Institute for European Studies at UBC | 1855 West Mall,Vancouver, BC, Canada
Annual Report 2009
Copyright 2010 Institute for European Studies Editorial: Kurt HĂźbner and Andrew J. Gertge Design and Layout: Andrew J. Gertge, J. Robertson McIlwain and Marko Pajalic Photography: Marko Pajalic, Lukas Vitalijus, Francisco BeltrĂĄn, UBC Public Affairs and pictures submitted by IES speakers, faculty and staff
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FACULTY AND STAFF
This last year marked an absolute high point in the Dear friends of the IES, history of the IES in Even though Canada fared terms of building our relatively well in the financial and economic crisis, the same reputation for serious cannot be said for its universities. Even the country’s finest schools scholarship and public faced tough funding decisions after watching the market value engagement.” of their endowments shrink. The strategic response of the IES to this challenge has been to increase the visibility of our academic endeavors. This last year marked an absolute high point in the history of the IES in terms of building IES Director, Kurt Hübner our reputation for serious scholarship and public engagement. This report highlights the accomplishments achieved by the prodigious work of the small IES team and our students. This year also marked the official launch of negotiations for a Canada-EU Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement, which heralds even closer ties between the two entities. History teaches us that such political agreements bring about a strong demand for highly qualified experts to optimize the benefits from all areas of cooperation. To breathe life into this political agreement, deep knowledge of the institutional, political, economic and cultural particularities of the EU and its member states is needed. I am excited to say that our teaching and research programs at the IES are perfectly suited to provide the kind of intellectual underpinning required. The results of our research and teaching activities confirm that we are on the right track to continue training the next pioneering generation of students of European Studies. We are well aware that within in a Canadian university, a European Studies focus will invariably occupy a ‘niche market’ and is unlikely to develop into an enormous program. Nonetheless, major Canadian research universities are now making substantial investments to keep up with the fierce competition in this area of expertise. It is to be hoped that the IES will continue to receive adequate support from UBC to keep its pole position in this exciting race—one with so many positive spillover effects for the field of European Studies.
Kurt Hübner IES Director and Professor
FACULTY AND STAFF FACULTY AND VISITING SCHOLARS Kurt Hübner Director and Professor Dietmar Schirmer Lecturer
Frank Gerlach Short-term Visiting Researcher
Francisco Beltrán Visiting Researcher
Karin Schittenhelm Short-term Visiting Researcher
Hans-Gerd Ridder Short-term Visiting Researcher
Alexander Smoltczyk Goethe Writer-in-Residence
January to June 2009 Andrew J. Gertge J. Robertson McIlwain Jason Young Dumitru Constantinescu David Brooks Patricia Reid
Kerstin Lüttich Program Coordinator
September to December 2009 Andrew J. Gertge J. Robertson McIlwain
Roxana del Rio Administrative Officer
Ljiljana Biukovic Faculty of Law
Brian McIlroy Department of Film Studies
Julian Dierkes Institute of Asian Research
Angela Oâ€™Mahony Department of Political Science
Antje Ellerman Department of Political Science
Gaby Pailer Department of Central, Eastern and Northern European Studies
Gregory Feldman Department of Geography Sima Godfrey Department of French, Hispanic and Italian Studies
Philip Resnick Department of Political Science
Markus Hallensleben Department of Central, Eastern and Northern European Studies
Allen Sens Department of Political Science
Alan Jacobs Department of Political Science
Yves Tiberghien Department of Political Science
Merje Kuus Department of Geography
Peter Petro Department of Central, Eastern and Northern European Studies
PROGRAMS MASTER OF ARTS IN EUROPEAN STUDIES
The Institute for European Studies offers a Master of Arts program in European Studies. The MA program in European Studies is a two-year, full-time interdisciplinary course of study which addresses the need for students to meet and understand the complex and changing realities of European politics, economics and culture in the 21st century. With the prospect of the enlargement of the European Community, Europe represents a major political and cultural force as well as a major trading partner for Canadians. Students trained in the MA program will be well equipped to go on to academic research interests centring on Europe or professional career opportunities with a European focus. The current cohort of MA candidates is comprised more than fifty percent of international students, speaking to the international perspective of the program and quality of teaching. In addition to the international diversity, thestudents also represent interdisciplinary academic backgrounds. While new admissions for 2009 were suspended for financial restructuring, current MA students prepare for their 2010 graduation. Courses offered directly by the Inst itute (3 credits each): IEST 500 - Pro-Seminar in European Studies IEST 501 - Internship/Exchange IEST 505B - Methodologies in Interdisciplinary Studies IEST 511 - Extended Essay IEST 512 - MA Thesis IEST 521 - The Economics of European Integration IEST 531 - External Relations of the European Union IEST 533 - Geography of Europe IEST 541 - Political and Legal Foundations of the European Union IEST 561 - Citizenship and Migration in Contemporary Europe
