ntbmK A]-{K-Y\w \S-ØpI. \Zn ssPh-hy-h-ÿn-Xn-bnepw {]f-b-Ønepw a’y-B-hmk LS-\-bnepw Pohn-X-co-Xn-bnepw AW-s°-´ns‚ Xmtgm-´p≈ Hgp-°nse BLmXw A]-{K-Yn-°pI. D∏p-sh≈w Ib-dp-∂Xv tcJ-s∏-SpØn `mhn-bn¬ Hgp°v sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ \n¿t±-i-߃ cq]-s∏-Sp-ØpI.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

AW-s°-´p-I-fp≈ \Zn-I-fn¬ Xmsg-bp≈ P\-ß-fpsS Pe Bh-iy-߃ IqSn \nd-th-‰m≥ Ignbpw hn[w dnk¿thm-b¿ Hm∏-td-j≥ amt\-Pvsa‚ v sa®-s∏-Sp-ØpI. _‘-s∏´ Xt±-i`cWÿm-]-\-ß-tfbpw a‰pw Dƒs∏-SpØn dnk¿tΔm-b¿ Hm∏-td-j≥ \nco-£n-°m≥ kwhn[m\w G¿s∏-Sp-ØWw. \Zn-I-fnse Pe-kw-_-‘-amb tU‰m-t_-kp-Iƒ ]pXp-°p-Ibpw ]cn-ÿnXn Um‰m-t_kpw \Zo-X-S-X-e-Ønse Adn-hp-Ifpw kwtbm-Pn-∏n-°pI. Cu kwtbm-PnX tU‰m-t_-kns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ \Zn-I-fn¬ Db¿∂ kwc-£-W aqeyap≈ `mK-ßsf ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-sa∂v {]Jym-]n®v XpS¿hn-I-k-\-Øn¬ \n∂v Ahsb ]q¿Æ-ambn Hgn-hm-°pI. 6

]p\-cp-≤m-cWw IqSn Dƒs∏-SpØn hntI-{μo-IrX \Zo-XS Bkq-{XWw \S-Øm≥ kwÿm\ k¿°m-cp-I-tfmSv ip]m¿i sNøpI.

7

\Zn-Isf kz¥w \ne-bn¬ Ct∏mƒ ssIImcyw sNøp∂ hnhn[ hIp-∏p-Isf GtIm-]n-∏n°m≥ \nb-a-]-c-ambn A[n-Im-c-ap≈ ÿm]-\-ß-fpsS ]n¥p-W-tbm-Sp-IqSn thWw \Zo-XS Bkq-{XWw \n¿Δ-ln-t°-≠Xv. kwÿm-\-Øns‚ `c-W-]-›m-Ø-e-Øn\v A\p-tbm-Py-amb \Zo-XS kwL-S-\-Isf CXn-\mbn G¿s∏-Sp-ØWw.

8

AW-s°-´p-Iƒ, J\n-Iƒ,Sqdnkw, `h-\-\n¿ΩmWw XpSßn Pe-t{km-X- p-I-fn¬ BLmX-ta¬∏n-°p∂ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse F√m ]pXnb ]≤-Xn-I-sfbpw kw_-‘n® Bh¿Ø\ BLmX A]-{K-Y\w \S-Øp-Ibpw Ch-sb√mw Xmßm-\p≈ tijn-bn¬ Ihn-bp-∂n-s√∂v Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp-Ibpw thWw.

9

aW¬ J\\w \nb-{¥n-°p-∂-Xn\v i‡hpw I¿i-\-hp-amb \nbaw Bhn-jv°-cn-°Ww.

10

tijn ]q¿Æ-ambn D]-tbm-K-s∏-SpØn Ign-™-htbm {]Xo-£n-X-ti-jn-tbmfw FØm≥ Ign-bm-Ø-hbpw AwKo-Ir-X-\n-e-hm-c-Øn¬ IqSp-X¬ F°epw Nfnbpw ASn-™n-´p-≈-h-bpamb AW-s°-´p-I-fpsS {]h¿Ø\w Ah-km-\n-∏n-°m≥ ip]m¿i sNøWw.

t_mIvkv 2 : Imep AW-s°´v Imep AW-s°´v ssk‰v ÿnXn-sN-øp-∂Xv alm-cmjv{S kwÿm-\sØ Xms\ Pn√bn¬ ap¿_mZv Xmeq-°nse Kncn-h¿§ D]-]-≤Xn taJ-e-bn-epƒs∏-Sp∂ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-Je {]tZ-i-ØmWv. Cu AW-s°-´ns‚ kw`-c-W-tijn 407.99 MCM sh≈-amWv. CXv aqew sh≈-Øn-\-Sn-bn-em-hp∂ {]tZ-i-Øns‚ hnkvXo¿Æw 2100 slIvSdmWv. CXn¬ 1000 slIvS¿ h\-`q-an-bmWv. Cu ]≤-Xn°v t^mdkv‰v ¢nb-d≥kv e`n-®n-´n√. em‚ v AIznknj≥ \S-]-Sn-Iƒ Bcw-`n®n-´p-an√. apwss_bv°v IpSn-sh-≈hpw a‰v hyh-km-bnI Bh-i-b-߃°p-ap≈ sh≈hpw e`yam-°m-\p≈ ]Wn \S-∂p-h-cp∂ ]e AW-s°-´p-I-fp-sSbpw Icm-dp-Im-cmb satkgvkv F^v. F.F‚¿ss{]-kkv (J¿, apwss_) BWv CXn-s‚bpw Icm-dp-Im¿. "_‘-s∏´ k_v Unhn-jW¬ F©n-\o-b-dpsS ta¬t\m-´-Øn¬ Ch¿ ]Wn Bcw-`n®p. ]≤Xn A[n-Ir-X-cpsS \n¿t±im-\p-k-cWw Icm-dp-Im¿ ]Wn XpS-ßn-bXv XnI®pw \nb-a-hn-cp-≤-am-bmWv. B taJ-e-bnse hne-s∏´ ]cn-ÿn-X°pw BZn-hm-kn-I-fpsS Poh-X-Øn-\pw CXv Gsd lm\n-I-c-hp-amWv. Imep AW-s°-´nse {Ia-t°-Sp-Iƒ 1.

t^mdÃv ¢nb-d≥kv e`n-°msX Xs∂ ]Wn XpSßn. Ah¿ Ah-Im-i-s∏-Sp∂ ht\-Xc `qan bYm¿∞-Øn¬ BZn-hmkn h\-`q-an-bmWv. h\-`q-an°pw ht\-Xc `qan°pw Bh-iyap≈ ]≤-Xn-bpsS Imcy-Øn¬ h\-`q-an-bnse ¢nb-d≥kv e`n-°msX ]Wn XpS-ßm≥ ]mSn-s√-∂mWv kp{]nw-tIm-SXn DØ-chv.

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2.

]≤Xn A[n-Ir-X¿ Ah-Im-i-s∏-Sp-∂Xv t^mdÃv ¢nb-d≥kv e`n-°m-Ø-Xn-\m¬ Icm-dpIm¿ Nne A{]-[m\ tPmen-Itf XpS-ßn-sh-®p≈p F∂mWv. A{]-[m\ ]Wn-I-fn¬ Xmev°m-enI kz`m-h-ap≈ ]Wn-Iƒ am{Xta Dƒs∏-Smhq. F∂m-en-hnsS h≥tXm-Xn¬ h\-\-io-I-c-Whpw henb K¿Ø-߃ krjvSn-°-ep-amWv \S-°p-∂Xv. t^mdÃv ¢nb-d≥kv C√msX CØcw h\-\-io-I-cWw \S-Øp-∂Xv \nb-a-hn-cp-≤hpw h\kwc-£-W\nb-aØns‚ ewL-\-hp-amWv. ssk‰v \nc-∏m-°¬ tPmen-bn-te¿s∏-´n-´p-≈Xv 30tesd tUmkdp-Ifpw 100 tesd sP.kn._nI-fp-amWv. AW-s°-´ns‚ ASn-Ød sI´m-\mbn AKm-[-amb Ipgn FSp-Øp-h-cp∂p. DtZym-K-ÿ¿°pw Icm-dp-Im-c\pw th≠n Hcp KÃv lukv \n¿Ωn-®p-I-gn™p. henb BUw_-c-ß-tfm-sS-bmWv CXv \n¿Ωn-®n-´p-≈Xv. A{]-[m-\-]-Wn-I-fn¬ AW-s°´v \n¿Ωm-W-Øn-\p≈ sXmgn-em-fn-Iƒ°p≈ Xma-k-kuIcyw A\p-hZn®n´p-s≠-¶nepw Ah¿ Ct∏mƒ A]-I-S-I-c-amw-hn[w \Zo-X-S-Øn-emWv Ignbp-∂-Xv. AtX kabw Ahn-tS°v \ntbm-Kn-®n-´p-≈ kn.-B¿.-]n.-F-^v. `S-∑m¿°cn-In-epamWv Xma-kw.

3.

\nc-∏m-°¬ {]h¿Ø\w XpS-cp∂ ht\-Xc `qan BZn-hmknIƒ°p-≈-Xm-Wv. CXn-\m-hiy-amb `qan- G-s‰-Sp-°m-\p≈ bmsXmcp \S-]-Snbpw CXp-hsc Bcw-`n-®n-´p-t]m-ep-an-√. Cu ]≤-Xn-bpsS Imcy-Øn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv e`n-®n-´n-s√∂v am{X-a√ P\-ß-fpsS A`n-{]mbw tXSn-bn-´p-an-√.

4.

]≤-Xnaqew sh≈-Øn-\-Sn-bn-em-Ip∂ apgp-h≥ {]tZ-ihpw Kncn-h¿K D]-]-≤-Xn-ta-J-ebn¬s]´ ]´nI {]tZ-i-am-Wv. _‘-s∏´ \nba hyhÿ {]Imcw CXn\v {Kma-k-`-I-fpsS A\p-aXn Bh-iy-am-Wv. Hcp {Kma-k-`bpw CXn\v A\p-aXn \¬In-bn-´n-s√∂v am{X-a√ `qcn-`mKw {Kma-k-`-Ifpw FXn¿°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p.

5.

]≤-Xn-aqew sh≈-Øn-\-Sn-bn-em-Ip∂Xv 1000 slIvS¿ h\-`q-an-bm-Wv. ChnsS A[n-h-kn°p∂ ]´n-I-h¿K-°mcpw ]c-º-cm-KX h\-hm-kn-Ifpw Ah-cpsS \ymb-amb \nXy-hr-Øn°mbn Cu h\-sØ-bmWv ]q¿W-ambpw B{i-bn-°p-∂-Xv. Ch-cpsS Blm-cm-h-iy-߃°pw sNdp-InS h\w D¬]-∂-߃ kam-l-cn®v hn¬°m\pw Ch¿°v \nba-]-c-amb Ah-Im-iap-≠v. Huj-[-k-ky-߃°p-th-≠nbpw Ah¿ Cu h\-sØ-bmWv B{i-bn-°p-∂-Xv.

6.

2006 F^v.-B¿.-BIvSv sk£≥ 4 k_v sk£≥ 5 {]Imcw ]cn-tim-[\-Iƒ ]q¿Øn-bmIpw-hsc ]´n-I-h¿K-°m-sctbm ]c-º-cm-K-X-ambn h\-Øn¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂-h-sctbm AhcpsS ssIh-i-ap≈ h\-`q-an-bn¬\n∂v Hgn-∏n-°mt\m \o°w sNømt\m ]mSn-√.

7.

ISvI-cn, Xm°q¿, alm-tZhv tImen Kncn-h¿K-°m¿°v Cu h\-ta-J-e-bn¬ 20 tesd ]c-ºcm-KX Bcm-[-\m-ÿ-e-ßfp-≠v. CXp-ambn _-‘-s∏´v \nc-h[n hnip≤ ae-Ifpw hr£ß-fp-ap-≠v.

8.

Cu `qanbpw h\-hp-sa√mw BSp-am-Sp-Iƒ°p≈ ta®n¬]p-d-ßfm-Wv. Acp-hn-I-fnepw \Zn-Ifnepw \n∂p e`n-°p∂ a’yw Cu BZn-hm-kn-I-fpsS {][m\ t{]m´o≥ `£-W-am-Wv.

9.

Icm-dp-Im¿ CXn-\-Iw-Xs∂ Umw ssk‰n-\-Sp-Øp-\n∂v Bbn-c-°-W-°n\v ac-߃ apdn-®pI-gn-™p. h\w hIp-∏ns‚ bmsXmcp A-\p-a-Xnbpw CXn\p-th≠n hmßn-bn-´n-√. `qanIv ap‡n kwKm-X-\-bpsS XpS¿®-bmb ka-c-]-cn-]m-Sn-I-fpsS ^e-ambn 3000 Iyp.-ao. XSnbpw D]-I-c-W-ßfpw h\w-h-Ip∏v DtZym-K-ÿ-∑m¿ ]nSn-s®-Sp-Øp. ]t£, i‡-amb \S-]-SnIƒ kzoI-cn-°m-ØX - p-aqew acw-sh´v Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ \nb-ah - n-cp≤ {]h¿Ø-\ß - ƒ Ct∏mgpw \n¿_m[w XpS-cp-∂p.

BI-bm¬ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]c - a - mbn hne-aX - n-°m-\m-ImØ h\-ßfpw \ΩpsS cmPysØ G‰hpw Zp¿_-e-cmb Hcp hn`mKw P\-ßfpsS ASn-ÿm\ a\p-jym-h-Im-i-ßfpw kwc-£n-°m-\mbn Imep Umanse \nb-a-hn-cp≤ \n¿am-W-{]-h¿Ø-\-߃ DS-\Sn \n¿Øn-h-bv°-W-sa∂pw sXm´-

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171


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

SpØ "jmbv' t{]mPIvSv ssk‰n¬ \S-∂p-hc - p∂ {]h¿Ø-\ß - ƒ ]cn-tim[n-°W - s - a∂pw R߃ A`y¿Yn-°p-∂p. CXp kw_-‘n® hn⁄m-]-\-Øn¬ am‰w-h-cpØn "Imep', jmbv Umap-Iƒ Dƒs∏sS F√m Umap-Iƒ°pw ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kpw s]m-Xp-P-\-ß-fn¬\n-∂p≈ sX-fn-shSp∏pw \n¿_-‘n-X-am-°Wsa∂pw R߃ \n¿tZ-in-°p-∂p. \nb-a-ew-L-I¿s°-Xnsc \S-]Sn FSp-°-W-sa∂pw CØcw \nb-a-ew-L-\-߃ Bh¿Øn-°p-∂n-s√∂v Dd-∏p-h-cp-Ø-W-sa∂pw IqSn R߃ A`y¿Yn-°p-∂p. C≥Umhn Xp¬]p-se, kptcJ Um¬hn, ]cn-\o-I -U-t≠-°¿ F∂n-h¿ ka¿∏n-®-Xv.

2.2 Irjn Kncn-h¿§-°mcpw Xt±i kaq-lhpw \q‰m-≠p-I-fmbn hnf-Iƒ am‰n am‰n Irjn sNbvXXp apX¬ Ct∏m-gsØ GI C\ hmWn-Py-hnf Irjn-bmb tXbne Im∏n, Gew, d∫¿, ss]\m∏nƒ, hr£-tØm-´-߃ hsc ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-°p-≠m-°n-bn-´p≈ A]-cn-lm-cy-amb \jvSw hfsc hep-XmWv. {_n´o-jp-Im¿ FØp-∂Xp hsc ae-I-fn¬ GI-hnf Irjn F∂Xv tI´p-tIƒhn t]mep-am-bn-cp-∂n√. ImcWw Irjn {][m-\-ambpw `£y-kp-c£ Dd-∏m-°m\pw kpK-‘-hy-RvP-\ß-fp-sSbpw a‰v h\-D-ev]-∂-ß-fp-sSbpw kam-l-c-W-Øn-epsS hcp-am\w D≠m-°m-\p-ap≈ HcpD]m[n Bbn-cp∂p. Ign™ \q‰m≠p apX¬ Cu coXn°pw Bi-b-Øn\pw am‰-ap-≠mbn. {_n´ojp-Im¿ XpS°w Ipdn® tXbne, Im∏n, tX°v tXm´-ßfpw XpS¿∂v kzmX{¥ C¥y-bnse Khs◊‚ v AXn\v \¬In-h∂ ]n¥p-Wb - p-amWv CXn\v ImcWw. Hmtcm hnf-tbbpw ]n¥p-Wb - v°m\pw Ah-bpsS Irjnbpw Dev]m-Z-\hpw hn]-W-\hpw sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm\pw th≠n ]e t_m¿Up-Ifpw cq]o-I-cn-°-s∏-´n-´p≠v.

DXvIW - vTm-P\ - I - a - mb {]iv\ß - ƒ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse hmWn-Py-hnf tXm´-ß-fpsS hnI-k\w h\w Xp≠p-Xp-≠mbn hn`-Pn-°p∂-Xn\pw asÆm-en-∏n\pw, \Zo-ssPh hyh-ÿ-bpsS A[:]X-\-Øn\pw Imc-W-am-bn-´p≠v. tXbne tXm´-ß-fn¬ Un.Un.Sn t]mse-bp≈ IoS-\m-in-\n-I-fpsS {]tbmKw XpS-ßn-bXv {_n´o-jp-Im-c≥ Xs∂-bmWv. Cu tXm´-ß-fn¬ \nc-¥cw Xfn-®n-cp∂ IoS-\m-in-\n-I-fpsS B[nIyw aqew ]cnÿn-Xnbpw ]›n-aL´ ssPh-ssh-hn-≤yhpw Ipsd-tbsd \in®p F∂p-am-{X-a√ Irjn°v kpÿncX \jvS-s∏-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp. 1990 Ifn¬ ]e DXv]-∂-ß-fp-sSbpw hne-bn-Sn™p. CXv {][m-\ambpw hym]m-c-\-b-Øn-ep-≠mb am‰w aqew kw`-h-n®-XmWv. CXv I¿jI Bfl-l-Xy°pw ]e tXbn-e-tXm-´-߃ AS-®p-]q-´m\pw CS-bm°n. CXp-aq-e-ap-≠mb kmº-ØnI A\n-›n-XXzw hnfIƒ amdn Irjn-sN-øm≥ I¿j-Isc t{]cn-∏n-°p-Ibpw AXv {]iv\w IqSp-X¬ hj-fm-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.sh≈w IqSp-X¬ hen-s®-Sp-°p∂ hnf-Ifpw C\-ßfpw Irjn sNøm≥ XpS-ßn-bXv {]iv\w IqSp-X¬ k¶o¿Æ-am-°n-. _lp`qcn-]£w I¿j-Icpw CXv a\- n-em°nbn-´p≠v. ]cn-ÿn-Xn-hmZn-Iƒ DXvIWvT Adn-bn-°p-Ibpw IqSp-X¬ kpÿn-c-amb amt\-Pvsa‚ v kwhn-[m\w thW-sa∂v Bh-iy-s∏-Sp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p≠v. Ign™ GXm\pw h¿j-ß-fmbn imkv{X-⁄cpw asÆm-en-∏ns‚bpw ]cn-ÿnXn aen-\o-I-c-W-Øn-s‚bpw {]iv\w Db¿Øn-°m-´p-∂p≠v. G‰hpw Bi-¶m-P-\-I-amb ]cn-ÿnXn {]iv\w ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ apIƒ∏-c-∏n¬ sh≈Øn\pw aÆn\pw kw`-hn-°p∂ A]-N-bhpw aen-\o-I-c-Whpw Xmsg-X-´n-te°v HgpIn FØn a≤y`q-X-e-sØbpw Xoc-{]-tZ-i-sØbpw aen-\o-I-cn-°p∂p F∂-XmWv. BI-bm¬ ]cn-ÿnXn hn\mi-I-c-amb coXn-Iƒ ASn-b-¥n-c-ambn Ipd-bp-Ibpw IqSp-X¬ kpÿn-c-amb Irjn kao-]-\-Ønte°v am‰p-Ibpw sNøm≥ klm-bn-°p∂ \b-]-c-amb am‰w AXy-¥m-t]-£n-X-amWv. CXn-\mbn ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse C∂sØ Irjn hnI-k-\-Øn¬ Nph-sS-]-d-bp∂ henb am‰ßƒ D≠m-IWw. Cu cwKØv {]h¿Øn-°p∂ hnhn[ k¿°m¿ hIp-∏p-I-fp-sSbpw GP≥kn-Ifp-sSbpw kwtbm-P-\-Øn-eqsS ]cn-ÿn-Xnsb ]n¥p-W-bv°p∂ Hcp \bw D≠m-IWw. h≥InS tXm´-ß-ƒ°pw sNdp-InS I¿j-I¿°pw {]tXyIw \b-k-ao-]\w thWw. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse Irjnhn-I-k-\-Øn¬ hmWn-Py-t_m¿Up-Iƒ hen-sbmcp ]¶v hln-°p-∂-Xp-sIm≠pw Ah tI{μ-hm............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

WnPy a{¥m-e-b-Øn\p Iogn¬ hcp-∂-Xp-sIm≠pw Cu taJ-e-bnse kpÿnc Irjn hnI-k-\Øn\v hy‡-am-sbmcp \b-k-ao-]\w D≠m-IWw. `£y kpc-£-bpsS Af-hp-tIm¬ \mw `£n°p∂ tKmXºv, Acn F∂o [m\y-ß-fpsS Af-hm-sW-¶n¬ t]mj-Im-lmc kpc£ Dd-∏p-h-cpØm≥ ]e Im¿jnI Dev]-∂-ßfpw `£n-t°-≠-Xp≠v.CØ-c-samcp \bw am‰w ]›n-a-L-´-Ønep-S\ - ofw \S-∏m-°p-∂X - n\v FIvkn-Iyq-´ohv A[n-Im-ca - p≈ Hcp GtIm-]\ - G - P - ≥kn thWw. CXn\v A\p-tbm-Py-am-b-XmWv \n¿±njvS ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n.

ÿnXn s - a-®s - ∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ \S-]S- n-Iƒ 1.

`qXe Bkq-{XWw : `qXe khn-ti-j-X-Isf ASn-ÿm-\-am°n Bkq-{XWw \S-Øm≥ ]cym-]vX-amb ÿe-߃ Is≠-ØpI. C{]-Imcw Is≠-Øp∂ Hmtcm ÿehpw hensbmcp `q`m-KØns‚ `mK-am-sW∂ Nn¥ D≠m-hp-Ibpw hnhn[ hnf kwhn-[m-\-sØbpw a‰v hnI-k-\-sØbpw CXn-te°v k∂n-th-in-∏n-°p-Ibpw thWw.

2.

GI hnf-bn¬ \n∂v _lp-hn-f-bn-te-°p≈ am‰w : tXbne, Im∏n, Gew XpS-ßnb GIhnf tXm´-߃ Xt±-iob hnf-I-fp-ambn {]tXy-In®v `£y-hn-f-Iƒ, ^e h¿§-߃ F∂nh-bp-ambn kwtbm-Pn-∏n-°pI hgn asÆm-en∏v XS-bm\pw PesØ ]nSn-®p-\n¿Øm-\p≈ aÆns‚ tijn Db¿Øm\pw, D¬]m-Z\ £aX h¿≤n-∏n-°m\pw kmº-ØnI hcp-am\w sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm\pw klm-bn°pw. Hgn®p Iq´m-\m-hmØ Cu am‰-Øn-\mbn Hmtcm kwÿm\hpw A\p-tbm-Py-amb \b-cq-]o-I-cWw \S-ØWw. `qcn-`mKw tXm´-ßfpw k¿°m-cn¬ \n∂v ]m´-Øn-s\-SpØ `qan-bn-em-b-Xn-\m¬ CXv \S-∏m-°m≥ henb _p≤n-ap-´p-≠m-In√. F√m s]mXp˛kzIm-cy-ta-Je tXm´-ßfpw Hcp _lp-hnf Irjn kao-]\w kzoI-cn-°Ww . kpÿn-c-Xbv°v th≠n-bp≈ CØ-c-samcp am‰-Øn\v s]mXp-ta-Jem tXm´-߃ amXrI Im´Ww. CXn-\p-]p-dsa Hmtcm tXm´hpw AXns‚ hnkvXo¿Æ-Øns‚ \n›nX iX-am\w {]Ir-Xn-]-c-amb ]p\-cp-≤m-c-W-Øn\v {]tXy-In®v kao-]-Pe t{kmX- p-I-fpsS ]p\-cp-≤m-cW-Øn-\p-th≠n am‰n-sh-bv°Ww.

3.

aÆp-kw-c-£-WsØ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI : ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]cn-ÿnXn aÆp-kw-c-£W-{]-h¿Ø-\-ßsf t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI. CXn-\mbn tXm´-ß-fnepw sNdnb Irjn-bn-S-ßfnepw ]md-b-Sp-°p-I-fn-ep-ap≈ C∂sØ _≠p-\n¿Ωm-W-coXn ]mtS Dt]-£n-°Ww. ]Icw asÆm-en∏p XS-bm≥ Ign-hp≈ kky-ß-fpsS \nc hf¿Øn-sb-Sp-°Ww.

4.

If-\m-in-\n-I-fpsS D]-tbmKw Ipd-bv°pI : ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ssPh sshhn-≤y-Øn\v `ojWn-bmIpw hn[w ChnsS If-\m-in-\n-I-fpsS {]tbmKw h¿≤n-®n-´p≠v. am{X-hp-a√, IqSpX¬ {]Xn-tcm-[-ti-jn-bp≈ If-Iƒ hf¿∂p-h-cm\pw CXn-\n-S-bm-°n-bn-´p≠v. BI-bm¬ ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ Ch-bpsS {]tbmKw ASn-b-¥n-c-ambn \nb-{¥n-°p-Ibpw {ItaW \ntcm[n-°p-Ibpw sNøpI. I¿j-I-cpsS A`n-{]m-b-Øn¬ sXmgn-em-fn-Isf ht®m bm{¥n-I-klm-b-Ømtem If-\o°w sNøp-∂-Xn-t\-°mƒ Gsd em`-Icw If-\m-in-\n-I-fpsS {]tbm-KamWv.

BI-bm¬ If-\o°w sNøp-∂-Xn-\p≈ Iqen-sN-e-hn\v k¿°m¿ k_vknUn \¬IpI. CXn-\mbn sNdp-InS \ma-am{X I¿j-I¿°v sXmgn-ep-d∏p ]≤-Xn-bpsS ]n¥pW \¬Ip-Ibpw h≥InS tXm´-߃°v b{¥-k-lm-b-Øm¬ Cu tPmen sNøp-∂-Xn\v k_vknUn \¬Ip-Ibpw sNøpI. 5.

IoS-\m-in\n {]tbmKw Ah-km-\n-∏n-°p-I : cmk-Io-S-\m-in-\n-I-fpsS {]tbmKw ]›n-aL-´-Øn¬ Ipd-®p-sIm-≠p-h-tc-≠-Xp≠v. ae-ap-I-fn¬ Xfn-°p∂ Cu hnjw HgpIn ka-X-eß-fn-seØn Ahn-SsØ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-sbbpw XI¿°p∂p. ASpØ 5˛10 h¿j-Øn-\p-≈n¬ ]›na L´-Øn¬ \n∂v IoS-\m-in-\n-Isf L´w-L-´-ambn H-gn-hm-°m-\p≈ Hcp GtIm-]n-XI¿Ω]≤Xn D≠m-IWw. ]Icw IoS˛tcmK _m[-\n-b-{¥n-°m-\mbn ssPh-am¿§-߃ Bcmb-Ww tIc-f-Øns‚ ssPh-Ir-jn-\bw ]›n-a-L-´-Øn\v am{X-a√ ae-\n-c-I-fpsS kmao]yw aqew t\´-߃ A\p-`-hn-°p∂ Bdv kwÿm-\-߃°pw amXr-I-bm-°m-hp-∂-XmWv. CXv \S-∏m-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ {]tZ-i-߃ ap≥K-W-\m-{I-a-Øn¬ sXc-s™-Sp-°Ww. h\-ta-J-e-

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

tbmSpw Pe-t{km-X- p-I-tfmSpw G‰hpw tN¿∂p-In-S-°p∂ {]tZ-i-߃°mWv ap≥K-W\ \¬tI-≠Xv. ]≤Xn _‘-s∏´ ]©m-b-Øns‚ hm¿jnI ]≤-Xn-bp-ambn kwtbm-Pn-∏n°p-Ibpw thWw. Cu am‰-Øns‚ kabØv I¿j-I¿°v kmº-Øn-I-ambpw kmt¶-Xn-I-hpamb ]n≥_-ehpw \¬tI-≠-Xp≠v. 6.

ssPh-h-f-߃ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°Ww : cmk-h-f-{]-tbmKw aÆnse Bh-iy-amb LS-Ißsf sIm√pI am{X-a√ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ^e-`q-bn-jvS-Xsb \in-∏n-°pw-hn[w aÆns‚ LS-\-sb-Xs∂ am‰n-a-dn®p. X∑qew bmsXmcp imkv{Xob ASn-Ø-d-bp-a-n√msX IqSp-X¬ IqSp-X¬ cmk-h-f-߃ {]tbm-Kn-t°-≠-Xmbn hcp∂p. cmk-h-f-Øn\v IqSp-X¬ sh≈w Bh-iy-am-bX - n-\m¬ ]›n-aL - ´- Ø - nse Pe-Øns‚ Aan-XN - q-jWw \Zn-If - psS Hgp-°n-t\bpw ae-I-fpsS ]cn-ÿn-Xn-tbbpw kmc-ambn _m[n-®p. BI-bm¬ ssPh-hf {]tbm-K-Øn-\p≈ Hcp kwhn-[m\w ASn-b-¥n-c-ambn D≠m-t°-≠n-bn-cn-°p∂p. Irjn-bn-S-ß-fn¬ Xs∂ ssPhhfw \n¿Ωn-°p-∂-Xn\pw hnf-Iƒ amdn-amdn Irjn sNøp-∂-Xn\pw ]®n-e-h-f-s®-Sn-Ir-jn°pw k_vkn-Unbpw ]n¥p-Wbpw -\¬IWw. ssPh-hf \n¿ΩmWw ]q¿Æ-ambn hm¿Uv XeØn-te°v hntI-{μo-I-cn-°Ww. KpW-ta-∑-bp≈ ssPh-h-fhpw ]nÆm°pw a‰pw e`n-°m≥ sNdp-InS Dev]m-Z-\-bq-Wn-‰p-Iƒ \S-Øm≥ kzbw-k-lmb {Kq∏p-Iƒ°pw {]mtZ-inI Dev]mZ-I¿°pw ]n¥pW \¬IWw. h≥InS tXm´-߃ AhnsS Xs∂ ssPh-hfw Dev]m-Zn-∏n®m¬ IqSp-X¬ sXmgn-e-h-kcw krjvSn-°m\pw ssPh-hf {]tbmKw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm\pw Ignbpw.

7.

ssPh-I¿j-I¿°v kmº-ØnI klmbw : ssPh- h-f-{]-tbmKw aqew BZy- c-≠p-aq∂p h¿j-ß-fn¬ hnf-hn-ep-≠m-Ip∂ \jvSw \nI-Øm≥ k¿°m¿ \jvS-]-cn-lmcw \¬IWw. CXp- a qew k¿°m- c n\v A[n- I - k m- º - Ø nI _m[yX D≠m- I p- ∂ Xv Hgn- h m- ° m- \ mbn At{Km˛sIan-°¬kn\v \¬Ip∂ k_vknUn ssPh˛ ]cn-ÿnXn I¿j-I-cn-te°v Xncn®p-hn-SWw. ssPh-Irjn ]≤Xn samØ-ambn Xs∂ ]©m-b-Øns‚ hm¿jnI ]≤-Xn-bpambn kwtbm-Pn-∏n®v Bh-iy-amb XpI hm¿jnI _P-‰n¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-ØWw. Hmtcm h¿jhpw Im¿jnI˛kky-^-e-Ir-jn-bpsS 20iX-am-\hpw tXm´-ß-fpsS 10 iX-am-\-hp-sa-¶nepw ssPh Dev]m-Z-\-Øn-te°v am‰n-bm¬ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse `£y-hn-f-Isf ASpØ 5 h¿j-Øn-\p≈nepw \mWy-hn-f-Isf 10 h¿j-Øn-\p-≈nepw hnj-tam-Nn-X-am-°m≥ km[n°pw.

8.

hnf-Ifpw C\-ßfpw sXc-s™-Sp-°p-tºmƒ : D¬∏m-Z\ h¿≤-\-hn-\p-th≠n Dev]m-Z-\£-aX IqSnb C\-ßfpw k¶-c-bn-\-ßfpw sXc-s™-Sp-°p∂ C∂sØ coXn ]p\-]-cntim-[n®v ]cn-ÿnXn kpÿn-cX \ne-\n¿Øp∂ amt\-Pvsa‚ v coXn kzoI-cn-t°-≠-Xp≠v. Ct∏mƒ Irjn sNbvXp-h-cp∂ hnf-Ifpw C\-ßfpw [mcmfw sh≈hpw hfhpw Bh-iy-ap≈-hb - mWv. Chbv°p ]Icw sh≈hpw hfhpw a‰pw Ipd®v Bh-iy-ap-≈h Is≠-ØWw.ChbpsS {]mtZ-inI \gvkd - n-Ifpw hnØp-_m-¶p-Ifpw ÿm]n®v I¿j-I¿°v Bh-iy-ap≈ hnØpw \So¬h-kvXp-°fpw Bh-iym-\p-k-cWw e`y-am-°Ww. D¬∏m-Z-\-Øns‚ Af-hn-t\-°mƒ KpW-ta-∑bv°v {]m[m\yw \¬Ip∂ Hcp kao-]-\-amWv ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ Imcy-Øn¬ kzoI-cn-t°-≠Xv. KpW-ta-∑-bp≈ Cu Dev]-∂-ß-fpsS hn]-W-\-Øn\v {]tXyI X{¥hpw irwJ-ebpw krjvSn-°p-Ibpw thWw. aqey-h¿≤-\bpw {]mtZ-inI sXmgn-eh - k - c krjvSnbpw IqSn Cu X{¥-Øns‚ `mK-am-°n-bm¬ IqSp-X¬ hcp-am\w krjvSn-°m\pw {]mtZ-inI kºZvL-S\ sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm\pw Ignbpw.

9.

Im¿jnI ssPh-ssh-hn≤y kwc-£Ww : lcnX hnπ-h-Øn-eqsS cmPy-Øn\v kz¥w-]mc-º-cy-hnf C\-ßfpw a‰v ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-L-S-I-ßfpw hf-sc-b-[nIw \jvS-s∏-´p F∂Xv X¿°-a‰ Imcy-amWv. [m\y-߃, ]®-°-dn-Iƒ, Ing-ßp-Iƒ, ^e-h¿§-߃ XpS-ßn-bh Gsd Irjn sNbvXn-cp∂ sshhn-≤y-Øns‚ Ie-h-d-bmb ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ CXv Gsd {]IS-aWv. Cu P\n-X-I-t{km-X- p-Iƒ I¿j-Is‚ Irjn-bn-S-ß-fn¬ Xs∂ ]p\:ÿm]n®v kwc£n-°m-\p≈ t_m[-]p¿Δ-amb {iaw D≠m-IWw. H∏w hn]p-e-amb kwc-£W tI{μ߃ hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°m\pw {i≤n-°Ww. Hmtcm-{]-tZ-i-Øn\pw A\p-tbm-Py-amb C\-߃ hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°m\pw ]c-º-cm-KX C\-߃ ]p\-cm-hn-jv°-cn-°m\pw h\n-X-Iƒ Dƒs∏sS-bp≈ I¿j-Isc Dƒs∏-SpØn kky-{]-P-\-\-Øn\pw hnf-sa-®-s∏-Sp-Ø-en\pw Hcp ]¶m-

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fnØ ]cn-]mSn \S-∏n-em-t°-≠-Xp≠v. ae-I-fnse ssPh Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿbv°v {]Ir-Xn-ZØ-amb sshhn-≤yhpw hnf-Iƒ°v {]mtZ-inI kml-N-cy-ß-fp-ambn s]mcp-Ø-s∏-Sm-\p≈ tijn-bp-ap≠v. F∂m¬ ka-Xe {]tZ-i-ß-fn-te-°mbn hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°p∂ hnØp-Iƒ ChnsS \√-^ew X∂p F∂v hcn√. 10.

P\n-X-I-am-‰-Øn¬ \n∂v ]›na L´sØ tamNn-∏n-°p∂p : temIsØ ssPh sshhn≤y-I-e-h-d-I-fn-sem-∂mb ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ssPh-ssh-hn≤yw C∂sØ hnf-I-fpsS bYm¿∞ Po\p-I-fpsS t{kmX- mWv. A°m-c-W-Øm¬ Ahsb kwc-£n-°p-Ibpw P\n-XI-am‰w hcp-Ønb hnf-I-fn¬ \n∂pw hr£-ß-fn¬ \n∂pw Awi-߃ {]mtZ-inI C\-ßfn-te°v ]I-cmsX t\mt°-≠Xpw Bh-iy-amWv. P\n-X-I-hn-f-I-fn¬ \n∂v {]mtZ-inI C\ß-fn-te°v kz`m-h-am‰w hcp-Ønb hnf-Iƒ ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ Irjn-sN-øp-∂Xv Hcp Imc-Wh-imepw A\p-h-Zn-°m-hp-∂-X√. Xpd- mb Irjn-bn-S-ß-fnse ]co-£-W-߃t]mepw A\ph-Z-\o-b-a√. cmPysØ P\n-X-I-am‰w hcp-Ønb BZy-hn-f-bmb ]cpØn ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ ]e `mK-ß-fnepw Irjn sNbvXp-h-cp-∂p≠v. CXv DS-\Sn Ah-km-\n-∏n-°m\pw Chbv°v P\n-XI am‰w hcp-ØmØ hnØp-Iƒ hnX-cWw sNøm\pw \S-]Sn kzoI-cn-°Ww. Chcn¬ ssPh-Irjn t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p-Ibpw ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]cpØn I¿j-I¿°p-th≠n {]tXyI hn]-W-\-am¿§w ÿm]n-°p-Ibpw thWw. P\n-XI am‰w hcp-Ønb hr£ßƒt]mse P\n-X-I-am‰w hcp-Ønb d∫¿ h®p-]n-Sn-∏n-°m\pw {ia-ap≠v. CXv Hcn-°epw A\p-h-Zn-°m-hp-∂-X√.

11.

t_m[-h¬°-cWw : D]-t`m-‡m-°ƒ, hym]m-cn-Iƒ, \b-cq-]o-I-c-W-°m¿ F∂n-h¿°v ]›na-L-´-Ønse kpÿn-c-amb Irjn-hn-I-k-\-Øns‚ A\n-hm-cy-Xsb ]‰n ÿnc-ambn t_m[h¬°-cWw \S-tØ-≠Xv hnhn[ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ \S-∏m-°p-∂-Xn\v hnim-e-amb kmaqly ]n¥pW Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm≥ Bh-iy-amWv. {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-ß-fpsS {Inbm-fl-I-tijn D]tbm-K-s∏-SpØn hnhn[ {]mtbm-KnI coXn-Iƒ CXn-\mbn ÿnco-I-cn-°Ww.

12.

Ip´n-Iƒ°v Adnhp ]I-cWw : ssPh-]-cn-ÿnXn Irjnsb ]‰nbpw ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ssPh-ssh-hn≤yw kwc-£n-°p-∂-Xn¬ Ah-bv°p≈ ]¶n-s\-∏-‰nbpw Ip´n-Iƒ°v hnZym`ymkw \¬IWw. ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ {]m[m-\yhpw Pe-t{km-X v F∂ \ne-bnepw ssPhssh-hn≤yw kwc-£n-t°≠ Bh-iy-I-Xsb ]‰nbpw ssPh-hy-h-ÿbv°v tZmjw hcp-Øp∂Xv ]cn-an-X-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn Irjn-°p≈ ]¶ns\ Ipdn®pw AXp-t]m-ep≈ a‰v hnj-b-ßsf ]‰nbpw ]›n-a-L´ kwÿm-\-ß-fnse kvIqfp-I-fnepw a‰v hnZym-`ymk ÿm]-\-ß-fnepw {]mtZ-inI `mj-bn¬ hni-Z-ambn ]Tn-∏n-°Ww.

13.

h\ CS-\m-gn-Iƒ : h\-{]-tZ-i-߃°n-S-bn-ep≈ tXm´-ß-fn¬ arK-߃ k©m-c-Øn\v D]tbm-Kn-°p∂ `mK-߃ ho≠pw h\-am-°m≥ \S-]Sn D≠m-hWw.

14.

tXm´-ß-fnse h\-߃ : tXm´-߃°p-≈nse sNdp-h-\-ßfpw tXmSp-I-fp-sSbpw Dd-h-I-fpsSbpw Ic-I-fn¬ ImWp∂ ImSp-Ifpw "ssPh-ssh-hn-[y-Øns‚ kz¿§""amI-bm¬ kwc-£n°-s∏-SWw. ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-Øns‚ Cu Xpcp-Øp-I-fn¬ hwi-\m-i-`o-jWn t\cn-Sp-∂Xpw AhnsS am{Xw ImWp-∂-Xp-amb ]e h¿§-ßsf Ipdn®pw dnt∏m¿´p≠v. BI-bm¬ Cu `mK-tØm´vv tXm´-߃ hym]n-°p-∂Xv Hcn-°epw A\p-h-Zn-°m≥ ]mSn√.

15.

kmaq-ly-h-\-h¬°-cWw : hfw,Imen-Øo‰, hndIv XpS-ßnb Bh-iy-߃°mbn kmaqly-h-\-h-ev°-c-WsØ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°Ww.

16.

h\y-Pohn {]iv\-߃ : ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse Irjn-t\-cn-Sp∂ Hcp {]iv\w h\y-Po-hn-Iƒ IqsS-IqsS Irjn \in-∏n-°p-∂-XmWv. CXn\v I¿j-I¿°v \jvS-]-cn-lmcw \¬Ip-∂-Xns\m∏w h\y-Po-hn-Iƒ°v BI¿j-I-a-√mØ hnf-Iƒ IrjnsNøm≥ {ian-°p-Ibpw thWw. ]e ÿe-ß-fnepw Irjn°v `oj-Wn-bm-bp≈ Ic-Sn-bpsS ieyw Hgn-hm-°m-\mbn hy‡amb am¿§-\n¿t±-i-ß-fpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ Ahsb XSbmw. hnf-Iƒ am‰n Irjn-sNøpI hgn kky-`p-°p-I-fmb arK-ß-fpsS ieyw Hcp ]cn-[n-hsc Hgn-hm-°m-sa-¶nepw B\I-fp-sSbpw a‰pw ]c-º-cm-KX k©m-c-]-Y-am-bn-cp∂ h\-߃ sh´n-sØ-fn®v Irjn-`q-an-bm°nbh Dt]-£n-t°-≠n-hcpw. Cß-s\-bp≈ I¿j-I¿°v aXn-bmb \jvS-]-cn-lmcw

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\¬IWw. 17.

hn]-W\w : CS-\n-e-°msc Hgn-hm°n I¿j-I¿°v ]c-am-h[n em`w e`n-°m\pw, tImÃmdn° Im∏n-bpsS Imcy-Øn-se-∂-t]mse kwc-£-W-{I-a-ß-fn-eqsS Dev]-∂-߃°v \√ hne \n›-bn-°pI, ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ssPh-Irjn Dev]-∂-ßsf {]mtZ-inI hn]-Wn-I-fpambn _‘n-∏n-°pI, CXn-s\√mw k¿°m¿ ]n¥pW Dd-∏p-h-cp-ØpI XpS-ß-nb hn]-W-\X-{¥-߃ ]›n-a-L-´-]-cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS ta¬t\m-´-Øn¬ \S-∏m-°pI.

18.

Kncn-h¿§-Irjn : Kncn-h¿§-°m-cpsS ]mc-ºcy Irjn-co-Xn-Ifpw kwkvIm-chpw `£y-kwkvIm-c-hp-sa√mw XncnsI sIm≠p-h-cm\pw ]p\-cp-≤-cn-°m\pw klm-b-I-amb Hcp IrjnX{¥w Bhn-jv°-cn-t°-≠-Xm-bn-´p≠v.

19.

Kth-jWw : {]mtZ-in-I-ambn A\p-tbm-Pyhpw sNehv Ipd-™-Xp-amb ssPh-Ir-jn-co-XnIfpw ]mc-º-cy-Irjn k{º-Zm-b-ßfpw ]p\-cp-≤-cn-°m≥ ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-e-bnse Irjnbpw kky-^-e-Ir-jnbpw kw_-‘n® Kth-j-W-Øn¬ ap≥K-W\ \¬IWw. ssPth-Xc Irjnbn¬ \n∂v ssPh-Ir-jn-bn-te°v I¿j-Isc BI¿jn-°m≥ ]cym-]vX-amb Kth-jW ]≤Xn-Iƒ Gs‰-Sp-°m≥ {]mtZ-inI hnZym-`ymk˛Kth-jW ÿm]-\ß - sf t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°Ww.

]›n-a-L-´-Ønse {]Ir-Xn-]-chpw kmwkvIm-cn-Ihpw kmaq-ln-I-hp-amb ASn-Ød kwc-£n°p-∂-Xn\pw A\p-]-a-amb Cu ae-\n-c-I-fpsS AJ-fiX Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp-∂-Xn\pw D≈ am¿§-ßfm-Wnh.

2.3. arK-]-cn-]m-e\w I∂p-Im-en-Iƒ, BSp-am-Sp-Iƒ, tImgn-h-f¿Ø¬ F∂nh ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse Hcp {][m\ D]-Po-h-\-am¿§-amWv. I∂p-Im-en-Isf hf¿Øp-∂Xv {][m-\-ambpw ]men\pw, Irjn°pw, Irjn°m-h-iy-amb hf-Øn\pw, KXm-K-X-Øn-\pw -th-≠nbpw BSp-am-Sp-Isf amwk-Øn\pw hnev]-\-bneq-sS-bp≈ hcp-am-\-Øn\pw hf-Øn\pw th≠nbpw, tImgn-Isf D]t`mK-Øn\pw hnev]-\bv°pw th≠nbpw BWv hf¿Øp-∂Xv. {]mtZ-in-I-km-l-N-cy-߃°v G‰hpw A\p-tbm-Py-amb \nch[n C\w I∂p-Im-en-Iƒ Cu taJ-e-bn-ep≠v. ]s£,{]mtZ-inI C\-ß-fpsS kwJy-bn¬ KWyamb Ipd-hp-≠m-b-t∏mƒ k¿°m-cns‚ I∂p-Imen hnk-\-]-≤-Xn-bpsS `mK-ambn sIm≠p-h∂ k¶-c-C-\-ß-fpsS FÆ-Øn¬ h≥h¿≤-\-hp-≠mbn. F∂m-en-Xp-sIm≠v I∂p-Im-en-Iƒ°v KpWtØ-°m-tfsd tZmj-am-Wp-≠m-bn-´p-≈Xv. I¿Æm-SI BSp-am-Sp-Iƒ, ]∂n, Fcpa XpS-ßnb C\-ß-sf-sb√mw kw_-‘n®v hnh-c-߃ kam-l-cn®n-´p≈ GXm\pw kwÿm-\-ß-fn¬ H∂mWv I¿Æm-SIw. kwÿm-\Øv k¶-c-bn\w I∂p-Im-enIƒ 16 e£hpw G‰hpw ap¥nb C\-߃ 2000hpw D≠v. kwÿm-\sØ I∂p-Imen kwJy-bpsS 17 iX-am\w hcp-anXv. \nc-h[n Xt±i C\w I∂p-Im-en-Iƒ kwÿm-\-Øp≠v. l√n-Im¿, Aar-Xa-l¬, Jnem¿, tUmWn, ae-\mSv KnÕ, IrjvW-hmen C\-߃ F∂n-h-bmWv CXn¬ {][m\w. Fcpa C\-ß-fn¬ {][m\w, apd, kp¿Øn, ]≠m¿]pcn, tal-km\n F∂n-h-bmWv. kwÿm\sØ IqSnb C\w BSp-If - n¬ sadns\m, dmw_p-e‰v, sImdn-sUbv¬ F∂nh Dƒs∏-Sp∂p, kwÿm\sØ {][m\ Xt±i C\w BSp-Iƒ _∂q¿, sU°m\n, _√mcn, lm ≥ F∂n-h-bmWv. I¿Æm-S-I-bnse 20,000 k¶c C\w ]∂n-I-fn¬ em‚ v ssdkv, tbm¿°v sjb¿ C\-ß-fmWv IqSpX¬. ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ sIms√-K¬-˛-k-Xy-aw-Kew td©n¬ ImWp-∂ Xt±i C\w I∂p-Im-en-Ifn¬ tImwK, Ic-Kp-_´, lmkq¿ _´, Kp÷-amhp C\-ß-fmWv {][m\w. Chsb hf¿Øp-∂Xv {][m-\-ambpw Imw]m-enI, tkmfnK Kncn-h¿§-k-aq-l-ß-fmWv. 2003se sk≥kkv {]Imcw cmPysØ samØw kwJy-bn¬ 5.15% I∂p-Im-en-Ifpw 4.08 % Fcp-a-Ifpw 11.8% BSp-Ifpw 3.61 % sNΩ-cn-bm-Sp-Ifpw 2.31% ]∂n-I-fpw 5.23% tImgn, Xmdmhv F∂nhbpw I¿Æm-S-I-Øn-emWv. 1997 \pw 2003 \pw CSbv°v I¿Æm-S-I-Ønse k¶c C\w Imen-IfpsS FÆw 23.9% h¿≤n-®-t∏mƒ Xt±i C\-ß-fpsS kwJy 16.80% sIm≠v Ipd™p. kwÿm............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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\sØ samØw Imen-I-fpsS FÆw 1992 sk≥k-kn¬ 29.57 Zi-e-£-am-bn-cp-∂Xv 1997 sk≥kkn¬ 28.526 Zi-e-£-ambpw 2003 sk≥k-kn¬ 25.621 Zi-e-£-ambpw Ipd™p. tIcfw tIc-f-Øns‚ X\Xv Imen C\-ß-fn¬ sh®q¿]ip, Imk¿tImSv Uzm¿^v C\-ßfpw ae_m¿ BSpw, t\°Uv s\°v tImgn-Ifpw a‰pw Dƒs∏-Sp∂p. I∂p-Im-en-h-f¿Ø¬ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°m-\mbn h≥tXm-Xn¬ k¶c C\-ßsf hf¿Øm≥ k¿°m¿ klm-bn-°p-∂p≠v. k¶c C\ ]≤-Xn-I-fn¬ Xt±-iob C\-ßsf ]cn-K-Wn-°p-∂n√. ]Icw Pgvkn, tlmƒÃo≥˛{^okn-b≥ C\-ß-sf-bmWv t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p-∂-Xv. hb-\mSv Pn√bnse P\-kw-Jy-bn¬ 42% Kncn-h¿§-°m-cmW.v C∂v G‰hpw henb £otcm¬]m-ZI Pn√ hb\m-SmWv. Ign™ c≠v Zi-I-ß-fn¬ I∂p-Imen˛]uƒ{Sn kwJy-bn¬ KWy-amb Ipd-hp-≠mbn. CXn-\p≈ {][m\ Imc-W-߃ Xo‰-]p-√ns‚ Zu¿e`yw,Imen-Øo-‰-I-fpsS hne-h¿≤-\hv, amwkØn-\p-th≠n Xt±i C\-ßsf KWy-ambn sIm∂Xv F∂n-h-bmWv. k¿°m-cns‚ ]n¥p-W-aqew I¿j-I-cpsS ap≥K-W-\bpw Xt±-i-C-\-ß-fn¬ \n∂v k¶-c-C\-ß-fn-te°v amdn. ssht°m¬, Xhn-Sv, ]nÆm°v F∂n-ßs\ D≈ Irjn-˛-A-\p-_‘ D¬]-∂-ß-fpsS e`yX Ipd-™Xpw Imenh-f¿Ø-en\p Xncn-®-Sn-bm-bn. Xan-gv\mSv Xan-gv\m-´nse {][m\ Xt±-iob C\-߃ "I¶bw Imen-Iƒ', tXmS Fcpa(\oe-Kncn) tat®cn BSv (CutdmUv) tImb-º-Øq¿ BSv F∂n-h-bmWv. I¶-b≥ Imen-Iƒ°v Z£n-tW¥y≥ ssakq¿ ssS∏n-t\m-SmWv kmayw. t{Kssh‰v Hmt¶mƒ C\-߃ k¶-c-am-sW∂v ]T-\߃ hy‡-am-°p∂p. a‰v ssakq¿ ssS∏p-Isf At]-£n®v Chbv°v henb hep∏w D≠m-Im≥ ImcWw Cu k¶-c-kz-`m-h-hp-am-bn-cn°mw. Ch IqSp-X-embn I≠p-h-cp-∂Xv tImb-º-Øq¿ Pn√bpsS sX°v, sX°p-In-g°v taJ-e-bn-emWv. I¶bw Imen-Iƒ c≠v C\-ap≠v. H∂v sNdpXpw as‰m∂v hepXpw. I¶bw, [cw-]pcw, DZp-am¬s]´v, s]m≈m®n, ]VSw, CutdmUv taJ-e-I-fnemWv sNdnb C\sØ [mcm-f-ambn ImWp-∂Xv. henb C\w IqSp-X-em-bp-≈Xv Icq¿, Ac-hIpdn-®n, Un≠nK¬, {]tZ-i-ß-fn-epw. Cu C\-Øns‚ X\-Xp-cq]w h≥In-S- Imenhf¿Øp-Im-cmb ]mfbwtIm´˛]´-K¿ t]mse-bp-≈-h-cpsS ]°se D≠m-Iq. anX-amb hen∏w am{X-ap≈ Cu C\Øn\v hne IqSp-X-em-Wv. Xan-gv\m-´n¬ 1997 \pw 2003\pw CS-bn¬ k¶c C\-ß-fpsS FÆw 46.61% sIm≠v h¿≤n-®t∏mƒ Xt±-i-C-\-ß-fpsS FÆw 27.79% I≠v Ipd™p. alm-cmjv{S alm-cmjv{S ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse C\-ß-fn¬ I∂p-Im-en-Iƒ, BSp-am-Sp-Iƒ, ]uƒ{Sn F∂nh Dƒs∏-Sp∂p. hwi-\miw kw`-hn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ Um¶n Imen-Iƒ°v B t]cv h∂Xv KpP-dm-Ønt\mSv tN¿∂p InS-°p∂ UmwKv ae-\n-c-I-fn¬ \n∂mWv. ae-Iƒ \nd™ Db¿∂-ag e`y-X-bp≈ ]›n-asIm-¶¨ Xoc-ØmWv t\°Uv s\°v ]uƒ{Sn {_oUv D≈Xv.

DXvIW - vTm-P\ - I - a - mb {]iv\ß - ƒ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse kky-ssh-hn-≤yhpw I∂p-Imen hf¿Øepw ]›n-a-L-´Ønse kº-∂-amb ssPh sshhn≤yw Imen-Øo‰, Huj[ kky-߃, hnf-IfpsS Ah-in-jvS-߃ F∂n-h-bpsS Hcp apJy-t{km-X- mWv. h\-Ønepw ae-I-fnepw Xma-kn°p∂ BZn-hmkn kaq-lhpw {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-ßfpw BWv {]mtZ-inI ]cn-ÿn-Xn°pw {]mtZinI Dev]m-Z\ kwhn-[m-\-Øn\pw A\p-tbm-Py-amb I∂p-Imen C\-ßsf kwc-£n-°p-∂Xv. BZn-hmkn kaqlw Ah-cpsS hf¿Øp-ar-K-ßsf NnIn-’n-°m-\mbn h\-Ønse Huj-[-s®-SnI-sf-bmWv B{i-bn-°p-∂Xv. ]c-º-cm-KX NnIn’ kw_-‘n® hen-sbmcp hn⁄m\ kºØv Ch¿°v kz¥-am-bp≠v. CX-h¿ Xe-ap-d-I-fmbn ssIamdn kq£n-°p∂p. t_sU-Iw-]m-enI,

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

tkmfnK, ImWn, apfp-h-°p-dp-h¿, Im´p-\m-bI kaq-l-߃ DZm-l-cWw. ChnsS hf¿Øp∂ {]mtZ-inI C\-߃ Chn-SsØ {]Ir-Xn-bp-ambpw ]cn-ÿn-Xn-bpambpw CW-ßn-t®-cp-∂-h-bmWv. k¶c C\-ßsf hf¿Øm≥ XpS-ßn-bXv Chn-SsØ Dev]m-Z\-kw-hn-[m-\sØ apgp-h≥ kmc-ambn _m[n®p. arK-ßsf ]cn-]m-en-°p-Ibpw NnIn-’n-°pIbpw sNøp-∂Xp kw_-‘n® Ch-cpsS ]c-º-cm-KX hn⁄m-\hpw \jvS-s∏-Sm≥ XpSßn. k¶c C\-߃°v ]I¿® hym[n-Iƒ ]nSn-s]-Sm-\p≈ kml-Ncyw Gsd-bmWv. X∑qew I∂pIm-en-h-f¿Ø-ens‚ sNehv I¿j-I¿°v henb `mc-ambn amdn. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ta®n¬ {]iv\-߃ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]c-º-cm-KX arK-h-f¿Ø¬ coXn A\p-k-cn®v Xt±i Imen-°q-´-߃ ]q¿Æ-ambpw kaql˛h\ ta®n¬ ]pd-ß-sf-bmWv B{i-bn-®n-cp-∂Xv. Imen-h-f¿Øp-Im¿ Ct∏mƒ t\cn-Sp∂ {][m\ sh√p-hnfn ]p¬ta-Sp-Iƒ tXm´-߃°pw a‰v k¿°m¿ Bh-iy-߃°p-ambn hn´p-sIm-Sp-t°-≠n-h-∂-Xp-aqew ta®n¬]p-d-ß-fpsS hnkvXo¿Æw KWy-ambn Ipd™XmWv. P\kw-Jym-h¿[-\hpw h\-ta-®n¬ ]pd-ß-fn¬ D≠mb Ipdhpw BSp-Iƒt]m-se-bp≈ sNdnb arKß-fn-te°v Xncn-bm≥ I¿j-Isc t{]cn-∏n®p. BSp-Iƒ Chn-SsØ ]p√p-I-fp-tSbpw a‰pw ISIp‰n A‰w-hsc Xn∂p-∂-Xn-\m¬ CXv {]iv\w IqSp-X¬ cq£-am°n. Im¿jn-I-cw-K-Øp-h∂ Nne am‰-߃, DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v `£y-hn-f-Iƒ°p ]Icw IqSp-X¬ \mWy-hn-f-Iƒ Irjn sNøm≥ XpS-ßn-bXv Imen-Øo-dd Dev]m-Z-\sØ {]Xn-Iq-e-ambn _m[n®p. If-\m-in-\n-Ifpw a‰p \mWy-hn-f-I-fn-t∑¬ A\n-b-{¥n-X-ambn {]tbm-Kn-®-Xn-\m¬ ImenØo-‰bv°v A\p-tbm-Py-amb ]e ]p√n-\-ßfpw \in®p. tXbn-e-tØm´w amt\-Pp-sa‚p-Iƒ sXmgn-em-fn-I-fpsS Imen--Isf tXm´w hI ]pc-bn-S-Øn¬ tabm≥ A\p-h-Zn-t°-≠-Xn-s√∂ Xocp-am\w Imen hf¿Ø¬ H´pw BI¿j-I-a-√m-Xm°n. h\-ß-fn¬ BSp-Isf tabm≥ hnSp-∂Xv I¿i-\-ambn \ntcm-[n-®p-sIm≠v Xan-gv\mSv h\w hIp∏v Cd-°nb DØ-chv h\-kw-c-£-WsØ A\p-Iq-en-®m-sW-¶nepw BSp-h-f¿Ø-en\v henb sh√p-hn-fn-bmbn. BSp-h-f¿Ø-ens\ B{i-bn®v Ign-bp∂ {]mtZ-inI kaq-lsØ c£n-°m-\mbn a‰v am¿§-߃ Is≠-tØ-≠-Xp≠v.

ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ D]m-[n-Iƒ ssehvtÃm°v hnI-k-\-Øn-\p≈ kpÿnc X{¥w Xt±i C\w Imen-I-fpsS ]m¬ Dev]m-Z\w em`-I-c-a-√m-Ø-Xn-\m¬ CØcw Imen-Isf hf¿Øm≥ Xøm-dm-Ip∂ I¿j-I¿°v Bh-iy-amb ]n≥_ew \¬IWw. Ch-cpsS ssPh Dev]∂-߃°v Hcp {]tXyI hne-b-[n-jvTnX hn]-W\ kwhn-[m\w G¿s∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw Xt±i h¿§ßsf kwc-£n-°m≥ Xøm-dm-Ip-∂-h¿°v kmº-ØnI klmbw A\p-h-Zn-°p-Ibpw thWw. Ah F{X-am{Xw ]cn-ÿnXn kº-∂X B {]tZ-i-tØbv°v XncnsI sIm≠p-hcpw F∂-Xns\ ASnÿm-\-s∏-SpØn thWw kmº-ØnI klmbw \n›-bn-°m≥. {]Xn-Iqe Im¿jnI Imem-h-ÿsb AXn-Po-hn-°m≥ Ign-bp-∂-hsb am{Xta, CXn-te°v ]cn-K-Wn-°m-hq. Xt±-iob C\-ß-fpsS kwc-£-W-Øn\v Imem-hÿ hyXn-bm-\-Øns‚ ]›m-Ø-e-Øn¬ henb {]m[m-\y-ap≠v. k¶-c-C-\-ßsf ]cn-]m-en-°m≥ I¿j-I¿°v Ign-bp-∂n-s√-¶n¬ Chsb \evIn I¿j-I-cp-sSbpw IpSpw-_mw-K-ß-fp-sSbpw c‡-k-Ω¿±w Db¿Øm-Xn-cn-°p-ImWv \√Xv. Xt±-i-Im-en-I-fpsS \ne sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\mbn Cu taJ-e-bn¬ {]h¿Øn-°p∂ {Kq∏p-Iƒ ]eXp≠v. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse arK-]-cn-]m-e-\-Øn¬ kpÿn-c-hn-I-k\w Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm-\mbn Cu {Kq∏pIsf AwKo-I-cn-°p-Ibpw ]n¥p-W-bv°p-Ibpw thWw. arK-߃°p≈ t]mj-Im-lmcw kwc-£nX taJ-e-Iƒ°v ]pd-Øp≈ h\w ta®n¬]p-d-ßfpw kaq-l-]p¬ta-Sp-Ifpw ]p\:ÿm]n-°m≥ {ian-°Ww. D]-tbm-Kn-°msX InS-°p∂ s]mXp ÿe-߃ Imen-Øo‰ hf¿Øm\mbn D]-tbm-Kn-°Ww. sXmgn-ep-d-∏p-]-≤-Xn-bn¬ \nt∂m AXp-t]m-se-bp≈ Ct∏mƒ \S-∂p-h............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

cp∂ a‰p ]≤-Xn-I-fn¬ \nt∂m Dff tPmen-°msc CXn-\mbn hn\n-tbm-Kn°mw. hn`-h-ß-fpsS Aan-X-Nq-jWw XS-bm\pw hn`-h-߃ ]p\-cp-÷o-hn-∏n-°m\pw hnhn[ kaql-ß-fpsS Bh-iy-߃ \nd-th-‰m\pw hnt√Pv Xe-Øn¬ ta®n¬ ]pd-߃ amdn-amdn D]-tbm-Kn°p∂ kwhn-[m-\hpw amt\-Pvsa‚pw hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°Ww. Imen-Øo‰ Bh-iy-߃ Bkq-{XWw sNøm≥ {Kma-k-aq-l-ßsf klm-bn-°p-Ibpw Xo‰]p¬Irjn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ A\p-tbm-Py-amb amXr-I-Iƒ kzoI-cn-°m≥ Ahsc t{]cn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøpI. Xo‰ hkvXp-°-fmbn D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ ac-߃, ]p√p-Iƒ, Ip‰n-s®-Sn-Iƒ F∂n-hsb {]m[m\yw \¬In kwc-£n-°pI. £ma-Im-e-tØ-°p-th≠n Xo‰ hkvXp-°ƒ {]tXy-In®v ]p√p-Iƒ tÃm°p-sN-øm-\p≈ sa®s∏´ kwhn-[m-\-߃ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI BSp-h-f¿Ø¬ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ {]mtZ-inI ta®n¬ÿ-e-߃ Is≠-ØWw. h\-ta-J-esb B{i-bn-°m≥ ]mSn√. CØcw ]≤-Xn-I-fpsS Hcp {][m-\-`m-K-am-bn-cn-°Ww Xo‰-]p¬Irjn. ]cnÿnXn hfsc Zp¿_-ehpw BSp-h-f¿Ø¬ Pohn-X-am¿§-am-bn-´p≈ CS-ß-fn¬ B´n≥Iq-Sp-I-fn¬ BSp-Isf hf¿Øp-∂Xv t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°Ww. s\¬h-b-ep-I-fn¬ Hcp c≠mw hnf F∂ \ne-bn¬ Xo‰-]p¬Irjn sNømw. tdmUp-I-fpsS hi-ß-fn-ep≈ \mWy-hn-f-Iƒ°v IoS-\m-in-\n-Ifpw If-\m-in-\n-Ifpw {]tbmKn-°p-∂Xv \ntcm-[n-°Ww. ImcWw If-I-fmbn ap{Z-Ip-Ø-s∏-´n-´p≈ ]e kky-ßfpw \√-Im-enØo-‰-I-fmWv. am{X-hp-a√ I∂p-Im-en-Iƒ s]mXpth tabp-∂Xv tdmUp-h-°n-emWv. h\w kwc-£-W-Øns‚ t]cn¬ Imen-I-fpsS ta®n-en¬ \nb-{¥Ww G¿s∏-Sp-Øp-tºmgpw {]mtZ-in-I-k-aq-l-Øns‚ ]mc-º-cy-kw-kvIm-c-Øn\pw PohnX coXn°pw tIm´w X´msX t\m°pIbpw h\-k-ky-ß-fpsS ]p\-cp-≤m-c-WsØ kwc-£n-°p-Ibpw thWw. hmWn-Pym-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-ep≈ £otcm¬]m-Z\w arK-]-cn-]m-e\ {]h¿Ø-\-߃ kpÿn-c-X-bv°p-th≠n a‰v Im¿jnI {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fp-ambn kwtbm-Pn-∏n-°Ww. BI-bm¬ arK-]-cn-]m-e\ {]h¿Ø-\-߃ Bkq-{XWw sNøp-tºmƒ A\p_-‘-ta-J-e-I-sf-°qSn Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p≈ Hcp kwtbm-PnX kao-]-\-amWv kzoI-cn-t°-≠Xv. ]›n-a-L-´-Øn\v ]q¿Æ-ambpw ssPhm-[n-jvTn-X-amb Irjn-co-Xn-bmWv ip]m¿i sNøp-∂sX-∂-Xn-\m¬ arK-]-cn-]m-e-\-Øn\v apJy-am-sbmcp ]¶v hln-°m-\p≠v. A\n-b-{¥nX Nqj-WØn\v hnt[-b-am-bn-´p≈ `qan-bpsS ]p\-cp-÷o-h-\-Øn\pw h≥tXm-Xn¬ ssPh-h-kvXp-°ƒ Bh-iy-amWv. CXn-\p≈ kpÿn-c-amb GI t{kmX v Imen-h-f¿Ø-emWv. £otcm-Xv]m-Z\w c≠p {][m\ taJe Bb-Xn-\m¬ arK-kw-c-£-W-ku-I-cy-߃, arK-BtcmKy \nco-£-W-kw-hn-[m\w, Imen-Øo‰ k_vknUn XpS-ßnb klm-b-߃ sXmgp-Øp-Ifn¬ hf¿Øp∂ Imen-Iƒ°v \¬IWw. \√ sXmgp-Øp-Ifpw imkv{Xob ]cn-]m-e-\-kw-hn-[m-\ßfpw I¿j-I¿°v e`y-am-°Ww. h≥InS £otcm¬]m-ZI bqWn-‰p-Iƒ°p-]-Icw aq∂v \mev I∂p-Im-en-I-fp≈ an\n-bq-Wn-‰pIsf t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°Ww. {]tXy-In®pw h\n-X-fpsS kzbw klm-b-{Kq-∏p-Iƒ \S-Øp∂ bqWn‰p-Isf. s\√v, [m\y-߃ a‰v `£y-hn-f-Iƒ F∂nh Irjn sNøp∂ Hcp kwtbm-PnX kao-]\w kzoI-cn-°m≥ I¿j-II - p-Spw-_ß - ƒ°v t]mj-Im-lmc kpc-£n-XXzw Dd-∏p-hc - p-Øp-X∂ - X - n\p ]pdta sXmgp-Øp-I-fn¬ hf¿Øp∂ Imen-Iƒ°v Bhiyw t]mse Imen-Øo-‰bpw e`y-am°pw. BI-bmenXv t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p-Ibpw kmº-ØnI klmbw \¬Ip-Ibpw thWw. ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-bn¬ c≠v Id-h-am-Sp-I-sf-¶n-ep-ap≈ Hmtcm hoSn\pw _tbm-Kymkv πm‚ v ÿm]n-°m-\mbn kmº-ØnI klmbw \¬IWw. CXv Ah-cpsS Pohn-X-\n-e-hmcw Db¿Øm\pw hnd-Ins\ B{i-bn-°p-∂Xv Hcp ]cn-[n-hsc Ipd-bv°m\pw klm-bn°pw. am{X-hp-a√ _tbmKymkv πm‚n¬ \n∂p≈ Ah-injvSw hf-ambpw D]-tbm-Kn°mw. CsXmcp hnt√Pv Xe-Øn-embm¬ henb _tbm-Kymkv πm‚p-Iƒ {]h¿Øn-∏n-°m≥ km[n°pw. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

179


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

tXbne tXm´-ß-fnse ssPh D¬∏m-Z\w Z£nW ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ G‰hpw IqSp-X¬ ÿeØv hym]n-®p-In-S-°p-∂Xv tXbn-e-tØm´-ß-fmWv. A¥m-cmjv{S Xe-Øn¬ ssPh- tX-bn-ebv°v h≥ Bh-iy-am-Wp-≈Xv. Cu kml-N-cyØn¬ tXbn-e-Ir-jnsb arK-]-cn-]m-e-\-hp-ambn kwtbm-Pn-∏n-°Ww. tXbne tXm´-ß-fn¬ Hgn™p-In-S-°p∂ ÿe-ß-fn¬ Ime-Isf hf¿Øp-Ibpw AXn-eqsS e`n-°p∂ ssPh-hfw tXbne Irjn°v D]-tbm-Kn-°p-Ibpw sNømw. ap≥Im-e-ß-fn¬ tXbn-e-tXm-´-ß-fnse sXmgn-em-fn-Iƒ tXm´-ß-fn¬ Imen-Isf hf¿Ønbn-cn-°p∂p. F∂m-en-t∏mƒ amt\-Pvsa‚p-Iƒ AXv A\p-h-Zn-°p-∂n√. CXv ]p\-cm-cw-`n®v i‡ns∏-Sp-Øm-hp-∂-XmWv. CXp-hgn e`n-°p∂ ssPh-hfw tXm´-Øn¬ Xs∂ \nt£-]n®v ssPh- tXbn-e-bp-sSbpw ssPh- ]m-en-s‚bpw Dev]m-Z\w h¿≤n-∏n°mw. tXbne tXm´-ß-fn¬ If-\m-in-\n-Iƒ {]tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xv ]q¿Æ-ambpw Ah-km-\n-∏n-°Ww. arK-B-tcm-Ky-]-cn-]m-e\w ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse Imen-Iƒ°v ]e-tcm-K-ßfpw ]nSn-s]-Sm-dp≠v. Cu taJ-e-bn¬ NnIn-’mku-I-cy-߃ ]cn-an-X-am-I-bm¬ arK-kw-c-£-W-h-Ip∏v Cu taJ-e-bn¬ NnIn-’m-ku-I-cy-ßfpw XpS¿®-bmb hmIvkn-t\-j≥, hnc-bn-f-°¬ XpS-ßnb tcmK-{]-Xn-tcm[ \S-]-Sn-Ifpw i‡n-s∏-SpØWw. hmIvkn-t\-j≥, {]Y-a-ip-{iqj, ]c-º-cm-KX arK-]-cn-]m-e\w, {]mtZ-inI kky-߃ D]-tbm-Kn-®p≈ NnIn’ F∂n-h-bn¬ ]cn-io-e-\hpw ASn-b-¥n-c-k-μ¿`-ßsf ssIImcyw sNøm\p≈ ssh`-hhpw D≈ arK-B-tcm-Ky-{]-h¿Ø-I≥ Hmtcm hnt√-Pnepw D≠m-bn-cn-°p-∂Xv \√XmWv. Huj-[-k-ky-Irjn hf¿Øp-ar-K-ßsf NnIn-’n-°p-∂-Xn\v Huj[ kky-߃ D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ ]c-º-cm-K-Xamb coXn ChnsS \ne-hn-ep≠v. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse CØcw Huj-[-k-ky-ß-fpsS A\n-b-{¥nX NqjWw aqew Ah C∂v hwi-\mi `oj-Wn-bn-emWv. Cu kky-ß-fpsS \gvk-dn-Ifpw Huj-[\n¿Ωm-W-bq-Wn-‰p-Ifpw kl-I-c-Wm-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ ]©m-bØv Xe-Øn¬ Bcw-`n-°p-∂Xv A`nIm-ay-amWv. CØcw Huj-[-߃ e`y-am-bm¬ Zqsc-bp≈ Btcm-Ky-tI-{μ-ßsf B{i-bn-°p-∂Xn¬ \n∂v {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-Øn\v c£-t\-Sp-Ibpw sNømw. kvIqƒ hnZym¿∞n-Iƒ°v t_m[-h¬°-cWw hf¿Øp-ar-K-ß-tfbpw {]mtZ-inI I∂p-Imen sshhn-≤y-sØbpw ]‰n hnZym¿∞n-Isf A`ykn-∏n-t°-≠Xv Bh-iy-amWv. Hcp {]tZ-i-Øns‚ kpÿn-c-hn-I-k-\-Øn¬ arK-߃ hln-°p∂ \n¿Æm-bI ]¶v IW-°n-se-Sp-°p-tºmƒ Ah ]p\:ÿm]n®v kwc-£n-t°-≠Xv AXym-h-iyamWv. ]qs\-bnse "`mcXn hnZym-]oT C≥Ãn-‰yq´v Hm^v F≥hn-tdm¨sa‚ v FUyp-t°-j≥ Xømdm-°nb "FIvkvtπm-dnßv Ah¿ F≥hn-tdm¨sa‚ v: F am\z¬ t^m¿ {Ko≥ kvIqƒ' F∂ tcJbn¬ {]mtZ-inI I∂p-Im-en-Isf hf¿Ø-ens‚ {]m[m\yw hy‡-am-°p∂p. I∂p-Imen Dev]-∂-ß-fpsS hn]-W\w hn]-W\w Hcp {]iv\-ambn \ne-\n¬°p∂ CS-ß-fn-se√mw hf¿Øp-ar-K-ß-fn¬ \n∂v e`n°p∂ Dev]-∂-ß-sf√mw \mtim-∑p-J-am-ImØ cq]-Øn-em°n kq£n-°Ww. \√ hne e`n-°p∂-hsb aqey-h¿≤nX Dev]-∂-ß-fm-°Ww. A[nIw hcp∂ ]m¬ s\øpw ssXcp-sa-√m-am°n am‰p∂ ap≥coXn Dt]-£n-°Ww. shÆbpw I´n-ssXcpw t]mse-bp≈ ]pXnb Dev]-∂-ß-fm-°n am‰p∂ Imcyhpw ]co-£n°mw. CØcw Dev]-∂-ß-fpsS Db¿∂ KpW-\n-e-hmcw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Ønbm¬ Ahbv°v \√ hne e`n-°p-sa-∂-Xn¬ kwi-b-an√.

2.4. a’y-k-ºØv ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-e-bn¬ a’y-k-º-Øn¬ kw`-hn-°p∂ Ipdhv Kuc-h-ap≈ Hcp {]iv\-amWv. IS¬a’y kº-Øp-ambn Xmc-Xayw sNøp-tºmƒ ip≤-Pe a’y-ssh-hn≤yw ]e Imc-W-ßfm¬ Ipd-™p-h-cn-I-bmWv. a’y-k-º-Øns‚ kwc-£-Whpw ]cn-]m-e-\hpw ]c-º-cm-K-X-ambn {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-Øn¬ \n£n-]vX-am-bn-cp∂p. F∂m-en∂v ÿnXn amdn. Pohn-X-\n-e-hmcw sa®............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xnepw `£y-kp-c£ Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp-∂-Xnepw a’y-k-º-Øn-\p≈ {]m[m\yw ]cn-KWn-°p-tºmƒ kpÿn-c-X-tbmsS Cu taJe ]p\-cp-÷o-hn-∏n-°p-∂-Xn\v \nc-h[n {]mtbm-KnI \S-]-Sn-Iƒ Bh-iy-amWv. a’y-_-‘-\-h-Ip∏pw a‰v A\p-_-‘-ta-J-e-I-fp-ambn IqSn-bm-tem-Nn®v ]¶m-fnØ hyh-ÿt- bmsS kwc-£W - \ - S- ] - S- n°v cq]w \¬IWw. AXn-]p-cm-X\ - I - mew apX¬Xs∂ {]mtZ-in-I-ambn e`n-°p∂ a’y-߃ {]tZ-i-hm-kn-Isf kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw G‰hpw kº-∂amb t{]m´o-\ns‚ Dd-hn-S-amWv.

DXv°WvT Db¿Øp∂ {]iv\ß - ƒ I≠¬Im-Sp-Iƒ Dƒs∏sS Bhm-k-tI-{μ-ß-fpsS \io-I-cWw IoS-\m-in-\n-Iƒ, hymh-km-bnI amen-\y-߃ XpS-ßnh aqe-ap≈ aen-\o-I-cWw. D]-tbm-K-iq-\y-amb h-kvXp-°fpw, amen-\y-ßfpw \Zn-I-fnepw a‰pw X≈p-∂Xv icn-bmb \Zn-]-cn-]m-e-\-Øn-s‚bpw kwc-£-W-Øn-s‚bpw A`mhw a’y-_-‘-\-Ønse Aim-kv{XobX (\©v Ie-°¬, sshZypXn IS-Øn-hn-S¬, ]S°w s]m´n-°¬ XpS-ßn-bh) \Zn-I-fn¬ sN°p-Um-ap-Ifpw a‰pw \n¿Ωn®v Hgp°v XSb¬. hntZ-i-a’y C\-ßsf IS-Øn-hn-S¬ {]P-\\ ÿe-ß-fpsS \io-I-cWw a’y-tcm-K-߃ A\n-b-{¥nX NqjWw A\-[n-IrX Ae-¶m-c-a-’y-hym-]mcw aW¬ J\\w ip≤-Pe XSm-I-ß-fnse AXn-cp-I-S∂ Sqdnkw {]h¿Ø-\-߃ hntZ-i-a-’y-C-\-ß-fpsS hc-thmsS Xt±i C\-߃ A[:]Xn-®p-Xp-SßnbXv. tIc-f-Ønse DZm-l-c-W-߃ tIc-f-Ønse ssPh-ssh-hn≤y Ie-h-d-I-fn-sem-∂mb s]cn-bm¿ XSm-I-Øn¬ \n∂v ]nSn°p∂ a’y-ß-fpsS 70% Øntesd AXn¬ hf¿Øp∂ hntZ-i-a-Xvky-C-\-ß-fmWv. tIc-f-Ønse F√m \Zn-I-fnepw "Xntem]y' th≠p-thm-f-ap≠v. Xt±-i-a-’y-߃°v `ojWn Db¿Øp∂ as‰mcp hntZ-in-bmWv B{^n-°≥ Im‰v^njv. tIc-f-Ønse Pem-i-b-ß-fnepw Ipf-ß-fn-ep-sa√mw [mcmf-ambn hcp∂ hntZ-in-I-fmb ISve, tcmlp, arKmƒ F∂n-hbpw \ΩpsS \mS≥ a’y-C-\-ß-fpsS \ne-\n¬∏n\v ISpØ `oj-Wn-bmWv. Pe-Øns‚ KpW-ta∑ Pem-i-b-ß-fpsS hrjvSn-{]-tZ-isØ Irjn°v {]tbm-Kn-°p∂ cmkIoS-\m-in-\n-Iƒ Pe-aen-\o-I-c-WsØ cq£-am-°p∂p. hyh-km-b-߃ A\p-h-Z-\o-b-amb Af-hn¬ IqSp-X¬ sa¿°pdn, kn¶v, ImUvanbw F∂nh AS-ßnb amen-\y-߃ ]pd-¥-≈p∂p. henb \Zn-I-fn¬ a’y-Iq-´ßƒ Iq´-tØmsS NsØm-Sp-ßm≥ CXv Imc-W-am-Ip∂p. \Zn-I-fn-te°v ]pd-¥-≈p∂ Atam-Wnb-bpsS Afhpw A\p-h-Z-\o-b-am-b-Xn-t\-°mƒ hfsc IqSp-X-emWv. sIm®n-ta-J-e-bnse hyh-kmb-߃ ]pd-¥-≈p∂ amen-\y-ß-fn¬ Bkn-Up-Iƒ, B¬°-en-Iƒ, ^vfqssd-Up-Iƒ tdUntbm hnIn-cW hkvXp-°ƒ F∂nh D≈-Xmbn Xncn-®-dn-™n-´p≠v. X∑qew sIm®n Imb-ense Geq¿˛hcm-∏pg `mKw Hcp Duj-c-a-en\ taJ-e-bmbn amdn-s°m≠n-cn-°p∂p.

ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ am¿§-߃ a’y-ssh-hn-≤yhpw Btcm-Kyhpw hne-bn-cp-Øm≥ a’y kºØv XpS¿®-bmbn Ah-temI\ -hn-t[-b-am-°Ww. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

181


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Pem-i-b-ß-fpsS ASn-Ø-´n-e-Sn™v a’y-ß-fpsS {]P-\-\sØ XS- -s∏-Sp-Øp∂ πmÃn°p-I-fpsS D]-tbmKw \ntcm-[n-°Ww. ip≤-P-e-a-’y-ssPh sshhn-≤yhpw kwc-£n-°m-\p≈ \S-]-Sn-Iƒ a’y-\-b-Øn¬ Dƒs∏Sp-ØWw. hn]p-e-amb kq£va˛`qan-imkv{X k¿sΔ-bn-eqsS hwi-\m-i-`o-jWn t\cn-Sp∂ C\-ß-fpsSbpw Chn-sS-am{Xw ImWp∂ C\-ß-fp-sSbpw P\-kwJy, `qan-im-kv{X-]-c-amb hnX-cWw F∂n-hsb kw_-‘n® tU‰m-_m¶v i‡n-s∏-Sp-ØWw. ]cn-ÿnXn kwth-Z-\-£-a-X-bpff a’y-ß-fpsS Bhm-k-tI-{μ-ß-fpsS khn-ti-j-X-Isf kw_-‘n® IqSp-X¬ hnh-c߃ Cu C\-ß-fpsS kwc-£-W-Øn-\mbn AIzm-´nIv dnk¿Δp-Iƒ ÿm]n-°p-∂-Xn¬ \sΩ klm-bn°pw. a’y-ß-fpsS IpSn-tb‰w, {]P-\-\-kz-`mhw, `ojWn t\cn-Sp-∂-h-bpsS {]Xn-Iqe LS-I߃ XpSßn-b-hsb kw_-‘n® hym]-I-amb k¿sΔ-bn-eq-sSbpw A]-{K-Y-\-Øn-eq-sSbpw kzmb-Ø-am-°Ww. AØ-c-samcp tU‰m-t_kv Ch-bpsS kwc-£-W-Øn\v Bh-iy-amWv. kmº-ØnI {]m[m-\y-ap≈ C\-ß-fpsS {]P-\-\-Øn\pw hnIm-k-Øn\pw Bh-iy-amb am¿§ßƒ hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°Ww. {]mtZ-in-Ihpw hwi-\m-i-`o-jWn t\cn-Sp-∂Xpw ISpØ `ojWn t\cn-Sp-∂-Xp-amb C\߃°pw th≠n am{X-ambn lm®-dn-Ifpw a‰pw ÿm]n-°Ww. hntZ-i-a-’y-C-\-ß-fpsS {]Ir-Xn-ZØ Bhm-k-tI-{μ-ß-fn-te-°p≈ IS-∂p-I-b-‰sØ ]‰n ka{K At\z-jWw \S-ØWw. hntZ-i-C-\-ß-fpsS \nb-{¥-W-Øn\pw Izmd-ss‚\pw th≠n tI{μ- k¿°m¿ cq]o-I-cn® kan-Xn-bpsS {]h¿Ø\w IqSp-X¬ ^e-{]-Zhpw Ip‰-a-‰Xpw B°Ww. hb-ep-Ifpw NXp-∏p-Ifpw XnI-™-Xp-aqew a’y-ß-fpsS {]P-\-\-ku-Icyw \jvS-s∏-Sp∂Xv Ipd-bv°m-\mbn I¿i-\-]-cn-tim-[-\bpw A]-{K-Y-\hpw \nbaw \S-∏m-°-ep-sa√mw Dd∏p-h-cp-ØWw. a’y t{kmX- p-I-fpsS kpÿn-chpw \nen-\n¬∏pw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm-\p≈ t_m[-h¬°-cW ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ i‡n-s∏-Sp-ØpI. a’y-ß-fpsS {]P-\-\-Im-eØv a’y-_-‘-\-Øn\v \nb-{¥Ww G¿s∏-SpØpI. a’y-k-t¶-X-߃ ÿm]n-°pI. ]e \mS≥ a’y-ß-fp-sSbpw Bhm-k-tI-{μ-߃ \in-∏n-°p∂ aW¬ J\\w \nb-{¥n°pI. \Zn-°-c-Isf kwc-£n-°m-\mbn kztZ-in-k-ky-߃ D]-tbm-Kn-®p≈ Id‚ v then ÿm]n°pI. dnh¿am-t\-Pvsa‚ v ^≠v \Zn-If - psS Btcm-Ky-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´ {]h¿Ø-\ß - ƒ°v am{Xta hn\n-tbm-Kn-°mhq. a‰v \n¿Ωm-W-hn-I-k\ {]h¿Ø-\-߃°v hn\n-tbm-Kn-°p-hm≥ km[ya√. Ae-¶mc a’y-k-am-l-c-WsØ \nb-{¥n-°pI. AtXm-dn-´n-°p≈ \n¿t±-i-߃ ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n-°p≈ Nne {]h¿Ø\ \n¿t±-i-߃ 1.

e`y-am-bn-´p≈ hyXykvX \b-ßfpw \nb-a-hy-h-ÿ-Ifpw GtIm-]n-∏n-°Ww. ip≤-Pe a’yßsf kwc-£n-°m\pw Dt±-in® ^ew e`n-°m-\p-ambn Ch tI{μ kwÿm\ k¿°m¿ Xe-Øn-ep≈ D]-t`m‡r GP≥kn-Iƒ hgn \S-∏m-°Ww.

2.

\nb-a-hn-cp-≤-ambn Pem-i-b-߃ Itø-dp-∂Xpw cq]-am‰w hcp-Øp-∂Xpw XS-bm≥ Bh-iyamb \S-]-Sn-Iƒ°v cq]w \¬IWw.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

t_mIvkv 3 : sshX-cW a’y-k-t¶Xw (alm-cm-jv{S) ˛ 22 tabv 2011 sshX-c-W-bn-sebpw kao-]-{]-tZ-i-ß-fn-sebpw AW-s°-´p-I-fn¬ kμ¿i\w \S-Øp∂ thf-bn¬ Xms\-Pn-√-bnse hmS- Xm-eq-°nse Xnemkn hnt√-Pn¬ at\m-l-c-amb Hcp a’y-kt¶Xw ImWm-\n-S-bmbn. \n߃°pw Xm¬]-cy-am-bn-cn°pw F∂ Nn¥-bn-emWv CXv Fgp-Xp∂Xv. Aj¿ sshX-cW AW-s°-´ns‚ Xmsg -I-´n-bp≈ ]md-bnse Acp-hn-bmWv ssk‰v. CXns‚ Ic-bn-emWv afin-tI-iz¿ inh-t£{Xw. sXm´-SpØ Ic-bnse {]tZ-iØv Bg-ta-dnb Ipf-ßfpw Ah-bn¬ h‰mØ sh≈-hp-ap≠v. U°m¿ alvko¿ F∂ a’y-ß-fpsS Hcp Bhmk tI{μ-am-Wn-hnSw. {inwtKcn AYhm Nnπ-Kp-sU-bnse t]mse ChnsS a’y-߃ Blmcw tXSn apIƒ∏-c-∏n-te-s°-Øm-dn√. F∂m¬ Chn-SsØ a’y-ß-fpsS hen∏w Xp≥sK-bnse CtX C\-Øn-t‚-Xn-t\-°mƒ hfsc hep-XmWv. ChnsS ao≥]n-SnØw \ntcm-[n-®n-cn-°p-I-bmWv. ChnsS a’y-ßsf Hcp Xc-Ønepw iey-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂n√. AtX kabw XpWn Ae-°¬, ]m{Xw Igp-I¬ F∂nh AhnsS \S-°p-∂p≠v. 5 h¿jw ap≥]v apI-fnse dnk¿thm-b-dn¬ \n∂v Zo¿L-\m-f-tØbv°v sh≈w Xpd∂p hnSm-Xn-cp-∂-Xp-aqew ChnsS a’y-߃ Iq´-tØmsS NsØm-Spßn. Ct∏m ChnsS as‰mcp dnk¿thm-b¿ IqSn-bp≠v. alm-cm-jv{S-bnse G‰hpw Dbcw IqSnb AW-s°´v CXn-\-Sp-ØmWv Db¿∂p-h-cp-∂Xv.

2.5 h\-ßfpw ssPh-ssh-hn-≤yhpw imkv{Xob ImgvN-∏m-tSmsS h\-ssPh sshhn-≤y-ta-J-esb A]-{K-Yn-°m≥ ]pXn-sbmcp DZyaw Gs‰-Sp-t°≠ ka-b-am-WnXv. sP.Un. _¿W-ens‚ (1939) Cu \n¿Δ-N-\-Øn¬ Cu imkv{Xob ImgvN-∏m-Sp≠v. '' imkv{Xw ktμ-lm-fl-I-Xz-Øns‚ Hcp kwL-SnX {]h¿Ø-\amWv.' 1972˛1980 hsc tI{μ _ln-cm-Imi hIp∏v sk{I-´-dn-bm-bn-cp∂ s{]m^. kXoiv [hm≥ Hcp bYm¿∞ imkv{X-⁄-\mWv. cmPy-Øns‚ hnkvXo¿Æ-Øns‚ 23 % h\-am-sW∂ h\w A[n-Ir-X-cpsS Ah-Im-i-hm-Z-Øn¬ At±lw kwi-bm-ep-hm-bn-cp∂p. AXp-sIm≠v At±lw D]-{K-l-Øns‚ klm-b-tØmsS Hcp kzX{¥ At\z-jWw CXp-kw-_-‘n®v \S-Øm≥ kvt]kv Un∏m¿´p-sa‚nse Xs‚ kl-{]-h¿Ø-I-tcmSv Bh-iy-s∏´p. Ah-cpsS IW-°n¬ h\-Øns‚ hnkvXo¿Æw 14% Øn¬ Xmsg Bbn-cp∂p. CXv Btcm-Ky-I-c-amb Hcp X¿°-Øn-te°v hgn-Xpd-°p-Ibpw Hcp HØp-Xo¿∏v F∂ \ne-bn¬ CXv 19%F∂ \nK-a-\-Øn¬ FØp-Ibpw sNbvXp. \n¿`m-Ky-h-im¬ D]-{K-l-Øns‚ klm-b-tØmsS XpS¿∂p≈ A]-{K-Y\ Npa-Xe t^mdÃv k¿sΔ Hm^v C¥y°v ssIam-dn-b-tXmsS Imcy-߃ ho≠pw ]gb ]Sn-bmbn. KWn-X-imkv{X XXz-Nn-¥-I-\mb ssh‰v slVns‚ (1927) A`n{]m-b-Øn¬ ""B[p-\nI imkv{Xw i‡-amb hkvXp-XI-ƒ Ah bmYm¿∞yamsW-¶nepw As√-¶nepw AwKo-I-cn-°p∂p. AØ-c-samcp hkvXp-X-bmWv IS-emkp ISp-h-Isf kw_-‘n-°p-∂Xv. "kcnkvI'bn¬ ISp-h-Isf ImWm-\n-√m-Xn-cp-∂-t∏mgpw AhnsS ISp-h-Iƒ Ds≠∂ HutZym-KnI shfn-s∏-Sp-Øens\ ]‰n At\z-jn-°m≥ 2005 ¬ {][m\ a{¥n Hcp "ISph I¿Ω-tk\' cq]o-I-cn®p. B I¿Ωtk-\-bpsS ^o¬Uv Ãm^n¬ \n∂v tiJ-cn® hnh-c-߃ NphsS.

]´nI 4 : kcnkvI ISph dnk¿Δnse ISp-h-I-fpsS FÆw h¿jw

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

ISp-h-I-fpsS FÆw

24

26

26

26

27

26

17

17

6

5

3

0

1

0

HutZym-KnI IW°v ^o¬Uv Ãm^ns‚ IW°v

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

HutZym-KnI IW°v a\-]q¿Δw sX‰n-≤-cn-∏n-°p-∂-Xm-sW∂v CXn¬ \n∂v hy‡-amWv. I¿Ω-tk\ bYm¿∞ IW-s°-Sp-Øn´pw I≈-°-W-°p-≠m-°n-b-h¿s°-Xnsc bmsXmcp \S-]-Snbp-ap-≠m-bn√. Imcy-߃ apd-t]mse F∂ coXn t]mcm F∂m-Wn-Xn-\¿∞w.

DXvIW - vTm-P\ - I - a - mb {]iv\ß - ƒ h\˛ssPh sshhn-≤y-am-t\-Pvsa‚ns‚ imkv{Xob ASn-ÿm\w C∂v C¥y-bn¬ \ne-hn-ep≈ h\w amt\-Pvsa‚ v kwhn-[m\w 150 h¿jw apºv {_n´o-jpIm¿ G¿s∏-Sp-Øn-b-XmWv. kpÿnc ^ew Xcp∂ Hcp imkv{Xo-b-kw-hn-[m-\-am-Wn-sX-∂mWv Ah-Im-i-hmZw. F∂m¬ imkv{Xo-bhpw kpÿn-chpw F∂Xv shdpw Ah-Im-i-hmZw am{XamWv.hkvXp-X-I-fpsS Dd® ASn-Ø-d-bmWv imkv{X-Øn-\m-[mcw. taev]-d™ imkv{Xob h\w amt\-Pvsa‚n\v KpW-ta-∑-bp≈ Um‰m-t_-kn√. h\w A[n-Ir-X¿ 1960 Ifn¬ h\w kwc-£-W-Ønse ""{i≤n-®p-t]m-hpI'' F∂ kao-]\w am‰n h\w-sX-fn®v tXm´-ßf - m-°p∂ “B{I-aWcoXn” sIm≠ph-∂p. bp°m-en-]v‰k - v, ss]≥ F∂nh DZm-l-c-Ww. ]s£ F¥p-Xcw hr£-ß-fmWv A\p-tbmPyw, F¥v Dev]m-Z\w e`n°pw F∂Xns\ ]‰n bmsXmcp imkv{Xob Kth-j-Whpw \S-Øn-bn√. Aßs\ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse G‰hpw \√ h\-߃ sh´n-am-‰-s∏´p. B ÿeØv bq°m-en]vSvkv tXm´-߃ Db¿∂p-h∂p. slIvS-dn\v 14 apX¬ 28 S¨ hsc XSn e`n-°p-sa-∂m-bn-cp∂p IW-°p-Iq-´¬. ]s£ Db¿∂ tXmXn¬ ag e`n-°p∂ {]tZ-i-am-b-Xn-\m¬ ^wKkv tcmKw aqew Dev]m-Z\w 1˛3 S¨ hsc am{X-ambn ({]kmZv 1984). tIc-f-Øn-sebpw I¿Æm-S-I-Øn-sebpw ae-s©-cn-hp-I-fnse \nXy-l-cn-X-h-\-߃ \n¿÷oh-amb bq°m-en-]v‰kv sIm≠v \nd™p. AXp-t]mse I¿Æm-S-I-bnse apf-k-º-Øns\ ]‰nbpw DuXn-s∏-cp-∏n® IW-°p-I-fmWv \ne-\n-∂Xv. hnhn[ C\w hr£-ß-fpsS hf¿®m coXnsb kw_-‘n® hnh-c-ßfpw imkv{Xo-bam-t\-Pvsa‚n¬ Dƒs∏-Sp∂p. hyXykvX ]cn-ÿnXn kml-N-cy-Øn¬ hyXykvX C\w hr£-ßfn¬ "kwc-£W tXm´-߃' {ItaW Dt]-£n-°-s∏´ \ne-bn-embn (Kp]vX 1981). Hcp apfw Iq´Øn¬ \n∂v F{X apf-Iƒ sh´n-F-Sp°mw F∂-Xns\ kw_-‘n®v I¿Æm-SI h\w-h-Ip-∏n\v hy‡-amb [mcW D≠m-bn-cp-∂n√. AXp-t]mse Xs∂ apfw Iq´-Øn\v Np‰pw Hcp kwc-£-Wsa∂ \ne-bn¬ kzta-[bm Db¿∂p-h-cp∂ apf-Iƒ sh´n-\-in-∏n-°-s∏-´Xpw hn\-bmbn. ]pXnb apfw ssXIƒ s]m´n-h-f-cm≥ th≠n-bmWv Cßs\ sNbvX-sX-¶nepw arK-߃ Iq´-am-sbØn CXv \in-∏n-°m≥ Imc-W-ambn.F∂m¬ {Kmao-W¿°v CXv Adn-bm-am-bn-cp∂p. AXn-\m¬ Ah¿ kz¥w Bh-iy-Øn\v apf-sh-´p-tºmƒ Nph-´n¬ Ipcp-Øp-\n¬°p∂ apf-Iƒ \o°w sNøm-dn-√mbn-cp∂p ({]kmZv, KmUvKn¬ 1981). \nK-a-\m-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-ep≈ I¿Ω ]≤-Xn-Iƒ \nK-a-\-Øn-eqsS bmYm¿∞y-ß-fn-te-s°-Øp-∂-XmWv B[p-\nI imkv{Xo-b-coXn. BIbm¬ I¿Ω-]-≤-Xn-Iƒ HutZym-KnI cl-ky-߃ F∂ \ne-bn-e√ adn®v imkv{Xob tcJ-Iƒ F∂ \ne-bn¬ _‘-s∏´ F√m-h¿°pw ]p\¿hn-Nn-¥-\-Øn\v e`y-am-°p-I-bmWv bYm¿∞ imkv{Xob coXn. {]Xo-£n-°m-hp∂ Af-hn-ep≈ achpw AXv apdn-s®-Sp-Ø-tijw Ah-ti-jn°p∂ Ip‰nbpw BWv \nK-a-\-߃°-Sn-ÿm\w. Dt±-in-°p∂ Xc-Øn-ep≈ achpw Ip‰nbpw e`n°msX h∂m¬ AXnse imkv{Xob \nK-a\w Fhn-sStbm sX‰p-]‰n AXp Xncp-ØWw F∂XmWv. Cßs\ ]‰nb sX‰v a\- n-em°n Xncp-Øp-∂ {]{In-b-bn¬ Xev]-c-cmb F√m-h-tcbpw kmt¶-XnI hnZ-Kv[-tcbpw kaq-l-Øn¬ \n∂p-≈-h-tcbpw ]s¶-Sp-∏n-°Ww. ]s£, ]e-t∏mgpw kw`-hn-°p-∂Xv ]pXnb I¿Ω-]-≤-Xn-Iƒ Xømdm-°p-tºmƒ ]g-b-hbpsS Imcy- £ - a - X - s °- X n- s c- b p≈ Nne ]cm- a ¿i- ß ƒ am{X- a mWv . DZm- l - c - W - Ø n\v "sb°w_n˛tkm≠' taJ-e-bnse ‘FVn-‘’]-≤-Xn-bn¬ s]´ F Iq]pw- Km¿em‚ v ]≤-Xn-bn¬s]´ h\w sh´n-sØ-fn-°-epw, hne-]n-Sn-∏p≈ samØw hr£-ß-fpsSbpw NqjWØn-emWv Iem-in-®Xv. hne-]n-Sn-∏p≈ tX°pƒs∏-sS-bp≈ hr£-ß-sf√mw kzbw hf¿∂p-h-cp-sa∂ sX‰mb [mcW-aqew kwc-£nX h\-{]-tZ-i-ß-fn¬ \n∂p≈ tX°pƒs∏-sS-bp≈ F√m ac-ßfpw apdn®v \o°w sNbvXp. (shs… 1964)'' F∂m¬ Hcp imkv{Xob kao-]-\-Øn¬ km[m-cW sNøp-∂-Xp............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

t]mse Cu \nK-a\w hym]-I-ambn ]¶p-h-bv°p-Itbm, ]cn-tim-[\bv°v hnt[-b-am-°p-Itbm D≠m-bn√. kpÿn-c-a-√mØ h\-hn-\n-tbmKw C{]-Im-c-ap≈ hnh-c-߃ kam-l-cn®v t{ImUo-Ir-X-am-sbmcp Nn{X-Øn\v cq]w \¬tI≠Xv sUdm-Uq-Wnse h\w Kth-jW C≥Ãn-‰yq-´ns‚ Npa-X-e-bmWv. kpÿn-c-X-bn-√m-bva-bpsS tIm´-߃ CXn-eqsS ]pd-Øp-hcpw. F∂m¬ CØ-c-samcp kwcw`w CXp-hsc D≠m-bn-´n√. CXn\v A]-hm-Z-ambn Nq≠n-°m-Wn-°m-\p-≈Xv tIc-f-Ønse Irjn kwL-S-\-bpsS B`nap-Jy-Øn¬ tIc-f-Ønse sIm√w h\w Unhn-js‚ Ncn-{X-sØ-∏‰n tUm.kn.Sn.Fkv. \mb¿ \SØnb ]T-\-amWv (FAO 1984) Cu ]T-\-Øn¬ h\sØ c≠mbn hn`-Pn®p. acw sh´m-hp∂ "ske£≥ k¿°nfpw' ae-s©-cn-hp-Iƒ Dƒs∏´ hr£-߃ apdn-°m≥ ]mSn-√mØ "s{]m´-£≥ k¿°nfpw.' ske-£≥ k¿°n-fnse hr£-ß-fpsS hf¿® {ItaW Ipd™p hcp-∂-Xm-bmWv ]T\w hy‡-am-°p-∂Xv. CXns\ Hcp "¢nb¿ s^√nßv k¿°nƒ' B°n apgp-h≥ hr£-ßfpw apdn-®p-am‰n GI-hr£ C\-tXm-´-a-°-W-sa-∂m-bn-cp∂p [mcW. AtX kabw ÿnc-ambn kwc£n-t°≠ ae-s©-cn-hp-I-fnse s{]m´-£≥ k¿°n-fn-epƒs∏-SpØn. CXv AXn-cp-I-S∂ NqjW-Øn\v hgn Hcp°n. ae-s©-cp-hn¬ sh≈w XS™p \n¿Øp∂ hr£-߃t]mepw ]mtS apdn®p-am‰n. XpS¿®-bmb AXn-cp-I-S∂ Nqj-W-Øn-\p≈ DØa DZm-l-c-W-am-WnXv. XpS¿®-bmb Aan-X-Nq-jWw C¥y-bnse h\-hn-`-h-߃ XpS¿®-bmbn AanX Nqj-W-Øn\v hnt[-b-ambn hcn-I-bmWv. t]∏¿ an√p-I-fpsS kpÿn-c-a-√mØ ]ƒ∏v XSn-bpsS hn\n-tbmKw {]kmZpw KmUvKnepw (1998) hc-®p-Im-´p-∂p≠v. apf kssπ sNøp∂ tIm¨{Sm-IvS¿am¿ \n_-‘-\-Iƒ H´pw ]men-°m-dn√. apf-¶q-´-ß-fn¬ \n∂v ]mI-am-bh am{Xw sh´n FSp-°p-∂-Xn-\p-]-Icw tdmU-cp-In-ep≈ apf-¶q-´ßƒ H∂mbn Ah¿ sh´n-am-‰p∂p. ASpØ h¿jw ]pXnb tdmUp-sh´n Ahn-S∂pw ]q¿Æ-ambn sh´n-am-‰p∂p. an√p-Iƒ°-Sp-Øp≈ h\-߃ ]q¿Æ-ambn sh´n-am-‰-s∏-Sp-tºmƒ AI-se-bp≈ h\-ß-tfbpw B{I-an-°p∂p. I¿Æm-S-I-bnse shÃv tImÃv t]∏¿an-√n¬ BZyw ASp-Øp≈ B{‘-bn-te°pw XpS¿∂v K¿hmƒ, Bkmw, Ah-km\w \mKm-em‚n-te°pw tNt°dn. t]∏¿ \n¿Ωm-W-Øn\v G‰hpw tbmPn® apf-Iƒ Xo¿∂-tXmsS a‰v ac-߃ sh´n-sb-Sp-°m≥ XpSßn. hn]-Wn-bn¬ SÆn\v 5000 cq] hne-bp≈t∏mƒ, an√p-Iƒ°v kwÿm\ k¿°m¿ SÆn\v 1.50 cq] k_vknUn \nc-°n-emWv apf \¬In-bn-cp-∂Xv. {ItaW Icn-ºn≥ N≠nbpw bq°m-en-]vS-kpsams° Cu an√p-Iƒ [mcm-f-ambn D]-tbm-Kn-°m≥ XpSßn. hn⁄m\ amt\-Pvsa‚ v h\w A[n-Ir-X-cpsS hnc-⁄m-\-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v ]c-kyhpw ]¶m-fnØ hyh-ÿ-bn-ep-≈-Xpa√. ]Icw ÿnXn hnh-c-°-W-°p-I-fpsS kam-l-c-Whpw hymJym-\hpw Nne¿ IpØ-I-bm°n h®n-cn-°b - mWv. Hcp h\y-Pohn Kth-jI - \ - mb cLp-\μ - ≥ Np≠m-hØ - ns‚ A`n-{]m-bØ - n¬ “\n¿`mKy-h-im¬ Ign™ aq∂v Zi-I-ß-fmbn kwc-£n-X-ta-J-e-I-fnse Kth-j-WsØ t{]m’m-ln-∏n°mt\m k¿°m-cn-\p-]p-dØv hf¿∂p-h-cp∂ hnZ-Kv[-cpsS kwL-S-\-I-fpsS tkh\w {]tbm-P-\s∏-Sp-Ømt\m D]-I-cn-°p∂ bmsXmcp kwhn-[m-\hpw krjvSn-°-s∏-´n-´n√. cXv\w Im°p∂ Imh¬°m-cs‚ \ne-bn¬ \n∂v Is≠-ØmØ hn⁄m-\-Øns‚ sse{_dn \S-Øp-Ibpw IqSpX¬ ]Tn-°m-\mbn P\-ßsf £Wn-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂ Hcp sset{_-dn-bs‚ \ne-bn-te°v \ΩpsS amt\-Pva‚ns‚ \ne-]mSv amdWw. \ΩpsS cmPyØv kzX-{¥-amb Kth-j-W-Øn\v kwc-£-Whpw ]n¥p-Wbpw \¬Ip∂ Hcp kwhn-[m-\-Øn\v cq]w \¬Ip-∂-Xn¬ kw`-hn® ]cm-P-b-amWv Cu {]iv\-߃ ho≠pw ho≠pw D≠m-Im≥ ImcWw''. Fs‚ (am[hv KmUvKn¬) kz¥w A\p-`hw Xs∂ Hcp-Zm-l-c-W-amWv. hnh-cm-h-Imi \nbaw D≠m-hp-∂-Xn\v ap≥]v 1980 IfpsS BZyw ]›n-a-_w-Kmƒ [\-Im-cy-a-{¥n-bpsS A≤y-£-X-bn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn, h\w {]iv\-߃ N¿® sNøm-\mbn sIm¬s°m-Ø-bn¬ tN¿∂ tbmK-Øn¬ AhnSsØ No^v I¨k¿th-‰¿ ]d-™Xv I¿Ω-]-≤-Xnsb kmt¶-XnI tcJ-I-fm-sW∂pw Ah Hcn°epw s]mXp-P-\-߃°v e`y-am-°m≥ Ign-bn-s√-∂p-amWv. 1980 IfpsS BZyw Fs∂ Adn-bn-®Xv

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185


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

sUdm-Uq-Wnse h\w Kth-j-W-tI-{μ-Øn-epƒs∏sS Hcp ÿm]-\-Ønepw C¥y-bv°m-bp≈ I¿Ω-]-≤-Xn-bpsS ]q¿Æ-]-Xn∏v e`y-a-s√-∂mWv. ]n∂oSv F\n-°Xv e`n-®Xv HmIvkvt^m-Unse tIma¨sh¬Øv t^mdkv{Sn C≥Ãn-‰yq-´n¬ \n∂mWv. _kvXm-dnse {]Ir-Xn-Z-Ø-amb "km¬"h\߃ sh´n-sh-fp-∏n®v ss]≥a-c-߃ h®p-]n-Sn-∏n-°m≥ ]cn-]m-Sn-bn-´-t∏mƒ \nc-h[n Kncn-h¿§ {Kq∏p-Iƒ AXns\ FXn¿Øp. Cu ]≤-Xnsb ]‰n ]Tn-°m≥ \nbp-‡-amb IΩn-‰n-bn¬ Rm\pw Dƒs∏-´n-cp∂p. ]co-£-Wm-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ \S-Ønb ss]≥ tXm´-Ønse Db¿∂ D¬∏m-Z-\-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-emWv ss]≥ \´p-]n-Sn-∏n-°m≥ Xocp-am-\n-®Xv. F∂m¬ IΩn-‰n-bpsS ]cn-tim-[-\bn¬ Cu tXm´w \in-∏n-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xm-bmWv a\- n-em-bXv. CXp kw_-‘n® hy‡amb tcJ-Iƒt]mepw e`y-a-√m-bn-cp∂p. B samØw kw`-hhpw Hcp h≥ X´n-∏m-bn-cp∂p. bYm¿∞-Øn¬ h\-߃/ h\y-Po-hn-Iƒ/ kwc-£n-°-s∏-Sp-∂pt≠m? C¥ysb Iog-S-°nb ka-bØv {_n´o-jp-Im¿ C¥ysb hnti-jn-∏n-®Xv hr£-ß-fpsS Hcp kap-{Zhpw h\y-Po-hn-I-fpsS Bhm-k-tI-{μ-hp-sa-∂mWv. Cu ss]Xr-IsØ A´n-a-dn-®Xv tImf-\nhm-gvN-bn¬ XpS°w Ipdn® imkv{Xo-b-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v F∂ kwhn-[m-\-amWv. kzmX-{¥y-Øn-\ptijw Cu \io-I-c-W-Øn\v B°w h¿≤n-°p-I-bm-Wp-≠m-bXv. kzIm-cy-h-\-߃ k¿°m¿ Gs‰-SpØp. AXp-hsc FØn-s∏-Sm≥ Ign-bm-Xn-cp∂ Dƒh-\-ß-fn-te°v hnI-k-\-]-≤-Xn-I-fpsS t]cn¬ tdmUp-≠m°n h\m-[n-jvTnX hyh-km-b-ß-fpsS h\w sIm≈-b-Sn-°p-∂Xv A\n-b-{¥n-Xambn XpS¿∂p. CsX√mw `c-W-h¿§-Øns‚ Xmev]-cy-Øn-\p-th≠n Bbn-cp∂p. \n¿≤-\-cmb {Kmao-W¿t°m Kncn-h¿§ kaq-l-Ønt\m CXn¬ bmsXmcp ]¶p-an-√m-bn-cp∂p. ]s£, ]gn apgph≥ Ah¿°m-bn-cp-∂p-Xm\pw. Cu hn`m-K-ßsf _en-bm-Sm-°n-b-Xn\v DØa DZm-l-c-W-amWv ap≥t_mws_ kwÿm-\Øns‚ `mK-am-bn-cp∂ DØ-c-I-∂S Pn√-bnse {Kmao-W-h-\-ß-fpsS IY. C¥y≥ h\ \nbaw (1927) {]Imcw dnk¿Δv h\-߃ hnt√Pv h\-ß-fmbn ssIam‰w sNøm-\p≈ hIp-∏-\p-k-cn®v 1930¬ ÿm]n-®-XmWv Nn{XmKn, apdq¿˛I√m_n, le-Im¿ hnt√Pv t^md-Ãp-Iƒ. Cu 3 hnt√-PpI-fp-sSbpw h¿j-ß-fm-bp≈ sa®-s∏´ kmaq-ly-Xe amt\-Pvsa‚ns\ {]Io¿Øn-®p-sIm≠v 1922se Pn√-bnse h\w ]cmXn At\z-jW IΩn-‰n-bpsS ip]m¿i-bpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-em-bn-cp∂p CXv. `mjm-kw-ÿm\ cq]o-I-c-W-tØmsS DØ-c-I-∂S Pn√ I¿Æm-S-I-Øn¬ tN¿°p-∂-Xp-hsc Cu kwhn-[m\w \∂mbn {]h¿Øn-®n-cp∂p.I¿Æm-S-I-h\w \nb-a-Øn¬ hnt√Pv h\-߃°v hIp∏n-s√∂v ]d-™p-sIm≠v hnt√Pv h\w IΩn-‰n-Isf ]ncn-®p-hn-Sm≥ I¿Æm-SI h\w-h-Ip∏v t\m´okv \¬In. t\m´okv e`n®v 15 Znh-kw- sIm≠v Nn{XmKn {Kma-hm-kn-Iƒ Ahn-SsØ CS-Xq¿∂-h\w apgp-h≥ \in-∏n®p. le-Im-dn-sebpw apdq¿˛I√m-t_-bn-sebpw Bfp-Iƒ A∏o¬ \¬In. le-Imdnse P\-߃ 28 h¿jw tIkv \SØn hnP-bn®p. Ahn-SsØ hnt√Pv h\-߃ C∂pw Ah¿ \∂mbn ]cn-]m-en-°p∂p. kcn-kvI-bnse ISp-h-Isf kw_-‘n®v 6 h¿jw ap≥]v \S∂ kn._n.sF. At\z-j-WØn¬ Is≠-Øn-bXv HutZym-KnI Iq´m-bva-tbmsS A√msX ISp-h-Isf th´-bm-Sm≥ Ign-bn-s√∂mWv. F∂m¬ H‰ DtZym-K-ÿ-s\-t∏mepw CXns‚ t]cn¬ CXp-hsc ]nSn-Iq-Sn-bn-´n√. \nc-h[n {Kma-hm-kn-Isf AdÃv sNbvXp t]meokv X√n-®-X®p. CubnsS h∂ Hcp hm¿Ø- NphsS tN¿°p-∂Xv ImWpI (t_m-Ivkv-˛4)

t_mIvkv 4: tjme-h\ \io-I-c-WsØ kw_-‘n®At\z-jWw h\-kw-c-£W \nb-a-Ønse hyh-ÿ-Iƒ ewLn®v sImssS-°\m-ense tjme-h-\-ßfpsS Hcp `mKw sh´n-\-in-∏n®p. Hcp dntkm¿´v \n¿Ωn-°p-∂-Xn\v A\-[n-Ir-X-ambn tdmUp-sh´m≥ th≠n Bbn-cp∂p CXv. h\w hIp-∏ns‚ A`n-{]m-b-Øn¬ s]cp-amƒ asse Unhn-j\nse ISph tjme (\nXy-l-cnXw) dnk¿Δv h\-Øns‚ Hcp `mKw {]mtZ-inI h\w DtZym-Kÿ¿ Xs∂ sh´n-am‰n. CXp kw_-‘n®v sImssS-°-\m¬ kncp-asse t^mdÃv Unhn-j\nse Pn√m t^mdÃv B^o-kn¬ sI.]f-\n-bpsS t\Xr-Xz-Øn-ep≈ DtZym-K-ÿ-kwLw At\zjWw \SØn dnt∏m¿´p ka¿∏n®p.

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186


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

dnt∏m¿´p {]Imcw ASp°w hnt√-Pnse kzIm-cy-`q-an-bn¬ \n∂v 3000 At°jy ac-߃ apdn-°m≥ Un≠n-K¬ Pn√m `c-W-IqSw A\p-aXn \¬In. CXns‚ ad-hn¬ kzImcy `qD-Sa 362 In.ao. \ofhpw 3.50 ao‰¿ hoXn-bp-ap≈ ]pXn-sbmcp tdmUp-sh´n. henb b{¥-߃ D]-tbm-Kn®mWv tdmUv \n¿Ωn-®Xv. XS- -am-bn-\n∂ F√m tjme-h-\-hr-£-ßfpw aqtSmsS ]ngp-Xp-am‰n. h≥]m-d-Iƒ ssU\-an‰v h®v s]m´n®p \o°n. sImssS-°-\m¬ Akn- v t^mdÃv I¨k¿th-‰¿ 2011 am¿®v 24 \v ssSK¿ tjme dnk¿Δv h\-߃ ]cn-tim-[n-®-t∏mƒ am{X-amWv Cu kw`hw ]pdw-tem-I-a-dn-bp-∂Xv. At±lw DS≥Xs∂ CXv sImssS-°-\m¬ Pn√ t^mdÃv B^o-ksd Adn-bn®p. h\w hIp∏v DtZym-Kÿ¿ Hcp tIkv cPn-ÿ sNøp-Ibpw c≠v sXmgn-em-fn-Isf ]nSn-Iq-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp. aPn-kvt{S‰ns‚ ap∂n¬ lmP-cm-°m≥ sIm≠p-t]m-Ish Ch-cn-sem-cmƒ HmSn c£-s∏´p. CXm-bn-cp∂p CXp kw_-‘n® HutZym-KnI hni-Zo-I-cWw. bYm¿∞ Ip‰-hm-fn-Isf ]nSn-Iq-Sm≥ Ign-bm-Ø-Xp-aqew tIkv cPn-ÿ sNøm≥ sshIn. tdmUv \n¿Ωm-W-Øn-\p-]-tbm-Kn® b{¥-߃ ]nSn-s®-Sp-°m≥ Ign-bm-Xn-cp-∂Xpw CXp kw_‘n®v Pn√m t^mdÃv B^o-k¿°v bYm-k-abw dnt∏m¿´v \¬Ip-∂-Xn¬ t^mdÃv sdbn-©¿ hcp-Ønb hogvNbpw dnt∏m¿´n¬ Nq≠n-°m-´n-bn-´p≠v. tjmf-h-\-Øns‚ {]m[m\yw Adn-bm-ambn-cp-∂n´pw dnk¿hv h\-Øn-eqsS tdmUp-sh-´m≥ A\p-h-Zn-®Xpw bq°m-en-]v‰kv ac-߃ apdn°m≥ A\p-h-Zn°pw ap≥]v Pn√m t^mdÃv B^o-k¿ ÿew ]cn-tim-[n-°m-Xn-cp-∂Xpw IrXyhn-tem]w Xs∂. ]cn-tim-[\ \S-Ønb kvs]jy¬ Sow Is≠-Ønb henb \nb-a-ew-L-\-ß-fn¬ NneXm-WnXv. DØ-c-hm-ZnXzw \nd-th-‰p-∂-Xn¬ hogvN hcp-Ønb h\w hIp∏v DtZym-K-ÿ-cpsS t]cp-Ifpw dnt∏m¿´n¬ FSp-Øp-]-d-™n-´p≠v. ""ssSK¿ tjme dnk¿Δv h\-Øn-eqsS sh´nb tdmUv kzImcy `qan-bn-eqsSbmWv sh´nb-sX∂v hcpØnØo¿Øv h\-`qan kzIm-cy-hy‡n°v ASn-bd hbv°m\pw {iaw \S∂p F∂Xv A[n-t£-]m¿l-am-sW∂pw'' dnt∏m¿´n¬ ]d-bp∂p. ChnsS 20 slIvS¿ h\ `qan-bmWv kzImcy ]´b `qan-bm-°m≥ {iaw \S-∂Xv. kmº-ØnI Imcy-£-aX C¥y-bpsS ]cn-an-X-amb kmº-ØnI hn`-h-ß-ƒ ]mgm-°p∂ {]h¿Ø-\-amWv s]mXp-taJem ÿm]-\-ßfpw k¿°mcpw \S-Øp∂Xv. CXp kw_-‘n®v Nne \n¿ÆmbI ]T-\-߃ \S∂n-´p≠v. AØ-c-Øn-ep≈ H∂mWv DØ-c-J-finse hm≥ ]©m-bØv amt\-Pvsa‚pw k¿°mcns‚ Bt]-£nI Imcy-£-a-Xbpw kw_-‘n®v tkma-\m-Y≥ \S-Ønb ]T\w. k¿°m¿ amt\Pvsa‚ns\ At]-£n®v sNehv Ipdhpw Imcy-£-aX IqSp-X-ep-amWv kaq-l-am-t\-Pvsa‚n-s\-∂Xn\v i‡-amb sXfn-hp-Iƒ th≠p-thm-f-ap≠v. hm≥ ]©m-b-Øp-Iƒ h\kwc-£-W-Øns‚ Imcy-£-a-X-bn¬ k¿°m-cn-t\mfw \nev°p-tºmƒ sNehv AXns‚ 1/10 am{Xw aXn. ]©m-bØv h\ß-fn¬ hr£-߃°p-≠m-Ip∂ \mi-\jvSw dnk¿hv t^md-Ãn-te-Xn-t\-°mƒ KWy-amb Afhn¬ Ipd-hmWv F∂v ]T\w hy‡-am-°p-∂p. (Baland et al, 2008) `c-W-]-c-amb KpW-ta∑ ]oV\w h\w˛h\y-Pohn hIp-∏ns‚ `c-W-]-c-amb KpW-ta∑ \pap-s°m∂p ]cn-tim-[n°mw. h\w-hIp∏v DtZym-K-ÿ¿ Ah-cpsS \nb-{¥-W-A-[n-Im-c-߃ D]-tbm-Kn®v {Kmao-W-tcbpw Kncn-h¿§ kaq-l-sØbpw ]oVn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sIm≈-b-Sn-°p-I-bp-amWv sNøp-∂Xv. cmPyw apgp-h≥ Cu coXnbnemWv Imcy-߃ \S-°p-∂-sX∂v F√m-h¿°pw Adn-bm-sa-¶nepw CsXm∂pw icn-bmbn tcJs∏-Sp-Øm≥ {ian-®n√. alm-cm-jv{S-bnse "KSvNn-tcmfn',\μ¿_m¿ Pn√-I-fnse h\m-Xn¿Øn-bnep≈ {Kmao-W-cp-ambn am[hv KmUvKn¬ IqSn-°mgvN \SØn. h\w hIp∏v DtZym-K-ÿ¿ Hmtcm h¿jhpw Cu {Kma-hm-kn-I-fn¬ \n∂v ]e cq]-Ønepw C\-Ønepw 1500 apX¬ 3000 cq]-hsc X´n............................................................................................................................................................................................................

187


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

sb-Sp-°p-∂-Xm-bmWv dnt∏m¿´v. C¥y-bn¬ 2 tImSn-tbm-f-am-fp-Iƒ CXp-t]mse h\m-Xn¿Ønbn¬ Pohn-°p-∂p≠v. Ch¿ Hcp h¿jw icm-icn 1000 cq] hoXw \¬In-bmepw 2 _ney¨ cq]bpsS Hcp At[m-temI kº-ZvL-S-\-sb-bmWv kqNn-∏n-°p-∂Xv. HutZym-KnI ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ \S-∏m-°p-∂-Xnse hogvN C¥y-bn-en∂v Kncn-h¿§ `qan-I-fnepw a‰p-amWv {]IrXn Atß-b‰w I\n-™-\p-{K-ln-°p∂Xv. F∂m¬ {]Ir-Xn-bpsS Cu kº-Øn-\-cn-In¬ Ign-bp∂ P\-hn-`m-K-߃ Zmcn-{Zyhpw t]mjIm-lmc Ipdhpw aqew Zpcn-X-a-\p-`-hn-°p∂p. kº-∂-X-bpsS \Sp-hnse Zmcn{Zyw F∂ Cu Ahÿbv°v am‰-ap-≠m-IWw. {]Ir-Xnsb kwc-£n-°p-Ibpw ]p\-cp-÷o-hn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂Xv \ΩpsS kz¥w P\-Xsb i{Xp-°-fmbn I≠p-sIm-≠√. \ΩpsS kaq-l-Ønse ]e LS-I-ßfpw \ΩpsS `c-W-kw-hn-[m-\hpw C∂sØ {]Ir-Xn-Z-Ø-amb temIØv ]e apdn-hp-Ifpw D≠m-°ns°m-≠n-cn-°-bmWv. BI-bm¬ {]IrXn hn`-h-߃ A®-S-°-tØmSpw Imcy-£-a-ambpw hn\ntbm-Kn-°m≥ \mw ]Tn-°Ww. {]Ir-Xn-tbm-S-SpØp Ign-bp∂ hn`m-K-ß-fpsS ta¬ \nb-{¥-Wta¿s∏-Sp-Øn-s°m≠v CXv t\Sm≥ Ign-bn√. ]cn-ÿn-Xn-bpsS Btcm-Ky-kw-c-£-W-Øn¬ Cu kaq-l-߃°v hen-sbmcp ]¶p-h-ln-°m-\p≠v. {]Ir-Xn-Z-Ø-amb Imcy-ß-fn¬ {]mtZ-inI kaqlw {i≤-h-bv°p-∂Xv C∂v hnc-f-amWv. CXn-\p-Im-c-Ww {_n´o-jp-Im-cpsS Imew apX¬ Xs∂ {]IrXn-hn-`-h-ß-fn-t∑¬ P\-߃°v Ah-Imiw \ntj-[n-°p-Ibpw XpS-°-Øn¬ tImf-\n-hm-gvNbpsS Xmev]-cy-Øn-\p-th-≠nbpw ]n∂oSv hymh-km-bnI, \K-c-Xm-ev]-cy-߃°p th≠nbpw Ch ASn-b-d-h-®-XmWv. Hmtcm h¿jhpw \qdp-I-W-°n\v cq]-hn-e-bp≈ A®m-dp-≠m-°m≥ amß Xcp∂ henb amhp-Iƒ ssπhpUv hyh-km-b-Øn\v \¬Ip-∂Xv shdpw 6 cq]-bv°mWv. CØcw Xe-Xn-cn™ t{]m’m-l-\-ßfpw {]Ir-Xn-bnse kwc-£n-°m-\p≈ P\-ß-fpsS Xmev]cyw \in∏n®p. `mKy-h-im¬ Ct∏mƒ Im‰v Xncn-™-Sn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°-bmWv. kwbp‡ h\w amt\Pvsa‚ v,]©m-bØv cmPv ]´n-I-ta-J-e-I-fn-te°v hym]n-∏n-°p-∂Xv, kky-C-\-ßfpw I¿j-Is‚ Ah-Im-i-ßfpw kwc-£n-°p∂ \nbaw, ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-\n-baw, ]´nI h¿§w a‰v ]c-º-cm-KX h\-hmknI-fpsS h\m-h-Imi \nbaw, XpS-ßn-bh {]IrXn hn`-h-ß-fn-t∑¬ {]mtZ-inI kaq-lØn\v KWy-amb Ah-Im-i-߃ \¬Ip-∂p≠v. Cu Ah-Im-i-߃s°m∏w Nne IS-a-I-fpap≠v. {]IrXn kºØv kpÿn-camw hn[hpw Imcy-£-a-ambpw hn\n-tbm-Kn-°pI F∂ DØ-c-hm-Zn-Xzam-WXv. AtX kabw {]Ir-Xnsb kwc-£n-°p-Ibpw {]IrXn hn`-h-ßsf ]p\-cp-÷o-hn-∏n-°pIbpw sNøp-∂-tXm-sSm∏w \nXy-hr-Øn°v hI-I-s≠-Øm\pw alm-flm-Km‘n tZiob {KmaoW sXmgnep-d∏p ]≤Xn klm-bn-°p∂p. taev]-d™ \nb-a-ß-fnse hyh-ÿ-Iƒ Hcp kwtbm-PnX coXn-bn¬ hn\n-tbm-Kn-®m¬ henb t\´-ap-≠m-°m≥ \ap°v Ignbpw. Cu P\m-[n-jvTnX \nb-a-sØ-]‰n ]e¿°pw ]e sX‰n-≤m-c-W-I-fp-ap≠v. Ah¿ `b-s∏-Sp∂Xv Kncn-h¿§-°mcpw a‰v ]c-º-cm-K-X-h-\-hm-kn-Iƒ°pw \¬Ip∂ Ah-Imiw h≥tXm-Xn¬ acw-ap-dn-°m≥ CS-bm°pw. Cu \nbaw h\y-Po-hn-I-sfbpw ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-sØbpw {]Xn-Iq-e-ambn _m[n°pw. kmaq-ly-h\ hn`-h-߃ Imcy-£-a-ambn hn\n-tbm-Kn-°m-\p≈ tijn Kncn-P-\-߃°pw h\-hm-kn-Iƒ°p-an√. h\-hm-kn-I-fpsS `qan ]pd-Øp-\n-∂p-≈-h¿ X´n-sb-Sp-°m\pw {]IrXn kº-Øn-\m¬ kº∂-amb `qan Itø-dm\pw CXv CS-bmIpw. {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-Øn\v ]Icw k¿°m¿ kwhn-[m-\-Øn\v IqSp-X¬ A[n-Imcw \¬Inbm¬ F¥m-bn-cn°pw kw`-hn-°pI F∂v \mw Btem-Nn-°Ww.? Cßs\ sNbvXm¬ h\-sØbpw h\y-Po-hn-I-sfbpw CXn-t\-°mƒ sa®-s∏´ coXn-bn¬ kwc-£n-°ptam? ]pdØp \n∂p-≈-h-cpsS Itø‰w Ahkm\n-°ptam? kzmX-{¥ym-\-¥-c-ap≈ Ign™ 6 Zi-I-ß-fnse \ΩpsS A\p-`hw ]cn-K-Wn-°p-tºmƒ {_n´o-jp-Im¿ BZy-ambn ChnsS Imep-Ip-Øp-tºmƒ hr£-ß-fpsS kap{Zw F∂-h¿ hnti-jn-∏n® C¥y-bnse h\-ß-fpsS C∂sØ Ahÿ F¥mWv.? ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

188


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

kzIm-cy-h\w DS-a-I-fpsS ssIh-i-am-bn-cp∂ cmPysØ `qhn-kvXr-Xn-bpsS 11% h\w A[nIr-X¿°v ssIam-dn-bt- ∏mƒ Imcy-߃ \S-Øp-∂X - nse Ime-Xm-ak - hpw Agn-aX - nbpw h≥tXmXn-ep≈ h\-\-io-I-c-W-Øn\v Imc-W-ambn. hnI-k\ ]≤-Xn-I-fn-eqsS h∂ tdmUp-Iƒ ap≥]v FØn-s∏-Sm≥ Ign-bm-Xn-cp∂ Dƒh-\-ßfnse k¿°m¿ h\-ß-fn¬ \n∂p≈ XSn-sh´v Ffp-∏-am°n. h\ A[n-jvTnX hyh-km-b-߃°v apfbpw ]ƒ∏n-\p-th-≠n-bp≈ h≥hr-£-ßfpw shdpw Xp—-amb hnebv°v \¬In-bXv Cu hn`-h-ß-fpsS samØw \mi-Øn-te°v hgn-sX-fn®p. tUm. kenw Aen-bp-sSbpw {ioaXn Cμn-cm-Km-‘n-bp-tSbpw A`n-{]m-b-Øn¬ kwÿm-\ß-fnse h\w hnI-k\ tIm¿∏-td-j-\p-Iƒ ^e-Øn¬ h\w \io-I-c-W-tIm¿∏-td-j-\p-Ifmbn. Chbv°p ]Icw h\-߃ h®p-]n-Sn-∏n-°msX \ne-hn-ep-ff {]Ir-Xn-Z-Ø-amb kº∂-h-\-߃ sh´n-\-in-∏n®p. ]e Imc-W-߃ ]d™v hnip≤ h\-߃ sh´n-\-in-∏n-®-Xn¬ apJy-]¶v h\w-h-Ip-∏n\mWv. h\w hIp∏v DtZym-K-ÿsc P\-߃ i{Xp-°-sf-t∏mse ImWp-tºmgpw hoc-∏-s\-t]mep≈ sImSpw-Ip-‰-hm-fn-Iƒ I¿Æm-S-I-Øn-sebpw Xan-gv\m-´n-sebpw Nμ-\-°m-Sp-Iƒ sIm≈b-Sn®pw sImº-\m-\-Isf th´-bm-Snbpw \nc-h[n k¿°m¿ DtZym-K-ÿsc h[n®pw B¿°pw ]nSn-°m≥ Ign-bmsX 2 Zi-I-߃ \mSns\ hnd-∏n®v Ign-™p-IqSn. k¿°m¿ Bh- i ym- \ p- k - c Ww kº- Ø nI klmbw \¬Inb "kcnkv I ISph kt¶X"Ønse apgp-h≥ ISp-h-I-sfbpw th´-bmSn. Poh-t\m-sS-bp≈ ISp-h-I-fpsS FÆw kw_-‘n®v sX‰mb hnh-c-߃ \¬In-b-X-√msX k¿°m¿ kwhn-[m\w AXn-\-∏pdw as‰m∂pw sNbvXn√. h\w A[n-Ir-X-cpsS P\-hn-cp≤ \b-߃ aqew hfsc kº-∂-amb h\y-Pohn kt¶-X-amb "tIymem-tZhv Lm\m'' \mj-W¬ ]m¿°vt]mepw Ah-Xm-f-Øn-embn. XpS¿®-bmbn sX‰mb hmKvZm-\-߃ \¬Ip-Ibpw P\-Iob kwL-S-\-Isf Zp¿_-e-s∏-SpØm≥ ]c-am-h[n {ian-°p-Ibpw Agn-aXn kwhn-[m-\-Øn-te°v Bfp-Isf tIm˛Hm]v‰v sNøm≥ {ian-°p-Ibpw sNbvXn´pw CXns\ AXn-Po-hn-®p-sIm≠v \ΩpsS P\-߃ Cu cwKØv F¥p ]¶v hln®p F∂v ]cn-tim-[n-°p-∂Xv \∂m-bn-cn°pw. cmPy-Øp-S\ - ofw apJy ssPh-hn-`h - ß - f - mb ]e hr£-ßfpw C∂pw [mcmfw \ne-\n¬°p∂p. P\-߃ Xnßn-∏m¿°p∂ tIc-f-Ønse Xoc-tZ-i-ß-fnse hnip-≤-h-\-ß-fn¬ ]pXnb ]e ]pjv] k-ky-ßfpw C∂pw \mw Is≠-Øp∂p. Ipc-ßp-Ifpw aqß-I-fp-sa√mw C∂pw cmPy-Øns‚ ]e `mKØpw Pohn-°p∂p. "Nn≥°mc', "ªm°v_°v' , ' \n¬Kmbv' F∂n-h-bpsS FÆw bYm¿∞-Øn¬ IqSn-s°m-≠ncn-°p-I-bm-Wv. arK-ßsf th´-bm-Sp-∂-hsc ]nSn-Iq-Sp-∂-Xn¬ P\-߃ hen-sbmcp ]¶v hln°p-∂p≠v. cmP-ÿm-\n¬ "Hdm≥kv' t]mse-bp≈ kmaq-ly-h-\-hn-`-h-߃ kwc-£n-°p-∂Xv P\-ßfmWv. \mKm-em‚n¬ an° kmaq-ly-h-\-ß-fp-sSbpw \S-Øn∏v Imcy-£-a-amWv. DØ-cm-©-en¬ hm≥ ]©m-b-Øp-I-fmWv h\-hn-`-h-߃ Imcy-£-a-ambn ssIImcyw sNøp∂Xv. a[y-`m-c-X-Ønse \nc-h[n {Kma-k-aq-l-߃ t\csØ Ah¿°v Ah-Im-i-ap-≠m-bn-cp∂ h\-hn-`h-߃ \∂mbn ssIImcyw sNøp-∂p≠v. I¿Æm-S-I-Ønse "le-Im¿"t]mse-bp≈ hnt√-Pp-I-fn¬ k¿°m¿ kwhn-[m-\-Øns‚ B{Ia-Wßsf AXn-Po-hn®pw hnt√Pv h\-߃ \∂mbn kwc-£n-°-s∏-Sp-∂p≠v. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

189


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

cXv\-Kncn Pn√-bnse I¿j-I¿ Ah-cpsS kzImcy h\-߃ \∂mbn kwc-£n-°p-∂p≠v. Hdo-k-bn¬ kzbw cq]o-Ir-X-amb Bbn-c-°-W-°n\v h\w kwc-£-W-k-an-Xn-Iƒ kmaq-lykw-c-£-W-Øn≥ Iogn¬ sIm≠p-h-∂n-´p≈ h\-߃ \∂mbn ]p\-cp-÷o-hn-∏n°p-∂p≠v. (kzn‰vk¿e-≥Unse C∂sØ h\-߃ ]q¿Æ-ambpw kmaq-ly-h-\-`q-an-I-fn¬ ]p\-cp-÷ohn-∏n-s®-Sp-Ø-Xm-sW-∂Xv {]tXyIw {]m[m-\y-a¿ln-°p∂p.) {]mtZ-inI ssPh Bhmk hyh-ÿ-bpsS BtcmKyw \ne-\n¿Øp-∂-Xns‚ {]tbm-P\w \n›-b-ambpw {]tZ-i-hm-kn-Iƒ°mWv. Cu ssPh-B-hmk hyh-ÿsb G‰hpw ^e-{]-Z-ambn kwc-£n-°m\pw ImØp-kq-£n-°m\pw Ign-bp-∂Xpw Ah¿°p-Xs∂. Cu ssPh Bhmk hyhÿsb kw_-‘n® {]mtZ-in-I-amb {]tXyI Adn-hp-≈-h¿ Ch-cm-I-bm¬ Ah th≠-hn[w kwc-£n®v hf¿Øm\pw Ch¿°mWv Ign-bpI. \ΩpsS {]IrXn hn`-h-߃ ]p\-cp-÷o-hn-∏n®v kwc-£n-°m\pw AtX kabw Xs∂ P\Po-hnXw sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ P\-ß-fp-ambn tN¿∂v {]h¿Øn-°m-\p≈ [mcmfw Ah-kcw C∂p≠v. h\-\n-b-a-ß-fpsS A¥-kØ A£-c-Ønepw Bi-b-Ønepw Dƒs°m-≠p-sIm≠v {]h¿Øn-°m≥ \mw k∂-≤-cm-IWw. h\-ßf - psS ]cn-kc - Øv Pohn-°p∂ \n¿≤-\cpw ]m¿iz-h¬°-cn-°s - ∏-´h - c - p-amb P\-߃°p IqSn h\-h-ev°-c-W-Øns‚ {]tbm-P\w e`y-am-°m≥ th≠n-bmWv 20 h¿j-߃°p-ap≥]v kwbp‡-h\w amt\-Pvsa‚ v ]cn-]mSn Xøm-dm-°n-bXv ]s£ AXn\v t]mcm-bva-Iƒ ]e-Xm-bn-cp∂p. Ah-cpsS \nb-{¥-W-Øn-ep≈ h\-ß-fn¬ B hnt√-Pnse F√m Xma-k-°mcpw amt\Pvsa‚nepw h\-De - v]∂ - ß - f - nepw Ah-Imiw \¬In-bn-cp-∂n√. kwbp-‡a - m-t\-Pvsa‚ v {Kq∏n¬ \n∂v \n¿≤-\cmb {Kma-hm-kn-Isf ]q¿Æ-ambn Hgn-hm-°n-bm-bn-cp∂p. kwbp-‡-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v {Kq∏p-Iƒ°v hy‡-am-sbmcp Imem-h[n D≠m-bn-cp-∂n√. h\w hIp∏n\v GXp ka-bØpw Ah-cpsS \nb-{¥Ww Gs‰-Sp-°m-am-bn-cp∂p. CXp-aqew h\-Øn¬ \nt£]w \SØn hnI-kn-∏n®v kwc-£n-°m≥ Ah¿°v Xm¬]cyw Ipd-hm-bn-cp∂p. amt\-Pvsa‚n¬ IqSp-X¬ \nb-{¥-Wß - t- fmsS CS-s]-Sm-\p≈ A[n-Imcw Ct∏mgpw kwÿm\ h\w hIp-∏n¬ \n£n-]vX-amWv. h\-kw-c-£Ww \nco-£n-°m-\p≈ kpXm-cy-am-sbmcp kwhn-[m\w \ne-hn-en√. BI-bm¬ kwbp‡ h\w amt\-Pvsa‚ns‚ ^e-{]m]vXn hne-bn-cp-Øm-\m-h-iy-amb ÿnXn-hn-h-c-°-W-°pIƒ \ΩpsS ssIh-i-an√. hntI-{μo-I-cW amt\-Pvsa‚ns‚ sa®-s∏-s´mcp amXrI DØ-c-J-finse "IpabqWn'¬ (Kumaun) 1930 ¬ Bcw-`n® hm≥ ]©m-bØv kwhn-[m-\-amWv. k¿°m¿ amt\Pvsa‚ v kwhn-[m-\sØ At]-£n®v sNehv Ipdhpw ^e-{]m-]vXn-Iq-Sn-b-Xp-amWv. kmaq-ly-am-t\Pvsa‚ v kwhn-[m-\-sa-∂-Xn\v Ipabq-Wn¬ \n∂v i‡-amb sXfnhv e`n-®n-´p≠v. hm≥ ]©m-bØp-I-fpsS h\w kwc-£-W-kw-hn-[m\w k¿°m-cn-t‚-Xn-t\mfw ^e-{]-Zhpw AXns‚ ]Ønsem∂p am{Xw sNehv hcp-∂-Xp-amWv. Cu \nK-a\w icn-h-bv°p∂ as‰mcp ]T-\-Øn¬ Is≠Øn-bXv hr£-\-io-I-cWw hm≥ ]©m-bØv h\-ß-fn¬ dnk¿Δv h\-ß-fn-te-Xn-t\-°mƒ hfsc Ipd-hm-sW-∂mWv. 2006 se h\m-h-Im-i-\n-baw Kncn-h¿§-°mcpw a‰v h\-hm-kn-Iƒ°pw Ah-Im-i-sa∂ \nebn-emWv h\-ß-fpsS kmaq-ly-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v A\p-h-Zn-®n-´p-≈Xv. ]s£, kmaq-ly-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v kwhn-[m-\-Øns‚ LS-\bpw A[n-Im-chpw \nb-a-Øn¬ hy‡-a√. Ign™ h¿jsØ [\-X-Xzim-kv{X-Ønse t\m_¬tP-Xm-hmb Fen-s\m¿ Hmkvt{Sm-ans‚ A`n-{]m-b-Øn¬ kmaq-ly-amt\-Pvsa‚ v kwhn-[m-\-Øns‚ cq]-tcJ sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-Xn-cp-∂m¬ am{Xta h\-ß-fpsS _p≤n]q¿Δ-amb D]-tbm-K-Øn\v AXv t{]m’m-l-\-amIq. C¥y-bn¬ h\-߃°-SpØv P\-߃ Xma-kn-°p∂ apgp-h≥ {]tZ-i-߃°pw th≠n \∂mbn cq]-I-ev]\ sNbvX Hcp kmaqly amt\-Pvsa‚ v kwhn-[m\w \S-∏m-°Ww. CXn-eqsS kwc-£nX ˛ dnk¿ΔvUv h\-ß-fpsS `c-W-]-c-amb sNe-hn¬ 90% hsc em`n-°m\pw h\-߃°cnsI Pohn-°p∂ P\-ß-fpsS t£aw Db¿Øm\pw Ign-bpw. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

190


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

t_mIvkv 5 : kwbp-‡-h\w amt\-Pvsa‚ v; ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ \n∂p≈ Hc-\p-`hw ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse Z£nW I∂-S-bn-ep≈ _¬Ø-ßm-Sn-bnse \mK-cnI tkh {SÃv I¿Æm-S-I-bnse Ip¥]pc Unhn-j-\n¬ kwbp‡ h\w-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v kwhn-[m\w G¿s∏-SpØp-∂-Xns‚ BZy-L-´-Øn¬ (1993) hfsc kPo-h-am-bn-cp∂p. h\-ß-fpsS hnI-k-\-Ønepw kwc-£-W-Ønepw P\-Io-b-]-¶m-fnØw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm¬ Ign-bp-sa-∂-Xn-\m¬ I¿Æm-SI h\w hIp-∏nse Db¿∂ DtZym-K-ÿ-cmb Fw.F¬. dmw{]-Imiv, sI.F≥. aq¿Øn F∂n-h¿ hnt√Pv h\w kan-Xn-Iƒ cq]o-I-cn-°p-∂-Xn¬ Xev]-c-cm-bn-cp∂p. _¬Ø-ßmSn Xmeq-°nse "jo¿emep' hnt√-Pn-emWv BZy-k-anXn cq]o-I-cn-®Xv. "sh\pcp' td©n¬ 11 kan-Xn-Iƒ cq]o-I-cn-°m≥ \mK-cnI {SÃv klm-bn®p. kz¥w A[n-Im-chpw \nb-{¥-Whpw \jvS-s∏-Sp-sa∂p `b∂ h\wh-Ip-∏nse a‰v DtZym-K-ÿ¿ CXns\ i‡-ambn FXn¿Øp. F∂m¬ taev]-d™ 2 DtZym-Kÿ-cpsS {]Xn-_-≤-X-aqew Ip¥-]pc Unhn-j-\n¬ Cu kΩ¿±-ß-sf-sb√mw AXn-Po-hn®v 100 kan-Xn-Iƒ cq]o-I-cn®p. sXm´-SpØ awK-em-]pcw Unhn-j-\n¬ k¿°m-cn-Xc kwL-S-\-I-fpsSbpw \mK-cnI {SÃn-s‚bpw FXn¿∏v Ah-K-Wn-®p-sIm≠pw XSn-hym-]m-cn-I-fpsS ]n¥pW B¿÷n-®p-sIm≠pw 25 kan-Xn-Iƒ cq]o-I-cn®p. Ah-km\w Cu kan-Xn-I-sf√mw bmsXmcp P\-]-¶m-fn-Ø-hp-an-√msX h\w hIp-∏ns‚ Iogn-embn. hnt√Pv h\w kan-Xn-Ifpw ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-\n-ba {]Imcw cq]o-I-cn® ssPh-ssh-hn≤y amt\-Pvsa‚ v kan-Xn-Ifpw XΩn¬ bmsXmcp GtIm-]-\hpw D≠m-bn-cp-∂n√. Cu c≠v kan-XnI-fp-sSbpw NpX-e-Ifpw A[n-Im-c-ßfpw hy‡-ambn \n¿Δ-ln-°-s∏-´n-cp-∂n√. {]Xo-£bvs°mØv Db¿∂n-s√-¶n¬t]mepw ssPh sshhn-≤y-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v kan-Xn-Iƒ Gsd P\m[n-]-Xy-kz-`m-hhpw ]¶m-fnØ kz`m-hhpw D≈-h-bm-bn-cp∂p. ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v kanXn hn]p-eo-I-cn®v hnt√Pv h\w kan-Xn-I-fpsS taJ-e-IqSn Ahbv°v Iogn¬ sIm≠p-h-cnItbm h\w kan-Xn-Iƒ Ah-bn¬ ebn-∏n-°p-Itbm sNøWw. CXp-aqew IqSp-X¬ ]¶m-fn-Øhpw DØ-c-hm-Zn-Øhpw D≠mIpw.

kwbp-‡-h\w amt\-Pvsa‚ v kmaqly h\w amt\-Pvsa‚ v B°n am‰p-I tZiob h\w \b-Øn¬ 1988 apX¬ Xs∂ h\w \b-Øns‚ {][m\ e£yw {]mtZ-inI Bh-iy-߃ \nd-th-dp-I-bm-sW∂v AwKo-I-cn-®n´p≠v. dh\yq hcp-am\w D≠m-°p-∂-Xn\v \bØn¬ c≠mw ÿm\ta Iev ] n- ® n- c p- ∂ p≈q. ssPh sshhn- ≤ y- k w- c - £ Ww, h\- Ø ns‚ hnkvXo¿Æw h¿≤n-∏n-°p∂p, D¬∏m-Z\ £aX Iq´pI XpS-ßnb e£y-߃ ssIh-cn-°m-\mbn kv{XoIƒ Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ P\-ßsf ]s¶-Sp-∏n-®p-sIm≠v Hcp h≥ P-\-Iob Iq´m-bvabv°v cq]w \¬I-W-sa-∂mWv \bw ip]m¿i sNbvXXv. Cu \b-Øns‚ A\-¥c ^e-amWv 1990-I-fn¬ tI{μ h\w-˛-]-cn-ÿnXn a{¥m-ebw, A[:]Xn® h\-߃ ]p\-cp-÷o-hn-∏n-°m≥ kwbp‡ h\amt\-Pvsa‚ v kvIoap-Iƒ°v cq]w \¬Im≥ \n¿t±-in-®p-sIm≠v kwÿm-\-߃°v k¿°p-e¿ Ab-®Xv. kwbp‡ h\amt\-Pvsa‚ v ]co-£Ww ]e ÿe-ß-fnepw ]e A\p-Iqe ^e-ß-fp-≠m°n-sb-¶nepw ]cn-an-Xn-Ifpw D≠m-bn-cp∂p. IΩn-‰n-bpsS FIvkv H^otjym sk{I-´-dn-bmb h\w hIp∏v DtZym-K-ÿ-\mWv ssZ\w-Zn\ Imcy-߃ \n¿Δ-ln-®n-cp-∂Xv. a‰v Xocp-am-\-߃ h\w hIp∏mWv ssIsIm-≠n-cp-∂Xv. Ah-cpsS {][m\ {i≤ s]s´∂v hf-cp∂ C\w ac-߃ \´p-]n-Sn-∏n°p-∂-Xn-em-bn-cp∂p. Nne D`-b-I£n Icm-dp-I-fpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ XpS-ßn-bh Bbn-cp-∂-Xn\m¬ AXns‚ ^≠v Xocp-∂-tXmsS ]≤-Xnbpw Ah-km-\n-°p-am-bn-cp∂p. hnt√-Pnse hnc-en-se-Æm-hp∂ "D∂-X¿' B\p-Iq-ey-߃ Iø-S-°p∂ hfsc Kuc-h-ap≈ {]iv\w F√m ]¶m-fnØ k¿°m¿ ]cn-]m-Sn-I-fnepw (hm´¿ sjUv hnI-k\w t]mse) kw`-hn............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

°p-∂-XmWv. h\w amt\-Pvsa‚n¬ {]tXy-In®pw. ImcWw, s]mXp-hmb hn`-h-߃ Fßs\ ]¶n-S-W-sa∂v Nn¥n-°p∂ hyXykvX Xmev]-cy-°m-cm-Wn-hnsS D≈Xv. h\n-X-Iƒ, hndIv Ib-‰nd°v sXmgn-em-fn-Iƒ, h\ D¬∏-∂-߃ tiJ-cn-°p-∂-h¿, ac-hym-]m-c-Øn¬ \n∂v em`w {]Xo£n°p-∂-h¿ F∂n-h-sc√mw CXn-epƒs∏Spw. D∂-X-cpsS CS-s]-S¬ sIm≠v tZmjw kw`-hn-°p-∂Xv ]m¿iz-h¬°-cn-°-s∏´ hn`m-K߃°mW.v bYm¿Ø P\-]-¶m-fn-ØsØ adn-I-S∂v Ch-sc-s°m≠v ]≤Xn e£yw t\Sp-∂Xv, h\w-h-Ip-∏n\pw kuI-cy-amWv. h\-A-h-Im-i-\n-b-a-Ønse 3 (1) (i) hIp-∏p-{]-Imcw kwbp-‡ -h\amt\-Pvsa‚n\v Iogn¬ hcp∂ {]tZ-i-ßfpw hnt√Pv amt\-Pvsa‚n\v Iogn¬ hcp∂ h\-ßfpw Hcp kmaq-ly-hn-`-h-ambn-I≠v kaqlw ssIImcyw sNøWw. h\w hIp∏v CXn\v kwc-£-Whpw kmt¶-XnI ]n¥pWbpw \¬IWw. kpÿnc hn\n-tbm-Khpw kwc-£W \n_-‘-\-Ifpw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp-Ibpw thWw. h\ Ah-Imi \nb-a-{]-Imcw kwbp‡ h\-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v Fs‰-Sp-°m≥ {Kma-k-`tbm kaqltam Xøm-dm-Ip-∂n-s√-¶n¬ kwbp-‡- h\amt\-Pvsa‚ v kan-Xn-Isf {Kma-k-`-bpsS \nb-{¥-WØn¬ sIm≠p-h-cm≥ k¿°m¿ GI-]-£ob Xocp-am-\-sa-Sp-°Ww. Aßs\ Bbm¬ kanXn AwK-ßsf P\m-[n-]-Xy-]-c-amb coXn-bn¬ {Kma-k` sXc-s™-Sp-°p∂p F∂v Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm≥ Ignbpw. ap≥ A\p-`-h-ß-fn¬ \n∂v k¿°m¿ Imcy-߃ ]Tn-°p-sa∂pw kwbp-‡ -h\amt\Pvsa‚ns\ IqSp-X¬ P\m-[n-]-Xy-]-chpw ]¶m-fn-Ø-]-chpw B°p-sa∂pw ]mh-s∏-´-h-cpsS PohnXm-h-iy-߃°v ap¥nb ]cn-K-W\ \¬Ip-sa∂pw R߃ {]Xo-£n-°p∂p. sNdp-InS h\w Dev]-∂-ß-fn-eqsS AXnPoh\-Øn\v klmbw kmaq-ly- h\amt\-Pvsa‚n-s\bpw ]¶m-fnØ kwbp‡ h\amt\-Pvsa‚n-s\bpw t{]m’mln-∏n-°m≥ ]c-am-h[n {ia-߃ \S-Øp-tºmgpw {]mtZ-inI kaqlw D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ hen-sbmc-fhv h\-ßfpw Ch-bpsS {]h¿Ø\ ]cn-[n°v shfn-bn-emWv. CØcw {]tZ-i-ß-fnepw amt\Pvsa‚ v kan-Xn-I-fpsS \nb-{¥-W-Øn-ep≈ {]tZ-i-ß-fnepw 1988 se h\\b-a-\p-k-cn®v h\ D¬∏∂-ß-fpsS Dev]m-Z\w ]c-am-h[n h¿≤n-∏n-°m≥ k¿°m¿ \S-]Sn kzoI-cn-°Ww. h\-ß-fpsS DS-a-ÿm-h-Imiw kaq-l-Øn\v ssIam-dp-∂-Xns‚ \nb-a-]-cn-c£ sIm≠p-am{Xw tiJ-cn-°p∂ h\-hn-`-h-ß-fpsS Af-hnepw KpW-ta-∑-bn-ep-ap≈ Ipd-hp-Ifpw hcp-am-\-\-jvShpw ]cn-l-cn-°m≥ Ign-bn√. h\-\-io-I-caw, kΩn{i h\-ß-fpsS ÿm\-Øp≈ a\p-jy-\n¿ΩnX h\-߃°v ap≥KW\ \¬Ip-∂Xv, \nb-{¥-W-N-´-°qSv, h\-hn-`-h-ßfpw h\hpw hyh-km-b-߃°mbn hn\n-tbmKn-°p-∂Xv hn`-hß - f - psS hn]-W\ - Ø - n¬ k¿°m¿ GP≥kn-Ifpw Icm-dp-Imcpw \S-Øp∂ NqjWw XpS-ßn-b-h-bmWv CXn\v ImcWw. BI-bm¬ h\ Ah-Im-in-\n-baw \S-∏m-°p-sa∂ Dd-∏n\v ]pdsa h\-hn-`-h-߃ h\-hm-knI-fpsS PohnXw sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\mbn ]c-kv]c _‘n-X-amb 3 {]iv\-߃ IqSn ]cn-l-cn-t°-≠Xp≠v. 1. h\-hn-`-h-ß-fpsS Dev]m-Z\w Fßs\ h¿≤n-∏n°mw.? 2. Cu hn`-h-߃ ]mh-s∏-´-h¿°v e`y-am-°p-∂Xv Fßs\? 3. Ch-bpsS hn]-W-\-Øn-eqsS Ch-cpsS hcp-am\w Fßs\ ]c-am-h[n Db¿Ømw? ]e D¬∏-∂-ß-fp-sSbpw Dev]m-Z\w ]c-am-h[n h¿≤n-∏n-°-W-sa-¶n¬ AXn\v ]co-£-Wßfpw {]mtbm-Kn-I-Xbpw D≠m-IWw. CXn\v aÆns‚ ^e-`q-bn-jvTX h¿≤n-∏n®v {]Ir-Xn-ZØ h\-]p-\-cp-÷o-h\w t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p-Ibpw Ip‰n-s®-Sp-I-fp-sSbpw Ip‰n-°m-Sp-I-fp-sSbpw amt\Pvsa‚n¬ {i≤n-°p-Ibpw thWw. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v a[y-{]-tZ-in-se-bpw, B{‘-{]-tZ-in-sebpw "km¬' hr£-ß-fpsS Ct∏m-gsØ amt\-Pvsa‚ v sIm≠v h\w-h-Ip∏v Dt±-in-°p-∂Xv XSn°pth≠n am{X-ap-≈-XmWv. AXn-\m¬ Hcp Iqºv (shoot) am{Xta hf-cm≥ A\p-h-Zn°q. F∂m¬ [mcmfw inJ-c-ßfpw Cebpw D≈ hr£-am-WnXv. \in® h\-ß-fntem hnt√-Pn-t\m-S-Sp-Øp≈ Ip∂p-Ifntem Cu hr£w imtJm-]-im-J-I-tfm-Sp-IqSn hf-cm≥ A\p-h-Zn-®m¬ imJ-Ifpw Cebpw C‘\-ambn D]-tbm-Kn°mw.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

t^mdÃv k¿Δokv sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ h\-A-h-Im-i-\n-b-ahpw kwbp‡ h\w amt\-Pvsa‚pw t^md-ÿamcpw {]mtZ-inI h\-hmkn-Ifpw XΩn¬ ASpØ _‘w ]pe¿tØ-≠-Xn-\m¬ h\w hIp-∏n\v IqSp-X¬ am\p-jnI ]cnthjw D≠m-IWw. \n¿`m-Ky-h-im¬ h\w hIp-∏ns‚ B¥-cnI kwkvImcw DtZym-Kÿ t{iWnbn-e-[n-jvTn-Xhpw GIm-[n-]-Xy-]-c-hp-amWv. Cμn-cm-Km‘n \mj-W¬ t^mdÃv A°m-Z-an-bnse \√ ]cn-io-e-\hpw a‰v ÿm]-\-ß-fnse C≥k¿Δokv tImgvkp-Ifpw sIm≠v Cu ImgvN-∏m-Sn¬ am‰w hcp-Øm-hp-∂-XmWv. CXpw h\w hIp-∏nse a‰v \√ ]cn-]m-Sn-Ifpw NphsS ]d-bp∂ ^e߃ e£yw hbv°p-∂-h-bm-bn-cn-°Ww. h\-hm-kn-I-fp-ambn sa®-s∏´ Bi-b-hn-\n-abw \S-Øp-Ibpw Ah-cpsS kmº-Øn-Ihpw kmaq-ly-hp-amb hnI-k\w Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp-Ibpw thWw. hIp∏v \S-∏m-°p∂ h\-h¬°-cW ]cn-]m-Sn- I-fpsS Bkq-{X-W-Øn-s‚bpw \S-Øn-∏n-s‚bpw F√m L´-ß-fnepw Chsc ]s¶Sp-∏n-°Ww. kmaq-lym-[n-jvTnX h\-h¬°-c-W-]-cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ Ah¿ kzbw Bkq-{XWw sNbvXp \S-∏m-°p-∂-Xns\ ]n¥p-W-bv°Ww. kpÿnc Im¿jnI hnI-k-\-Øn\pw Pe-kp-c-£n-X-Xz-Øn-\p-ambn ASn-Ød i‡n-s∏-SpØm≥ ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-W-Øn\v Du∂¬ \¬IWw. kwtbm-PnX `qan amt\-Pvsa‚ v Bh-iy-ap≈ h\-h¬°-c-W-tØm-Sp≈ \o¿ØS, `q`m-K-kao-]-\-Øns‚ h¿≤n-®p-h-cp∂ ]¶v. Irjn, arK-kw-c-£Ww, h\-h¬°-cWw F∂nh XΩn¬ h¿≤n-®p-h-cp∂ Bi-b-hn-\n-abw h\-h¬°-c-WsØ kw_-‘n® s]mXp-P-\-A-h-t_m-[hpw h\-h¬°-cW ]cn-]m-Sn-I-fn¬ P\-]-¶m-fn-Ø-Øns‚ Bh-iyhpw. {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-Øn¬ \n∂pƒs∏sS kzX-{¥-amb sshZKv[y-Ønepw hn⁄m-\-Ønepw Du∂n-bp≈ Kth-j-W-Øn-e-[n-jvTn-X-amb ]¶m-fn-Ø-]-chpw kpXm-cy-hp-amb Bkq-{XW {]{In-b. k¶o¿Æ-amb ssPh-B-hm-k-hy-h-ÿ-Iƒ a\- n-em-°p-∂-Xnepw ssIImcyw sNøp-∂-Xnep- a p≈ {i≤. Imem- h ÿ hyXn- b m\w,Xt±- i ob ssPh- s sh- h n[yw kwc- £ n- ° ¬, kky˛P¥p-Pm-e-ß-fpsS `oj-Wn-t\-cn-Sp∂ C\-ßsf \ne-\n¿Øm\pw ]p\-cp-≤-cn-°m\pw klm-bn-°pI XpS-ßnb \nc-h[n sh√p-hn-fn-Isf t\cn-´p-sIm-≠p-Xs∂ Ah-bpsS ]q¿ΔÿnXn {]m]n-°m-\p≈ Ign-hn-s\bpw kml-N-cy-ß-tfmSv Cgp-In-t®-cm-\p≈ tijn-tbbpw \ne-\n¿Øm≥ klm-bn-°Ww.

t_mIvkv 6: h\-A-h-Imi \nb-ahpw hmg-®m-ense ImScpw (Xr-»q¿ Pn√, tIc-fw) 1.

hfsc {]mNo-\-amb Hcp Kncn-h¿§-hn-`m-K-amWv ImS¿.F¶nepw Ah-cpsS kmaq-lytam Bhm-k-tI-{μ-]-ctam Bb Ah-Im-i-߃ H∂pw-Xs∂ N¿® sNøp-Itbm ÿm]n-s®-Sp°p-Itbm sNbvXn-´n√.

2.

Hmtcm Bhm-k-tI-{μ-Øn-\p-ap≈ h\ Ah-Imi kan-Xnsb sXc-s™-SpØXvv N´-߃ ]men-°m-sXbpw {Kma-k-`-Isf Hgn-hm-°n-bp-amWv.

3.

h\- A-h-Im-i-\n-b-a-sØbpw N´-sØbpw AXns‚ {]m[m-\y-sØbpw ]‰n ImS¿t°m, Kncn-h¿§ hIp-∏nt\m, h\whIp-∏nt\m Imcy-amb hnh-c-an√.

4.

]≤-Xn-Iƒ ^e-{]-Z-ambn \S-∏m-°p-∂Xp kw_-‘n®v _‘-s∏´ hIp-∏p-Iƒ XΩn¬ bmsXmcp GtIm-]-\-hp-an√.

5.

t_m[-h¬°-c-W-Øn-\p≈ ]cn-io-e\ ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ \S-Øm-Xn-cn-°p-Itbm \S-Øn-bh Xmtg-X-´n-te°v FØm-Xn-cn-°p-Itbm sNømw.

