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ALL PARTY PARLIAMENTARY GROUP ON NIGERIA

ALL PARTY PARLIAMENTARY GROUP ON NIGERIA

REPORT OF THE ALL PARTY PARLIAMENTARY GROU ! OF THE ALL PARTY PARLIAMENTARY ! ALL PARTY PARLIAMENTARY GROUP ON NIGERIA REPORT NIGERIA !""#$!%&'#$!%"(!)*+&!%'#,%-.$#-+#+(,*%(!# NIGERIA 4TH NOVEMBER - 10TH NOVEMBER 2007 VISIT ANNUAL REPORT 2009 4TH NOVEMBER - 10TH NOVEMBER 2007 VISIT OBSERVATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

OBSERVATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

OF THE ALLNIGERIA: PARTY PARLIAMENTARY GROUP ONSECOND TESTING TIMES AND

CHANCES

NIGERIA 4TH NOVEMBER - 10TH NOVEMBER 2007 VISIT OBSERVATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

SUPPORTED BY:

SUPPORTED BY:

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C h a i r : J o h n R o b e r t s o n M P • P o r t c u l l i s H o u s e L o n d o n S W 1 A 2 LW • C o n t a c t : e d o n n e l l y @ c h a t h a m h o

C h a i r : J o h n R o b e r t s o n M P • P o r t c u l l i s H o u s e L o n d o n S W 1 A 2 LW • C o n t a c t : e d o n n e l l y

t s o n M P • P o r t c u l l i s H o u s e L o n d o n S W 1 A 2 LW • C o n t a c t : e d o n n e l l y @ c h a t h a m h o u s e . o r g . u k


All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009 Nigeria: Testing Times and Second Chances

Contents Acknowledgments

3

Executive summary

5

Recommendations

7

Introduction

9

1. Government and the People

10

Corruption and transparency

10

Elections and opposition

12

Institutions and individuals

12

2. Human Rights and Inequality

14

Women and Children

14

Human Rights and Conflict: the case of Jos

16

The Human Rights Commission and Conflict Resolution

17

The Media

19

3. Business and Development Implementation and Delivery

20 21

4. Danger and opportunity in the Niger Delta

23

Conclusion

26

Appendices

27 Appendix I: Nigeria APPG meetings in 2008

27

Appendix II: Itinerary of 2008 visit to Nigeria

28

Appendix III: Acronyms

29

Appendix IV: Media Coverage of Nigeria Visit

30

Appendix V: Map of Nigeria

36

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

Acknowledgments

The All Party Parliamentary Group has no resources of its own; it is able to do its work because of the support provided by a wide network of contacts. The APPG exists because of the knowledge, dedication and enthusiasm of its contacts and friends. I would like to thank all those the APPG met with in London throughout the year and in Nigeria during its December 2009 visit. The APPG benefits greatly from their time, information and hospitality, and we thank them for this. The Group particularly extends its grateful thanks to the Christian and Muslim representatives from Jos who travelled to Kaduna to speak with the delegation about the Jos crisis. It would like to thank the staff at the University of Ibadan for their time and hospitality. The APPG is grateful to the Institute of Tropical Agriculture, the Justice, Development and Peace Commission and the National Agency for Prohibition of Traffic in Persons for informative meetings. The APPG would like to thank Kaduna State Governor HE Namadi Sambo and the Nigerian Union of Local Government Employees for their gracious hospitality. The Group would also like to extend its thanks to Hon. Abike Dabiri-Erewa, Hon. Beni Lar and Hon. Ndudi Godwin Elumelu and their committees for their time. Finally, the APPG is grateful to the people of the Iddo Sarki community for welcoming it to their village. For the second time, Virgin Nigeria supported the APPG visit to Nigeria. The Group thanks Virgin Nigeria for its support and excellent service, and in particular extends warmest thanks to Conrad Clifford, Emma Martin, Gerry Brace and the staff at Abuja and Lagos airports. The APPG extends its grateful thanks to Shell International for making this visit possible. The APPG would like to thank Elizabeth Donnelly of Chatham House, the group coordinator, for administrative and research support. Andrew Woodcock accompanied the delegation on its visit and the Group thanks him for his assistance. The Group is most grateful to the Nigerian High Commission in London for its kind assistance ahead of the trip and thanks HE High Commissioner Dalhatu Tafida and Akin Oyateru, Head of Political Affairs. Without the hard work of the staff of the British High Commission in Nigeria, APPG visits would not be possible. The Group is grateful for the High Commission’s organisation, support and advice. It thanks HE High Commissioner Bob Dewar for his time and hospitality. Thanks also to Deputy High Commissioner in Lagos Richard Powell, Jonathan Bacon, Kate Airey and Tunde Asaju. Thanks also to Richard Rose for his hard work and support – particularly after my accident in Kaduna. The Group would like to extend particular thanks to Wale Adebajo for his support, hard work and forbearance during the delegation’s visit. The group met with a great many people during its visit to Nigeria and throughout the year, and is grateful to them all for the support, time and friendship they have given us. Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