PROGRAMS 2009 EU STUDY TOUR In 2009, the Institute for European Studies participated once again in the EU Study Tour and Internship Program, organized by a consortium of Canadian universities through the Network for European Studies (Canada). The Study Tour combines preparation in Canada with three weeks of seminars and presentations within the institutions of the European Union, as well as other significant European organizations. This year, the tour visited the European Commission, the European Parliament, the European Central Bank, the European Court of Justice, the Canadian Mission to the EU, the Quebec Delegation, the Turkish Mission to the EU, the Council of Europe and the European Court of Human Rights, the Russian Federation Mission to the EU and PAYOKE, an important NGO in the international fight against human trafficking, among other institutions.
INTERNSHIPS The Study Tour also presents internship opportunities to successful candidates. IES students were able to secure internships at the European Parliament, PAYOKE and the Canadian Mission to the EU. The IES strives to find funding for these internships but students are advised that tour, travel and living costs are ultimately their own responsibility. In 2009, through Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, the Network was able to provide a travel grant in the amount of $1000 to successful internship applicants.
RESEARCH CANADA AND GERMANY IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY The Canada and Germany in the Global Economy deals with three political-economic arenas and produces in-depth analyses on 1) trade policies of Canada and the EU, 2) environmental Plans in Canada and the EU and 3) adjusting to Strong Currencies. The project staff was extremely active in 2009, releasing a number of publications, including four policy briefs. In addition to the policy briefs, project Director Kurt Hübner delivered a number of presentations and lectures, and engaged members of other faculties to do the same. Some of the lectures have been posted online on the IES website.
POLICY BRIEFS FOR 2009* • Policy Brief 8: North America and EU Environmental Policy • Policy Brief 9: US, Canadian and EU Approaches to China’s Economic Rise: • Policy Brief 10: Carbon Capture and Storage • Policy Brief 11: Emissions Trading in the US and Canada
*Policy Briefs 1-7 were published in 2007-2008 and are available online at www.ies.ubc.ca
RESEARCH THE EURO AS INTERNATIONAL CURRENCY Since 2003, the Euro has appreciated strongly against the US-Dollar. Some commentators even talk about handing the torch as an international currency from the US-Dollar to the Euro. It goes without further saying that not only the economic actors of the Euro zone, but also global actors have accepted the Euro. For the last four years the Euro has dominated the chosen currencies for new bond issues. It is also used as a peg or anchor for exchange rates, for invoicing or simply as a parallel currency in a broad range of economies. Euro-denominated deposits have increased and we can observe a migration from banks in the US to banks resident in Europe. The strong appreciation of the Euro against the US-Dollar but also against the Japanese Yen and the Chinese Yuan has put strong pressure on European exporters but also partially neutralized the increases of the price for oil. Weaker economies of the Euro zone seem to suffer relatively heavily under the appreciation and also the inflation-fighting bias of the European Central Bank. The project analyzes the implications of the appreciation of the Euro and its strong role as an international currency for the strategic position of the ECB. Referring to new analytical analyses on exchange rates and economic sectors, the project will present a comprehensive interpretation of the changes happening in the world of global currencies. Research for this project is currently on track for completion in 2010. A book deal has already been signed for immediate publishing by Routledge. Research Team: Kurt Hübner Director, IES Patricia Reid Research Assistant,Winter 2009 Sponsors: • German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) • Research Platform Université de Montréal,York University, University of British Columbia • SSHRC Strategic Knowledge Cluster