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193


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

""C¥y-bnse PmXn-Iƒ: AXns‚ kz`mhw, {]h¿Ø\w, D¤hw F∂ ]pkvX-I-Øn¬ sP. F®v. l´≥, ImS¿ Kncn-h¿§-Øns‚ {]m[m\yw FSp-Øp-]-d-bp-∂p≠v. Hcp-]s£ Z£ntW-¥y-bnse G‰hpw {]mNo-\-amb Kncn-P-\-ß-fmWv sIm®n kwÿm-\sØ ImS¿'' ImS¿ Kncn-h¿§-Øns‚ {]m[m\yw ]e-\-c-hwi ]T-\-ß-fnepw hy‡-am-bn-´p≠v. Nme°pSn \Zo-X-S-Ønse h\-ß-fn¬ am{Xw I≠n-cp∂ Ch¿ {]mNo\ th´-°mcpw `£Ww kaml-cn-°p-∂-h-cp-amWv. sk≥kkv {]Imcw Ch-cpsS kwJy 1500¬ Xmsg-bmWv. ]q¿Æ-ambpw h\-sØbpw sNdnb h\y-Po-hn-I-sfbpw \Zn-bnse a’y-ß-sfbpw Ing-ßp-Iƒ, tX≥, a‰v sNdnb h\-D-ev]-∂-ß-tfbpw B{i-bn®v Im´n¬ Xs∂-bmWv Ch-cpsS PohnXw. tXm´-߃°p-th-≠nbp≈ h\-\-io-I-c-Whpw AW-s°-´p-\n¿Ωm-Whpw aqew Ah-cpsS IpSn-Iƒ sh≈-Øn-\-Sn-bnem-b-Xp-Im-cWw Ign™ H∂c \q‰m-≠mbn amdn amdn Ct∏mfh¿ \Zn-bpsS {][m\ Xmgv-h-cbn¬ ÿnc-Xm-a-k-amWv. hmg-®m¬ t^mdÃv Unhn-j-\nse 413 NXp-c{i Intem ao‰-dn¬ 8 ImS¿ IpSn-I-fmWv Ah-ti-jn-°p-∂Xv. Ch-bn¬ 2 FÆw -˛ hmg-®m¬, s]mI-e-∏md IpSn-Iƒ, BXn-c-∏n≈n Pe-ssh-ZypX ]≤-Xn-bpsS X{¥-{]-[m-\-`m-K-Øm-Ws{X. Ah-cpsS bYm¿∞ h\ Bhmk tI{μw ]e-t∏m-gmbn \in-∏n-°-s∏-´p. ta¬∏-d™ 2 IpSn-I-fn-ep-≈-h¿ Ct∏mƒ Pohn-°p-∂Xv kwÿm\ h\w hIp-∏ns‚ Iogn-ep≈ h\-kw-c-£-W-k-anXn {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fpsS klm-b-Øm-emWv. ImS-cpsS \nba Ah-t_m[w s]mI-e-∏md, hmg-®m¬ IpSn-I-fnse GXm\pw t]scm-gn-®m¬ a‰p-≈-h¿°m¿°pw h\-Ah-Im-i-\n-b-asØ ]‰ntbm AXns‚ km≤y-X-Isf ]‰ntbm bmsXmcp hnh-c-hp-an√, Adn-bmhp∂ ct≠m aqt∂m ImS¿°v Cßs\ Hcp \nba-ap-s≠∂pw AXv Ah-cpsS Ah-Im-i-߃ ]p\:ÿm]n-°m\pw AwKo-Ic - n-°m\pw th≠n-bp-≈X - m-sW∂pw am{Xta Adnbq. Ah¿°v A¿lX-s∏´ hnhn[ h\-A-h-Im-i-ß-sf-∏-‰nbpw \nb-a-Øns‚ c≠mw A≤ym-b-Ønse aq∂mw hIp∏p-{]-Imcw Ah-Im-i-s∏-Sm-hp∂ B\p-Iq-ey-ßsf ]‰nbpw Ah¿°v Adn-hn√. Kncn-h¿§-h-Ip∏v DtZym-K-ÿ¿ Ah-Im-i-s∏-Sp∂ B\p-Iq-ey-A-h-Imi kwhn-[m\w ]cm-P-b-amWv. h\m-h-Im-i\n-b-a-Øn¬ ]d-bp∂ k_v˛Unhn-j≥ Xe kan-Xn-bpsS Npa-X-e-Iƒ kw_-‘n®pw a‰pw Aht_m[w krjvSn® tij-am-bn-cn-°-W-am-bn-cp∂p B\p-Iq-ey-߃ Ah-Im-i-s∏-Sm≥. CXv Hcn°epw kw`-hn-®n-´n√. ImS¿°v Ah-cpsS kmaq-ly-A-h-Im-isØ ]‰n Hcn-°epw Adn-hp-≠m-bn-cp-∂n√. 8 apX¬ 10 G°¿ hsc ÿew Bh-iy-s∏-Sm≥ Ch-tcmSv Kncn-h¿§ hIp∏v \n¿t±-in-°p∂ \nbaw Fs¥∂v Adn-bmsX Ah¿ AXv A\p-k-cn-°p∂p. Ct∏mƒ ÿnXn-sb¥v? hnhn[ hIp-∏p-I-fn¬ \n∂pw ImS-cn¬ \n∂pw tiJ-cn® sXfn-hp-Iƒ {]Imcw {Kma-k-`Isf _‘-s∏-Sp-Øm-sX-bmWv h\m-h-Imi kan-Xn-Iƒ cq]o-I-cn-®Xv. \nb-a-Øns‚ hni-Zmw-i߃ ImSsc ]d™p a\- n-em-°msX BZy-tbm-K-Øn¬ Xs∂ Kncn-h¿§-h-Ip∏v h\-A-hImi kan-Xn-Iƒ cq]o-I-cn®p. kanXn AwK-߃°v CXp kw_-‘n®v ]cn-io-e\w \¬Ip-sa∂mWv hIp∏v A[n-Ir-X¿ BZyw Adn-bn-®Xv. F∂m¬ Hcp ]cn-io-e-\-]-cn-]m-Snbpw \S-Øn-bns√-∂mWv Ah¿ ]d-bp-∂Xv. {Kma-k-`-bn-eqsS kanXn AwK-ßsf sXc-s™-Sp-°p-∂-Xn\v ]Icw Pn√m-I-f-IvS-td-‰n-sebpw Kncn-h¿§ hIp-∏n-sebpw BXn-c-∏-≈n-]-©m-b-Øn-sebpw {]Xn-\n-[nIƒ IpSn-Iƒ kμ¿in®v tbmKw \SØn kanXn AwK-ßsf \n›-bn-°p-I-bm-Wp-≠m-bXv. \nb-a-Øn¬ hyh-ÿ-sN-bvXn-´p≈ kmaq-ly-A-h-Im-i-ßsf ]‰n Ah¿ hnh-cn-®n√. Ipd®v h\`qan Bh-iy-s∏-´m¬ AXv Xcm-sa-∂p-am{Xw DtZym-K-ÿ¿ Ah-tcmSv ]d™p. Nne tImf-\n-I-fn¬ kanXn AwK-߃ Xs∂-bmWv Ch¿°v t^mdw ]qcn-∏n®p \¬InbXv.

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194


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

F∂m¬ Gsd ÿeØpw s{]mtam-´¿am-cmWv Cu tPmen sNbvXXv. Kncn-h¿§-h-Ip∏ns‚ \n¿t±-im-\p-k-cWw Ch-cpsS IpSn-Iƒ°-Sp-Øp≈ 8 apX¬ 10 hsc G°¿ ÿe-Øn\v Ch¿ At]£ \¬In. ]qcn-∏n-®-t^m-d-߃ ]©m-b-Øn¬ \¬In-bXv Ah¿ Kncn-h¿§ hIp∏n\v ssIamdn.kanXn AwK-ßsf Adn-bn-°msX dh-\yp-h-Ip∏v Hmtcm tImf-\n-bnepw k¿sΔ \S-Øn-bXv Nne X¿°-߃°v Imc-W-ambn. CXv \S-∏m-°p∂ {]{In-b-bn¬ \n¿Æm-bI L´-Øn-sem∂pw h\w hIp-∏ns\ _‘-s∏Sp-Øn-bn√. \nb-a-{]-Imcw {Kma-k-`-Iƒ°v k_vUn-hn-j≥ Xe kanXn am¿§ \n¿t±-i-߃ \¬IWw. h\m-h-Imi kanXn AwK-ßsf sXc-s™-Sp-°p-Ibpw B\p-Iq-ey-߃°p≈ At]£ hmg-®m¬ Unhn-j-\n¬ ka¿∏n-°p-Ibpw sNbvX tij-amWv k_v ˛Unhn-j≥ Xe kan-Xn-bpsS BZy-tbmKw tN¿∂Xv. Cu tbmK-Øn¬ Kncn-h¿§-°mtcm tªm°v ]©m-bØv AwK-ßtfm ]s¶-Sp-Øn√. h\ Ah-Im-i-k-anXn AwK-ß-fpsS sXc-s™-Sp∏v h\w hIp∏pw Adn-™n√. At]£ ^b¬ sNøpw ap≥]v h\-A-h-Imi kan-Xn-Iƒ°v k_v ˛Unhn-j≥ kanXn Fs¥-¶nepw hnh-ctam `q]-Stam \¬In-bn√. h\-hn-`-h-ß-fpsS ItÃm-Un-b≥ h\w hIp-∏m-b-Xn-\m¬ Hmtcm IpSn-bn-sebpw `qan-bpsS hni-Zmw-i-ßfpw kq£va-πm-\p-Ifpw At]£ F{]-Imcw ]qcn-∏n®p \¬I-W-sa∂ hnh-c-ßfpw Ah-cpsS ssIh-i-ap≠v. Kncn-h¿§ hIp∏v DtZym-K-ÿ¿°pw ]©m-bØv {]kn-U‚p-am¿°pw tIcf C≥Ãn-‰yq´v Hm^v tem°¬ AUvan-\n-kvt{S-j\pw CXp kw_-‘n® ]cn-io-e\w \¬In-bn-cp∂p. \n¿`m-Kyh-im¬ Cu ]cn-io-e-\-Øns‚ {]tbm-P\w Kncn-h¿§-°m-cn-se-Øn-bn√. BXn-c-∏≈n {Kma-]-©m-b-Øn¬ {Kma-k` hnfn-®p-Iq-´n-bn-cp∂p. F∂m¬ h\ Ah-Imi \nb-a-sØ-]‰n N¿® sNømt\m h\-A-h-Imi kanXn AwK-ßsf sXc-s™-Sp-°mt\m {]tXyI-ambn {Kma-k-`tbm Ducp-Iq-´tam IqSn-bn-´n√. AwK-ß-fpsS sXc-s™-Sp-∏n-\p-ti-jhpw Cu \nb-a-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´ {]iv\-߃ {Kma-k-`-I-fn¬ N¿® sNø-s∏-´n√. ImS¿°v Ah¿ Ct∏mƒ Xma-kn-°p∂ h\-`q-an-bn¬ tcJm-aqew Ah-Imiw ÿm]n°m≥ Ign-™n-´p≠v. CXp-Xs∂ icn-bmb \S-]Sn{Iaw ]men-°m-sXbpw \nb-asØ ]‰n ImS¿°v th≠{X Adnhv ]I¿∂p \¬Im-sXbpw h\w˛Kncn-h¿§ hIp-∏p-Iƒ XΩn¬ bmsXmcp GtIm]nX {]h¿Ø-\hpw C√m-sX-bp-amWv sNbvXn-´p-≈Xv. kmaqly AYhm Bhmk Ah-Im-i-߃ ImS-cp-ambn N¿®-sN-bvXn-´n√. Unhn-j-\nse ImS¿ IpSn-I-fn-se√mw CXp-kw-_-‘n® Kuc-hX -- -c-amb N¿® \S-ØWw.

ssPh-ssh-hn≤yw \q‰m-≠p-I-fmbn ssPh-ssh-hn≤y kulr-Z-]-c-amb Nne coXn-Iƒ°v C¥y cq]w \¬Inbn-´p≠v. Cu ]mc-ºcyw sIm≠mWv hnip-≤-Im-Sp-I-fpsS cq]-Øn¬ h\-߃ C∂pw ]›n-a-L-´Øn¬ \ne-\n¬°p-∂Xv. \m´n≥]p-d-ß-fn¬ Ac-bm¬ t]cm¬ hr£-߃ \ne-\n¬°p-∂Xpw \K-c-ß-fnepw {Kma-ß-fnepw AÆm≥, Infn-Iƒ, F∂n-hsb Iq´-tØmsS ImWm≥ Ign-bp-∂Xpw CXp-sIm≠v Xs∂. C¥y≥ knwlw \ne-\n¬°p-∂Xv Ko¿ \mj-W¬ ]m¿°n-emWv. ISpØ FXn¿∏n-\n-S-bnepw Chsb kwc-£n® Pp\-L-´nse \hm-_ns‚ IpSpw-_-Øns‚ cmP-Iob \mbm´p-ÿ-e-am-bn-cp∂p. C¥y-bn-en∂v \ΩpsS `qan-bpsS 4%Øntesd hcp∂ h\y-Pohn kt¶-X-ß-fptSbpw tZio-b-]m¿°p-I-fp-tSbpw _tbm-kv^n-b¿ dnk¿Δp-I-fp-tSbpw Hcp irwJe Xs∂-bp≠v. ]gb CS-Xq¿∂ h\-ß-fp-≠m-bn-cp∂ Hcp cmPysØ kw_-‘n®v CXv hfsc A`n-am-\m¿lamWv.F∂m-en-∂sØ ssPh sshhn≤y kwc-£-W-tØm-Sp≈ k¿°m¿ klmb kao-]\w ISpØ kΩ¿±-Øn\v hnt[-b-amWv. Hcp {][m\ kwc-£W \S-]Sn F∂ \ne-bn¬ {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-Øns‚ \ne-\n¬∏n-\p≈ Bh-iy-߃t]mepw \ncm-I-cn-°p-∂-Xn-em-bn-cp∂p CXn¬ {]m[m\yw CXv Kuc-h-X-c-amb kwL¿j-߃°v Imc-W-ambn. kwc-£-WsØ hnI-k-\-Øn¬ \n∂v AI‰n \n¿Øm\pw CXv {ian®p. F∂m-en∂v {]Ir-Xn-ZØ h\-ß-fpsS hen-sbmcp `mKw J\-\-Øn\pw a‰v Nqj-Wm-[n-jvTnX hnI-k-\-Øn\pw Xpd-∂p-sIm-Sp-°p∂ `ojWn t\cn-Sp∂p.

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195


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

{]Ir-Xn-ZØ h\-߃°v ]pd-Øp≈ {]tZ-i-Øn\v CXv henb {i≤ \¬In-bn√. hf¿Øp kky߃°pw arK-߃°pw `qan-bn¬ CSw kwc-£n-°p-∂-Xp-t]m-se-bp≈ {]iv\-߃ ]q¿Æ-ambn Ah-K-Wn-°-s∏´p. ]c-º-cm-K-X-co-Xn-I-fmb hnip≤ h\-߃ C¥y≥ P\-X-bpsS ]cn-ÿnXn hn⁄m\w kw_-‘n® hym]-Ia - mb {]mtbm-KnIX F∂n-hs - b√mw Ah-⁄t- bm-sS-bmWv I≠Xv. kwc-£nX taJ-e-I-fnse I¿i\ \nb-{¥Ww aqe-ap≈ {]iv\-߃ C¥y-bnse h\y-Po-hn-Iƒ t\cn-Sp∂ G‰hpw henb `ojWn {]mtZ-inI kaq-lhpw AhcpsS Bh-iy-ßfpw BsW∂v h\w hIp∏v A[n-Ir-Xcpw ]´-W-ß-fnse kwc-£W {]h¿ØIcpw hym]-I-ambnhniz-kn-°p∂p. `c-Xv]q¿ NXp-∏nse A\p-`hw t]mse CXpw F{X henb sX‰n-≤m-c-W-bm-sW∂v _n.B¿.Sn. ln¬knse ]T\w hy‡-am-°p∂p. BI-bm¬ h\-hm-knIƒ°v h\y-Po-hn-kt- ¶-Xß - ƒ°p-≈nepw \mj-W¬ ]m¿°p-If - nepw h\-Ah - I - m-i\ - n-baw \¬Ip∂ Ah-Im-i-ßfpw DØ-c-hm-Zn-Xz-ßfpw icn-bmb coXn-bn¬ {]mh¿Øn-I-am-Ip∂p F∂v ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n Dd-∏p-h-cp-ØWw.

t_mIvkv -˛ 7 `c-Xv]q-cnse ZmcpW hnVnØw tUm. kenw Aensb t]mse ]fin-X-\mb Hcp imkv{X-⁄\pw {]iv\߃ BgØn¬ ]cn-tim-[n-°msX Cu ImgvN-∏m-Sn-t\mSv tbmPn®p F∂Xv \n¿`m-Ky-I-c-amWv. tZim-S\-]-£n-I-fpsS {]apJ Xmh-f-amb `c-Xv]q¿ NXp∏p {]tZ-i-amWv kzmX-{¥y-Øn-\p-tijw 1950 Ifn¬ tUm.kenw Aen-bpsS {ia-^-e-ambn ÿm]n® cmPysØ BZysØ h\y-Pohn kt¶Xw. tUm. Aen AhnsS h¿j-ß-tfmfw Xßn Bbn-c-°-W-°n\v tZim-S-\-]-£n-IfpsS hnhcw tiJ-cn®p. \q‰m-≠p-I-fmbn {]tZ-i-hm-kn-Iƒ ]p√p-ti-J-cn-°p-Ibpw Fcp-a-Iƒ ta™p-\-S-°p-Ibpw sNbvX {]tZ-i-amWv `c-Xv]q¿. F∂n´pw kº-∂-amb ssPh-ssh-hn≤y Bhm-k-tI-{μ-ambn CXv \ne-\n∂p. CsXmcp Fcp-a-I-fpsS ta®n¬]pdw F∂ Ahÿ am‰W-sa∂v tUm. Aen°v tXm∂n. C‚¿\m-j-W¬ t{I≥ ^ut≠-j-\nse hnZ-Kv[cpw CXns\- ]n¥p-W®p. Aß-s\-bmWv 1982 ¬ CsXmcp tZiob ]m¿°mbn {]Jym-]n-®Xv. tZio-b]m¿°n\v _m[-I-amb I¿i\ hyh-ÿ-Iƒ {]tZ-i-hm-kn-I-fpsS PohnXw hgn-ap-´n®p. ]Icw kwhn-[m\w Hcp-°msX Fcp-a-I-fpsS ta®n¬ \ntcm-[n®p. hym]-I-amb {]Xn-tj[w Db¿∂p-h∂p. shSn-sh-bv∏n¬ Ggp-t]¿ sIm√-s∏´p. ]s£ \ntcm-[\w ]n≥h-en-®n√. Cu CS-s]-S¬ Xo¿Øpw A{]-Xo-£n-X-amb ^e-am-Wp-≠m-°n-bXv. Pe-Øn¬ hfcp∂ Hcn\w ]p√ns‚ hf¿®sb \nb-{¥n-®p-\n¿Øn-bn-cp-∂Xv Fcp-a-I-fpsS ta®n-emWv. ta®n¬ \ntcm-[n-®-tXmsS Cu ]p√v A\n-b-{¥n-X-ambn hf-cm≥ XpSßn. \mj-W¬ ]m¿°v amt\-Pvsa‚ns‚ apJy-e-£y-amb hm´¿ ^uƒ F∂ ]£n-bpsS kwc-£Ww Ah-Xm-f-Ønembn. ssk_o-cn-b-bn¬ \n∂v FØn-s°m-≠n-cp∂ sIm‰n-I-fpsS FÆhpw KWy-ambn Ipd™p. tZio-b-]m¿°n\v sXm´-Sp-Øp≈ BLm-]q¿ hnt√Pv \nhm-kn-Iƒ°v ]d-bm-\p≈Xv hyXy-kvX-am-sbmcp kw`-h-amWv. ssk_o-cn-b≥ sIm‰n-Iƒ ap≥]v {][m-\-ambpw `£n-®n-cp-∂Xv aÆn-\-Sn-bnse Nne [m\y-ßfpw Ing-ßp-I-fp-am-bn-cp∂p. {Kma-hm-kn-Iƒ Infbv°p-tºmƒ aÆv Cf-Ip-∂-Xn-\m¬ sIm‰n-Iƒ°v Ch sImØn-sb-Sp-°m≥ Ffp-∏-am-bn-cp∂p. ChnSw tZiob ]m¿°mbn {]Jym-]n-®-tXmsS aÆv Inf-bv°m≥ Ign-bm-Xmbn. CXv sIm‰n-IfpsS `£Ww ap´n®p. Cu \nK-a\w IqSp-X¬ At\z-j-W-hn-t[-b-am-t°-≠-bp≠v. (KmUvKn¬ et al. 2000)

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196


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

t_mIvkv ˛ 8 _nen-Kncn cwK-kzman t£{X-a-e-Iƒ (BTR ae-Iƒ) h\-hm-kn-I-fpsS Ah-Im-i-߃ \ntj-[n-°p-∂-Xp-aq-e-ap≈ kmaq-ly-B-LmXw IqSn hcp-tºmƒ ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-kw-c-£-W-Øn-\p≈ sNehpw Gdn-h∂p. Cu hkvXpX hn]p-eamb N¿®bv°v hnt[-b-am-bn-´n√. h\w amt\-Pvsa‚ns‚ tI{μo-IrX kwhn-[m\w {]mtZ-inI ]cn-ÿn-Xn-tbmSpw kμ¿`-ß-tfmSpw ¢n]vX-amb {]Xn-I-cWw krjvSn-°m≥ Imc-W-ambn. Xo \n-tcm-[\w, Irjn-bp-sSbpw h\-hn-`h hnf-sh-Sp-∏n-s‚bpw am‰w F∂n-h-t]m-se-bp≈ GI amt\-Pvsa‚ v kwhn-[m\w h\-N-cn-{X-sØbpw ]cn-ÿn-Xn-sbbpw kw_-‘n® Kncn-h¿§-°mcpsS {]mtZ-inI [mc-Wbpw Adnhpw ]q¿Æ-ambn Ah-K-Wn-°-s∏´p. CXv h\w {]h¿Ø-\ßsf XInSw adn®p. I¿Æm-S-I-bnse ssakq¿ Pn√-bn-ep≈ _n.B¿.Sn ae-I-fpsS ImcyØn¬ CXv hy‡-ambn tcJ-s∏-Sp-Ø-s∏-´n-´p≠v. C∂v ssPh-ssh-hn-≤ysØ hne-a-Xn-°p∂ h\-ßsf kwc-£n-®p-t]m∂ {]mtZ-in-I-co-Xn-Iƒ ho≠pw G¿s∏-Sp-Ø-W-sa∂v {]tZ-i-hmkn-Iƒ XpS¿®-bmbn Bh-iy-s∏-´p-sIm-≠n-cp∂p. h-\-Øn\pw h\-kw-c-£-W-Øn\pw AhImiw A\p-h-Zn-°p-∂Xv h\-ß-fpsS {]mtZ-in-Ihpw kμ¿t`m-Nn-X-hp-amb amt\-Pva-sa‚n\v klm-b-I-amIpw. P\sØ h\-Øn¬ \n∂v am‰n \n¿Øn-bXpw h\-hm-kn-Isf Itø-‰-°m-cmbn Nn{Xo-I-cn-®Xpw Ah-Im-i-߃ ]q¿Æ-ambn \ntj-[n-®Xpw h\y-Po-hn-I-sfbpw h\-ß-sfbpw kw_-‘n®v {]mtZ-inI P\-k-aq-l-Øn¬ {]Xn-Im-c-]-c-am-sbmcp at\m-`mhw krjvSn-°-s∏´p. h\-ßsf kwc-£n-°m≥ k¿°m¿ \S-Ønb {ia-߃°v hn]-co-X-^-e-ap-≠m-b-Xn\p DZm-l-cW-߃ \nc-h-[n-bp≠v. Ip]n-X-cmb h\-hm-kn-Iƒ DW-°p-k-a-bØv h\-߃°v ]c-am-h[n \mi-\-jvS-ap-≠m-°m-\mbn h\-߃°v Xobn´p. h\w-h-Ip-∏ns\ ]‰n-°m-\mbn Akw-Xr-]vXcmb {]tZ-i-hm-kn-Iƒ XSn˛h\y-ar-K-am-^n-b-I-fp-ambn tN¿∂v h\\b-Øns‚ ad-hn¬ \ntj[n-°-s∏´ Ahm¿Uv, h\w hIp-∏n¬ \n∂v X´n-sb-Sp-°m≥ Ah¿ {ian®p. A]q¿Δw Nne kμ¿`-ß-fn¬ kwc-£Ww hnP-bn-®n-´p-s≠-¶n¬ AXv kwÿm\ F≥t^m-gvkvsa‚ns\ D]tbm-Kn®v t\Sn-b-XmWv. A√msX {]mtZ-inI kaqlw \nb-a-hn-t[-b-ambn kzbw t\Sn-b-X√. {]mtZ-inI {]Xn-tj-[-ßsf Ãm^n\pw, C‘-\-Ønv\pw Bbp-[-߃°pw IqSp-X¬ ^≠v A\ph-Zn®v k¿°m¿ Aa¿® sNbvXp. kwc-£Ww ]´m-f-h¬°-cn-°p-∂Xv h¿≤n-®p-h-cp∂ Hcp BtKmf {]Xn-`m-k-amWv.

ht\-Xc Bh-iy-߃ aμo-`-hn®p h\-kw-c-£-W-Øn\v h\ Ah-Im-i-\n-baw \¬Inb G‰hpw henb kw`m-h\ hnI-k\-{]-h¿Ø-\-߃°p-th≠n h\w hIam-dp-∂-Xns‚ B°w Ipd®p F∂-XmWv. tI{μ ]cnÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw 2009¬ ]pd-s∏-Sp-hn® Hcp k¿°p-e-dn¬ h\w ht\-Xc Bh-iy߃°v D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xn\v _‘-s∏´ {Kma-k-`-bpsS tcJm-aq-e-ap≈ A\p-aXn hmßp-sa∂v kwÿm\ h\w hIp-∏p-I-tfmSv \n¿t±-in®p. P\-hm-k-ap≈ h\-{]-tZ-i-߃ J\n-Iƒt°m AW-s°-´p-Iƒt°m henb hnI-k-k-\-]-≤-Xn-Iƒt°m th≠n Gs‰-Sp-°p-tºmƒ h\m-h-Imi \nb-a-{]-Im-c-ap≈ Ah-Im-i-ß-fn-t∑¬ Xo¿∏p-I-ev]n-®n-cn-°-W-sa∂ hyhÿ AXp-hsc s]s´∂v ¢nb-d≥kv e`n-®n-cp∂ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ°v hen-sbmcp XS- -ambn. ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv {]{In-bbpw {Kma-k-`-bpsS A\p-aXn thW-sa∂ \n¿t±-ihpw h\- A-h-Imi \nbaw \S-∏m°n-bXpw hnI-k-\-]-≤-Xn-Iƒ°v A{]-Xo-£n-X-amb tImWn¬ \nt∂‰ I\Ø {]l-c-ambn.

kmaq-ly-h-\-A-h-Im-ihpw kwc-£-Whpw h\ Ah-Imi \nb-a-sØ-]‰n hf-sc-b-[nIw ]d-™p-I-gn™p. Cu hn`m-K-Øn¬ _nenKncn cwK-kzman t£{X-Ønse h\y-Po-hn-k-t¶-X-Ønse A\p-`-h-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ ssPh-ssh-hn≤y kwc-£-W-Øn¬ {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-Øn\v \nbaw \¬Ip∂ Ah-k-c-ß-sf]-‰n-bmWv {]Xn-]m-Zn-°p-∂Xv. h\-`q-an-bnepw h\- D-ev]-∂-ß-fnepw Ah-Im-ihpw amt\Pvsa‚nepw Imem-Im-e-ß-fmbn \S-∂p-h-cp∂ kwc-£-W- \-S-]-Sn-I-fn-ep-≈ Ah-Im-ihpw e£yw h®p≈ A]q¿Δ-am-sbmcp \nb-a-amWv h\-A-h-Im-i-\n-baw. h\-\bw _m[n-°p∂ h\-hm-knI-fpsS h\-Ønse \ne-\n¬∏v `{Z-am-sW∂v Dd-∏n-°m≥ Cu \nbaw e£y-an-Sp∂p. hy‡nIƒ°v `qan-bn-ep≈ Ah-Imiw Ah-cpsS Pohn-X-Øns‚ Hcp sNdnb Awiw am{X-am-sW∂v

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

\nbaw AwKo-I-cn-°p∂p. kmaq-ly-h-\-A-h-Im-i-ß-fn-t∑-ep≈ Ah-Im-i-hm-Z-߃ \nc-h-[nbmWv. h\-ß-fn-ep≈ {]mtZ-inI P\-ß-fpsS B{in-X-Xzhpw Ncn-{X-]-c-amb Ah-cpsS ]m¿izh¬°-c-Whpw Ah-Im-i-\n-tj-[-hp-amWv CXv kqNn-∏n-°p-∂Xv. h\-hm-kn-Iƒ°v Ah-Im-is - ∏-Sm-hp∂ Ah-Im-iß - f - psS ]´nI h\-Ah - I - m-i\ - n-ba - Ø - ns‚ 3(1) hn`m-K-Øn¬ sImSp-Øn-´p≠v. 13 Ah-Im-i-߃ ]d-™n-´p-≈-Xn¬ cs≠Æw `qan-bn-ep≈ Ah-Im-isØ kw_-‘n-®mWv. Ct∏mƒ Irjn sNbvXp-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ h\-`qan , t\csØ \nb-a-hn-cp-≤-ambn Hgn-∏n-°-s∏-´-h¿°v ]Icw `qan, CXmWv Ah-Im-i-\n-b-a-Ønse hyhÿ. enkv‰nse a‰n-\-ß-fmb kmaq-ly- A-h-Im-i-ß-fn¬ h\-hn-`-h-߃ hnf-sh-Sp-°m-\p≈ AhImiw, a’y-_-‘-\-Øn-\p≈ Ah-Imiw , h\w dh-\yq-hn-t√-Pm-°n-am-‰m-\p≈ Ah-Imiw F∂nh Dƒs∏-Sp∂p. ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´ Ah-Im-i-ß-fn¬ kpÿnc hn\ntbm-K-Øn-\p-th≠n ]mc-º-cy-ambn Ah¿ kwc-£n-°p∂ GXv kmaq-ly-h-\-hn-`-h-Øn-s‚bpw kwc-£-Whpw ]p\-cp-÷o-h-\hpw \S-Øn∏pw Dƒs∏-Sp∂ ssPh-ssh-hn≤yw ssIImcyw sNøm\p≈ Ah-Im-i-Øn¬ kaq-l-Øns‚ _u≤n-I-kz-Ø-h-Imiw, ssPh sshhn-≤y-hp-ambpw kmwkvIm-cnI sshhn-≤y-hp-ambpw _‘-s∏´ ]c-º-cm-KX hn⁄m\w F∂nh Dƒs∏-Sp∂p. Ah-Im-iß - ƒ e`n-®p-Ig - n-™h - sc h\y-Po-hn-If - p-sSbpw h\-ßf - p-sSbpw ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-Øns‚ kwc-£-W-Øn-\m-bp≈ kan-Xn-Iƒ cq]o-I-cn-°m≥ \nbaw Npa-X-e-s∏-Sp-Øp∂p. F∂m¬ CXphsc h\y-Po-hn-I-fp-sSbpw h\-Øn-s‚bpw ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-am-t\-Pvsa‚n-s‚bpw \nb-{¥-W-ap≠m-bn-cp∂ h\w hIp-∏p-ambpw _‘-s∏´ a‰v GP≥kn-I-fp-ambpw Cu IΩn‰n Fßs\ Bib-hn-\n-abw \S-Ø-W-sa-∂-Xn-s\-∏‰n \nbaw au\w ]men-°p∂p. h\w hIp∏pw IΩn-‰n-Ifpw XΩn¬ kwL¿j-ap-≠m-°p-∂-Xn\v CXv Imc-W-am-bn-´p≠v.h\w kwc-£W \nbaw (1980) h\yPohn kwc-£W \nbaw (1972) F∂nh {]Imcw h\- `q-an-bn-ep≈ h\w hIp-∏ns‚ DØ-c-hmZn-Xz-߃ Ct∏mgpw AtX-]Sn \ne-\n¬°p∂p. kmaqly h\ Ah-Imiw ÿm]n-s®-Sp-°p-∂Xn¬ C¥y-bn-ep-S-\ofw h\w-h-Ip∏pw kan-Xn-Ifpw XΩn¬ \ne-\n¬°p∂ X¿°-Øn\pw kwL¿j-Øn\pw ImcWw CXmWv. h\w amt\-Pvsa‚n\v A\p-tbm-Py-amb kz¥w kwhn-[m-\-Øn\v cq]w \¬Im≥ {Kma-k`-Iƒ°pw _‘-s∏´ ÿm]-\-߃°pw h\-A-h-Im-i-\n-baw kzmX{¥yw \¬Ip-∂p≠v. {Kmak-`-Ifpw h\w hIp∏pw XΩn-ep≈ _‘-Ønepw IΩn-‰n-I-fpsS {]h¿Ø-\-Ønepw hy‡-Xbn-√m-bva°v ImcWw Hcp ÿm]-\-h¬IrX kwhn-[m-\-Øns‚ A`m-h-amWv.{Kma-k-`-I-fp-sSbpw h\w hIp-∏n-s‚bpw Npa-X-e-Isf ]‰n hy‡-am-sbmcp "tdmUvam∏v'' \nb-a-Øn-en√., Cu \nba-Øns‚ shfn-®-Øn¬ h\w hIp-∏ns‚ Npa-X-e-Iƒ ]p\¿ \n¿Ωn-°m-\mbn tI{μ ]cnÿnXn˛h\ a{¥m-ebw Hcp IΩ-‰nsb \ntbm-Kn®v C°m-cy-Øn¬ h\w-h-Ip-∏ns‚ ]¶v F¥mh-W-sa∂v ]p\¿\n¿Wbw \S-Øm≥ {ian-s®-¶nepw ]q¿Æ-ambn hnP-bn-°m≥ Ign-™n√. t\csØ \S-Ønb A[n-Imc hntI-{μo-I-cW {ia-ß-fpsS ^e-am-bp-≠mb hni-Z-amb ÿm]\-L-S\ ISpØ DtZym-K-ÿ-\n-b-{¥-W-Øn\pw {]mtZ-inI ÿm]-\-ß-fp-sSbpw {ia-ß-fp-sSbpw Dbn¿sØ-gp-t∂-ev]n\pw CS-bm°n. h\-A-h-Im-i-\n-baw {Kma-k-`-Isf i‡n-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p-s≠¶nepw hn`-h-߃ ssIImcyw sNøm≥ B{K-ln-°p∂ kaq-l-Øn\v AXn\v Ah-kcw \¬Im\mWv \nbaw \n¿t±-in-°p-∂Xv. {Kma-k` - I - sf {]Y-aÿ m-]\ - ß - f - mbn AwKo-Ic - n-°p-∂X - n-s\m∏w hy‡-amb hntI-{μo-I-cW {ia-ßfpw \nb-a-Øn-ep≠v. \n¿±n-jvS-ÿm-]\ kwhn-[m-\-Øns‚w A`mhw F∂Xv sIm≠¿∞-am-°p-∂Xv cmjv{Sob Ah-t_m-[-ap≈ {Kma-k-`-Iƒ°p-am-{Xta kz¥w hn`-h-߃ ssIImcyw sNøm≥ Ignbq F∂mWv. Cu \nbaw hn⁄m-]\w sNbvXti-j-ap≈ Ime-b-f-hn¬ CXp-hsc Hcp {Kma-k` am{Xta kz¥w kmaq-ly-h-\-{]-tZiw kwc£n-°m\pw ssIImcyw sNøm\pw D≈ Ah-Im-i-Øn-\mbn apt∂m´p hcp-Ibpw t\Sp-Ibpw sNbvXn-´p≈p. alm-cm-jv{S-bnse KUvNn-tdmfn Pn√-bnse sa‘˛teJ {Kma k`-bm-WnXv. kmaqly hnI-k-\-Øn-\m-bp≈ Iu¨kn¬ AXns‚ dnt∏m¿´n¬ h\-A-h-Im-i-\n-b-aØns‚ \S-Øn-∏ns\ Ipdn®p ]d-bp-∂Xv \nb-a-Øn¬ `qan-bp-ambn _‘-an-√mØ F√m Ah-

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Im-i-ßfpw Ah-bn-te-sdbpw kmaqly Ah-Im-i-ß-fmWv hym]-I-ambn Ah-K-Wn-°-s∏Sp F∂mWv. tI{μ˛kwÿm\ k¿°m-cp-Iƒ Cu \nb-asØ I≠Xpw Hcp ]´b hnX-c-W-]≤Xn F∂ \ne-bn-emWv. \nb-a-Ønse hyh-ÿ-Iƒ \S-∏m-°p-∂-Xn-ep≈ XSkw {][m-\ambpw kwÿm\˛{Kma-k`˛ kaq-l-X-e-Øn-em-bn-cp∂p. Ah-Im-i-߃ t\Sn-sb-Sp-°p-∂-Xn¬ Xt±-i-ÿm-]-\-ß-fpsS hnap-J-Xbv°pa∏p-dw kwÿm-\-ß-fpsS FXn¿∏n-\m-[mcw kz¥w hn`h-߃ ssIImcyw sNøm-\p≈ Ignhv {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-Øn-\n-s√∂pw F√m-Øcw {]mtZinI hn\n-tbm-K-ßfpw \ne-hm-c-Ø-I¿® D≠m-°p-sa-∂p-ap≈ ]g-©≥hm-Z-amWv. ssPh sshhn≤y-Øns‚ kwc-£-W-Øn\pw, h\-ß-fpsS amt\-Pvsa‚n\pw hnZ-Kv[-hn-⁄m-\w {][m-\-amsW∂pw ]c-º-cm-KX coXn-Iƒ Aim-kv{Xo-bhpw \ne-hm-c-an-√m-ØXpw BsW-∂pap≈ sImtfmWn-b¬ ImgvN-∏m-Sn¬ A[n-jvTn-X-am-WnXv. C°m-cy-ß-fn-se√mw kXyw hfsc AI-se-bmWv. I¿Æm-SI ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse _nen-Kncn cwK-kzman t£{X-h-\y-Pohn kt¶-XsØ kw_‘n® ]T-\-Øn¬ hy‡-am-Ip-∂Xv, "tkmfn-Kmkvv' F∂ Kncn-h¿§-°m¿°v {]mtZ-inI ]cnÿn-Xnsb kw_-‘n®v hy‡-amb hnh-c-ap-s≠-∂mWv. Ah-Im-i-߃, {]mtZ-inI hn⁄m\w, kwkvImcw Kncn-P-\-ß-tfbpw h\-Øn-t\bpw _m[n® \nc-h[n \b-hy-Xn-bm-\-߃°v _nen-Kncn h\-߃ hnt[-b-am-bn-´p≠v. 1975 ¬ h\y-ar-K-k-t¶Xw ÿm]n-X-am-b-tXmsS tkmfn-Kmkn s\ Ah-cpsS Irjn-`q-an-bn¬ \n∂v tImf-Wn-I-fn-te°v am‰n ]m¿∏n®p. XpS¿∂v `qhn-\n-tbmK amt\-Pvsa‚n¬ henb am‰-ß-fp-≠mbn. tkmfn-Km-kns‚ Irjn-coXn kzbw ÿew amdn-amdn Irjn-sN-øp∂ coXn-bn¬ \n∂v H‰-ÿ-e-Øp-Xs∂ Irjn sNøp∂ coXn-bn-te°v amdn. \nch[n {]tbm-P\ - ß - f - p-≠m-bn-cp∂ kok-Wns‚ BZy-L´- Ø - nse Im´p-Xo-bpsS D]-tbm-Ka - pƒs∏sS Ah-cpsS h\-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v coXn-Iƒ A∏msS s]mSp-∂-\sh C√m-Xm°n. ac CXc h\-D-ev]∂-߃ kam-l-cn-°m≥ 2005 hsc A\p-h-Zn-®n-cp-∂p-sh-¶nepw h\y-Pohn kwc-£W \nbaw t`Z-KXn sNbvX-tXmsS AXpw \ntcm-[n®p. h\ Dev]-∂-ßsf ]q¿Æ-ambn B{i-bn-®n-cp∂ tkmfn-Km-kns‚ \nXy-Po-hn-X-sØ-Xs∂ CXv kmc-ambn _m[n®p. h\-A-h-Im-i-\n-baw \nehn¬ hcp-Ibpw tkmfn-Kmkv t£a-kw-L-S-\-Iƒ hym]-I-amb {]Nm-cWw \S-Øp-Ibpw sNbvXXns‚ ^e-ambn ^e-h¿§-ßfpw tX\pw tiJ-cn-°m≥ A\u-tZym-Kn-I-ambn h\w hIp∏v Ah¿°v A\p-aXn \¬In. h\ Ah-Imi \nbaw tkmfn-Km-kn¬ Bfl-hn-izmkw hf¿Øp-∂Xn¬ hf-sc-b-[nIw hnP-bn®p. h\ Dev]-∂-ß-fpsS hnf-sh-Sp-°m\pw `qan Irjn sNøm\pw Ah-Imiw e`n-®-tXmsS h\y-Po-hn-k-t¶-X-Ønse \ne-\n¬∏v IqSp-X¬ kpc-£n-X-am-b-Xmbn Ah¿ IcpXn. Im´pXo XpS-°-Øn¬ Xs∂ Aa¿® sNbvX-Xp-aqew _nen-Kncn cwK-kzm-an-t£-{X-ae apgp-h≥ "em‚m\' F∂ ]mgvsNSn hf¿∂p ]¥-en®p. CXv Ahn-SsØ h\w amt\-Pvsa‚ns‚ hen-sbmcp hogvN-bmWv. tkmfn-Kmkv Ah-cpsS ]mc-ºcy coXn-I-fn-eqsS Xosb \nb-{¥n-®n-cp∂-Xn-\m¬ ASn-°m-Sp-I-fnse ]mgvs®-Sn-Iƒ \in-°p-Ibpw Ing-ß-p-Ifpw a‰pw kar-≤-ambn hfcp-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp∂p. kok-Wns‚ XpS-°-Øn-ep≈ Xo ]pd-Øp-\n-∂p≈ ]mgvsN-Sn-Iƒ AhntS°v IS-∂p-I-bdn B[n-]Xyw ÿm]n-°p-∂-Xns\ ^e-{]-Z-am°n \nb-{¥n-®n-cp∂p. tkmfn-Kmkns‚ A`n-{]m-b-Øn¬ "Awe' ac-ß-fn¬ Nne ]cm-∂-t`m-Pn-Iƒ ]S¿∂p-I-bdn hr£-߃ \in-°m-\n-S-bm-bXpw CXp-sIm-≠p-Xs∂. Xobpw ]mc-ssk-‰p-Ifpw hr£-߃ \in-°p-∂Xpw XΩn-ep≈ _‘w tkmfn-Kmkv Db¿Øn-°m´n. ]c-º-cm-KX coXn-Iƒ ]q¿Æ-ambn ssIhn-´Xp-aqew Hgn-hm-°mambn-cp∂ ]cn-ÿnXn {]iv\-ß-fmWv krjvSn-°-s∏-´Xv. h\-߃ ssIImcyw sNøm≥ {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-Øn-\p≈ Ign-hmWv CXv hy‡-am-°p-∂Xv. {]mtZ-in-I-amb Adnhp-I-fpsS coXn-Ifpw h\w amt\-Pvsa‚ v πm\n¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øm≥ h\w hIp∏v Xøm-dm-bn-cp∂p F¶n¬ cwK-kzman t£{X-a-e-bnse ÿnXn C∂-tØ-Xn¬ \n∂v hfsc hyXy-kvX-am-Ip-am-bncp∂p. h\ Ah-Im-i\ - n-ba - Ø - n¬ {Kma-k`m IΩn-‰n-Iƒ°v \¬Ip∂ {]m[m-\yhpw amt\-Pvsa‚n¬ Ah-bv°p≈ ]¶pw \¬Ip∂ Ah-Im-i-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ tkmfn-Km-kn\v h\-Øns‚

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199


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

kPo-hX kw_-‘n® Ah-cpsS Adnhv {]mtbm-Kn°mw. "se‚m\' sNSn-Iƒ \in-∏n-°-s∏tS≠ BZy-{]-tZ-i-߃ Is≠-Øp-∂-Xn\pw Awe ^e-ß-fpsS hnf-sh-Sp-∏p-Im-eØv ]mc-ssk‰p-Isf \in-∏n-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ am¿§w kw_-‘n®pw h\w hIp-∏n\v Bh-iy-amb klmbw \¬Im-sa∂v Ah¿ CubnsS hy‡-am-°n-bn-cp∂p. {]mtZ-inI P\-X-bpsS ÿm\w, Ncn{Xw, kwkvImcw, Adnhv F∂n-h-sb√mw ]msS Ah-K-Wn-®p-sIm≠v B[p-\nI h\w amt\-Pvsa‚ v P\-ßsf h\-Øn¬ \n∂ B´n-∏m-bn-°p-IbmWv. cwK-kzman t£{X-a-e-bnse ImSp-Isf tkmfn-Kmkv "sb√"Ifmbn hn`-Pn-®n-´p≠v.Hmtcm sb√-bnepw 5 hnip≤ ssk‰p-I-fp≠v. Ch-bn-tem-tcm∂pw Hmtcm Ipe-Øn-\p-≈-Xm-Wv. ssZhß-fp-sSbpw t{]X-ß-fp-sSbpw km∂n-≤y-amWv Chsb kwc-£n-°p-Ibpw \bn-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂Xv. A©v hnip≤ ssk‰p-Iƒ Dƒs∏´ Hcp kmwkvIm-cnI Iq´m-bva-bmWv "sb√'. Xmak ÿe-Øn-\-SpØv Ah-cpsS kmwkvIm-cnI ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ \S-Øm≥ kuI-cy-an-√mØ hn`m-K߃°v Ah-cpsS Bh-iy-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ CXns\ ho≠pw hn`-Pn-°p∂p. sb√Iƒ°vv Ipem-[n-jvTnX AXn-cp-I-fm-Wp-≈Xv. h\-߃°v t]cp-Iƒ \¬In-bn-´p-≈Xpw CXns‚ ASnÿm-\-Øn-emWv. X∑qew Hmtcm sb√-bp-sSbpw AXn-cp-Iƒ tkmfn-Km-kn\v ImWm-]m-T-amWv. kt¶-X-Øn-\p-≈nse samØw h\-{]-tZ-isØ 46 sb√--I-fm°n hn`-Pn-®n-´p-≈-Xmbn Chn-SsØ am∏nwKv hy‡-am-°p∂p. Cu t£{X-a-e-bpsS am∏nßv C¥y-bn¬ Xs∂ CØ-c-Øn-ep≈ BZy-{i-a-am-b-Xn-\m¬ tkmfn-Km-kn\pw CXn¬ henb Xmev]-cy-ambn. tkmfn-Kmkv Ahn-SsØ ]c-º-cm-KX kwhn-[m-\-Øns‚ `mK-am-b-Xn-\m¬ sb√-bpsS AXn-cp-Iƒ Xn´-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ \o°sØ Ipe-kw-hn-[m-\-Øns‚ ]mc-º-cyhpw kwkvIm-chpw ]p\-cp-÷o-hn-∏n-°m-\p≈ Ah-k-c-am-bmWv Ah¿ I≠Xv. tkmfn-Km-kns‚ ]c-º-cm-K-X-\n-baw ]p\-ÿm-]n-°-s∏-Sp-sa∂v Ah¿ {]Xym-in®p. tkmfn-Km-knse apXn¿∂-h-cpsS ImgvN-∏m-Sn¬ "tZhmcp', "I√p-KpUn',, ‘hocp’, ‘kam-[n’, ‘l∫n’ F∂nh IpSn-sIm-≈p∂ CS-amWv sbs√. h\ Ah-Im-i-\n-b-a-Ønse hyh-ÿ-Isf∏‰n Adn-bm-hp∂ tkmfn-Km-knse sNdp-∏-°m¿ Poh-k-‘m-c-W-Øn\pw AkvXnXz-Øn\pw sXfn-hmbn hnip≤ ssk‰p-I-fpsS `q]-SsØ D]-tbm-Kn®p.

h\-A-h-Im-i-\n-baw cwK-kzman t£{X-a-e-bn¬ h\ -A-h-Im-i-Øns‚ N´-߃ 2008 ¬ hn⁄m-]\w sNbvX DS≥ cwK-kzman t£{X-ae-bnse tkmfn-Kmkv Nma-cm-P\K¿ Pn√-bnse h\-{]-tZ-i-ß-fn¬ h\ Ah-Imi kan-Xn-Iƒ cq]o-I-cn-°m≥ XpS-ßn. \nb-a-Ønse 3(1) kn hIp∏p {]Imcw Ah¿ BZyw D∂-bn® AhImiw h\y-Po--hn-k-t¶X-Øn-\p-≈n¬ h\-hn-`-h-߃ tiJ-cn-°m\pw hn¬°m\pw D≈ kmaqly h\-A-h-Im-i-amWv. B kabw cmPy-Øp-S-\ofw `qan-bnse Ah-Im-i-Øn-\m-bp≈ apd-hnfn Dbcp-I-bm-bn-cp∂p. tkmfn-Kmkv CØ-c-sam-c-h-Imiw D∂-bn-°m≥ ImcWw h\y-Pohn kwc-£W-\n-b-a-ß-fn¬ hcp-Ønb t`Z-KXn {]Imcw cmPysØ tZiob ]m¿°p-I-fnepw kt¶-X-ßfnepw \n∂v h\-hn-`-h-߃ tiJ-cn-°p-∂Xv \ntcm-[n-®n-cp∂XmWv. CXv Ah-cpsS hcp-am-\sØbpw Pohn-X-sØbpw {]Xn-k-‘n-bn-em-°n-bn-cp∂p. h\-hn-`-h-߃ tiJ-cn-°m-\p≈ AhImiw k_v˛Unhn-j≥ Xe-k-anXn AwKo-I-cn-®p-sh-¶nepw tkmfn-Kmkv Ign™ aq∂v h¿jambn CXn-\mbn \nc-¥c kΩ¿±w sNep-Øp-Ibpw sNbvXn´pw Pn√m-Xe kanXn CXn\v A\paXn \¬In-bn√. Pn√m-Xe kan-Xn-bnse h\w-h-Ip∏v {]Xn-\n[n \ntcm-[\w \ne-\n¬°p-∂-Xn\m¬ CX-\p-h-Z-°m≥ ]mSn-s√∂ \ne-]m-Sn-em-bn-cp∂p. CXv h\-A-h-Im-i-\n-b-a-Øns‚ ewL\-amWv. CXn-s\-Xnsc kwÿm\ No^v sk{I-´dn A≤y-£-\m-bp≈ kwÿm\ Xe kanXn°v A∏o¬ \¬Im-\p≈ Xocp-am-\-Øn-emWv tkmfn-Kmkv. cwK-kzman t£{X-a-e-bn-sebpw kao-]{- ]-tZ-iß - f - n-tebpw tkmfnKmkv IpSpw-_mw-Kß - ƒ 2009¬ hym‡n-KX `qan-°mbn At]£ \¬In 2011 BZyw 1438 tkmfnKmkv IpSpw-_-߃°v Irjn-`q-an-bn¬ hy‡n-K-X-A-h-Imiw A\p-h-Zn®p. ]t£ Xma-k-Øn-\p≈ Ah-Imiw e`n-®n√. tkmfnK IpSpw-_-ß-fn¬ ]Ip-Xnbpw `qc-ln-X-cmWv. AXp-sIm≠v Ah-cpsS ]´nWn AI-‰m\pw Poh-k-‘m-c-W-Øn\pw kmaq-ly-h\-A-h-Imiw IqSntb Xocq. h\-hn-`-h-߃ tiJ-cn-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ Ah-Im-i-hm-Z-Øn-\p-]p-dta

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200


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

F´v {Kma-k-`-Iƒ a’y-_-‘-\-Øn\pw Imen-ta-bv°p-∂-Xn\pw kwc-£-W-Øn\pw amt\Pvsa‚n\pw D≈ Ah-Im-i-߃ e`n-°m\pw IqSn At]-£n®p.

ISph kwc-£-Whpw {]mtZ-inI Ah-Im-i-ßfpw _nen-Kncn cwK-kzman t£{X-a-e-Iƒ Hcp ISp-h-k-t¶-X-ambn {]Jym-]n-°m≥ tI{μ ]cnÿnXn h\w a{¥m-ebw I¿Æm-SI k¿°m-cn\v 2010 sk]vXw-_-dn¬ XXz-Øn¬ A\p-aXn \¬In-bXv tkmfn-Km-kns‚ Ah-Im-iß - sf {]Xn-Iq-ea - mbn _m[n®p. 2011 P\p-hc - n-bn¬ CsXmcp ISp-h-k-t¶-X-ambn hn⁄m-]\w sNøp-Ibpw sNbvXp. CXv hym]-I-amb {]Xn-tj-[-Øn-\n-Sbm°n. tI{μ h\w a{¥n Dƒ∏sS F√m a{¥n-amcpw Db¿∂ DtZym-K-ÿ¿°pw CXn-s\-Xnsc tkmfn-Kmkv \nth-Z\w \¬In. tZiob ISph kwc-£W AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS A¥n-a-A-\p-aXn e`n-°msX [rXn-]n-Sn®v kwÿm\ k¿°m¿ ]pd-s∏-Sp-hn® Cu hn⁄m-]\w aqew h\ AhImi \nbaw aqew ssIh∂ t\´-߃ C√m-Xm-hp-I-bm-W∂pw tkmfn-Km-kns‚ Pohn-XsØ CXv XInSw adn-°p-sa∂pw A`n-{]m-b-ap-b¿∂p. kt¶-X-Øn-\p-≈n¬ bYm¿∞-Øn¬ ISp-h-IfpsS Bhm-k-tI-{μ-ambn Is≠-Øn-bn-´p-≈Xv 10 t]mUp-I-fmWv. ChnsS I¿i-\-\n-b-{¥-Wßfpw kwc-£-W-\-S-]-Sn-Ifpw G¿s∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw thWw. Aß-s\-bp≈ Hcp kao-]\w tkmfnKm-kns‚ kmaq-lyhpw kmwkvIm-cn-Ihpw kmº-Øn-I-hp-amb Ah-ÿ-bn¬ am‰-ap-≠m°pw. Ign™ Zi-IØ - ns‚ Bcw`w apX¬ Xs∂ tkmfn-Kmkpw h\w hIp∏pw XΩn-ep≈ kwL¿jw h¿≤n-®p-h-cn-I-bm-bn-cp∂p. GI-]-£o-b-amb kwc-£-W-\n-baw ASn-t®¬∏n-°m-\p≈ {iahpw h\-kw-c-£-W-\n-baw \¬Ip∂ Ah-Im-i-߃ \ntj-[n-°m-\p≈ \S-]-Sn-Ifpw h\w hIp-∏nt\mSpw h\-tØmSpw h\y-Po-hn-I-tfm-Sp-ap≈ FXn¿∏v cq£-am°n.

ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ am¿§-߃ \ne-hn-ep≈ \nb-a-ßfpw N´-ßfpw I¿i-\-ambn ]men-°m\pw hne-bn-cp-Øm\pw h\w˛h\yPn-hn- h-Ip∏pw dh-\yp-h-Ip∏pw \S-]Sn kzoI-cn-°Ww. ]¶m-fnØ kao-]\w: Dt±-in-°p∂ ^ew e`n-°-Ø° hn[w kwbp‡ h\w amt\-Pvsa‚ v {]h¿Ø\-߃ sa®-s∏-Sp-ØWw. kwc-£W {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn¬ Xt±i ÿm]-\-ß-tfbpw k¿°m¿ CXc kwL-S-\-I-tfbpw kzbw klm-b-{Kq-∏p-I-tfbpw kwc-£n-X-ta-J-e-Iƒ°v ]pdØv ]¶m-fn-I-fm-IWw. KpP-dm-Øn-te-Xp-t]mse tPmen Dd∏pw {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-Øn\v em`-hn-lnXw e`n-°p-∂Xp-amb kmaqly kpc-£nX˛h\w˛tXm´-ßsf (Forest plantations) t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI. h\-߃ imkv{Xo-b-ambn ]cn-]m-en-°p-∂-Xn\v Kth-j-W-ÿm-]-\-߃ k¿Δ-I-em-im-eIƒ, a‰v imkv{Xob ÿm]-\-߃, F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn¬ \n∂p≈ hn⁄m-\-߃ {]tbm-P-\s∏-Sp-ØpI. kztZ-io-bhpw ssPh-B-hm-k-ku-lr-Z-]-c-hp-amb C\-ßsf Dƒs∏-SpØn '' {Ko≥ C¥y≥ anj≥' ^e-{]-Z-ambn D]-tbm-Kn-°pI. kwc-£-W-{]-h¿Ø-\-߃°v {]tZ-i-hm-kn-Iƒ°v klmbw sNøp-∂Xv t{]m’m-ln-∏n°pI. hntZi C\-ß-fpsS IS-∂m-{I-a-WsØ sNdp-°m≥ {ZqX amt\-Pvsa‚ v kwhn-[m\w Bhnjv°-cn-°pI. apf, Cu‰, a‰v h\-hn-`-h-߃ F∂n-h-bpsS e`y-Xbpw hn]-W-\-sØbpw kw_-‘n® {]iv\߃ ssIImcyw sNøm≥ {Kma-hn-I-k\ hIp-∏ns\ i‡n-s∏-Sp-ØpI. h\w amt\-Pvsa‚n-s\ ]n¥p-W-bv°m\pw t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°m\pw Ignbpw hn[w alm-flmKm‘n sXmgn-ep-d∏p ]≤Xn t`Z-KXn sNøpI. h\ Ah-Imi \nbaw (2006) AXns‚ A¥-kØ Dƒs°m≠v \S-∏m-°pI. Cu \nbaw \S∏m-t°-≠Xv `mhn-bn¬ h\-ß-fpsS `c-W-\n¿Δ-l-W-Øn\v Bh-iy-am-sW∂v kwÿm\

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201


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

h\w hIp∏ns\ t_m[y-s∏-Sp-ØpI. h\-ß-fn-t∑-ep≈ P\-kw-Jym-]-chpw hnI-k-\-]-c-hp-amb kΩ¿±-߃ t\cn-Sm\pw h\-ßfpsS KpW-\n-e-hmcw sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm\pw Bh-iy-amb \S-]-Sn-Iƒ kzoI-cn-°pI.

]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n°pth≠n-bp≈ I¿Ω-]-cn-]mSn Xt±-i-kz-bw-`-cW ÿm]-\-X-e-Øn-ep≈ {]mtZ-in-I-Xe IqSn-bm-tem-N-\-Ifpw, Cu {]{Inb-bn-ep-S-\ofw kzoIm-cy-Xbpw kpXm-cy-Xbpw t\Sm-\p≈ kao-]-\-Øn\v ]n¥pW \¬IpI. ssPh-ssh-hn≤y aqey-ßfpw, ]cn-ÿnXn Bhm-k-hy-hÿm tkh-\-ßfpw IrXy-ambn hnebn-cp-Øp-Ibpw \n¿±njvS AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS Iogn¬ sNtø≠ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ssPh-sshhn-≤y-Øns‚ kmº-ØnI hi-Øn-\mbn IrXy-amb amÿ πm≥ Xøm-dm-°pIbpw sNøpI. DØ-c-hm-ZnØ h\w amt\-Pvsa‚nt‚bpw hym]mc coXn-I-fp-tSbpw XXz-߃ \S-∏m-°pI. h\hpw h\y-Po-hn-If - p-ambn _‘-s∏´ \nb-aß - fpw N´-ßfpw t`Z-KXn hcp-Øp-Itbm sFIycq-]y-ap-≠m-°p-Itbm sNøp-tºmƒ Ah \S-∏m-°m-\p≈ X{¥-߃ IqSn Bhn-jv°-cn°Ww.

2.6 kwL-SnX hyh-kmbw Ign™ Iptd h¿j-ß-fmbn C¥y≥ kº-ZvL-S-\-bn¬ hymh-km-bnI taJ-e-bv°p≈ {]m[m\yw Gdn-h-cn-I-bmWv. cmPysØ samØw D¬]m-Z-\-Øn¬ hyh-km-b-ß-fpsS kw`m-h\bpw ZznXo-b-amb taJ-e-bnse sXmgn-e-h-k-c-ß-fnse ]¶pw h¿≤n-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°-bmWv. ]pXnb kmº-ØnI \bhpw AXn-t\m-sSm-∏-ap≈ BtKm-f-h¬°-cWw,kzIm-cy-h¬°-cWw, DZm-c-h¬°cWw XpS-ßnbh C¥y≥ hyh-km-b-ta-J-esb samØ-Øn¬ am‰n-a-dn®p. hntZ-i-\n-t£-]-Øn¬ h≥ h¿≤-\-bmWv Ct∏mƒ ImWm≥ Ign-bp-∂Xv. ]›n-a-L´ kwÿm-\-ß-sf√mw Xs∂ XoctZi kwÿm-\-ß-fmWv. ChnsS e`y-am-bn-´p≈ sh≈hpw Xpd-apJ kuI-cy-ßfpw hyh-km-bßsf BI¿jn-°p∂ LS-I-ß-fmWv. Ct∏m-gm-sW-¶n¬ Ch {][m\ \nt£] e£y-ß-fmWv. Cu Zi-I-Øn¬ 2000 \v tijw samØw hntZi {]Xy£ \nt£-]-Øns‚ 53% Cu kwÿm-\ß-fn-emWv. samØ-Øns‚ aq∂n-sem∂v alm-cmjv{S, Zm{Z˛\K¿l-then, Uma≥-˛Uyp F∂n-h-Sß-fn¬ am{X-ap≠v. sk p-Iƒ ÿm]n-°p-∂-Xnepw Cu kwÿm-\-ß-fmWv ap∂n¬ 2010 Unkw_¿ 31 hsc hn⁄m-]\w sNbvX sk p-I-fpsS 55% Cu kwÿm-\-ß-fn-emWv. {]h¿Ø\w XpS-ßn-b-h-bpsS 60% hpw Chn-sS-Xs∂. HutZym-Kn-I-ambpw XXz-Ønepw A\p-aXn e`n-®-h-bpsS 50% Øne-[nIw Cu kwÿm-\-ß-fn-emWv. Aßs\ Cu kwÿm-\-߃ C¥y-bpsS hf¿®bpsS hymh-km-bnI F©n-\p-I-fm-sW∂v ]dbmw. (]´nI 5)

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202


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]´nI 5 : {]tXyI kmº-ØnI taJe (sk v) bpsS kwÿm-\m-Sn-ÿm-\-Ønep≈ IW°v 31- ˛ 12 -˛ 2010 hsc kwÿm\w

HutZym-KnI A\p-aXn

XXz-Ønep≈ A\p-aXn

hn⁄m-]\w sNbvXh

{]h¿Ø\w XpS-ßn-bh

tKmh

7

0

3

0

KpP-dmØv

46

13

29

13

I¿Æm-SI

56

10

36

20

tIcfw

28

0

17

7

alm-cmjv{S

105

38

63

16

Xan-gv\mSv

70

19

57

22

]›n-a-L´ kwÿm -\-ß-fn¬ samØw 312

80

205

78

samØ-Ønse hnlnXw (%) C¥y-bn¬

52 155

55 374

54 580

60 130

t{kmX v : hmWn-Py-hy-h-kmb a{¥m-ebw 5˛5-˛2010

ÿe-]-c-amb ÿm\w Z£nW KpP-dmØv apX¬ alm-cm-jv{S-bnse sIm¶¨ hsc-bp≈ Pn√-I-fnse CSp-ßnb CS-\m-gn-bn-emWv \nt£-]-ß-fn¬ Gsdbpw tI{μo-I-cn-®n-´p-≈Xv. KpP-dm-Ønse \nt£-]-Øns‚ knwl-`m-Khpw Xoc-tZi Pn√-I-fmb htUm-Zc, _dq®v, kqd‰v F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn-em-Wp-≈Xv. alm-cmjv{S-bpsS ]Sn-™m-d≥ Xoc-tZ-iØv GI-tZiw 22,000 sNdp-InS, CS-Øcw, h≥InS hyh-km-b-ßfp≠v. Ch-bn¬ 234 h≥InS hyh-km-b-߃ h≥tXm-Xn¬ aen-\o-I-cWw D≠m-°p-∂-h-bmWv. Chsb tI{μ aen-\o-I-cW \nb-{¥-W-t_m¿Uv ' Nph∏v' hn`mKw hyh-km-b-Øn-emWv Dƒs∏-SpØn-bn-´p-≈Xv. alm-cm-jv{S-bnse apJy-hy-h-kmb taJe apwss_˛Xms\˛]qs\ `mK-ØmWv kwÿm-\-Øns‚ hymh-km-bnI D¬∏m-Z-\-Øns‚ 60 % Chn-sS-\n-∂mWv alm-cm-jv{S-bnse \nt£]-Øn-te-sdbpw sIm¶≥ Xoc-tZ-i-ØmWv. CXn¬ G‰hpw ap∂n¬ sdbvKdpw sXm´-SpØv cXv\Kncn Pn√-bp-amWv. Cu c≠v Pn√-Iƒ°pw IqSn samØw \nt£-]-Øns‚ 38% D≠v. apwss_-bn¬ am{Xw 7%hpw alm- c m- j v{S- b nse hyh- k m- b - h ¬°- c - W - Ø ns‚ Hcp {]tXy- I X apwss_˛Xms\˛]qs\ ˛ \mknIv {]tZ-i-Øn-s‚bpw sIm¶≥ Xoc-tZ-i-Øn-s‚bpw ]cn-[n-bv°Xo-X-amb hyh-km-b-h¬°-c-W-amWv. Cu taJe AXns‚ ]c-am-h[n L´-Øn¬ FØn-°-gn™p. (tZiv]msfi 1996, KmUvKn¬ 2010) tKmh-bn¬ 20 hyh-kmb FtÃ-‰p-I-fn-embn 2037 hyh-kmb bqWn-‰p-I-fp≠v. Ch-bn¬ 18 FÆw aeo-\o-I-cWw krjvSn-°p-∂-h-bmWv. Cu hyh-kmb FtÃ-‰p-I-fn-te-sdbpw ]›n-a-L-´Øn-emWv ÿnXn sNøp-∂Xv. hyh-kmb bqWn-‰p-I-fn¬ {]h¿Øn-°p-∂-h-bn-te-sdbpw 20 hyhkmb FtÃ-‰p-I-fn-em-bmWv ÿnXn sNøp-∂Xv. aen-\o-I-cWw krjvSn-°p∂ hyh-km-b-ß-fn¬ IqSp-Xepw Fkvt‰-‰p-Iƒ°v ]pd-ØmWv {]h¿Øn-°p-∂Xv. I¿Æm-S-I-Ønse hyh-km-b-ß-fn-e-[n-Ihpw ]ƒ∏v & t]∏¿, ]©-kmc, UnÃn-e-dn-Iƒ, kna‚ v, s]t{Sm-fnbw, cmk-h-kvXp-°ƒ, Huj-[-߃, Ccpºv Dcp°v,Abncv kwkvI-cWw, J\\w F∂o hn`m-K-Øn¬s]-Sp∂p. tIm^n- ]ƒ∏nßv bqWn-‰p-Iƒ {][m-\-ambpw Iq¿Kv, NnIva-K-eq¿, lm ≥ Pn√-I-fn-emWv. ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ ÿnXn sNøp∂ Ch aen-\o-I-cW {]iv\-߃ krjvSn............................................................................................................................................................................................................

203


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

°p-∂p≠v. \oe-Kn-cn-bnse tXbne Irjn \oe-Kn-cn-bn-sebpw Iq\q-cn-sebpw ssPh-ssh-hn-≤yØn\v lm\n-I-c-amWv. Cu taJ-e-bn¬ P\-ßfpw h\y-Po-hn-Ifpw XΩn-ep-≠m-Ip∂ kwL¿jØn\v apJy-Im-cWw Cu hyh-km-b-amWv.

DXv°W - vTb - p-≠m-°p∂ {]iv\ß - ƒ Cu ]›n-a-L´ kwÿm-\-ß-fn-te°v hyh-km-b-߃ BI¿jn-°-s∏-Sp-∂Xv t\´-am-sW¶nepw Cu hyh-km-b-ßfpw sk p-Ifpw krjvSn-°p∂ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-chpw kmaq-ly-hp-amb {]iv\߃ DXv°-WvTm-P-\-I-amWv. CXp-aq-e-ap-≠m-Ip∂ kmaq-ly-{]-iv\-߃ {][m-\-ambpw `qan Gs‰Sp-°-en-s\bpw AXn-\p≈ \jvS-]-cn-lm-c-sØbpw kw_-‘n-°p-∂-h-bmWv. ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX-ß-fn¬ Du¿÷ Bhiyw, ^mIvS-dn-Iƒ han-∏n-°p∂ ]pI, hmbp-a-en-\o-I-cWw, ^mIvS-dn-Ifn¬ \ns∂m-gp-Ip∂ Ah-in-jvS-߃ ape-ap≈ Pe-a-en-\o-I-cWw, `qan cq]m-¥-c-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂Xp aqe-ap≈ {]iv\-߃ F∂nh Dƒs∏-Sp∂p. an° hyh-km-b-߃°pw Ah-bpsS \n¿ΩmW {]h¿Ø-\-߃°v h≥tXm-Xn¬ sh≈w Bh-iy-amWv. ho´m-h-iy-Øn\v th≠-Xn-t\-°mƒ hfsc-b-[nIw Pew hyh-km-b-߃°v thWw. alm-cm-jv{S-bn¬ hymh-km-bnI {]{Inb aqehpw Iev°-cnbpw a‰pw h≥tXm-Xn¬ IØn°p-∂-Xp-sIm≠pw D≠m-Ip∂ hmbp-a-en-\o-I-c-W-Øn\v ]pdsa Cu hyh-km-b-߃ kwkvIcn®pw A√m-sXbpw ]pd-¥-≈p-∂Xv 6,78000 Iyp.ao‰¿ hymh-km-bnI Ah-in-jvS-amWv. DZm-l-c-WØn\v Nph-sS-bp≈ t_mIvkn¬ cXv\-Kncn Pn√-bnse hmbp-hns‚ KpW-ta∑ hnh-cn-°p∂p.

t_mIvkv ˛9 cXv\-Kncn Pn√-bnse hmbp-hns‚ KpW-ta∑ hmbp-hns‚ KpW-ta∑ \ne-hmcw

ÿew

Kpcp-Xcw

tems´ Fw.sF.Un.kn. {]tZiw

Ipdhv

tJZvXm-eq-°nse Ahmjn

CS-Øcw

ao¿tkmƒ,kSvtKm¨, d≥]p¿˛sKmem]v

IqSp-X¬

tZhv-cpJv

Ah-ew_w: Fw.-]n.-kn.-_n, dXv\-Kncn (2005)

tKmh aen-\o-I-cW \nb-{¥-W-t_m¿Uns‚ (MPCB) IW-°p-{]-Imcw tKmh-bnse hyhkmb bqWn-‰p-Iƒ Hcp Znhkw 8400 Iyp.ao. aen-\-Pew/hyh-kmb Ah-injvSw ]pd-¥-≈p-∂p≠v. F√m bpWn-‰p-Iƒ°pw kz¥-ambn amen-\y-kw-kvI-cW πm‚p-I-fp≠v. KWy-amb Af-hn¬ amen\y-߃ ]pdw-X-≈p-∂h {_ph-dn-Iƒ,UnÃ-e-dn-Iƒ Huj[ \n¿Ωm-W-im-e-Iƒ, ]©-kmc ^mIvSdn-Iƒ F∂n-h-bmWv. tKmh-bnse DØc˛Z£nW Pn√-I-fnse hyh-km-b-ß-fpsS taJe Xncn-®p≈ Hcp `q]Sw Xøm-dm-°n-bn-´p≠v. AhnsS Ipd™ ssPh-ssh-hn≤y kwth-Z-\-£-a-X-bp≈ {]tZ-i-߃ Cs√∂mWv CXn¬ \n∂v hy‡-am-Ip-∂Xv. tKmh-bpsS Gdnb ]¶pw"Nph∏v', ' Hmd©v' taJ-e-bnemWv s]Sp-∂Xv. hmbp˛Pe-a-en-\o-I-c-W-tØmSv hfsc Db¿∂ kwth-Z-\-£-a-X-bp-≈-h-bm-bmWv Ch Icp-X-s∏-Sp-∂Xv. a™-\ndw \¬I-s∏-´n-´p≈ {]tZ-i-ß-fnse aen-\o-I-cWw Xmgv∂ Afhp apX¬ CS-Øcw hsc-bmWv. A\p-tbm-Py-amb coXn-Ifpw kmt¶-XnI hnZy-bp-ap-]-tbm-Kn®v CXv ]cn-l-cn°mw. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ssPh-B-hmk hyh-ÿ-bn-t∑¬ hyh-km-b-ß-tf-ev]n-°p∂ BLmXsØ kw_-‘n®v _‘-s∏-´-h¿ Db¿Øp∂ Bi¶ NphsS ]d-bp∂p. A¥-co£ aen-\o-I-cWw hnfhv KWy-ambn Ipdbv°pw. a\p-jys‚ Btcm-Ky-ÿn-Xn-bnepw ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse kky-e-Xm-Zn-I-fnepw lm\n-I-c-amb BLm-X-ap-≠m°pw. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

204


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

kpjn-c-߃ Gsd-bp≈ sN¶√pw Xoc-tZ-isØ ]c-kv]-c-_-‘n-X-amb \o¿®m-ep-Ifpw D≈-Xp-sIm≠v sX¿a¬ ]Δ¿ πm‚p-I-fn¬ Nmcw Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ Je-am-en-\y-߃ Cu \o¿®m-ep-I-fn¬ ASn-™p-IqSn `qP-esØ aen-\-s∏-Sp-Øp∂p. amen\y kwkvI-cW kuI-cy-߃ D≠-¶n¬ t]mepw {Zh-cq-]-Øn-ep≈ Ah-in-jvS-߃ kao-]-Øp≈ \Zn-I-fnepw Acp-hn-I-fnepw Hgp-In-sbØn {]tZ-isØ a’y-sØm-gn-em-fn-IfpsS PohnXw _p≤n-ap-´n-em-°p∂p. sX¿a¬ ]Δ¿ πm‚p-Iƒ, t]∏¿ πm‚p-Iƒt]mse [mcmfw sh≈w Bh-iy-ap≈ hyh-kmb-߃ C¥y-bnse a‰p `mK-ß-fn¬ Pe-Zu¿_eyw A\p-`-h-s∏-Sp-tºmƒ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønte°v IpSn-tb-dp∂ apJy-hy-h-km-b-ß-fmb FÆ ip≤o-I-c-W-im-e-Iƒ, Du¿÷-πm‚p-Iƒ XpS-ßn-bh Xoc-tZ-iØv thcp-d-∏n-°p-∂-tXmsS a‰v hyh-km-b-ßfpw Chn-tSbv°v BI¿jn°-s∏Spw.

ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ am¿§-߃ a.

t]∏dpw a‰pw Bh-iy-an-√mØ C˛tImtagvkv, C˛t]∏¿, sSen-tIm¨^-d≥knßv, hoUntbm tIm¨^-sd≥knßv F∂nh t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI.

b.

]›n-a-L-´-Ønse kwÿm-\-ß-fn¬ hnZym-`ym-k-tI-{μ-ßsf t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI.

c.

sh¿an-Iƒ®¿, Nqc¬ D¬∏-∂-߃, sIm´-s\bvØv, h\-h¬°-cWw, ASp-°-f-tØm´w XpSßnb {]mtZ-inI ssPh-hn-`m-K-ß-fn-e-[n-jvTn-X-amb hyh-km-b-ßsf t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI.

d.

Irjn˛A[n-jvTnX ^e˛`£y-kw-kvI-cW hyh-km-b-߃°v {]tXyI klmbw \¬IpI.

e.

sNdp-InS amen-\y-c-lnX hyh-km-b-ßsf t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI.

f.

\nb-{¥W A[n-Im-cn-Iƒ°pw s]mXp-P-\-Øn\pw hyh-km-bsØ kw_-‘n®v hnhn[ Xeßfn¬ Xocp-am-\-sa-Sp-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ D]-I-c-W-ambn hyh-km-b-ß-fpsS taJ-em-`q-]-SsØ D]-tbm-Kn-°pI.

2.7 J\\w ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse 6 kwÿm-\-ß-fnepw KWy-amb Af-hn¬ [mXp \nt£-]-ap≠v. Chbn¬ {][m\w Ccp-º-bncv, amwK-\okv,t_mIvssk‰v F∂n-h-bmWv. sdb¿ F¿Øn-s‚bpw aWen-s‚bpw Imcy-Ønepw Cu taJe kº-∂-amWv. (A\p-_‘w 2 ImWpI) [mXp-°-fpsS hnebn¬ KWy-amb h¿≤-\hv D≠m-b-Xp-aqew 2002 \ptijw Ccpºv Abn-cns‚ Dev]m-Z\w KWyambn h¿≤n®p. CXv {]tXy-In®pw tKmh-bp-sSbpw I¿Æm-S-I-Øn-s‚bpw Imcy-Øn¬. t\csØ Fe Awiw Ipd-™Xv 55 BbmWv \n›-bn-®n-cp-∂-sX-¶n¬ C∂Xv 40 BWv. Ign™ GXm\pw h¿j-ß-fn¬ ]›n-a-L´ kwÿm-\-ß-fn¬ \nc-h[n ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \¬In-bn-´p≠v F∂m¬ CØcw {]h¿Ø\ BLm-XsØ kw_-‘n®v bmsXmcp {i≤bpw D≠m-bn-´n√. P\-ß-fpsS Bh-iy-{]-Imcw ]cn-ÿnXn h\w hIp-∏p-a{¥n ]pXnb ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip-∂-Xn\v 2010¬ samd-t´m-dnbw G¿s∏-SpØn. tIc-f-Ønepw Xan-gv\m-´nepw \n¿ΩmW {]h¿Ø-\-߃°mbn h≥tXm-Xn¬ aW¬ J\\w \S-Øp-∂Xv \nc-h[n ]cnÿnXn˛kmaqly {]iv\-߃°v Imc-W-am-bn-´p≠v. Xncp-h-\-¥-]pcw, sIm√w, Be-∏pg, tIm´bw, Fd-Wm-Ipfw, Xriq¿ Pn√-I-fn¬ ka-Xe J\\w Kpcp-X-c-amWv. ,Imb-ep-I-fn¬ \n∂pw _o®p-Ifn¬ \n∂p-ap≈ aW¬J-\\w Xoc-tZ-i-Øp-S-\ofw k¿Δ-km-[m-c-W-amWv.

D¬°WvT Db¿Øp∂ {]iv\ß - ƒ J\\ {]h¿Ø-\-߃ hf-sc-b-[nIw tZmj-^-e-߃ krjvSn-°p-∂p-s≠-¶nepw CXv th≠{X {i≤n-°-s∏-Sp-∂n√. `qX-e-sØbpw ]cn-ÿn-Xn-bn-tbbp-amWv CXv hf-sc-b-[nIw tZmjI-c-ambn _m[n-°p-∂Xv. h\-ßfpw ssPh-ssh-hn-≤yhpw \jvS-s∏-Sp-∂-tXm-sSm∏w Imem-h-ÿm\n-b-{¥-W-tijn t]mse-bp≈ hne-s∏´ ]mcn-ÿn-XnI tkh-\-ßfpw \jvS-am-Ip∂p. J\n-I-fnte-°p≈ Du‰p-aqew `qX-e-P-ehpw \jvS-s∏-Sp∂p. J\-\-{]-h¿Ø\w aqehpw Abn-cp-I-fpsS

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205


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

{Sm≥kvt]m¿´nßv aqehpw hmbp-a-en-\o-I-cWw cq£-am-Ip∂p. km[m-c-W-bmbn h\y-Po-hn-kt¶-X-ß-tfmSv tN¿∂mWv J\\w \S-°p-∂Xv. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v tKmh-bn¬ 31 J\-\-߃ h\yPo-hn-k-t¶-X-߃°v 2 In.ao. Np‰-f-hnepw 13 GÆw Hcp Intem-ao-‰¿ Np‰-fhn-ep-amWv. kmaq-ly-B-Lm-X-ßfpw hfsc Kpcp-X-c-amWv Pe˛hmbp-a-en-\o-I-cWw, Irjn-°p-≠m-Ip∂ \mi-\-jvS-߃, IpSn-tbm-gn-∏n-°¬, tdmU-]-I-S-߃, Pew kw_-‘n® Ac-£n-Xm-hÿ F∂nh-sb√mw CXn-epƒs∏-SpØmw. J\-\-Øn¬ \n∂v e`n-°p∂ hcp-am-\sØ ]‰n tIƒ°p-tºmƒ AXn\p ]n∂n¬ C{X-b-[nIw ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-chpw kmaq-ly-]-c-hp-amb BLm-X-ß-fp-s≠∂v \mw Nn¥n-°p-∂n√. ¢nb-d≥kv C√m-sXbpw hymP-¢n-b-d≥kns‚ ad-hnepw ¢nb-d≥kv hyh-ÿ-Iƒ ewLn®pw ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ ]e `mK-ß-fnepw A\-[n-IrX J\\w \S-°p-∂p≠v. C°m-cy-Øn¬ k¿°m¿ P\-ß-fpsS Xmev]cyw ]q¿Æ-ambn kwc-£n-°p-∂n-s√∂p Xs∂-bmWv s]mXp-hn-ep≈ [mcW C°m-cy-Øn¬ k¿°m¿ hyh-km-bn-I-fp-ambn HØp-Ifn°pI-bm-sW∂ [mc-Wbpw hym]-I-amWv. CXp-aqew J\-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-ß-tfmSv ISpØ AXr]vXn Cu kwÿm-\-ß-fn-ep≠v. CXn¬ G‰hpw i‡-amb AXr]vXn \ne-\n¬°p-∂Xv tKmh kwÿm-\ØmWv. Cu kan-Xn°v Xev]-c-I-£n-I-fn¬ \n∂v t\cn-tS-≠-Xmbn h∂ Nne tNmZy-߃ NphsS ]d-bp∂p. kmwkvIm-cn-Ihpw ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-]-c-hp-amb \jvSbpw ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse Bhm-k-hy-hÿ-bpsS \io-I-c-Whpw XS-bp-∂Xv Ah-km-\n-∏n-°m≥ F¥p-sIm≠v J\\w \ntcm-[n-®pIqSm? `qan, Pew, h\w, `qPew F∂n-h-bv°p-]-cn-bm-bn-´p≈ Hcp ]cn-K-W\ F¥n\v J\-\-Øn\v \¬IWw? [mXp kºØv timj-WsØ kw_-‘n®v hcpw Xe-ap-d-I-fpsS tNmZy-߃°v F¥p-Øcw ]dbpw ? C{X-am{Xw A\-[n-IrX J\\w \S-°p-∂-sX-¥p-sIm≠v? CXn-s\-Xnsc Bsc-¶nepw Fs¥¶nepw sNøp-∂pt≠m? Cu taJ-e-bn¬ F√m-X-c-Ønepw \S-°p∂ Agn-a-Xnsb ]‰n F¥p-]-d-bp∂p?

ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ am¿§-߃ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ \n∂v J\\w Hgn-hm-°pI ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ NphsS ]d-bp∂ taJ-e-I-fn¬ J\\w A\p-h-Zn-°-cpXv. kp{]nw tImSXn DØ-chpw 1972 se h\y-Pohn \nb-a-Ønse hIp-∏p-Ifpw {]Imcw tZiob ]m¿°p-I-fnepw h\y-Po-hn-k-t¶-X-ß-fnepw ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse Db¿∂ kwth-Z\ £a-X-bp≈ ESZ-1 {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ Cu {]tZ-i-ß-fnse J\n-Iƒ°v ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip-∂-Xn\v Hcp A[nI \n_‘\ IqSn hbv°Ww. AXm-bXv ESZ-1 {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ J\\w ]q¿Æ-ambn Ah-km-\n-∏nt°≠ 2016 hsc Hmtcm h¿jhpw J\-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-߃ 25 %hoXw Ipd-bv°Ww. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ESZ-2 ¬ Ct∏mƒ \S-°p∂ J\\w XpScmw. ]pXn-bh A\p-h-Zn-°m≥ ]mSn√. A\p-h-Zn-°p∂ J\\w Xs∂ I¿i-\-amb ]mcn-ÿn-XnI˛kmaqly \nb-{¥-W߃°v hnt[-bam-bn-cn-°Ww. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse a‰v {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ J\\w A\p-h-Zn-°p-∂Xv NphsS ]dbpw {]Imcw F√m ¢nb-d≥kp-I-fp-sSbpw I¿i-\-amb ]mcn-ÿn-XnI kmaq-ly-\n-b-{¥-W-ß-fp-tSbpw ASn-ÿm-\ Øn-em-bn-cn-°Ww. ]›n-a-L-´-{]tZ-iØv A\p-h-Zn-°p∂ J\m-\p-a-Xn-Iƒ k©nX ]cn-ÿnXn BLm-X-]-T\w A\pk-cn-®m-I-Ww. H‰-s∏´ {]tZ-i-Øns‚ ]cn-ÿnXn BLmXw \S-Øp∂ coXn Dt]£n-°-Ww.

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206


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Nne {]tZ-i-߃ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-am-sW∂v Icp-Xp-∂p-s≠-¶n-epw ]›n-a-L´ kan-XnbpsS ]´n-I-bn¬ Dƒs∏-´n-´p-≠m-In√. AØcw {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ Hcp {]apJ ÿm]\w ssPhssh-hn-≤y-sØbpw ssPh-kw-th-Z\ £a-X-tbbpw ]‰n ]Tn-°p-Ibpw hne-bn-cp-Øp-Ibpw (EIA) sNøp-∂-Xp-hsc ASpØ 5 h¿j-tØ°v J\\w \ntcm-[n-°Ww. tI{μ ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-ebw hyXykvX \n_-‘-\-I-tfmsS ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-taJ-e-Iƒ {]Jym-]n-°Ww. [mXp Nqj-W-Øn\v \nb-{¥Ww ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kn¬ \n¿t±-in-®n-´p-≈-Xn¬ IqSp-X¬ Abncv Ih¿s∂-Sp-°p∂ F√m J\n-Ifpw AS-®p-]q-´pI. Ccp-º-bncv J\\w sNøm-hp∂ FebpsS Afhv \nP-s∏-SpØn J\n-I-fn-ep≈ X≈n-°-b‰w XS-bpI. kwÿm-\-ß-fpsS taJe A‰ve-knse \n_-‘-\-Iƒ ewLn-°p∂ F√m J\n-Ifpw AS®p-]q-´pI. ]›n-a-L´ kanXn \n¿t±-in-®n-´p-≈-Xp-t]mse ESZ-1 se {]h¿Øn-°p-∂Xpw {]h¿Ø\ cln-X-hp- amb F√m J\n-I-fp-sSbpw ssek≥kv d±m-°pI tZiob ]m¿°p-I-fn-sebpw h\y-Po-hn-k-t¶-X-ß-fn-sebpw F√m J\-\-sse-k≥kp-Ifpw ÿnc-ambn d±p-sN-øpI. IpSn-sh-≈-sa-Sp-°p∂ AW-s°-´p-I-fpsS hrjvSn-{]-tZ-i-ß-fnse F√m ssek≥kp-Ifpw d±m-°pI. aW¬J-\-\-Øn-\p≈ N´-߃ (]fl-em¬ 2011) aW¬ J\\w BUn‰v sNøWw; \Zn-I-fn¬ aW¬ J\-\-Øn\v Ah[n G¿s∏-Sp-ØpI. \Zo amt\-Pvsa‚n¬ \n∂v thdn´v samØ-Øn-ep≈ amt\-Pvsa‚ v ]cn-K-Wn-°pI CXn-\mbn {]tXyI \nb-a-\n¿ΩmWw Bh-iy-amWv \n¿ΩmW {]h¿Ø-\-߃°v B‰p-a-W-en\v ]I-c-ap-≈h ]cn-tim-[n®v t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI \Zn-I-fp-tSbpw ssIh-gn-I-fp-tSbpw Xoc-ß-fnse a\p-jys‚ CS-s]-S¬ aqew \in® h\߃ ]p\-cp-÷o-hn-∏n-°m≥ Bh-iy-amb \S-]-Sn-Iƒ kzoI-cn-°pI. tbmKy-cmb Hcp AtXm-dn´n \S-Øp∂ icn-bmb ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y-\-Øn-\ptijw am{Xta \Zo-Xo-c-ß-fnse ASn-ÿm\ hnI-k\ {]h¿Ø\w \S-Ømhq ]›n-a-L´ AtXm-dn-´n°v Hcp -J\\ A]-{K-Y\ D]-k-anXn cq]o-I-cn-°pI J\-\-Øn¬\n∂v `qP-esØ kwc-£n-°pI `qK¿` Pe-hn-Xm-\-Øn\p Xmsg {]h¿Øn-°p∂ J\n-Iƒ \n¿_-‘-ambpw `qP-e-am-t\Pvsa‚ v Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp-Ibpw {]tZ-isØ InW-dp-I-tfbpw Pe-hn-X-c-W-tØbpw _m[n-°msX t\m°p-Ibpw thWw. Pe-am-∏nßv \S-ØmsX Hcp J\-\hpw XpS-ßm≥ A\p-h-Zn-°-cpXv. \jvS-s∏-Sp∂ Pe-Øn\p ]Icw ag-sh≈ kw`-c-W-Øn-eq-sSbpw a‰pw Pe-\n-c∏v Db¿ØWw. `qan-im-kv{X-]-c-amb Imc-W-ß-fmtem at‰m B[p-\nI J\-\-co-Xn-t]mepw Ah-ew-_n-°m≥ Ign-bmØ {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ Pe-hn-Xm-\-Øns‚ Af-hn\v Xmsg J\\w A\p-h-Zn-°m≥ ]mSn√. J\\ {]tZ-i-ß-fnse `qP-e-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v J\\ taJ-e-bn¬ ]pdw-X-≈p∂ `qP-esØ kw_-‘n®v IqSp-X¬ ]T\w \S-Øp-Ibpw ÿnXn-hn-hc IW-°p-Iƒ tiJ-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøpI.

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207


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Cu {]iv\w ]cn-l-cn-°p-∂-Xn-\mbn C¥y≥ _yqtdm Hm^v ssa≥kv, \mj-W¬ C≥Ãn‰yq´v Hm^v sslt{Um-fPn F∂nh kwbp-‡-ambn `qX-esØ kw_-‘n® IqSp-X¬ ÿnXnhn-h-c-°- W-°p-Iƒ ]c-kv]cw ]¶p-h-bv°pI. J\-\-ta-J-e-bnse F√m {Kma-ß-fnepw ]c-am-h[n 2 h¿j-Øn-\p-≈n¬ ss]∏v hgn-bp≈ Pe-hn-X-cWw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm≥ Pe-hn-X-cW AtXm-dn-´nbpw J\-\-I-º-\nbpw XΩn¬ [mcW-bp-≠m-°pI. Dt]jn-°-s∏´ J\\ Ipgn-Iƒ Pe-kw-`-c-W-Øn-\mbn D]-tbm-Kn-°m≥ km[n-°ptam F∂v ]cn-tim-[n-°pI h\-`q-an-bn¬ CXn\v Ign-bn√, ImcWw, \nb-a-{]-Imcw AXp h\w-h-Ip∏n\v XncnsI \¬IWw. `qP-e-{]-iv\-ß-sf ssIImcyw sNøm≥ ]›n-a-L´ AtXm-dn-´n-bn¬ Hcp {]tXyI sk¬ cq]o-I-cn-°Ww J\\ {]tZ-iØv Irjn ]p\-cp-÷o-hn-∏n-°m≥ \o¿Ø-S-ß-fnse Ipgn-I-fn¬ sh≈w \nd-bm-\p≈ kwhn-[m-\-ap-≠m-°pI. Pem-i-b-ß-fnse sNfn \o°w sNøpI. XS-b-W-t]mse kwhn-[m-\-ß-sfm-cp°n sNfn \o¿Ø-S-ß-fn-te°v HgpIn FØp-∂Xv XS-bpI Irjn-bn-S-ß-fn¬ HgpIn FØp∂ amen-\y-ßfpw a‰pw \o°w sNøpI. Pew \jvS-s∏-Sp-∂Xv Hgn-hm-°pI. ]¶m-fnØ Bkq-{X-Whpw amt\-Pvsa‚pw F√m \nb-{¥W˛hnI-k\ GP≥kn-I-fp-tSbpw GtIm-]\w. [mXp taJ-e-bnse sa®-s∏´ ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-W-Øn\v t{]m’m-l\w ]cn-ÿnXn hnZym-`ymkw ]cn-ÿnXn {]iv\-߃ Xncn-®-dn-bm≥ kqN-I-߃ kwÿm\ Xe-Øn¬ lcnX A°u-≠nßv klm-b-߃ e`y-am-°m≥ hn]Wn kwhn-[m\w hn`-h-k-º-∂-amb kwÿm-\-ß-fn¬ h\-kw-c-£-W-Øn\v \jvS-]-cn-lmcw an\-d¬ I¨k¿th-j≥ N´-ßf - n¬ \njv°¿jn-°p-∂X - p-t]mse ]p\-c[ - n-hk - n-°m≥ t_m≠pItfm a‰v kmº-ØnI Dd-∏p-Itfm e`y-am-°m≥ ASn-b-¥nc \S-]Sn kzoI-cn-°pI. J\-\ ta-J-e-bnse Btcm-Ky-kw-c-£Ww J\\ taJ-e-bnse tcmK-ßfpw a‰v Btcm-Ky-{]-iv\-ßfpw \nco-£n-°m\pw J\-\-Øns‚ Xn‡-^-e-߃ A\p-`-hn-°p∂ P\-ß-fpsS ]p\-c-[n-hm-k-Øn\pw Bh-iy-amb kwhn-[m\w G¿s∏-Sp-ØpI. J\-\-ta-J-e-bnse P\-߃°p-th≠n Hcp Btcm-Ky-C≥jp-d≥kv t]mfnkn G¿s∏-Sp-Øm≥ ssa\nßv Iº-\n-I-tfmSv Bh-iy-s∏-SpI. ]©m-bØv˛k∂-≤-kw-L-S\ kwbp‡ kwcw-`-Øn-eqsS Btcm-Ky-{]-iv\-ßsf kw_‘n® hnZym-`ymkw \¬IpI. J\-\-ta-J-e-bp-ambn _‘-s∏´v \S-Øp∂ tcmK-\n¿Æb˛NnIn’m {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn¬ ]©mb- Øp-Iƒ°pw {]mY-an-Im-tcmKy tI{μ-߃s°m∏w ssa\nßv Iº-\n-Isf IqSn ]¶m-fn-I-fm-°pI. tdmUp-am¿§hpw Pe-am¿§-hp-ap≈ {Sm≥kvt]m¿t´-j-\n¬ hmbp-a-en-\o-I-cWw Ipd-bv°pI. {S°p-I-fnepw _m¿´p-I-fnepw \n›nX Af-hn¬ IqSp-X¬ Ib-‰p-∂Xv I¿i-\-ambn \ntcm-[n°m≥ \S-]-Sn-sb-Sp-°pI.

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Af-hn¬ IqSp-X¬ Ib-‰p-∂n-s√∂v ssa\nßv Iº-\n-Iƒ Dd-∏p-h-cp-ØWw. CXv ewLn-°p-∂-h-cpsS s]¿an‰v d±m-°Ww. km[\w Ib-‰n-b-Xn-\p-tijw {S°pw _m¿Ppw Sm¿]m-fn≥sIm≠v aqSp-∂Xv \n¿_-‘-am°Ww. {S°p-I-fpsS thKX I¿i-\-ambn \nb-{¥n-°Ww. A\p-h-Zn-®n-´p≈ Af-hn¬ IqSp-X-em-bp-≠m-Ip∂ aen-\o-I-cWw C√m-Xm-t°≠ Npa-Xe Iº-\n-bp-tS-XmWv. {Sm≥kvt]m¿t´-j≥ td‰v ]pXp-°¬ {S°p-Iƒ°v 10 S¨ ]cn[n a\- n¬ I≠p-thWw ssa\nwKv Iº-\n-Iƒ {Sm≥kvt]m¿t´j≥ \nc°v IW-°p-Iq-´m≥. 10 SÆn¬ IqSp-X¬ Ib-‰p∂ {S°p-Iƒ s]mXp-\n-c-Øn¬ HmSn-°m≥ A\p-h-Zn-°-cpXv. CXn-\mbn ]›n-a-L´ AtXm-dn-´n°v Iogn¬ Hcp J\\ Ah-tem-I\ D]-k-anXn cq]n-I-cn°Ww. Dt]-£n-°-s∏´ J\n-Iƒ Dt]-£n-°-s∏´ J\n-Iƒ Dev]m-Z\ t{kmX- p-I-fm°n am‰Ww. CXv skkv G¿s∏-SpØntbm, πm≥ ^≠v D]-tbm-Knt®m a‰p -am¿§-Øntem BImw. kzImcy˛s]mXp ]¶m-fn-Ø-tØm-SpIqSnbpw BImw. J\-\-{]-h¿Ø\w sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ Ipd™ Af-hn¬ Im¿_¨ ]pd-Øp-hn-Sp∂ D]-I-c-W-ßfpw a‰pw D]-tbm-Kn®v hmbp-a-en\o-I-cWw \nb-{¥n-°pI J\n-I-fpsS Hmtcm hmXnenepw ho¬ hmjnßv kwhn-[m\w D]-tbm-Kn®v aen-\o-I-cWw XS-bp-I. Ipgn-I-fn¬ Nfn-\n-d-bp-∂Xv Pntbm-sS-Ivtìkv D]-tbm-Kn®v XS-bpI. J\-\-Øn\v imkv{Xo-b-amb kmt¶-XnI hnZy D]-tbm-Kn-°pI. Hcp `mKØv ]q¿Æ-ambn J\\w sNbvXv amdp-tºmƒ B `mKw \nIØn t]mhp∂ coXn Ah-ew-_n-°m≥ ]pXnb Ipgn-bpsS Ah-in-jvS-߃ ]g-b-Xn-en´p aqSm≥ Ignbpw. Ipgn \nI-Øp-∂-Xn\pw IpØn-sbm-en∏v \nb-{¥n-°p-∂-Xn\pw imkv{Xob am¿§-߃ Ahew-_n-°Ww. Np‰p-]m-Sp-ap≈ Pem-i-b-Øn-te°v sh≈w Hgp°n hnSpw ap≥]v B Pew ip≤-am°n Im\bn-eqsS Hgp-°n-t]m-Im-\p≈ kwhn-[m\w G¿s∏-Sp-Ø-Ww.

t_mIvkv 10 : \nb-{¥nX J\\ amXrI kn‘p-Zp¿K Pn√-bnse (alm-cmjv{S) kmh-¥v-hmSn Fw.F¬.F. {io. Un.hn. sIkm¿°¿ \n¿t±-in-®Xv Cu taJ-e-bnse P\-{]-Xn-\n[n F∂ \ne-bnepw Cu ÿe-sØbpw J\\ {]h¿Ø-\ß-sfbpw kw_-‘n®v {]mtbm-KnI ]cn-⁄m-\-ap≈ Bƒ F∂ \ne-bnepw Cu Pn√bv°v samØ-Ønepw Fs‚ \ntbm-PI afi-e-Øn\v {]tXy-In®pw _m[-I-am-°m-hp∂ J\-\-{]h¿Ø-\-ß-fpsS amXr-I-bmWv Rm≥ \n¿t±-in-°p-∂Xv. Cu taJ-e-bpsS Xmev]-cy-Øn-\mbn \n߃ \n›-b-ambpw CXv ]cn-l-cn-°p-sa∂v F\n-°p-d-∏p≠v. 1.

Hcp hnt√-Pn¬ Hcp ssk‰v am{Xta A\p-h-Zn-°mhq

2.

Hmtcm ssa\nßv kok-Wnepw Dev]m-Zn-∏n-°m-hp∂ [mXp-°ƒ°v \nb-{¥Ww G¿s∏-SpØWw.

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3.

Ccp-º-bn-cns‚ Imcy-Øn¬ Hcp h¿jw 2 slIvS¿ ÿe-Øp-\n-∂p-am-{Xta Ipgn-sb-Sp°m≥ A\p-h-Zn-°mhq.

4.

]e Ipgn-I-fn´v J\\w \S-Øp-∂Xpw \nb-{¥nX Dev]m-Z\w A\p-h-Zn-°p-∂-Xp-amb J\-\coXn thWw kn‘p Zp¿Kn¬ D]-tbm-Kn°m≥.

5.

Ipgn-sb-Sp-°p∂ hkvXp-°ƒ sIm≠n-Sp∂ bm¿Un\v 10 slIvS-dn-e-[nIw hnkvXo¿Æw ]mSn√. D]-tbmKw Ign™ ÿew hrØn-bm°n B {]tZ-i-Øns‚ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-°n-Wßp∂ ^e-hr-£-߃ h®p-]n-Sn-∏n®v lcn-Xm-`-am-°Ww.

6.

Hcp Ipgn-bn¬ \n∂v [mXp-°ƒ FSp-°p-∂Xv ]q¿Øn-bm-bm¬ ASpØ Ipgn Ipgn-°p∂ D]-tbm-K-an-√mØ hkvXp-°-fn´v BZysØ Ipgn aqSWw. A©mw h¿jw Ah-km-\n-°ptºmƒ samØw D]-tbm-Kn® {]tZ-i-Øns‚ hnkvXo¿Æw 20 slIvS-dn¬ IqSmØ hn[w Cu {]{Inb XpS¿∂p-t]m-IWw. Hcp {]tZ-isØ J\\ {]h¿Ø\w ]q¿Øn-bm-Ip-∂tXmsS Hcp Ipgn sh≈w kw`-cn-°m≥ D]-tbm-Kn-®p-sIm≠v F√m-bn-SØpw tXm´-ß-fp-bcWw.

7.

]≤-Xn-bn¬ \n∂v {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-Øn\v Xmsg ]d-bp∂ hn[w klmbw \¬IWw. `qan-bpsS ssIh-i-°m¿°pw, {Kmao-W¿°pw Ah¿°v \jvS-s∏´ hcp-am-\-Øn-\p≈ \jvS]-cn-lm-c-sa∂ \ne-bn¬ samØw Dev]m-Z-\-Øns‚ hn]Wn hne-bpsS 2.5 iX-am\w \¬IWw. {Kma-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-ku-I-cy-ß-fmb Pe-hn-X-cWw, tdmUp-\n¿ΩmWw, kvIqƒ \n¿ΩmWw, KXm-K-X-ku-Icyw, hgn-hn-f-°p-Iƒ, ]m¿°p-Iƒ, apX-em-b-h-bv°mbn as‰mcp 2.5 % sNe-hn-SWw. CXn¬ Ipd-™Xv 25 iX-am\w ]cn-ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-Ø-en\mbn hn\n-tbm-Kn-°Ww. J\\ {]h¿Ø\w Ah-km-\n-®-tijw `mhn-bn¬ D]-tbm-Kn°m-\mbn as‰mcp 2.5 iX-am\w Icp-X¬ ^≠mbn am‰n hbv°Ww. t\m¿ho-Pn-b≥ amXI-bpsS cq]-Øn¬ Cu Icp-X¬^≠v Fßs\ hn\n-tbm-Kn-°-W-sa∂v ]›n-a-L´ kanXn°v Xocp-am-\n°mw. 2 slIvS-dn¬ \n∂v 2 Zi-e£w S¨ e`n-°p-sa∂v IW-°m-°n-bm¬ hn]Wn hne-b-\p-k-cn®v Hcp h¿jw Hcp {Kma-Øn\v 45 tImSn cq] e`n°pw. 8. kn‘p Zp¿Kv lcn-Xm-`-amb ssPh-ssh-hn≤y kº-∂-amb Hcp Sqdnkw Pn√ Bb-Xn-\m¬ NphsS ]d-bp∂ ap≥I-cp-X-ep-Iƒ kzoI-cn-°Ww. Ccpºv Abncv \nt£-]sØ kw_‘n®v F¥v A\p-aXn \¬Ip-∂-Xn\v ap≥]v AXv taJ-em-πm-\n¬ hy‡-ambn ImWn-®n-cn°Ww. Ipgn-sb-Sp-°p-∂Xv {Zmh-I-cq-]-Øn-em-sW-¶n¬ ss]∏v sse≥ hgnbpw s]mSn-cq-]Øn-em-sW-¶n¬ AS-®p-aq-Snb Is≠-bv\-dn¬ tdm∏v th hgnbpw sIm≠v t]mIm-\p≈ kwhn-[m-\-ap-≠m-°Ww. Im¿_¨ hnIn-c-Whpw aen-\o-I-c-Whpw CXp-hgn Hgn-hm°mw.

9.

CXn-\m-h-iy-amb ASn-ÿm\ kuIcyw Iº-\n-Iƒ tN¿t∂m H‰-bv°mtbm G¿s∏-SpØmw. ASn-ÿm\ Bh-iy-߃°pw ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-W-Øn\pw KWy-amb XpI apS-°m≥ k∂-≤-cm-Ip∂ Iº-\n-Iƒ°p am{Xta Pn√-bn¬ J\-\m-\p-aXn \¬Imhq.

10.

]T\ dnt∏m¿´n¬ \n¿t±-in-°p-∂-Xp-t]mse {]tZ-iØv sNdp-InS Pe-ssh-ZypX ]≤-XnIƒ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°Ww. sshZypXn Dev]m-Z\w Ign™p hcp∂ Pew Irjn°v D]-tbmKn°mw. Nne ÿeØv J\\ Ipgn-Iƒ aqew `qPe \nc∏v Xmgp-∂p≠v. Ahn-S-ß-fn¬ sNdnb AW-s°-´p-≠m°n sshZypXn Dev]m-Zn-∏n-®m¬ Irjnbpw c£-s∏Spw. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v "]pt°cn' hnt√-Pn¬ \n¿Ωn® sNdnb AW-s°-´n¬ \n∂v sshZypXn Dev]m-Zn-∏n® tij-ap≈ sh≈w ' Akm-lnsb', "skmemwssh, X¬°Øv' XpS-ßnb {Kma-߃°v \¬In sh≈-Øns‚ ]c-am-h[n D]-tbmKw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm≥ {Un∏v Cdn-tKj≥ t]mse-bp≈ kwhn-[m\w D]-tbm-Kn°mw. sshZypXn ]≤-Xn-°p≈ sNehv Iº-\nIƒ hln-°Ww.

11.

Iº-\n-bpsS sNe-hn¬ J\\ {]tZ-i-Øn\v Np‰pw 2.5 ao‰¿ Db-c-Øn¬ aXn¬ \n¿Ωn°Ww. Np‰p-ap≈ h\-ß-fnse kpc-£-I-W-°n-se-Sp-Øm-WnXv.

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12.

{S°p-I-fp-tSbpw a‰v, b{¥-kw-hn-[m-\-ß-fptSbpw {]h¿Ø\w Cu aXn¬s°-´n-\p-≈n¬ HXp°n \n¿ØWw. kqtcym-Zbw apX¬ kqcym-kvX-abw hsc am{Xta {]h¿Ø\w ]mSp≈q.

13.

{]h¿Ø\ ka-bØv samØw {]tZ-ihpw sh≈w \\®v s]mSn Db-cm-Xn-cn-°m≥ {i≤n°Ww. ]≤Xn {]tZ-i-Øn\p Np‰pw Bh-iy-Øn\v ac-߃ hf¿Øn i_vZ-a-en-\o-I-c-WØn\v XS-bn-SWw.

14.

GXp {]tZ-iØpw J\\ {]h¿Ø\w Bcw-`n°pw ap≥]v Ahn-Sp≈ hr£-ßsf kw_‘n®v Hcp k¿sΔ \S-Øp-Ibpw Ch am‰n \Sp-∂-Xn\pw a‰p-≈h kwc-£n-°p-∂-Xn-\pambn Hcp \gvkdn ÿm]n-°p-Ibpw thWw.

15

Hmtcm {Kma-Øn-tebpw hnip-≤-h-\-߃ kwc-£n-°Ww. Ch-bpsS kwc-£Ww {]mtZinI kaq-lsØ G¬∏n-°p-Ibpw AXn-te-°p≈ sNehv Iº-\n-Iƒ hln-°p-Ibpw thWw.

2.8. sshZyp-Xnbpw Du¿÷hpw ]›n-a-L´ kan-Xn-bpsS ap∂n¬ IqsS-IqsS D∂-bn-°p∂ Hcp {]iv\-amWv ]›n-a-L´ kwhn-[m-\-ß-fnse sslt{Um, sX¿a¬, \yq¢n-b¿, Im‰mSn ^mw F∂n-h-bn-eq-sS-bp≈ sshZypXn Dev]m-Z\w. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ssPh Bhmk hyh-ÿsb Cu ]≤-Xn-Iƒ XI¿°p-∂-Xmbn Hcp hn`mKw hmZn-°p∂p. ]cn-ÿnXn kwth-Z-\-£-a-X- C{X-b-[n-I-ap≈ taJ-e-bn¬ C{X-tØmfw sshZypX ]≤-Xn-Iƒ Bh-iy-apt≠m F∂mWv tNmZyw. C\nbpw hf-sc-b-[nIw ]≤-Xn-Iƒ {]tXy-In®v sX¿a¬ ]≤-XnIƒ Bkq-{XW L´-Øn-emWv. Ah-bv°m-h-iy-amb hn`-h-ßfpw ]cn-ÿnXn ]chpw kmaq-ly-hp-amb BLm-Xhpw IW-°n-se-Sp-Øm¬ Ah Bh-iy-apt≠m? Ch kpÿn-c-amtWm? F∂ tNmZy-߃ Ah-ti-jn-°p∂p. CXp kw_-‘n® Hcp GI-tZ-icq]w a\- n-em-°m-\mbn R߃ ]›n-a-L´ kwÿm-\-ß-fnse sshZyp-Xn-bp-tSbpw Du¿÷Øn-t‚bpw ÿnXn hnh-c-°-W-°p-Iƒ ]cn-tim-[n®p. {]Xn-io¿j sshZypXn D]-tbm-K-Øns‚ Imcy-Øn¬ kwÿm-\-߃ XΩn¬ henb A¥cw \ne-\n¬°p-∂-Xm-bmWv IW-°p-IƒkqNn∏n-°p-∂Xv. tKmh-bnse sshZypXn D]-tbmKw tZiob icm-i-cn-bpsS 3.5 Cc-´n-bm-sW-¶n¬ tIcf-Øn-teXv CXns‚ 2/3 BWv. C¥y-bpsS a‰v `mK-ß-fp-ambn Xmc-Xayw sNøp-tºmƒ sshZyq-XoI-cn-® {KmaoW `h-\-ßfpsS A\p-]mXw tIc-f-Øn¬ hftc Db¿∂-Xm-Wv. ]t£, sshZyp-XoI-cn-°mØ {KmaoW `h-\-߃ tKmh-bn¬ 8 iX-am-\-am-s-W-¶n¬ alm-cm-jv{S-bn¬ AXv 35 iXam-\-amWv. Cu kwÿm-\-ß-fnse sNdpXpw hep-Xp-amb hyh-km-b-ß-fmWv sshZyp-Xn-bpsS G‰hpw henb D]-t`m-‡m-°ƒ. h≥InS hyh-km-b-ß-fn¬ Abncv kwkv°-cWw, Ccpºv˛Dcp°v, kna‚ v, s]t{Sm-fnbw dnss^ \-dn-Iƒ, ]©-kmc UnkvSn-e-dn-Iƒ, hfw \n¿Ωm-W-im-e-Iƒ, s]t{Sm-sI-an-°¬kv F∂nh Dƒs∏-Sp∂p. G‰hpw IqSp-X¬ sshZypXn D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xv ChbmWv. sNdp-InS˛CS-Øcw hyh-km-b-ßfpw [mcm-f-ap≠v. IqSp-X¬ sXmgn-e-h-k-c-߃ \¬Ip∂-Xn-h-bmWv. Cu hn`m-K-Øn¬ s]Sp∂ ^u{≠n-Iƒ, NpSp-I¬ ^mIvS-dn-Iƒ, XpWn-an-√p-Iƒ, Ifn-a¨ ^mIvS-dn-Iƒ, t]m´dn, •mkv-sh-b¿, t_°dn F∂nh IqSp-X¬ sshZypXn D]-tbm-Kn°p-∂-h-bmWv. sshZypXn Dev]m-Z-\-Øns‚ Imcy-Ønepw Cu kwÿm-\-߃ XΩn¬ \√ A¥-c-ap≠v. KpP-dm-Ønepw alm-cm-jv{S-bnepw G‰-hp-a-[nIw sshZypXn D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ ka-bsØ IΩn tZiob icm-i-cn-bpsS c≠n-c-´n-bmWv. h≥ssh-Zyp-Xn-I-Ωn-bp≈ kwÿm-\-amWv alm-cmjv{S. F∂m¬, a‰v ]›n-a-L´ kwÿm-\-ßsf At]-£n®v IΩn-bm-sW-¶nepw I¿Æm-S-I-bp-tSbpw, Xan-gv\m-Sn-s‚bpw ÿnXn Gsd t`Z-amWv. sshZypXn {]mtZ-in-I-ambn D¬∏m-Zn-°p-Itbm a‰v kwÿm-\-ß-fn¬ \n∂v hmßp-Itbm sNømw. ]s£ Bhiyw ap≥Iq´n Bkq-{XWw sNbvXv \oßn-bn-s√-¶n¬ Uok¬ P\-td-‰¿ sk‰p-Iƒ A\n-b-{¥n-X-ambn D]-tbm-Kn-®p-Xp-S-ßm\pw AXv ISpØ ]cn-X-ÿnXn {]iv\-߬ krjvSn-°m\pw CS-bm°pw. Ct∏m-gsØ {]k-cW˛ hnX-cW

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211


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

\jvSw Hgn-hm-°m\pw ASn-b-¥nc \S-]-Sn-thWw. C‘-\ß-fpsS Km¿lnI D]-tbmKw Nph-sS-bp≈ Nn{Xw 10¬ 2007 ˛08¬ 1000 {Kmao-W-`-h-\-ß-fnse ]mN-I-Øn\v F¬.]n.Pn (`q]Sw˛H∂v) hndIv (`q]Sw˛ 2), hnf-°p-sX-fn-°m≥ sshZypXn (`q]Sw˛3) asÆÆ (`q]Sw 4) F∂n-hb - psS D]-t`mKw hy‡-am-Ip∂p. tKmh-bn¬ 41 iX-am\w hoSp-If - n¬ ]mN-IØ - n\v F¬.]n.Pn D]-tbm-Kn-°p-tºmƒ a‰v kwÿm-\-ß-fn¬ Ct∏mgpw _lp-`q-cn-]£w {Kmao-Wcpw hnd-In-s\bmWv B{i-bn-°p-∂Xv. IqSp-X¬ {Kmao-Wcpw ]mN-I-Øn\v hndIv D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ I¿Æm-S-I-hpambn Xmc-Xayw sNøp-tºmƒ F¬.]n.Pn D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ Ab¬kw-ÿm-\-amb tIc-f-Ønse A\p-]mXw hfsc Db¿∂-XmWv. tKmh-bnse 80 ia-Xm-\-Øn-e-[n-Ihpw alm-cm-jv{S-bnse 70 iX-am-\-Øn-e-[n-Ihpw ]´-W-hm-kn-Iƒ ]mN-I-Øn\v F¬.]n.Pn D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-h-cmWv. cmPy-Øns‚ a‰p `mK-ß-fp-ambn Xmc-Xayw sNøp-tºmƒ ]›n-a-L´ kwÿm-\-ß-fnse `qcn-`mKw ho´p-Imcpw shfn-®-Øn\v asÆ-Æ-tb-°mƒ sshZyp-Xn-bmWv D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xv.

`q]Sw˛H∂v : 1000 {Kmao-W-`-h-\-ß-fnse ]mN-I-Øn\v F¬.]n.Pn

`q]Sw˛c≠v: 1000 {Kmao-W-`-h-\-ß-fnse ]mN-I-Øn\v hndIv

`q]Sw˛aq∂v : 1000 {Kmao-W-`-h-\-ß-fnse Du¿÷m-h-iy-߃°v sshZypXn

`q]Sw˛\mev: 1000 {Kmao-W-`-h-\-ß-fnse Du¿÷m-hi - y-߃°v asÆÆ

Nn{Xw 10 hnhn[ kwÿm-\-ß-fnse ]mNI/Du¿÷ Bh-iy-߃°p≈ Km¿lnI C‘\ D]-tbmKw (TDDEY 2010) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

212


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

2010 am¿®v 31 se ÿm]nX tijn (sa-Km-hm-´v)

Nn{Xw 11 ]›n-a-L´ kwÿm-\-ß-fnse sshZypXn Dev]m-Z\w

alm-cm-jv{S-bn¬ 2012 te°v ]e sX¿a¬ ]h¿ t{]mP-IvSp-Ifpw Bkq-{XWw sNbvXn´p≠v. tIc-f-Ønepw I¿Æm-S-I-Ønepw Pe-ssh-ZypX ]≤-Xn-I-fmWv Btem-N-\-bn¬. G‰hpw X¿°-Øn¬ InS-°p∂ I¿Æm-S-I-bnse KqVy, tIc-f-Ønse BXn-c-∏n≈n ]≤-Xn-Isf ]‰n Cu dnt∏m¿´ns‚ H∂mw `mKØv hni-Z-ambn N¿® sNbvXn-´p≠v. Bkq-{X-W-L-´-Øn-ep≈ ]e ]≤-Xn-Ifpw DXv°-≠m-P-\-I-amWv. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v sdbvKVnepw cXv\-Kn-cn-bnepw 33,000 saKm-hm´v tijn-bp≈ sX¿a¬ t{]mP-IvSp-Iƒ ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nbd≥kn-\p-th≠n ImØn-cn-°-bmWv. Ch-bn¬ ]eXpw krjvSn-°p∂ ]cn-ÿnXn˛ kmaq-ly-BLm-X-߃ hfsc Kpcp-X-c-amWv. Ch- Hcp Iq´-ambn ÿm]n-°m-\mWv Dt±-in-°p-∂Xv. Ch krjvSn°p∂ Bh¿Ø\ BLmXw ]cn-K-Wn-°-s∏-tS-≠-XmWv. Cu sshZypXn Dev]m-Z\ πm‚p-I-fpsS Zqjy-^-e-߃ Hcp hn`mKw P\-߃ A\p-`-hn-°p-tºmƒ AXns‚ KpWw e`n-°p-∂Xv as‰mcp hn`m-K-Øn-\mWv. Cu Pn√-Iƒ°v Hcp h¿jw 180 saKm-hm´v sshZyp-Xn-bmWv Bhiyw F∂m¬ ChnsS {]Xn-h¿jw Dev]m-Zn-∏n-°p-∂Xv 4543 saKm-hm-´mWv. apss_-bpsS Bhiyw hf-sc -h-ep-Xm-sW-¶n¬ Iev°cn A[n-jvTn-X-amb hen-sbmcp πm‚ v ae-_m¿ ln√n¬ ÿm]n-°m-hp-∂-XmWv. Pn‘m¬ πm‚n-te-Xp-t]mse F√m A\p-Iqe LS-Ißfpw Chn-sS-bp≠v. ChnsS πm‚ v ÿm]n-®m¬ hfsc Zqtc°v hnX-c-W-sse-\p-Iƒ hen-t°-≠Xn√. X∑qew {]k-cW˛hnX-cW \jvSw Ipd-bp∂p. cXv\-Kncn, kn‘n-Zp¿K Pn√-I-fn¬ hnXc sse\p-Iƒ°v Xmsg ^e-hr-£-ßfpw a‰pw h®p-]n-Sn-∏n-°m≥ Ign-bm-ØXp aqe-ap≈ \jvShpw Hgn-hm°mw. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

213


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

D¬°WvT Db¿Øp∂ {]iv\ß - ƒ hnI-k-\-Øn\v Du¿÷hpw sshZyp-Xnbpw IqSntb Xocq. Cu cmPysØ P\-ß-fpsS Hcp BtKmf kaq-l-Øns‚ `mK-am-I-bm¬ CS-Øcw hcp-am-\-kz-`m-h-Øn-te°v IqS-X¬ Bfp-Iƒ°v IS-∂p-tN-cp-∂-Xn-\m¬ `uXnI kpJ-ku-I-cy-߃°p-th-≠n-bp≈ Bhiyw h¿≤n-®p-sIm-≠ncn-°p-w. C¥y-bn¬ \mw ImWp-∂Xv hcp-am\ t{iWnbpsS apI-fn-te-bv°v IS-∂p-h-cp∂ P\-߃ B[p-\nI Pohn-X-Øn-\m-h-iy-amb LS-I-߃ IqSp-X¬ IqSp-X¬ Bh-iy-s∏-Sp-∂-XmWv. ]pXnb hn`mKw Du¿÷ D]-t`m-‡m-°ƒ, ]pXnb cmjv{Sob kΩ¿±-߃, IqSp-X¬ bm{Xm-ku-Icyw, CXn-s\√mw IqSp-X¬ sshZyp-Xnbpw Du¿÷hpw C‘-\hpw Bh-iy-amWv. hf¿®-bv°p-th-≠nbp≈ Du¿÷-Øns‚ Bhiyw IqSn-h-cp-tºmgpw shfn-®-Øn\v sshZypXn e`n-°m-Ø-Xpw, shfn®-Øn\pw ]mN-I-Øn-\pw, Btcm-Ky-Øn\v lm\n-I-c-amb ]pI- h-an-∏n-°p∂ C‘\w D]-tbm-Kn°p-∂Xpamb henb Hcp P\-hn-`mKw ChnsS D≠v. ChnsS \mw t\cn-Sp-∂ {]Xn-k‘n hf¿®°m-h-iy-amb Du¿Pw Fßs\ D¬]m-Zn-∏n-°mw, ]cn-ÿn-Xnsb kwc-£n-°p-∂-tXm-sSm∏w Du¿P £maw Fßs\ ]cn-l-cn-°mw, Fs∂m-s°-bm-Wv. \ne-hn-ep-≈Xpw ]pXn-b-Xmbn ÿm]n-°m-\p-t±-in-°p-∂-Xp-amb Du¿÷ Dev]m-Z-\-s{]m-PIvSp-If - psS ]mcn-ÿn-XnI˛kmaqly BLm-Xß - ƒ - DXv°W - vTm-P\ - I - a - mWv. ]›n-aL - ´- Ø - nse kwthZ\ £aX IqSnb taJ-e-I-fn¬ Du¿÷ DXv]m-Z-\-πm‚p-Iƒ \n¿Ωn-°p-∂Xpw {]h¿Øn-∏n-°p∂Xpw ssPh Bhm-k-hy-hÿ LS-\sb _m[n-°p-∂Xpw, Bhm-k- \-jvS-Øn\pw h\-ta-Je hn`-Pn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xn\pw CS-bm-°p-∂-Xp-amWv. CXv Ahn-SsØ kky-Pm-e-ß-fpsS am{X-a√, kqjvaIm-em-h-ÿ-tbbpw {]Xn-Iq-e-ambn _m[n°pw. Du¿÷ DXv]m-Z-\-πm‚p-Ifpw AW-s°-´p-Ifpw ÿm]n-°p-∂-Xp-aqew hfsc henb Hcp {]tZ-isØ h\-ß-fmWv \in-∏n°-s∏-Sp-∂Xv. \jvS-s∏´ A{Xbpw h\-߃ thsd h®p-]n-Sn-∏n-°m≥ \nbaw A\p-im-kn-°p-∂p-s≠-¶nepw \jvS-s∏´ X\Xp h\-ß-fnse ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-k-Po¿Æ-X-Ifpw kºØpw ]p\¿kr-jvSn-°m≥ AXn-\m-hn-√. sX¿a¬ πm‚p-I-fn¬ \n∂v ]pdØp hcp∂ Xm]-°m‰v h\-ß-fpsS \ne-hm-c-sØ \in-∏n-°p-Ibpw Xpd∂p hnSp∂ Ah-in-jv´-߃ Pe-t{km-X- p-Isf aen-\o-I-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøpw. sX¿a¬ πm‚p-I-fpsS {]h¿Ø\w aqew Pe-Øns‚ Xm]-\ne Db-cp-∂Xpw, ^vssf Bjpw BWv ]cn-ÿnXn {]iv\-ß-fp-≠m-°p-∂-Xv. Pe-Øns‚ Xm]-\ne Db-cp-∂-Xp-aqew cmk-h-kvXp°fpw a‰v aen-\o-I-cW hkvXp-°fpw sh≈-Øn¬ IqSp-X¬ Aen™p tNcp-Ibpw CXv ]cnÿnXn°v henb £X-ap-≠m-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. Xm]-\ne Db-cp-∂-Xn\v ]pdta XWp-∏n-°¬ {]{In-b-bn¬ cmk-]-Zm¿∞-߃ Ie¿∂ sh≈-amWv πm‚p-I-fn¬ \n∂v Xpd∂v hnSp-∂-Xv. Cu sh≈-Øn¬ t¢mdn\pw a‰pw Ie¿∂n-´p-≈-Xn-\m¬ Pem-i-b-Ønse a’y-k-º-Øns\ CXv {]XnIq-e-ambn _m[n°-pw. Cøw, ckw F∂nh Dƒs∏sS \nc-h[n cmk-h-kvXp-°ƒ ^vssf Bjn¬ AS-ßn-bn-cn°p-∂p. CXv \Zn-I-fnepw a‰pw ASn-bp-∂Xp aqew a’y-ß-fpsS {]Xyp-ev]m-Z\ tijn Xs∂ \jvS-s∏-Sp-∂p. sIm¶¨ taJ-e-bnse \nbp‡ Du¿÷ πm‚p-I-fpsS Bh¿Ø\ BLm-XsØ ]‰n ]T\w \S-Ø-W-sa∂ Bhiyw Db¿∂n-´p-≠v. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse \Zo-X-S-߃ Pe-ssh-Zyp-Xn°pw ip≤-P-e-hn-X-cW ]≤-Xn-Iƒ°pw th≠n {Iam-Xo-X-ambn NqjWw sNøp-∂-Xn-s\-Xnsc ap∂-dnbn-∏p-b-cp-∂p-≠v. \Zn-I-fpsS {]-`h tI{μ-ß-fn¬ bmsXmcp ]≤-Xnbpw ]mSn-√. {Ia-Øn-e-[nIw hnI-k\w h∂ \Zo-X-S-ß-fnepw ]pXnb AW-s°-´p-Iƒ ]mSn-√. \Zn-I-fpsS ]cn-ÿnXn]c-amb Hgp°v \ne-\n¿tØ-≠Xv hfsc {][m-\-amWv. am{X-hp-a√ ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ \ne-hn-ep-≈Xpw \n¿t±-in-°-s∏-´n-´p-≈-Xp-amb ]≤-Xn-Iƒ ssPh-B-hm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bn-ep-≠m-°p∂ Bh¿Ø\ BLm-X-sØ-∏‰n CXn-\Iw Hcp hne-bn-cp-ج \S-Øn-bn-´n√. ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ kwth-Z-\-£-aX IW-°n-se-SpØv Du¿÷ D]-t`mKw Gsd Imcy-£a-am-°nbpw a‰pw Du¿÷ Bh-iy-߃ \nd-th-‰m≥ {ian-°-Ww. ]e kwÿm-\-ß-fnepw ]mc-ºtcy-Xc Du¿÷ D]-t`mKw ]c-am-h[n t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°-s∏-Sp-∂p-≠v. kutcm¿P]-≤-Xn-Iƒ°mbn hcp∂ `qan-bp-sSbpw sh≈-Øn-s‚bpw Afhpw AXv krjvSn-°p∂ {]mtZ-inI kmaqly BLmXhpw ]cn-K-Wn-°-s∏-tS-≠-Xp-≠v. th≠{X {i≤ ]Xn-®n-´n-√mØ as‰mcp A]m-IX sshZypXn ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

214


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

hnX-c-W-Øn-\p≈ henb SΔ-dp-Iƒ IS∂p t]mIp∂XneqsS Bhm-k-tI-{μ-߃ hn`-Pn-°-s∏-Sp∂-Xm-Wv. ]cn-ÿnXn kwth-Z\ £aX Gdnb {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ SΔ¿ {KnUp-ambn _‘n-∏n-°m-sXbp≈ ]mc-º-tcy-Xc Du¿÷-]-≤-Xn-Iƒ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. {]mtZ-inI ]cn-ÿn-Xn-bn¬ ]mc-º-tcy-Xc Du¿÷-hn-I-k\w krjvSn-°p∂ BLm-XsØ ]‰n \mw IqSp-X¬ a\- n-em-t°-≠-Xp-≠v. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v h≥ tXmXn-ep≈ Im‰mSn ]mS-߃ {]mtZ-inI ssPh Bhmk hyh-ÿ-bn¬ Imcyamb am‰-ß-fp-≠m-°p-∂p-≠v. ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ hmWn-Pym-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ Im‰mSn ]mS-߃ ÿm]n-°m≥ ]e \n¿t±-i-ß-fp-ap-≠v. Nneh CXn\Iw ]q¿Øo-I-cn-®n-´p-ap-≠v. \n›n-X-th-K-X-bn¬ IqSp-X¬ XpS¿®-bmbn Im‰-Sn-°p∂ {]tZ-i-ßfntem CXv ÿm]n-°m≥ Ign-bq. ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ G‰hpw Zp¿∫-e-amb ssPh-B-hm-k-hy-h-ÿbp≈ Ingp-°mw-Xq-°mb ]md-s°-´p-I-fmWv CØcw {]tZ-i-߃ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse G‰hpw A\p-]-a-amb ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-L-S-I-ß-fmWv Chn-sS-bp-≈-Xv. Im‰mSn b{¥-߃ Db¿Øn ÿm]n°p-∂X - n-\p≈ `oa≥ s{Ibn-\p-Ifpw a‰pw ae-ap-If - n¬ FØn-°p-∂X - n\v Bh-iy-amb henb tdmUpI-fpsS \n¿ΩmWw h\-ß-fp-tSbpw Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bp-tSbpw h≥ tXmXn-ep≈ \io-I-c-WØn\pw AXp hgn Dcpƒs]m-´¬, asÆm-en∏v F∂n-hbv°p Imc-Whp-am-Ip-∂p. alm-cm-jv{S-bnse _oa-i-¶¿ h\y Pohn kt¶-X-Øn¬ \n∂v c≠v Intem-ao-‰¿ AIse ‘ENERCON’ Iº\n \SØnb Hcp Im‰mSn ]mS-Øn¬ {io am[-hvKm-UvKnepw sd\o t_m¿Pkpw \S-Ønb ]T-\-Øn¬ Cu taJebnse ]cn-ÿn-Xn-bpsS X\na apgp-h≥ XI¿Ø-Xmbn ImW-s∏-´p. am{X-hp-a√ Cu ]≤-Xn-bn-eqsS kz[o-\-h-ebw Iº\n {]Jym--]n-®n-´p≈Xnt\-°mƒ F{Xtbm hep-Xm-sW∂pw a\- n-em-°m≥ Ign-™p. Cu ]T-\-Øn-eqsS hy‡-am-Ip∂ Hcp Imcyw Im‰mSn ]mS-Øns‚ lcnX-km-t¶-XnI hnZybv°v ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip-∂Xpw CXp kw_-‘n® Bh¿Ø\ BLmX A]{K-Y\w \S-Ønb tijw aXn F∂m-Wv. CØ-c-sam-c-]-{K-Y\ ]T\w ]q¿Øn-bm-Ip-∂-Xp-hsc Im‰mSn ]mS-]-≤-XnIƒ°v samd-t´m-dnbw {]Jym-]n-°-Ww. GXm-bmepw ESZ1 taJ-e-bn¬ Im‰mSn ]mSw A\p-h-Zn-°-cp-sX∂v ]›n-a-L-´-k-anXn ip]m¿i sNbvXn-´p-≠v.

ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ am¿§-߃ Bh-iy-ap≈ Du¿÷-Øns‚ Af-hv, e`y-am-°m-hp∂ Du¿÷-Ønse h¿≤-\-hv, Dev]m-Z-\Øn-ep≈ ssPh-C-‘\ kmt¶-XnI ⁄m\w, Du¿÷ taJ-ebv°v Np‰p-ap≈ ]cn-ÿnXn \nb{¥Ww F∂n-hsb ASn-ÿm-\-am°n ]e am¿§-߃ ip]m¿i sNømw. Bh-iy-ap-ff Du¿÷-Øns‚ Afhv ]›n-a-L´ kwÿm-\-ß-fn-tebpw a‰v kwÿm-\-ß-fn-tebpw Hcp hn`m-K-am-fp-Iƒ Bh-iyØn-e-[nIw ssh-ZypXn D]-tbm-Kn-°p-tºmƒ a‰p-≈-h¿°v AXym-h-iy-Øn\p t]mepw e`n°p-∂n-√. Du¿÷ Dev]m-Z-\hpw D]-t`m-Khpw _‘-s∏-Sp-Øn-bp≈ {]mtZ-inI ]cn-ÿn-Xn]-chpw kmaq-ly-am-bp-ap≈ {]iv\-߃ ]cn-K-Wn-°p-tºmƒ kpÿn-c-Xbpw Xpey-Xbpw {]Xn-^-en-°p∂ hy‡-amb Hcp Du¿÷ \bw \ap-°m-h-iy-am-Wv. ""BVw-_-chpw Zpcp-]tbm-Khpw'' ""\ymbhpw Bh-iy-Øn\pw'' XΩn-ep≈ hyXymkw Du¿÷-D-]-t`m-K-Øn¬ \mw Xncn-®-dn-b-Ww. Xpey-amb {]Xn-io¿j Du¿÷ D]-t`mK \n_-‘-\-Ifpw IW-°n-se-Sp-°Ww. hnhn[ taJ-e-I-fn¬ Du¿÷-Im-cy-£-aX Iq´m≥ k¿°m-cn-\p≈ tijn hne-bn-cp-tØ≠Xpw {][m-\-am-Wv. _yqtdm Hm^v F\¿Pn F^n-jy≥kn-bpsS ]¶n-\mWv ChnsS {][m\yw . Ct∏mgpw `mhn-bn-ep≈ Du¿÷-Øns‚ Bhiyw AYhm Afhv IW-°m-°ptºmƒ AXv bYm¿∞hpw hkvXp \njvShpw Bbn-cn-°-Ww. DuXn-s]-cp-∏n® IW-°p-Iƒ Bh-iy-an-√msX IqSp-X¬ Du¿÷w Dev]m-Zn-∏n-°m-\p≈ kΩ¿±w Iq´p-Ibpw AXv tZmjI-c-amb ]cn-ÿnXn BLm-X-߃°v CS-bm-Ip-Ibpw sNøpw. Du¿÷ Dev]m-Z-\-Øns‚ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-chpw kmaq-ly-]-chpw kmaq-ly-hp-amb BLm-X߃ IW-°n-se-SpØv Du¿÷ D]-t`m-‡m-°sf t_m[-h¬°-cn®v Du¿÷-Øns‚ BVw_c Bhiyw Ipd-bv°-Ww.

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215


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Du¿÷ Dev]m-Z\w ]mc-º-tcy-Xc Du¿÷ ]≤-Xn-I-tfbpw Du¿÷-Im-cy-£-a-X-tbbpw ]c-am-h[n t{]m’mln-∏n-°-Ww. sNdnb ]≤-Xn-I-fmWv A`n-Im-ayw. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]cn-ÿnXn kwth-Z\ £aX IqSnb taJ-e-I-fn¬ {]mtZ-inI sshZypXn Bh-iy-߃ am{Xw t\cn-Sm-\p≈ sNdp-InS Pe sshZypX ]≤XnIfmWv Bh-iyw. Ch {KnUp-ambn _‘n-∏n-°m-Øh Bbn-cn-°-Ww. kvam¿´v {KnUns‚ D]-t`mKw •

Du¿÷-Ønse ASn-ÿm-\-L-S-I-Øns‚ kzoIm-cyX sa®-s∏-SpØm≥ IW°v Iq´m\p≈ tijnbpw Bi-b-hn-\n--a-bhpw sa®-s∏-Sp-Øp-I.

• {KnUn-eqsSsshZypXn Hgp-Ip-∂Xv \nco-£n-°p-∂-Xn\pw sa®-s∏´ ap≥I-cp-X¬ sabn‚ \≥kn\pw \S-]Sn kzoI-cn°pI. • {]k-cW˛hn-X-cW \jvSw Ipd-bv°p-I. hnZyp-—‡n hnX-cWw IqSp-X¬ Imcy-£-ahpw hnizm-k-tbm-Kyhpw B°p-∂-Xn\ kwÿm\-ß-ƒ \nb-{¥-W-\-b-߃ kzoI-cn®v aen-\o-I-c-W-ap-≠m-°p∂ Uok¬ F©n≥ amXr-IIƒ hyh-km-b-Øn¬ sIm≠p-h-cp-∂Xv Ipd-bv°p-I. Cu `mKØv kzoI-cn-®n-´p≈ \qX\ {]h-W-X-Iƒ \n›-ambpw hne-bn-cp-tØ-≠-Xm-Wv. DZml-c-W-Øn\v tIc-f-Ønse ]Ø≥]m-d-bnse Hcp amXrIm sNdp-InS Pe-ssh-ZypX kwhn[m\w. CXn\v Bh-iy-amb XpI kam-l-cn-®Xv {Kma-hm-kn-I-fn¬ \n∂v ]W-ambpw Dev]-∂ß-fm-bp-am-Wv. AXp-t]mse Xs∂ sshZyp-Xo-I-cn-°mØ {Kma-ß-fn¬ kutcm¿÷-sa-Øn°m-\mbn "sk¬sIm' amXrIm ]≤-Xn-bn-tebpw A\p-`-h-߃ hne-bn-cp-Ø-s∏-tS-≠-XmWv. Gs‰-SpØ `qan-bpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ B\p-Iqeyw ]¶p hbv°p∂ coXn: DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v ]me-°ms´ Kncn-h¿§-°m-cp-ambn tN¿∂v Hcp 80 saKm-hm´v Im‰mSn ]mSw ÿm]n-°p-∂Xn\v tIc-f-k¿°m¿ kzoI-cn® _nkn-\ v amXrI {]Imcw F≥.-Sn.-]n.-knbpw kwÿm\ hnZyp-—‡n t_m¿Upw ]me-°ms´ Kncn h¿§-°mcpw tN¿∂p≈ Hcp ]m¿´vW¿ jn∏mWv Cu ]≤-Xn. Kncn-h¿§-°m-cpsS `qan-bn¬ \n∂p-ev]m-Zn-∏n-°p∂ Hmtcm bqWn‰v sshZyp-Xnbn¬ \n∂pw Hcp \n›nX XpI Kncn-h¿§-°m¿°p e`n-°pw. ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nbd≥kv Du¿÷ πm‚p-Iƒ°v ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip∂Xn\p≈ \S-]-Sn-{Iaw ASn-apSn ]cnjv°-cn-°-Ww. Hmtcm taJ-ebv°pw hln-°m-hp∂ tijn ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX ]T-\-߃ IW-°n-se-Sp°-Ww. πm‚p-Iƒ Iq´-tØm-sSbmWv ÿm]n-°p-∂-sX-¶n¬ Bh¿Ø\ BLmX ]T-\߃ IqSn \S-Ø-Ww. C¥y-bn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\Øn\p≈ am¿§-tc-J-I-fn¬ ]mc-º-tcy-Xc Du¿÷ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ D¬s∏-Sp-∂n-√. Ahbpw {]tXy-In®v Im‰mSn ]mS-߃ ]e BLm-Xßfpw krjvSn-°p-∂-Xn-\m¬ Chsb IqSn AXn¬ Cƒs∏-Sp-Ø-Ww. CXn-\mbn bp.-F-kv.C.]n Xøm-dm-°n-bn-´p≈ am\-Z-WvU-ßfpw ]cn-tim-[n-°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. I‰mSn ]mS-߃°v ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ipw ap≥]v Bh¿Ø\ BLmX A]-{K-Y\w \S-Ø-Ww. ]mc-º-tcyXj Du¿÷ ]≤Xn IqSp-X¬ {]Nmcw t\Sn hcp-∂-Xn-\m¬ Ah ap≥Iq´n Bkq{XWw sNøp-Ibpw ]mcn-ÿn-XnI kmaqly BLmX ]T-\-߃ \S-Øp-Ibpw thWw ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ sX¿a¬ πm‚p-Iƒ°v ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip-∂-Xn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥mebw IqSp-X¬ {i≤ sNep-Ø-Ww. ]≤-Xn-Iƒ°v A\p-aXn \¬Ip-∂Xv ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nbm≥kv \n_-‘-\-Iƒ I¿i-\-ambn ]men-®n-cn-°-Ww. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Du¿÷ sshZypXn taJ-e-bp-ambn _‘-s∏´ {]iv\-ß-ƒ ssIImcyw sNøm≥ ]›n-a-L´ AtXm-dn-‰n-bpsS Iogn¬ Hcp {]tXyI sk¬ cq]o-I-cn-°-Ww.

2.9 hnt\mZ k©mcw hnt\m-Z-k-©mcw ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ AXn-thKw hf¿∂p sIm≠n-cn-°-bm-Wv. Chn-SsØ hnt\mZ k©mcw {][m-\-ambpw {]IrXn ]cn-ÿnXn h\y-Pohn, aX-߃, kmaqlyw, _nkn\ v F∂n-hsb ASn-ÿm-\-s∏-Sp-Øn-bp-≈-Xm-Wv. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse Sqdn-k-Øn-te-dnb ]¶pw aX-]c - a - mb Sqdn-ka - m-Wv. sXm´-SpØ ÿm\w {]IrXn A[n-jvTnX Sqdn- Ø - n-\m-Wv. ChnsS G‰hpw IqSp-X¬ hnt\m-Z-k-©m-cn-I-sf-Øp-∂Xv cmPy-Øn-\-IØp \n∂p Xs∂. 2002\v tijw ]›n-a-L´-Ønse kwc-£n-X-ta-J-e-bmb s]cn-bm¿, acpae, _μn-∏q¿, \mK¿tlmƒ, Ut≠en˛B≥jn F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn-te-°p≈ Sqdn-Ãp-I-fpsS Hgp°v IqSn-bn-´p-≠v. Sqdnkw {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn-te-dnb ]¶pw th≠{X Bkq-{X-Wtam \nb-{¥-Wtam C√m-sX-bmWv \S-°p-∂-Xv. "Aw_n-hmen' ,"e-hmk-' t]mse temI-\n-e-hm-c-Øn¬ Bkq-{XWw sNbvXn-´p-f-f Sqdnkw ]≤-Xn-Iƒ°p t]mepw Bhiyamb ]cn-ÿnXn -B-LmX ]T-\tam, Bh¿Ø\ BLmX A]-{K-[-\tam \S-Øm-sX-bmWv tI{μ-˛-kw-ÿm\ k¿°m-cp-Iƒ Sqdn-ksØ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p-∂-Xv.

DXvIW - vTb - p-≠m-°p∂ {]iv\ß - ƒ ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ SqdnÃv ÿm]-\-ß-fpsS A\n-b-{¥n-X-amb hf¿®, Bhmk tI{μ-߃ hn`-Pn-°-s∏-Sm\pw a\p-jy\pw arK-ßfpw XΩn-ep≈ kwL¿jw h¿≤n-°m\pw CS-bm°n-bn-´p≠v. amen-\y-߃ {Iam-Xo-X-ambn Ip∂p IqSp-∂Xp aqew IoS-߃ BI¿jn-°-s∏-Sm\pw tcmK߃ h¿≤n-°m\pw CS-bp-≠v. kwkv°-cn-°mØ sh≈w ]pd-tØ°v Hgp°n hnSp-∂Xp aqew kky-Pm-e-ßfpw `qP-ehpw aen-\o-I-cn-°-s∏-Sp-∂p. h\-Øn¬ Xo]n-SpØw D≠m-Im-\p≈ km≤yXbpw Gsd-bm-Wv. Sqdn-k-Øns‚ as‰mcp kzm`m-hnI ^e-amWv sh≈-Øn\p th≠n-bp≈ h¿≤n® Bh-iyw. kmaq-ly-˛-kmw-kv°m-cnI cwKØv {]tZ-i-hm-kn-I-fpsS ]c-º-cm-KX Pohn-X-ssi-en-bn¬ Sqdnkw am‰w hcp-Øp∂-Xm-bmWv ImWp-∂-Xv. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v `qan-bpsS hn\n-tbm-K-Øn¬ h∂ am‰hpw sXmgn-em-fn-I-fpsS Zu¿e-`yhpw {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-Øn\v Ah-cpsS `qan-bnepw hn`-ht{km-X- p-I-fnepw FØm≥ Ign-bm-ØXpw Irjn Akm-≤y-am-°p-∂p. {]IrXn kwc-£-WsØ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°m-\p≈ Hcp Bi-b-ambn Ct°m Sqdnkw t{]m’m-ln-∏n®p hcp-∂Xv icn-bmb coXn-bn-e-√. {]IrXn kwc-£-W-sØ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°m\pw {]tZi-hm-kn-I-fpsS kmaq-ly-˛-kmº-ØnI ]¶m-fnØw Dd∏p hcp-Øm-\p-amWv Ct°m Sqdnkw {ian-t°-≠-Xv. NphsS ]d-bp∂ Imcy-ß-fn¬ \b-]-c-amb {i≤ Bh-iy-amWv Sqdnkw hf-cp∂ thKX h¿≤n®p hcp∂ Sqdn-k-Øns‚ _mly Bh-iy-߃ SqdnÃv ASn-ÿm\ kuI-cy-ß-fpsS ÿm\w. hnt\mZ k©m-cn-Iƒ aqe-ap-≠m-Ip∂ i_vZ-i-eyw, amen-\y-°q-ºmcw XpS-ßn-b-h. amen\y amt\-Pvsa‚n-t‚bpw aen-\-Pe amt\-Pvsa‚n-t‚bpw A`mhw {]tZ-i-hm-kn-I-fpsS Pohn-X-Ønepw kwkv°m-c-Øn-ep-ap-≠m-Ip∂ am‰-߃ *

t\´w ]¶n-Sp∂ kwhn-[m-\-an-√m-bva.

ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ am¿§-߃ ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse hnt\mZ k©mcw {]tXyI {i≤ A¿ln-°p-∂p. CØcw ssk‰p-Isf "Dev]m-Z-\-˛-D-]-t`m-‡r' kw-hn-[m-\-ambn thWw a\- n-em-°m≥. kpÿnc Dev]m-Z-\-˛-D-]-t`m‡r kwhn-[m\w i‡-amb kpÿnc N´ß-fn-eqsS A\n-›n-XXz-sØbpw a‰v {]Xn-k-‘n-I-sfbpw XcWw sNøp-I. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

{]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn¬ hymh-km-bnI ]cn-ÿnXn XXz-ßfpw ssPh kmt¶-XnI hnZybpw D]tbm-Kn-°p-I. Hcp {]tZ-i-Øn\v Xmßm-\p≈ tijn, aen-\o-I-c-W-\n-b-{¥-Ww, aen-\o-I-cWw, kr„n-°p∂-h¿ AXns‚ sNehv hln-°Ww XpS-ßn-bh {]h¿Øn ]Y-Øn¬ sIm≠p hcn-I. ]cn-ÿnXn ]c-ambn Hcp {]tZ-i-Øn\v Xmßm-\p≈ tijn-bpsS Afhv hsc am{Xta Sqdnkw A\p-h-Zn-°m-hq. kmwkv°m-cn-Ihpw kmaq-ly-hp-amb ]cn[n Ihn-bp-∂Xv ]›n-a-L´-Ønse kpÿnc hnI-k-\-Øns‚ Xmev]-cy-Øn\v tN¿∂-X-√. Hcp taJ-e-bpsS Xmßm-\p≈ tijn Db¿Øm≥ th≠n \nt£]w A\p-h-Zn-°mw. kmt¶-XnI ⁄m\-]-ctam \b-]-ctam Bb Imcy-߃ {]mh¿Øn-I-am-°p-Itbm hn`-hß-fpsS D]-tbmKw IqSp-X¬ Imcy-£-a-am-°p-Itbm sNøp-∂Xv aqew ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-c-amb ]cn-an-Xn-Iƒ am‰n FSp-°mw. ESZ H∂n¬

Hcp taJ-e-bn¬ G‰hpw Ipd™ BLmXw krjvSn-°p∂ Sqdn-ksØ t{]m’m-ln-∏n°m≥ th≠n ]›n-a-L´ AtXm-dn‰n ip≤o-I-cn-s®-Sp-°p∂ Ct°m-˛-Sq-dnkw \bw thWw ]cn-ÿn-Xn-˛-h\w a{¥m-ebw ]n≥Xp-S-cm≥. amen\y amt\-Pvsa‚n\pw, {Sm^n-°n\pw Pe D]-tbm-K-Øn\pw I¿i-\-\n-b-{¥Ww thWw. ESZ c≠n¬

Hcp Sqdnkw amÿ πm\ns‚bpw tkmjy¬ BUn-‰n-s‚bpw ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ I¿i\ \nb-{¥W߃ G¿s∏-Sp-Ø-Ww. Hcp {]tZ-i-Øns‚ Xmßm-\p≈ tijn-bpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Ønepw kmaq-lyhpw ]cn-ÿn-Xn]-ch - p-amb sNe-hp-Iƒ IW-°n-se-SpØpambn-cn-°Ww Sqdnkw amÿ πm\n\v cq]w \¬Im≥ ESZ aq∂n¬

SqdnÃv t{]mP-IvSp-I-fpsS tkmjy¬ BUn‰pw \nb-{¥-W-ßfpw I¿i-\-am-°Ww Sqdnkw amÿ πm\n\v cq]w \¬Ip-∂Xv Hcp {]tZ-i-Øn\v Xmßm-\p≈ tijn hne-bn-cpØnbpw kmaq-lyhpw ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-c-hp-amb sNe-hp-Iƒ IW-°n-se-Sp-Øp-am-bn-cn-°-Ww. {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-hp-ambn t\´w ]¶p hbv°p∂ sNdp-InS Sqdnkw t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°-Ww. Sqdn-k-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\ LS-I-߃ {]tXy-In®v Xma-k-ku-Icyw {]-IrXn kulr-Z-]chpw {]mtZ-in-I-ambn e`y-am-bn-´pff hkvXp-°ƒ {i≤m-]q¿Δw D]-tbm-Kn-®p-≈Xpw Bbncn-°-Ww. CXn\v k_vknUn cq]-Øn¬ t{]m’m-l\w \¬I-Ww. Acp-hn-Iƒ, XSm-I-߃ a‰v Pe-t{km-X- p-Iƒ F∂n-hbv°v Np‰pw tIm¨{Io‰v sNøp-∂Xv \ncp-’m-l-s∏-Sp-Ø-Ww. Sqdnkw ASn-ÿm\ kuI-cy-ß-fn¬ {i≤n-°-Ww. Sqdnkw ASn-ÿm\ kuI-cy-߃°v IqSp-X¬ ]cn-K-W\ \¬IWw kwc-£nX taJ-e-bpsS Icp-X¬ {]tZ-kØv Sqdnkw ASn-ÿm\ kuI-cy-sam-cp-°p-∂Xv ssk‰n\v G‰hpw A\p-tbm-Py-amb coXn-bn-em-bn-cn-°Ww. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse sNdpXpw hep-Xp-amb F√m Sqdnkw ASn-ÿm\ kuIcy hnI-k-\Ønepw ag-sh≈w kw`-cn-°m-\p≈ \n¿t±iw \n¿_-‘n-X-am-°Ww hml-\-ß-fn¬ \nb-{¥Ww G¿s∏-Sp-ØWw πmÃnIv D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xn¬ I¿i\ \nb-{¥Ww G¿s∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw hmWnPy ÿm]-\ßfpw a‰pw πmÃnIv _mKv D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xv \ntcm-[n-°p-Ibpw thWw.

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218


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

sh≈w D]-tbm-Kn® tijw Ip∏n-Iƒ kam-l-cn-°m≥ {]tXyI kwhn-[m\w G¿s∏-Sp-ØWw. SqdnÃv ssk‰p-If - nse amen\y amt\-Pvsa‚n\v IqSp-X¬ {]mtZ-inI ]¶m-fnØw t{]m’mln-∏n-°-Ww. Sqdn-k-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´ {]iv\-߃ ssIImcyw sNøm≥ ]›n-a-L´ AtXm-dn‰n Hcp {]tXyI sk¬ cq]o-I-cn-°-Ww. Sqdnkw hnI-k\ {]h¿Ø-\-ƒ ssek≥knßv Dƒs∏-sSbp≈hbpsS \nb-{¥Ww ]›n-a-L´ AtXm-dn-‰n-°m-bn-cn-bv°-Ww.

2.10. KXm-KXw cmPy-Øns‚ hnhn[ `mK-߬ XΩn¬ _‘n-∏n-°p-∂-Xn\pw k¥p-enX taJe hnI-k\-Øn\pw hm¿Øm-hn-\n-ab irw-Je hnI-kn-∏n-°m\pw kwÿm-\-Øn-\-IØpw kwÿm-\-߃ XΩnepw D≈ hmWn-Py-˛-hy-h-km-b-߬ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°m\pw KXm-KX ASn-ÿm\ kuI-cy߃ {][m-\-am-Wv. ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ Imcy-Øn¬ kpZo¿L-amb ]›na XocsØ a‰v `mK-ß-fp-ambn _‘n∏n-°p-∂-Xn\v KXm-KX ASn-ÿm\ kuIcyw Hgn®p IqSm-\m-hmØXmWv. Ct∏mƒ ]me-°mSv Npcw am{X-amWv CØ-cØ - n-semcp ]mX Hcp-°p-∂X - v. ]›n-aL - ´ ae-\n-cI - f - n-eqsS IS∂p t]mIp∂ tdmUp-Iepw dbn¬thIfpw sslth-I-fp-amWv AXns‚ ssPh-\n-e-hm-csØ _m[n-°p∂ am‰Øns‚ apJy D]m-[n-Iƒ. Cu taJ-e-bn¬ KXm-KX ASn-ÿm\ hnI-k-\-Øn\p th≠n Db-cp∂ apd-hn-fn-Iƒ DXvI-WvT-tbm-sS-bmWv Cu kanXn ImWp-∂-Xv.ImcWw CXv ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse h\-ß-tfbpw ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-sØ-bpw h\y Pohn-I-sfbpw {]Xn-Iq-e-ambn _m[n-°pw.

DXvIWvT Df-hm-°p∂ {]iv\-߃ tdmUp-Ifpw sdbn¬sh sse\p-If - p-sa√mw a\pjy Bhmk tI{μ-ßf - psS hnI-k\ - Ø - n\pw `qan-bpsS D]-tbm-K-Øn¬ am‰w hcp-Øm\pw CS-bm°pw. KXm-KX ]≤-Xn-I-fpsS {]Xy£ BLmX-tØ-°mƒ Cu hnI-k-\-amWv ]cn-ÿn-Xn°v Gsd tZmj-Icw. KXm-KX ASn-ÿm-\-L-S-I-ßfpsS hnI-k\w Bhmk tI{μ-ßsf Iodn apdn-°p-Ibpw ssPh-ssh-hn≤y \jvS-Øn\v CXv CSbm-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂-Xn-\m¬ ]cn-ÿn-Xn°pw ssPh-ssh-hn≤y Ie-h-dbv°pw CXv henb DXvIWvT D≠m-°p-∂p. ae-I-fn-eqsS IS∂p t]mIp∂ tdmUp-Iƒ°p th≠n h≥tXm-Xn¬ ]md s]m´n®v amt‰≠n hcp-∂p. CXp aqew s]s´-∂p-≠m-Ip∂ i_vZ-i-ey-Øn\pw a‰pw ]pdta ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ ]e-bnSØpw kw`-hn-®Xp t]mse i‡-amb ag-bn¬ Dcpƒs]m-´¬ D≠m-Im\pw km≤y-X-bp-≠v. DZm-lc-W-Øn\v \oe-Kn-cn-bnse ta´p-]m-f-bw-˛-Du´n tdmUn¬ IqsS-Iq-sS- Dcpƒs]m-´¬ D≠m-Im-dp-≠v. AXp t]mse-Xs∂ ae-ap-dn®v IpØn-d-°-ambn IS∂p t]mIp∂ tdmUn-eqsS apdn®p IS-°m≥ B\-sb-t∏m-ep≈ henb arK-߃°v km≤y-a√ X∑qew Ah-bpsS k©mcw Acp-hn-Iƒ°pw \Zn-Iƒ°pw kao-]Øp IqSn-bp≈ CSp-ßnb hgn-I-fn-eq-sS-bmIpw. ka-X-e-ß-fn¬ henb thKX-bn¬ ]mbp∂ hml-\-߃ X´n arK-߃ NmIp-∂Xpw k¿Δ-km-[m-c-W-am-Wv. ÿnc-am-bp≈ hgn-hn-f-°p-Iƒ, hml-\-ß-fpsS thK-X, h\-Ønse arK-߃°p-≠m--Ip∂ ieyw F∂n-h-bmWv Kpcp-X-c-amb a‰v {]iv\-߃. ]›n-a-L-´-Øn-eqsS am{X-a√ h\y-ar-K-ß-fpsS \S-h-gn-Iƒ Iodn-ap-dn®pw tdmUp-]Wn ]ptcm-K-an-°-bm-Wv. F∂n´pw ]pXnb tdmUp-Iƒ°p th≠n-bp≈ apd-hn-fn°v Adp-Xn-bn-√. IqSpX¬ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ ]Wn-]p-c-bn-em-Wv. BI-bm¬ C°mcyw hfsc Kuc-h-]q¿Δw ImtW-≠-Xp-≠v. ]c©v ss]bpsS IW-°-\p-k-cn®v 90Ifn¬ hS°p ]Sn-™m-d≥ L´n\v Ipdp-sI-bp≈ tdmUp-IfpsS FÆw shdpw 13 Bbn-cp-∂p. 2011¬ CXv 21 Bbn. (t_mIvkv 11) Cu enÃv ]q¿Æa-√. Cu taJ-e-bnse tdmUp hnI-k-\-Øns‚ Hcp kqPnI am{Xw. Ch-bn¬ ]qsW-˛-apwss_ \mep-hcn FIvkv{]kv sslthbpw Ct∏mƒ ]Wn \S∂p hcp∂ \mkn-Iv-˛-apwss_ sslthbpw Dƒs∏-Spw. apwss_-˛-]q-s\-F-Ivkv{]kv sslth-bpsS \n¿ΩmWw temWm-hm-e-bv°-Sp-Øp≈ \n¿±njvS ^m: im¥-∏mhp h\y-arK kt¶-X-Øn\v D≠m-°n-bn-´p≈ \mi-\-jvS-߃ \nI-Øm\m-hm-Ø-Xm-Wv. 1990Ifn¬ tdmUv F-∂m¬ ]´-W-ß-fp-sSbpw {Kma-ß-fp-sSbpw hnI-k-\-Øn\p ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

219


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

th≠nbp≈ am¿§-ß-fm-bn-cp-∂p. h\ Dev]-∂-ß-fmb XSn, [mXp-°ƒ XpS-ßn-bh shfn-bn¬ sIm≠p t]mIp-∂-Xn-\p≈ hgn-I-fmbpw Ch D]-tbm-Kn-®n-cp-∂p. F∂m-en∂v 3 sat{Sm s]mfn-‰≥ kn‰n-Iƒ°v (]q-s\, apwss_, \mkn-Iv) a≤y-Øn-ep≈ Cu {]tZiw hyh-km-b-h¬°-c-W-Øn\pw \K-c-hn-I-k-\-Øn\pw Cc-bmbn Xocp-∂-Xp-aqew h\-߃ AXn-thKw XpS®p \o°-s∏-´psIm-≠ncn°p-∂p. 2001˛2002¬ ]Wn ]q¿Øn-bmb sIm¶¨ dbn¬th ]cn-ÿn-Xnbpw hnI-k-\hpw XΩnepw Xoc-tZ-ihpw h\-B-hm-k-hy-h-ÿbpw XΩnepw D≈ a’-c-Øn\v DZm-l-c-W-am-Wv. ]›n-a-L-´Ønse 6 kwÿm-\-ß-fn¬ 4 eneq-sSbpw an°-hmdpw F√m Pn√-I-fn-eq-sSbpw dbn¬th IS∂p t]mIp-∂p-≠v. h\-Øn-t∑epw Xoc-tZi Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bn-t∑epw dbn¬th henb BLm-X-amWv krjvSn-®n´p≈Xv. Cu dbn¬th-bn¬ SW-ep-Iƒ XI-cp-∂Xpw Dcpƒs]m-´epw ae-bn-Sn-bnepw ]e-t∏mgpw kw`-hn-°m-dp-≠v. ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ `mK-ß-fn-eqsS IS∂p t]mIp∂ Cu dbn¬sh h\-`qan Hgn-™mWv t]mIp-∂-Xv. AXp t]mse ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ sX°p`mK-Øp≈ taP¿ tdmUp-Ifpw ]cn-ÿnXn {]iv\ß-fp-≠m-°p-∂p-≠v. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v ssakq-dn¬ \n∂v kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-ß-fmb \K-c-tlm-sf, _μn-∏q¿, apXp-a-sse, hb-\mSv hgn-bp≈ sslsh-bnse KXm-K-X-Xn-c°v h\y-Po-hn-Iƒ°v \nc¥-c-i-ey-am-Wv. Cu ]mX-bn-eqsS cm{Xn hml-\-tam-Sn-°p-∂Xv 2010¬ I¿Æm-SI sslt°m-SXn \ntcm-[n-®p. ssX¶m-in-˛-sIm√w dbn¬th sse\pw sNt¶m-´-]p-c-Øn-eq-sS-bp≈ sslshbpw sX°pw (I-f-bv°m-Sv, ap≠≥Xp-ssd-˛-s\-øm¿) hS°pw ({io-hn√n ]pØq¿, dm∂n, tIm∂n Unhnj-\p-Iƒ) XΩn-ep≈ B\-I-fpsS bm{X ]q¿Æ-ambpw XS- -s∏-Sp-Øn. ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ sX°p-`m-KØp IqSn IqSp-X¬ dbn¬ ]mXbv°p th≠n-bp≈ apd-hnfn Db¿∂p Ign-™p. \n¿±njvS lp_vfn,˛ At¶mf sse≥, Xm¬Kp-∏-˛-slm-∂m-hm¿ sse≥, ssakq¿ ˛I-Æq¿ sse≥, Nma-cm-P-\-K¿-˛-k-Xy-aw-Kew sse≥, i_-cn-ae sse≥ F∂n-h-sb√mw CXnepƒs∏-Spw. \n¿±njvS Nma-cm-P-\-K¿-˛-k-Xy-aw-Kew sse≥ kXy-aw-Kew \n_n-V-h-\-Øn-eq-sSbpw Xe-asse ae-©-cn-hn-eq-sSbpw B\-I-fpsS h≥ Bhm-k-tI-{μ-amb tambm¿ \Zo-X-S-Øn-eq-sS-bpamWv IS∂p t]mtI-≠-Xv. ChnsS B\-Iƒ aqew s{Sbn≥ A]-ISw D≠m-Im-\p≈ km≤yX hfsctbsd-bm-Wv. ]›n-a-L-´hpw ]q¿Δ-L-´hpw XΩn¬ _‘n-∏n-°p∂ Htc HcnSw Acn™p \o°n sIm≠p thWw Cu sse≥ IS∂p t]mtI-≠-Xv. Nne imkv{Xob sXfn-hp-I-fpsS ASnÿm-\-Øn¬ Cu dbn¬ ]mXbv°v CXp hsc ¢nb-d≥kv \¬In-bn-´n-√.

ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ D]m-[n-Iƒ ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX ]T-\-Øn\v hnt[-b-ambn G‰hpw AXym-h-iy-ap≈hsbm-gn®v ESZ1¬ ]pXnb sdbn¬sh sse\p-Itfm taP¿ tdmUp-Itfm ]mSn-√. tKmh-bptSXv Hcp {]tXyI tIkm-Wv, ImcWw sIm¶¨ sdbn¬th Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ Ahn-SsØ hnI-k\w XoctZita-J-e-bn-em-Wv. k¥p-enX hnI-k\w ssIh-cn-°m\pw Xoct-ZisØ kΩ¿±w Ipd-bv°m\pw hnI-k\w ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse Xmeq-°p-I-fn-te°v hym]n∏n-t°-≠-Xp-≠v. F∂m¬ Cu {]tZi-ßsf kanXn ESZ1emWv Dƒs∏SpØn-bn-´p-≈-Xv. tKmhbpw I¿Æm-S-Ihpw XΩn-ep≈ AXn¿Øn Xs∂ ESZ1emWv. AXp sIm≠v Xs∂ tKmh-bpsS Imcy-Øn¬ Nne DZm-c-kao-]\w Bh-iy-am-Wv. tKmh-bpsS taJem πm≥ 21¬ hnI-k\w Dƒ Xmeq-°p-I-fn-te°v hym]n-∏n-°m≥ ]≤-Xn-bp-≠v. CXn\v KXm-K-X-A-Sn-ÿm\ hnI-k\w Bh-iy-am-Wv. ESZ-1¬

]pXnb sslsh-Ifpw FIvkv{]kv shIfpw Hgn-hm-°-Ww.

ESZ-2¬

G‰hpw Hgn®p IqSm-\m-hmØ kμ¿`-ß-fn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX ]T-\-Øn-s‚bpw I¿i\ \n_-‘-\-I-fp-sSbpw tkmjy¬ BUn-‰n-s‚bpw ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-e-√msX ]pXnb dbn¬th sse\p-Itfm taP¿ tdmUp-Itfm ]mSn-√.

Nne I¿i\ hyh-ÿ-Iƒ°v hnt[-b-ambn ESZ 2¬ AXym-h-iy-ap≈ tdmUp-Ifpw dbn¬sh sse\p-Ifpw sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ A\p-h-Zn-°mw. ]›n-a-L-´-Øn\v samØ-ambn KXm-K-X-ta-J-ebv°p th≠n Hcp amÿ πm≥ Xøm-dm-°Ww.