Finally, I would like to thank Anthony Wright MP, Stephen Hepburn MP and Michael Connarty MP for joining the 2008 delegation to Nigeria and for their interest, commitment and support.

John Robertson MP, Chair, All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria

The APPG delegation with staff of the Justice, Development and Peace Commission

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

Nigeria: Testing Times and Second Chances Executive Summary Nigeria remains an important country, more populous than any other on the continent, in a position to offer leadership in the region and the world. With its growing social, cultural and economic links, what happens in Nigeria affects the UK. This is why it is so important that the UK Government remains focused on offering partnership and leadership in its relations with Nigeria. A delegation of the British All Party Parliamentary Group visited Nigeria for a fourth time in late 2008. Members were impressed once again by the determination and resourcefulness demonstrated by Nigerians as they seek to overcome the considerable challenges before them. The commitment of those international partners, in particular the UK, who seek to support Nigeria’s reform efforts, was also clear. Unfortunately, Nigeria’s vast potential remains largely untapped and the dangers from corruption and mismanagement are growing once again. Nigeria’s resources have for the most part been exploited for the wrong reasons and have been used to shore up leaders who are failing to deliver to their people and meet stated promises and expectations. Internationally, Nigeria’s reputation as the home of financial crime continues to precede it and it is perceived to be a difficult and risky country in which to do business. While the country is treated with caution, it is still seen as a key oil producer, being the eighth largest exporter of crude oil to the United States and Europe, and it has the largest domestic market in Africa. Nigeria has an array of challenges to overcome: problems of accountability and transparency, human rights violations, a flagging power sector, political manipulation creating conflict, an economy dominated by oil. Nigeria hopes to be among the top twenty world economies by 2020 (Vision 2020), but this will not happen unless its leadership – at all levels, including federal, state and local government and civil society leaders – becomes organised and takes direct responsibility for the people. This is not only Nigeria’s challenge, however. The international community shares this challenge and despite Nigeria’s importance in the world there has been insufficient international coordinated will or action in engagement with the country. Issues are addressed piecemeal – corruption or the Niger Delta, for example – but patient and willing engagement is lacking. A Nigeria that does not function as it could or should is costly to its people and to the world. Though the country is too often viewed first and only as a producer of oil, it has massive economic potential, is a cultural hub, with a burgeoning film industry, and is a nation of ethnic and religious diversity. There are an estimated 10 million Nigerians living abroad, if not more, and what happens in Nigeria has impacts around the world. Despite the difficulties of the challenges faced, and frequent signs of deterioration rather than progress, the international community cannot afford to shrug its shoulders Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