RESEARCH TRANSATLANTIC POST-KYOTO CLIMATE STRATEGIES The Kyoto-protocol will run out at the end of 2012. Even after the global climate conference in Copenhagen, negotiations are still under way to find an inclusive and comprehensive international follow-up agreement. The Kyoto-protocol will run out at the end of 2012. The EU so far played a very forceful role in those international agreements and has positioned itself as a global leader in climate fighting. Canada hitherto has missed the opportunity to position itself on side with the EU. Despite its official declarations for the EU and Canada to come to a successful conclusion of the Copenhagen negotiations, Canada’s current government remains a policy-follower of the US. The challenge of unilateral action by one national economy consists of relative higher costs for the acting economy, as fighting global warming ultimately entails rising costs for emitters (producers and/or consumers). On the other hand, acting alone at a very early stage may be the source for first-mover advantages that may be accrued as economic, political, and cultural rents. This project analyazes the stakes involved in climate policy formation and the domestic in-fights between various actors and sectors on both sides of the Atlantic. Research Team: Kurt Hübner Director, IES Andrew J. Gertge Research Assistant, Spring and Winter 2009 J. Robertson McIlwain Research Assistant, Spring and Winter 2009 Sponsors: • SSHRC Strategic Knowledge Cluster (outreach programs) • German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) • The German Federal Government • The Goethe Insitute, Toronto
RESEARCH TWENTY YEARS LATER When the Wall came down in November 9, 1989, nobody foresaw the rapid dynamics that resulted in the German unification of the 1990. The scene was set for a second economic miracle that would transform the shady nationalized sectors of the former GDR-planned economy into blooming landscapes, as former Chancellor Kohl put it, of capitalist origin.The processes, however, turned out to be more complicated. The project, under the directorship of Dr. Kurt Huebner, takes stock of the socio-economic changes in the Neue Laender. Visiting researchers from Europe stay up to one month at the IES and perform their inquiries. In 2009, the IES welcomed this projectâ€™s final researcher in residence, Prof. Frank Gerlach . The project received support from the Stifterverband der Deutschen Wissenschaft.
IES DEVELOPMENTS FACULTY INVOLVEMENT In addition to running the Institute, teaching courses, organizing events and pursuing his own research, IES Director Kurt Hübner delivered a number of guest lectures and papers at Universities across North America and Europe. Dr. Huebner also offered research seminars at LUISS University in Rome and at Hebrew University in Jersusalem in order to develkop and strengthen the international ties of the IES. Marking another Institute success, IES Director Kurt Hübner was selected by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) as one of its 2009 Research Ambassadors. As a newly appointed Research Ambassador, Prof. Hübner will “dedicate his time and energy toward spreading the word about research and study in (Germany) and foster among colleagues and students a deeper understanding of the country, its people, and the academic opportunities it offers.” The Research Ambassador program brought Prof. Hübner to the DAAD New York headquarters for special training.
STUDENT BODY The IES delivers a MA program that is highly attractive both in Canada and internationally. The current cohort, set to graduate in 2010 is a highly qualified, diverse, multi-disciplinary and international group that continues to perform exceptionally and obtain prestigious and competitive internships, jobs and PhD spots. Despite the desire from the IES and its students for further growth, admissions have been temporarily put on hold due to the inability of the College for Interdisciplinary Studies to ensure sufficient funding for the smooth operation of the MA program.
IES DEVELOPMENTS Building on the successes accomplished in 2008, the IES students, alumni, faculty and associates continued to pursue and achieve excellence around the globe in 2009.
STRATEGIC CLUSTER PARTNERSHIP In 2009, the IES increased its participation in the Strategic Cluster entitled Canada-Europe transatlantic dialogue: seeking transnational solutions to 21st century problems. In June, the IES faculty joined the launch of the Canada-Europe Transatlantic Dialogue SSHRC Cluster in Berlin where the SSHRC Cluster held its Europe launch at the Canadian Embassy, as well as at the Free University of Berlin. IES Director Kurt Hübner, the IES associate faculty Ljiljana Biukovic (Associate Professor, Faculty of Law) and Yves Tiberghien (Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science), and Professor Dan Hiebert (Professor, Social and Cultural Geography) proudly represented UBC at the event.