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

220


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

{]tZ-isØ ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-Øn-s‚bpw ssPh-B-hm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bp-sSbpw aqey-hp-ambn _‘-s∏-SpØn ]›naL´ {]tZ-iØv Bfp-I-sfbpw km[-\-ß-sfbpw sIm≠p t]mIm\pw hcm-\p-ap≈ Ct∏m-g-sØbpw `mhn-bn-tebpw Bh-iy-߃ IW-°n-se-SpØp thWw πm≥ Xøm-dm-°m≥. ]cn-ÿn-Xnbv°v Imcy-amb iey-ap-≠m-°mØ AXym-hiyw th≠ dbn¬ ]mXtbm tdmtUm kw_-‘n® ip]m¿i Cu amÿ πm\n-ep-≠m-I-Ww. dbn¬ ]mXbvt°m tdmUnt\m th≠n-bpff `mhn \n¿t±-i-߃ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-˛-h-\y-arK BLmX ]T-\-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-ep-≈-Xm-bn-cn-°-Ww. kº∂ h\-ß-fn-eq-sSbpw h\yarK Bhmk tI{μ-ß-fn-eq-sSbpw h\y-arK CS-\m-gn-I-fn-eq-sSbpw KXm-KX ASn-ÿm\ kuI-cy-߃ \n¿Ωn-°p-∂-Xp-aqew D≠m-Im-hp∂ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-chpw ssPh-B-hm-k-]-c-hpamb BLmXw A]-{K-Yn-°m≥ ]›n-a-L´ AtXm-dn‰n Hcp D]-k-an-Xnsb \ntbm-Kn-°Ww. t{]mP-IvSn\v AwKo-Imcw \¬Ip-∂-Xn\v ap≥]v arK-߃°v IS∂p t]mIm≥ ]mI-Øn¬ SW-ep-Itfm ]me-ßtfm ta¬]m-e-ßtfm Db¿Ønb tdmUp-Itfm ]≤-Xn-tc-J-bpsS Ahn-`m-PyL-S-I-ambn Dƒs∏-Sp-Ø-Ww. arK-߃°p IS-∂p-t]m-Im≥ ]mI-Øn¬ SW-ep-I-tfm, ]me-ß-tfm, ta¬]m-e-ß-tfm, Db¿Ønb tdmUp-Itfm ]≤-Xn-tc-J-bpsS Ahn-`m-Py-L-S-I-ambn Dƒs∏-Sp-ØWw.

t_mIvkv 11 : DØc ]›n-a-L-´-Øn-eq-sS-bp≈ tdmUp-I-fpsS ]´nI km{In km{In I¬hm≥ \mjnIv kwKw-t\¿ Al-Ω-Zv\-K¿ ]qs\ ]qs\ ]qs\ ]qs\ ]qs\ IcmSv kXmc sIm¬lm-]q¿ cmPm-]q¿ _¬Kmw \n]m\n ]≥Pn ]qs\

˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛

]nw]m¬\¿ Uln-th¬ [qse Ikmc `WvU¿[mc Ieym¨ \mjnIv apwss_ (HmƒUv) apwss_ FIvkv{]kv kØmc (I-{Xn-Pv) apwss_ (Iqºm¿en) Nn]ve≥ alm-_-te-iz¿˛ s]mem-Sv]q¿ jlp-hmSn ˛ cXv\-Kncn sIm¬lm-]q¿ IpS¬ Ip-S¬ _¬Kmw t_m¿ ˛ almSv B[mcw: ]c-©-ss], 2011

2.11. a\pjy A[n-hm-k-߃ DS-a-ÿ-X-bnepw Pohn-X-co-Xn-bnepw am‰w Ign™ Iptd h¿j-ß-fmbn {Kma-hm-kn-Iƒ Ah-cpsS `qan hn‰v AhnsS Xs∂ sXmgn-emfn-I-fmbn XS-cp-Itbm sa®-s∏-s´mcp PohnXw tXSn ASp-Øp≈ ]´-W-Øn-tebv°v IpSn-tb-dpItbm sNøp∂ {]h-WX I≠p hcp-∂p. Cu I¿j-I-cn¬ \n∂v `qan hmßp∂ ]´-W-hm-kn-Iƒ AXv Hcp ^mw lukmtbm dntkm¿´mtbm am‰p-∂p. Cu `qan- Nn-e-t∏mƒ amt¥m-´-amtbm tXbn............................................................................................................................................................................................................

221


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

e, Im∏n tXm´-amtbm am‰-s∏-Smw. F∂m¬ Cu {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn-se√mw X\Xv kkyssh-hn≤yw A∏msS \in-∏n-°-s∏-Sp-∂p. ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-e-bnse \nc-h[n ÿe-߃ Ct∏mƒ cmjv{So-b-°mcp-sSbpw dnb¬ FtÃ-‰p-Im-cp-sSbpw km[m-c-W-°m-cp-tSbpw tIm¿∏-td-‰p-I-f-sSbpw hyh-km-bn-Ifp-tSbpw ssIh-i-am-Wv. 0.5 G°¿ apX¬ 1000Øntesd G°¿ hsc Ch-cpsS ssIh-i-ap-≠v. c≠mw hoSv ]´-W-ß-fnse P\-_m-lp-eyhpw aen-\o-I-c-Whpw h¿≤n-®-tXmsS P\w hmcm-¥y-Øn¬ kzÿ-am-sbm-cnSw tXSm≥ XpS-ßn.-Aß - s - \-bmWv ^mw lukp-Ifpw dntkm¿´p-Ifpw F∂ Bibw DZn-®-Xv. Ign™ c≠v Zi-I-ßfmbn kº-∂-cmb \K-c-hm-kn-Isf BI¿jn-°p∂ \n-c-h[n ^mw lukp-Ifpw dntkm¿´p-Ifpw ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ Db¿∂p h∂p. ae-I-fpsS Iq´-tØm-sS-bp≈ Cu hnI-k\w {]Ir-Xnsb am‰n adn-°m\pw Iog-S-°m\pw XpS-ßn. ]´-W-hm-kn-Iƒ ae-I-fn-te°v BI¿jn-°-s∏-Sp-tºmƒ {Kmao-W¿ ]´-W-ß-fnse PohnXw sImXn-®p. Aßs\ Ah¿ `qan hn‰v ]´-W-Øn-te°v tNt°-dn. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]´-W-ssì ]›n-a-L-´-Øn-se-Ønb \K-c-hm-kn-Iƒ°v AhnsS B[p-\nI kpJ-ku-I-cy-ß-sf√mw thWw. hmcm-¥y-h-k-Xn°v \√ tdmUp-Iƒ, ip≤-P-ew, sshZypXn XpS-ßn-b-h-sb√mw thWw. kna‚pw Iºnbpw I´bpw ]mdbpw F√mw D]-tbm-Kn-®p≈ hoSp-I-fmWv Db-cp-∂-Xv. Fb¿I-≠oj-W¿, Sn.-hn., am¿_nƒ XpSßn F√m B[p-\nI kpJ-ku-I-cy-ß-fp-ap≈ sIm´m-c-k-a-amb hoSpI-fpb¿∂p. ]´-W-Ønse kpJ-ku-I-cy-߃°p ]pdta Ahn-SsØ ]qt¥m-´-ßfpw ae-I-fn-te°v ]dn®p \´p. Cu ]qt¥m-´-߃°v \nXyhpw [mcmfw sh≈hpw hfhpw IoS-\m-in-\n-Ifpw Bhiy-am-bn-cp-∂p. ChnsS hf¿Ønb ]pØ≥ sNSn-I-fn¬ ]eXpw {]mtZ-inI ssPh-B-hm-k-hy-hÿbv°v lm\n-I-c-am-bn-cp-∂p. CsXms° \nb-{¥n-°m≥ hy‡-amb am¿§-tc-J-Itfm \n_-‘-\Itfm D≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√. ae-Iƒ hnI-knX e£y-ÿm-\-߃ DS-a-ÿ-X-bpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ `qan-bnse {]h¿Ø-\-ßfpw AXns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ ssPh-B-hm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bn-ep-≠m-Ip∂ BLm-X-ßfpw hyXym-k-s∏´p sIm≠n-cn-°pw. hy‡n-I-fmb DS-a-Iƒ

-˛ ^mw lukv, dntkm¿´v, ^mw em‚ v, tlm¿´n-Iƒ®¿

`qhn-I-k-\-°m¿

˛ ^mw lukv kv°ow, dntkm¿´v, Su¨jn∏v

hyh-km-b-߃

˛ sF.-Sn.-]m¿°v, t{]mk-knßv bqWn-‰p-Iƒ, ^vtfmdnIƒ®¿

]›naL´-Øn¬ 10 G°¿ apX¬ 500 G°¿ hsc-bp≈ ÿe-ß-fn¬ \nc-h[n ^mw lukp-Ifpw dntkm¿´p-Ifpw Db¿∂p hcp-∂p-≠v. ehm-k, Aw_n-hmen XpSßnb h≥InS t{]mPIvSp-Iƒ°v ]pdta BWn-Xv. CXp-ambn _‘-s∏-´p≈ hnI-k\ {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fnse tdmUp \n¿ΩmWw, `qan Hcp-°¬ XpS-ßn-b-h-sb√mw ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-Øn\v lm\n-I-c-am-Wv. Ch ho≠pw ]q¿Δ ÿnXn-bn-se-Øn-°pI km≤y-a-√.

DXvIWvT Df-hm-°p∂ {]iv߃ Cu ]pXnb hmk-ÿe LS-\bpw hnI-k-\hpw ae-Iƒ CSn®p \nc-Øp-∂-Xn\pw tdmUpIfpw \n¿Ωm-W-{]-h¿Ø-\-ßfpw ae-©-cn-hp-I-fpsS LS-\-bnepw BIr-Xn-bnepw am‰-ap-≠m-Ip-∂Xn\pw Imc-W-am-Ip-∂p. Pe-L-S-\-bnse am‰-ßfpw {i≤-bn¬ s]´n-´p-≠v. apIƒ`mKw sNØn \nc-∏m-°p-∂Xv kky-Pm-e-ßfpw aÆpw \o°w sNø-s∏-Sm\pw ae-I-fpsS LS-\-bn¬ am‰w hcpØm\pw CS-bm-°p-∂p. \n¿Ωm-W-{]-h¿Ø-\-߃°p th≠n I√pw aÆp-sa√mw J\\w sNbvsXSp-°p-∂Xp t]mse D]-tbm-K-iq-\y-amb I√pw aÆpw I´-bp-sa√mw Iq´n-bn-Sp-∂Xpw {]iv\-am-Wv. hnI-k-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-߃°v ]n≥_-e-am-Ip∂ A\p-_-‘-{]-h¿Ø-\-ßfpw ssPh-B-hmk-hy-h-ÿbv°v lm\n-I-c-am-Wv. Ah NphsS ]d-bp-∂p. te_¿ tImf-\nbpw Xmev°m-enI Bhmk tI{μ-ßfpw ÿm]n-°p-tºmƒ • Jc-˛{Zh-am-en\y kwkv°-c-W-{]-iv\-߃ ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

222


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

• hnd-In\pth≠n ac-߃ apdn-°p-∂Xv IqSpw • h\y-ar-K-ßsf th´-bm-Sp-∂Xv IqSpw • Xmev°m-enI hgn-I-fpsS FÆw IqSpw Izmdn-Ifpw {Ij-dp-Ifpw • ae-©-cn-hp-Iƒ°pw XSm-I-߃°pw ieyw. • I√pw aÆpw a‰pw Xmev°m-en-I-ambn tiJ-cn-°p-∂-Xn\v IqSp-X¬ {]tZiw \nc-∏mt°≠n hcpw. • ]md-s∏m-Snbpw a‰pw hmbp, aÆv, Pew F∂nh aen-\-am-°p-∂p. • ]md-s∏mSn Ce-I-fn¬ I´n-bmbn ]‰n-∏n-Sn-°p-∂-Xp-aqew hr£-߃ \in-°p-∂p. Pe-L-S-\-bnse am‰-߃ • I\m¬ \n¿Ωm-Ww, KXn-am-‰w, ]md-°q-´-߃ \o°w sNø¬, \Zo-Xo-c-Im-Sp-Iƒ \in-∏n°¬, hmk-ÿ-e-߃ F∂nh Acp-hn-I-fpsS ssPh-hy-h-ÿbv°pw AXns‚ {]h¿Ø\-Øn\pw `ojWn Db¿Øp-∂p. • {]Ir-Xn-Z-Ø-amb Acp-hn-I-fpsS KXn-am-‰w. • Acp-hn-I-fnse ImSp-Iƒ, Pe-Po-hn-Iƒ XpS-ßnb {]tXyI ssPh-ssh-hn≤y \jvSw. • {]IrXn ZØ-amb Acp-hn-I-fpsSbpw \o-scm-gp-°p-I-fp-sSbpw \io-I-c-Ww. • aÆn-\-Sn-bnse Hgp-°ns‚ KXn-am-‰w. • `qPe Afhnse am‰-߃ • Pem-i-b-ß-fn-te°v aen-\-Pew Hgp-°p-∂Xv • `qan-bpsS D]-cn-Xew Smdn´pw kna‚ v ]qinbpw I√-Sp-°nbpw a‰pw I´n-bm-°p-∂-Xp-aqew `qan-bn¬ hogp∂ Pew thK-Øn¬ Hgp-In t]mhp-Ibpw aÆn-te°v Xmgp∂ Pe-Øns‚ Afhv Ipd-bp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. aÆv • asÆm-en∏v IqSp-∂p. • \n¿Ωm-W-{]-h¿Ø-\-ß-fn¬ hn`-h-߃ ]mgm-°p-∂p. kky-Pm-e-߃ •

A]q¿Δ-k-kyPme-߃ \jvS-s∏-Sp-∂p.

• tXm´-ß-fn¬ Xt±-io-b-a-√mØ C\-߃ h®p ]nSn-∏n-°p-∂p. • aÆn-\-Sn-bn-ep≈ Ing-ßp-Iƒ \o°w sNøp-∂p. • aÆn-t\mSp tN¿∂p \n¬°p∂ sNdnb sNSn-Iƒ \in-∏n-°-s∏-Sp-∂p. • tZim-S\ ]£n-I-fp-tSbpw a‰pw IqSp-Ifpw CS-\m-gn-Ifpw \in-∏n-°-s∏-Sp-∂p.

ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ D]m-[n-Iƒ NphsS ]d-bp-∂h kanXn ip]m¿i sNøp-∂p. Pe-]m-X-Iƒ, Pe-t{km-X- p-Iƒ, Bhm-k-tI-{μ-߃, `qan-im-kv{X-]-c-amb {]tXy-I-X-I D≈ CS-߃, ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-k-º∂ taJ-e-Iƒ, hnip-≤-h-\-߃, XpS-ßn-bh bmsXmcp hn[ \n¿ΩmW Xmak Bh-iy-߃°pw D]-tbm-Kn-°-cp-Xv. {]tXyI kmº-Øn-I taJ-e-Iƒ A\p-h-Zn-°-cp-Xv. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

223


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]pXp-Xmbn ae-ap-Iƒ kpJ-hm-k-tI-{μ-߃ A\p-h-Zn-°-cp-Xv. s]mXp ÿe-߃ kzImcy ÿe-ß-fm-Im≥ A\p-h-Zn-°-cp-Xv. ESZ1epw ESZ 2epw h\-`qan ht\-Xc Bh-iy-߃t°m Irjn-`qan Im¿jn-tI-Xc Bh-iy-߃t°m A\p-h-Zn°-cp-Xv. F∂m¬ Irjn`qan h\-`qan B°m\pw {]tZ-i-hm-kn-I-fpsS P\-kwJy h¿≤-\-hn\-\p-k-cn®v Ahsc Dƒs°m-≈m-\mbn \ne-hn-ep≈ {Kma-hmk tI{μ-߃ hn]p-eo-I-cn°m\pw A\p-aXn \¬Imw. \ne-hn-ep≈ tlm´-ep-Iƒ, dntkm¿´p-I¬ F∂n-hsb kw_-‘n®v Sqdnkw \b-Øn¬ ]cnÿnXn h\w a{¥m-ebw A\p-tbm-Py-amb t`Z-KXn hcp-Ø-Ww. Ão¬, kna‚ v, aW¬ F∂nhbpsS D]-tbmKw ]c-am-h[n Ipd®v ssPh-ku-lr-Z-]-c-amb \n¿ΩmW kma-{Kn-Ifpw \n¿ΩmW ssien-Ifpw Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-bp≈ Hcp _n¬Unßv tImUn\v ]›n-a-L´ AtXm-dn´n cq]w \¬I-Ww. ag-sh≈ kw`-c-W-Øn\pw ]mc-º-tcyXc Du¿÷ D]-tbm-K-Øn\pw Pe kwkv°-c-W-Øn\pw CXn¬ hyh-ÿ-bp-≠m-I-Ww. {]mtZ-inI Bh-iy-߃°v A\p-Iq-e-amb hn[-ambncn-°Ww N´-°qSv cq] Iev]\ sNtø≠Xv. ta¬aÆv kwc-£-Ww, hr£-kw-c-£Ww XpS-ßnb lcn-X-am¿§-\n¿t±-i-߃°\p-cq-]amb hn[w AwKo-IrX A\p-I-cW amXr-I-Iƒ°\p-kr-ambn thWw \n¿ΩmW˛hn-I-k\ {]h¿Ø-\-߃ \S-tØ-≠-Xv. NXp-∏p-Ifpw sh≈-s°-´p-Ifpw \nI-ØpI, hntZi kky-Pme C\-߃ hf¿ØpI F∂nh-sbm∂pw A\p-h-Zn-°-cp-Xv. kna‚n´pw a‰pw tamSn Iq´p∂ {]tZ-i-ß-fpsS hnkvXo¿Æw ]cn-an-X-s∏-Sp-Øp-I, ag-sh-ffhpw a‰pw `qan-bn¬ Xmgm-\p≈ ]c-am-h[n kuIcyw G¿s∏-Sp-Ø-Ww.

2.12. imkv{Xhpw kmt¶-XnI imkv{Xhpw ]cn-ÿnXn {]iv\-߃ ]cn-l-cn-°m≥ imkv{X-˛-km-t¶-XnI im-kv{X-ta-J-e-bn¬ \n∂v Imcy-amb kw`m-h-\-I-sfm∂pw D≠m-bn-´n-√. hnhn[ taJ-e-I-fn¬ ssPh-ku-lr-Z-km-t¶-XnI hnZy-Iƒ hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°p-Itbm e`y-am-bn-´p-f-f-h th≠ hn[w D]-tbm-Kn-°p-Itbm sNbvXn-´n√. ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-e-bn¬ Fhn-sS-sbms° lcnX kmt¶-XnI hnZy {]tbm-Kn-°mtam Ahn-sSsbms° AXn-\p≈ {ia-ap-≠m-I-Ww. Nne Kth- j - W - ˛ hn- I - k \ ÿm]- \ - ß fpw k¿Δ Iem- i m- e - I fpw ssPh kulrZ kmt¶XnI hnZy-Iƒ hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-Øn-´p-s≠-¶nepw Ahbv°v Dt±-in® {i≤bpw {]m[m-\yhpw e`n-°p-Itbm Ah th≠-hn[w D]-tbm-K-s∏-Sp-Øp-Itbm D≠m-bn-´n-√. sF.Fkv.B¿.H/ Un.-F-kv.Sn/Un.-_n.´n F∂nht]se cmPysØ anI-hns‚ tI{μ-߃ hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°p∂ kmt¶-XnI hnZy-Iƒ kaq-l-Øn\v ssIam‰w sNøm-\p≈ ÿm]-\-kw-hn[m\w i‡-s∏-Sp-Ø-Ww.

DXvIWvT Df-hm-°p∂ {]iv\-߃ ]cn-ÿnXn hn`-h-am-t\-Pvsa‚nepw hn`-h-ß-fpsS kpÿnc hn\n-tbm-K-Ønepw imkv{Xob kw`m-h-\-Iƒ ]cn-an-X-am-Wv. ]cn-ÿnXn {]iv\-߃ ]cn-l-cn-°p-∂-Xn¬ tI{μ kwÿm\ Xe-Øn-ep≈ Kth-j-W-˛-hnI-k-\- tI-{μ-߃, k¿Δ-I-em-im-e-Iƒ, a‰v imkv{X kwL-S-\-Iƒ F∂nh XΩn¬ GtIm]-\-an-√. ]cn-ÿnXn {]iv\-߬ ]cn-l-cn-°p-∂-Xn\v kmt¶-XnI hnZy {]tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xpambn _‘s∏´v Kth-jW ÿm]-\-߃ k¿Δ-I-em-im-e-Iƒ F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn-ep≈ kmt¶-XnI

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

dnt∏m¿´p-Iƒ, {]_-‘-߃ F∂nh {]mtbm-KnI kml-N-cy-Øn¬ hne-bn-cp-Øm≥ e`yam-°m-dn-√. ]cn-ÿn-Xn-{]-iv\-߃ ]cn-l-cn-°m≥ B[p-\nI kmt¶-XnI hnZy D]-tbm-K-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂n√. \n¿Ωm-W-{]-h¿Ø-\-߃°v {]Ir-Xn-hn-`-h-߃°v ]Icw D]-tbm-Kn-°m-hp-∂h Is≠Øm≥ Kth-jWw \S-Øp-∂n-√. hnhn[ taJ-e-Iƒ°v A\p-tbm-Py-amb lcnX kmt¶-XnI hnZy hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°p-Itbm D]-tbm-Kn-°p-Itbm sNøp-∂n-√. Irjn-bnepw km[-\-km-a-{Kn-Iƒ ssIImcyw sNøp-∂-Xnepw b{¥-h¬°-cWw th≠-{Xbn-√. {]Ir-Xn-hn-`-h-am-t\-Pvsa‚n¬ dntam´v sk≥knßv t]mse-bp≈ B[p-\nI kmt¶-XnI hnZyIƒ th≠-hn[w D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂n-√. Jc-am-en\y kwkv°-c-Ww, πmÃnIv dossk-¢n-ßv, XpS-ßnb ]≤-Xn-Ifpw A]-cym-]vXamWv. hnhc kmt¶-XnI taJ-e-bn¬ C˛amen\y amt\-Pvsa‚pw th≠-{X-bn-√.

ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ am¿§-߃ hnhn[ taJ-e-I-fn¬ lcnX kmt¶-XnI hnZy t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p-Ibpw Cu taJ-e-bnse \nt£]w h¿≤n-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøpI. NphsS ]d-bp∂ taJ-e-I-fn¬ B[p-\nI kmt¶-XnI hnZy hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°p-Itbm \nehn-ep≈h hym]n-∏n-°p-Itbm sNøp-I. (i) πmÃn-°n¬ \n∂v s]t{Sm-fnbw hos≠-Sp-°m≥ (ii) C‘\ Bh-iy-߃ \nd-th-‰m-\mbn XSn Kymkn-^n-t°-j≥ sSIvt\m-f-Pnbpw ssPhC-‘-\-ti-jnbpw hne-bn-cp-Øp-I. (iii) IoS-߃°pw tcmK-߃°p-ap≈ ssPh-\n-b-{¥Ww (iv) {]IrXn hn`h amt\-Pvsa‚n\v dntam´v sk≥knßpw a‰pw D]-tbm-Kn-°p-Ibpw {]mtZinIXe -πm-\p-Iƒ hnI-kn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøp-I. (v) {]mtZ-inI Bh-iy-߃°v tbmPn® hn[w \ne-hn-ep≈ kmt¶-XnI hnZy-Iƒ t`Z-KXn sNøp-I. Dev]m-Z-\-{]-{In-b-bnse Du¿÷ D]-t`mKw Ipd-bv°p-Ibpw Du¿÷w, Pew, {]Ir-Xn-hn-`-h߃ F∂n-h-bpsS D]-t`mKw ]c-am-h[n Imcy-£-a-amb taJ-e-I-fn¬ {i≤ tI{μo-I-cn°pI. ag-sh≈ kw`-c-Whpw km≤y-am-bn-S-sØ√mw kutcm¿÷ hn\n-tbm-Khpw \n¿_-‘n-X-am°pI. ]cn-ÿn-Xn kw_-‘-amb imkv{X-˛-km-t¶-XnI imkv{X {]mtbm-Kn-I-X-bn-t∑-ep≈ ÿnXnhn-h-c-߃ kam-l-cn®v Cu kmt¶-XnI hnZy-Iƒ D]-tbm-Kn®v {]mtZ-inI Xe-Ønse tijn kam-l-cWw sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ \S-]Sn kzoI-cn-°-Ww. imkv{X-˛-km-t¶-XnI imkv{X-Øns‚ t\´-߃ Ct∏mƒ kaq-l-Øns‚ Db¿∂ hn`-KØn\p am{Xta e`n-°p-∂p-≈q. Cu t\´-߃ hn]p-e-am-sbmcp hn`m-K-Øn\v e`y-am-°m≥ {ian-°-Ww. Im¿jn-I-ta-J-e-bn¬ b{¥-h¬°-c-W-ta¿s∏-SpØn sXmgn¬ taJ-e-bnse kΩ¿±w Ipdbv°p-Ibpw AXv {]mtZ-inI Xe-Øn¬ e`y-am-°p-Ibpw thWw. hyh-kmb bqWn-‰p-Ifnepw J\n-I-fnepw sa®-s∏´ kmt¶-XnI hnZy G¿s∏-SpØn Ah ]pd-tØ°v han-∏n-°p∂ Ah-in-jvS-ßsf sNdp-°p-I. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

hmbp, Pew, `qan F∂n-h-bpsS aen-\o-I-cWw \nb-{¥n-°m\pw ssPh-ssh-hn-≤ysØ kwc£n-°m\pw \ne-hn-ep≈ kmt¶-XnI hnZy-bpsS tijn h¿≤n-∏n-°pI ]›n-a-L´ AtXm-dn-´n-°p≈ \n¿t±-i-߃ ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-bnse hyXykvX cwK-ß-fn¬ lcnX kmt¶-Xn-I-hnZy t{]m’m-ln-∏n°m\pw D]-tbm-Kn-°m-hp∂ kmt¶-XnI hnZy-bpsS ssIam-‰-Øn\pw ]›n-a-L´ AtXm-dn-‰n°p-≈n¬ Hcp {]tXyI sk¬ cq]o-I-cn-°-Ww. aen-\o-I-cWw krjvSn-°p-∂-h¿ AXp ]cn-l-cn-°m-\p≈ sNehv hln-°Ww F∂ XXzw kzoIcn®v ssPh-ku-lrZ kmt¶-XnI hnZy hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°m-\p≈ Kth-jW tI{μ߃°mh-iy-amb XpI kam-l-cn-°p-I. ssPh-ssh-hn≤y kwc-£-W-Øn\v Du∂¬ \¬Ins°m≠v ssPh-]-c-ambpw kmº-Øn-Iambpw kmaq-ly-ambpw {]mtbm-Kn-I-amb ]cn-lm-c-߃ e`y-am-°m≥ imkv{X-˛-km-t¶-Xn-Iim-kv{X-Øn-\p≈ tijn h¿≤n-∏n-°m-\mbn Hcp hnj≥ tÉvsa‚n\v cq]w \¬Ip-I. lcnX kmt¶-XnI hnZy t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI ]uc imkv{XsØ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI Bkvt{S-en-b≥ dnh¿ hm®v amXrI kzoI-cn-°p-I. hn⁄m\ hnX-cWw hyXykvX GP≥kn-I-fn¬ \n∂p≈ hn⁄m\w kam-l-cn®v Hcp Pn sF Fkv tU‰m t_kn\v cq]w \¬Ip∂ tKmh-bpsS taJe πm≥ 2021 A\p-I-c-Wo-b-am-Wv. ]e Imcy-߃°pw CXv D]-Im-c-s∏Spw DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v J\-\-ta-J-ebv°v ]pdsØ \ne-hm-c-an-√mØ J\n-Iƒ Xncn®-dn-bm\pw \Zo-Xo-c-ß-fnse `qan Itø-‰-߃ Xncn-®-dn-bm\pw a‰pw CXv D]-tbm-Kn-°mw. hnh-cm-h-Im-i-\n-baw A\p-k-cn®v Bh-iy-s∏-Sp∂ hnh-c-߃ k¿°m¿ GP≥kn-Iƒ Ignbp∂{X bYm-k-abw \¬I-Ww.kp-{]-[m-\-amb ]e {]iv\-ß-tfbpw kw_-‘n® hnh-c-߃ Ct∏mgpw e`y-a-√. hnZym¿∞n ]≤-Xn-I-fpsS \n¿Æmb ]¶v. ]cn-ÿnXn hn`-h-ß-sf-kw-_-‘n® s]mXp-P-\-߃°v e`y-am-Ip-∂Xpw kpXm-cyhpw ]¶mfn-Ø-]-chpamb tU‰m-t_kv krjvSn-°Ww..

2.13. t]mj-Im-lm-chpw Btcm-Kyhpw BtKm-f-h¬°-c-W-Øn\pw hmWn-Py-h¬°-c-W-Øn\pw tijw kw`-hn® kmwkv°m-cnI sshtZ-io-I-c-Whpw PohnX ssien-bn¬ h∂ am‰hpw aqew PohnX ssien- tcmK-߃ P\sØ Ae-´m≥ XpS-ßn. h\Ønse kky-hn-`-h-߃ \ap°v ]mc-º-cyhpw {]mtZ-in-Ihpw Btcm-Ky-I-chpw ssPh kulr-Z-]-c-hp-amb \nc-h[n ssZ\w-Zn\ `£y hn`-h-߃°p≈ Akw-kvIrX ]Zm¿∞-߃ {]Zm\w sNøp-∂p. CV-en, tZmi, hS, t_m≠, s]mtdm-´, N´n-Wn, Idn, kmºm¿, ckw, A®m¿, l¬h, ]g-®m-dp-Iƒ XpS-ßn-b-h-sb√mw CXn¬ s]Sp-∂p. temI-Ønse G‰hpw sa®-s∏´ ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-I-e-h-d-I-fn-sem-∂mWv ]›n-a-L-´w. ]›na-L-´hpw tN¿∂p InS-°p∂ ]›n-a-Xo-chpw IqSn C¥y-bnse G‰hpw {][m\ ssPh taJebv°v cq]w \¬Ip-∂p. ssPh-]-chpw kmº-Øn-I-hp-amb LS-I-߃ {][m-\-ambpw Du∂¬ \¬Ip-∂Xv {]Ir-Xn-bpsS tkh-\-ß-fnepw km[-\-ß-fn-ep-am-Wv. ip≤-hm-bp, sh≈w, ^e-`q-bnjvT-amb `qan, Imen-Xo-‰, hnd-Iv, apf, Nqc¬, Huj-[-k-ky-߃, tX\o-®, a’yw, arK-kw-c-£Ww XpSßn a\p-jys‚ `uXn-Ihpw Bflo-b-hpw, kmwkv°m-cn-Ihp-amb Bh-iy-߃ \nd-th-‰m\p≈sX√mw CXn-epƒs∏-Sp-∂p. Imem-Im-e-ß-fm-bp≈ a\p-jy-{]-{In-b-Iƒ {]Ir-Xn-bpsS Cu Zm\-Øns‚ e`y-Xbpw Bkzm-Zy-Xbpw ]cn-an-X-s∏-SpØn. BI-bm¬ hnI-k\ {]{Inb {]Ir-Xn-

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

bpsS tkh-\-ß-fp-sSbpw km[-\-ß-fp-tSbpw kpÿnc hn\n-tbmKw Bh-iym-[n-jvTn-X-ambn ]cnan-X-s∏-tS-≠-Xp-≠v. F∂n-cp-∂mepw a\pjy \n¿Ωn-X-amb tdmUp-Iƒ, Ipg¬In-W-dp-Iƒ, cmk-hfw, IoS-\m-in-\n, sSe-t^m¨, samss_¬, C‚¿s\‰v, tdUn-tbm, Sn.-hn. F∂n-hsb F√mw AXv t{]m’m-ln∏n-°p-∂p. {]Ir-Xn-bpsS km[-\-ßfpw tkh-\-ßfpw kpÿn-c-am-Ip-∂-Xn¬ G‰hpw Xmsg X´n-ep≈ LS-I-߃ {][m\ ]¶p hln-°p-∂p. {Kma-ß-fn¬ P\-ß-fpsS PohnX KpWta∑ \ne-\n¿Øp-∂-Xn¬ Ch-bpsS ÿm\w \n¿Æm-b-I-am-Wv. Acp-hn-I-fnse Pew Ah¿ Irjn`qanbn¬ Pe tkN-\-Øn-\p-]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂p. a’yw Blm-c-am-Wv. apfbpw Nqcepw sXmgp-ØpIƒ tabm\pw Ip´-Iƒ s\øm\pw D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂p. hndIv Blmcw ]mIw sNøm\pw Huj[ kky-߃ tcmK-Nn-In-’°pw D]-I-cn-°p-∂p. ]c-º-cm-KX hnf-hp-Isf ]‰n-bp≈ hnh-c-ßfpw h\-Ønse `£y-k-ky-߃, kuμ-cy-h¿≤I hkvXp-°ƒ, Huj-[-sN-Sn-Iƒ, F∂nh kw_‘n® Adnhpw {KmaoW P\-X-bv°m-Wp-≈-Xv. hym]m-c-B-tKm-f-h¬°-c-W-Øn-s‚bpw t]‰‚nßn-s‚bpw Cu bpK-Øn¬ Cu ssPh-hn-`-h-ßfpw hn⁄m-\hpw kwc-£n®v hmWnPy D]-tbmK-Øn-eqsS t\´-ap-≠m-t°-≠Xv hfsc {][m-\-am-Wv. {]mtZ-inIamb aqey-h¿≤nX ssPh-h-kvXp°-fn¬ ]mb-Iƒ, h´n-Iƒ, A®m-dp-Iƒ, Nnc-´-X-hn-Iƒ, ta®n-tem-e-Iƒ, ]mep-ev]-∂-߃, ]\tbm-e-]m-{X-߃ XpS-ßn-bh Dƒs∏-Sp-∂p. h\-Ønse ]g-߃, Ipanƒ, a‰v Ce h¿§-߃, sh≈-cn, aØ≥, XÆn-a-Ø≥ XpSßn Pemwiw IqSnb ]®-°dn C\-߃ a\p-jys‚ Btcm-Ky-Øn\v apX¬°q-´m-Wv. sh≈cn kuμcy-h¿≤I hkvXp-hm-Wv, \mcp≈ `£y-h-kvXp-°ƒ ae-_-‘hpw sImf-kvt{Smfpw Hgn-hm-°pw. ]g-h¿§-߬, ]®-°-dn-Iƒ, [m\y-߃,-]-b-dp-h¿§-߃ F∂n-h-bn-se√mw \mcp-≠v. Imew Ignbpw tXmdpw `qhn-\n-tbm-K-Øn-s‚bpw Irjn-bp-sSbpw LS-\-bn¬ kw`-hn-°p∂ am‰w ssPh-hy-hÿm tkh-\-ß-tfbpw _m[n-°p-∂p-≠v. s\√v ]e-X-c-Øn-ep-≠v. BZm-b-Øns‚ Imcy-Øn¬ s\√mWv G‰hpw tami-sa-∂-Xn-\m¬ s\√ns‚ ÿm\w a‰v [m\y-߃ Iø-S-°p-∂p. CXn\p ]pdta ]pXnb Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ cmk-h-f-Øn-s‚bpw IoS-\m-in-\n-I-fp-sSbpw Pe-tk-N-\Øn-s‚bpw Afhv KWy-ambn h¿≤n-∏n-®n-´p-≠v. AS-bv°, \mfn-tI-cw, Iip-h≠n XpS-ßnb GI hnf-tXm-´-߃ IqSp-X¬ {]tZiw Iø-S-°p-∂-Xp-aqew `£y-[m-\y-ß-fpsS Dev]m-Z\w Ipd-bp-∂p. ap≥]v {Kma-ß-fnse s]mXp-ÿ-e-ßfpw Ip‰n-°m-Sp-Ifpw ta®n¬]p-d-ß-fp-am-bn-cp∂ ÿe-߃ Im‰mSn, At°-jy, d∫¿ tXm´-ß-fmbn amdn-b-tXmsS Imen-h-f¿Ø¬ KWy-ambn Ipd-™p. ssPh-h-f-Øns‚ e`y-X-bnepw CXv Ipd-hp-≠m-°n. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ssPh-B-hm-k-hy-h-ÿ, hnip-≤-h-\w, hnip-≤-\-Zn, ]pWy-Xo¿∞w, Imhv, hnip-≤-k-ky-߃, hnip-≤-ar-K-߃ XpSßn \nc-h[n kmwkm-°m-cnI ,kw-hn-[m-\-߃ \ne\n¿Øp∂p-≠v. Ch-bn¬ ]eXpw h\y-ar-K-ß-tfbpw k¿∏-ß-tfbpw a’y-ß-tfbpw kky-ßtfbpw hr£-ß-tfbpsa√mw ImØp kq£n-°p∂ kwhn-[m-\-ß-fm-Wv. ssZhnIw Iev]n°s∏´ncn-°p-∂-Xn-\m¬ Chsb Bcpw \in-∏n-°p-∂n-√. {]tXyI kmº-ØnI taJ-e-Iƒ°p th≠n h≥tXm-Xn¬ Irjn-`qan Gs‰-Sp-°p-∂Xv Im¿jnI Dev]m-Z-\-£-a-Xsb hf-sc-tbsd tZmj-I-cambn _m[n-°p-∂p. CXp aqew \in-∏n-°-s∏-Sp∂ hnip-≤-h-\-߃ \nc-h[n Xt±-iob hr£-ßfp-tSbpw kky-e-Xm-Zn-I-fp-tSbpw hwi-\m-i-Øn\v CS-bm-°p∂p. ssPh-hy-h-ÿm-tk-h-\-ßfpw km[-\-ßfpw a\p-jy-Po-hn-XsØ \ne-\n¿Øp-Ibpw Bhiy-߃ k^-eo-I-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. Chsb \nXy-hrØn tkh-\-߃ AXm-bXv Blmcw, sh≈w, \mcp-Iƒ, C‘\w a‰v Dev]-∂-߃ F∂pw, "]n¥pW tkh-\ß -- ƒ' AXm-bXv ssPhssh-hn≤yw, aÆv cq]o-I-c-Ww, ]cm-K-Ww, amen-\y-kw-kv°-c-Ww. t]mj-I-kw-{I-a-Ww, F∂pw "kw]p-jvSo-I-cW tkh\w' AXm-bXv kmaqly _‘-߃, kmwkv°m-cnI ss]XrIw F∂pw Xcw-Xn-cn-°mw. t]mjI Bh-iy-߃ hy‡n-K-X-am-Wv. CXv {]mbw, kvXo˛-]p-cp-j-hy-Xym-kw, A≤zm-\w, B¥-cnI {]h¿Ø-\-\n-e, Btcm-Ky-ÿnXn F∂n-hsb B{i-bn-®n-cn-°p-∂p. Hcmƒ°v Hcp Znhkw Bh-iy-ap≈ Du¿÷w Ipd-™Xv 1500 Item-dn-bm-sW-¶nepw, IqSn-bXv 3000 Item-dn-bm-sW¶nepw Blm-c-Øns‚ A\p-]mXw Gsd-°psd H∂p Xs∂-bm-bn-cn-°pw. hnhn[ Blm-c-߃ bp‡n kl-amb A\p-]m-X-Øn¬ Ign-®m¬ \√ BtcmKyw \ne-\n¿Øm-\m-h-iy-amb t]mjIw

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e`n-°pw. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]mc-ºcy Blm-c-hn-`-h-ßfpsS sshhn-≤ysØ kwc-£n-®m¬ t]mjI kpc-£n-X-Xzhpw {]tZ-i-hm-kn-I-fpsS Btcm-Kyhpw Dd∏p hcp-Øm≥ Ign-bpw.

3. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse _lp-Xe `cWw ]›n-aL - ´- Ø - nse `cWw k¶o¿Æ-am-Wv. CXn\v _lpXe-Ønepw _lp LS-Iß - ƒ Dƒs∏´-Xp-amb ÿm]-\-߃ Bh-iy-am-Wv. AXm-bXv Xocp-am-\-߃ FSp-°p-∂-Xn\v ]e-X-c-Øn-ep≈ \nc-h[n tI{μ-߃ \ap-°m-h-iy-am-Wv. Ch hn⁄m-\-tI-{μ-ßsf ]‰n Nn¥n-°m\pw kmaqly _‘-߃°pw a’c Xmev]-cy-߃°pw klm-bn-°p-∂p. \nb-{¥-W-ß-fpsS AanX tI{μo-I-cWw \∂-√. A]-cym-]vX-amb Ah-tem-I-\w, ]cn-ÿnXn \nb-{¥-W-ßsf kw_-‘n® A]q¿Æ-amb [mcW F∂nh A]-cym-]vX-amb ]cn-ÿnXn ^e߃°nS-bm-°n. hntI-{μo-IrX ÿm]-\-ß-fpsS Imcy-Øn¬ A]-cym-]vX-amb \nb-{¥-W-tijn°p ]pdsa \nb-{¥-Icpw \nb-{¥n-°-s∏-Sp-∂-hcpw XΩn-ep≈ Xmev]-cy-kw-L¿jw ]cn-ÿnXn-]-c-ambpw kmaq-ly-ambpw Xr]vXn-I-c-a-√mØ ^e-߃ krjvSn-®p. \mw Dt±-in-°p∂ ^ew t\Sn FSp-°p-hm≥ th≠n \nb-a-]-c-amb N´-߃°Xo-X-amb `c-W-co-Xnbpw {]{In-b-Ifpw am\Z-WvU-ß-ƒ°pw H∏w, IqSp-X¬ ]¶m-fn-Ø-tØmsS {]h¿Øn-°Wsa∂v CXv \tΩm-Sm-h-iy-s∏Sp-∂p. k¶o¿Æ-X-I-sf ssIImcyw sNøp-∂-Xn\v Np‰p-ap≈ am‰-ß-tfmSpw kΩ¿±-ß-tfmSpw CgpIn tNcp∂ ÿm]-\-߃ \ap-°m-h-iy-am-Wv. Cu kml-N-cy-Øn-emWv ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ hn`-hßfpw ]cn-ÿnXn s^U-d-en-khpw i‡n-s∏-S-W-sa∂v R߃ \n¿t±-in-°p-∂-Xv. _lp-hn[ tI{μo-IrX `c-W-co-Xnbpw Xocp-am-\-߃ ssIs°m-≈p-∂-Xn-\p≈ \nh-c[n tI{μ-ßfpw D≠mI-Ww. {]h¿Ø-\-ßsf kw_-‘n® IqSp-X¬ {]Xn-I-c-W-ßfpw ]T-\hpw kl-I-c-Whpw kΩ¿±ß-tfmSpw am‰-ß-tfmSpw ssPh hyh-ÿbv°v HØp t]mIm-\p≈ Ignhpw CXp aqew ssIh-cpw. ""a\p-jy-\nse \∑ ]pdØp sIm≠p hcm≥ th≠ ÿm]-\-ß-fp-sS hnI-k-\sØ klm-bn-°pI-bm-Wv' ]›n-a-L´ AtXm-dn-‰n-bpsS apJy ISa F∂v R߃ hniz-kn-°p-∂p. kanXn dntjm¿´ns‚ Cu `mKØv `c-W-kw-_-‘-amb {]iv\-߃°mWv Du∂¬ \¬Ip∂-Xv. XpS¿∂v h¿≤n® kmaq-ly-ku-lm¿±w t\Sm≥ ]cym-]vX-amb _lp tI{μo-IrX `c-W-kwhn-[m-\-Øn\v th≠ {]tXyI \S-]-Sn-Iƒ ip]m¿i sNøp-∂p. ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ IqSp-X¬ bp‡amb kwc-£W hnI-k-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-߃ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p-∂-Xn¬ hnZym-`ym-k-Øn-\p≈ {]tXyI ]¶pw ChnsS N¿® sNøp-∂p. ]›n-L-´-Ønse ssPh sshhn-≤ysØ kwc-£n-°m≥ P\-ß-tfbpw kaq-l-tØbpw Iº-\n-I-tfbpw Fßs\ t{]m’m-ln-∏n°mw F∂ \n¿t±-i-tØmSp IqSn CXv Ah-km-\n-°p-∂p.

`c-Wk - w-hn-[m-\Ø - nse t]mcm-bvaI - ƒ `c-Wk - w-hn-[m-\h - p-ambn _‘-s∏´ \nc-h[n {]iv\ß - fn¬ {i≤ tI{μo-Ic - n-t°-≠X - p-s≠∂v kan-Xn°v t_m≤y-am-bn. kan-Xn-bpsS {]h¿Ø-\-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´ ]ecpw CXv Nq≠n-°m-´n-bn´p-≠v. ASn-b-¥nc {i≤ Bh-iy-ap≈ Nne {][m\ taJ-e-I-fmWv ChnsS N¿® sNøp-∂-Xv. ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y-\hpw ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \S-]-Sn-Ifpw ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ssPh-B-hm-k-hy-hÿsb kwc-£n-°p∂ {]{In-b-bpsS tI{μ-_n-μp ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\ {]{In-b-bm-Wv. F∂m-enXv ]e-X-e-ß-fnepw icn-bmb hn[-a-s√∂mWv ]›n-a-L´ kanXn \nco-£n-°p-∂-Xv. 1.

]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{KY\ dnt∏m¿-´p-Ifpw s]mXp-P-\-ß-fn¬ \n∂v sXfnhv tiJ-cn°p∂ {]{In-bbpw th≠{X \ne-hmcw ]pe¿Øp-∂n-√. dnt∏m¿´p-Iƒ ]e-t∏mgpw hymPhpw sXfn-sh-Sp-∏ns‚ an\n-Svkv `m-h\mkrjvSn-bp-am-Wv. A]-{K-Y\w \S-Øp∂ I¨kƒ´‚ v {Kma-߃ kμ¿in-°p-Itbm icn-bmb k¿sΔ \SØp-Itbm BLm-X-]-T\w \S-Øp-Itbm sNøm-sX-bmWv dnt∏m¿´v Xøm-dm-°p-∂-sX∂pw Bt£-]-ap-≠v.

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2.

]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\ dnt∏m¿´ns‚ hnizm-kyX tNmZyw sNø-s∏´ \nebv°v ]cn-ÿn-Xn-hn-e-bn-cp-ج kan-Xn-bpsS ]¶v {][m-\-am-Wv. ]cn-ÿnXn hne-bn-cp-ج kanXnbnse {]mXn-\n[yw A]-cym-]vX-amWv ImcWw \n¿±njvS ]T\ ÿe-Øn\v kan-Xnbn¬ {]mXn-\n-[y-an-√. kanXn°v {]tZ-isØ ]‰ntbm ]pXnb ]≤Xn hcp-tºmƒ BLmXw krjvSn-t®-°m-hp∂ CX-c-{]-h¿Ø-\-ß-sf-]-‰ntbm th≠{X ⁄m\-an-√m-ØXv \nc-h[n {]iv\-߃°v Imc-W-am-Ip-∂p-≠v. ]e-t∏mgpw t{]mPIvSv ssk‰v kμ¿in-°pI t]mepw sNømsX ]ncn-ÿnXn hne-bn-cp-ج kan-Xn-bpsS N¿®-Iƒ U¬ln-bn-emWv \S-°p-∂sX-∂-Xn-\m¬ {]mtZ-inI Xe-Øn-ep≈ kΩ¿±-ßfpw DXvI-WvT-Ifpw th≠ hn[w a\- nem-°m-dn-√. sX‰mb ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\ dnt∏m¿´ns\ B{ibn-°p-∂Xp aqew \nb-{¥W {]{Inb apgp-h≥ ]mgv the-bmbn Xocp-∂p.

3.

tKmh t]mep≈ kwÿm-\-߃ Icp-Xp-∂Xv C.-kn. 2006¬ hn⁄m-]\w Fkv.-]n.-kn._nsb (tÉv s]mfyq-j≥ I¨t{Smƒ t_m¿Uv) Hcp t]mÃm-^o-kmbn Xcw XmgvØn-sb∂m-Wv. ]cnÿn-Xn˛h\w a{¥m-e-b-Øns‚ ]cn-ÿnXn Ah-tem-I\ kan-Xnsb sX‰n-≤-cn∏n-°pI hgn Fkv.-]n.-kn.-_n. {]mtZ-inI P\-ß-fpsS Xmev]-cy-Øn-s\-Xn-cmbn {]h¿Øns®∂ Bt£-]-ap-≠v.

4.

2006\v tijw samØw \S-]-Sn-{I-a-ßfnepw {]{InbIfnepw kwÿm\ k¿°m-cns‚bpw kwÿm\ aen-\o-I-c-W-\n-b-{¥-W-t_m¿Un-s‚bpw ImgvN-∏m-Sp-Iƒ°v ÿm\w e`n-®n-s√∂mWv kwÿm\ k¿°m-cns‚ [mc-W. ]cn-ÿn-Xn-˛-h\w a{¥m-e-b-Øns‚ ¢nb-d≥kv e`n®p Ign™ tijw am{Xta t{]mPIvSv ÿm]n-°m-\p≈ A\p-aXn e`n°q F∂-Xn-\m¬ CsXm-gn-sI-bp≈ Ah-ÿb - mWv ta¬]-d™ X - v.ÿ m-]n-°m-\p≈ A\p-aX - n-bpsS Imcy-Øn¬ kwÿm-\-߃°v "hot‰m'-A-[n-Im-c-ap-≠v, ]s£ AXv \√ coXn-bn¬ hn\n-tbm-Kn-°-Wsa∂p am{Xw. A\p-a-Xn°p th≠nbp≈ kΩ¿±w i‡-am-Ip-∂Xv AXn¬ \n∂p≈ t\´w hfsc hep-Xm-Ip-tºm-gm-Wv.

5.

]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip-∂Xv hy‡n-K-X-t{]m-P-IvSp-Iƒ°m-b-Xn-\m¬ Ah-bpsS Bh¿Ø\ BLmXw Ah-K-Wn-°-s∏-Sp-∂p.

6.

ap≥t{]m-P-IvSp-I-fn¬ \n_-‘-\-Iƒ ]men-°m≥ s{]mtam-´¿am¿°p t]mepw ]pXnb ]≤Xn-Iƒ°v ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip-∂p.

7.

]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\ {]{In-bb - n¬ \n∂v t{]mP-IvSp-Isf Hgn-hm-°¬: 2006 hn⁄m]\w \nc-h[n t{]mP-IvSp-Isf ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv t\Sp∂Xn¬ \n∂v Hgn-hm-°p-Ibpw {]{Inb eLq-I-cn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. CXv ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ Kpcp-X-c-amb BLm-X-߃ krjvSn-®n-´p-≠v. 25 saKm-hm-´n¬ Xmsg-bp≈ Pe-ssh-ZypX ]≤-Xn-Iƒ, Im‰mSn ]mS-߃, Sqdnkw t{]mP-IvSp-Iƒ, Su¨jn-∏p-Iƒ XpS-ßn-bh DZm-l-cWw. ta¬]-d™hbn¬ H∂v as‰m-∂n-\-Sp-Ømbn ÿm]n-°p-tºm-gp-≠m-Ip∂ Bh¿Ø\ BLm-X-amWv {]iv\w IqSpX¬ Kpcp-Xc - a - m-°p-∂X - v. lcn-Xk - m-t¶-XnI ⁄m\-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\Ø - n-emWv an° t{]mPIvSp-I-tfbpw ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kn¬ \n∂v Hgn-hm-°p-∂-Xv. DZm-l-cWw Im‰mSn ]mS߃.

lcn-X-t{]m-P-IvSp-Iƒ°pw sNdp-InS t{]mP-IvSp-Iƒ°pw ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX B]-{K-Y\hpw Bh¿Ø\ ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX hne-bn-cp-Øepw Bh-iy-am-Wv.

\n_-‘-\-Iƒ ]men-°mØ t{]mP-IvSp-Iƒ 1.

]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kns‚ \n_-‘-\-Iƒ ]e-t∏mgpw ]men-°m-dn-√. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v A\ph-Z-\o-b-amb StÆ-Pn¬ IqSp-X¬ J\\w \S-Øp∂ J\n-I-sf-\n¿∫m[w XpS-cm-\-\p-h-Zn°p-∂p. t{]mPIvSpIsf hne-bn-cp-Øm≥ Fkv.-]n.-kn._n Xe-Øn¬ th≠{X tijn-bn-√. tXm´-ßf - nepw h\-ßf - nepw hmX-Iß - ƒ krjvSn-°p∂ BLm-XsØ ]‰n th≠{X Adnthm Ah-tem-I-\tam C√.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

h\ Ah-Im-i-\n-b-a-ßfpw a‰pw th≠ hn[w \S-∏m-°p-∂n-√. ]©m-bØv (]-´nI taJebnte°v Zo¿Ln-∏n-°¬) \nb-aw. 1996 (PESA) C¥y≥ ]m¿e-sa‚ v 1996¬ ]m m-°nb ]©m-bØv (]´nIta-J-e-Zo¿Ln-∏n-°¬) \nbaw, ]´nI V¬ s]´ taJ-e-I-fnse kaq-l-ßsf AwKo-I-cn-°p-Ibpw kzbw `c-W-Øn-\p≈ Ah-cpsS Ah-Im-i-߃ Db¿Øn-∏n-Sn-°p-Ibpw sNtø-≠-Xns‚ Bhiyw cmjv{Sob kaqlw AwKo-I-cn-®Xns‚ sXfn-hm-Wv. Cu \nb-a-Øn\v cq]w \¬Inb kan-Xn-bpsS sNb¿am≥ Zneo]v knßv _qcn-b-bpsS A`n-{]m-b-Øn¬ ""Kncn-h¿§-°m-cpsS Ncn-{X-Ønse Hcp ]pXnb Ime-L-´-Øns‚ XpS-°-amWv Cu \nb-aw.'' Cu \nbaw a‰p-≈-h-cn¬ \n∂v thdn´v \n¬°p-∂Xv Fßs\? \nbaw {Kma-k-`bv°v ap≥Xq°w \¬Ip-∂p. (Hcp Bhm-k-tI-{μ-amWv B kaq-l-Øns‚ {]Ir-Xn-Z-Ø-amb LS-Iw. Ahn-SsØ {]mb-]q¿Øn-bmb AwK-߃ Dƒs∏-´-XmWv {Kma-k`. sXc-s™-Sp-°-s∏´ {Kma-]©m-b-Øn¬ \n∂v hyXy-kvX-am-Wn-Xv.) \nbaw NphsS ]d-bp∂ A[n-Im-c-߃ {Kma-k-`-Iƒ°v \¬Ip-∂p.01]´n-I-ta-J-e-bnse `qan a‰p≈h¿°v ssIam-dp-∂Xv XS-bm\pw AXn-t∑¬ DNnX-amb \S-]Sn FSp-°m-\pap≈ A[n-Im-cw. ]´n-I-h¿§-°m-cpsS `qan \nb-a-hn-cp-≤-ambn A\ym-[o\s∏Sp-Øn-bm¬ AXv Xncn-s®-Sp-°m\p-ap≈ A[n-Im-cw. sNdp-InS h\-D-ev]-∂-ß-fpsS DS-a-ÿm-h-Imiw. el-cn-]-Zm¿∞-߃ D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xpw Ah-bpsS hnev]-\bpw \nb-{¥n-°m\pw \ntcm[n-°m\pw D≈ Ah-Im-iw. ]´n-I-h¿§-°m¿°v ]Ww ISw sImSp-°p-∂Xv \n{¥n-°m-\p≈ A[n-Im-cw. F√m kmaq-ly-ta-J-e-I-fn-sebpw ÿm]-\-߃°pw {]h¿ØI¿°pw \nb-{¥Ww G¿s∏Sp-Øm-\pff A[n-Im-cw. Kncn-h¿§- D-]-]-≤Xn Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ°p th≠n {]mtZ-inI ]≤-Xn-Ifpw hn`-hßfpw \nb-{¥n-°m-\p≈ A[n-Im-cw. sNdp-InS [mXp-°ƒ tee-Øn-eqsS hnev]\ \S-Øp-∂-Xn\v kuP-\y-߃ A\p-h-Zn-°m\pw sNdp-InS [mXp-°-fpsS Nqj-W-Øn\v ssek≥kv \¬Im≥ ip]m¿i sNøm-\p≈ A[nIm-cw. `qan Gs‰-Sp-°p-∂-Xv kw_-‘n®v IqSn-bm-tem-N\ \S-Øm-\p≈ Ah-Im-iw. kz¥w hnt√-Pn¬ \S-Øp∂ k¿°m¿ h¿°p-Iƒ°v bq´n-sse-tk-j≥ k¿´n-^n-°‰v \¬Im\p≈ A[n-Im-cw. Cu \nbaw Nne {][m\ Imcy-Øn¬ Kncn-h¿§ kzbw `cW-Øn\v Ah-kcw \¬Ip-∂p. Hcp ssPh kzbw `cW kaq-l-amWv kzbw `c-W-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-L-SIw F∂v \nbaw A\pim-kn-°p-∂p. A√msX hnt√Pv t]mse-bp≈ Hcp `cW bqWn-‰-√. Hcp Bhm-kt- I{μ-amWv {]tZ-in-Ik - a - q-lØ - ns‚ {]Ir-Xn-ZØ - a - mb Hcp LS-Is - a∂pw AXnse {]mb]q¿Øn-bmb AwK-߃ tN¿∂-XmWv {Kma-k-`-sb∂pw \nbaw AwKo-I-cn-°p-∂p. \nb-aØnse sk£≥ 4(d), 4(m) (ii) F∂n-h -{]-Imcw kz¥w kwkv°m-chpw ss]Xr-Ihpw ImØp kq£n-°m\pw {]IrXnhn`h߃ ssIIm-cyw sNøm\pw sNdp-InS h\w Dev]-∂-ß-fpsS DS-aÿm-h-Imiw A\p-`-hn-°m\pw X¿°-ß-fn-t∑¬ \nb-a-\-S-]Sn kzoI-cn°phm\pw D≈ Ah-Imiw \nbaw AwKo-I-cn-°p-∂p. \nb-a-Ønse sk£≥ 4(m) (vi) {]Imcw kz¥w A[n-Im-c-]-cn-[n-°p≈n¬ k¿°m¿ ÿm]-\-ß-fmb kv°qfp-Iƒ, Btcm-Ky-tI-{μ-߃ XpS-ßn-b-h-tbbpw Ahbnse Poh-\-°m-scbpw \nb-{¥n-°m-\p≈ A[n-Imcw Ahn-SsØ hnt√Pv Akw-ªn-°m-Wv. `qan Gs‰-Sp-°¬ t]mse-bp≈ tImf\n \nb-a-ß-fn¬ \n∂v Xptemw hyXy-kvX-am-Wv. Cu \nb-aØnse sk£≥ 4(i), (j), (k), (l) hIp-∏p-Iƒ `qanbpw `qan A[n-jvTnX hn`-h-ßfpw Gs‰-Sp-°pw ap≥]v _‘-s∏´ kaq-l-hp-ambn IqSn-bm-tem-Nn-®n-cn-°-W-sa∂v \nbaw hyhÿ sNøp-∂p. Kncnh¿§ kaq-l-Øn\v tIkv \S-Øm-\p≈ Ignhpw tijnbpw Ct∏m-gp-≠v. `qan A\ym-[o-\-s∏-Sp............................................................................................................................................................................................................

230


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

ج, ]Ww ]en-ibv°v sImSp-∏v, hn]Wn _‘-߃, aZy I®-h-Sw, Dƒs∏sSbp≈h Ah-km\n-∏n°m≥ {ian-°-W-sa∂pw \nbaw \n¿t±-in-°p-∂p. {Kma-k-`°v Iev∏n-®n-´p≈ Hu∂Xyw CXn¬ \n∂v hy‡-amWv. CsXmcp kam-\-X-I-fn-√mØ \nba \n¿Ωm-W-am-Wv. `c-W-L-S-\-bv°-IsØ `c-W-L-S\ F∂pw CXns\ hnti-jn-∏n-°m-dp-≠v. Kncn-h¿§ kaq-l-ßsf \bn-°p∂ kz¥w BNm-c-ß-fptSbpw ]mc-º-cy-ß-fp-tSbpw efn-X-amb kwhn-[m-\sØbpw \nb-a-Øm¬ `cn-°-s∏-Sp∂ k¿°mcns‚ HutZym-KnI kwhn-[m-\-sØbpw H‰ N´-°q-Sn¬ H∂n-∏n-°m-\p≈ {ia-amWv Cu \nbaw \S-Øp-∂Xv. ]´n-I-ta-J-e-I-fpsS A∂-Øn\v Hcp s]mXp N´-°qSv hn`m-h\w sNøp∂p F∂XmWv Cu \nb-aØ - ns‚ as‰mcp {]tXy-IX - . Cu \nb-a\ - n¿Ωm-Wh - p-ambn _‘-s∏´ Hcp {]apJs‚ A`n-{]m-b-Øn¬ ""Cu \nbaw hnI-k\ {]Zm-\-Øn¬ \n∂v im‡o-I-c-W-Øn-te°pw {]mh¿ØnI-am-°p-∂-Xn¬ \n∂v Bkq-{X-W-Øn-te°pw Dƒs∏-Sp-∂-Xn¬ \n∂v t_m[-]q¿Δ-amb ]¶m-fnØ-Øn-te°pw \oßp-∂p.'' ({]`p 2004) F-¥m-bn-cp-∂mepw Cu \nbaw ]m m°n H∂c Zim-_v[-Øn\v tijhpw AXnse hmKvZm\-ß-fn-te-dnb ]¶pw \nd-th-‰-s∏-´n-´n-√. kwÿm\ k¿°m-cp-Iƒ sNtø≠ \nb-a-\n¿Ωm-Whpw \S-∏m-°epw C∂pw A]q¿Æ-am-Wv. kwÿm\ Xe-Øn¬ \n∂pw kmº-Øn-Ihpw cmjv{So-b-hpamb D∂-X-cn¬ \n∂pw kaq-l-Ønte°v A[n-Imc k¥p-e-\-Øn¬ImX-em-sbmcp am‰w \nbaw e£y-an-Sp-∂p. C{Xbpw hn]p-e-amb A[n-Imcw A¿∞-h-Ømbn D]-tbm-Kn-°m≥ kaq-l-Øn\v Ign-b-W-sa-¶n¬ th≠{X hn⁄m-\hpw tijnbpw B kaq-l-Øn-\p-≠m-I-Ww. h\w hIp-∏ns‚bpw a‰pw XS- -s∏-Sp-Ø-ep-Iƒ aqew CsXm∂pw \S-∂n-√. kzbw `cWw F∂ e£yw C∂pw IS-em-kp-I-fn-sem-Xp-ßp-∂p. h\- A-h-Im-i-\n-baw 2006¬ ]mkm-°nb ]´n-I-h¿§ a‰v ]c-º-cm-KX h\-hm-kn(-h-\-A-h-Im-i-߃ AwKo-I-cn°¬) \nbaw \ΩpsS \nb-a-\n¿ΩmW Ncn-{X-Ønse Hcp \mgn-I-I-√m-Wv. Ah-cpsS h\-A-h-Imi-߃ AwKo-I-cn-°msX Kncn-h¿§-°m-tcmSpw a‰v h\-\n-hm-kn-I-tfmSpw Im´nb Ncn-{X-]-c-amb A\oXn Ah-km-\n-∏n-°m≥ e£ywsh®p-≈-Xm-bn-cp∂p Cu \nb-aw. ]s£ \nbaw \S-∏m-°p∂-Xnse Nne sshj-ay-߃ aqew CXns‚ e£y-߃ ]q¿Æ-ambn t\Sm≥ C\nbpw Ign-™n´n-√. \ΩpsS cmPy-Øns‚ `qhn-kvXr-Xn-bpsS 23% hcp∂ h\-ß-fn-emWv C¥y-bnse G‰hpw \n¿≤-\cpw ]m¿iz-h¬°-cn-°-s∏-´-h-cp-amb kaqlw A[n-h-kn-°p-∂Xv Irjn°pw sNdp-InS h\D-ev]-∂-߬ tiJ-cn-°m\pw Pem-i-b-߃°pw BSp amSp-Isf tabv°m-\p-sa√mw Ch¿ ]c-ºcm-K-X-ambn B{i-bn-®n-cp-∂Xv Cu h\-ß-sf-bm-Wv. Cu \nb-a-Øns‚ Ncn-{X-]-c-amb {]m[m\yw Fs¥-∂m¬ as‰√m h\-\n-b-a-ßepw Kncn-h¿§-°m-tcbpw a‰v h\-\n-hm-kn-I-tfbpw Itø-‰-°mcmtbm {Inan-\-ep-I-fmtbm BWv I≠n-cp-∂-Xv. h\w amt\-Pvsa‚ v IqSp-X¬ kpXm-cyhpw ]¶m-fnØ-]-chpw B°p-∂-Xn-s\m∏w h\-\n-hm-kn-I-fpsS Ah-Im-i-߃°v \nb-a-{]m-_eyw \¬IpI IqSn sNbvXp h\ Ah-Im-i-\n-baw. Cu \nbaw \S-∏m-°p-∂-Xnse _p≤n-ap-´p-Iƒ aqew ]e kwÿm-\-ß-fnsebpw h\-hmkn-I-fpsS Ah-Im-i-ß-fn-te-sdbpw \ncm-I-cn-°-s∏-´p. Nne kwÿm-\-ß-fn¬ C{]-Imcw \ncm-Icn-°-s∏-´-Xns‚ \nc°v 60 iX-am-\-Øn-te-sd-bm-Wv. kaq-l-A-h-Im-i-߃ {]tXy-In®pw sNdp-In-S-h\w Dev]-∂-߃ tiJ-cn-°m-\p≈ AhImiw \ntj-[n-°p-∂Xv hfsc hym]-I-am-bn. Ah-cpsS Ah-Im-i-hm-Z-Øn-t∑¬ Xocp-am-\-sa-Sp°p-∂Xp kw_-‘n® {]{Inb th≠-hn[w \S-∂n-√. \nb-a-Øns‚ A¥-k-Øbv°v hncp-≤-ambn Ah-Im-i-hm-Z-߃ sXfn-bn-°m≥ tcJm-]-camb sXfn-hp-Iƒ lmP-cm-°m≥ \n¿_-‘n-®p. \nbaw A\p-im-kn°pw hn[w hnt√Pv Xe-Øntem kaq-l-X-e-Øntem {Kma-k-`-Iƒ IqSn-bn-cp-∂n-√. IqSn-bn-SØp Xs∂ Ah-bpsS ip]m¿i-Iƒ°v bmsXmcp hnebpw Iev]n-°-s∏-´n-√. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

231


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Cu \nb-a-Øns‚ apJy-amb {]mtbm-Kn-IX kaq-l-h-\-hn-`-h-߃ kwc-£n-°m\pw hn\ntbm-Kn-°m-\p-ap≈ Ah-Imiw AwKo-I-cn-°-s∏´p F∂-Xm-Wv. h\-ß-fpsS `cWw Hcp P\m-[n]Xy N´-°q-Sn-te°v am‰p-∂-Xns‚ BZy-]-Sn-bm-bn-cp∂p CXv. F∂m¬ an°-hmdpw F√m kwÿm\-ßfpw Cu Ah-Im-i-߃ th≠-hn[w AwKo-I-cn-®n-√. kaq-l-h-\-A-h-Im-i-Ønse ]ptcm-KXn Imem-h[n kw_-‘n® kpc-£n-X-Xzhpw h\-D-]-t`m-‡m-°ƒ°v A\p-Iq-e-amb Ah-Im-ißfpw h\-ß-fpsS DØ-c-hm-ZnXz amt\-Pvsa‚n\pw kpÿn-c-Xbv°pw Imc-W-am-Ip-sa-∂-XmWv h\-A-h-Im-i-\n-b-a-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\w. BI-bm¬ Cu \nb-a-Øn≥ Iogn-ep≈ N´-߃ kaq-lh-\-hn-`-h-ß-fpsS ]p\-cp-÷o-h-\-Øn\pw amt\-Pvsa‚n\pw kwc-£-W-Øn\pw D≈ ÿm]-\-]-camb {Iao-I-c-W-߃ hni-Zo-I-cn-°p-∂p. \nb-a-Ønse 2(a) hIp-∏n¬ CXv \n¿Δ-Nn-°p-∂p-≠v. AX-\p-k-cn®v Cu s]mXp h\-`q-an-bn¬ kaq-l-Øn\v ]mc-ºcy Ah-Im-i-ap-≠v. h\ Ah-Im-i-\n-b-a-Øns‚ {][m\ Dt±iyw k-aql ]¶m-fn-Øhpw amt\-Pvsa‚pw t{]m’mln-∏n-°pI F∂-Xm-sW-¶nepw kaql Ah-Im-i-߃°p]cn hy‡n-KX Ah-Im-i-߃°mWv AwKo-Imcw e`n-®-sX∂v ]T-\-߃ sXfn-bn-°p-∂p. \nb-a-Øn¬ 13 C\w Ah-Im-i-߃ ]d-bp∂p-s≠-¶nepw Irjn `qan-bn-ep≈ Ah-Imiw am{X-amWv AwKo-I-cn-°-s∏-´-Xv. _m°n 12 Ah-Imi-ß-fn¬ NphsS ]d-bp∂ 7 Ah-Im-i-ß-sf-¶nepw kaq-l-h\ Ah-Im-i-ß-fn¬ {][m-\-am-Wv. ]s£ \n¿`m-Ky-h-im¬ Pn√m `c-W-IqSw Ahsb Ah-K-Wn-°p-I-bmWv sNbvX-Xv. 1.

ap≥ \m´p cmPy-ß-fn¬ \ne-\n-∂n-cp∂ skan-μmcn t]mse-bp≈ kmaqly Ah-Im-i-߃ (sk-£≥ 3(1)(b)

2.

Pem-i-b-ß-fn¬ \n∂v a’yw ]nSn-°m\pw BSp amSpIsf Xo‰m\pw ]c-º-cm-KX kok¨ hn`-h-߬ tiJ-cn-°m-\p-ap≈ Ah-Imiw sk-£≥ 3 (1) (d).

3.

A]-cn-jvIrX Kncn-h¿§-°m¿°v Xma-kn-°m-\p≈ Ah-Imiw sk-£≥ 3 (1) (e).

4.

]c-º-cm-K-X-ambn kwc-£n®p hcp∂ kaq-lh-\-hn-`-h-߃ kwc-£n-°m\pw ]p\-cp-÷ohn-∏n-°m\pw D]-tbm-Kn-°m\pw D≈ Ah-Imiw sk-£≥ 3 (1) (i).

5.

GsX-¶nepw kwÿm\ \nb-a-{]-Im-ctam kzbw `c-W-ÿm-]-\-\n-b-a-{]-Im-ctam Kncn-h¿§A-h-Im-i-ambn AwKo-I-cn-°-s∏-´n-´p-≈-h¿ sk-£≥ 3 (1) (j).

6.

ssPh-sshhn-≤yhpw _u≤n-I-kzØpw ssPh sshhn-≤yhpw kmwkv°m-cnI sshhn-≤yhp-ambn _‘-s∏´ ]c-º-cm-KX hn⁄m-\hpw D]-tbm-Kn-°m-\p≈ Ah-Imiw sk-£≥ 3 (1) (k).

7.

h\y-Po-hn-Isf th´-bm-Sp-∂Xpw sIWn-bn¬s]-Sp-Øp-∂Xpw a‰pw HgnsI \nb-a-Ønse (a) apX¬ (k) hsc-bp≈ hIp-∏p-I-fn¬ s]SmØ ]mc-º-cy-h-\-\n-hm-kn-Iƒ A\p-`-hn®p hcp∂ as‰√m Ah-Im-i-ßfpw sk-£≥ 3 (1) (l).

ta¬]-d™ 7 Ah-Im-i-߃°p ]pdsa sk£≥ 3 (1) (c) {]Imcw sNdp-InS h\-hn-`-h߃ tiJ-cn-°m\pw hnev]\ \S-Øm-\p-ap≈ ]c-º-cm-KX Ah-Im-ihpw Kncn-P-\-߃°p-≠v. \nbaw \S-∏m-°p-∂-Xnse kmaqly ImgvN-∏m-Sns‚ A`m-h-Øn-\p≈ Imc-W-߃ NphsS ]d-bp∂p. h\ Ah-Im-i-\n-baw \S-∏m-°nbXns‚ BZy-L-´-Øn¬ CsXmcp hy‡n-KX `q Ah-Im-iam-bmWv _‘-s∏´ DtZym-K-ÿ¿ I≠-Xv. BI-bm¬ kaql Ah-Im-i-߃ ]cn-K-Wn°msX hy‡n-KX Ah-Im-i-ß-fmWv BZyw ]cn-K-Wn®Xv. Nne-bn-S-ß-fn¬ Ãm^ns‚ Ipdhpw Hcp Imc-W-ambn Nq≠n-°m-Wn-°-s∏-´p. ]s£ kaq-l-Ah-Imi߃ hy‡n-KX Ah-Im-i-ßsf°mƒ FÆ-Øn¬ Ipd-hm-Wp-Xm-\pw. \nb-a-Ønse 3 (1) (b) apX¬ (m) hsc-bp-ff hIp-∏p-I-fn¬ ]d-bp∂ kaql Ah-Im-i-ßfn¬ F{X FÆw Fhn-sS-sb√mw A\p-h-Zn®p F∂Xp kw_-‘n® hnh-c-߃ Kncn h¿§ a{¥m-ebw tiJ-cn-®n-√. A°m-c-W-Øm¬ C°m-cy-Øn¬ th≠{X kΩ¿±w sNep-Øm≥ ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

232


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

t_mIvkv 12 : h\m-h-Im-i-\n-baw \S-∏m-°p-∂-Xp-kw-_-‘n®v F≥.-kn.-k-Ivtk\ IΩn‰n dnt∏m¿´v 2010 h\ Ah-Im-i-\n-baw {]mh¿Øn-I-am-°p∂ C∂sØ coXn Kpcp-X-c-amb \nc-h[n {]iv\߃ krjvSn-°p-∂p-≠v. 1.

{Kma-k-`-Iƒ cq]o-I-cn-°p-∂Xv hnt√Pv Xe-Øn\p ]Icw ]©m-bØv Xe-Øn-em-Wv. \nba-Ønse 2(g), 2(p) hIp-∏p-Iƒ {]Imcw ]´nI V {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ {Kma-k-`-Iƒ hnfn-t°≠Xv sNdp-{Km-a-ß-fpsS Xe-Øn-em-Wv. a‰v {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ CXv dh\yp hnt√Pv Xe-Ønem-bn-cn-°Ww F∂m¬ B{‘-{]-tZ-iv, ]›n-a-_w-Kmƒ, DØ¿{]-tZiv XpS-ßnb ]e kwÿm-\-ß-fnepw \nb-a-hn-cp-≤-ambn ]©m-bØv Xe-Øn-emWv {Kma-k-`-I¬ hnfn-°p∂-Xv.

2.

At\z-jWw [rXn ]nSn®v \S-Øp-∂Xp sIm≠pw X≈p∂ At]-£-Iƒ ko\n-b¿ DtZymK-ÿ¿ \∂mbn ]cn-tim-[n-°m-ØXp aqehpw sX‰mbn X≈p∂ At]-£-I-fpsS FÆw KWy-ambn h¿≤n-°p-∂p. N´w 4(c) \njvI¿jn-°p-∂-Xp t]mse X≈p∂ At]-£-I¿°v Ah-cpsS `mKw hnh-cn-°m≥ "\ymb-amb Ah-kcw' \¬Ip-∂n-√. At]£ \nc-kn-®Xmb Adn-bn∏v Bscbpw FgpXn Adn-bn-°m-dn-√. X∑qew CXn-t∑¬ A∏o¬ \¬Im≥ Ign-bp-∂n√ dh-\yq, h\w hIp∏v DtZym-K-ÿ¿ hnt√Pv Xe-Øn¬ sNøp∂ tPmen t{Imkv sN°v sNømt\m Hcp ]pdw GP≥knsb sIm≠v CXv hne-bn-cp-Ømt\m kwÿm\ Kncn-h¿§ hnI-k\ hIp-∏p-Iƒ {ian-°m-dn-√.

3.

{Kma-k-`-I-fp-tSbpw a‰pw A[n-Im-c-߃ hn\n-tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xv hnt√Pv DtZym-K-ÿcmWv. DtZym-K-ÿ¿ Xøm-dm-°p∂ dnt∏m¿´n¬ {Kma-k-`-Ifpw a‰pw H∏p hbv°p∂p F∂v am{Xw. {Kma-Xe At\z-jW dnt∏m¿´p-Iƒ tªm°p Xe, Pn√mXe DtZym-K-ÿ¿ ]cn-tim-[n-°mdn-√.

4.

N´w 10 {]Imcw kwÿm-\-Xe Ah-tem-I-\-k-anXn AwKo-Imc {]{In-bbv°pw h\ AhIm-i-߃ \n£n-]vX-am-°-en\pw Ah-tem-I\ kqNn-I-Ifpw \n_-‘-\-Ifpw cq]o-I-cnt°-≠-Xp-≠v. KpW-ta∑ kqNn-I-Iƒ hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-t°-≠Xpw P\-{]-Xn-\n-[n-I-fp-ambn tbmKw sNtø-≠Xpw s]mXp IqSn-bm-tem-N-\-Iƒ kwL-Sn-∏n-t°-≠Xpw h\-\n-hm-kn-ItfmSv \oXn ]pe¿Øm≥ Pn√m-X-e-Øn¬ dh\yp h\w hIp∏v DtZym-K-ÿ-cpsS ta¬ kΩ¿±w sNep-tØ-≠Xpw DtZym-K-ÿcpw P\-ßfpw XΩ-nep≈ Bi-b-hn-\n-abw sa®s∏-Sp-tØ-≠Xpw kwÿm-\-ß-fnse Kncn-h¿§-h-Ip-∏p-IfpsS Npa-X-e-bmWv. F∂m¬ an° kwÿm-\-ß-fnepw Ah-tem-I-\-߃ shdpw IW-°p-I-fn-sem-Xp-ßp-∂p.

5.

h\-A-h-Im-i-\n-baw A\p-im-kn-°p-∂p-s≠-¶nepw SDLC, DLC XpS-ßnb kan-Xn-Iƒ {Kmak-`-Iƒ°pw a‰pw `q]-S-ßtfm tcJ-Itfm a‰v sXfn-hp-Itfm \¬Im-dn-√.

6.

_‘-s∏´ ]ecpw ]cn-tim-[n-°p-Ibpw ]e Xe-ß-fn¬ Xocp-am-\-sa-Sp-°p-Ibpw thWsa∂v h\-Ah - I - m-i\ - n-baw A\p-im-kn-°p-∂p-s≠-¶nepw an°-t∏mgpw C°m-cy-Øn¬ DtZymK-ÿ-∑m-cpsS A`n-{]m-b-Øn-\mWv ap≥Xq-°w. h\-\n-b-a-ßsf kw_-‘n® {]iv\-߃ ssIImcyw sNøp-∂-Xn¬ Kncn-h¿§-h-Ip∏v DtZym-K-ÿ¿°p≈ Xmev]-cy-an-√m-bvabpw Ignhp-tI-Sp-amWv CXv kqNn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv. KpW-t`m-‡m-°ƒ°v kvtImf¿jn-∏p-Ifpw {Km‚p-Ifpw \¬Ip-∂-Xv Cu hIp-∏m-sW-¶nepw hIp-∏p-Iƒ XΩn-ep≈ GtIm-]\w Bh-iy-ap≈ ]cn]m-Sn-Iƒ ssIImcyw sNøp-∂-Xn¬ Chbv°v th≠{X ]cn-N-b-an-√. BI-bm¬ an° t\mU¬ B^o-k¿amcpw ÿnXn hnh-cn-°-W-°p-Iƒ tiJ-cn-°p-∂-Xn¬ Ah-cpsS NpaXe HXp-°p-∂p. Cu IW-°p-I-fpsS \nP-ÿnXn ]cn-tim-[n-°mt\m ta¬t\m-´-Ønt\m Pn√-I-fnse {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fpsS KpW-ta∑ hne-bn-cp-Ømt\m sa\-s°-Sm-dn-√.

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7.

h\ Ah-Im-i-\n-b-a-Ønse 4(5) hIp-∏n\p hncp≤-ambn IpSn Hgn-∏n-°¬ \S-°p-∂p-≠v. AwKo-Imc˛]-cn-tim-[-\m-\-S-]-Sn-I¬ ]q¿Øn-bmIpw hsc ssIh-i-`q-an-bn¬ \n∂v ]´nI h¿§-°m-scbpw h\-hm-kn-I-sfbpw Hgn-∏n-°m≥ ]mSn-s√-∂mWv \nbaw. F∂m¬ Cu \nb-a-ew-L-\-Øn-s\-Xnsc kwÿm-\-k¿°mtcm tI{μ-a-{¥m-e-b-ßtfm Fs¥-¶nepw \S]Sn kzoI-cn-®-Xmbn Adn-hn-√.

8.

h\ Ah-Im-i-\n-baw \S-∏m-°n-bn-´p≈ kwÿm-\-ß-fn¬ h\-hm-kn-I-fpsS Ah-Im-ihmZw s]mXpsh Xnc-kv°-cn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xm-bmWv I≠p hcp-∂-Xv. Ign™ 75 h¿j-ambn Ah¿ Cu `qan-bn¬ Irjn sNøp-∂n√ F∂ {]iv\w D∂-bn-®m-Wn-Xv. "2005 Unkw-_dn\p ap≥]v 3 Xe-ap-d-°mew' F∂ \n_-‘\ ÿnc-Xm-akw A\p-h-Zn-°p-∂-Xn\p am{Xw _m[I-am-bn-´p-≈-Xm-Wv. At]-£-I≥ Ign™ 75 h¿j-ambn `qan ssIh-i-ØnseSp°p-Itbm h\w D]-tbm-Kn-°p-Itbm thW-sa-∂n-√. 2005 Unkw-_¿ 13\v bYm¿∞ Poh-k‘m-c-WØn-\mbn Ah¿ h\sØ B{i-bn-°p-∂-h-cm-sW-¶n¬ h\ Ah-Im-i-\n-b-a-Ønse dqƒ 2(b) {]Imcw Cu B\p-Iq-ey-Øn\v Ah¿ A¿l-cm-Wv.

9.

kaq-l-h-\-hn-`h Ah-Im-i-ßfpw a‰v `qan-bn-Xc Ah-Im-i-ßfpw AwKo-I-cn-°m-Xn-cn-°¬.