and be overcome with pessimism, nor can it afford to avoid engagement because Nigeria is ‘too difficult’. Many blame oil production for Nigeria’s woes. The country was flooded with oil profits when systems could not cope with them. Oil has fuelled economic dependency, corruption and poverty. However, oil is a fact of life in Nigeria, the reserves will not run out any time soon and though production may be hindered or prevented, the oil will remain to be exploited. There is no alternative but to make oil work for the benefit of Nigerians as a whole. This means first and foremost clamping down on corruption and improving transparency and making a concurrent improvement in government accountability. The Nigerian people have learnt to function without a government, fending for themselves where there is failure to deliver public services. While this has been a matter of necessity, continuing this disconnect between government and the people will maintain the status quo of mass poverty, crime and corruption. For progress to be made in Nigeria, those positives that do exist – and there are many – need to be strengthened. These include grassroots and civil society organising from below, creating pressure for democratic accountability; successful businesses in the non-oil sector and other growing economic activity including farming; bold and creative individuals, be they in business, government or civil society, who show a wish and willingness to benefit their country; and smallscale successful projects run through community-government-NGO/donor cooperation. Furthermore, while this report looks at Nigeria and its challenges as a whole, it is important to remember that leadership and response to challenges vary from state to state, with some states such as Lagos, Kano, Kaduna and Cross River making real efforts to improve governance and service delivery. As detailed above, Nigeria’s challenges are numerous and therefore tangible progress in the short term is difficult – there needs to be longer-term vision for change on a macro scale. However, in the short term key factors need to be addressed to ensure this longer-term progress for the nation as a whole. Reform and capacity building of the Nigerian police force are essential, for protection of the most vulnerable, to help rather than hinder economic activity and for state legitimacy. In tandem, there is a need for judicial reform for a more efficient and effective justice system. Delivery on power is long overdue, to raise standards of living and enable businesses to grow. Further efforts to boost the agriculture sector as a way to diversify the economy and provide employment would help people in the more immediate future. In terms of politics, Nigeria is in great need of leadership, but also of strong and credible opposition parties. There has been a great deal of speculation that Nigeria’s young democracy is shifting towards a one-party state. This must be avoided at all costs. Nigeria’s Human Rights Commission needs to be strengthened and given independence; the Economic and Financial Crimes

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

Commission needs to be put back on track with all urgency; and local government authorities could benefit from training and project support and cooperation. The international community – including governments, businesses, media and non-governmental organisations – has a key role to play in supporting Nigeria to effect change. However, while approaches to Nigeria may be driven by similar interests and similar goals, they are too often uncoordinated. The international community – particularly the European Union and the United States ! will be in a much stronger position to provide more effective friendship to Nigeria if it speaks with one voice. Nigeria would benefit from knowing there was a ‘lead-country’ in the international community through which it could address those key issues mentioned above. This would also rationalise the use of limited capacity in government departments and institutions both in Nigeria and in its partner countries. The international community can offer friendship, support, encouragement, advice and where necessary honest criticism. However, overcoming Nigeria’s challenges is ultimately the job of its leaders – be they in government, civil society or the market place. Nigeria’s leaders have the power to change Nigeria and it is their responsibility to organise and make the necessary sacrifices. Any further deterioration in people’s circumstances or even a national crisis will cost Africa and the international community dear, but it will cost the Nigerian people a great deal more.

Recommendations •

The international community should nominate a ‘lead-country’ or establish a mechanism for a better-coordinated and more cooperative effort to support Nigeria on key issues.

The federal government and the Independent National Electoral Commission should swiftly and fully implement electoral reforms as recommended by the Electoral Reform Committee.

INEC should begin voter registration.

Reform of the Nigeria Police Force should be stepped up, with training, including in human rights matters, and better equipment.

Technical support in pursuit of the full independence and effectiveness of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission needs to be maintained. The EFCC needs to be granted full independence.

The donor community should continue and expand on existing efforts to provide training and capacity building to local government.

Members of Nigeria’s National Assembly should seriously consider supporting the Freedom of Information Bill.

State governments and donors should explore opportunities for cooperative development projects such as the Kano Wudil Region Integrated Water Supply Programme.

Those human rights treaties to which Nigeria is a signatory should be translated into local languages and made readily available through civil society organisations and local government authorities.

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

The Nigeria Human Rights Commission needs to be provided with the resources to enable it to work more effectively.

Federal and state governments need to ensure that the rights of journalists and documentary makers are protected.

The UK government in cooperation with the EU and United States government could explore the creation of an international cooperation group on oil bunkering.