GRADUATE ACADEMIC NETWORK After the 2008 IES launch of the international academic Graduate Network focused on European issues, the IES is now able to send up to three Phd students for up to 4 months of study in Germany (Dresden), the Netherlands (Amsterdam) and Bulgaria (Sofia). In 2009, two former IES M.A. graduates—David Meola (History) and Conrad King (Political Science)—participated in the exchange. The network is generously supported by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).
EVENT HIGHLIGHTS The IES organized a vibrant set of public events in 2009. These events represent a focus within the IES to increase in the substance and visibility of its activity on and beyond the UBC campus. From high-profile visits to in-depth, collaborative research projects, the IES continues to engage the transatlantic community while tackling topics that matter.
Book Presentation The Liu Institute for Global Issues and the Institute for European Studies hosted Christopher Shulgan. Shulgan presented his book, “The Soviet Ambassador: The Making of the Radical behind Perestroika” which was shortlisted for the 2009 BC National Award for Canadian Fiction. The book focuses on Aleksandr Yakovlev, former Ambassador in Canada for the Soviet Union, and the right hand man of Mikhail Gorbachev. Although formerly a faithful communist, here in Canada Yakovlev began to understand western democracies through his close friendship with Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. He became fascinated with elections, and became an expert in the workings of a market economy.
University of Washington Euromasters Visit The IES was very pleased to host once again another cohort of students from the University of Washington Euromasters program.
Dr. Klaus Töpfer, former Executive Director of the UN Environment Programme The Euromasters students toured the IES and attended the talk by the Ambassador of Slovenia to Canada. These annual visits are a unique opportunity for the Westcoast’s aspiring scholars of Europe to exchange views, socialize and nurture not only Canada-US, but also global academic linkages in both a formal and informal setting.
Visit by the Ambassador of Slovenia The Ambassador of Slovenia to Canada, His Excellency Tomaz Kunstelj, the IES on Slovenia’s transition from a former Yugoslav Republic to full EU membership. Before IES M.A. students, visiting Euromasters students and the public at large, the Ambassador presented an insider’s perspective on the challenges encountered on the road to the EU.
Visit by the Ambassador of Denmark to Canada
EVENT HIGHLIGHTS His Excellency, Poul Eric Dam Kristensen, Ambassador of Denmark to Canada spoke before a large audience at the IES. His lecture titled, “A European Approach to Kyoto II”, highlighted the EU’s role in global climate policy formation and highlighted Denmark’s challenges and successes in this policy area. His address attracted students and professors from a wide swath of faculties and his comments sparked a lively post-lecture discussion.
International Workshop - Canada & the EU/Germany in the Global Trading Regime Dr. Stephen Woolcock from the London School of Economics gave the keynote address at the IES two-day international workshop titled, “Canada & the EU/ Germany in the Global Trading Regime: Challenges & Opportunities.” The workshop highlighted the most recent developments in the EU-Canada Comprehensive Trade and Economic Agreement and revealed the latest research concerning the impacts of such an agreement. Prominent politicians like Fred Kingston, Senior Advisor on Economic and Trade Issues Delegation of the European Commission in
Canada spoke at the conference roundtable. Renown scholars from Paris, Munich, Amsterdam, Lausanne, Toronto, Pittsburg, Vancouver and Victoria presented original research on Canada-EU trade and expanded the discussion surrounding the proposed partnership agreement.
Visit by Giovanni Di Girolamo, Acting Head of the EU Delegation to Canada
Visit by Ross Hornby, Canada’s Ambassador to the EU His excellency, Ross Hornby, met with faculty, staff and students to discuss issues around the offical negotiations on the Canada-EU Comprehensive Trade and Economic Partnership.
Television Appearance Director of the IES, Kurt Hübner, appeared on Canada’s Business News Network (BNN) to join Canadian Auto Workers President, Ken Lewenza, in discussing Magna International’s purchase of General Motor’s Opel division. The 11-minute video clip entitled, “Squeezeplay”, is available online here [http://watch. bnn.ca/squeezeplay/september-2009/squeezeplay-september-10-2009/#clip212064]
Talks from the IES Writer in Residence, Alexander Smoltczyk.