\nb-a-Ønse sk£≥ 3 (1) Dw 3 (2) Dw XΩn¬ Bi-b-°p-g∏w \ne-\n¬°p-∂-Xn-\m¬ CXp kw_-‘n® ÿnXn hnh-c-I-W-°p-Ifpw hy‡-a-√. a{¥m-e-b-Øns‚ ]°¬ t]mepw CXp kw_-‘n® hy‡-amb IW-°p-I-fn-√. h\-kw-c-£-Ww, D]-tbmKw amt\-Pvsa‚ v F∂nh kw_-‘n®v ]c-º-cm-K-X-am-bXpw A√mØ-Xp-amb \ne-hn-ep≈ Ah-Im-i-ßsf ]‰n-bp≈ {]mY-anI hn⁄m-\-Øns‚ A`mhw aqew \nbaw \S-∏m-°p-∂-Xn-\v ap≥]pw AXn\p tij-hpap≈ ÿnXn-bpsS Xmc-Xay hnebn-cp-ج km≤y-a-√. h\-Øn-\p-≈nepw kao-]-Øp-ap≈ {Kma-ß-fpsS FÆ-hp-ambn Xmc-Xayw sNbvXm¬ D∂-bn°-s∏´ kaq-l-h\ Ah-Im-i-ß-fpsS FÆw ]cn-an-X-am-Wv. Cu taJ-e-I-fn¬ \ne-\n¬°p∂ hnhn[ GP≥kn-Ifpw {Kma-k-`bpw XΩn-ep≈ _‘hpw Cu taJeIƒ°v _m[I-am-bn-´p≈ a‰v \nb-a-ß-fpsS ]c-kv]c sshcp-≤yhpw klm-b-I-Xzhpw Dƒs∏sS kaql h\ Ah-Im-i-ß-fpsS amt\-Pvsa‚n-s\bpw kwc-£-W-sØbpw kw_-‘n® Btem-N-\-bn-√m-bva. kaql Ah-Im-i-߃ Fßs\ ]cn-tim-[n-°m-sa∂pw Fßs\ Xocp-am-\n-°m-sa-∂Xpw kw_-‘n®v kaq-l-Øn\pw _‘-s∏´ DtZym-K-ÿ¿°pw hy‡-X-bn-√m-ØXp aqew Cu {]{Inb C\nbpw Bcw-`n-®n-´n-√. kaq-l-h-\-A-h-Im-i-Øns‚ ]cn[n \n¿Æ-bn-°p-∂Xp kw_-‘n®pw 4 slIvS-dn¬ IqSp-X¬ Ah-Im-i-s∏-Smtam F∂Xp kw_-‘n-®p-sa√mw Cu Bi-b-°p-g∏w \ne-\n¬°p-∂p. F∂m¬ \nb-a-Ønse 3 (1) (a) hIp∏v CsX√mw hy‡-am°p-∂p-≠v. Htc h\-{]-tZ-iØv H∂n¬ IqSp-X¬ hnt√-Pp-Iƒ Ah-Im-i-hm-Z-ap-∂-bn-°p∂ tIkp-I-fnepw C°m-c-W-Øm¬ Xocp-am-\-ap-≠m-Ip-∂n√. sk£≥ 3(1) (i) ¬ ]d-™n-´p≈ kaql h\ Ah-Imiw kwc-£n-°m\pw ssIImcyw sNøm-\p-ap≈ Ah-Im-isØ ]‰n-bp≈ A⁄X aqew CXn-t∑¬ Bcpw Ah-Im-i-hmZw D∂-bn-°p-∂n-√. am{X-hp-a√ N´-ß-tfm-S-\p-_-‘n-®p≈ ^mdw "_n'bn¬ CXv hy‡-ambn ImWn-°m-ØXpw CXn-\p≈ as‰mcp Imc-W-am-Wv. ]e-bn-SØpw kaq-l-h\ Ah-Im-i-ßsf ]‰n _‘-s∏´ kwL-S-\-Ifpw DtZym-K-ÿcpw Ah-cpsS A⁄-X-aqew sX‰n-≤-cn-∏n-°p-∂ hnh-c-am-Wv kaq-l-Øn\v \¬Ip-∂-Xv. sk£≥ 3 (2) ¬ ]d-™n-´p≈ hnI-k\ kuI-cy-߃ °p th≠n-bp-≈-XmWv kaql h\ Ah-Imi-߃ F∂ [mc-W-bmWv CXn-sem-∂v. a‰v ]e Icm-dp-I-fp-sSbpw _e-Øn¬ P\-߃°v ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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B\p-Iqeyw e`n-°p-∂-Xn-\m¬ kaql h\ Ah-Im-i-߃ \S-∏m-t°-s≠∂ [mc-Wbpw Nne kwÿm-ß-fn¬ \ne-\n¬°p-∂p-≠v. kaql h\ Ah-Im-i-߃ D∂-bn-°p∂ kaq-l-߃°v `q]Sw Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ tcJ-Iƒ \¬Im-sXbpw kwbp‡ h\ amt\-Pvsa‚ v taJ-e-bm-sW∂ hmZ-ap-∂-bn®v At]£ \nckn®pw ]e _p≤n-ap-´p-Ifpw krjvSn-°p-∂p-≠v. kaql h\ Ah-Im-i-ßsf kw_-‘n® hy‡-X-bn-√m-bvabpw {Kma-k-`bpw h\w hIp∏pw XΩn-ep≈ [mc-W-°p-dhpw aqew C°m-cy-Øn¬ \nc-h[n _p≤n-ap-´p-Iƒ D≠m-Ip-∂p-≠v. Bb-Xn-\m¬ C¥y-bn-ep-S-\ofw \nbaw CXp hsc ^e-{]-Z-ambn \S-∏m-°m≥ Ign-™n-´n-√. ta¬]-d™ t]mcm-bva-I-fpsS shfn-®-Øn¬ F√m kwÿm-\-ß-fnepw h\ Ah-Im-i-\nbaw {]mh¿Øn-I-am-°p-∂-Xn\v Hcp c≠mw L´w Bcw-`n-t°-≠-Xp-≠v. CXn¬ kaql h\ AhIm-i-߃°m-bn-cn-°Ww {]Ya ]cn-K-W-\. 2010 Pqsse 20\v Kncn-h¿§ a{¥m-ebw kwÿm-\߃°-b® IØn¬ C°mcyw hy‡-am-°n-bn-´p-≠v. CXn\p ]pdta a{¥m-e-bhpw kwÿm\ t\mU¬ GP≥kn-Ifpw \nb-a-Øn-sebpw N´-ß-fn-sebpw hnhn[ hIp-∏p-Iƒ kw_-‘n®v hniZo-I-c-W-ßfpw \n¿t±-i-ßfpw IqSn \¬tI-≠-Xp-≠v. kaql h\ Ah-Im-i-ß-fpsS \S-Øn∏pw ]ptcm-K-Xnbpw tZiob h\-A-h-Imi Iu¨kn¬ {]tXy-I-ambn hne-bn-cp-Ø-Ww. CXp kw_-‘n® F√m kwi-b-߃°pw adp-]Sn \¬Ip∂ Hcp ssI ]pkvXIw a{¥m-ebw Xøm-dm°n _‘-s∏-´-h¿s°√mw \¬I-Ww.

t\m´-∏n-iIpw GtIm-]-\-an-√m-bvabpw ]cn-ÿn-Xn-˛-{]-IrXn hn`h amt\-Pvsa‚p-ambn _‘-s∏´ ÿm]-\-]-c-amb t\m´-∏n-iIv t_mIvkv 13¬ hy‡-am-°n-bn-´p-≠v. {]mtZ-inI k¿°m-cn-t\bpw kaq-l-sØbpw CXn¬ th≠hn[w ]¶m-fn-I-fm-°p-∂n√. tI{μhpw kwÿm-\-ßfpw XΩn¬ th≠{X GtIm-]-\-an-√mbva aqew {i≤ ]Xn-tb≠ ]e Imcy-ßfpw {i≤n-°-s∏-SmsX t]mIp-∂p. am{X-hp-a√ Bh-iy-°m¿°v bYm-k-abw A¿l-amb klmbw e`n-°m-ØXp aqew kmaqly kulm¿±w XI-cm\pw kwL¿j߃ D≠m-Im\pw Imc-W-am-Ip-∂p. Imcy-߃ t\¿hgn \bn-°m\pw sa®-s∏´ hnI-k\ Bkq{X-W-Øn\pw Bh-iy-amb ÿnXn hnh-c-I-W-°p-Iƒ e`y-a-√.

t_mIvkv 13 : ]cn-ÿnXn ˛{]-IrXn hn`-h-am-t\-Pvsa‚n¬ \ne-hn-ep≈ \nb-{¥-W-Ønse t]mcmbva apJy Npa-X-e-Iƒ DØ-c-hm-ZnXzw

tI{μw

kwÿm\w

`qan {]iv\-߃, \jvS-]-cn-lmcw

Xt±i `cWw

kaqlw

Ub-d-IvS¿ dh-\yq. Irjn-hI - p∏v

]cn-ÿnXn]chpw Btcm-Ky-]-c-hp-amb BLm-X-߃

h\w ]cn-ÿnXn a{¥m-ebw

h\w ¢nb-d≥kv

h\w ]cn-ÿnXn a{¥m-ebw

]≤Xn _m[nXcpsS ]p\-c-[n-hmkw

{Kma-hn-I-k\ a{¥m-ebw

kmaq-ly-\n-t£] ]≤-Xn-Iƒ

{Kma-hn-I-k\ a{¥m-ebw

Fkv.-]n.-kn._n-Iƒ

Imcy-amb _‘an-√. ]¶m-fnØw C√m- b va- b mWv CXv kqNn-∏n°p∂-Xv.

Ub-d-IvS¿ dh\yq {Kma-hn-I-k\w

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ÿnXn sa®-s∏SpØm-\p≈ `cW \S-]-Sn-Iƒ sa®-s∏´ `c-W-\-S-]-Sn-Iƒ kw_-‘n® N¿®-Iƒ {][m-\-ambpw NphsS ]d-bp-∂-hsb Bkv]-Z-am°n bmbn-cp-∂p. 1.

]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ hnI-k-\-Øn-\pw kwc-£-W-Øn\pw th≠ XXz-߃°v cq]w \¬Ip-I.

2.

ESZ

3.

]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ hnI-k-\-Øn\pw `c-W-Øn\pw hntI-{μo-IrX am¿§w kzoI-cn-°p-I.

4.

]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \S-]Sn {Iaw ]cn-jv°-cn-°p-I, h\-A-h-Imi-\n-b-ahpw a‰pw ^e-{]Z-ambn \S-∏m-°p-I.

5.

kaq-l-Øn-eqsS \nb-{¥-W-ß-fn¬ Abhv hcp-Øp-I.

Ifn-eqsS ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse hnIk-\ {]h¿Ø-\-ßsf \nb-{¥n-°p-I.

hn-I-k-\-Øn\pw kwc-£-W-Øn-\p-ap≈ XXz-߃ ]›n-aL - ´- Ø - nse hnI-k\ - ˛- k - w-c£ - W {]h¿Ø-\ß - ƒ°v am¿§ Zo]-am-IW - s - a∂v R߃ Icp-Xp∂ XXz-߃ NphsS tN¿°p-∂p. 1.

kwc-£-W-Øn-\m-bmepw hnI-k-\-Øn-\m-bmepw ]¶m-fn-Øhpw kpXm-cy-Xbp-am-bn-cn-°Ww apJyw.

2.

hnI-k\ Bkq-{XW {]{Inb hntI-{μo-IrXhpw \o¿Ø-Sm-[n-jvTn-Xhpw ASn-Ø-´n-te°v ]c-am-h[n hym]n-∏n-®n-´p-≈Xpw Bbn-cn-°-Ww.

3.

]›n-a-L´ kwÿm-\-ß-fnse Pn√m Bkq-{XW kan-Xn-Iƒ°v Bh-iy-amb ]n≥_ew \¬In Pn√m ]≤-Xn-Iƒ°v cq]w \¬I-Ww.

4.

kpÿnc ssPh-B-hm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bn¬ A[n-jvTn-X-amb Pohn-Xm-h-iy-߃ {]IrXn hn`ham-t\-Pvsa‚n-\mbn Bkq-{XW {]{Inbbn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw Kncn-h¿§ kaq-lsØ Ignbp-∂n-S-sØ√mw ]¶m-fn-I-fm-°p-Ibpw thWw.

5.

hn`-h-ß-fpsS hy‡n-]-chpw kmaq-ly-hp-amb hne-\n¿Æ-b-Øn\v th≠ hnZym-`ymkw \¬IWw.

6.

hnI-k-\-Øns‚ Imev]m-Sp-Iƒ Ipd-bv°m≥ A\p-tbm-Py-amb "lcn-X-km-t¶-XnI hnZy-Iƒ' kzoI-cn-°-Ww.

(a)

AØcw kmt¶-XnI hnZy-Iƒ Hcp ÿeØv e`y-amIpw hn[w Du¿÷w em`-tI-{μ-߃ ÿm]n-°p-I, A\p-tbm-Py-amb hkvXp-°ƒ D]-tbm-Kn-°p-I, Pehpw aÆpw kwc-£n-°p-I.

(b)

Cu coXn ]n≥Xp-S-cm≥ IpSpw-_-ßsf ]cn-io-en-∏n-°pI

(c)

hymh-km-bnI ssPh-X-Xz-ßfpw ssPh kmt¶-XnI hnZybpw D]-tbm-Kn-°p-I.

7.

tijn°\p-k-cn-®v F∂ Bi-bhpw aen-\o-I-c-\n-b-{¥-Whpw aen-\o-I-c-W-Øn\v Imc-W°m-cm-b-h¿ AXn-\p≈ hne \¬I-W-sa∂ XXzhpw kzoI-cn-°p-I.

8.

h≥InS hnI-k\ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ Bh-iy-sa-¶n¬ AXn-\p≈ ¢nb-d≥kv {Kma-]-©m-bØv hgn \¬IpI.

]›n-a-L´ AtXm-dn-‰n-bpsS LS-\-bn¬ Ch Dƒs∏-Sp-Øm-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse hnI-k\ {]h¿Ø-\-߃ \nb-{¥n-°¬ kanXn dnt∏m¿´ns‚ BZy `mKØv kqNn-∏n-®Xp t]mse ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ESZIƒ kmaqlyhpw ]cnÿnXn]c-hp-amb _lp-hn[ am\-Z-WvU-ßfpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ hne-bn-cpØn ASbm-f-s∏-Sp-Øp-I. Nph-sS-bp≈ kwc-£-W-˛-km-º-ØnI {]h¿Ø-\-߃ Xpe\w sNøm-\p≈ D]-I-c-W-ambn ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿∫e taJ-e-Isf (ESZ) ImWp-I. 1.

a\p-jy-{]-h¿Ø-\-߃ XpS-cp∂ {]tZ-i-ßsf ]cn-ÿn-Xn(-kw-c-£-W)-\n-ba (1986) {]Imcw

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\nb{¥n-°p-I. 2.

{]mtZ-inI P\-Xbv°v lnI-X-I-c-a-√m-Ø-Xn-\m¬ hnI-k\w \n¿Øn-sh-bv°m≥ Ign-bmØ CS-ß-fn¬ hnI-k\w ]cn-ÿnXn kulr-Z-]-chpw P\m-[n-jvTnXhpw BsW∂v Dd∏p hcpØp-Ibpw Zo¿L-Im-emSn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ ssPh Bhmk ss]XrIw kwc-£n-°-s∏-Sp-Ibpw thWw

3.

]pXnb hyh-km-b-߃ ÿm]n-°p-∂-Xn\pw Irjn `qan hmWn-Py-`q-an-bmbn amdp-∂-Xn\pw \ntcm-[-\tam \nb-{¥-W-ßtfm C√mØ {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ Hmtcm ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿∫e {]tZiØpw taev]-d™ \nb-{¥-W-߃ D≠m-h-Ww.

4.

{]mtZinI kml-N-cy-߃°-\p-kr-X-amb \nb-{¥-W-߃°mWv cq]w \¬tI-≠-Xv.

5.

]cn-ÿnXn kulr-Z-hn-I-k-\sØ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ \nb-{¥-W-ß-fmWv Bhiyw.

]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿∫e taJ-e-I-fnse hnI-k-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-߃ \nb-{¥n-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ am¿§\n¿t±-i-߃ H∂mw `mK-Ønse ]´nI˛6 ¬ sImSp-Øn-´p-≠v. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿∫-e-ta-J-e-Ifpw am¿§-\n¿t±-i-ßfpw ]›n-a-L´ AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS LS-\-bn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-ØWw hnI-k-\-Øn\pw `c-W-Øn\pw hntI-{μo-IrX am¿§w `c-W-L-S\m t`Z-KXn {]Zm\w sNøp∂ hntI-{μo-IrX `c-W-kw-hn-[m\w D]-tbm-Kn®v ]›na-L-´-Ønse hnI-k\ Bkq-{X-W-Øn\v ]n≥_ew \¬I-W-sa∂v kanXn ip]m¿i sNøp∂p. ]©m-b-Øo-cmPv ÿm]-\-ßsf ^e-{]-Z-amb Xt±i kzbw-`-cW k¿°m-cp-I-fm-°m≥ Bh-iyamb A[n-Im-c-ßfpw DØ-c-hm-Zn-Xz-ßfpw Ahbv°v \¬Im≥ 73˛mw `c-W-L-S-\m-t`-Z-KXn \nba-Ønse B¿´n-°nƒ 243 (G) kwÿm-\-ß-tfmSv Bh-iy-s∏-Sp∂p. XI -mw ]´n-I-bn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Ønbn-´p≈ 29 hnj-b-ß-fp-ambn _‘-s∏´ kmº-ØnI hnI-k-\-Øn\pw kmaq-ly-\o-Xn°pw th≠nbp≈ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ Xøm-dm-°m-\p≈ DØ-c-hm-Zn-Xzhpw Cu ]©m-b-Øo-cmPv ÿm]-\-߃°v \¬In. ]›n-a-L´ kwÿm-\-ß-fn¬ Pn√m-πm-\p-Iƒ Xøm-dm-Im-\p≈ Npa-X-ebpw DØ-c-hm-Zn-Xzhpw `c-W-L-S\m ÿm]-\-ß-fmb Pn√m πm\nßv IΩn-‰n-Iƒ°v \¬IWw. Cu {]{Inb ^e-{]-Z-am°m≥th≠n ÿe-]c Bkq-{X-W-Øn\v {]m[m\yw \¬IWw. Pn√m πm\nwMv IΩn-‰n-I-tfbpw Xt±-i-`-c-W-ÿm-]-\-߃°pw kwÿm-\-k¿°mcpw {]mtZ-in-Im-kq-{X-W-Øn¬ hnZ-Kv[-cmb k¿°m-cn-Xc kwL-S-\-Ifpw hnZym-`ymk ÿm]-\-ß-fp-sa√mw Bh-iy-amb kmt¶-XnI ]n¥pW \¬IWw. Jc-am-en\yw, aen-\-Pew, J\-\-Øns‚ {]mtZ-inI BLmXw, Sqdnkw Hcp-]-Po-h-\am¿§-sa∂ \ne-bn¬, Cu {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fp-sS-sb√mw t\´w ]¶p-h-bv°¬ XpS-ßn-b-hbv°v Bkq{X-W-Øn¬ Du∂¬ \¬IWw. Cu {]h¿Ø-\-ß-sf√mw kwtbm-Pn-∏n-°p∂ amt\-Pvsa‚ v kwhn[m\w D≠m-hWw. \o¿Ø-S-hn-k-I\w, amen-\y-\n¿Ωm¿÷\w, {]IrXn hn`-h-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v XpSßn H∂n-e-[nIw {]tZ-i-ß-fn-embn hym]n-®p-In-S-°p∂ {]h¿Ø-\-߃ ^e-{]-Z-ambn ssIImcyw sNøm-\p≈ kuIcyw Xt±i k¿°m-cp-Iƒ Hcp-°Ww. {]IrXn hn`-h-am-t\-Pvsa‚ns‚ Bkq{X-W-{]-{In-b-bn¬ ssPh-]-c-amb kp-ÿnc PohnX D]m-[n-Iƒ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw Ign-bp-∂n-SsØ√mw Kncn-h¿§ kaq-lsØ ]s¶-Sp-∏n-°p-Ibpw thWw. Xt±i k¿°m-cp-Iƒ°v C°m-cy-Øn¬ hy‡-amb ]¶pw DØ-c-hm-Zn-Xzhpw \¬In-bm¬ DtØ-PI LS-\-bn¬ Xs∂ am‰-ap-≠m-Ip-sa∂v kanXn hniz-kn-°p∂p. CXn-eqsS krjvSn-°-s∏Sp∂ tijn k¿°m-cns‚ D∂-X-X-e-߃ A¿∞-h-Ømbn CS-s]-Sm-\p≈ kΩ¿±w Db¿Øpw. Hcp Imcyw {]tXyIw {i≤n-°m-\p-≈Xv th≠{X ap≥I-cp-X-ep-Iƒ kzoI-cn-°msX {]IrXn hn`-h-߃°v ssek≥kv \¬Im-\p≈ A[n-Imcw Xt±-i-ÿm-]-\-߃°v \¬In-bm¬ AXv Zpcp-]-tbmKw sNøm-\p≈ km[yX Gsd-bmWv. F∂m¬ Cu A[n-Imcw `wKn-bmbn hn\n-tbmKn-®m¬ ]©m-bØ - p-Iƒ°v \s√mcp hcp-am-\a - m¿§-am-hp-Ibpw sNøpw. P\-ßf - p-ambn hfsc ASpØv CS-]-g-Ip-∂-Xp-aqew {Kmss\-‰n\pw aW¬J-\-\-Øn-\p-sams° ssek≥kv \¬Ip-∂-Xn¬ Agn-aXn°pw kzP-\-]-£-]m-X-hp-sams° D≠m-°m\pw CS-bp≠v. CXn-\p≈ ap≥I-cp-X-ep-Iƒ a\ n¬ I≠p-sIm-≠p-thWw {]mtZ-in-I-k¿°m-cp-Iƒ°v Cu DØ-c-hm-Zn-Xz-߃ \¬Im≥. H∂m............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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aXmbn hkvXp-I-c-Øn-\p-]-Icw CXn¬ \n∂v h≥tXm-Xn¬ hcp-am-\-ap-≠m-°m≥ Xt±i ÿm]\-ßsf A\p-hZ- n-°c - pXv. ^e-{]-Za - mbn ta¬t\m-´hpw ap≥I-cp-Xe - p-Ifpw kzoI-cn-®n-cn-°Ww. aq∂ma-Xmbn hnizm-ky-Xbpw t{]m’m-l-\hpw Dd-∏p-h-cp-tØ≠ kwhn-[m-\-amWv kzoI-cn-t°-≠Xv. Xt±-i-k¿°-mcp-Iƒ°v sa®-s∏´ {]IrXn hn`-h-am-t\-Pvsa‚n\v NphsS ]d-bp∂ \n¿t±-ißfpw D]-I-cn°pw (cLp-\μ 2008) H∂m-a-Xmbn {]IrXn hn`-h-߃ ssIImcyw sNøp-∂-Xn\v Xt±-i k¿°mcp-I-fpsS hnhn[ Xe-߃ GtIm-]n-∏n-®p≈ Hcp `c-W-kw-hn-[m\w D≠m-IWw. Xt±-i-`-cW ÿm]-\-߃ XΩn¬ ]m¿SvW¿jn∏p-≠m°n {]apJ kzIm-cy-ÿm-]-\-ßsf IqSn Dƒs∏-SpØn sa®-s∏´ {Iao-I-c-W߃ G¿s∏-Sp-Øm-hp-∂-XmWv. c≠m-a-Xmbn {Kma-ß-fnepw \K-c-ß-fn-ep-ambn hym]n-®p-In-S-°p-∂-h-bpsS Imcy-Øn¬ DZml-c-W-Øn\v, ip≤-P-e-hn-X-cWw, Nhdv \n¿Ωm¿÷\w XpS-ßnb, Pn√, sat{Sms]m-fn-‰≥ Bkq{X-W-k-an-Xn-I-fpsS klm-b-tØmsS ]cn-lmcw Is≠Ømw. as‰m∂v {]Ir-Xn-hn-`-h-ßfpw AXn¬ \n∂p≈ BZm-bhpw ]¶n-Sp-∂-Xn\v hy‡-amb kwhn[m\w D≠m-IWw. ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n-bn¬ Xt±i k¿°m-cp-Iƒ°v {]mXn-\n[yw \¬Ip-∂Xv

t_mIvkv: 14 πm®n-a-S-bnse A\p-`hw ]c-º-cm-KX cmjv{So-b-°mcpw Ahsc ]n¥p-W-®n-cp∂ DtZym-K-ÿ-h-μhpw [cn-®n-cp-∂Xv k¿°m¿ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ \S-∏n-em-°m-\p≈, C¥y-bn¬ G‰hpw ASn-Ø-´n-ep≈ ÿm]-\-߃ am{X-amWv ]©m-b-Øp-Iƒ F∂m-bn-cp∂p. X∑qew C¥y≥ `c-W-L-S\ Ahbv°v \¬In-bn´p≈ kzbw-`-cW k¿°m¿ F∂ ]Zhn Hcp hnZq-c-kz-]v\-ambn Ah-ti-jn®p. C°m-c-W-ØmemWv tIc-f-Ønse ]me-°mSv Pn√-bn¬s]´ πm®n-aS ]©m-bØv Hcp BtKmf ]m\ob \n¿ΩmW tIm¿∏-td-‰n\v ssek≥kv \ntj-[n-°p-Ibpw CXn-s\-Xn-cmbn Iº\n ^b¬ sNbvX dn´v tIcf sslt°m-SXn X≈p-Ibpw sNbvX-t∏mƒ AXn\v h≥ {]m[m\yw ssIh-∂Xv. ]©m-bØv Hcp k¿°m-cmbn amdn-b-XmWv Cu kw`-h-Øn-eqsS shfn-s∏-´Xv. kwÿm\ k¿°m-cns‚ ]n¥p-W-tbmsS ]©m-bØpw Iº-\nbpw XΩn¬ \S∂ Cu G‰p-ap-´-en¬ `c-WL-S-\m-]-c-amb Ah-Im-i-ßfpw Ahbv°v s]mXp-\-∑-bn-ep≈ kmwK-Xy-hp-amWv ChnsS am‰pc-bv°-s∏-´Xv. ssek≥kv d±m-°pI hgn ]©m-bØv AXns‚ `c-W-L-S-\m-]-c-amb Ah-Im-i-amWv hn\n-tbm-Kn-®Xv. sXc-s™-Sp-°-s∏´ Xt±-i-k¿°m¿ F∂ \ne-bn¬ ]©m-b-Ønse P\-ßfpsS t£aw kwc-£n-°m-\p≈ ISa ]©m-b-Øn-\p-s≠-∂m-bn-cp∂p Ah-cpsS hmZw. BIbm¬ P\-ßsf tZmj-I-c-ambn _m[n-°p∂ F¥n\pw A\p-aXn \ntj-[n-°m\pw d±m-°m\pw ]©m-Øn-\-h-Im-i-ap≠v. Ah-cpsS AXn¿Øn-°p-≈nse `qP-e-\n-c∏v Xmgp-∂-Xn\v Iº-\n-bmWv DØ-c-hm-Zn-sb∂pw CXv B {]tZ-isØ Irjn-bnsb {]Xn-Iq-e-ambn _m[n-°p-∂p-sh∂pw ]©m-bØv A`n-{]m-b-s∏´p. ]©m-bØv D∂-bn® ImcWw hfsc {][m-\-amWv. Fs¥-∂m¬ {]mtZ-inI {]IrXn hn`-h-߃ ssIImcyw sNøp-∂-Xnse apJy-IÆn ]©m-b-Øp-I-fmWv. Ncn-{X-]-c-ambn ]©m-b-Øp-Iƒ cq]o-I-cn-®-Xp-Xs∂ CXn-\m-emWv. sXc-s™-Sp-°-s∏´ Hcp k¿°m-cns‚ H∂-Xyhpw B[n-]-Xyhpw πm®n-aS ]©m-bØv sXfn-bn®p. ]©m-bØv kwÿm\ k¿°m-cns‚ Hcp IogvL-SIw am{X-am-sW∂pw Cu hI Imcy߃ AXns‚ A[n-Im-c-]-cn-[n-bn¬ s]Sp-∂n-s√-∂p-am-bn-cp∂p Iº-\n-bpsS \ne-]mSv. _lpcm-jv{S-Ip-Ø-I-I-fpsS ]Xnhv Al-¶m-c-am-WnXv. ]s£ XpS¿∂ kw`-h-߃ Cu hmZ-K-Xnsb \new-]-cn-im°n. ÿnc-amb A\p-aXn \ntj-[n-®m-ep≈ ÿnXn-tbm¿Øv Iº\n A¶-em-∏nembn. Ct∏mƒ ]©m-bØv A[n-Ir-X-cp-ambn HØp-Xo¿∏n\v {ian-®p-h-cn-I-bmWv. ]q¿Æ-ambpw

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kwÿm\ k¿°m-cns‚ \b-Øn\v ]pdØv {]h¿Øn-°m-\m-h-iy-amb A[n-Imcw ]©m-b-ØpIƒ°v `c-W-L-S\ \¬Ip-∂p≠v. kz¥w \b-߃°v cq]w \¬Im\pw AXv \S-∏m-°m-\p-ap≈ ]©m-b-Øp-I-fpsS A[n-Im-csØ kp{]nw tImS-Xnbpw icn-h-®n-´p≠v. Xt±i k¿°m-cpIƒ°p≈ A[n-Im-c-Øns‚ BZy-]m-T-amWv πm®n-aS. temI-Ønse G‰hpw henb hyh-km-bnI Zpc-¥-amb t`m∏m¬ a\- n-√m-a-\-t m-sS-bmsW-¶nepw Hm¿Ωn-°m≥ C¥y {ian-°p-tºm-gmWv πm®n-aS kw`-h-sa-∂Xv Hcp hntcm-[m-`m-kamWv. k¿°mcpw P\-ßfpw XΩn-ep≈ hnShv Fßs\ \oXn \S-Øp-∂-Xn\v hnLm-X-am-Ip∂p F∂-Xn\v DØa DZm-l-c-W-amWv t`m∏m¬. Cu Zpc-¥-Øn\v DØ-c-hm-Zn-I-fmb Bscbpw bYm¿∞-Øn¬ in£n-®n-´n√. P\-߃°pw Ah-cpsS Np‰p-]m-Sp-Iƒ°pw t\cn-tS-≠n-h-cp∂ lm\n-I-c-amb Imcy-ßsf ]‰n Adn-bm-\p≈ Ah-cpsS Ah-Imiw ChnsS \ntj-[n-°-s∏´p F∂-XmWv {][m\w. 1984 Unkw-_¿ 2˛3 Xnø-Xn-Iƒ hsc Ah-cpsS ]n∂m-ºp-dØv Dcp-≠p-IqSnb hnj-sØ-]‰n Hcp kqN-\-t]mepw XtZ-tZ-i-hm-kn-Iƒ°v e`n-®n-´n√. t`m∏m¬ Zpc-¥-ap-≠m-Ip-tºmƒ ]©m-b-Øp-Iƒ `c-W-L-S\m ÿm]-\-ß-fm-bn-cp-∂n√ (]©m-b-Øp-Iƒ°v B ]Zhn ssIh-∂Xv 1992se 72Dw 73Dw `c-W-L-S\m t`Z-K-X-Xn-tbm-sSbmWv.). P\-ßsf `c-W-Øns‚ `mK-am-°p-∂Xn-t\-°mƒ {][m\w IqSp-X¬ hyh-km-b-߃ t\Sp∂-Xn-em-bn-cp∂p. _lp-cm-jv{S-\n-t£]w t\Sp-∂-Xn-\p≈ Cu \bw C∂pw XpS-cp-∂p≠v. πm®n-a-S-bnse P\-߃ Iº-\n-tbmSv tNmZn® tNmZy-߃ t`m∏m-ense P\-߃ Zpc-¥-ap-≠mIp-∂-Xn\v hfsc ap≥t] D∂-bn-®n-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬ Zpc¥w Hgn-hm-°m≥ Ign-bp-am-bn-cp∂p F∂v hmZn°mw. cmPyØv tIm¿∏-td‰v DØ-c-hm-Zn-Xzhpw _nkn-\ v CS-]m-Sp-Iƒ ]c-kv]c-[m-c-WtbmsS \S-Øp-∂-Xn-\p-ap≈ ^e-{]-Z-am-sbmcp kwhn-[m-\-Øn\v πm®n-aS hgn-sbm-cp°n. tijn-bp≈ k¿°m-cp-Iƒ F∂ \ne-bn¬ ]©m-b-Øp-Iƒ ]Iz-X-bpsS e£-W-߃ {]I-Sn-∏n-°p-∂p≠v. cmPy-Øns‚ kmº-ØnI DZm-c-h¬°-cW ]cn-]m-Sn-sb πm®n-aS ]nt∂m´-Sn®p F∂v hmZn-°p-∂-h¿ temI-Ønse G‰hpw henb P\m-[n-]-Xy-cm-jv{S-Øns‚ DØ-c-hmZnXzw ad-°p-I-bmWv. s^U-d-en-k-Øns‚ t]cn¬ tI{μ-Øn¬ \n∂v IqSp-X¬ A[n-Im-c-߃°p-th≠n apdhnfn Iq´p∂ kwÿm-\-߃ AtX hmZ-KXn AwKo-I-cn-®p-sIm≠v kz¥w ssIh-i-ap≈ IqSpX¬ A[n-Im-c-߃ ]©m-b-Øp-Iƒ°v \¬IWw. πm®n-a-S-t]m-ep≈ i‡-amb ]©m-b-Øp-Iƒ°v \nt£-]-k-am-l-cWw kpK-ahpw {ZpXK-Xn-bnepw B°m≥ Ignbpw. i‡-amb DtZym-Kÿ t{iWnsb adn-I-S-°m\pw πm®n-a-S-t]mep≈ kw`-hß - ƒ Hgn-hm-°m\pw Iº-\n-Iƒ°v Ignbpw. ImcWw ]©m-bØ - p-If - psS hf¿®bv°v A\p-cq-]-amb Iº-\n-Isf t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°m\pw Iº-\n-bpsS {]h¿Ø-\-ßsf kzbw \nco£n-°m\pw ]©m-b-Øp-Iƒ°v Ignbpw. hen-∏-Øn¬ sNdp-Xm-I-bm¬ X¿°-߃ s]s´∂v ]cn-l-cn-°m≥ ]©m-b-Øp-Iƒ°v Ignbpw. ]s£ CXn-s\√mw ]pdsa Hcp XpS-°-sa∂ \ne-bn¬ πm®n-a-Sbv°v F¥mtWm Bhiyw AXv \¬Im≥ Iº-\nbpw tIcf k¿°mcpw Xøm-dm-IWw.

ta¬∏-d™ Imcy-߃°v Hcp ]cn-lm-c-amWv. ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y-\hpw ¢nb-d≥kpw \ne-hn-ep≈ ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\ {]{In-b-bn¬ NphsS ]dbp-∂h IqSn Dƒs∏Sp-Øp-∂Xv \∂m-bn-cn°pw (ZØ & {io[¿ 2010) ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse t{]mP-IvSp-Iƒ°p-th-≠n-bp≈ ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\ dnt∏m¿´v Xømdm-hp-∂-Xn\v {]tXyI ]cm-a¿i-hn-j-b-߃°v cq]w \¬Ip-Ibpw AXv s]mXp-P-\Øns‚ A`n-{]m-b-a-dn-bm≥ e`y-am-Ip-Ibpw thWw.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

CXn-\m-bp≈ I¨k¬´‚ v \nb-a\w kzmK-Xm¿l-amWv. ]s£ t{]mPIvSv `mc-hm-ln-Iƒ CXn-\p≈ XpI ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-e-b-Øn-e-S-bv°p-Ibpw a{¥m-ebw I¨kƒ´‚ns\ \n›-bn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXm¬ I¨kƒ´‚ns‚ \njv]-£X Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm≥ Ignbpw. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\ {]{Inb taJem˛ Bh¿Ø\ BLmX A]-{K-Y-\-Øn-te°v \oßp-Ibpw hml-I-tijn ]T\w \S-Øp-I-bp-amWv th≠Xv. ¢nb-d≥kv \S-]-Sn-{Iaw (2006) ]p\:]cn-tim-[n-°Ww. 2006¬ G¿s∏-Sp-Ønb ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\ ¢nb-d≥kv \S-]-Sn-{I-a-߃ ]p\:]cntim-[n-°Ww. ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kn¬ \njv°¿jn-®n-´p≈ \n_-‘-\-Iƒ ]men-°-s∏-Sp-∂pt≠m F∂v ]cn-tim-[n-°p-∂-Xn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn ˛h\w a{¥m-e-b-Øns‚ doP-b-W¬ B^o-kn-\p≈ NpaXe ¢nb-d≥kv tcJ-bn¬ hy‡-am-°n-bn-cn-°Ww. Cu Npa-Xe kwÿm\ aen-\o-I-cW \nb-{¥-W-t_m¿Up-Iƒ Gs‰-Sp-°p-∂-Xm-bn-cn°pw DNnXw. {]mtZ-in-I-amb {]iv\-߃ ]cn-lc - n-°m\pw J\-\° - m¿ A\m-tcm-Ky-Ic - a - mb {]h¿Ø-\ß - ƒ kzoI-cn-°p-∂Xv XS-bm\pw CXp-]-I-cn°pw. KWy-amb BLm-X-߃ G¬∏n-°m≥ km[y-X-bp≈ ]e t{]mP-IvSp-Ifpw ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\ {]{In-bbv°v ]pd-ØmWv. Ahbv°v kwÿm-\k - ¿°m-cns‚ ¢nb-d≥kv am{Xw aXn-bmIpw. AXm-bXv "B' hn`m-K-Øn¬s]-Sp-∂h. DZm-l-cWw, \Zn-I-fpsS KXn-am‰w, sNdnb Pessh-ZypX ]≤-Xn-Iƒ, Im‰mSn ]mS-߃, Sqdnkw ]≤-Xn-Ifpw dntkm¿´p-Ifpw {]tXy--In®v h\-`qan-tbmSpw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_e {]tZ-i-ß-tfmSpw tN¿∂p-≈h. ]›n-a-L-´sØ kw_-‘n-®n-StØmfw Ahn-SsØ {]IrXn hn`-h-ß-fpsS kº-∂X ]cn-K-Wn®v C°mcyw ]p\: ]cn-tim-[nt°-≠-XmWv. t{]mP-IvSp-Isf thdn´v ImWmsX ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-W-Øn\v kwÿm\ \nb{¥W˛ hnI-k\ ÿm]-ßfpw tI{μ˛ kwÿm\ k¿°m-cp-I-fpw XΩn¬ sa®-s∏´ GtIm-]\w Bh-iy-amWv. ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-bmbn {]Jym-]n-®n-´p-≈n-SØv Hcp {]tXyI ]≤Xn A\ph-Z-\o-b-amtWm F∂p-IqSn ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\ {]{Inb IW-°n-se-Sp-°Ww. ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv tcJ-bnse hyh-ÿ-Iƒ ewLn-°p∂ J\n-Iƒt°m Sqdnk]≤-XnIƒt°m ]≤Xn XpS-cm-\p≈ A\p-aXn \¬I-cpXv. BLm-X-߃ hne-bn-cp-Øm-\p≈ ÿm]\ GtIm-]\w i‡n-s∏-Sp-ØWw. kmº-ØnI DZm-c-h¬°-cWw hyh-km-b-Øn-\mbn kzIm-cy-aq-e-[-\sØ {]oWn-∏n-°¬, {]IrXn hn`-h-ß-fn¬ \n∂p≈ em`-s°mXn F∂nh Ign™ Zi-I-Øn¬ Kncn-h¿§-°m-cpsS Pohn-X-Øn-\p-Xs∂ ISpØ sh√p-hnfn Db¿Øn-bn-cp∂p. CtXm-sSm∏w Db¿∂p-h∂ CS-Xp-]£ Xo{h-hm-Zhpw Kncn-h¿§ kwc-£W \nb-a-ß-tfm-Sp≈ Ah-K-W-\bpw Zmcp-Whpw A{I-a-]-c-hpamb {]Xym-Lm-X-߃ krjvSn®p. ]cn-ÿnXn Ah-tem-I-\-k-anXn ip]m¿i sNbvX-tijw ho≠pw A]-{K-Y\w \S-Øm\mbn Hcp {]tXyI ]›n-aL´ -hn-ZKv[ Ah-tem-I\ kanXn cq]o-I-cn-°p-Itbm CXv \n¿±njvS ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS Npa-X-e-I-fn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øp-Itbm sNøWw. ]›n-a-L´ Pn√-I-fn¬ h\ Ah-Imi \nb-aw-t]m-se-bp-≈h \n¿_-‘-ambpw \S-∏m-°m≥ Hcp {]tXyI sk¬ Bh-iy-amWv. kaq-l-Øn-eqsS \nb-{¥Ww eLq-I-cn-°p∂p \ne-hn-ep≈ \nb-a-ßfpw N´-߃°pw D]cn ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse `cW {]{In-b-bn¬ IqSpX¬ D]m-[n-Iƒ°pw \n_-‘-\-Iƒ°pw {]{In-b-Iƒ°pw ÿm\-ap≠v. AXp-sIm≠v Xs∂ sa®s∏´ hnI-k\ amXr-I-Isf i‡n-s∏-Sp-Øm\pw kwc-£-WsØ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°m-\p-ambn \nb-{¥-W-ßsf kaq-l-Øn-eqsS eLq-I-cn-°m≥ Ignbpw. AØcw {]{In-b-I-fnepw D]m-[n-Ifnepw NphsS ]d-bp-∂-h-IqSn Dƒs∏-Sp-Øm-hp-∂-XmWv. hnh-cm-h-Imi \nb-a-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´v hnh-c-߃ shfn-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ \n¿t±iw

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]≤-Xn-I-fp-sSbpw hnI-k-\-{]-h¿Ø-\-ß-fp-sSbpw tkmjy¬ BUn‰v kqN-I-ßfpw D]-I-c-W-ßfpw D]-tbm-K-s∏-Sp-Øn-bp≈ BLm-X-ß-fpsS ]¶m-fnØ Ahtem-I\w. [mXp-°ƒ°pw Sqdnkw taJ-ebv°pw lcnX A°u≠vkv . ÿe -]-cn-ÿnXn nh-c-°-W-°p-Iƒ kam-l-cn-°pI. kwc-£W \S-]-Sn-Iƒ°pw a‰pw t{]m’m-l\ klmbw ssPh-B-hm-k-hy-hÿm tkh-\-߃°v {]Xn-^ew. kmaqly \ne-]m-Sp-I-sfbpw am\-Z-fi-ß-sfbpw kzm[o-\n-°pI. tIm¿∏-td-j-\p-I-fp-sSbpw k¿°m-cn-s‚bpw \√ kao-]-\-Øn\v {]Xn-^ew lcn-X-]-≤-Xn-Iƒ°v t{]m’m-l\w

]cn-ÿnXn `c-WsØ i‡n-s∏-Sp-ØpI ]›n-a-L-´-Øn-ep-S-\ofw ]cn-ÿnXn `c-W-Øn-ep≈ Kpcp-X-c-amb t]mcm-bva-Iƒ ]cn-l-cn°m≥ AS-b-¥nc \S-]Sn Bh-iy-am-sW∂v kanXn Icp-Xp∂p. ]cn-ÿnXn Ah-t_m-[-Øn-s‚bpw ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-W-tØm-Sp≈ P\-ß-fpsS {]Xn-_-≤-X-bp-sSbpw Imcy-Øn¬ kanXn Xr]vXcmWv. F∂m¬ \ne-hn-ep≈ `c-W-kw-hn-[m-\-ß-fn¬ ]m¿iz-h¬°-cn-°-s∏-´-Xp-aq-e-ap≈ AhcpsS \n -lm-bm-h-ÿbpw kanXn a\- n-em-°p∂p. s]mXp-P-\-ßsf ]¶m-fn-I-fm-°m≥ ASn-b¥n-c-\-S-]Sn kzoI-cn-°m≥ ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-e-b-tØmSv kanXn Bh-iy-s∏-Sp∂p. {]tXyIn®pw NphsS ]d-bp∂ Imcy-߃. (a)

h\-A-h-Im-i-\n-b-a-Ønse kmaq-ly-h-\-hn-`-h-ßsf kw_-‘n® hIp-∏p-Iƒ klm-\p-`q-XntbmsS \S-∏m-°pI.

(b)

F√m Xt±i `cW ÿm]-\-ß-fnepw ]q¿Æ- A-[n-Im-c-ap≈ ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v IΩ-‰n-Iƒ cq]o-I-cn-°p∂p.

(c)

tIcf kwÿm\ ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-t_m¿Uv cq]w sNbvX "DSp-º-t©me Xmeq-°nse ssPh sshhn≤y kº-∂-ta-J-e-fpsS kwc-£Ww' amXr-I-bn-ep≈ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ t{]m’mln-∏n-°pI.

(d)

]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y-\hpw ¢nb-d≥kv {]{In-bbpw kaqew ]cn-jv°-cn-°pI.

(e)

]cym-h-c≥ hmln\n ]≤Xn ]p\-cp-÷o-hn-∏n-°pI.

(f)

B{‘-{]-tZ-inse alm-flm-Km‘n tZiob {KmaoW sXmgn-epd∏v \nb-a-Øns‚ amXr-Ibn¬ F√m ]cn-ÿnXn {]iv\-߃°pw tkmjy¬ BUn‰v G¿s∏-Sp-ØpI.

CXn-te°v NphsS ]d-bp-∂h ip]m¿i sNøp∂p. hnh-cm-h-Imi \nb-a-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´v hnh-c-߃ shfn-s∏-Sp-ØpI. 2006 se h\ Ah-Im-i-\n-baw \S-∏m-°pI. ]cn-ÿnXn N´-߃ ewLn-°p∂ J\n-Iƒ°pw Sqdnkw ÿm]-\ß - ƒ°pw XpS¿∂v {]h¿Øn°m≥ A\p-aXn \¬I-cpXv. D]-I-c-W-ß-fpsS klm-b-tØmsS BLm-X-ßsf ]‰n ]¶m-fn-Ø-A-h-tem-I-\-ßfpw tkmjy¬ BUn‰pw \S-ØpI. tIm¿∏-td-‰d - p-If - psS \√ s]cp-am-‰sØ AwKo-Ic - n-°p-Ibpw t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøpI. [mXp-°ƒ°pw Sqdnkw taJ-ebv°pw lcnX A°u-≠nßv. lcnX kmt¶-XnI hnZy°pw ]cn-ÿnXn BLmX A]-{K-Y\w G¿s∏-Sp-ØpI.

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ÿe ]cn-ÿnXn hnh-c-°-W-°p-Iƒ Xøm-dm-°pI. ]cn-ÿnXn ¢nb-d≥kv \¬Ip-∂-Xn\p ap≥]v ÿm]-\-]-c-amb GtIm-]\w i‡n-s∏-Sp-ØpI. taJ-e-bnse kmaq-ly-A-Sn-ÿm-\-hn-I-k\ LS-I-߃ sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ J\-\-Øn\pw hyhkmb-ta-J-ebv°pw \nIpXn G¿s∏-Sp-ØpI. ]cn-ÿnXn `c-W-Øn¬ {]mtZ-inI ]©m-b-Øn-\p≈ tijn i‡n-s∏-Sp-ØpI. J\-\-ta-J-e-bnse {]mtZ-inI ]©m-b-Øp-Isf kmº-Øn-I-ambn i‡n-s∏-Sp-Øm-\mbn tdmb¬´n Ah-cp-ambn ]¶n-SpI. kz¥w `q`m-K-Øns‚ \s√mcp ]¶v cmPysØ h\sØ kwc-£n-°m-\mbn \¬Ip∂ ]›na-L´ kwÿm-\ß - ƒ°v F{]-Imcw \jvS] - c - n-lmcw \¬I-Ws - a-∂p-≈Xp kw_-‘n®v tI{μk¿°m¿ Xocp-am-\n-°Ww.

`mh-\m-]q¿Æ-amb ]cn-c-£-Whpw hnI-k-\hpw hnZym-`ymk-Øn-eqsS kvIqƒ, tImtfPv, k∂≤ GP≥kn-I-fpsS ]¶v hnZym-`ymk ÿm]-\-ß-fnse F≥.Fkv.Fkv., F≥.kn.kn. Im¿°v {]mtZ-inI k∂≤ GP≥kn-I-fp-ambn {]h¿Øn®v ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-chpw kmaq-ly-hp-amb Btcm-KyI-c-amb hnI-k-\-Øn\v hfsc {][m-\-s∏´ kw`m-h-\-Iƒ \¬Im≥ Ignbpw. CsXmcp Zo¿LIme ]≤-Xn-bpsS `mK-am-°n-sb-¶n¬ am{Xsa ^e-{]-Z-amb {]h¿Ø\w km[y-amIq. {]h¿Ø\w hy‡-am-sbmcp {]tZ-isØ e£yw hbv°p-Ibpw Ahn-SsØ ]©m-bØv, ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-amt\-Pvsa‚ v IΩ-‰n-Iƒ t]mse, k¿°m¿ GP≥kn-Iƒ F∂n-h-bp-ambn HØp-tN¿∂v aqt∂m-´pt]m-hp-Ibpw thWw. ]cn-ÿnXn hnZym-`ymkw C∂v ss{]adn Xew apX¬ k¿Δ-I-em-im-e-Xew hsc \n¿_-‘]m-Ty-hn-j-b-ß-fn-sem-∂mWv. 1991 \hw-_¿ 22 se kp{]nw-tIm-SXn DØ-c-hm-Wn-Xn\v B[mcw. F≥.kn.C.B¿.Snbpw k¿Δ-I-em-ime {Km≥Uv IΩn-j-\p-amWv kwÿm-\-X-e-Øn¬ \S-∏m-°p∂ Cu ]cn-]m-Sn°v Np°m≥ ]nSn-°p-∂Xv. ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n CXp-ambn _‘-s∏Sp-∂Xv Cu ]cn-]m-Snsb IqSp-X¬ ]e-{]-Z-am°pw. 2005 se \mj-W¬ Icn-°pew dnhyp CXp-kw_-‘n®v Ht´sd \n¿t±-i-߃ \¬In-bn-´p≠v. {]mtZ-inI ]cn-ÿnXn {]iv\-ß-fp-ambn _‘s∏´ hnZym¿∞n {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn¬ ]cn-ÿnXn hnZym-`ymkw Dƒs∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw AXn-eqsS e`n-°p∂ hn⁄m\w C¥y-bpsS ]cn-ÿn-Xnsb kw_-‘n® s]mXp-P-\-߃°v {]m]yhpw kpXm-cy-hp-amb Hcp Um‰m t_kv krjvSn-°m≥ D]-tbm-Kn-°p-Ibpw sNøpI F∂Xv Cu \n¿t±i-ß-fn¬ H∂mWv.

]cn-kchn⁄m\ s]mXp CSw temIw apgp-h-\p-ap≈ P\-߃ Ah-cpsS {]mtZ-inI ]cn-ÿn-Xn-bpsS hnhn[ hi-ßsf kw_-‘n® hni-Z-amb hnh-c-ß-fpsS henb Ie-h-d-bmWv. \ΩpsS cmPysØ P\-ßfpw {]tXyIn®v, hnZym¿∞n-Ifpw A≤ym-]-Icpw C¥y-bpsS ]cn-ÿn-Xnsb kw_-‘n® hen-sbmcp hn⁄m\-t{km-X v sI´n-∏-Sp-°p-∂-Xn¬ A¿∞-h-Øm-sbmcp ]¶p-h-ln-°m≥ {]m]vX-cmWv. CØ-csamcp ]¶m-fnØ hn⁄m-\-k-ºm-Z\ {]{In-bsb klm-bn-°p-∂-Xn¬ sF.kn.Sn. t]mse-bp≈ B[p-\nI kt¶-X-߃°v henb klmbw sNøm≥ Ignbpw. CXn-\p≈ Hcp DØa DZm-l-c-WamWv B¿°pw FUn‰v sNøm-hp∂ kuP\y F≥ssk-t¢m-]o-Unbmb hn°n-]o-Unb. hn°n-]oUn-b-bnse teJ-\-߃ k¿Δ-hn-⁄m-\-tIm-i-Xp-ey-amWv. AXm-bXv Ch B[n-Im-cnI {]kn≤o-I-c-W-ßsf ASn-ÿm-\-am-°n-bp-≈-h-bmWv, A√msX {]mY-anI \nco-£-W-ß-fn-e-[n-jvTn-Xa√. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v cXv\-Kncn Pn√-bnse ]£n-Isf kw_-‘n®v {]kn-≤o-I-cn® hnh-c-ß-fpsS Ah-tem-I\w hn°n-]o-Un-b-bn¬ \¬Ip-hm-\p≈ Hcp teJ-\-Øn\v tbmKy-amWv. AtX-k-abw hy‡n-]-c-amb \nco-£-W-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-ep≈ Hcp {]tXyI tImfPv Imº-knse ]£nI-fpsS sN°v enÃv {]kn-≤o-I-c-W-tbm-Ky-a√. a‰v D]-tbm-K-߃°mbn kz¥w sh_vssk-‰p-Iƒ krjvSn-°m\pw hn°n tkm^vSv-sh-b¿ kuP-\y-ambn e`y-amWv. A{]-Imcw krjvSn-°p∂ ssk‰n-

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

te°v ta¬∏-d™ ]£n-I-fpsS sN°v enÃv \¬In-bm¬ AXv ]cn-tim-[n-°p-∂-h-cpsS Adnhn¬s]-Sp∂ at‰-sX-¶nepw C\w ]£n-I-fp-s≠-¶n¬ B enÃn¬ Iq´n-tN¿°p-I-bp-amImw. Cu ]£n-I-fpsS cq]w hn°n-ao-Unb tIma¨knepw Ah-bpsS {]mtZ-inI t]cp-Iƒ ae-bmfw hn°nUn-£vWd - n-bnepw ¢mkn-^n-t°-j≥ hnh-cß - ƒ hn°n-kv]ojo-kvepw tImtfPv Imº-kns‚ ÿm\w KpKnƒ F¿Øv Cta-Pnepw tN¿°mw. Hcp kzImcy/s]mXp s\‰v-h¿°n¬ G‰hpw ]pXnb ÿnXn hnh-c-°-W-°p-Iƒ tN¿°mt\m t`Z-KXn hcp-Ømt\m th≠n-bp≈ Hcp kwhn-[m\w F√m-h¿°pw e`y-am-°Ww. ]cn-ÿnXn hnZym-`ym-k-Øns‚ `mK-ambn hnhn[ tImtf-Pp-I-fn¬ \n∂p≈ hnZym¿∞n-Iƒ hnhn[ Pe-t{kmX- p-I-fn¬ \n∂v Pe-Øns‚ KpW-ta∑ kw_-‘n® hnh-c-߃ tiJ-cn-°Ww. hnhn[ At\zj-W-ß-fn¬ \n∂v e`n-°p∂ hnhcw Cu kwhn-[m-\-Øn-te°v A]v temUv sNøm≥ Ahsc Npa-X-e-s∏-Sp-ØpI. Hcp tamU-td-‰¿ CXv hne-bn-cp-ØWw, kwtbm-Pn-∏n-°Ww, A]-{K-Yn-°Ww, Ah-km\w s]mXp-P-\-ß-fp-ambn ]¶p-h-bv°p-Ibpw thWw. C¥y-bpsS ]cn-ÿn-Xnsb kw_-‘n® hnh-c-߃ s]mXp-P-\-߃°v e`y-am-°p∂ Cu kwbp‡ {]{In-bbv°v ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n Xs∂ {]mcw`w Ipdn-°Ww. CXns‚ Hcp ss]e‰v t{]mPIvSv ]›n-a-L´ Pn√-I-fn¬ \n∂p-Xs∂ XpSßpw. \Kc˛{Kma-ta-J-e-I-fn¬ \n∂p≈ Pq\n-b¿, A≠¿ {KmtPz‰v tImtf-Pp-I-fnse hnZym¿∞n-I-fpsS I¨tkm¿jy-hp-ambn tN¿∂v {]h¿Øn-°m≥ Xmev]-cy-ap≈ B Pn√-bnse hy‡n-I-sf-IqSn Cu ]cn-]m-Sn-bn¬ ]¶mfn-I-fm-°Ww. XI, XII ¢m p-I-fn-tebpw F√m- c≠mwh¿jw A≠¿ {KmtPz-‰p-Iƒ°pw ]cn-ÿnXn kw_-‘n® Hcp {][m\ t{]mPIvSv sNtø-≠-Xp-≈-Xn-\m¬ CXv Gsd KpWw sNøpw. C¥y-bnep-S-\o-f-ap≈ F√m ]©m-b-Øp-Ifpw \K-c-k-`-Ifpw P\-ß-fpsS ssPh-ssh-hn≤y cPn-ÿ ' F∂ t]cn¬ Ah-c-h-cpsS ]cn-[n-bn-ep≈ {]mtZ-inI ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-hn-`-h-ßfpw _‘-s∏´ hnh-c-ßfpw tcJ-s∏-SpØn hbv°-W-sa∂v 2002 se ssPh sshhn≤y \nbaw A\p-im-kn-°p∂p. CØ-c-samcp ]cn-]mSn hnP-bn-∏n-°-W-sa-¶n¬ AXn\v i‡-amb imkv{Xob ]n¥pW Bh-iy-amWv. ⁄cpƒs∏´ {]mtZ-inI Pn√m-[n-jvTnX imkv{X⁄¿ Dƒs∏´ Hcp kmt¶-XnI ]n¥pW I¨tkm¿jy-Øns‚ klm-b-tØmsS ]›n-a-L´ AtXm-dn-´n°v CXv e`y-am-°m-hp-∂XmWv. hni-Z-amb ]T\ am¿§-tc-J-Iƒ, ]T-\-Øn\v ]n≥_-e-ta-Im≥ kam-l-cn-°p∂ ÿnXn hnh-c-°-W-°p-Iƒ tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ amXr-I-Iƒ, Pe-Øns‚ KpW-ta-∑-bpsS ssPh-kq-N-I߃°p≈ ^o¬Uv ssKUp-Iƒ XpS-ßnb am\z-ep-Iƒ Cu {Kq∏v hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°Ww. kmt¶XnI ]n¥pW I¨tkm¿jy-Øn-\p≈ {][m\ Npa-Xe hnZym¿∞n-Ifpw a‰p-≈-hcpw hnhn[ hn°n-ssk-‰p-I-fn¬ \¬Ip∂ {]mY-anI ÿnXn-hn-h-c-°-W-°p-I-fpsS KpW-ta∑ hne-bn-cpØn "]›n-a-L´ ]cn-kc' F∂ t]cn¬ {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°m≥ ]mI-Øn-em-°pI F∂-XmWv. Cu hn⁄m\-ti-J-c-Øn¬ \n∂v KpW-ta-∑-bp-≈Xv sXc-s™-Sp-°m\pw AXv e`y-amb imkv{Xob hn⁄m\-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ hymJym-\n-°m\pw klm-bn-°m≥ Cu I¨tkm¿jy-Øn\v Ignbpw. taev]-d™ hnh-c-ß-fn¬ Gdnb ]¶pw KpW-ta-∑-bp-≈-hbpw {]mtZ-in-I-ambn Xmev]-cy-ap-≈hbpw BI-bm¬ "]›n-a-L´ ]cn-k-c-{]-Im-i\' F∂ t]cn¬ Hcp Hm¨sse≥ {]kn-≤o-I-c-Wam-°p-∂Xv ^e-h-Øm-bn-cn°pw. Hcn-°¬ icn-bmw-hÆw hne-bn-cpØn {]kn-≤o-I-cn-®m¬ Cu hnh-c-߃ hn°n-]o-Un-bbn¬ teJ-\-߃ Fgp-Xm-\mbn D]-tbm-Kn°mw. ]c-am-h[n hnh-c-߃ Dƒs°m-≈p-∂-Xn-\m¬ CXns‚ KpW-ta∑ A∏-t∏mƒ hne-bn-cpØm\pw IqSp-X¬ hnh-c-߃ tN¿°m\pw Ign-bp-sa-∂-Xn-\m¬ CXv hfsc A\p-Iq-e-amb Hcp "^oUv _m°v' kwhn-[m-\-am-bn-cn°pw. hnZym¿∞n-Ifpw a‰v Xev]-c-I-£n-Ifpw ]cn-ÿnXn kw_‘n® hnh-c-߃ IqSp-X¬ IqSp-X¬ B¿÷n-°p-∂-Xn-\m¬ ]c-ÿnXn hnZym-`ym-k-Øns‚ KpWta-∑bpw sa®-s∏Spw. CXn-e¥¿eo\-am-bn-´p≈ kpXm-cyX CXns‚ kzoIm-cy-Xbpw A¥ pw Db¿Øpw. hnZ-Kv[¿ Dƒs∏sS F√m-h¿°pw ÿnXn-K-Xn-Iƒ hne-bn-cp-Øm\pw,Ip‰-ßfpw Ipd-hpIfpw Nq≠n-°m-´m\pw sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm\pw D≈ thZn F∂ \ne-bn¬ CXv Hcp kzbw Xncp-ج kwhn-[m-\-ambn {]h¿Øn°pw. `mhn-bn-enXv ]q¿Æ-ambn kpXm-cyhpw, C¥y-bnse ]cn-ÿnXnsb kw_-‘n®v F√m-h¿°pw {]m]y-amb hnhc t{kmX pw, F√m-hn-h-c-߃°pw th≠n hnZym¿∞n-Iƒ°pw A≤ym-]-I¿°pw a‰p-≈-h¿°pw B{i-bn-°m-hp∂ Hcp kwhn-[m-\hp-ambn ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

CXv amdpw.

{]mtZ-in-Im-h-ÿ-bpsS A]-{K-Y\w Hcp {]tZ-i-Øns‚ {]tXy-In®pw ]›n-a-L´w t]mse-bp≈ ae-\n-c-I-fnse ]cn-ÿnXn, hnI-k\ {]iv\-߃ hyXy-kvX-am-bn-cn°pw. ag e`yX, `qL-S\, h\-\-io-I-c-W-Øns‚ hym]vXn, P\-k-Ω¿±w XpS-ßn-b-h-bnse hyXn-bm-\-amWv CXn\v ImcWw. Hcp {]tZ-i-Øns‚ {]tXyI {]iv\-߃ Adn-bp-∂-Xnt\m At\z-jn-°p-∂-Xnt\m B[p-\nI kmt¶-XnI D]-I-c-W-ß-fp-tStbm sshZ-Kv[y-Øn-s‚tbm Bh-iy-an√. F∂m¬ Bkq-{XW hnIm-k-Øn\v Ch hfsc hne-s∏-´XmWv.kvIqfp-Iƒ°pw, tImtf-Pp-Iƒ°pw k∂≤ GP≥kn-Iƒ°p-sa√mw Hcp {]tXyI {]tZ-iØv CØcw efn-Xhpw {]tbm-P-\-I-c-hp-amb At\z-j-W-߃ \n m-c-ambn \SØmw. At\z-jn°m-\p≈ Nne hnj-b-ß-fpsS kmºnƒ NphsS tN¿°p∂p. (1)

h¿j-Øn¬ hnhn[ amk-ß-fn¬ InW-dp-I-fnse Pe-Øns‚ Bgw F¥v? Ce-Iv{SnIv ]ºpsk-‰p-Iƒ h®-tXmsS C°-gn™ h¿j-ß-fn¬ Cu Af-hn¬ F¥p-am-‰-ap-≠mbn?

(2)

t\csØ ta®n¬]p-d-ß-fm-bn-cp∂ `qan-bpsS F{X `mKw C∂v "bp]-t‰m-dnbw' F∂ ]mgvs®Sn hf¿∂v D]-tbm-K-iq-\y-ambn?

(3)

Hcp hnI-k-\-]-≤-Xn-bpsS `mK-ambn ]p\-c-[n-h-kn-∏n-°-s∏´ I¿j-I¿°p e`n® \jvS-]cn-lm-c-Øn¬ F¥pam{Xw Ah¿ Dev∏m-Z-\-]-c-amb Imcy-ß-fn¬ \nt£-]n®p?

(4)

Hmtcm h¿jhpw ta®n-en-\mbn D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ ssht°m-ens‚ Af-sh{X?

(5)

hyXykvX kok-Wp-I-fn¬ sImXp-In-eqsS ae-º\n _m[-bp-≠m-Ip-∂-h-cpsS kwJy F{X?

(6)

hnhn[ ka-b-ß-fn¬ kaq-l-Ønse hnhn-[-`m-K-ß-fn¬ DZ-c-kmw-{I-anI tcmK-߃ _m[n°p-∂-h-cpsS FÆw F{X?

(7)

Iap-In≥ tXm´-ß-fn¬ D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ IoS-\m-in-\n-bpsS Af-sh{X? GXv IoS-\m-in-\nbmWv D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xv? CXp-aqew hnj-_m[ D≠m-b-h-cmbn kwi-bn-°p-∂-h-sc{X?

(8)

Ip∂n≥N-cn-hp-I-fnse Irjn as‰m-cn-S-tØbv°v am‰p-tºmƒ `qan Xcn-in-Sm≥ A\p-h-Zn-®n-´p≈Xv F{X-h¿j-amWv?

(9)

Huj-[- Bhiy-߃°v D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ {]mtZ-inI kky-߃ FsX√mw?

(10) hoSp-I-fn¬ ]mN-I-Øn\v D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ Du¿÷-t{km-X v GXmWv? C¥y≥ ]cn-ÿn-Xnsb kw_-‘n®v taev]-d™ coXn-bn¬ kzX-{¥hpw ]c-ky-hp-amb Hcp hnh-c-t{km-X v kwL-Sn-∏n-®m¬ ]cn-ÿnXn kulrZ hnI-k-\sØ kw_-‘n® tNmZy-߃°v DØ-cw-\¬Im≥ Ign-hp≈ hnh-c-ß-fpsS Hcp J\n-bm-bn-cn-°p-aXv. hy‡-amb {]mtZ-inI {]iv\߃ Db¿Øn-∏n-Sn-°p-∂-Xn\pw Ahbv°v ]cn-lmcw ImWp-∂-Xn\pw CXv D]-I-cn°pw. hnZym`ymk ÿm]-\-ß-fn¬ ]Tn-°p-∂-Xn\pw ]Tn-∏n-°p-∂-Xn-\p-ap≈ ^e-{]-Z-amb klm-bn-bmbpw CXv D]-tbm-Kn°mw.

s]mXp-P-\-t_m-[-h¬°-cWw {]mtZ-in-I-ambn kmwK-Xy-ap≈ ]cn-ÿnXn, hnI-k\ {]iv\-ßsf ]‰n kmt¶-XnI hnZKv[¿°pw `c-W-I¿Øm-°ƒ°pw hnhcw \evIp-∂-Xnepw P\-ßsf t_m[-h¬°-cn-°p-∂-Xnepw hnZym-`ymk ÿm]-\-߃°pw k∂-≤-kw-L-S-\-Iƒ°pw hen-sbmcp ]¶v hln-°m≥ Ignbpw. am[y-a-ß-fpsS hnhn[ cq]-ß-fmb {]`m-j-W-߃, {]Z¿i-\-߃, \mS-I-߃, Km\-߃ F∂nh-sb√mw C°m-cy-Øn¬ D]-tbm-Kn°mw. tIc-f-Øn¬ ]ø-∂q-cn-ep≈ ]cn-ÿnXn hnZym-`ym-kØn-\p≈ skmssk-‰nbpw tIcf imkv{X-km-lnXy ]cn-jØpw CXp kw_-‘n®v {]Z¿i-\ßfpw, k©-cn-°p∂ \mSI˛Iem-kw-L-ßfpw, kwL-Sn-∏n-°p-Ibpw ]pkvX-I-ßfpw amkn-I-Ifpw {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°p-Ibpw {]Ir-Xn-Iym-ºp-Iƒ \S-Øp-I-bpw-sN-øp-∂p≠v. kn¿kn Xmeq-°nse "lƒtKmƒ {Kq∏v hnt√-Pkv˛tIm˛Hm∏-td-‰ohv k¿Δokv skmssk‰n Ah-cpsS AwK-߃°pth≠n ssehv-tÃm°v amt\-Pvsa‚ v, Xo‰ t{kmX v hnI-k\w, sXmgp-Øn¬ Xo‰-\¬Ip-∂-Xns‚ ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

t\´-߃, F∂nh kw_-‘n®v {]`m-j-W-߃ \S-Øn-bn-cp∂p. Ip¥ Xmeq-°nse "alm-hnjvWp bphIv afi¬' hoSp-I-fn¬ C‘\ £a-X-bp≈ ]pI-bn-√mØ ASp-∏p-Iƒ \n¿Ωn-°p-∂Xp kw_‘n®v ]cn-io-e\ ]cn-]mSn kwL-Sn-∏n-®n-cp∂p. CØcw \nc-h[n \√ amXr-I-Iƒ \ΩpsS ap∂nep≠v. hfsc em`-I-c-ambpw hym]-I-ambpw CXv {]tbm-P-\-s∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw sNømw.

P\-ßsf kwL-Sn-∏n-°¬ ]cn-ÿnXn hnI-k\ hgn-bnse G‰hpw Kuc-h-X-c-amb XS w \n¿≤-\cpw \nc-£-c-cpamb P\-߃ PmXn-bp-sSbpw aX-Øn-s‚bpw aXn¬s°-´p-Iƒ°p-≈n¬ `n∂n-∏n-°-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂Xn-\m¬ Hcp s]mXp-Xm-ev]-cy-Øn-\p-th≠n H∂n®p {]h¿Øn-°m≥ Ah¿°v Ign-bmsX hcp∂p F∂-XmWv. \nXy-hr-Øn-°p-th≠n Ae-bp∂ Ah¿°v kz¥w `mhn Xmev]-cy-߃ ]cn-c-£n°m≥ Ign-bp-∂n√. BI-bm¬ {]IrXn hn`h ]cn-]m-e-\-Øn\pw k¿°m¿ kvIoapI-fpsS B\pIqeyw icnbmw hÆw e`n-°p-∂-Xn\pw Chsc kwL-Sn-∏n-°p-∂-Xn\pw ]c-kv]cw kl-I-cn-°p∂-Xn\pw hnZym-`ymk ÿm]-\-߃°pw k∂≤ kwL-S-\-Iƒ°pw henb kw`m-h\ \¬Im≥ Ignbpw. C°m-cy-Øn¬ Nph-sS-bp≈ ]´nI hfsc {]tbm-P-\-s∏Spw. (1)

{Kma-Ønse s]mXp-ÿ-eØv kmaq-ly-h-\-h¬°-cW ]cn-]m-Sn-bn-epƒs∏-SpØn hnd-In\pw Xo‰bv°pw th≠n-bp≈ Hcp tXm´w kwc-£n®v \S-Øm≥ {Kma-hm-kn-Isf kwL-Sn-∏n°pI.

(2)

hnt√Pv `qan-bn¬ amdn-amdn ta®n¬ \S-Øp∂ kwhn-[m\w kwL-Sn-∏n-°pI

(3)

h\-ß-fpsS kwc-£W-Øn\v h\w sXmgn-em-fn-Iƒ, kl-I-c-W-kw-L-߃, Kncn-h¿§-°m¿ F∂n-hsc kwL-Sn-∏n-°pI.

(4)

Hcp kaql _tbm-Kymkv πm‚ v kwL-Sn-∏n-°pI.

(5)

Irjn-`q-an-bn¬ aÆv kwc-£-W-Øn\v Hcp kl-I-cW ]cn-]mSn kwL-Sn-∏n-°pI.

kmt¶-XnI hnZy-I-fpsS hym]\w IogvX-´nse kml-N-cy-ß-fn¬ ]pXnb kmt¶-XnI hnZy-Iƒ hym]n-∏n-°p-∂-Xnse {]iv\߃ a\- n-em-°p-∂-Xnse hogvNbpw Cu kmt¶-XnI hnZym-hym-]-\sØ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p-∂Xnse hnap-J-X-bp-amWv \ΩpsS hnI-k\ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ t\cn-Sp∂ G‰hpw henb {]iv\w. {]mtZinI kvIqfp-Iƒ°pw tImtf-Pp-Iƒ°pw, k∂-≤-kw-L-S-\-Iƒ°pw kml-Ncyw A]-{K-Yn®pw amXr-Im-{]-Z¿i-\-߃ Hcp-°nbpw, ]≤Xn cq]o-I-c-W-Øn\v k∂-≤-k-lmbw \¬Inbpw k¿°m¿ GP≥kn-I-fp-ambn Bi-b-sFIyw ÿm]n®pw ]≤-Xn-Iƒ \S-∏n-em-°m-\p≈ GP≥kn-Ifmbn {]h¿Øn®pw Cu {]{In-b-bn¬ hfsc kPo-h-ambn ]s¶-Sp-°m≥ km[n°pw. ]cn-K-W\ A¿ln°p∂ Nne kmt¶-XnI amXr-I-Iƒ NphsS. (1)

Xcn-imbn InS-°p∂ ae-s©-cn-hp-I-fn¬ {]tZ-inI P\-k-aq-l-Øn\v D]-tbm-K-ap≈ C\߃ h®p-]n-Sn-∏n-°pI.

(2)

C‘-\-£-a-X-bp≈ ]pI-bn-√mØ ASp-∏p-Iƒ

(3)

\n¿Ωm-W-Øn\v kna‚pw aWepw tN¿Øp-≠m-°nb I´-Iƒ.

(4)

kpe` iuOm-eb I°q-kp-Iƒ

]cn-ÿnXn kulr-Z-hn-I-k\ {]{In-bsb t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°m≥ hnZym-`ymk˛k∂≤ kwL-S-\Iƒ°v ]e am¿§-ß-fp-ap≠v. AtX-k-abw kmaqly h\-h¬°-c-W-Øn-\p≈ \gvk-dn-Iƒ ÿm]n®pw ]´n-I-h¿§-ho-Sp-I-fn¬ ASp-∏p-Iƒ \n¿Ωn®p kz¥w hn`-h-k-am-l-cWw i‡ns∏-Sp-Øm\pw Ah¿°v Ignbpw.

k¿Δ-I-em-im-e-I-fp-tSbpw imkv{X-km-Ym-]-\-ß-fp-tSbpw ]¶v ]›n-a-L-´-ta-J-e-bn¬ imkv{Xob Kth-j-W-Øn\pw hnI-k\ {]h¿Ø-\-߃°pw Db¿∂ ap≥K-W-\-bp≈ taJ-e-I-fpsS ]´n-I-bmWv NphsS tN¿Øn-´p-≈Xv.

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

(1)

cmk-h-fhpw ssPh-h-fhpw D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xp aqew aÆns‚ ^e-`q-bn-jvT-X-bn¬ h∂n´p≈ hyXykw?

(2)

\ne-hn-ep≈ ssPh-]n-fihpw ssPh-h-f-Øns‚ hnhn[ t{kmX- p-I-fpsS Dev]m-Z-\-£-aXbpw.

(3)

arK-ß-fnepw kq£va-Io-S-ß-fnepw IoS-\m-in\n {]Xn-tcm-[-Øn¬ kw`-hn-®n-´p≈ ]cn-Wmaw

(4)

IoS-\m-in\n {]tbmKw aqew a\p-jy-cp-sSbpw hf¿Øp-ar-K-ß-fp-sSbpw Btcm-Ky-Øn-t\‰ BLmXw.

(5)

`qan-bpsS tijn-bp-ambn _‘-s∏-Sp-Øn-bp≈ AXns‚ hn\n-tbmKw.

(6)

hyXykvX `qhn-\n-tbmKw aqew ae-s©-cn-hp-I-fnse asÆm-en∏v F¥p-am-{X-ap-≠mbn.

(7)

hyXykvX `qhn-\n-tbm-K-Øn¬ ae-s©-cn-hp-I-fn¬ aÆn-te°v Xmgp-Ibpw Hen-®p-t]m-hpIbpw sNøp∂ sh≈-Øns‚ Afhv?

(8)

ae-s©-cn-hp-I-fnse Irjnsb t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p∂ kmaqly˛ kmº-ØnI i‡n-Iƒ?

(9)

ae-s©-cn-hp-I-fnse Irjn Ah-km-\n-∏n®v AhnsS hr£-ßfpw Xo‰-∏p√pw a‰pw h®p-]n-Sn∏n-°p∂ kmt¶-Xn-I-˛-km-º-ØnI km≤y-X.

(10) ae-s©-cn-hp-If - n¬ hr£-ßfpw Xo‰-∏p√pw h®p-]n-Sn-∏n-°p-∂X - n-te-°p≈ am‰-Øn¬ {KmaoW sXmgn¬Zm\ ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ°p≈ ]¶v. (11) kq£va-Im-em-h-ÿbpw Pemw-ihpw \ne-\n¿Øp-∂-Xnepw ]®n-e-hfw e`y-am-°p-∂-Xnepw tXbne DW-°m≥ hndIv \¬Ip-∂-Xnepw kky-^-e-hn-f-Iƒ ASp-Øp≈ h\sØ F{Xam{Xw B{i-bn°p∂p. (12) tXm´w hnf-If - n¬ {]tXy-In®v Ge-tØm-´ß - f - nse XW¬a-cß - f - psS kwc-£W - hpw \n¿am¿P\hpw (13) ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse {]Ir-Xn-ZØ h\-߃ kwc-£n-°m-\mbn tXm´w hnf-Iƒ hym]n-∏n-°m\p≈ `mhn ]≤-Xn-I-fpsS {]Xym-Lm-X-߃. (14) kaql˛k¿°m¿ `qan- I - f psS hn\n- t bm- K - Ø nepw hndIv tiJ- c - W - Ø nepw kaql˛ k¿°m¿˛kzImcy- `q-an-I-fnse ta®nent\bpw kw_-‘n® P\-ß-fpsS \ne-]mSv. (15) kaql˛k¿°m¿ `qan-I-fpsS icn-bmb hn\n-tbmKw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm≥ kmaqly kwL-S-\Iƒ thWw. (16) am¬In h\-`q-an-I-fpsS \ne-hnse hn\n-tbm-K-L-S\ (17) I∂p-Im-en-Iƒ°v sXmgp-Øn¬ Xo‰ \¬Ip-∂-Xn-te-°p≈ am‰-Øns‚ kmt¶-XnI kmºØnI km[yX. (18) ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse BSp-h-f¿Ø¬ (19) ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse Xo‰-]p¬hn-`-h-Øns‚ hym]\w (20) ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse h≥InS Pem-i-b-ß-fnse a’y-k-º-Øns‚ hnI-k\w. (21) ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse I\ym-h-\-ß-fpsS Hcp \mƒhgn. (22) ta®n¬, hndIv tiJ-cWw, ske-£≥ s^√nwKv F∂nh ]›n-a-L-´n-Ønse ssPh- sshhn-≤yØn¬ sNep-Øp∂ BLmXw. (23) ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ssPh-ssh-hn≤y kwc-£-W-Øns‚ kmwkvIm-cnI ]mc-ºcyw (24) a\pjy˛h\y-Pohn kwL¿jw {]tXy-In®v B\-bp-sSbpw Im´p-]-∂n-bp-sSbpw Imcy-Øn¬. (25) Irjn sNbvX kky-ß-fnse Xt±i C\-߃ AhnsS Xs∂ \n¿Øn kwc-£n-°p-∂Xnse kmº-ØnI imkv{Xw. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

246


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

(26) ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse `qP-e-Øns‚ kpÿn-c-a-√mØ hn\n-tbmKw (27) kq£va˛an\n Pe-ssh-Zyp-X-tijn ]co-£W {]Z¿-i\-ß-fn-eqsS AXv {]tbm-P-\-s∏-SpØpI. (28) ]›n-a-L-´-ß-fn-ep≈ h\-ß-fn-te-°p≈ tdmUp-Iƒ G¬∏n-°p∂ BLmXw (29) {KmaoW `h\ \n¿Ωm-W-Øn¬ kky-`m-K-ß-fpsS hn\n-tbmKw. (30) IpSn-ep-I-fp-sSbpw sXmgp-Øp-I-fp-sSbpw ta®n-ep-I-fpsS Imem-h[n sa®-s∏-SpØpI. (31) ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse {Kmao-W-ta-J-e-I-fnse tcmKm-h-ÿ-bn¬ ipNo-I-cW \S-]-Sn-Iƒ hcpØp∂ BLmXw. (32) ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse P\-ß-fpsS t]mj-Im-lmc e`y-X-bn¬ {]Ir-Xn-ZØ hn`-h-߃°p≈ ]¶v. (33) ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ ate-dnb, sI.C.Un. XpS-ßnb tcmK-ß-fpsS Imcy-Øn-ep≈ ]cn-ÿnXn \nb-{¥Ww. (34) ]cn-ÿnXn kulr-Z-km-t¶-XnI hnZy-Iƒ hym]n-∏n-°p-∂-Xn\v _m[n-°p∂ kmaqly˛kmºØnI LS-I-߃. (35) ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse IpSpw-_-ß-fnse Ip´n-I-fpsS FÆw \n›-bn-°p∂ kmaq-lyhpw kmºØn-Ihpw a\x-im-kv{X-]-c-hp-amb LS-I-߃. (36) hyXy-kvX-X-e-ß-fnse P\߃ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-c-ambpw kmaqly-]cambpw kulrZ-]cambpw hnI-k-\-Øn\v I¬]n-°p∂ ap≥K-W\ kw_-‘n® at\m-`m-hw.