Governments with influence over international oil companies should bring more pressure to bear on them to take further steps to stop gas flaring.

Those countries with an interest in the Niger Delta and the wellbeing of its people should begin discussions on a joint strategy for international cooperation with the federal and state governments and should select a lead-mediator.

Federal, state and local governments should make every effort to jointly deliver one or two small public services to Niger Delta states within the year, to be inaugurated by HE President Yar’Adua.

International non-governmental organisations should reach out to state governors and engage with the government and communities on development projects.

The delegation in Kaduna

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

Introduction The All Party Parliamentary Group (APPG) has for the last four years made annual visits to Nigeria. Between the 2007 and the 2008 visits there had been a noticeable shift in mood in Nigeria ! from one of optimism to one of pessimism. This change is the result of the perception that the executive is at a standstill and reform is faltering and of ongoing rumours about the President’s health. The APPG believes and insists, however, that though fragile in many ways Nigeria’s democracy and development will progress given the right approach, the right policies and above all action both by Nigeria’s leaders and by the international community. Despite its domestic challenges, Nigeria remains a regional superpower. A bright future with a successful economy and thriving democracy also remains a possibility, and it is in the interests of the UK and the international community to engage with and support the country. During its meetings and its visit to Nigeria in 2008, the APPG heard a wide range of experiences of Nigeria, from that of businessmen to that of impoverished women and children to that of politicians. What is clear from the various perspectives presented is that Nigeria is an extremely complex nation with considerable challenges to match. Though these challenges are not insurmountable, they are persistent and resolving them will require long-term strategies, engagement and patience. It is crucially important that Nigeria’s friends and partners in the international community recognise the need for sustained engagement and persistence through these challenges. For the APPG, the key challenge in Nigeria that must be overcome remains the disconnect between the governing and the governed. The Nigeria of the political elite and the Nigeria of the people remain two almost wholly separate entities. While this situation persists, adequate pressure cannot be brought on the government by the people to deliver public services. While many in power are aware of the challenges Nigeria confronts and are willing to address them, without real accountability there is not the urgency or unifying force to see full implementation and tangible results. With the real impacts of the global financial crisis on Africa as yet not fully evident or predictable, the need for action by bold individuals is becoming all the more urgent. Nigeria’s vast population needs a stable country and Africa needs a stable Nigeria. It is one thing to call for greater accountability but quite another to make it a reality. This report will look at practical ways of addressing the accountability gap.

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

1. Government and the People: Responsibility and Expectation It is an unfortunate fact that the government of Nigeria can function without the Nigerian people. With the exception of Lagos State, there is no system of direct taxation in place as the state is able to rely on oil revenues for funding, but the Nigerian people have no connection to the oil revenues. This has created a people and a governing elite that largely function as two parallel and wholly unconnected entities. With no provision of public services and no particular expectations of government in terms of delivery or accountability, the people provide for themselves. If left unaddressed, this disconnect will bring Nigeria’s democratic advancement to an end. The Nigerian people are a potential force that could push the elite towards democratic accountability over time, but they have to demand it and expect more of their government. Corruption and Transparency In order for this to happen the problem of corruption in Nigeria must be reduced. Elite corruption is made possible bythe lack of accountability and because it is what many have come to expect. Corruption is still seen as wrong, but the problem is so great and entrenched that many accept it and even expect it. The key institution charged with combating corruption in Nigeria, the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), has undergone many changes under the administration of President Yar’Adua. The EFCC is now perceived to be stumbling and many believe the it has been reduced from an effective institution to a symbolic organisation. The APPG delegation met with the EFCC during its visit to Nigeria in December 2008. It was clear that the Commission is dealing with its own challenges: the Group heard that as it was initially believed that the former Chair of the EFCC, Nuhu Ribadu, would be away only temporarily and had not been permanently removed from his post, he had not been formally replaced. The Commission also had to deal with changes of personnel and it has no control over which officers join it from other agencies. The EFCC also pointed out that the court system is slow and often all recovered moneys are used on legal fees. Delays in court cause witness fatigue and can be deliberate, the APPG heard. The Commission is advocating special courts to try economic crimes so as to speed up the process. The Group believes that such an initiative could benefit the anti-corruption fight if properly delivered. Since its establishment in 2003 the EFCC with the support of its partners has recovered US$5.6 billion. The Commission was seen to be making a real difference in Nigeria; now, unfortunately, the anti-corruption fight is seen to be too easily hijacked and manipulated by the powerful and those with a vested interest in the status quo. The EFCC needs its independence and it needs strong leadership. Though increasingly viewed with concern or even suspicion internationally, EFCC personnel and the anti-corruption effort will still benefit from training with partner institutions. The APPG understands that some in the international and donor community have become frustrated Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