EVENT HIGHLIGHTS The IES was honoured to host Goethe Writer in Residence, Alexander Smoltczyk. Smoltczyk is the Rome Bureau Chief for Der Spiegel, Germany’s leading news magazine. Smoltczyk visited UBC’s School of Journalism for a talk on “Breaking the Vatican’s Walls”. The open lecture addressed the feasibility of journalism within a closed system such as the Vatican, where only two people are allowed to speak to the press: the Pope and his public relations representative. The IES website also hosts the English translation of Smoltczyk’s travelling blog that investigates the staggering drop in spawning salmon in Vancouver’s Fraser River.
ern and Northern European Studies to host a conference titled, “Luxury and Gender: Cross-Disciplinary Explorations of a Strange Alliance.”
Conference on Transatlantic PostKyoto Strategies
The “Post-Kyoto Strategies Compared: European & North American Pathways to Carbon-Neutral Market Economies” conference at the UBC Institute for European studies was by far the largest and most anticipated event of the year. The conference drew a record-setting audience and brought together policy, government and academic leaders from across Europe and North America. The event featured a keynote address from the former Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme, Klaus Töpfer. Key diplomats and specialists such as Georg Jürgens from the German Embassy, Giovanni Di Girolamo from the EU Delegation, Till Kotter from the Heinrich-Böll-Foundation, Ingrid Iremark from the Swedish embassy and James Mack from the BC Climate Secretariat joined Töpfer in the roundtable discussion. The conference featured original research presented by notable scholars from Germany, Norway, Brussels, Ontario, Washington, DC and British Columbia, including presentations by Kurt Hübner and IES alumna, Patricia Ried.
The Institute for European Studies cooperated with the Department of Central, East-
The presentations given at the conference are available in PDF format on the IES website: www.ies.ubc.ca.
Presentation by IES Visiting Scholar, Dr. Frank Gerlach Dr. Frank Gerlach, a Visiting Scholar at the IES presented a talk titled ,”Twenty Years after the Fall of the Wall: Persistent Regional Inequalities or Catching Up?”. Gerlach’s engaging presentation was part of the IES ongoing “Twenty Years Later” project. This talk was co-sponsored by the IES and the Stifterverband der Deutschen Wissenschaft.
Conference on Luxury and Gender
STUDENT ACHIEVEMENTS CURRENT STUDENT SUCCESSES The IES is proud to report an exciting and successful year for its students. PhD ADMISSIONS In 2009, three IES students were admitted, with full funding, to PhD programs at top Canadian and International universities. Sara Hall is pursuing her PhD research in the Department of Sociology at McGill University and Conrad King, a 2008 alumni, received offers from the Technical University of Dresden, Queens University and the University of British Columbia. Following a careful consideration of all offers, Conrad decided to pursue his PhD on the Bologna process in the UBC Department of Political Science. Jason R. Young received two attractive offers from McGill University and the University of British Columbia in addition to The University of Oxford (where he was previously admitted). Both Sara Hall and Jason Young were also awarded prestigious four-year University of British Columbia University Graduate Fellowships (valued at $16,000 Cdn plus tuition for 4 years). INTERNATIONAL SCHOLARSHIPS AND INTERNSHIPS Zsuzsanna Suba (2008) obtained a five-month internship with the Council of Europe starting January. Zsuzsanna worked in the DG Coordination and Horizontal Management and joined three other IES students interning in Brussels. Patricia Reid, also a second-year IES student, completed an internship at Institute for Ecological Economy Research (Institut für ökologische Wirtschaftforschung) in Berlin, Germany. Patricia was given the opportunity to present her resulting research on the “green” components of European and North American Stimulus packages at the IES Post-Kyoto Conference held in October. Patricia’s internship was sponsored by the Canada-Europe Transatlantic Dialogue, an initiative funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC). Andrew J. Gertge, another second-year IES student, was selected as an associate writer for the GLOBE Foundation of Canada, the organizer of North America’s premier conference and trade show concerning business and the environment. Working in GLOBE’s Vancouver office, Andrew drafted and published articles exploring the ways businesses in Europe and North America are finding economic success from tackling environmental challenges.