]cn-ÿnXn˛Btcm-Ky kulrZ hnI-k\Øn\v t{]cW ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ Btcm-Ky-I-c-amb hnI-k-\-Øn¬ hne-s∏´ ]¶p hln-°m≥ Ign-bp∂ kmt¶-Xn-I-hn-Zybpw imkv{Xo-b-hn-⁄m-\hpw e`y-am-°m≥ Ign-bp∂ Kth-j-W-ÿm-]-\-߃°pw k¿h-I-em-im-e-Iƒ°pw Kth-jW-{]-Xn-`-bp≈ tImtf-P-[ym-]-I¿°pw Cu {]{Inb-bn¬ kPoh ]¶m-fn-I-fm-Im≥ Ign-bpw. CØ-c-Øn-ep≈ Imcy-amb {ia-߃ D≠m-Im-Xn-cp-∂-Xn\v ]e ImcW-ßfp-≠v. P\-ßfp-ambn tN¿∂pw XmtgX´nse ÿnXn--°-\p-k-cn®pw {]h¿Øn-°p-∂-Xnse ]mc-º-cy-Øns‚ A`m-hhpw Xm¬]cy-an-√m-bva-bp-amWv Ch-bn¬ apJyw. H‰-s∏´ ]co-£-W-ime-I-fn¬ hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°p∂ km-t¶-Xn-I-hn-Zy-Iƒ ]e-t∏mgpw Ah {]mh¿Øn-I-am-t°≠ CSß-fn¬ ]e-t∏mgpw A{]-k-‡-am-bn-cn-°pw. BI-bm¬ {]h¿Ø\ ÿesØ Kth-j-Whpw kmt¶-Xn-I-hn-Zy-Iƒ AhnsS ]co-£n-°p-∂-Xp-amb Hcp ]pXnb ]mc-ºcyw krjvSn°pI F∂Xv hfsc {][m-\-am-Wv. Hmtcm k¿h-I-em-im-ebpw imkv{X-ÿm-]-\hpw HcpIq´w {Kma-ßtfm \o¿Ø-S-ßtfm sXcs™-SpØv AhnsS Zo¿L-Im-em-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn-ep≈ \nco-£-W-]-co-£-W-߃ \S-Øp-∂Xv DNnX-am-bn-cn-°pw. Aßs\ Bbm¬ Ahn-SsØ {]mtZ-in-I- hn-Zym-`ymk ÿm]-\-ßfpw k∂≤ GP≥kn-Ifpw k¿°m¿ ÿm]-\-ß-fp-ambn tN¿∂v \nc-h[n Btcm-Ky-I-c-amb ]cn-ÿn-Xn-˛-hnI-k\ A[n-jvTnX I¿a-]-cn-]m-Sn-I-fn-te¿s∏-Sm≥ Chbv°v Ah-kcw e`n-°pw. ]≤Xn {]mh¿ØnI-am-°p-∂X - ns‚ {][m\ DØ-ch - m-ZnXzw {]mtZ-in-I- hn-Zym-`ymk ÿm]-\ß - ƒ°pw k∂-≤kwLS\-Iƒ°pw \¬Ip-Ibpw Kth-j-W-ÿm-]-\-ßfpsS X\Xv Kth-j-Whpw kmt¶-Xn-I-hn-I-k-\-{]h¿Ø-\-ßfpw AXns‚ `mK-am-°p-Ibpw sNømw. Btcm-Ky-I-c-amb ]cn-ÿn-Xn-hn-I-k-\sØ D±o-]n-∏n-°m-\p≈ \s√mcp amXr-I-bm-bn-cn-°p-an-sX∂v R߃ Icp-Xp-∂p.

ssPh-ssh-hn[y kwc-£-W-Ønte¿s∏-Sp∂ Iº-\n-Iƒ°pw s]mXp-P\ - ß - ƒ°pw t\cn´v {]Xn-^ew h\ ssPh- -B-hm-k-hy-hÿ kmwkvIm-cn-Ihpw ]n¥p-W-tb-Ip-∂Xpw \nb-{¥-W-]-chpw Bb \nc-h[n tkh-\-߃ \¬Ip-∂p-≠v. hnim-em¿Y-Øn¬ Chsb “ssPh Bhm-k-hy-

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

hÿmtkh-\-߃” F∂p ]d-bmw. Hcp ]›n-a-L´ ]cn-ÿnXn AtXm-dn´n cq]o-I-cn-°p-∂-Xns‚ {][m\ e£yw ssPh Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿm-]-c-amb kpÿn-c-Xsb t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°m≥ kzImcy ssIh-i `q-an-bnepw \ne-hm-c-Ø-I¿® t\cn-Sp∂ `qan-I-fnepw ]c-am-h[n hr£-߃ h®p-]n-Sn-∏n°p-Ibpw \ne-hn-ep≈ h\-߃ kwc-£n-°p-Ibpw sNøpI F∂-Xm-Wv. AtX kabw ]›n-aL´ Pn√-I-fnse h¿[n® P\-kw-Jybpw temI-Ønse at‰-sXmcp ‘ssPh- ssh-hn-[y- I-e-h-d’-bnep-ap≈Xnt\-°mƒ IqSnb P\-km-{μ-Xbpw IW-°n-se-Sp-°p-tºmƒ Cu taJ-e-bpsS kwc-£-W -{]-h¿Ø-\-ßfn¬ A¿Y-h-Ømb P\-]-¶m-fnØw A\p-t]-£-Wo-b-am-Wv. \ne-hn-ep≈ kml-Ncy-Øn¬ ]c-am-h[n hr-£ß - ƒ h®p-]n-Sn-∏n-°p-Ibpw kwc-£n-°p-Ibpw h\y-Po-hn-If - psS k©mcw kpK- a - a m- ° p- I bpw sNøp- ∂ - X p- t ]m- s e- b p≈ ssPh Bhm- k - h y- h - ÿ mtkh\- ß ƒ°pw P\߃°pw kaq-l-Øn\pw πmt‚-j≥ Iº-\n-Iƒt]m-se-bp≈ tIm¿]-td-‰p-Iƒ°pw t{]m’ml-\hpw {]Xn-^-ehpw \¬tI-≠-Xp-s≠∂v R߃ Icp-Xp-∂p. Hcp {]tZ-isØ Pe-Øns‚ \ne-hmcw \nb-{¥n-°p-Ibpw ssPh-ssh-hn-[ysØ kwc-£n°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂-Xn¬ h\-߃°p≈ ]¶n\p ]pdsa hr£-ß-fpsS FÆw ]c-am-h[n h¿≤n∏n-°p-∂-Xnse A\p-Iqe ]cn-ÿn-Xn-bpsS ]¶v NphsS tN¿°p∂p (a)

P\-߃°v ssPh-]n-fi-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´ Dev]-∂-߃°v ]Icw hn`hw e`y-am-°n-bs√-¶n¬ Ah¿ kz¥w Bh-iy-߃°mbn kwc-£nX {]tZ-i-ß-tfbpw IqSp-X¬ B{ibn°pw.

(b)

B taJ-e-bnse samØ-Øn-ep≈ ssPh Bhmk hyh-ÿ-bpsS X\Xp `mhsØ t{]m’mln-∏n-°pI.

(c)

]›n-a-L-´-Øn-ep-S-\ofw Bhmk hyh-ÿ-Iƒ XΩn-ep≈ _‘sØ sa®-s∏-SpØn kky߃°pw P¥p-°ƒ°pw `mhn-bnse Imem-hÿ hyXn-bm-\-hp-ambn Cgp-In-t®-cm\pw IpSntb-‰-Øn-\p-ap≈ Ah-k-c-sam-cp-°Ww

(d)

Im¿_¨ ssPh-]n-fi-Øn-te-°m-I¿jn®v cmPysØ ^mIvSdnI-fn¬ \n∂v ]pdw-X-≈p∂ {Ko≥lukv hmX-I-ß-fpsS Afhv Ipd-bv°pI.

BtKmf Xe-Øn¬Xs∂ {]IrXn kwc-£-W-Øn\v t{]m’m-l-\m-[n-jvTnX kao-]\w ]co£n® \nc-h-[n-am¿§-ß-fp≠v. ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-kw-c-£-W-Øn\v hncp-≤-amb {]h¿Ø-\߃°v XS-bn-Sp∂ Xc-Øntem, Xmsg-]-dbpw {]Imcw t{]m’m-l\w \¬Intbm Bbn-cn-°panXv. 1.

ssPh-ssh-hn≤y hn\n-tbm-K-Øn-eqsS e`n-°p∂ hcp-am\w B ssPh sshhn-≤ysØ kwc-£n®v \ne-\n¿Øp∂ {]mtZ-inI P\-߃°v e`n-°p-hm-\p≈ Ah-Imiw 1990 Ifn¬ Bcw-`n® kwbp‡ h\ amt\-Pvsa‚ v ]co-£W - hpw DØ-cJ - fiv˛lnam-eb - b - nse Ipabq¨ taJ-e-bn¬ 1930 ¬ Bcw-`n-°p-Ibpw XpS¿∂v hn]p-eo-I-cn-°p-Ibpw sNbvX ‘-hm≥’ ]©mbØv kwhn-[m-\hpw CXn\v DZm-l-c-W-ß-fmWv.

2.

kwc-£-W-Øn\v klm-b-I-amb {]h¿Ø-\-߃°v k_vknUn hnim-em-Sn-ÿm-\Øn¬ "ssPh-hn-I-k\w' F∂v Xcw-Xn-cn-®n-´p≈ ]≤Xn CXn-\p-Zm-l-c-W-amWv. CX-\p-k-cn®v h\Øns‚ HmctØm h\-߃°p≈ntem Pohn-°p-∂-h¿°v h\-hp-ambn _‘-sam-∂p-an-√mØ _nkn-\- p-Iƒ XpS-ßm≥ hmbv]-Ifpw sNdnb \nt£-]-Xp-I-Ifpw \¬Ip∂p. h\-Øn¬ \n∂v tiJ-cn-°p∂ hnd-Ins\ B{i-bn-°p-∂Xv Ipd-bv°m-\mbn ]mN-I-hm-X-I-Øn\pw, tkmfm¿ Ip°-dn\pw k_vknUn \¬Ip-sa-∂-XmWv CØcw t{]m’m-l-\-Øn-\p≈ as‰mcp-Zm-l-cWw.

3.

kwc-£-W-Øn\v t\cn´v {]Xn-^ew \¬I¬: kwc-£W {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fnse {]I-S-amb t\´-߃°v `qhp-S-a-Iƒ°pw kaq-l-Øn\pw t\cn´v {]Xn-^ew \¬Ip-∂-Xns\ [\-X-Xzim-kv{X-⁄¿ A\p-Iq-en-°p-∂p≠v. ""ssPh Bhmk tkh-\-߃°p≈ {]Xn-^ew'' F∂ t]cn-e-dn-b-s∏-Sp∂ Cu kao-]\w C¥y-bn-en-Xp-hsc \S-∏nem-°n-bn-´n-s√-¶nepw hnI-kn-Xcm- P y- ß - f mb Ata- c n°, Bkv t {S- e nb F∂n- h n- S - ß - f nepw hnI- k zc cmjv { S- ß - f mb saIvknt°m, tImÃm-dn°, sImfw-_nb XpS-ßnb cmPy-ß-fnepw \S-∏m-°n-h-cp-∂p≠v. kwc-

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

£nX {]tZ-i-߃°p≈ ssPh˛Sqdnkw \b-Øns‚ IcSv tI{μ ]cn-ÿnXn ˛ h\w a{¥me-b-Øns‚ sh_vssk-‰n¬ 2011 Pq¨ 2 \v {]kn-≤o-I-cn-®n-´p≠v. kwc-£nX taJ-e-Iƒ°Sp-Øp≈ kzImcy `qhp-S-a-Iƒ°v h\ kwc-£-W-Øn\v kmº-Øn-I-k-lmbw \¬Ip-∂Xn\v CXn¬ hyh-ÿ-bp≠v. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£-W-Øn\pw t{]m’m-l-\-Øn\pw \ymb-amb {]Xn^ew t\cn´v \¬Ip-∂n-Xns\ kanXn A\p-Iq-en-°p∂p. CXn\v ]cym-]vX-amb Hcp N´-°q-Sn\v cq]w \¬tI-≠-Xp≠v. Nne DZm-l-c-W-߃ NphsS

kwc-£-W-Ø\v {]Xn-^ew t\cn´v: (i)

{]Xn-^ew P\-߃°v : ]›n-a-L´ taJ-e-bnse `qan-bpsS KWy-amb `mKw hy‡n-I-fpsS kzImcy DS-a-ÿ-X-bn-emWv.

At\Iw Bhm-k-tI-{μ-߃, Irjn sNøp-∂ {]tZ-i-߃, a‰v Imcy-߃°v D]-tbm-K-s∏Sp-Øp∂ kzImcy DS-a-ÿ-X-bn-ep≈ `qan F∂n-h-sb√mw CXn¬s]Spw. X{¥-{]-[m\ ÿm\-ßfn-ep≈ CØcw `qan-bn¬ ]c-am-h[n hr£-߃ h®p-]n-Sn-∏n-°p-∂Xv taev]-d™ A\p-Iqe ]cnÿn-Xn-bpsS ]¶v k^-eo-I-cn-°m\pw hcp-am\w Db¿Øm\pw `q DS-a-I-fn¬ kwc-£-W-Øn\v A\p-Iq-e-ambn Hcp ImgvN-∏mSv kzoI-cn-°p-∂-Xn\pw klm-bn-°p∂p. cmPyØv acw h®p-]n-Sn-∏n°¬ ]cn-]m-Sn-bpsS hnP-b-Øn\v G‰hpw {][m\w em`-I-c-sa-∂v P\-߃ Icp-Xp∂ hr£-C-\߃ sXc-s™-Sp-°m-\p≈ kzmX-{¥y-amWv. em`I-c-amb C\-߃ \´p-h-f¿Øn \nb-{¥nX Afhn¬ hnf-sh-Sp∏v A\p-h-Zn-°p-∂-tXm-sSm∏w em`-\-jvS-߃ t\m°msX kztZin C\-߃ \´ph-f¿Øm≥ klmbw \¬Ip-Ibpw thWw. (ii)

kaq-l-߃°v klmbw : `qcn-`mKw `qanbpw {Kma-k-aq-l-ß-fpsS \nb-{¥-W-Øn-ep≈ hS°p-In-g° - ≥ taJ-eb - n¬ \n∂v hyXy-kvXa - mbn ]›n-aL - ´- Ø - n¬ sNdn-sbm-cwiw `qan am{Xta kaql DS-a-ÿ-X-bn-ep≈p. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v \oen-Kn-cn-bnse kaq-l-ta-®n¬]p-d-߃, ]cº-cm-KX tSmU kaq-l-Øns‚ ]´-b-`q-an-Iƒ, DØc I∂S Pn√-bnse s_‰-`q-an-Iƒ, tIcf-Ønse tImhneIw `qan-Iƒ F∂nh. Cu `qan-I-fn¬ ]eXpw a‰m-h-iy-߃°mbn am‰mXn-cp-∂m¬ Ahbv°v Db¿∂ ssPh-ssh-hn-[y-aq-ey-ap-≠mIpw. As√-¶n-enh h\-`q-an-bm°m\pw km[n°pw. h\y-Pohn kwc-£W \nb-a-Øn¬ Ch kaql dnk¿Δm°n am‰m≥ hIp-∏p-s≠-¶nepw kaql Ah-Im-i-ß-fnse hy‡X Ipdhpw t{]m’m-l-\-k-lm-b-Øns‚ A`m-hhpw aqew sshhn-≤y-Øn\v A\p-tbm-Py-ambn Cu `qan-Iƒ kwc-£n-°p-∂-Xn\v _‘s∏´ kaq-l-߃°v [\-k-lmbw \¬Im-hp-∂-XmWv.

(iii)

Iº-\n-Iƒ°v klmbw:ssPh sshhn-≤y-kw-c-£-W-Øn\v tIm¿∏-td‰v taJ-e°v {]Xn^ew \¬I-W-sa∂ \n¿t±iw {]tbm-Kn-I-a-s√∂v BZyw Icp-Xn-sb-¶nepw AXn-\p≈ km[yX ]cn-tim-[n-°-W-sa∂v R߃°v tXm∂p∂p. ]›n-a-L-´-Øns‚ `qcn-`m-Khpw tXbne, Im∏n, Gew, d∫¿ a‰v kpK‘ {Zhy-߃ F∂n-h-bpsS tXm´-ß-fmWv. Cu tXm´ß-fn-se√mwXs∂ Iº-\n-I-fp-sStbm hy‡n-I-fp-sStbm DS-a-ÿ-X-bn-ep≈ ]´-b-`q-an-bmWv. NneXv k¿°m¿ Zo¿L-Ime ]m´-hy-h-ÿ-bn¬ \¬In-bn-´p-≈-hbpw. Cu tXm´-ß-fn¬ an°-hbpw kwc-£n-X-ta-J-e-Iƒ°p-≈ntem, Ah-bpsS AXn¿Øn-bntem D≈-h-bm-I-bm¬ ssPh-ssh-hn≤y kwc-£-W-Øns‚ Imcy-Øn¬ Chbv°v Gsd {]m[m-\y-ap≠v. am{X-hpa√ Ch tZim-S-\-]-£n-I-fp-sSbpw arK-ß-fp-sSbpw k©m-c-]-Y-Øn-ep-amWv. BI-bm¬ kwc£-W-Øn\v Chbv°v t\cn´v {]Xn-^ew \¬Ip-∂Xv Ah-bpsS X{¥-{]-[m\ ÿm\tØbpw ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-kw-c-£-W-Øn\v Ahbv°v e`y-am-°m≥I-gn-bp∂ ÿe-Øns‚ hnkvXo¿Æhpw IW-°n-se-Sp-Øp-thWw.

(a) kzIm-cy-`q-an-bnse tXm´-߃: tXm´-ßsf kwc-£-W-]-≤-Xn-bpsS ]cn-[n-bn¬ sIm≠p-h-cp-I. an° tXm´-ßfpw AhcpsS `qan-bpsS Hcp \n›nX iX-am\w {]Ir-Xn-ZØ h\-߃°mbn \o°n hbv°p-∂p≠v. ssPhssh-hn-≤y-Øns‚ Imcy-Øn¬ am{X-a√. Chbv°v {]m[m\yw h\y-ar-K-߃°p≈ k©m-c-]Yw IqSn-bm-Wnh. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v hm¬]m-d-bnse tXbne tXm´-ß-fnse \Zo-Xo-c-Im-Sp-Ifpw \oe-

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249


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Kn-cn-bnse kn≥Kmc Im∏n-tXm-´-ß-fnse apƒs®-Sn-Im-Sp-Ifpw B\-I-fpsS k©m-c-]-Y-ß-fmWv. BI-bm¬ Chn-S-ß-fn¬ `qan a‰m-h-iy-߃°v D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xv \ntcm-[n-°p∂ \nb-{¥W DØ-c-hp-Ifpw ssPh-B-hmk hyh-ÿm-tk-h-\-߃°v {]Xn-^ew \¬Ip-∂Xpw ssItIm¿Øpt]m-sb-¶n¬ am{Xta kwc-£W e£yw t\Sm≥ Ignbq. hwi-\miw kw`-hn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ knwl-hm-e≥ Ipc-ßp-Isf kwc-£n-°m-\mbn tXm´-߃°p-≈nse \nXy-l-cn-X-h-\-߃ kwc£n-°p∂ Iº-\n-I-fp≠v. kzIm-cy-`q-an-bnse h\-ßfpw ]p¬ta-Sp-Iƒt]m-se-bp≈ {]Ir-Xn-ZØ h\-ßfpw kwc-£n-°p∂ Iº-\n-I-fp≠v. C{]-Imcw kwc-£n-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ Ahbv°v {]Xn-^ew \¬IWw. Cu {]Xn-^ew Ah¿°v t\cn´v ]W-ambn \¬I-W-sa-∂n√. Hcp ]tcm£ AwKo-Im-c-sa∂ \ne-bn¬ Ahbv°v Hcp "k¿´n-^n-t°-j≥' kwhn-[m\w G¿s∏Sp-Øn-bm¬ AXv B Iº-\n-I-fpsS A¥ v Db¿Øp-Ibpw AXp-hgn Ah-bpsS Dev∏∂-߃°v B`y-¥c hn]-Wn-bnepw A¥m-cm-jv{S-hn-]-Wn-bnepw Db¿∂ hne e`n-°p-Ibpw sNøpw. b.

]m´-`q-an-bnse tXm´-߃

]m´-`q-an-bnse tXm´-߃°pw C{]-Imcw {]Xn-^ew \¬I-Wtam F∂Xv X¿°-hn-j-bamWv.]cn-ÿn-Xn-hm-Zn-I-fpsS hmZ-KXn Ct∏m-gsØ ]m´-Im-em-h[n Ah-km-\n-®m-ep-S≥ Cu `qanIƒ XncnsI k¿°m¿ \nb-{¥-W-Øn¬ sIm≠p-h-c-W-sa-∂mWv. kzImcy DS-a-ÿ-X-bn-ep≈ `qan-bn-tebpw ]m´ hyh-ÿ-bn-ep≈ `qan-bn-tebpw tXm´-ß-fpsS hnkvXo¿Æw kw_-‘n® IrXyamb IW-°n-s√-¶nepw c≠m-aXv ]d™ C\w tXm´-߃ ]›n-a-L-´-Øn¬ Xmc-X-tay\ IpdhmWv. CØcw tXm´-ß-fpsS \nb-{¥Ww k¿°m¿ Xncn-s®-Sp-°p-tºmƒ Chn-sS-bp≈ hensbmcp hn`mKw sXmgn-em-fn-I-fpsS Imcyw IqSn ]cn-K-Wn-t°-≠-Xm-bp≠v. Chsc sXmgn¬ clnX-cm-°p∂ {]iv\w kmaq-ly-ambn AwKo-I-cn-°m≥ km[n-°m-ØXpw cmjv{So-b-ambn hfsc {]iv\߃ krjvSn-°p-∂-Xp-amWv.kztZin hr£-ß-fpsS tXm´-ß-fmbn Chsb am‰n-sb-¶n¬ am{Xta Ch-bnse ssPh-ssh-hn≤y kwc-£Ww km≤y-amIq. em`˛\jvSm-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ kzIm-cy-ta-Jebv°p am{Xta Cu e£yw ssIh-cn-°m≥ Ignbq. h\w ]p\-cp-÷o-h-\-Øn-s‚bpw \nb-{¥nX {]IrXn Sqdn-k-Øn-s‚bpw Hcp kwbp‡ X{¥-Øn-eqsS X\Xv tXm´-{]-tZ-i-Øns‚ hnkvXo¿Æw Ipd®v AØcw {]tZ-i-ß-fnse kpÿnc `qhn-\n-tbm-K-Øn-\p≈ kmº-ØnI km[yX e`y-am°m≥ Ignbpw.

{]Xn-^-e-Øn-\p≈ kmº-ØnIkwhn-[m\w C¥y-bnse lcn-X-ta-J-esb kwc-£n-°m\pw Ah-bpsS hnkvXo¿Æw h¿≤n-∏n-°m-\pambn \nc-h[n tZiob \b-ßfpw ]cn-]m-Sn-Ifpw Bhn-jv°-cn®v \S-∏m-°n-bn-´p≠v. h\-h¬°-cW-Øn\pw ]p\¿h-\-h¬°-c-W-Øn\pw h\-kw-c-£-W-Øn\pw kmº-ØnI klmbw e`y-am°m-\p-]-I-cn-°p∂ A¥m-cmjv{S kwhn-[m-\-߃ Ct∏mƒ cq]-s∏´v hcp-∂p≠v. ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse h\-ß-sfbpw ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-sØbpw kwc-£n-°p-Ibpw ]p\-cp-÷o-hn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂ Iº-\n-Iƒ°pw kaq-l-߃°pw hy‡n-Iƒ°pw CØcw ]≤-Xn-I-fn-eqsS {]Xn-^ew \¬Im≥ Ignbpw. (a) {Ko≥ C¥ym-an-j≥ Imem-hÿm hyXn-bm-\sØ kw_-‘n® tZiob I¿Ω-]-≤-XnbpsS Iogn¬ cq]o-I-cn® 8 anj-\p-I-fn¬ H∂mWv lcnX C¥y-bv°m-bp≈ tZiob anj≥. Imem-h-ÿ-m hyXn-bm\ e-Lq-IcWw, `£y-kp-c£, Pe-kp-c£, ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-kw-c-£Ww, h\sØ B{i-bn-°p∂ kaq-lß-fpsS PohnX kpc£ F∂n-h-bn¬ h\-ta-J-e-bv°p≈ kzm[o\w Cu anj≥ AwKo-I-cn-°p∂p≠v. Imem-hÿm hyXn-bm-\sØ AXp-ambn s]mcp-Ø-s∏-Sm\pw AXns\ eLq-I-cn-°m-\pap≈ kwbp‡ \S-]-Sn-I-fn-eqsS t\cn-Sm-sa∂mWv anj≥ e£y-an-Sp-∂Xv. B \S-]Sn NphsS ]dbp∂ Imcy-߃°v klm-bn°pw. kpÿn-c-X-tbmsS ssIImcyw sNøp∂ h\-ß-fnepw a‰v ssPh-B-hmk hyh-ÿ-I-fnepw Im¿_¨ Xmgp-∂Xv (carbon sinks) h¿≤n-∏n-°pI. hwi-\m-i-`o-jWn t\cn-Sp-Ibpw a‰pw sNøp∂ kky-Po-h-Pm-e-ß-tfbpw ssPh Bhmk hyh-ÿ-tbbpw amdp∂ Imem-h-ÿ-bp-ambn s]mcp-Ø-s∏-Sp-ØpI.

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250


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

h\sØ B{i-bn®v Ign-bp∂ kaq-l-ßsf CXp-ambn s]mcp-Ø-s∏-Sp-ØpI. C°m-cy-Øn¬ {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-Øn-\p≈ hy‡-amb ]¶pw `c-W-\-S-]-Sn-Iƒ hntI-{μo-Icn-t°-≠-Xns‚ Bh-iy-I-Xbpw anj≥ hn`m-h\w sNøp∂p. {Kma-X-e-Øn¬ anjs‚ ]cn-]m-Sn-IfpsS ta¬t\m´w {Kma-k-`-Iƒ°v \¬Im-\mWv anj≥ Dt±-in-°p-∂Xv. kwbp-‡-h\w amt\Pvsa‚ v IΩn-‰n-Iƒ, h\w amt\-Pvsa‚ v {Kq∏p-Iƒ, hm≥ ]©m-b-Øp-Iƒ XpSßn {Kma-k-`-Iƒ cq]o-I-cn-®n-´p≈ IΩn-‰n-Ifpw h\-A-h-Imi \nb-a-{]-Imcw cq]o-I-cn-®n-´p≈ IΩn-‰n-Ifpw ssPhssh-hn-≤y-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v IΩn-‰n-I-fnepw {Kma-{]-tZ-i-ß-fn¬ h\-Øns‚ hntI-{μoIrX `c-W-Øn\p≈ {]mY-anI ÿm]-\-ß-sf∂ \ne-bn¬ i‡n-s∏-Sp-ØWw. AXp-t]mse Xs∂ Chbv°v ]n≥_ew \¬Im-\mbn h\w hnI-k\ GP≥kn-Isf i‡n-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xns\ anj≥ ]n¥pWbv°pw. hn]p-e-amb ]cn-]m-Sn-Ifpw Bh-iy-amb kmº-Øn-Ihpw D≈ anj\v ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse h\-ß-fpsS ]p\-cp-÷o-h-\-Øn¬ P\-ß-fp-sSbpw kaq-l-ß-fp-sSbpw ]¶m-fnØw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm≥ Ignbpw. (b)

kwÿm\ h\-h¬°-cW \jvS-]-cn-lm-c-߃°v amt\-Pvsa‚ v˛ Bkq-{XW AtXm-dn´n (CAMPA)

{]Ir-Xn-ZØ h\-ß-fpsS kwc-£-W-Øn\p h\y-Pohn amt\-Pvsa‚n\pw, Cu taJ-e-bnse ASn-ÿm\ LS-I-ß-fpsS hnI-k-\-Øn\pw a‰v A\p-_‘ {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fp-tSbpw thKX h¿≤n∏n-°m-\p≈ Hcp-]-I-c-W-am-WnXv. NphsS ]d-bp∂ Imcy-߃ Cu AtXm-dn´n t{]m’m-ln-∏n°pw. \ne-hn-ep≈ {]Ir-Xn-ZØ h\-ß-fpsS kwc-£Ww, ]cn-c£, ]p\-cp-÷o-h\w, amt\-Pvsa‚ v h\y-Po-hn-I-fp-sSbpw kwc-£nX taJ-e-Iƒ°p-≈nepw ]pd-Øp-ap≈ Ah-bpsS Bhm-ktI-{μ-ß-fp-sSbpw kwc-£Ww, ]cn-c£, amt\-Pvsa‚ v ]I-c-ap≈ h\-h¬°-cWw. ]cn-ÿnXn tkh-\-ß-fpsS t{]m’m-l\w Kth-jWw, ]cn-io-e\w, tijn h¿≤n-∏n-°¬ AtXm-dn-´n-bpsS ]°¬ hcp∂ henb XpI \in® h\-ß-fn¬ ]Icw h\-h¬°-cWw \SØp-∂-Xn\pw kzIm-cy-`q-an-bnse h\-h¬°-cWw hn]q-eo-I-cn-°p-∂-Xn\pw {]mtZ-inI kaq-l߃°v t{]m’m-l-\-k-lm-b-ambn \¬Imw. (c)

tZiob h\-h¬°-c-W ssPh-hn-I-k\ t_m¿Uv (NAEB)

9˛mw ]≤-Xn-bnse ]cn-ÿnXn˛h\w a{¥m-e-b-Øns‚ 4 ]≤-Xn-Iƒ kwtbm-Pn-∏n-®mWv tZiob h\-h¬°-cW ]cn-]mSn (NAP)°v cq]w \¬In-bXv. kwtbm-PnX h\-h¬°-cW˛ssPhhn-Ik - \ t{]mPIvSv kvIow (IAEPS), {]mtZ-im-[n-jvTnX hndIv˛Xo‰-]p¬ t{]mPIvSv kvIow(AOFFPS), Huj-[-k-ky-߃ Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ ac-bn-X-c-h-\-D¬∏-∂-ß-fpsS hnI-k\˛kwc-£W kvIow (NTFP), \in® h\-ß-fpsS ]p\-cp-÷o-hn-Øn-\p≈ ]´n-I-h¿§-°m-cptSbpw \n¿≤\ {Kmao-W-cptSbpw Atkm-kn-tb-j≥ (ASTRP) F∂n-h-bmWv. C{]-Imcw kwtbm-Pn-∏n-°-s∏´ ]≤-Xn-Iƒ Htc e£y-tØmsS {]h¿Øn-°p∂ kvIoap-I-fpsS _mlpeyw Ipd-bv°m\pw, ^≠v e`y-am-°p-∂Xnepw kvIow \S-∏m-°p-∂-Xnepw GIo-IrX kz`mhw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm\pw, Xmsg X´n¬ ^≠v FØp-∂-Xnse Ime-Xm-akw Hgn-hm-°m\pw, ]≤Xn cq]o-I-c-W-Ønepw \S-Øn-∏nepw P\-]-¶mfn-Ø-Øn\v HutZym-KnI cq]w ssIh-cp-Øm\pw th≠n-bmWv C{]-Imcw sNbvXXv. \in® h\߃°pw h\-ta-J-e-I-tfmSv tN¿∂p≈ `qan-Iƒ°pw {]tXyI {i≤-\¬In-sIm≠v cmPysØ ssPh-hn-I-k\ {]h¿Ø-\-߃, ssPh-hy-h-ÿ-bpsS ]p\-cp-÷o-h\w, ac-߃ h®p-]n-Sn-∏n-°¬, h\-h¬°-c-WsØ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°¬ XpS-ßn-b-h-bpsS DØ-c-hm-ZnXzw tZio-b-h-\-h¬°-cW ssPh-hn-I-k\ t_m¿Un-\mWv. t_m¿Uns‚ Hcp {][m\ tPmen \in® h\-`q-an-I-fp-sSbpw Ah-tbmSv tN¿∂v InS-°p∂ `qan-bp-sSbpw kpÿnc amt\-Pvsa‚pw P\-]-¶m-fn-Øhpw t{]m’mln-°p-Ibpw ]©m-bØv cmPv ÿm]-\-߃, k¿°m-cn-Xc kwL-S-\-Iƒ, k∂≤ GP≥kn-Iƒ F∂n-h-bpsS klm-b-tØmsS h\-h¬°-c-Whpw ssPh-hn-I-k-\hpw t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°m≥ P\............................................................................................................................................................................................................

251


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

ap- t ∂- ‰ sØ klm- b n- ° m- \ m- h - i y- a mb s]mXp- h mb t_m[- h ¬°- c Ww \S- Ø pI F∂Xv t_m¿Uns‚ {][m\ Npa-X-e-I-fn-sem-∂mWv. (d)

ip≤-amb hnI-k\ kwhn-[m\w (CDM)

Imem-hÿm hyXn-bm-\sØ kw_-‘n® bp.F≥. s{^bnw h¿°v I¨sh≥js‚ (UNFCCC) Iogn-ep≈ Hcp ^≠nßv kwhn-[m-\-am-WnXv. h\-h¬°-c-Whpw ]p\¿h-\-h¬°-cW {]h¿Ø-\-ßfpw CXn-epƒs∏Spw. CXn-\p-Io-gnse h\-h¬°-c-W-Øn-eqsS e`n-°p∂ Im¿_¨ hcp-am\w {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-߃°pw I¿j-I¿°p-ambn \¬Ip-I-bmWv sNøp-∂Xv. Hcp shSn°v c≠v ]£n F∂ ssien-bn¬ CXv {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-߃°v t\´w e`y-am-°p-∂-Xn\p ]pdsa BtKm-f-X-e-Øn¬ A¥-co-£-Ønse Im¿_¨ ssU HmIvssk-Uns‚ Afhv \nb-{¥n-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. BtKm-fm-Sn-ÿm-\-Ønse ]cn-ÿnXn t\´-߃°v h\-hm-kn-Iƒ°pw {KmaoW kaql-߃°pw {]Xn-^ew \¬Ip-∂-XmWv. Cu kwhn-[m-\-Øn≥ Iogn¬ C¥y-bpsS ]e-`m-KØpw {]mtbm-Kn-I-amb kmt¶-Xn-Ihpw ÿm]-\-]-chpw Bb CS-s]-S-ep-Iƒ Dƒs∏-Sp∂ \nc-h[n h\h¬°-cW ]≤-Xn-Iƒ, h\-h¬°-c-W-Øn\pw ]p\-cp-≤m-c-W-Ønepw ]¶m-fnØ coXn-bn¬ {KmaoW kaq-l-ß-fpsS kmaqly˛kmº-ØnI hnI-k-\-Ønepw A\p-Iq-e-amb henb BLmXw krjvSn-°m≥ Ign™p. GI-hn-f-tXm-´-߃ {]Ir-Xn-Z-Ø-am°n cq]m-¥-c-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xp-t]m-sebp≈ h≥InS ]p\¿h-ev°-cW ]≤-Xn-Iƒ°pw Cu kwhn-[m\w A\p-tbm-Py-amWv. \ne-hn¬ C¥y-bnse 4 h\-h¬°-cW t{]mP-IvSp-Iƒ°v A\p-aXn e`n-®n-´p≠v. Ah Ct∏mƒ \S-∏m-°¬ L´-Øn-emWv. (e)

dnÕvv (REDD)

Imem-hÿ hyXn-bm-\-Øn-\p≈ bp.F≥. s{^bnw-h¿°v I¨sh≥j-\n¬ ]s¶-Sp-Øh¿ ]e {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn-eqsS Imem-h-ÿm-hy-Xn-bm\w eLq-I-cn-°m-sa∂v kΩ-Xn-®n-cp∂p. h\ \ioI-c-W-Øn-eq-sSbpw \ne-hm-c-X-I¿®-bn-eq-sSbpw ]pd-Øp-hn-Sp∂ lm\n-I-c-amb hmX-I-ß-fpsS Afhv Ipd-bv°pI, h\-kw-c-£Ww, Im¿_¨ tÃm°v h¿≤n-∏n-°¬, h\-ß-fpsS kpÿn-c-amt\-Pvsa‚ v F∂nh kwbp-‡-ambn Adn-b-s∏-Sp-∂Xv (dnÕvv - Reduced Emission from Deforestation and forest Degradation) F∂mWv. h\-ß-fpsS \io-I-c-W-Øn\pw lm\n-I-c-amb hmX-I-߃ ]pdØp-hn-Sp-∂-Xn\pw Imc-W-amb h\-Øn-t∑-ep≈ a\p-jys‚ kΩ¿±w Ipd-bv°m≥ ^e-{]-Z-amb am¿§-߃ Is≠-Øm≥ F√m cmPy-ß-tfbpw "Im≥I¨' Icm¿ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p∂p. doUns\ kpÿnc hnI-k-\hpw Zmcn-{Zy-\n¿Ωm¿÷-\-hp-ambn _‘-s∏-SpØn h\-kw-c-£-W-Ønepw amt\Pvsa‚nepw Im¿_¨ tÃm°nepw {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-ßsf Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-thWw h\-\-io-I-cWhpw h\-ß-fpsS \ne-hm-c-X-I¿®bpw ]cn-l-cn-°m≥. BI-bm¬ "dnÕv' {]h¿Ø-\-߃°v C¥y-bn¬ km[y-X-Iƒ Gsd-bmWv. {]mtZ-inI P\-ß-fpsS Ah-Im-i-߃°v A¿l-amb ]cnK-W\ \¬I-Wsa-∂p-am{Xw. CØcw {]h¿Ø-\-߃°v kmº-Øn-I-k-lmbw tXSp∂ bp‡nk-l-am-sbmcp Bcw-`-tI-{μ-amWv ]›n-a-L´w.

Xocp-am-\-߃ h\-kw-c£ - W - Ø - nepw amt\-Pvsa‚nepw {]mtZ-in-Ik - a - q-lß - sf ]s¶-Sp-∏n-t°-≠X - ns‚ Bhiyhpw {]m[m-\yhpw C¥y Xncn-®-dn-™n-´p≠v. Bb-Xn-\m-emWv \nc-h[n \b-߃°v cq]w \¬Ip-Ibpw kwbp-‡-h\w amt\-Pvsa‚ v ]cn-]m-Sn-t]m-se-bp≈ h≥]-≤-Xn-Iƒ \S-∏m-°n-h-cp∂Xpw. h\w kwc-£-W-Øn\pw amt\-Pvsa‚n\pw C¥ybv°v _lp-ap-J-ÿm-]-\-k-ao-]-\-am-Wp≈Xv. kwbp-‡-h\w amt\-Pvsa‚ v, kmaq-ly-h-\-h¬°-cWw, Irjn-ÿ-e-h-\-h¬°-cWw XpSßnb ]c-º-cm-KX {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn-eqsS h\w amt\-Pvsa‚n¬ \ap°v kº-∂-amb ]cn-N-b-aps≠-¶nepw CXn¬ {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-ß-fpsS bYm¿∞ ]¶m-fn-Øhpw im‡o-I-c-Whpw ]cn-anX-amWv. hnim-e-amb Cu ]cn-N-bhpw \ne-hn-ep≈ \b-ßfpw D]-tbm-Kn®v ]pXnb ]cn-]m-SnIƒ°pw kwhn-[m-\-߃°pw Iogn¬ kpÿnc˛]¶m-fnØ h\-h¬°-c-WsØ t{]m’m-ln-∏n°m≥ kmº-Øn-Im-[n-Im-c-ßfpw ÿm]-\-ßfpw ssIam‰w sNøp-∂-Xp¬s∏-sS-bp≈ A\ptbm-Py-amb \b-߃ cq]o-I-cn®v \S-∏m-t°-≠Xv Bh-iy-amWv. CX-\p-k-cn-®p≈ Nne ip]m¿iIƒ NphsS.

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252


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

(1)

lcnX C¥ym-an-j≥ t]mse-bp≈ taev]-d™ tZiob ]cn-]m-Sn-I-fn¬ P\-ß-tfbpw {]mtZinI kaq-l-ß-tfbpw ]¶m-fn-I-fm-°m-\p≈ \n¿t±-i-ap-≠m-b-Xp-sIm≠v am{Xw Imcy-an√. ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ \S-∏n-em-°p-∂-Xn\v Bh-iy-amb A[n-Im-c-ßfpw ^≠pw Xt±i ÿm]-\߃°v ^e-{]-Z-ambn ssIam‰w sNøWw.

(2)

AXp-t]m-se-Xs∂ ip≤-amb hnk-I\ kwhn-[m\w, dnÕvt]m-se-bp≈ A¥m-cmjv{S kwhn[m-\-ß-fpsS ^≠v D]-tbm-K-s∏-SpØn h≥InS ]≤-Xn-I-fn-eqsS ]p\-cp-÷o-h\w \S-ØWw. Im¿_¨ h-c-hn-eq-sS-bp≈ XpI C{]-Imcw {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-߃°v ssIam‰w sNøp-∂Xn-\p≈ {Iao-I-cWw Ct∏mƒXs∂ Cu A¥m-cmjv{S kwhn-[m-\-ß-fn-ep≠v.

(3)

CØcw A¥m-cm-jv{S-kw-hn-[m-\-Øn-eq-sS-bp≈ ^≠v {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-߃°v ssIam‰w sNøp-∂-Xn\v hy‡-amb am¿§-\n¿t±-i-߃ cq]o-I-cn-°Ww. A√msX {]mtZ-inI kaq-lß-fpsS ]¶m-fn-Ø-sØ-]‰n ]d-™-Xp-sIm≠v am{X-am-bn√. {]mtZ-inI kaqlw ap≥ssI FSp-°p-Ibpw Ahbv°v Bh-iy-amb A[n-Im-c-ßfpw kmº-ØnI hn`-hhpw \¬Ip-Ibpw sNbvXm¬ Cu ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ hfsc ^e-{]-Z-ambn \S-∏n-em-°m≥ Ignbpw. ]s£ \mw CXp-hsc CXn\v {ian-®n-´n√.

tZio-bhpw A¥¿tZ-io-b-hp-amb Cu kwhn-[m\w th≠{X kmº-ØnI hn`-h-ß-fpw, A[n-Im-c-hpw \¬In ]›naL´-Øn¬ \S-∏n-em-°n-bm¬ {]mtZ-inI kaq-l-ß-fpsS ^e-{]-Zamb ]¶m-fnØw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm≥ Ign-bpw.

temI-ss]-XrI I¨sh≥j≥ ]›n-a-L´w kam-\-X-I-fn-√mØ Hcp ssPh-ss]-Xr-I-am-sW∂pw AXns\ kwc-£n®v ]cnÿn-Xn-]-c-ambpw kmaq-ly-ambpw, Btcm-Ky-I-c-amb hnI-k\ ]Ÿm-hn-eqsS AXns\ ]cn-c-£n°-W-sa∂pw D≈ Imcy-Øn¬ B¿°pw X¿°-an√. A°m-c-W-Øm-emWv ]›n-a-L-´sØ apgph≥ ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-e-ta-J-e-bmbpw AXn¬ `qcn-`mKw {]tZ-i-ß-sfbpw ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿_-eta-Je H∂nepw c≠nepw Dƒs∏-Sp-sa∂pw Cu kanXn ip]m¿i-sN-øp-∂Xv. Cu taJ-e-I-fpsS AXn¿Øn \n¿Æbw, amt\-Pvsa‚ v kwhn-[m\w, ]≤Xn \S-∏m-°¬ XpS-ßnbh Xmtg°v {Kmak-`-Iƒ hsc-bp≈ {]mtZ-inI LS-I-ßsf ]s¶-Sp-∏n-®p-sIm-≠m-bn-cn-°-W-sa∂pw Cu kanXn \n¿t±-in-°p∂p. hni-Z-amb Cu \n¿t±-i-߃ Ct∏mƒ tI{μ-k¿°m¿ ka¿∏n-®n-´p≈ \n¿t±-iß-tf-°mƒ "bps\kvtIm"bpsS ss]Xr-I] - c - n-]m-Sn-bpsS e£y-߃ IqSp-X¬ ^e-{]-Za - mbn ssIhcn-°m≥ {]m]vXa - m-sW∂v kanXn hniz-kn-°p∂p. bp.F≥. s]¿a-\‚ v t^md-Øns‚ \yqtbm¿°n¬ \S∂ 10˛maXv skj-\n¬ 2011 sabv17\v C¥y ka¿∏n® {]mtZ-inI {]iv\-߃ kw_-‘n® \n¿t±-i-߃s°-Xnsc Db¿∂ FXn¿∏p-Iƒ XcWw sNøm≥ kan-Xn-bpsS Cu \n¿t±-i-߃°v Ignbpw (A\p-_‘w 3)

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253


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

A\p-_‘߃ A\p-_‘w 1 : tIc-f kwÿm\ ssPh-Irjn \bhpw I¿Ω-]-≤-Xnbpw, 2010 tIc-f-Ønse Irjn kpÿn-chpw BZm-b-I-chpw a’-c-ßsf AXn-Po-hn-°m≥ {]m]vXhpw B°p-Ibpw Hmtcm ]uc\pw hnjw Ie-cmØ Pehpw aÆpw `£y-h-kvXp-°fpw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp-IbmWv {][m-\-e£yw.

]›m-Øew C¥y-bpsS kº-∂-amb Im¿jnI Ncn{Xw _n.kn. 6˛mw \q‰m-≠n¬ kn‘p-\-Zo-X-S-Øn¬ XpS-ßp∂p. h¿jw-tXmdpw D≠m-°p∂ sh≈-s∏m-°-sØbpw XpS¿∂v ASn-bp∂ G°-en-s\bpw B{i-bn-®m-bn-cp∂p A∂v Irjn. kpÿn-c-amb Irjn coXn-I-fn¬ A[n-jvTn-X-amWv kn‘p-\-ZoX-S-kw-kvImcw. XpS¿∂v \ΩpsS kwkvIm-chpw Nn¥-bp-sa√mw Im¿jnI {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fpsS {]Xn-^-e-\-ambn. Cu ASpØ Imew hsc Ah ]c-kv]-c-_-‘n-X-am-bn-cp∂p. apJy-hn-f-I-fpsS hnf-sh-Sp∏v CØcw cmPyw apgp-h≥ BtLm-jn-°p∂p. tIc-f-Øn¬ Irjn-`q-ansb amXr-ssZhw AYhm Hcp kv{Xo BbmWv hn`m-h\ sNbvXn-´p≈Xv. {]k-h-tijw kv{Xo°v hn{iaw Bh-iy-ap-≈-Xp-t]mse hnf-sh-Sp-∏n-\p-tijw Irjn `qan°v 3 amkw hn{iaw \¬Ip∂p. Cu kabw Dgp-Xp-∂Xpw a‰pw I¿i-\-ambn \ntcm-[n-®n-cn-°p∂p. CsXms° A‘-hn-izm-k-ambn tXm∂m-sa-¶nepw Cu BNm-c-߃°v ]n∂n-ep≈ ]cn-ÿnXn kw_-‘a - mb {]iv\w ag-°m-eØv Dgp-Xm¬ AXv asÆm-en-∏n\v Imc-Wa - m-Ip-sa-∂X - n-\m¬ CsXmcp kpÿn-ca - mb G¿∏m-S√. BI-bm¬ Ncn-{Xm-Xo-XI - mew apX¬Xs∂ kpÿn-cX - b - m-bn-cp∂ \ΩpsS Irjn k{º-Zm-b-Øns‚ apJ-ap{Z. ]cn-ÿnXn kwhn-[m-\-Øn\p Imem-h-ÿm- \n-ehm-c-Øn\pw A\p-cq-]-am-bn-cp∂p ]c-º-cm-KX hnf-hp-Iƒ D]-tbm-Kn-®p≈ \ΩpsS Irjn k{º-Zmbw. Xoc-tZi Pn√-I-fn¬ hfsc hym]-I-am-bn-cp∂ "s]m°mfn' Irjnbpw IÆq¿ Pn√-bnse ssI∏mSv Irjn-co-Xnbpw {]Ir-Xn-bnse am‰-߃ Irjn°v A\p-Iq-e-am°n am‰m-\p≈ a\p-jys‚ Ign-hn\v sXfn-hmWv. {]Ir-Xn-Z-Øhpw ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-c-hp-amb {]{In-b-Isf sX√pw _m[n-°mØXpw ]pdsa \n∂v as‰m∂pw Bh-iy-an-√m-Ø-Xp-amWv kwtbm-PnX Irjn. B[p-\nI Irjn F∂v \mw hnfn-°p∂ C∂sØ Irjn kwhn-[m-\-Øn\v \q‰m-≠p-I-fmbn \mw ]n≥Xp-S¿∂p-h-cp∂ ssPh Bhm-k-hy-hÿm XXz-ß-tfmSv H´pw {]Xn-]-Øn-bn√. CXv ]cnÿn-Xn-]-c-ambpw ssPh-B-hm-k-hy-ÿm-]-c-ambpw cmPysØ hn\m-i-Øn-te°v \bn-°p∂p. lcnX-hn-πhw \ΩpsS ]c-º-cm-KX C\-߃°p ]Icw Dev]m-Z-\-tijn IqSnb C\-߃ cwK-Ønd°n. ]s£, Chbv°v e£yw ssIh-cn-°-W-sa-¶n¬ S¨ IW-°n\v cmk-hfw {]tbm-Kn-°Ww. \ΩpsS aÆn\v A\y-amb Cu C\-߃ ]pXnb IoS-ß-tfbpw tcmK-ß-tfbpw H∏w Iq´n Chsb \nb-{¥n-°m-\mbn h≥tXm-Xn¬ IoS-\m-in-\n-Iƒ Dev]m-Zn-∏n®p. \ΩpsS ]c-º-cm-KX Irjn-co-Xnbn-te°v Cu hnj-h-kvXp-°ƒ {]tbm-Kn-®Xv \nc-h[n ]cn-ÿnXn {]iv\-߃°v Imc-W-ambn. aÆnse kq£va-Po-hn-Iƒ \in®p. aÆns‚ ^e-]p-jvSnbpw Du¿÷-kz-e-Xbpw \jvS-s∏´p. sh≈-Øns‚ Bhiyw h≥tXm-Xn¬ Db¿∂p. Ime-Øns‚ ]co-£-W-ßsf AXn-Po-hn® \ΩpsS ]c-º-cm-KX Irjn-coXn C√m-Xmbn. I¿j-I\pw Irjn-`q-anbpw XΩn-ep-≠m-bn-cp∂ Bfl-_‘w \jvS-ambn. Irjn kwhn-[m-\-Øn-\p-≠m-bn-cp∂ kpÿn-cX C√m-Xmbn. Irjn sNehv A\n-b{¥n-X-ambn h¿≤n®p. I¿j-I-cpsS hcp-am-\-Øn¬ h¿≤-\-hp-≠m-bn√. cmPy-Øns‚ `£y-kp-c£n-XXzw Hcp sh√p-hn-fn-bmbn. Irjn-`q-an-bnse ssPh-km-∂n≤yw C∂v Hcp `qX-Ime Ncn-{X-ambn amdn. C∂v Irjn-bn-S߃ \ni-_vZ-amWv. AhnsS Xh-f-bpsS i_vZtam Xmdm-hns‚ hnfntbm a‰v Bc-h-ßtfm H∂p............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

an√. ssht°m¬ sIm≠v ac-®n-√-I-fn¬ Xqßn-°n-S∂v IqSp-≠m°n AXn¬ ap´n-bn-Sp∂ Ipcp-hnIsf C∂v an°-bn-S-ß-fnepw ImWm-\n√. hnf-Isf \in-∏n-°p∂ ]pgp-°-tfbpw IoS-ß-tfbpw sImØn-Xn-∂p∂ ]e ]£n-Ifpw C∂v A\yw-\n-∂p-t]m-bn-cn-°p∂p. `mKy-h-im¬ \ΩpsS h\-ta-J-e-bn¬ IoS-\m-in-\n-I-fpsS {]tbmKw Xmc-X-tay\ Ipd-hm-bncp∂p.BIm-i-am¿§w IoS-\m-in\n sXfn-°p-∂Xv C¥y-bn-em-Zy-ambn ]co-£n-®Xv 1965¬ tIc-fØnse tIm∂n t^mdÃv Unhn-j-\nse tX°v tXm´-ß-fn-emWv. AhnsS 48 aWn-°q-dn-\p-≈n¬ \in-∏n-°m≥ e£y-an-SmØ 162 C\w Pohn-Iƒ NsØm-Spßn. am\-kn-I-ambpw imco-cn-I-ambpw hnI-emw-K-cmb Imk¿tIms´ ]m{Zn-Km-a-Ønse Ip´n-Iƒ BIm-i-Øn-eqsS IoS-\m-in-\n-Iƒ Xfn-°p-∂-Xp-aqew a\p-jy-\p-≠m-Ip∂ Zpc-¥-߃°v temIØn\v ap∂nse tNmZy-Nn-”-ambn \ne-\n-∂n-cp∂p. Cu "B[p-\nI' kmt¶-Xn-I-X-bpsS ^e-ambn hmbphpw sh≈hpw aÆpw aen-\-oI-cn-°-s∏´n-cn°p∂p. `£y-[m-\y-ßfpw a‰v Im¿jnI D¬∏-∂-ß-fp-sa√mw hnj-en-]vX-amWv. Irjn-bn-S-ßfn¬ \n∂v IoS-\m-in-\n-Iƒ Ie¿∂ Pew Hgp-In-sbØn. \Zn-Iƒ, Ipf-߃,Pem-i-b-߃ Dƒs∏sS-bp≈ Pe-t{km-X- p-Iƒ aen-\o-I-cn-°-s∏-Sp∂p. Ah-bnse Poh-Po-e-ßfpw \mi-`-j-Wn-bnemWv. a’y-߃°p-≈n¬ h≥tXm-Xn¬ IoS-\m-in-\n-Ifpw teml-ßfpw ImWp∂p. Btcm-Ky-Øn-\p≈ `ojWn Duln-°m≥ Ign-bp-∂-Xn-t\-°m-tf-sd-bmWv. amc-I-amb tcmKß-fpsS B{I-aWw Kpcp-X-c-amWv. \K-c-ß-fn¬ ImWp∂ B[p-\nI kuI-cy-ß-fp≈ Bip-]-{XnIƒ emt`-—-tbmsS {]h¿Øn-°p∂ hyh-km-b-ß-fmWv. Huj-[-\n¿Ωm-W-im-e-Iƒ hf¿∂p ]¥-en-°p∂p. `£y-hn-f-Iƒ Xosc BI¿j-I-a-√m-Xm-hpbpw \mWy-hn-f-Iƒ hfsc em`-I-c-am-hp-Ibpw sNbvXp. s\¬h-b-ep-Iƒ apgp-h≥ Im¿jnI CXc Bh-iy-߃°mbn \nI-Øp∂p. Ign™ 20 h¿j-ambn \mWy-hn-f-tXm-´-߃ {Iam-Xo-X-ambn h¿≤n-°p-Ibpw (d∫¿16 %) `£y-hnf Irjn hfsc Ipd-bp-Ibpw sNbvXp. (samØw Irjn-sN-øp∂ {]tZ-i-Øns‚ shdpw 9% am{Xw) kmºØnI t\´-ap≈ CØcw GI-hnf Irjn asÆm-en-∏n\pw aÆns‚w ^e-`q-bn-jvTX h≥tXm-Xn¬ \jvS-s∏-Sm\pw CS-bm-°p∂p. Ign™ 50 h¿j-ambn tIc-f-Øn¬ XpS¿∂p-h-cp∂ cmk-hkvXp A[n-jvTn-X-Ir-jn-coXn \mfn-tIcw, Iip-amhv, Ipcp-ap-fIv, Im∏n,tXbne, Ge°, AS° XpSßn kmº-ØnI t\´-ap≈ hnf-I-fpsS D¬∏m-Z-\-tijn apc-Sn-∏n-®n-cn-°-bmWv. CXn\p ]pdta tIc-fØnse ]e `mK-ßfpw Kpcp-X-c-amb Pe-£maw A\-`-hn-°p-I-bmWv. kwÿm-\-k¿°m¿ CXv hfsc Kuc-h-ambn FSp-°p-Ibpw 11˛mw ]≤-Xn-bn¬ B hnj-b-Øn\v Db¿∂ ap≥K-W\ \¬IpIbpw sNbvXn-´p≠v. CXn-s\√mw ]pdta kmº-ØnI DZm-c-h¬°-c-Whpw temI hym]mc kwL-S-\-bpsS \bßfpw Pew Im¿jnI Dev]-∂-ß-fpsS hne-bn-Sn-bp-∂Xv I¿j-Is‚ IjvS-]m-Sp-Ifpw `oXnbpw ]Xn-∑-Sßv h¿≤n-∏n-°p∂p. Db¿∂ Irjn sNehv t\cn-Sm-\mbn hmbv]-sb-Sp-°p∂ I¿j-I¿ IS-s°-Wn-bn¬ AI-s∏-Sp∂p. CXmWv ]e-t∏mhpw I¿j-Is\ Bfl-l-Xy-bn-te°v \bn-°p∂Xv. Irjn-bnse \nt£]w C∂v I¿j-I-\n¬ \n∂v amdn I¿j-I\v hnØpw hfhpw a‰pw \¬Ip∂ Iº-\n-I-fn-e-[n-jvTn-X-am-hp-I-bmWv CXns‚ ]cn-Wn-X-^-e-ambn I¿j-Is‚ an® hcpam\w KWy-ambn Ipd-bp-Ibpw Irjnsb ]n¥p-W-bv°p∂ Iº-\n-Iƒ cmPyØv Xg®v hf-cp-Ibpw sNøp∂p. \ΩpsS Nn√d hym]m-c-cwKw tZiob _lp-cm-jv{S-I-º-\n-Iƒ°v Xpd-∂p-sIm-Sp-°m-\p≈ Xocp-am\w \ΩpsS `£y-]-c-am-[n-Im-c-sØbpw kpc-£nX `£-W-Øn-\p≈ Ah-Im-i-sØbpw l\n-°p-∂-XmWv. tZiob _lp-cm-jv{S-I-º-\n-I-fpsS IpØ-I-bmb P\n-X-I-am‰w hcp-Ønb hnØpIƒ Irjn-sN-øm-\p≈ Xocp-am\w I¿j-Is‚ \Sp-shm-Sn-°p-∂-XmWv. lcn-X-hn-π-h-Øns‚ `mK-amb Db¿∂ Dev]m-Z\ tijn-bp≈ C\-߃ ˛ cmk-hfw˛IoS\m-in\n' Iq´p-sI-´n-s\-Xn-sc-bp≈ kacw Hcp \jvS-°-®-h-S-am-sW∂v an° I¿j-I¿°pw Ct∏mg-dnbmw. ssZh-Øns‚ kz¥w \m´nse Zp¿_-e-amb ssPh Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bpsS A[:]X-\amWv Pe-£maw, t]mj-Im-lm-c-£maw, Dev]m-Z-\-£-aXm \jvSw, Im¿jnI kwL¿j-߃ F∂n-h-bv°m-[mcw. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

255


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

ssPh-B-hm-k-hy-h-ÿbv°v tIm´w X´msX ]c-ºcy- kp-ÿnc Irjn-co-Xn-bn-te°v aS-ßnt∏m-hp-I-bmWv C∂sØ {]Xn-k-‘n°v ]cn-lm-c-sa∂v tIc-f-Ønse I¿j-I¿°v t_m[y-s∏-´pI-gn™p. ' Pohn-°pI, Pohn-°m≥ A\p-h-Zn-°pI' F∂ hnime XXz-Øn-e-[n-jvTn-X-amb ssPhIrjn kwhn-[m\w tZiob A¥¿tZ-iob Xe-Øn¬ AwKo-I-cn-®p-I-gn™p. ssPh-Irjn F∂Xv hnf Dev]m-Z-\-Øn¬ am{Xw HXp-ßn-\n-ev°p-∂n√. arK-kw-c-£Ww, £oc-hn-I-k-\w, tImgn-h-f¿Ø¬, ]∂n-h-f¿Ø¬, h\-h¬°-cWw, tX\o® hf¿Ø¬ XpS-ßnb-hbpw Np‰p-ap≈ Irjn-sN-ømØ ssPh-ssh-hn≤yhpw CXn-epƒs∏Spw. IoS-\m-in-\n-I-fpsS Kpcp-X-c-amb tZmj-h-i-ß-sf-∏‰n D]-t`m-‡m-°ƒ°v \√ Adn-hp-≈-Xn\m¬ ssPh-Ir-jn-bnse `£y-D¬∏-∂-߃°v Bh-iy-°m¿ IqSp-X-emWv. BI-bm¬ ssPhIrjn t{]m’m-ln-∏n®v Hmtcm ]uc\pw Xmßm-hp∂ hnebv°v hnj-c-lnX `£Ww Dd-∏p-h-cpØm-\p≈ DØ-c-hm-ZnØw k¿°m-cn-\p-≈-XmWv. Dev]mZw Ipd-bp-Ibpw cmPyw Hcn-°¬ IqSn `£y-{]-Xn-k-‘n-bn-te°v Iq∏p-Ip-Øp-Ibpw sNøp-sa∂ A`yq-l-ß-fm¬ ssPh-Ir-jn-bpsS {]mtbm-Kn-I-Xsb ]‰n kwi-b-߃ \nc-h-[n-bmbn-cp∂p. Cu kwi-b-߃ ASn-ÿm-\-c-ln-X-am-bn-cp∂p. ssPh-Ir-jn-bpsS Db¿∂ Dev]m-Z-\-£-a-Xsb kw_-‘n® hnP-b-Km-Y-Iƒ C∂v \nc-h-[nbmWv. ssPh-Ir-jnbpw `£y-kp-c£ 2007 kw_-‘n® A¥m-cmjv{S ktΩ-f\ - Ø - n¬ `£y˛Irjn kwL-S\ C{]-Imcw dnt∏m¿´p-sNbvXp. "h\-`qan Irjn-°mbn am‰m-sXbpw cmk-h-f-߃ D]tbm-Kn-°m-sXbpw BtKm-f-Irjn amt\-Pvsa‚n-te°v am‰n-bm¬ BtKmf Im¿jnI Dev]m-Z\w Hcmƒ°v Hcp Znhkw 2640 apX¬ 4380 Intem-I-temdn hsc-bmIpw. hnI-kzc cmPy-ß-fn¬ ssPhIrjn coXn-I-fpsS kpÿnc {]h¿Ø-\-߃ Dev]m-Z\w 56 iX-am\w hsc h¿≤n-∏n-°p∂p. ssPh-Ir-jn-bnse Dev]m-Z\w icm-icn ]c-º-cm-KX Irjn Dev]m-Z-\-tØmSv Xmc-Xayw sNøm-hp∂-XmWv. Db¿∂ cmk-h-fhpw a‰pw \¬Ip∂ coXn-bn¬ \n∂v ssPh-Ir-jn-bn-te°v amdp-tºmƒ XpS-°-Øn¬ Dev]m-Z\w Ipd-bp-Ibpw AtX kabw Ipd™ tXmXn¬ hfhpw a‰pw \¬Ip∂ coXn-bn¬ \n∂v ssPh-Ir-jn-bn-te°v amdp-tºmƒ D¬]m-Z\w Cc´n BIp-Ibpw sNøpw. ]c-º-cmK-X-Ir-jn-bn-S-ß-fn-te-Xn-t\-°mƒ slIvS-dn¬ 33 apX¬ 56 hsc iX-am\w Du¿÷w Ipdt® ssPh-Ir-jn-bn-S-߃ D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂p≈q. BtKm-f-X-e-Øn-en-t∏mƒ 22.81 Zi-e£w slIvS-dn¬ IqSp-X¬ {]tZ-iØv ssPh-Irjn sNøp-∂p≠v. CXnse D¬∏-∂-ß-fpsS hn]Wn hne 3 e£w tImSn (30 _ney¨ tUmf¿) tUmf-dn-\-Sp-Øp-hcpw. shdpw 42.402 NXp-c{i ssa¬ am{Xw hnkvXo¿Æhpw 11.3 Zi-e£w P\-ßfp-ap≈ Iyq_ ]q¿Æ-ambpw ssPh-Irjn sNøp∂ cmPy-am-sW∂ Imcyw {]tXyIw {]kvXm-hyam-Wv.

ssPh-Ir-jn-bpsS Ncn{Xw c≠mw temI-a-lm-bp≤w apX¬ Irjn°v IoS-\m-in-\n-Iƒ D]-tbm-Kn-®p-h-cp∂p. XpS°w apX¬Xs∂ cmk-Io-S-\m-in-\n-I-fpsS hmWn-Py-h¬°-c-W-sØ-]‰n Bi-¶ƒ D≠m-bn-cp∂p. 1964¬ {]kn-≤o-I-cn® td®¬ Im¿ks‚ ' sske‚ v kv{]nßv' F∂ ]pkvXIw ]cn-ÿn-Xn-bn-te-°p≈ IoS-\m-in-\n-I-fpsS BLm-XsØ ]‰n imkv{Xob hni-Zo-I-cWw \¬In-bn-cp∂p. hnI-kn-X-cm-Py߃ 1970 Ifnepw hnI-kz-c-cm-Py-߃ AXn-\p-ti-jhpw Un.Un.‰nbpsS {]tbmKw \ntcm-[n-s®¶nepw hnhn-[-bn\w hnj-ap≈ IoS-\m-in-\n-Iƒ XpS¿∂pw Irjn-bn-S-ß-fn¬ D]-tbm-Kn-®n-cp∂p. td®¬ Im¿ks‚ imkv{Xob {]h-N-\-߃ kXy-ambn `hn-°p-Ibpw temI-sa-ºm-Sp-ap≈ P\ßfpw I¿j-I\pw imkv{X-⁄cpw IoS-\m-in-\n-I-fpsS A]-ISw Xncn-®-dn-bp-Ibpw sNbvXp. cmkh-kvXp-c-lnX Irjn-bpsS XpS°w Ahn-sS-\n-∂mWv. Kth-j-W-ßfpw ]c-º-cm-KX Irjn-co-Xn-IfpsS ]co-£-W-ßfpw aÆv˛hnf amt\-Pvsa‚ns‚ ]pXnb amXr-I-Ifpw {]Xy-£-s∏-Sm≥ XpS-ßnb-X-ß-s\-bmWv. Ign™ \me©v Zi-I-ß-fmbn Hcp kpÿnc Irjn-coXn Is≠-Øm-\p≈ {ia-Øn-emWv imkv{X-⁄¿. 1905 apX¬ 1924 hsc C¥y-bn¬ Irjn D]-tZ-jvSm-hm-bn-cp∂p k¿ B¬_¿´v slmhm¿UmWv Cu cwKØv ap∂n-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂-h-cn¬ Hcmƒ.A±lw cNn® '' B≥ -A-{Kn-Iƒ®-

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

d¬ sSkv‰-sa‚ v' F∂ ]pkvXIw C¥y-bnse ssPh-Ir-jnsb kw_-‘n-°p∂ BZy B[n-ImcnI {KŸ-ambn IW-°m-°-s∏-Sp∂p. Irjn-bn-S-ß-fn¬Xs∂ ssPh-hf \n¿Ωm-W-Øn\v BZyambn cq]w \¬In-bXpw At±-l-amWv. _n¬ sam≈n-k¨, slmƒsa≥ F∂n-h-cpsS 1970 Ifnse ÿmbn-bmb Im¿jnI ]co-£-W-߃ temI-sa-ºm-Sp-ap≈ I¿j-I¿°v {]Xo-£-tbIn. CXns‚ Ae-Iƒ tIc-f-Øn-ep-ap-≠mbn. \nc-h[n I¿j-I¿ Chn-sSbpw Cu Irjn-co-Xn ]co-£n®p tIcf-Ønse `qan-im-kv{X-]-c-amb {]tXy-I-X-Ifpw Db¿∂ ag e`y-Xbpw aÆpw Pehpw kwc-£n°m\pw Irjn-bn-S-ß-fnse Dev]m-Z-\-tijn sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm\pw Ign-bp-∂-Xn-\m¬ tIc-f-Øn\v G‰hpw A\p-tbm-Py-amb Irjn-co-Xn-bm-Wn-sX∂v I¿j-I¿°v t_m[y-s∏´p. Ata-cn-°≥ Irjnh-Ip-∏n¬ 1983 ¬ ka¿∏n® dnt∏m¿´n¬ Irjn imkv{X-⁄-cmb tdm_¿´v ]m]≥UnIv, Pbnwkv]m¿ F∂n-h¿ cmk-Io-S-\m-i-n-\n-Ifpw hf-ßfpw D]-tbm-Kn-®p≈ Irjn-co-Xn°v ]Icw kpÿnc-amb Irjnsb kw_-‘n-°p∂ Kth-j-W-Øn-te°v {i≤-tI-{μo-I-cn-t°-≠-Xns‚ {]m[m-\ysØ-]‰n {]Xn-]m-Zn-°p-∂p≠v. 1984 se t`m∏m¬ Zpc¥w C¥y-bn-sebpw hntZ-i-sØbpw P\-ß-fpsS IÆp Xpd-∏n®p. ]Icw kwhn-[m\w Is≠-Øm-\p≈ Kuc-h-X-c-amb N¿®bv°v CXv Bcw`w Ipdn®p. I¿j-I\mbn amdnb P∏m-\okv imkv{X-⁄≥ akm-t\m_p ^pt°m° 1984 ¬ {]kn-≤o-I-cn® ""H‰ ssht°m¬ hnπhw' F∂ ]pkvXIw Ign™ Ac \q‰m-≠p-Im-esØ At±-l-Øns‚ {]Ir-XnZØ Irjn-co-Xn-bpsS hnPbw hnh-cn-°p∂p. 1985 ¬ ]pd-Øn-d-ßnb CXns‚ ae-bmfw ]cn-`mj tIc-f-Ønepw CXp-kw-_-‘n® N¿®-Iƒ°v B°w Iq´n. ssPh-Du¿÷ Irjn At\Iw I¿jIsc BI¿jn® ssPh-Ir-jn-bpsS as‰mcp cq]-amWv. B{‘, I¿Æm-SI, Xan-gv\mSv, KpP-dmØv, alm-cmjv{S, ]©m_v, tIcfw XpS-ßnb kwÿm\-ß-fnepw C°m-e-b-f-hn¬ I¿j-Icpw I¿jI kwL-S-\-Ifpw XΩn-ep≈ N¿®-I-fn¬ IrjnbpsS kpÿn-cX Bi-¶-bp-b¿Øn. hnØpw hfhpw Dƒ∏-sS-bp≈ Irjn-B-h-iy-߃°v I¿jI¿ ]q¿Æ-ambpw ]pd-Øp-≈-hsc B{i-bn-°p-∂Xv I¿j-I-k-aq-l-Øns\ \ncm-i-bn-te°pw Hcp Im¿jnI {]Xn-k-‘n-bn-te°pw sIms≠-Øn®p. Irjn kpÿn-c-am-°m-\p≈ Hcp ]Icw kwhn[m-\-sa∂ \ne-bn¬ ]pd-sa-\n-∂p≈ LSI-߃ Ipd-®p-sIm-≠p≈ kpÿnc IrjncoXn°v ]e ÿe-ß-fnepw {]tXy-In®pw sNdp-InS \ma-am{X I¿j-I-cp-sS-bn-S-bn¬ \√ {]Nmcw e`n®p. 1990 Ifnse Im¿jnI {]Xn-k‘n Cu \o°sØ i‡n-s∏-SpØn. \nc-h[n hy‡n-Ifpw kwL-S-\Ifpw I¿j-I-cp-ambn Bi-b-hn-\n-abw \SØn. B[p-\nI Irjn-co-Xn-bpsS {]iv\-߃ Ahsc t_m[y-s∏-SpØn. Aßs\ efn-X-amb Bcw-`-Øn¬ \n∂v ssPh-Irjn ]IzX {]m]n®v kv{Xoim-‡o-I-cWw, hnØv kwc-£Ww, hnØv _m¶p-I-fpsS hnI-k\w, aqey-h¿≤\ `£y˛t]mj-Im-lmc kpc-£nXXzw F∂o taJ-e-I-fn-te°v ]S¿∂v ]¥-en®p. Cu am‰-Øn\v shdpw 10,12 h¿jta th≠n-h∂p≈q. ^ew hfsc t{]m’m-l-\-P-\-I-am-bn-cp∂p. Ct∏mƒ kwÿm-\Øv kpK-‘-hy-RvP-\-߃, tXbne, Im∏n XpS-ßnb \mWy-hn-f-Iƒ hntZ-i-hn-]-Wn-Iƒ e£y-an´ Irjn-sN-øp∂ k¿´n-ss^Uv ssPh-I¿j-Icpw `£y-hn-f-Iƒ°pw ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-Øn\pw Du∂¬ \¬Ip∂ t\m¨k¿´n-ss^Uv ssPh-I¿j-Icpw [mcm-f-ap≠v. Ah-sc-√m-hcpw Xs∂ aÆns‚ BtcmKyw sa®-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xn\v {]m[m\yw \¬Ip-∂-h-cmWv. I¿j-I-cpsS Bh-iy-߃ \nd-th-‰m-\mbn tIc-f-Øn¬ Hcp A{I-Un-‰Uv Hm¿Km-\nIv k¿´n-^bnwßv GP≥kn-bp≠v. ""s]m°mfn', ssI∏mSv XpS-ßnb Irjn coXn-Ifpw hb-\m-´nse "Poc-I-ime', "K‘-I-ime' XpS-ßnb s\√n-\-ßfpw kwÿm-\-Øp-S-\o-f-ap≈ Ic-Ir-jn-bp-sa√mw ssPh-Ir-jn-bmWv. kwÿm\sØ Ic-Ir-jn-bpsS Dev]m-Z-\-£-a-Xbpw kmº-Øn-I-t\-´-hp-sams° ]T-\-߃ hy‡-am-°nbn-´p≠v. CubnsS Xriq¿ Pn√-bnse ASm´v ]©m-bØv Iq´p-Ir-jn-kw-hn-[m-\-Øn-eqsS 2500 G°-dn¬ s\¬Irjn \SØn. ASm´v amXrI F∂mWv CXn-t∏mƒ Adn-b-s∏-Sp-∂Xv. AXpt]mse Xs∂ hb-\mSv Pn√-bnse ac-∏≥aq-e-bn¬ \qdp-I-W-°n\v I¿j-Isc Dƒs∏-SpØn \SØnb ssPh-Irjn Cu taJ-e-bnse as‰mcp amXr-I-bmbn IW-°m-°-s∏-Sp∂p. ssPh-D-ev]-∂-ß-fpsS hn]-W-\hpw ]e-ÿ-e-ß-fn¬ ]co-£n-°-s∏-Sp-∂p≠v. Xncp-h-\-¥-

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

]p-csØ ssPh _km¿, Xriq-cn-sebpw tImgn-t°m-s´bpw Ct°m˛tjm∏p-Iƒ, Xriq-cnse ssPhIrjn tkh-\-tI{μw F∂nh Ch-bn¬ Nne-XmWv. kv{XoI-fpsS kzbw-k-lm-b-{Kq-∏p-Iƒ Nne ]©m-b-Øp-I-fn¬ ]®-°-dn-I-fpsS ssPh-Irjn Gs‰-SpØv \S-Øp∂p≠v. ssPh-Irjn t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°m\pw hym]n-∏n-°m-\p-ap≈ km≤yX tIc-f-Øn¬ hfsc IqSpX-emWv. ImcWw a‰v kwÿm-\-ß-fp-ambn Xmc-Xayw sNøp-tºmƒ AssP-h-Ir-jn-bpsS BLmXw tIc-f-Øn¬ Kpcp-X-c-a√. cmk-h-f-Øn-s‚bpw IoS-\m-in-\n-I-fp-sSbpw 2002 ˛03 se icm-icn D]t`mKw slIvS-dn\v 90 Intem-{Kmapw 288 {Kmapw BWv. tIc-f-Øn-enXv 60 Intem-{Kmapw 224 {Kmapw BWv. Btcm-Ky-Øn\v lm\n-I-c-amb cmk-h-kvXp-°ƒ D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xnse Cu anXXzw I¿jIsc ssPh-Ir-jn-bn-te°v BI¿jn-°p-∂Xv Ffp-∏-am-°p∂p. Cu bmYm¿∞y-߃ a\- n-em-°n-b-Xns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ kwÿm\ Irjn-h-Ip∏v ssPhIrjn t{]m’m-l\ {]h¿Ø-\-߃°v 2002˛ 2003¬ {]mcw`w Ipdn®p. sXm´-SpØ h¿jw kpÿnc-Ir-jnbpw ssPh-Ir-jnbpw t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°m-\p≈ sk√n\v hIp∏v cq]w \¬In. ssPh-Irjn Dev]-∂-ß-fpsS hn]-W-\-Øn-\mbn "tIcf Hm¿Km-\nIv' "tIc-f- \m-®p-d¬kv' F∂o t]cp-I-fn¬ c≠v {_m‚p-Iƒ Irjn-h-Ip∏v XpSßn. \ne-hn-ep≈ IW-°-\p-k-cn®v kwÿm-\Øv 7000 tØmfw I¿j-I¿ 5750 slIvS-dn¬ ssPh-Irjn \S-Øp-∂p≠v. F∂m¬ bYm¿∞-Øn-ep≈ IW°v CXnepw hfsc IqSp-Xembncn°pw.

ssPh-Ir-jn-bpsS t\´-߃ Irjnsb IqSp-X¬ em`-I-chpw kpÿn-chpw A`n-am-\-I-chpw B°p∂p. [mXp- ° fpw aÆpw \jv S - s ∏- S msX kwcn- £ n- ° p- ∂ - X n- \ m¬ aÆns‚ ^e- ` q- b n- j v S X \ne\n¬°p∂p. ssPh-ssh-hn-[ysØ kº-∂-am°n kwc-£n-°p∂p. Pew Ipd-®p-am{Xw aXn-sb-∂-Xn-\¬ Pe kwc-£-WsØ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p∂p. Im¿jn-I-ssPh Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-tbbpw {]Ir-Xn-ZØ `p{]-Ir-Xn-tbbpw kpÿnc Dev]m-Z\-Øn-\mbn sa®-s∏-SpØn kwc-£n-°p∂p. ]mc-º-tcy-Xc Irjn-hn-`-h-ßsf IqSp-X-embn B{i-bn-°p∂p. ]mc-º-tcy-Xc Du¿÷-t{km-X- p-I-fpsS D]-tbm-KsØ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p∂p. hf¿Øp-ar-K-ßsf ssPh-Ir-jn-bpsS Hcp Ahn-`m-Py-L-S-I-ambn ImWp-∂-Xn-\m¬ aÆns‚ ^e`q-bn-jvT-Xbpw I¿j-Is‚ hcp-am-\hpw h¿≤n-∏n-°m≥ Ign-bp∂p. amen-\y-ap-‡a - mb hmbp, Pew, aÆv, Blmcw, {]Ir-Xn-ZØ ssPh Bhm-kh - y-hÿ F∂nh Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp∂p. Im¿jnI ssPh-ssh-hn-≤ysØ sa®-s∏-Sp-Øp∂p. Irjn-coXn, kwkvI-cWw, hnØns‚ KpW-ta∑ h¿≤n-∏n-°¬ F∂n-h-bn-se-√m-ap≈ ]mcº-cy hn⁄m-\sØ IrXy-ambn kwc-£n-°p-∂-Xn-\m¬ Ch `mhn-X-e-ap-d-bv°mbn kq£n®p-sh-bv°m≥ Ign-bp∂p. {]mtZ-in-I-ambn e`y-amb hn`-h-߃ D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xn-\m¬ Dev]m-Z\ sNehv Ipd-bp∂p. t]mj-I-k-º-∂hpw kºq¿Æhpw KpW-ta-∑-bp-≈-Xp-amb `£y-h-kvXp-°ƒ Bh-iym-\pk-cWw D¬]m-Zn-∏n-°p-∂-Xn-\m¬ Btcm-Ky-]q¿Æ-amb Hcp kky-kw-kvImcw cq]-s∏-SpØp∂p. Im¿_¨ ]pd-¥-≈¬ Ipd-bp∂p ssPh-Ir-jn-bpsS {]m[m-\yhpw cmk-Ir-jn-bpsS kpÿn-c-Xbn-√m-bvabpw Btcm-Ky-]-c-amb `oj-Wnbpw kwÿm\ k¿°m¿ \∂mbn a\- n-em-°n-bn-´p≠v. Bb-Xn-\m-emWv kwÿm-\............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

Øns‚ ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-X-{¥-Ønepw I¿Ω-]-≤-Xn-bnepw kº-∂-amb ssPh-ssh-hn-≤ysØ kwc-£n-°m\pw Cu Aaqey hn`-hsØ Pohn-°m-\mbn B{i-bn-°m-hp∂ hnhn[ hn`m-K-ßfpsS \ne-\n-ev]n\pw Hcp ssPh-Irjn \bw \ap°v thW-sa∂v \njv°¿jn-°p-∂Xv.

ssPh-Irjn \bhpw I¿Ω-]-≤-Xn-bpsS e£y-ßfpw (1)

Irjn kpÿn-chpw em`-I-chpw A`n-am-\-I-c-hp-am-Ip∂p.

(2) aÆns‚ {]Ir-Xn-ZØ ^e-`q-bn-jvS-Xbpw Dev]m-Z-\-£-a-Xbpw h¿≤n-∏n-°p∂p. (3) aÆv, Pe-kw-c-£Ww Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp∂p. (4) Irjn-bpsS ssPh-kp-c£ - n-XX - zhpw `£y˛t]mj-Im-lmc kpc-£n-XX - zhpw Dd-∏p-hc - p-Øp∂p. (5) ssPh Dev]-∂-߃°v I¿j-I¿ \nb-{¥n-°p∂ Xt±-i-hn-]-Wn-Iƒ Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp∂p. (6) Im¿jn-I-cm-k-h-kvXp-°fpw a‰v lm\n-I-c-amb hkvXp-°fpw D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xv Hgn-hm-°pIbpw cmk-h-kvXp-°ƒ Ie-cmØ sh≈hpw aÆpw, hmbphpw, Blm-chpw Dd-∏p-h-cp-ØpIbpw sNøp∂p. (7) hnØv, Blmcw, ]c-am-[n-Imcw F∂nh Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp∂p. (8) ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-Øn-e-[n-jvTn-X-amb ]cn-ÿnXn Irjnsb t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p∂p. (9) D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ ssPh-L-S-I-ß-fnepw Im¿jn-I-D¬∏-∂-ß-fnepw KpW-\n-e-hmc \nb-{¥Ww Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp∂p. (10) kpc-£n-X-amb Im¿jnI D¬]-∂-ßfn-eqsS a\p-jys‚ Btcm-Ky-c-£sb klm-bn-°p∂p. (11) Irjn-bp-ambn _‘-s∏´ ]mc-º-cy-hn-⁄m-\sØ kwc-£n-°p-Ibpw hym]n-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂p. e£y-ßsf `£y˛Irjn kwL-S-\-, (FAO) C{]-Imcw hnh-cn-°p∂p ""{]IrXn hn`-h-ßfpsS Dev]m-Z\£aX, sshhn≤yw, kwc-£Ww F∂n-hbpw I¿j-I-cpsS hcp-am-\hpw h¿≤n-∏n°pI hgn ssPh-Irjn `£y-e-`yX sa®-s∏-Sp-Øp∂p. hn⁄m\w I¿j-I-cpsS CS-bn¬ ]¶n-Sp∂Xpw as‰m-cp-sa-®-amWv. CXv Zmcn{Zyw eLq-I-cn-°m\pw {Kmao-W¿ sXmgn¬tXSn a‰n-S-ß-fnte°v IpSn-tb-dp-∂Xv XS-bm\pw klm-bn°pw. `£y-e-`yX sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ \b-Øn¬ I¿jI¿°v hnØn\pw {]mtZ-inI C\-߃°pw, ssPh sshhn-≤y-Øn\pw D≈ Ah-Imiw, irwJ-ebn-epS\ofw \ymb-hne kwhn-[m\w, ASn-b-¥nc klm-b-Øn\pw hnfhv hmßm-\p≈ Xmßphne k{º-Zmbw, Xt±i I¿j-I-cpsS Ah-Im-i-߃ i‡n-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p≈ kwhn-[m\w F∂n-hsb√mw D≠m-bn-cn-°Ww.''

X{¥-ßfpw I¿Ω-]-≤-Xnbpw s]mXp-k-ao-]\w tIc-fsØ Hcp ssPh kwÿm-\-am°n am‰m-\p≈ DZy-a-Øns‚ hnP-b-Øn\v Irjn-`q-anbpsS 10 iX-am-\-sa-¶nepw Hmtcm h¿jhpw ssPh-Ir-jn-°mbn am‰n-sh®v 5 apX¬ 10 h¿j-Øn\p-≈n¬ L´w L´-ambn kwÿm-\sØ Hcp ]p\¿ssP-h-kw-ÿm-\-ambn am‰m≥ Ignbpw. ssPhIrjn \bw \S-∏m°n XpSßn aq∂mw h¿jw I¿j-I-cpsS {]Xn-\n-[nIsfbpw imkv{X-⁄tcbpw Dƒ--s∏-SpØn Hcp hnZ-Kv[-kanXn cq]o-I-cn®v I¿j-I-cpsS t£aw, kmº-ØnI \ne, ]cnÿnXn F∂nh hni-Z-ambn hne-bn-cpØn A]m-I-X-I-fp-s≠-¶n¬ ]cn-l-cn-®-tijw am{Xta \bw IqSp-X¬ {]tZ-i-ß-fn-te°v hym]n-∏n-°mhq. ssPh-I¿j-Is‚ \n¿Δ-N\w ssPh-Ir-jn-bpsS NphsS ]d-bp∂ aq∂v A\p-t]-£-Wob LS-I-߃ ]men-°p-∂-h¿ am{Xta ssPh I¿j-Is‚ \n¿Δ-N-\-Øn¬ s]Sp-I-bp≈q.