with the apparent stalling of the anti-corruption effort, but it believes that rather than withdraw support and disengage, it is more important for them now to remain engaged to maintain pressure. While a withdrawal of support would give a clear signal of the international community’s frustration and loss of faith in the fight against corruption, it will not do anything to help revive the anticorruption effort. Continuing support and engagement represent a sign of continued interest which translates into pressure. Freedom of information could help to improve transparency and fight corruption and therefore improve accountability. The APPG met with the Nigerians in Diaspora Committee at the National Assembly, which wants to ensure that a Freedom of Information Bill is passed to help fight corruption. Support for the bill at the National Assembly is restricted because there is a belief that it will loosen libel laws, but it is not about media; it is about access to information. National Assembly support for this bill could be an important and meaningful step for Nigeria. Local government is vital in the effort to improve government accountability and the strength of democracy in Nigeria. It has the potential to empower Nigeria’s people, as it is responsible for delivery of basic health and education services. As much attention needs to be paid to activity at the local government level as to the federal government level, particularly on revenue, budgeting and expenditure. The Department for International Development (DFID) Nigeria is working with local government to build capacity in six states. One method of building capacity and improving accountability is through cooperation projects for service delivery involving state and local government, community boards and an international partner. One example of this is the successful Wudil Region Integrated Water Supply Programme in Kano, which brought together community members, local authorities, state government and the state water board and was facilitated by DFID’s State and Local Government Programme. In addition to capacity building there needs to be scrutiny of how local government money is spent; many public health workers and teachers receive late payment for their work or none at all. Information on budget allocation and expenditure needs to be made public. Recommendations: •

Technical support in pursuit of full independence and effectiveness of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission needs to be maintained. The EFCC needs to be granted full independence.

The donor community should continue and expand on existing efforts to provide training and capacity building to local government.

Members of Nigeria’s National Assembly should seriously consider supporting the Freedom of Information Bill.

State governments and donors should explore opportunities for cooperative development projects such as the Kano Wudil Region Integrated Water Supply Programme.

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

Elections and Opposition While debate in Nigeria can be lively, most of the country’s opposition parties are somewhat less vibrant. Many believe that Nigeria is sliding towards a one-party system, with the ruling People’s Democratic Party dominating the political scene. This could be very damaging to Nigeria’s democracy, which should provide a model for Africa. Reducing corruption and improving transparency are important to help strengthen opposition. However, it is also essential that Nigeria conducts credible elections. In its report on the 2007 visit, the APPG noted that the elections – state and presidential – had for the most part been flawed. Nigeria cannot afford to let this situation continue. The country and any hope of reform or moving forward are undermined if the government lacks legitimacy in the eyes of the people. Implementation of electoral reform recommendations is vital. The APPG was disappointed to learn that the President did not accept all of the Electoral Reform Committee’s recommendations, notably the one providing for the judiciary, not the President, to select the chair and board of the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC). There is a widely held perception in Nigeria and beyond that INEC is too close to the dominant party. Enacting this recommendation would have helped to reduce this perception and increase confidence in INEC. As 2011 is not far away, preparations for the state and presidential elections that year should be under way. Voter registration for the next elections needs to begin. Recommendations: • The federal government and the Independent National Electoral Commission should swiftly and fully implement electoral reforms as recommended by the Electoral Reform Committee. • INEC should begin voter registration.