STUDENT ACHIEVEMENTS David Brooks, a second-year IES student, won the highly competitive 2009 DAAD Graduate Scholarship. David was one of few Canadians to win the DAAD scholarship, which is largely aimed at the scholars based at US universities. The award allows David to undertake independent study and an internship in Germany, where he is focusing on issues surrounding international security and trans-Atlantic relations. INVOLVEMENT IN CONFERENCES AND OTHER PROGRAMS Conrad King, an alumnus of the IES (2008) and a PhD student in the political science department at UBC, was invited to attend a special observation tour for the German federal election. This nine day tour included participants from across the EU, as well as Canada, the USA, Russia, Japan, and Israel. It involved cultural events, round-tables and discussions, lectures by esteemed political scientists and media experts, and the observation of the final pre-election meetings of the major political parties. The tour culminated with Election Day, September 27, when the participants met some of the candidates and attended the after-election celebrations.
J. Robertson McIlwain, a second-year M.A. student at the UBC Institute for European Studies, was offered a Freie Universität Fellowship for his participation in the PhD Workshop “Forging Closer Ties: Transatlantic Relations, Climate and Energy”. The generous Fellowship gave McIlwain an allexpenses-paid opportunity to present at the Berlin conference his research on carbon capture and storage. Julian M. Campisi and J. Robertson McIlwain, under the direction of Dr. Kurt Hübner, successfully submitted a policy paper to the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Foreign Policy eDiscussion series.“The Foreign Policy website is host to an ongoing series of policy eDiscussions. The goal of these eDiscussions is to provide Canadians the opportunity for discussion and input into policy development.” This particular paper was submitted under the Canada-European Union Relations initiative. RESEARCH ASSISTANTSHIPS In support of students’ professional development the IES secured funding for several Research Assistantships at the IES. The students assisted with researching and writing policy briefs, organizing events and conferences and creating promotional material. The IES employed six parttime Research Assistants in 2009.
STUDENT ACHIEVEMENTS 2008 MA THESES AND DIRECTED PAPERS Theses The Blue Card: EU’s Race for Talent Johanna Nielsen Rewriting Francite in the Cite nationale de l’histoire de l’immigration Sara Hall Female Genital Mutilation in France and UK: The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Policy Formation Margery Pazdor A Novel Idea: The Role of the Temporary Committee on Climate Change in the European Parliament and the European Union Christian Stockman Nationalism and ethnicity as identity politics in Eastern Europe and the Basque Country Jason Young Flying Friendlier Skies: The Effect of the 2002 ECJ ‘Open Skies’ Ruling on EU-US Air Transportation Negotiations - A Study in Policy Convergence Keith Smith
Directed Papers Assessing the Successes of ‘Soft Power’ Security: Examining the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and Sectoral Security Amalia Szilagyi European Union-Russia Energy Relations: Myths of Dependency-Paradoxes of Interdepedency Vitalijus Lukas
WEBSITE SNAPSHOT www.ies.ubc.ca As part of the Institute’s outreach strategy, the IES maintains and regularly updates its web site. The web site showcases student and faculty achievements, informs visitors about the research programs at the IES and prospective students about the MA program, and serves as a resource for current students by posting various academic and professional opportunities and links. Key web statistics for the 2009 year: • 38,545 number of times pages were viewed • 60% of visitors were new visitors • 15,955 visits from 136 countries • 9,548 were unique visitors Traffic Pattern by Daily Visits
Traffic by Geographic Source
Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada DHL European Commission European Community Studies Association, Canada European Union Delegation to Canada French Consulate General,Vancouver, BC Fritz Thyssen Foundation, Cologne (Germany) German Academic Exchange Network (DAAD) German Consulate General,Vancouver, BC Hans Bรถckler Stiftung Istituto italiano,Vancouver, BC Italian Consulate General,Vancouver, BC Lufthansa Research Development Fund (CFIS), UBC Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council Canada Stifterverband der Deutschen Wissenschaft Technical University Dresden Transatlantic Program of the Federal Republic of Germany funded by the European Recovery Program (ERP) of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology UBC Department of Political Science UBC Department of Theatre and Film UBC Institute for Asian Research UBC Office of the Associate Vice President International, International Community Engagement University of Montreal University of Victoria University of Amsterdam York University
Published on Feb 9, 2011