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1.

`£y-hn-f-Iƒ Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ k¶c Irjn-co-Xn-A-h-ew-_n-°p∂ I¿j-I¿

2.

aÆn-s‚bpw sh≈-Øn-s‚bpw kwc-£Ww Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp∂ I¿j-I¿.

3.

Irjn `qan-bpsS ssPh sshh≤yw kwc-£n-°p∂ I¿j-I¿

X{¥w ˛ 1 ˛ cmPy-Øn\pw I¿j-I¿°pw hnØn-t∑¬ ]c-am-[n-Imcw I¿a-]-≤Xn 1.1

ssPh-Ir-jn°p am{X-ambn hnØv {Kma-߃ ÿm]n-°pI

1.1 (a) ]©m-bØv Xe-Øn¬ hnØp-Iƒ, ssXIƒ, ]c-º-cm-KX arK-{]-P-\\ kuI-cy߃ XpS-ßn-b-h-bpsS Dev]m-Z-\-Øn\v ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ XpS-ßpI. tIcf Im¿jnI k¿Δ-Iem-im-ebpw a‰v Im¿jnI Kth-jW ÿm]-\-ßfpw hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°p∂ Xt±-io-bhpw k¶-c-bn-\-ß-fp-amb \√ \ne-hm-c-ap≈ hnØp-Ifpw a‰pw Bh-iym-\p-k-cWw e`y-am-°m\p≈ kzbw ]cym-]vXX \mw CXn-eqsS ssIh-cn°pw. 1.1 (b) ]c-º-cm-K-Xhpw Hmtcm ÿe-Øn\pw A\p-tbm-Py-hp-am-b-Xpƒs∏sS KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ hnØp-Iƒ Dev]m-Zn-∏nØv kw`-cn®v bYm-k-abw e`y-am-°m≥ I¿j-I-kw-L-ß-fpsS XeØn¬ hnØp-_m-¶p-Ifpw hnØv kl-I-cW kwL-ßfpw Bcw-`n-°p∂p. 1.1 (c) tIcf Im¿jn-I-k¿Δ-I-em-im-ebpw a‰v Im¿jnI Kth-jW ÿm]-\-ß-fp-ambn tN¿∂v ssPh-]-c-ambn KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap≈ hnØp-Iƒ Dev]m-Zn-∏n-°m-\p-X-Ip∂ ]cn-]m-Sn-Isf t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p∂p. 1.1 (d) ]c-º-cm-KX coXn-Iƒ D]-tbm-Kn®v kw`-cW/kwc-£W kuI-cy-߃ hnI-kn-∏n-°pI. 1.2

ssPh-ssh-hn≤y amt\-Pvsa‚ v Iº-\n-Iƒ Xt±i kzbw-`-cW ÿm]-\-X-e-Øn¬ Dev]m-Zn∏n® hnØp-Iƒ, hnX-cWw \S-Øn-bXv XpS-ßnb hnh-c-߃ Xøm-dm°n P\n-X-I-am‰w hcp-Ønb hnØp-I-fp-sSbpw KpW-\n-e-hm-c-an-√mØ hnØp-I-fp-sSbpw D]-tbmKw XS-bWw.

1.3

{Kma- ]-©m-bØv ˛kwÿm-\-X-e-Øn¬ P\n-X-I-am‰w hcp-Ønb hnØp-I-fn¬ \n∂v kzX{¥-ambn F∂v {]Jym-]n-°Ww.

1.4.

hnØp-I-fpsS hne \nb-{¥n-°m-\p≈ kwhn-[m\w G¿s∏-Sp-ØWw.

1.5.

Hmtcm Im¿jnI˛Imem-hÿm taJ-e-bnepw {]mtZ-in-I-ambn A\p-tbm-Py-amb hnØp-IfpsS e`yX Dd-∏p-h-cp-ØWw

X{¥w ˛2 ˛ ssPh-Ir-jn-\bw L´w L´-ambn \S-∏m-°pI I¿a-]-≤Xn 2.1

kwÿm-\Øv ssPh-Ir-jn-bp-sSbpw I¿j-I-cp-sSbpw h\y-ssP-h-ta-J-e-bnse Irjn sNøp∂Xpw sNøm-Ø-Xp-amb ÿe-ß-fp-tS-Xpƒs∏-sS-bp≈ X¬ÿnXn hne-bn-cp-ØWw.

2.2.

[m\y-߃,]gw, ]®-°dn XpS-ßnb hm¿jnI hnf-Iƒ 5 h¿j-Øn-\p-≈nepw a‰v Irjn-Iƒ 10 h¿j-Øn-\p-≈nepw ]q¿Æ-ambn ssPh-]-c-am-°m≥ ]cym-]-Xy-amb Hcp I¿Ω-]-≤Xn Xøm-dm-°pI.

2.3.

ssPh-Irjn L´w L´-ambn \S-∏n-em-°p-∂-Xn\v Bh-iy-amb XpI Xt±i `cW ÿm]-\ß-fpsS Bkq-{XnX {]{In-bb - n¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øp-∂X - n-\p≈ Hcp I¿Ω-]≤ - X - n°v cq]w \¬IpI.

2.4.

{]fb km[y-X-bp≈ Pn√-Iƒ, hcƒ®m _m[nX Pn√-Iƒ, `£y-h-kvXp-°ƒ D¬]m-Zn-∏n°p∂ Pn√-Iƒ, Kncn-h¿§ Pn√-Iƒ XpSßn k¶o¿Æ {]iv\-ß-fp≈ Pn√-Iƒ°v {]tXyI Du∂¬ \¬IWw.

2.5

tIc-f-Ønse Kncn-h¿§ taJ-e-bnse apgp-h≥ Im¿jnI {]h¿Ø-\-ßfpw \n¿_-‘-ambpw ssPh-]-c-am-°Ww.

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X{¥w˛3 ˛ Iq´n-Irjn k{º-Zmbw t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI I¿a-]-≤Xn 3.1

ssPh I¿j-I-cpsS {]tXy-In®v h\nX ssPh I¿j-I-cpsS {Kq∏p-Iƒ, ¢∫p-Iƒ, kzbw klmb {Kq∏p-Iƒ, kl-I-cW kwL-߃ F∂nh cq]o-I-cn®v Irjnbpw Irjn-°m-h-iyamb hnØpƒs∏-sS-bp≈ Im¿jnI kma-{Kn-I-fp-sSbpw Dev]m-Z-\hpw KpW-\n-e-hm-chpw hn]-W-\hpw kpK-a-am-°pI.

3.2.

k¿´n-^n-t°-js‚ ]¶m-fnØ Kymc≠n kwhn-[m-\-Øn¬ \n¿t±-in-®-Xp-t]mse Hmtcm {Kq∏nepw Ipd-™Xv 5 t]cp-≠m-bn-cn°-Ww.

3.3

tIc-f-Ønse ]®-°dn˛]g-h¿§ t{]m’m-l\ Iu¨kn¬, amc-∏≥aqe kl-I-c-W-kwLw, s\√n-\m-bp≈ ASm´v kl-I-c-W-kwLw, Kmek, IÆq¿ sI.hn.sIbpsS \n›nX taJe {Kq∏v kao-]\w, lcnX {io XpS-ßnb A\p-I-c-Wob amXr-I-I-fmWv.

3.4.

ssPh Irjn kwhn-[m\w sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm-\mbn IpSpw-_{io, h\-kw-c-£W kanXn, Xock-anXn, {Kma-l-cnX kanXn F∂n-hsb t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI.

X{¥w 4 ˛ aÆv-˛-Pe kwc-£Ww i‡-am-°pI I¿a-]-≤Xn 4.1

\ne-hn-ep≈ hnip-≤-Im-Sp-Iƒ, Ipf-߃, I≠¬Im-Sp-Iƒ XpS-ßn-bh kwc-£W taJ-eI-fmbn {]Jym-]n®v Ah-bpsS kwc-£Ww Dd-∏p-h-cp-ØpI.

4.2.

\o¿ØS hnI-k\ taJ-e-I-fn¬ ssPh-Irjn kao-]\w Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp-Ibpw Bh-iy-amb kmº-Øn-I-k-lmbw e`y-am°n Ct∏mƒ \S-∂p-h-cp∂ \o¿ØS hnI-k\ ]≤-Xn-I-fn-eqsS aÆv˛Pe kwc-£W {]h¿Ø-\-߃ \S-Øp-Ibpw sNøpI.

4.3.

\o¿ØS hnI-k-\-Øn¬ G¿s∏-´n-´p≈ hyXykvX ÿm]-\-߃ kwtbm-Pn-∏n®v ssPhIrjn Hcp apJy-L-S-I-ambn \S-∏m-°pI.

4.4

kq£va \o¿Ø-S-X-e-Øn¬ `qan-im-kv{X-]-chpw Im¿jnI ]cn-ÿn-Xn-]-c-hp-amb kml-Ncy-߃°v A\p-tbm-Py-amb DNn-X-amb Im¿jn-I-co-Xn-Iƒ Ah-ew-_n-°p-Ibpw A\p-tbmPy-a-√mØ hnf-Ifpw Irjn-co-Xn-Ifpw \ncp-’m-l-s∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw sNøp∂p.

4.5.

tIcf Im¿jnI k¿Δ-Ie - m-im-ebpw a‰v Kth-jW ÿm]-\ß - fpw I¿j-Ic - p-ambn tN¿∂p≈ ]¶m-fnØ Kth-j-W-Øn-eqsS A\p-tbm-Py-amb hnf-Ifpw {]mtZ-in-I-km-l-N-cy-Øn\v tbmPn® kmt¶-XnI hnZybpw hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°Ww.

4.6

`qhp-S-a-Iƒ°pw ]m¿´v˛ssSw I¿j-I¿°pw Bh-iy-amb kmº-ØnI klmbw \¬In AhcpsS `qan ssPh-Ir-jn°v D]-tbm-Kn-°m≥ t{]cn-∏n-°Ww.

4.7.

ip≤-Pe XSm-Iß - ƒ Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ ]c-ºc - m-KX Pe-t{km-X - p-Iƒ ]p\-cp-≤m-cWw sNbvXv kwc-£n-°m\pw ag-sh≈ kw`-cWw Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm\pw Ipg¬In-W-dp-Iƒ°v \nb-{¥Ww G¿s∏-Sp-Øm\pw \ne-hn-ep≈ InW-dp-I-fnepw Ipf-ß-fnepw ag-sh≈w \nd-°m\pw \nb-a\n¿ΩmWw Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ \S-]-Sn-Iƒ kzoI-cn®v `qPe \ne sa®-s∏-Sp-Øm\pw ta¬aÆv kwc-£n-°m\pw \S-]Sn kzoI-cn-°Ww.

4.8.

Ipd-™Xv tªm°p-X-e-Øn-se-¶nepw aÆv, Pew, kq£va-t]m-j-I-߃, kq£va-Po-hn-Iƒ F∂nh ]cn-tim-[n-°m-\p≈ kuI-cy-ta¿s∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw aÆv Btcm-Ky-Im¿Up-Iƒ \¬Ip∂ kwhn-[m\w G¿s∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw sNøWw.

4.9.

]Ø-ep-IƒsIm≠v then-sI´n AXp-hgn aÆv˛Pe-kw-c-£-Whpw ]®n-e-hf e£y-Xbpw Dd-∏p-h-cp-ØWw.

4.10

aÆv˛ Pe kwc-£-W-{]-h¿Ø-\-ßsf kw_-‘n®v Xt±i kzbw-`-cW ÿm]-\-X-e-Øn¬ ]-cn-io-e-I¿°v ]cn-io-e-\-]-cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ kwL-Sn-∏n-°Ww.

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4.11

Irjn-bn¬ πmÃn-°ns‚ D]-tbmKw Hgn-hm-°Ww. \gvk-dn-Iƒ°pw ]qs®-Sn-Iƒ°pw XWen-Sm≥ Ibtdm AXp-t]m-ep≈ {]Ir-Xn-ZØ \mcp-Itfm D]-tbm-Kn-®p≈ kwhn-[m\w D]tbm-Kn-°Ww.

X{¥w 5 ˛ ]cn-ÿn-Xn-˛-A-Xn-Po-h-\-kp-c£ Dd-∏m-°m≥ an{i-hnf kao-]\w I¿a-]-≤Xn 5.1.

\m¬°men hf¿Øepw tImgn-h-f¿Øepw kwtbm-Pn-∏n-®p≈ Irjn-coXn ssPh-Ir-jn-bpsS `mK-am-°Ww. h\nX A[n-jvTnX DS-a-ÿ-Xbpw amt\-Pvsa‚p-amWv C°m-cy-Øn¬ A`nImayw. sXßn≥tXm-´-ß-fn¬ Imen-I-tfbpw tImgn-I-tfbpw hf¿Øp∂ tIc-f-Ønse kwtbm-PnX ]c-º-cm-KX Irjn-co-Xn°v {]m[m\yw \¬IWw.

5.2.

Cu kΩn-{i-Ir-jn-bpsS `mK-ambn tX\o® hf¿Ø¬, a’y-Irjn, Xmdm-hp-h-f¿Ø¬ XpSßn-bh \SØmw.

5.3

{]mtZ-in-I-ambn e`y-am-bn-´p≈ hn`-h-ß-fpsS D]-tbm-K-s∏-Sp-Øn-bp≈ hntI-{μo-IrX Xo‰\n¿ΩmWw t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI, CXn¬ lm\n-I-c-amb LS-I-ßtfm hf¿®-bpsS thKX Iq´m-\p≈ tlm¿tam-Wp-Itfm H∂pw Dƒs∏-S-cp-Xv.

5.4

arK-B-tcm-Ky-kw-c-£-W-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´ ]c-º-cm-K-X-amb Adn-hp-Iƒ tcJ-s∏-SpØn {]N-cn-∏n-°Ww.

5.5

hfhpw Xo‰bpw ]c-kv]cw ssIam-dm-\mbn ssPh-I¿j-Icpw Imen-h-f¿Ø¬ I¿j-Icpw XΩn-ep≈ _‘w hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°Ww.

5.6

ssPh-Ir-jn-bn-eqsS {]mtZ-inI hr£-ß-fp-sSbpw Huj-[-k-ky-ß-fp-sSbpw kΩn-{i-Irjn t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°Ww.

5.7.

I¿j-I¿ hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-ØXpw ^e-kn≤n sXfn-bn-°-s∏-´-Xp-amb Irjn-co-Xn-Iƒ t{]m’mln-∏n-°Ww.

5.8

h\hpw h\-hr-£-ßfpw ]c-am-h-[n-bp≈ `qan°v \nIp-Xn-bn-fhv \¬IWw.

X{¥w 6 ˛ Im¿jn-I-hn-f, CX-c-k-ky-Po-h-ssh-hn[yw kwc-£n®v kº-∂-am-°pI I¿a-]-≤Xn 6.1

Hmtcm ]©m-b-Ønepw Irjn sNøp-∂Xpw A√m-Ø-Xp-amb `qan-bnse Im¿jnI ssPhssh-hn-≤yhpw, ]c-º-cm-KX Irjn-hn-⁄m-\hpw, coXn-Ifpw tcJ-s∏-SpØn kq£n-°Ww.

6.2.

amXrIm Im¿jnI ssPh-ssh-hn≤y kwc-£W ^map-Iƒ ÿm]n-°m≥ [\-k-lmbw \¬In t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°Ww.

6.3

]c-º-cm-KX hnØp-Iƒ kam-l-cn®v ip≤o-I-cn®v h¿≤n-∏n-s®-Sp-°m≥ I¿j-Isc klm-bn°p∂ ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ°v cq]w \¬IpI.

6.4.

kztZin s\√n-\-ß-fmb \hc, Poc-I-ime, K‘-I-ime F∂n-hbpw a‰v ]c-º-cm-KX Xt±i hnfbn\-ßfpw t{]m’mln∏n°Ww.

X{¥w 7 ˛ ssPh tIcfw P\-Iob Imw_-bn≥ Bcw-`n-°pI I¿a-]-≤Xn 7.1

F√m Pn√-I-fnepw ssPh-ta-f-Iƒ kwL-Sn-∏n-°pI.

7.2

cmkm-[n-jvTnX Irjn-bpsS tZmj-h-i-ßfpw ssPh-D-ev]-∂-ß-fpsS KpW-ta-∑bpw hy‡am-°p-∂Xpw ssPh-Ir-jnsb t{]m’mln∏n-°p-∂-Xp-amb t_m[-h¬°-cW ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ kwÿm-\-X-e-Øn¬ Bcw-`n-°pI.

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7.3

ssPh-Ir-jn-bpsS hnP-b-Km-Y-Ifpw KpW-K-W-ßfpw Dƒs°m-≈n-®p-sIm-≠p≈ eLp-te-JIƒ, t]mÃ-dp-Iƒ, hoUntbm ^nen-ap-Iƒ F∂nh Xøm-dm°n F√m hn`mKw Bfp-I-fnepw {]tXy-In®v kv{XoI-fn¬ FØn-°pI.

7.4. `£y-h-kvXp-°-fnse ambw XS-bm-\p≈ 1955 se \nb-ahpw 195 se N´-ßfpw \n¿_-‘-ambn \S-∏m-°p-Ibpw Irjn B^o-k¿am¿, arK-tUm-IvS¿am¿ F∂n-hsc C≥kvs]-IvS¿am-cmbn \nb-an-°p-Ibpw Pn√m-X-e-Øn¬ ]cn-tim-[\ kuI-cy-߃ G¿s∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw sNøpI. 7.6. \K-c-Øn-tebpw {Kma-ß-fn-tebpw hoSp-I-fn¬ ssPh- A-Sp-°-f-tXm-´-ßfpw a‰pw Bcw-`n-°pI. X{¥w ˛ 8 ˛ KpW-ta-∑-bp≈ ssPh-hfw e`yX Dd-∏m-°pI I¿a-]-≤Xn 8.1 hnf-Iƒ amdn amdn Irjn sNøpI. hr£-hn-f-Iƒ Irjn sNøpI, ta¬ aÆn¬ ]S¿∂p ]¥en-°p∂ C\-߃ Irjn sNøpI. ]®n-e-h-f-Irjn F∂n-h-bn-eqsS ssPh Irjn-bn-S-ßfn¬ Xs∂ ssPh ]nfiw e`y-am-°pI. 8.2. Imen-h-fhpw aq{Xhpw e`y-am-°m\pw kwtbm-PnX Irjn-coXn Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øm-\p-ambn ssPh I¿j-I¿ ]ip-°ƒ, Fcpa, Xmdmhv, a’yw, tImgn, BSv F∂n-hsb Ign-hXpw ]c-º-cm-KX C\-ßsf hf¿Øm≥ klm-bn-°pI. 8.3 ssPh-I¿j-I¿°v ]ip-°-sfbpw Fcp-a-I-sfbpw Xt±-iob C\-ßsfbpw e`y-am-°m≥ Ignbpw hn[w \ne-hn-ep≈ \mev°men P\-\-\-b-Øn¬ Bh-iy-amb t`Z-KXn hcp-ØpI 8.4. aÆnc ItºmÃpw, _tbm-Kymkv kvednbpw Dƒs∏sS hnhn[ C\w Itºm-Ãp-Iƒ ^man¬ Xs∂ Dev]m-Zn-∏n-°p-∂-Xns\ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI. 8.5. ag-Irjn {]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ ssPh-]n-fi-Øn-s‚bpw ssPh-h-f-ß-fp-sSbpw Afhv h¿≤n-∏n-°m≥ {]tXyI ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ°v cq]w \¬IpI. 8.6. ItºmÃv \n¿Ωm-W-Øn¬ aÆn-c-I-fp-tSbpw kq£vam-Wp-°-fp-tSbpw {]mtZ-inI C\-ßsf t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI. 8.7. t{kmX-kn¬ Xs∂ th¿Xn-cn-s®-SpØ ssPh amen-\y-ß-fn¬ \n∂v ssPh-hfw Dev]m-Zn-∏n°m≥ Hcp hntI-{μo-IrX kwhn-[m\w cq]-s∏-Sp-ØpI. 8.8 ssPh-h-f-Øns‚ KpW-ta∑ Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp-Ibpw AXn-\mbn Hcp tI{μo-IrX ]cn-tim-[\ et_m-d-´dn ÿm]n-°p-Ibpw sNøpI. 8.9 hf-ambn D]-tbm-Kn-°m-hp∂ ssPh-h-kvXp-°ƒ Irjn-bn-S-Øn-en´v IØn-®pI-fbp-∂Xv Hgn-hm°pI. 8.10 ]mS-ti-J-c-k-an-Xn-I-fp-sSbpw a‰v I¿jI {Kq∏p-I-fp-sSbpw t\Xr-Xz-Øn¬ sXmgn-ep-d∏p ]≤Xn-bpsS kuIcyw D]-tbm-K-s∏-SpØn ]®n-e-Iƒ Dev]m-Zn-∏n°pIbpw tXmSpIƒ, Ipf-߃, Pem-i-b-߃, \Zn-Iƒ F∂n-h-bnse F°¬ tiJ-cn®pw Irjn-bn-S-Ønse ^e-`q-bn-jvTX h¿≤n-∏n-°pI. X{¥w 9 ˛ ssPh-Ir-jn-°p-th≠ C≥]p-´p-Iƒ Dd-∏m-°pI I¿a-]-≤Xn 9.1 hnØv, ssXIƒ, hfw, kky-kw-c-£W kma-{Kn-Iƒ F∂nh Irjn hIp∏v, Im¿jnI k¿ΔI-em-ime F∂n-h-bpsS klm-b-tØmsS Irjn-bn-S-Øn¬ Xs∂ Dev]m-Zn-∏n-°m-\p≈ ]cn]m-Sn-Iƒ \S-∏m-°pI. 9.2. ssPh-Ir-jn°v Bh-iy-ap≈ km[\ kma-{Kn-Iƒ {]mtZ-inI Xe-Øn¬ Dev]-Zn-∏n-°m-\mbn I¿j-I-kw-L-߃,¢∫p-Iƒ, kl-I-cW kwL-߃, kzbw klm-b-{Kq-∏p-Iƒ,bph-P\ kwL-߃ F∂n-hsb t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI. 9.3 N¥-Iƒ, tlmÃ-ep-Iƒ, P\w Xnßn-∏m¿°p∂ {]tZ-i-߃ F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn¬ \n∂p≈ Jc............................................................................................................................................................................................................

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am-en-\y-߃ t{kmX- n¬ Xs∂ Xcw Xncn®v hntI-{μo-Ir-Xm-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ Iwt]mÃv \n¿Ωm-WØ - n\v D]-tbm-Kn-°Ww. ^vfm‰p-If - n¬ ssPh-am-en\y kwkvIc - W πm‚p-Iƒ \n¿_‘n-X-am-°Ww. 9.4

ssPh-Ir-jn°v Bh-iy-amb kma-{Kn-Iƒ \n¿_-‘n-X-am-°p-∂-Xn\pw KpW-ta∑ ]cn-tim[n-°p-∂-Xn\pw Xt±-i-`-cW ÿm]-\-X-e-Øn¬ {]mtZ-inI ]cn-io-e-I¿°v th≠n ]cn-ioe\ ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ kwL-Sn-∏n-°pI..

9.5

]cn-tim-[\m et_m-d-´-dn-Iƒ ÿm]n-°m\pw, \S-]Sn {Ia-ßfpw \ne-hm-chpw Dd-∏p-h-cpØm-\p-ambn Xt±i `c-W-ÿm-]-\-ß-sfbpw {]apJ k∂-≤-kw-L-S-\-I-sfbpw im‡o-I-cn°m≥ Bh-iy-amb \nb-a-\-S-]-Sn-Iƒ°v cq]w \¬IpI.

9.6

Im¿jnI kma-{Kn-Iƒ D¬]m-Zn-∏n-°m≥ {]tXyI kmº-ØnI klmbw e`y-am-°pI.

9.7

hne-Ip-d™ Irjn kma-{Kn-Iƒ I¿j-I¿°v e`y-am-°p-∂-tXm-sSm∏w hyh-km-b-hn-ebv°v hnev°m-\p≈ hn]-Wn-ku-Icyw IqSn k÷-am-°Ww.

9.8

Im¿jnI k¿Δ-I-em-ime ssPh I¿j-I-cp-ambn tN¿∂v ssPh-Irjn ]mt°-Pp-I-ƒ hnIkn-∏n-s®-Sp-°m≥ th≠ \S-]-Sn-Iƒ kzoI-cn-°Ww. GØ-hmg, C©n,ssIX-®°, ]®-°-dnIƒ, Ipcp-ap-fIv, Gew, s\øv XpS-ßn-b-hbv°v CXn¬ ap≥Xq°w \¬IWw.

9.9

tIc-f-Ønse hnhn[ {]tZ-i-ß-fnse aÆnse ssPhmwiw kw_-‘n® Um‰m-t_kv Xømdm-°pI.

9.10

a‰v kwÿm-\-ß-fn¬ \n∂v hcp∂ ]g-ß-fp-sSbpw ]®-°-dn-I-fp-sSbpw KpW-ta∑ Dd-∏p-h-cpØpI.

X{¥w 10 ˛ I¿j-I¿, \n¿h-lW DtZym-K-ÿ¿, GP≥kn-Iƒ, ]©m-b-Øw-K߃ F∂n-h¿°v ]cn-io-e\w I¿a-]-≤Xn 10.1

I¿j-I¿°p th≠n kμ¿i\ ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ kwL-Sn-∏n-°pI.

10.2

I¿j-Isc ssPh-Ir-jn-bn¬ klm-bn-°m-\mbn Xt±-i-`-cW ÿm]-\-Øns‚ ]n¥p-WtbmsS IpSpw-_-{io-bpsS amXr-I-bn¬ Hmtcm ]©m-b-Ønepw sXmgn¬c-ln-X-cmb 10˛20 hsc bphm-°sf (50% kv{XoI-fm-bn-cn-°Ww) I¿j-I-tk-h-I-cmbn ]cn-io-en-∏n-s®-Sp-°Ww.

10.3

Irjn hIp-∏ns‚ \ne-hn-ep≈ "At{Km-¢n-\n-°p-Iƒ' ssPh-Irjn dntkmgvkv sk‚-dp-Ifmbn am‰n Ahn-SpsØ Ãm^n\v ssPh-Ir-jn-bn¬ ]cn-io-e\w \¬IWw.

10.4

Irjn hIp-∏nse Irjn B^o-k¿°v ssPh-Irjn coXn-I-fn¬ t_m[-h¬°-cWw \SØWw.

X{¥w 11 ˛ ssPh-Irjn amXrIm ^map-Iƒ hnI-kn-∏n-°pI I¿a-]-≤Xn 11.1

Hmtcm- Xt±i `c-W-ÿm-]-\-ßfpw amXrIm ssPh Irjn ^map-Iƒ hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°Ww.

11.2

Im¿jn-I-k¿Δ-I-em-im-e-bp-tSbpw a‰v Im¿jnI ÿm]-\-ß-fp-tSbpw Iogn-ep≈ Hmtcm Im¿jnI ]cn-ÿnXn taJ-e-bn-ep≈ Kth-jW tI{μ-ßsf ssPh-am-t\-Pvsa‚ v kwhn-[m\-ßf - mbn cq]m-¥c - s - ∏-Sp-Øn-bm¬ hnZym¿∞n-Iƒ°pw,I¿j-I¿°pw, P\-{]-Xn-\n-[n-Iƒ°pw, ^o¬Uv ÃUn-°p≈ tI{μ-ß-fmbn Ahsb D]-tbm-K-s∏-Sp-Øm-hp-∂-XmWv.

11.3

AØcw Irjn-bn-S-ßsf Sqdnkw ]≤-Xn-I-fpsS `mK-am-°p-Ibpw thWw.

X{¥w 12 ˛ Kncn-h¿K-°m-cpsS Btcm-Ky-kp-c£ e£y-an´v {]tXyI Im¿an-I]-≤Xn

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I¿a-]-≤Xn 12.1

]c-º-cm-KX Irjn-Iƒ \in® Kncn-h¿§-°m¿°v t]mj-I-aq-ey-ap≈ `£y-h-kvXp-°ƒ e`yam-°pI.

12.2

Ah-cpsS ]c-º-cm-KX Irjn coXn-Iƒ ]p\-cp-÷o-hn-∏n-°m\pw ]mc-º-cy-hn-⁄m\w kwc£n-°m\pw {]tXyI ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ Bhn-jv°-cn-°pI.

12.3

sNdp-InS h\ Dev]-߃ kw`-cn-°p-hm\pw Ah ssPh hnev]\ tI{μ-ß-fn-eqsS \ymb-hnebv°v hnev°m\pw D≈ kuI-cy-ta¿s∏-Sp-ØpI.

12.4

Kncn-h¿§ Ip´n-Iƒ°v Znhkw Hcp t\c-sa-¶nepw Ah-cpsS ]c-º-cm-KX `£Ww e£y-am°m-\p≈ \S-]Sn kzoI-cn-°pI.

12.5

Hmtcm Ducp-X-e-Ønepw Ah-cpsS ]c-º-cm-KX hnf-I-fp-sSbpw Huj[ kky-ß-fp-sSbpw hnØp-_m-¶p-Iƒ ÿm]n-°pI.

12.6. Kncn-h¿§-°m-cpsS Irjn ]p\-cp-÷o-hn-∏n-°p-∂-Xn¬ \o¿Ø-S-]-≤-Xn-tbbpw sXmgn-ep-d∏v ]≤-Xn-tbbpw kwtbm-Pn-∏n-°pI.

X{¥w 13 ˛ ssPh-Im¿jnI D¬]m-Z-\-I-º\n I¿a-]-≤Xn 13.1

ssPh-I¿j-I-cp-sSbpw Xt±i kzbw-`-c-W-ÿm-]-\-ß-fp-sSbpw Hmlcn \nt£-]-tØmsS ssPh-I¿jI Dev]m-Z\ Iº-\n-Itfm AXp-t]m-se-bp≈ ÿm]-\-ßtfm ÿm]n-°pI.

X{¥w 14 ˛ kw`-c-W-Øn\pw IS-Øn-\p-ap≈ kuI-cy-߃ I¿a-]-≤Xn 14.1

ssPh Dev]-∂-߃°v {]tXy-I-ambn hntI-{μo-IrX `cW kuI-cy-߃ G¿s∏-Sp-ØpIbpw k¿´n-^n-t°-j≥ {]{In-bbv°v I¿j-Isc klm-bn-°p-Ibpw sNøpI.

14.2

ssPh-D-ev∏-∂-߃ ASp-Øp≈ hn]-Wn-bn-se-Øn-°p-∂-Xn\v {]tXyI KXm-KX kuIcyw G¿s∏-Sp-ØWw.

X{¥w 15 ˛ kwkvI-c-Ww, aqey-h¿[-\-hv, hn\n-tbmKw Ch-bv°p≈ t{]m’m-l\w I¿a-]-≤Xn 15.1

I¿jI {Kq∏p-Ifpw,kzbw klmb kwL-ßfpw Dev]m-ZI Iº-\n-Ifpw aqey-h¿≤-\b - v°mbn Dev]-∂-߃ kwkvI-cn-°p-∂-Xns\ t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI.

15.2. aqey-h¿≤\ {]{Inb ssPh Dev∏-∂-ß-fpsS KpW-ta-∑sb _m[n-°p-∂n-s√∂v Dd-∏p-h-cpØm-\mbn Im¿jnI k¿Δ-I-em-im-e-bp-sSbpw a‰v Kth-jW ÿm]-\-ß-fp-tSbpw klmb-tØmsS ]cn-tim-[\ kwhn-[m-\-߃ G¿s∏-Sp-ØpI. 15.3

tIc-f-Ønse `£y-A-[n-jvTnX hyh-kmbw Ah-cpsS Dev∏-∂-ß-fn¬ IqSp-X¬ ssPh Dev]-∂-߃ D]-tbm-Kn-°m≥ t{]cn-∏n-°pI.

15.4

{]tXyI t{]m’m-l\ ]mt°-tPm-Sp-IqSn ssIImcyw sNøm-hp∂ hntI-{μo-IrX Xe-Øn¬ kwÿm-\Øv `£y-hy-h-km-b-߃ ÿm]n-°pI.

X{¥w 16 ˛ hn]-W-\irw-Je hnI-kn-∏n-°pI I¿a-]-≤Xn 16.1

\ne-hn-ep≈ Dev∏∂ hn]-W\ irwJ-e-bmb an¬a, kssπtIm, tlm¿´n˛t{Im]v, lcnX ]o∏nƒkv am¿°‰v F∂n-h-bn-eqsS ssPh Dev∏-∂-߃°v {]tXyI hn]-W\ kuI-cysam-cp-°pI.

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16.2

I¿j-I-{Kq-∏p-Iƒ°v kvIqfp-Iƒ, tlmÃ-ep-Iƒ, tlm´-ep-Iƒ, Bip-]-{Xn-Iƒ XpS-ßnb D]-t`mK ÿm]-\ß - f - p-ambn t\cn´v Dev∏∂-߃ hnev∏\ \S-Øm-\p≈ kuI-cy-ap≠m°pI. Bbp¿thZ tI{μ-ßfpw kzbw klmb {Kq∏p-Ifpw `£y-D-ev]-∂-߃ \n¿Ωn-°p-Ibpw `£y-A-[n-jvTnX hyh-km-b-߃ ÿm]n-°p-Ibpw sNøpI.

16.3

N´- ß fpw am¿§- \ n¿t±- i - ß fpw ]men®v kv I qfp- I ƒ, tlmÃ- e p- I ƒ, Bip- ] - { XnIƒ,k¿°m¿ÿm-]-\-߃ F∂nh {]mtZ-inI ssPh Dev]-∂-߃ hmßm≥ kuI-cyta¿s∏-Sp-ØpI.

16.4

A\p-tbm-Py-amb \nb-a-\n¿Ωm-W-Øn-eqsS h≥InS kzImcy Nn√d hnev∏\ tIm¿t∏-td-j\p-Isf \ncp-’m-l-s∏-Sp-ØpI.

16.5

\ne-hn-ep≈ ]gw ]®-°dn, [m\y-hym-]m-cn-Isf ssPh -D-ev∏-∂-߃ hn‰-gn-°m≥ t{]m’mln-∏n-°pI.

16.6

k¿°m¿,k¿°m¿ CXc kwL-S-\-I-fpsS klm-b-tØmsS F√m Pn√-I-fnepw ssPh Dev∏∂-߃ °mbn hn]-W-\-im-e-I-ƒ Xpd-°p-I.

16.7

Sqdnkw hyh-kmbw Ah-cpsS tlm´-ep-Iƒ°pw dntkm¿´p-Iƒ°pw th≠ km[-\-߃ ]c-am-h[n {]mtZ-inI ssPh-D-ev]m-Z-I-cn¬ \n∂v hmßm≥ t{]cn-∏n-°pI.

X{¥w 17 ˛ ssPh D¬]∂ k¿´n-^n-t°-j\v efn-X-amb kwhn-[m\w I¿a-]-≤Xn 17.1

ssPh-I¿jI {Kq∏p-Iƒ°v Hcp B¥-cnI \nb-{¥W kwhn-[m\w G¿s∏-Sp-Øp-∂Xv t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°pI.

17.2

{]mtZ-inI hn]-W-\-bn¬ Dev]-∂-߃ kssπ sNøp-∂-Xn\v sNdp-InS˛\ma-am{X I¿jI¿°v k¿´n-^n-t°-js‚ ]¶m-fnØ Kymc≠n kwhn-[m\w G¿s∏-Sp-Øp-I.

17.3

C¥y≥ ]n.Pn.Fkv. Iu¨kn¬ AwKo-I-cn-°p∂ k¿°m¿ CXc kwL-S-\-Isf kwÿm\Øv ]n.Pn.Fkv. kwhn-[m\w \S-∏m-°p-∂-Xn¬ klm-bn-°m≥ Npa-X-e-s∏-Sp-ØpI.

17.4

kwÿm\w Hcp ssPh tIcf k¿´n-^n-t°-j\pw, temtKmbpw hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°p-Ibpw "ssPh-tI-cf' sØ Hcp {_m‚mbn hf¿Øn-sb-Sp-°p-Ibpw thWw. ]e-cm-Py-ßfpw ]e am\-Z-fi-ß-fmWv ]men-°p-∂-sX-∂-Xn-\m¬ Ib-‰p-a-Xn-°p≈ hnfIƒ°v Hcp aq∂mw I£n-bpsS k¿´n-^n-t°-j≥ Bh-iy-amWv.

17.5

KpW-ta∑ ]cn-tim-[-\bv°pw k¿´n-^n-t°-j\pw {]mtZ-inI \ne-hmcw \n›-bn-°pI.

17.6

aq∂v h¿j-ambn ssPh-Irjn sNøp∂ Hmtcm I¿j-I\pw k¿´n-^n-t°-j≥ kuP-\y-ambn sNbvXp \¬IWw.

17.7

ssPh arK-kw-c-£Ww IqSn k¿´n-^n-t°-j-\n¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-ØpI.

X{¥w 18 ˛ ssPh-Ir-jn-°v kmº-ØnI klmbw I¿a-]-≤Xn 18.1

ssPh-I¿j-I¿°v {]tXy-In®v sNdp-InS, \ma-am{X I¿j-I¿°v ]en-i-bn-√mØ hmbv]Iƒ \¬IpI. _m¶v hgn-bp≈ hmbv], tI{μ ˛ kwÿm\ k¿°m-cp-I-fn-eqsS k_vknUn-bp-ambn _‘n-∏n-°pI.

18.2

Dev]m-Z-\-hp-ambn _‘-s∏-Sp-Øn-bp≈ t{]m’m-l\ kwhn-[m\w G¿s∏-Sp-ØWw.

18.3

Hcp dnthmƒhnwßv ^≠v kwhn-[m\w D≠m-IWw.

18.4

ssPh-Ir-jn-bn-te°v amdp∂ L´-Øn¬ klmbw \¬IWw. CXv hm¿jnI hnf-Iƒ°v c≠v h¿j-tØ°pw a‰p-≈-h¿°v 3 h¿j-tØ°pw Bbn-cn-°Ww.

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18.5

sNdp-InS \ma-am{X ssPh-I¿j-I¿°v Hcp kwÿm\ C≥jz-d≥kv kvIow \S-∏m-°Ww.

18.6

ssPh-I¿j-I¿°v Hcp s]≥j≥ ]≤Xn \S-∏m-°Ww.

X{¥w 19 ˛ ssPh-hm-XIw D]-D¬]∂w I¿a-]-≤Xn 19.1

]pd-sa-bp≈ Du¿÷ t{kmX- p-Isf B{i-bn-°p-∂Xv Ipd-bv°m-\mbn _tbm-Kymkv πm‚pIƒ kutcm¿÷w, Im‰n¬ \n∂p≈ Du¿÷w F∂nh D]-tbm-K-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xn\v Bh-iyamb klm-bhpw sshZ-KvZyhpw e`y-am-°Ww.

19.2

Du¿÷hpw sNehpw Ipd-bv°m-\mbn A\p-tbm-Py-amb sNdp-InS ^mw sajy-\-dn-Iƒ hnIkn-∏n-s®-Sp-°Ww.

X{¥w 20 ˛ hnZym-e-b-ß-fn¬ ssPh-Irjn I¿a-]-≤Xn 20˛1 hnZym-`ymk ÿm]-\-߃, Pbn-ep-Iƒ, Pph-ss\¬ tlmap-Iƒ F∂n-hn-S-ß-fn¬ ssPhIrjn G¿s∏-Sp-ØWw. hnZym¿∞n ssPh `£y-h-kvXp-°ƒ D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂p F∂v Dd-∏ph-cp-Øm≥ {]tXyI {]Nm-cW ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ kwL-Sn-∏n-°Ww. 20.2

ssPh Irjn-bnepw ssPh-ssh-hn≤y kwc-£-W-Ønepw Ip´n-Iƒ°v Xmev]-cyhpw CjvShpw D≠m-°m≥ ]®-°dn˛^e-h¿§ tXm´-ßfpw s\¬Ir-jnbpw G¿s∏-Sp-ØWw. Xt±i kzbw `cW ÿm]-\-ß-fn-eqsS CXn-\m-h-iy-amb ]n¥pW \¬IWw.

20.3

KpW-ta-∑-bp≈ hnØp-Iƒ Dev]m-Zn-∏n®v \evIm-\mbn km[y-X-bp≈ kvIqfp-I-fn¬ hnØv _m¶p-Ifpw hnØv ^map-Ifpw A\p-h-Zn-°Ww.

20.4 ssPh-Ir-jn-bn-S-߃ kμ¿in-°p-∂-Xpƒs∏sS hnZym¿∞n-Ifpw I¿j-Icpw XΩn¬ apJmapJw kwL-Sn-∏n-°Ww 20.5

D®-`-£W ]cn-]m-Sn-I-fp-sSbpw t]mj-Im-lmc ]cn-]m-Sn-I-fp-sSbpw `mK-ambn Bh-iy-ap≈ Acn, ]®-°dn, ]g-߃,[m\y-߃, ]mev, ap´, tX≥ XpS-ßnb ssPh-I¿j-I-cn¬ \n∂v hmßm≥ kvIqfp-Ifpw ssPh-I¿j-Icpw XΩn¬ Hcp _‘w ÿm]n-°Ww. AwK≥hm-SnI-fpsS Imcy-Øn¬ sF.kn.Un.Fkp-ambpw CØ-c-samcp _‘w Bh-iy-amWv.

20.6

ssPh Dev]-∂-߃ D]-tbm-Kn®v t__n-^pUv Dev]m-Zn-∏n-°p∂ hyh-km-b-߃°v A\ptbm-Py-amb t{]m’m-l\w \¬IWw.

20.7

kvIqƒ Ip´n-Iƒ°p-th≠n ssPh-Ir-jnsb kw_-‘n® Hcp ]mTy-]-≤Xn hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp°Ww.

20.8

Ch-bvs°√mw ^mw C≥^¿ta-j≥ _yqtdm hgn \√ {]Nm-cWw \¬IWw.

X{¥w 21 ˛ Kth-j-Ww, ]T-\w, hn⁄m-\-hym-]\w I¿a-]-≤Xn 21.1

ssPh-Irjn \b-sØbpw kwÿm-\sØ Irjn ssPh-Ir-jn-bmbn am‰p-∂-Xn-s\bpw ]n¥pW-bv°m≥ Kth-jWw, hnZym-`ymkw, FIvÃ≥j≥ kwhn-[m\w F∂nh cq]m-¥-c-s∏-SpØm-\mbn hnhn[ ÿm]-\-ßsf Dƒs∏-SpØn Im¿jnI k¿Δ-I-em-ime Hcp {]tXyI I¿Ω-tk\ cq]o-I-cn-°Ww.

21.2. hyXykvX˛Im¿jnI ]cn-ÿnXn taJ-eI - f - n¬ ssPh-Ir-jn-bpsS amXrIm tXm´-ßfpw Irjnco-Xn-Ifpw Dƒs∏sS Hcp ]mt°Pv Im¿jnI k¿Δ-I-em-ime hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°Ww. 21.3

A≠¿ {KmtPz‰v, t]mÃv {KmtPz‰v Xe-ß-fn¬ ]mTy-]-≤-Xn-bpsS `mK-ambn kwÿm-\Øv ssPh-Ir-jnsb t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p∂ {]apJ ssPh-I¿j-I¿, {Kq∏p-Iƒ, k¿°m¿ CXc kwL-S-\-Iƒ F∂n-hcpw hnZym¿∞n-Ifpw XΩn¬ Bi-b-hn-\n-abw \S-Øm-\p≈ kuIcyw G¿s∏-Sp-ØWw.

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267


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

21.4

]s¶-Sp-°p∂ I¿I¿°v amk-h-cp-am\w Dd-∏p-h-cpØn sIm≠v ssPh-Ir-jn-bpsS F√m-h-iß-sfbpw kw_-‘n®v ssPh-I¿j-I-cp-ambn tN¿∂v ]¶m-fn-Ø-K-th-jW ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°Ww.

21.5

\ne-hn-ep≈ ssPh-Ir-jn-co-Xn-Iƒ AwKo-I-cn®v tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øp∂ C≥h‚-dn-Iƒ Xøm-dm°Ww.

21.6

]cm∂ t`mPn-I-sfbpw tcmK-ß-sfbpw sNdp-°p-∂Xpw, {]mtZ-inI kml-N-cy-߃°v A\ptbm-Py-amb Xt±-iob I∂p-Imen/a’y-C-\-ßsf Xncn-®-dn-bWw.

21.7

I∂p-Im-en-Iƒ°pw hnf-Iƒ°pw a’y-Øn\pw D≠m-Ip∂ tcmK-߃ \nb-{¥n-°m-\mbn sl¿_¬ ]cn-lm-c-߃ Is≠-ØWw.

21.8

taev]-d-™h ÿm]n-s®-Sp-°m-\mbn Hcp ssPh Irjn Kth-jW C≥kv‰n-‰yq´v ÿm]n°Ww.

X{¥w 22 ˛ cmk-h-f-hpw, IoS-\m-in-\n-Ifpw {ItaW Hgn-hm-°pI I¿a-]-≤Xn 22.1

ssPh-Irjn \bw \S-∏m-°p-∂-Xn\v kam-¥-c-ambn cmk-h-f-߃, IoS-\m-in-\n-Iƒ, ^¶kv \min-\n-Iƒ, ]mb¬ \min-\n-Iƒ F∂n-h-bpsS hnev]-\bv°pw D]-tbm-K-Øn\pw L´w L´-ambn \ntcm-[-\tam \nb-{¥-Wtam G¿s∏-Sp-ØWw.

22.2

{]mcw` \S-]Snbmbn \ne-hn¬ ¢mkv 1 Fbnepw 1 _nbnepw Dƒs∏-Sp∂ lm\n-I-c-amb IoS-\m-in-\n-I-fpsS hnev]-\bpw D]-tbm-Khpw Ah-km-\n-∏n-°pI.

22.3 kº-∂-amb ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-ap-≈-Xp-aqew Pe-t{km-X- p-Iƒt]mse {]IrXn hn`-h-A-Snÿm-\-ß-fp-amb ]cn-ÿnXn Zp¿∫e taJ-e-Isf cmk-h-kvXp-°ƒ, IoS-\m-in-\n-Iƒ, cmkh-f߃ F∂n-h-bn¬ \n∂v kzX-{¥-amb, taJ-e-I-fmbn, {]Jym-]n®v kwc-£n-°pI. 22.4

Irjn B^o-kd - psS Ipdn-∏Sn Ds≠-¶n¬ am{Xta IoS-\m-in\n \¬Iq F∂ I¿i\ hyhÿ G¿s∏-SpØn Ch-bpsS hnev]-\bpw D]-tbm-Khpw \nb-{¥n-°pI.

22.5

Ip´n-Iƒ, K¿`n-Wn-If - mb kv{XoIƒ, I¿j-Ic - √ - m-Øh - ¿ F∂n-h¿°v IoS-\m-in-\n-Iƒ hnev°p∂Xv I¿i-\-ambn \ntcm-[n-°pI.

22.6

IoS-\m-in-\n-Iƒ Im¿jn-tI-Xc Bh-iy-߃°v D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xns‚ ÿnXn-hn-h-c-°-W°p-Iƒ Xøm-dm°n Ah-bpsS hnev∏-\-Ifpw D]-tbm-Khpw \nb-{¥n-°pI.

22.7

IoS-\m-in-\n-I-fpsS D]-tbmKw kw_-‘n® `£y˛Im¿jnI kwL-S-\-bpsS am¿§-\n¿t±-itIm-Up-{]-Imcw IoS-\m-in-\n-I-fpsS t{]m’m-l\ {]h¿Ø-\-ßfpw ]c-kyhpw \nb-{¥n°pI.

22.8. IoS-\m-in-\n-Iƒ D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ Pn√-I-fn¬ Pew, aÆv, ]m¬, hnf-hp-Iƒ F∂nh CSbv°nsS ]cn-tim-[n®v hnh-c-߃ s]mXp-P-\-ß-fpsS Adn-hn-te-°mbn {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°Ww. 22.9

ssPh \nb-{¥W ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ°mbn kq£va-Po-hn-Isf D]-tbm-Kn-°p-tºmƒ Bh-iy-amb ap≥I-cp-X¬ \S-]-Sn-Iƒ kzoI-cn-®n-cn-°Ww.

X{¥w 23 ˛ hnI-k-\-h-Ip-∏p-I-fpsS DZv{K-[nX kao-]\w I¿a-]-≤Xn 23.1

ssPh-Ir-jn-X-Xz-ßfpw {]mtZinI kml-N-cy-ßfpw icn-bmw-hÆw ]cn-K-Wn®v hnhn[ k¿°m¿ hIp-∏p-Ifpw ÿm]-\-ßfpw, kaq-lhpw Ah-cpsS ]≤-Xn-Ifpw XΩn¬ kulm¿±]-c-amb Hcp kwtbm-P\w D≠m-IWw. k¿°m¿ hIp-∏p-I-fmb Irjn. arK-kw-c-£Ww, h\w, a’y-_-‘\w, Xt±i ÿm]\w, [\-Imcyw,dh\yq, hyh-kmbw, Kncn-h¿§ t£aw, JmZn˛{Kma-hy-h-kmbw, [\-Im-cy-ÿm-]-\-߃, kwÿm\ tIm¿∏-td-j-\p-Iƒ, tIcf Im¿jnI k¿Δ- I - e m- i me, kwÿm- \ sØ sF.kn.F.B¿ ÿm]- \ - ß ƒ,

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268


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

kvss]kkv˛Im∏n˛tXbne˛\mfn-tIc˛d∫¿ t_m¿Up-Iƒ, an¬a, a‰v £oc-hn-]-W\ kwL߃, I¿jI kwL-S-\-Iƒ, kwL-߃, kzbw-k-lmb {Kq∏p-Iƒ, ssPh-Irjn Atkmkn-tb-j-\p-Iƒ, ssPh-Ir-jnsb t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p∂ k¿°m¿ CXc kwL-S-\-Iƒ F∂nh-sb√mw CXn¬s]-Sp∂p.

X{¥w 24 ˛ ssPh-Irjn t{]m’m-l-\-Øn\v Hcp kwL-S\ I¿a-]-≤Xn 24.1

ssPh-Ir-jn-\-bhpw X{¥hpw I¿Ω-]-≤-Xnbpw \S-∏m-°m\pw Dd-∏m-°m-\p-ambn Hcp Hm¿Km\nIv tIcf anj≥ cq]o-I-cn-°Ww. CXn\v hnhn[ hIp-∏p-I-fpsS GtIm-]\w Bh-iy-am-bn\m¬ apJy-a{¥n A≤y-£-\mbn Hcp P\-d¬ Iu¨knepw \bw \S-∏m-t°-≠Xv Irjn-hIp-∏m-b-Xn-\m¬ Irjn hIp-∏p-a{¥n A≤y-£-\mbn Hcp FIvkn-Iyq-´ohv IΩn-‰nbpw Hm¿Km\nIv tIcf anjs‚ {]h¿Ø-\-ßsf \bn-°p-Ibpw ta¬t\m´w hln-°p-Ibpw sNøWw.

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269


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

A\p-_‘w 2 : ]›n-a-L-´-Ønse [mXp-°-fpw, [mXp-D¬]m-Z-\hpw a ]›n-a-L´ kwÿm-\-ß-fnse/Pn√-I-fnse [mXp-°ƒ Pn√-Iƒ

{][m\ [mXp-°ƒ

alm-cmjv{S \mknIv Xms\

t_mIvssk‰v, ssN\m t¢

[qse

ssew tÃm¨

\¥¿_m¿ ]qs\ kn‘p-Zp¿K

t_mIvssk‰v, ssN\t¢, t{Imssa-‰v, , Ab¨ Hm¿. Izm¿´vkv, knen-°-km‚ v

sdbvKmUv

t_mIvssk‰v

kXmc cXv\-Kncn

t_mIvssk‰v, ^b¿t¢, amwK-\okv Hm¿, Izm¿Svkv, knen-°-km‚ v

km¶vfn

ssewtÃm¨

sIm¬lm-]q¿

t_mIvsskt‰, em‰-ssd‰v, Izm¿Svkv, knen-°- km‚ v

Al-ΩZv \K¿

ssewtÃm¨

KpP-dmØv kqc‰v

^b¿t¢, enKv-ss\‰v, ssewkvt‰m¨, Izm¿´vkv, knen°

h¬kmZv

t_mIvssk‰v, ssewtÃm¨, Izm¿´vkv, knen°

UmwKvkv I¿Æm-SI _¬Kmw

t_mIvssk‰v, ssN\t¢, tUmtfmssa‰v, s^¬kv]m¿, ssewtÃm¨,amwK-\okv Hm¿, Izm¿´vkv, knen° km‚ v, Izm¿Svssk‰v

DØc I∂S

t_mIvssk‰v, ssN\t¢, tUmtfm-ssa‰v, Ab¨ Hm¿ ( slass‰‰v) Ab¨-Hm¿ ( am·-ss‰‰v), ssewtÃm¨, Iymss\‰v, amwK\okv, IzmSvkv

jntamK

^b¿t¢, Ab¨-Hm¿ (sla-ss‰‰v), ssewtÃm¨, Iymss\‰v, amwK-\okv Hm¿, Izm¿´vkv, knen-°-km‚ v

DSp∏n

t_mIvssk‰v, ssewtÃm¨, Izm¿´vkv, knen-°-km‚ v

Z£nW I∂S

t_mIvssk‰v, ssN\t¢, Ab¨ Hm¿ (am·-ss‰‰v), ssewtÃm¨, Iymss\‰v, Izm¿Svkv, knen-°-km‚ v

NnIva-K-eq¿

_mIvssk‰v, ssN\t¢, t{Imssa‰v, Upss\‰v/ s]tdm-¢n-ss\‰v, Ab¨ Hm¿ (sla-ss‰‰v), Ab¨ Hm¿ (am·-ss‰‰v), ssewtÃm¨, Iymss\‰v, amwK-\okv Hm¿, IzmSvkv, knen-°-km‚ v, Sm¬°v/ Ãoss‰‰v

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

270


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

lm ≥

ssN\t¢, Upss\‰v/ss]tdm-¢n-ss\‰v, s^¬kv]m¿, ^b¿t¢, tKmƒUv, Ab¨-Hm¿ (am·-ss‰‰v), ssewtÃm¨, Izm¿Svkv, knen°, Sm¬Iv/Ãoss‰-‰v, t{Imssa‰v

sImSIv Nma-cmPv \K¿ ssakq¿

t{Kmssa‰v, tUmtfm-ssa‰v, Upss\‰v, ss]tdm-¢n-ss\‰v, ssewtÃm¨, Iymss\‰v, amwK-\okv ssk‰v,IzmSvkv, knen°, Sm¬Iv,Ãoss‰‰v

[¿hmSv

ssN\t¢, ^b¿t¢, tKmƒUv,Ab¨-Hm¿ (sla-ss‰‰v), Izm¿Svkv knen-°-km‚ v

tIcfw Imk¿tImSv

t_mss¢‰v, ssN\t¢, ssewtÃm¨, Izm¿Svkv, knen°, ssS‰m\nbw

IÆq¿

t_mIvssk‰v, ssN\t¢, ssewtÃm¨

tImgn-t°mSv

ssewkvt‰m¨

ae-∏pdw

ssewtÃm¨

hb-\mSv

Izm¿Svkv, knen°

]me-°mSv Xriq¿

ssN\t¢, ssewtÃm¨

Fd-Wm-Ipfw

ssN\t¢, ssewtÃm¨

]Ø-\w-Xn´

ssS‰m-\nbw

CSp°n Be-∏pg

ssN\t¢, ssewtÃm¨, knen°, Izm¿Svkv

sIm√w

t_mIvssk‰v, ssN\t¢, ssewtÃm¨, kn√n-am-ss\‰v, ssS‰m-\nbw, kn¿t°m¨

Xncp-h-\-¥-]pcw

t_mIvssk‰v, ssN\t¢, Izm¿Svkv, knen°, kn√n-am-ss\‰v, ssS‰m-\nbw, kn¿t°m¨

Xan-gv\mSv \oe-Kncn

t_mIvssk‰v, a·n-ssk‰v

tImb-º-Øq¿

s^¬kv]m¿, Pn]vkw, ssewtÃm¨, am·n-ssk‰v, Izm´vkv, knen°, Ãoss‰‰v

tX\n Un≠n-K¬

t_mIvssk‰v, s^¬kv]m¿,ssewtÃm¨, IzmSvkv, knen-°-km‚ v

hncp-Zp-\-K¿

Pn]vkw, ssewtÃm¨

Xncp-s\¬then

Km¿s\‰v, {Kmss\‰v, Pn]vkw, ssewtÃm¨, am·n-ss‰‰v, ssS‰m-\nbw

CutdmUv

s^¬kv]m¿, {Kmss\‰v, Izm¿Svkv, knen°

a[pc

{Kmss\‰v, {Kmss^‰v, ssewtÃm¨,Izm¿Svkv,knen-°-km‚ v

I\ym-Ip-amcn

Km¿s\‰v, ssS‰m-\nbw, kn¿tIm¨

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271


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

b:

2007˛08 -se [mXp Dev]m-Z\w

kwÿm\w {][m\ [mXp-°ƒ

Pn√

Dev]m-Z\ kw-ÿm\ Øns‚ aqeyw aqeyw (Rs1000)

alm-cmjv{S

(Rs1000)

kwÿm\ Dev]m-Z\ iX-am\w

50652367

t_mIvssk‰v

sIm¬lm-]q¿, sdbv-KmUv cXv\-Kncn, kXm-c, kn‘p-Zp¿§, Xms\

1785330

531830

1.0500

ssN\t¢

Aa-cm-h-Xn, _‘mc N{μ-]p¿, \mK-]p¿, kn‘p-Zp¿§, Xms\

ssewtÃm¨

Al-ΩZv\K¿, N{μ-]p¿, [pse, KUvNtcmfn \mKv]p¿, \≥¥Uv, ]qs\, km¶vfn, bh-Xv-amƒ

9600000

987938

1.9504

t{Imssa‰v

_‘-c, N{μ-]p¿, \mK-]p¿, kn‘p-Zp¿K

Ab¨ Hm¿ (sl-a-ss‰-‰v)

N{μ-]p¿, KUvNn-tdmen kn‘p-Zp¿K

588000

396291

IzmSvkv

_μm-c, N{μ-]p¿ KUvN-tcm-fn, tKm≠n-b, sIm¬lm-]p¿, \mK-]p¿, cXv\-Kncn, kn‘p-Zp¿Kv

13442

1648

˛

0.7824

0.0033

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

272


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

kwÿm\w {][m\ [mXp-°ƒ

Pn√

Dev]m-Z\ kw-ÿm\ Øns‚ aqeyw aqeyw (Rs1000)

(Rs1000)

kwÿm\ Dev]m-Z\ iX-am\w

knen° km‚ v

_μmc, N{μ-]p¿, KUvNn-tcmfn, tKm≠nb, sIm¬lm-]p¿, \mKv]p¿, cXv\Kn-cn, kn‘p-Zp¿Kv

443259

96313

0.1901

^b¿t¢

Aa-cm-hXn N{μ-]p¿ \mKv]p¿ cXv\-Kncn

7239

543

0.0011

amwK-\okv

\mKv]p¿, cXv\-Kncn _μm-c,

854120

5313228

10.4890

em‰-ssd‰v

sIm¬lm-]p¿

245237

58538

0.1156

alm-cmjv{S

50652367

^b¿t¢

_dq-®v, I®v, salvkm-\, saKvkm-\, cmPvtIm-´v, k_¿I¥v, kqd-‰v, kptc-μ¿\-K¿

35451

2531

0.0040

enKvss\‰v

_dq-®v, `h-\-K¿, I®v, kqd‰v

1788000

8277771

13.0470

ssewtÃm¨

Awtd-en, _\-kvI-¥, _dq-®v, `h-\-K¿, Pmw\-K¿, Pp\-K-Uv, tJZ, I®v, ]©-a-l¬, t]m¿_-¥¿, cmPvtIm´v k_¿I-¥,kq-d‰v htUm-{Z, h¬kmSv

22120000

2743616

4.3244

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

273


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

kwÿm\w {][m\ [mXp-°ƒ

Pn√

Dev]m-Z\ kw-ÿm\ Øns‚ aqeyw aqeyw (Rs1000)

(Rs1000)

kwÿm\ Dev]m-Z\ iX-am\w

IzmSvkv

_dq-®v, `h-\-K¿, Ztlm-Zv, tJU, I®v, ]©-a-l¬, cmPvtIm´v, k_¿I-¥, kqd‰v, kptc-μ¿, htUm-{Z, h¬kmZv

69255

6361

0.0100

knen°

_dq-®v, `h-\-K¿, Utlm-Uv, tJU, I®v, ]©-a-l¬, cmPvtIm´v, k_¿I-¥, kqd-‰v, kptc-{μ-\-K¿, htUm-{Z, h¬kmSv

383349

39876

0.0621

t_mssd‰v

Awtd-en, `h-\-K¿, Pmw\K¿ Pp\-Km¿, tJU, I®v, t]m¿_-¥¿, k_¿I-¥, h¬kmSv

12515094

2278084

3.5906

tIcfw

7482336

t_mss¢‰v

IÆq¿, Imk¿tIm-Sv, sIm√w, Xncp-h-\-¥-]pcw

ssN\t¢

Be-∏p-g, IÆq¿, Fd-Wm-Ipfw Xriq¿ Imk¿tIm-Sv, sIm√w, tIm´-bw, ]me-°m-Sv,

ssewtÃm¨

Xncp-h-\-¥-]pcw Be-∏p-g, IÆq¿, Fd-Wm-Ip-fw, sIm√w, tIm´-bw tImgn-t°m-Sv, ae-∏p-dw, ]me-°m-Sv,-Xr-iq¿

475000

147326

1.9690

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

274


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

kwÿm\w {][m\ [mXp-°ƒ

Pn√

Dev]m-Z\ kw-ÿm\ Øns‚ aqeyw aqeyw (Rs1000)

(Rs1000)

kwÿm\ Dev]m-Z\ iX-am\w

IzmSvkv/ knen°

Be-∏p-g, Imk¿tKmUv, Xncp-h-\-¥-]p-cw, hb-\mSv

38552

18298

0.2445

kn√n-a-ss\‰v

sIm√w, Xncp-h-\-¥-]pcw

14570

87420

1.1684

ssS‰m-\nbw

Imk¿tIm-Sv, sIm√w, ]Ø-\wXn´, Xncp-h-\-¥-]pcw

kn¿tIm¨

sIm√w

Xan-gv\mSv

30065910 t_mkvss‰‰v

Un≠n-K¬, \m-a-°¬, tkew, \oe-Kncn

342687

3663

0.0122

s^¬kv]¿

tImb-º-Øq¿ ZnWvUnK¬, Cutdm-Uv, Im©n-]p-cw, Icp¿,\ma-°¬ tkew Xncp-®nd]≈n.

576

261

0.009

Km¿ss\‰v

cma-\m-Y-]p-cw, Xncp-®n-d-∏≈n Xncp-hm-dq¿, I\ym-Ip-am-cn, X©m-hq¿, Xncp-s\¬then I´-s_m-Ω≥

863014

289493

0.9629

{Kmss\‰v

[¿Ω-]p-cn, Cutdm-Uv, a[p-c, Im©n-]pcw, ]n.-ap-Øp-cma-enwKw, tkew, Xncp-hn-Æm-ae Xncp-®n-d-∏-≈n, Xncp-s\¬th-en, sh√q¿, hn√p-]pcw

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

275


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

kwÿm\w {][m\ [mXp-°ƒ

Pn√

Dev]m-Z\ kw-ÿm\ Øns‚ aqeyw aqeyw (Rs1000)

(Rs1000)

16204

kwÿm\ Dev]m-Z\ iX-am\w

{Kmss^‰v

a[p-c, cma-\m-Y-]p-cw, 50543 inh-Kw-K, sh√q¿

0.0539

Pn]vkw

tImb-º-Øq¿, s]c-km-eq¿ cma-\m-Y-]p-cw, Xncp-®n-d-∏-≈n, Xncp-s\¬th-en, XqØp-Ip-Sn, hncp-Zp-\-K¿

ssewtÃm¨

tImb-º-Øq¿, 17336000 IqU-√q¿ Un≠n-K¬, Im©n-]p-cw, Icq¿, a[p-c, \mKv]-´-Ww, tkew \ma-°¬, sh√q¿,s]c-ºm-eq¿, cma-\m-Y-]p-cw, Xncp-h-≈q¿, Xncp-®n-d-∏-≈n, Xncp-s\¬th-en, hn√p-]p-cw, hn-cp-Zp-\-K¿

2514291

a·n-ssk‰v

tImb-º-Øq¿, 179095 [¿Ω-]p-cn, \oe-Kn-cn, Icq¿, \ma-°¬, tkew, sh√q¿ Xncp-®n-d-∏-≈n, Xncp-s\¬then,

301549

1.0030

IzmSvkv

sNss¶ , sNss∂, 5828 tImb-º-Øq¿, IqS-√q¿, Icq¿, [¿Ω-]p-cn, a[p-c, Znfin-K¬, sh√q¿ Cutdm-Uv, tkew, Im©n-]p-cw, \ma-°¬,s]cn-bm¿, s]cp-ºmeq¿, Xncp-h-≈q¿, Xncp-hm-dq¿, \mK-]-´Ww, Xncp-®n-d-∏-≈n, hn√p-]p-cw, hncp-Xp-\-K-¿,

6506

0.0216

8.3626

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

276


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

kwÿm\w {][m\ [mXp-°ƒ

Pn√

Dev]m-Z\ kw-ÿm\ Øns‚ aqeyw aqeyw (Rs1000)

knen°

sNss¶-˛-A-Æ, 27206 sNss∂, IpS-eq¿, tImb-º-Øq¿, [¿Ω-]pcn, Icq¿, ZnWvUn-K¬, tkew, Cutdm-Uv, sh√q¿ Im©n-]p-cw, a[p-c-\m-a-°¬, s]cn-tbm¿, ]c-s_m-eq¿, Xncp-h-≈q¿, Xncp-hm-‰q¿, \mK-]-´-Ww, Xncp-®n-d-∏-≈n, hn√p-]p-cw, hncp-Zp-\-K¿,

Ãoss‰‰v

tImb-º-Øq¿,tkew, sh√q¿ Xncp-®n-d-∏-d-≈n,

ssS‰m-\nbw

I\ym-Ip-am-cn, \mK-]-´-Ww. cm\-\m-Y-]p-cw, Xncp-h-√q¿, Xncp-s\¬th-en, XqØp-IpSn

kn¿tIm¨

I\ym-Ip-amcn

(Rs1000)

10264

I¿ÆmSIw

kwÿm\ Dev]m-Z\ iX-am\w 0.034

44949142

t_mIvssk‰v

_¬Kmw, NnIva-K-eq¿ DØc Z£n-W,I∂S DSp∏n

161554

ssN\t¢

amwK-fq¿, _¬Kmw, 45000 _nUm≥, KV-Kv, NnIva-K-eq¿. _√m-cn, [¿hm-Sv, lm ≥, lth-cn, sImfm¿, XpwKp¿ DØcZ£nW, I∂-S. jntam-K,

t{Imssa-‰v

NnIva-l-eq¿, lm ¿, ssakq¿

7257

28425

0.0632

4500

0.010

43843

0.-0975

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

277


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

kwÿm\w {][m\ [mXp-°ƒ

Pn√

Dev]m-Z\ kw-ÿm\ Øns‚ aqeyw aqeyw (Rs1000)

(Rs1000)

kwÿm\ Dev]m-Z\ iX-am\w

tUmtem-ssa‰v _K¬tIm-´v, 348690 _¬Kmw, Nn{X-Zp¿K, _nPm-]p¿, ssakq¿, DØc I∂S XpwKq¿

46020

0.1024

Upss\‰v/ s]tdm-Ivkn ss\‰v

NnIvK-a-K-fq¿, lm ≥ ssakq¿

515

0.0011

s^¬kv]m¿

ssakq¿ _¬Kmw, Nn{XZp¿§, lm ≥

^b¿t¢

_mwKvfq¿, lm ≥, Z¿hm-Sv, tImfm¿, jntam-K, XpwIq¿, Nn{X-Zp¿§

tKmƒUv

Nn{X-Zp¿K, [¿hm-Sv, 2831- Kg KSm-Kv, Kp¬_¿Kv, lm ≥, lth-cn, tImfm¿

2799422

6.228

Ab¨-Hm¿ (sl-a-ss‰-‰v)

_K¬tIm-´v, 45605000 _n»m-]p¿, _t√-cn, Nn°-a-K-eq¿, KU-Kv, Nn{X-Zp¿K, XpwKq¿ [m¿hm-Uv, jntam-K, DØ-c-I-∂-S,

39919060

88.809

Ab¨Hm¿ (am-·-ss‰-‰v)

NnIva-K-eq¿, DØ-c-Z-£nWI∂S jntamK, lmk≥, NnIva-K-eq¿, Nn{X-Zp¿K, Iq¿Kv, amfiy, ssakq¿ jntam-K, Z£nW I∂S 1309892

2.9142

Iymss\‰v

ssewtÃm¨

6438

_K¬tIm-´v, 14859000 _¬Kmw, DUp]n _√m-cn, _nPm-]q¿, NnIva-K-eq¿, KU-Iv, Zmh¨K-ssc, Kp¬_¿K, lm ≥, ssakq¿, Nn{X-Zp¿K DØc& Z£n-W I-∂-S, jntam-K, XpwKq¿,

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

278


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

kwÿm\w {][m\ [mXp-°ƒ

Pn√ S¨

Dev]m-Z\ kw-ÿm\ Øns‚ aqeyw aqeyw (Rs1000)

aKv\nssk‰v

Iq¿Kv, amfiym, ssakq¿

amwK-\okv Hm¿ _¬Kmw, _√mdn NnIva-l-eq¿, Nn{X-Zp¿K, Zmh¨K-ssc, DØ-c-I-∂S, jntam-K, XpwKq¿

B[mcw

(Rs1000)

kwÿm\ Dev]m-Z\ iX-am\w

4602

7714

0.0172

309716

388210

0.8637

IzmSvkv

_K¬tIm-´v, 2500 _mwKvfq¿ _¬Kmw, _√m-dn, NnIva-K-eq¿, Nn{X-Zp¿§, Zmh≥K-sc, Z¿hmSv KU-Kv, Kp¬_¿K, lm ≥, lmth-cn, tImfm¿, sIm∏m¬ amfiym, ssakq¿, DØc & Z£nW I∂S dbv®q¿, jntam-K, XpwKq¿, DUp∏n

153

0.0003

knen°

_K¬tIm-´v, 89713 _mwKvfq¿, XpwKq¿, _¬Kmw, _√m-dn, NnIva-K-eq¿, Nn{X-Zp¿K, [¿hm-Sv, Zmh¨K-ssc, KU-Kv, Kp¬_¿K, l ≥, lth-cn, tImfm¿,-sIm-∏m¬, amfiy, ssakq¿, DØc & Z£nW I∂-S, sdbvNq¿, jntamK, DUp∏n

8792

0.0196

Sm¬Iv/ Ãoss‰‰v

_√m-dn, NnIva-K-eq¿, Nn{X-Zp¿§ lm ≥,-amfiy ssakq¿, sdbv®q¿ XpwKq¿

36

0.0001

IBM

358

2008

............................................................................................................................................................................................................

279


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

A\p-_‘w 3 : sFIy-cmjv{S ÿncw t^md-Øn¬ C¥y ka¿∏n® BZn-hmknIfpsS {]iv\-߃ kw_-‘n® \n¿t±-i-ß-fnt∑¬ Db¿∂ FXn¿∏p-Iƒ 2011 sabv 16˛27 hsc \yqtbm¿°n¬ tN¿∂ t^md-Øns‚ 10˛maXv skjs‚ AP-≠bnse C\w 3(C) bps\-kvtIm-bpsS temI-ss]-XrI I¨sh≥j-t\m-S-\p-_-‘n®v kzX-{¥hpw ap≥Iq¿ Adn-bn∏v \¬Ip-∂Xpw kΩXw hmßp-∂Xpw kw_-‘n® XXz-ß-fpsS XpS¿®bmb ewL-\-sØ-]‰n NphsS ]d-bp-∂-h¿ ka¿∏n® kwbp-‡-{]-kvXm-h\ ]pjv]-Kncn h\y-ar-K-k-t¶Xw, {_“-Kncn h\y-ar-K-k-t¶Xw, Xe-°m-thcn h\y-ar-K-k-t¶Xw, ]Sn-\m¬Iv\mSv dnk¿Δv t^mdÃv, sI¿´n dnk¿Δv t^mdÃv F∂n-hn-S-ß-fnse \nhm-kn-Isf {]Xn-\n-[m\w sNbvXv _pU-°m´v Irjn-Im-c-kwLw (I¿Æm-SI, ]›n-a-L´w) If-°mSv ap≠≥Xpssd ISp-h-k-t¶-XsØ {]Xn-\n-[o-I-cn®v s]mØn-ssK-ae BZn-hmkn ImWn-°m-c≥ kap-Zmb apt∂‰ kwLw, Bdfw h\y-ar-K-k-t¶-X-Ønse \nhm-kn-Isf {]Xn-\n-[o-I-cn®v BZnhmkn tKm{X-P-\-k` (tIcfw), sk¥p¿Wn h\y-Pohn kt¶Xw, s\øm¿ h\y-Pohn kt¶Xw, t]∏md h\y-Po-hn-k-t¶Xw, IpfØq∏pg td©v, ]mtemSv td©v, dm∂n t^mdÃv Unhn-j≥, tIm∂n t^mdÃv Unhn-j≥, Aø-∏≥tIm-hn¬ t^mdÃv Unhn-j≥, am¶pfw td©v, Nn∂m¿ h\y-Pn-hn-kt¶Xw, sske‚ v hmen \mj-W¬]m¿°v, A´-∏mSn dnk¿Δv t^mdÃv Bdfw h\y-Po-hn-kt¶Xw F∂n-h-bnse \nhm-kn-Isf {]Xn-\n-[o-I-cn®v BZn-hmkn ZfnXv `qA-h-Im-i-k-anXn, tIcf BZn-hmkn tKm{X-Z-fnXv Ah-Imi kanXn, tIcf BZn-hmkn tKm{X-a-lm-k` F∂nh, si¥p¿Wn h\y-Po-hn-k-t¶Xw, s\øm¿ h\y-Po-hn-k-t¶Xw, t]∏md h\y-Pohn kt¶Xw,Ipf-Øp-]pg td©v, ]mtemSv td©v F∂n-hn-S-ß-fnse \nhm-kn-Isf {]Xn-\n-[o-I-cn®v tIcf Kncn-h¿§ ImWn-°m¿ kwLw F∂n-hbpw temI-sa-ºm-Sp-ap≈ a‰-t\Iw kwL-S-\-Ifpw.

BapJw (1)

Xt±-io-bc - psS Bhm-kt- I-{μ-߃ "ss]Xr-It- a-Je - I - f - mbn' {]Jym-]n-°p-tºmƒ ]men-t°≠ kzX-{¥hpw ap≥Iq¿ Adn-bn∏v \¬Ip-∂Xpw kΩXw hmßp-∂Xpw kw_-‘n® XXz-߃ XpS¿®-bmbn ewLn-°p-∂Xv ÿncw ^md-Øns‚ {i≤-bn¬ ho≠pw sIm≠p-h-cp-hm≥ R߃ B{K-ln-°p∂p.

(2)

temI-Øns‚ ]e-`m-K-Øp-ap≈ Xt±-i-hm-kn-Ifpw kwL-S-\-Ifpw Cu hnjbw ap≥]v ]eX-hW ÿncw ^md-Øns‚ {i≤-bn¬s]-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≈-XmWv.

(3)

taev]-d™ XXz-߃ ]men-°m-sXbpw Ah ewLn®pw temI-ss]-XrI ]´n-I-bn¬ Dƒs∏Sp-Øn-bn-´p≈ \nc-h[n {]tZ-i-ß-fp≠v. Xt±i \nhm-kn-I-fpsS Pohn-X-Ønepw a\p-jym-hIm-i-ß-fnepw Ah-cpsS kzbw \n¿Æ-bm-h-Im-i-a-\p-k-cn®v kmº-Øn-Ihpw kmaq-lyhpw kmwkvIm-cn-I-hp-amb kzX-{¥-amb hnI-k\w ssIh-cn-°p-I-∂-Xnepw Zqc-hym-]-I-amb {]Xym-Lm-X-߃ krjvSn-°p-∂-hn[w Ah-cp-ambn IqSn-bm-tem-Nn-°p-I-t]mepw sNømsX-bmWv Ah-cpsS Bhm-k-tI-{μ-߃ temI-ss]-Xr-I-{]-tZ-i-ambn {]Jym-]n-°p-∂Xv.

(4)

Xt±-i-hm-kn-I-fpsS Ah-Im-i-ßsf kw_-‘n® sFIy-cm-jv{S-k-ao-]\w, sFIy-cmjv{S hnI-k\ {Kq∏ns‚ am¿§-\n¿t±-i-߃, sFIy-cmjv{S a\p-jym-h-Imi DS-ºSn \mem-aXv temI-Øns‚ I¨k¿th-j≥ tIm¨{K- ns‚ {]ta-b-߃ (_mgvkn-temW 2008) ÿncw t^md-Øns‚ ip]m¿i-Iƒ F∂n-h-bpsS F√mw ewL-\-amWv temI-ss]-XrI kan-XnbpsS \S-]Sn.

(5)

F√m ]cn-]m-Sn-I-fnepw {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fnepw a\p-jym-h-Im-i-Øn-e-[n-jvTn-X-amb kao-]\w F∂ bps\-kvtIm-bpsS {]Jym-]nX e£y-Øn\pw tbmPn-®-X√ CXv. _‘-s∏´ kaq-lß-fp-sSbpw {Kq∏p-I-fp-sSbpw A\p-a-Xn-tbmsS Ah-cpsS kmwkvIm-cnI ss]XrIw IqSn kwc-£n-°-s∏-S-W-sa∂ bps\-kvtIm-bpsS A¥¿ k¿°m¿ kan-Xn-bpsS Xocp-am\w hncp≤-am-WnXv.

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280


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

(6)

2010 Pqsse 25 apX¬ BKÃv 3 hsc {_nko-en-b-bn¬ tN¿∂ temI ss]Xr-I-k-an-XnbpsS 34˛maXv skj≥ taev]-d™ XXz-ß-sfm∂pw ]men-°msX 2 ÿe-߃ temI-ss]XrI ]´n-I-bn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-bXv tNmZyw sNø-s∏-´n-´p≠v. hS-°p-]-Sn-™m-d≥ lhmøv Zzo]nse assd≥ tam\p-sa‚pw Xm≥km-\n-bm-bnse s\mtd-¶mtdm I¨k¿th-j≥ {]tZ-iam-Wnh. Chn-S-ß-fn¬ A[n-h-kn-°p-∂-h-cpsS kmwkvIm-cnI aqey-߃ IW-°n-se-Sp-°msX-bp≈ Cu {]Jym-]-\-߃ Ah-cpsS \nXy Pohn-X-Øn¬ IqSp-X¬ \nb-{¥-W-߃ G¿s∏-Sp-Øm\pw Ah-cpsS Ah-Im-iØ - n-t∑-ep≈ IqSp-X¬ IS-∂p-Ib - ‰ - Ø - n\pw CS-bm°pw.

(7)

2011 Pq¨ 19 apX¬ 29 hsc ]mco-kn¬ tNcp∂ temI-ss]-XrI kan-Xn-bpsS 35˛maXv skj-\n¬ NphsS ]d-bp-∂h ss]Xr-I-ta-J-e-bmbn {]Jym-]n-°m-\n-S-bp≠v. ]›n-a-L´w (C¥y) ss{S\m-j-W¬ Unem kwL (dn∏-ªn°v Hm^v tImt¶m/Ima apX¬ /a[y B{^n-°≥ dn∏-ªn°v) t{K‰v dn^vSv hmen-bnse sI\n-b te°v knÃw

Ch aq∂pw {]Ir-Xn-ZØ ss]Xr-Iß - ƒ F∂ \ne-bn-emWv ]cn-KW - n-°s - ∏-´n-´p-≈Xv. A√msX AhnsS A[n-h-kn-°p∂ P\-ß-fpsS kmwkvIm-cnI aqey-߃°pw a‰pw bmsXmcp hnebpw Iev]n-°-s∏-´n-´n√.

ip]m¿i-Iƒ NphsS ]d-bp∂ Imcy-߃ temI-ss]-XrI kan-Xn-bpsS {i≤-bn¬ s]Sp-ØW - s - a∂v R߃ ÿncw ^md-Øn-t\mSv Bh-iy-s∏-Sp∂p. (a)

Xt±-i-hm-kn-I-fp-ambn IqSn-bm-tem-Nn-°m-sXbpw Ah-cpsS A\p-aXn hmßm-sXbp AhcpsS {]tZiw Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p≈ temI-ss]-XrI \ma-\n¿t±-i-߃ am‰n-sh-bv°pI.

(b)

]›n-a-L´w Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ taev]-d™ 3 \ma-\n¿t±-i-߃ am‰n-sh-bv°p-Ibpw _‘-s∏´-h-cp-ambn N¿®-sNbvXv Xt±-i-hm-kn-I-fpsS aqey-ßfpw Bh-iy-ßfpw \ma-\n¿t±-i-tc-JI-fn¬ {]Xn-^-en-°p∂p F∂v Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp-Ibpw sNøpI.

(C)

temI-ss]-Xr-I-߃ kw_-‘n® Xocp-am-\-sa-Sp-°p-tºmƒ Xt±-io-b-cpsS Ah-Im-i-߃ kw_-‘n® sFIy-cm-jv{S-k` {]Jym-]\w ASn-ÿm\ N´-°q-Smbn D]-tbm-Kn-°pI. Xt±io-b-cpsS {]iv\-߃ kw_-‘n® bp.-F≥.-Un.-Pn. am¿§-\n¿t±-i-ßfpw H∏w ]cn-K-Wn°pI.

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281


]›n-a-L´ kanXn dnt∏m¿´v ˛ 2011 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

klm-b-I-tc-J-Iƒ

References Alvares N. 2010. Political Struggle through Law The Public Interest Litigation (PIL) route to environmental security in India with special reference to the environment movement in Goa. WGEEP Commissioned paper. http:/ /www.westernghatsindia.org/commissioned-papers/ Anand