Institutions and Individuals With stronger institutions, many of the challenges relating to governance in Nigeria could be reduced. At present many of the country’s institutions are hampered by a lack of human capacity, inadequate funding and the direct and indirect consequences of corruption. This means that they cannot manage crises or many of Nigeria’s long-term challenges. Given these limitations, the actions of individuals matter all the more. Creative and bold individuals can make a great difference, and the example that was repeatedly cited to the APPG on its visit was that of the Lagos State Governor, HE Babatune Fashola. Lagos has been one of the most successful states in terms of taking reforms forward and it is trying to boost taxation to provide more services. In the case of the EFCC, it is widely believed that the leadership change came before the institution was Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

strong enough or firmly enough established to continue to work effectively regardless of personnel changes. Civil society has a role to play in institution building in Nigeria. Though Nigeria faces a growing challenge in terms of human capacity, particularly since the education system has been in decline, it does have a pool of talented, experienced and resourceful individuals who could be of great assistance in strengthening Nigeria’s public institutions. The Nigeria Leadership Initiative is one example of this talent pool. There are as many as 10 million Nigerians living abroad, perhaps more. This is also a great resource for institutional capacity building in Nigeria. Host country institutions and diaspora groups need to work with the Federal Government of Nigeria and the Nigerians in Diaspora Committee to work out how to enable this group to contribute to institution building. During its visit, the APPG delegation met with the deputy vice-chancellor and senior staff at the University of Ibadan. Established in 1948, the university was initially part of the University of London. Staff commented, however, that they had seen a decline in partnerships with international universities, and higher education standards in Nigeria fell significantly during the years of military rule. The University of Ibadan is seeking support and staff collaboration with other institutions. Many of Nigeria’s higher education institutions would benefit from partnership and assistance from international universities and education organisations. If Nigeria is to build stronger institutions, and appoint creative and talented individuals to power them, it must have quality universities. For many universities based in the West there may be hesitancy when it comes to partnering with higher education institutions in Nigeria or running departments at Nigerian universities due to the perceived difficulty of the operating environment. Nigerian academics and the diaspora, together with the British Council, must face the challenge of finding and building the confidence of potential partners.

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

2. Human Rights and Inequality Lack of realisation of basic human rights came up repeatedly during the 2008 visit of the Group. This is an issue that stems from and in turn feeds into the problems of unaccountable government and corruption discussed in the previous section. Failure to deliver basic services – electricity, adequate water supply, health and education – has a knock-on effect, negatively impacting other rights. For the third consecutive year the APPG delegation visited the community and school at Iddo Sarki outside Abuja. While the community has grown, nothing has yet been done about the broken standpipe network and lack of fresh water. The teachers have to manage with about 100 children in each classroom. Women and Children One of the most disturbing visits that the APPG delegation made during its stay in Nigeria was to the Justice, Development and Peace Commission’s (JDPC) Campaign Against Female Genital Mutilation (FGM or cutting). FGM is a common practice in Nigeria, with an estimated 60% of the female population undergoing the procedure. They may be put through the harrowing ordeal as babies or young girls, or just before marriage. The procedure is not performed under sterile conditions, and no anaesthetic is provided. Infections, cysts and complications during childbirth are common. Victims are twice as likely to die in childbirth, and three times as likely to give birth to a stillborn child. Nevertheless, women who do not have the procedure are seen as unclean and are ostracised. UK-based Nigerian girls have been flown back to undergo the procedure and the group was told that circumcisers are now being flown to the UK. The Metropolitan Police have set up a unit to investigate the practice. They estimate that 7,000 young girls in the UK are still at risk of having the procedure forcibly carried out on them. Although some states have outlawed FGM, there has yet to be a prosecution. The JDPC has responded to the problem by organising workshops to try and increase awareness about the dangers of the practice. It has committees that visit communities and traditional leaders. The JDPC’s work is challenging and results are slow to come since FGM in Nigeria, as in many parts of Africa, is a traditional practice. Education and raising awareness are of great importance in trying to reduce and ultimately halt cutting. The JDPC argues that the Child’s Rights Act, adopted in Nigeria in 2003, needs to be translated into local dialects. If people are to attain their rights it is crucial that they should be educated about those rights. Making human rights documents available in local languages is one way of doing this. The practice of FGM is just one example of many dangers women and children face in Nigeria. In 2007 an APPG delegation visiting Kano heard from women in community groups involved in Save Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

the Children’s child protection programmes about their efforts to cope with poverty. In November 2008, the APPG hosted a meeting with Stepping Stones Nigeria on the subject of torture of children in Nigeria, under the pretext of exorcism of ‘child witches’. During their 2008 visit the APPG also heard from the National Agency for Prohibition of Traffic in Persons (NAPTIP) about how children are trafficked in from countries surrounding Nigeria for labour exploitation. In an environment where poverty and insecurity go hand in hand, women and children are the most vulnerable. This vulnerability is exacerbated by weak institutions and a lack of local capacity to protect them. That the police are considered an additional threat to women rather than a potential protection is another problem. When it comes to domestic violence, child abuse, FGM and other crimes, law enforcement tends at best to take a hands-off approach as these are considered ‘family matters’. At worst, it is alleged that some police officers take part in the abuses themselves. The fracture between people and the police is considerable and dangerous. With a reputation for corruption and extrajudicial killings, the police are feared by the people. With few resources to confront better-armed criminal gangs, the police may feel defensive and too often endangered. DFID is working with the National Police Force in ten states through its Security, Justice and Growth programme, which provides training in community policing and oversight. This programme is due to be expanded to eight more states. Such efforts are important and should continue. This work needs to be backed up with nationwide human rights training for police and provision of appropriate equipment – including office and IT equipment. Furthermore, the new Ministry of Police Affairs urgently needs support to establish itself properly. Human capacity and management systems need to be developed. Without an effective Ministry, police reform will be unsustainable. Reform and resourcing of the Nigeria Police Force are key. Security provided by the police is essential for state credibility, economic activity and democracy and development. Recommendations: •

Those human rights treaties to which Nigeria is a signatory should be translated into local languages and made readily available through civil society organisations and local government authorities.

Reform of the Nigeria Police Force should be stepped up, with training, including in human rights matters, and better equipment.

International donors should provide coordinated support to the Ministry of Police affairs with the aim of building human capacity and management systems.

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

At Iddo Sarki

Human Rights and Conflict: the Case of Jos The APPG delegation had intended to visit Jos in Plateau State. However, two days before it left for Nigeria, rioting and violence in which hundreds of people died broke out after local elections. The initial impression was that the violence was sectarian – that old fractures between Muslims and Christians had once again come to the fore. While on the surface this may be the case, when the delegation met with Muslim and Christian groups who travelled from Jos to Kaduna to speak with the MPs, it came to understand that in fact the violence was the result of political manipulation of human rights inequality. The APPG delegation was told that sporadic violence broke out in the early hours of Friday, 28 November, triggered by protests over ballot papers being moved from their original collation point. The protests became violent and the police were mobbed. During Friday there were reprisal attacks, and by the Saturday both churches and mosques were burning. Candidates for head of the local council were fielded by the ruling People’s Democratic Party and by the All Nigeria People’s Party. Though these parties are not religious, their candidates were Christian and Muslim respectively and the election came to look like a competition between Muslim and Christian candidates. People have come to conflate ethnic and religious identity with political identity. However, this tying of group identity to politics is the result of a state policy that polarises different groups living in the area, privileging some and demeaning others. As one speaker at the Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

meeting said, ‘religion was only brought in to establish and polarise groups, but really it is about resources and the privileges accessible to whoever is in power.’ The word ‘indigene’ is commonly used in Nigeria to distinguish the communities which originally settled in an area from ‘non-indigene’ newcomers – even if these newcomers have been living in a place for generations. Nigeria’s constitution guarantees freedom from discrimination, but in Plateau State non-indigenes pay higher school fees, may be excluded from services and institutions, and even when applying for a passport may be told to go back to their local government area of origin. Nigeria has a complicated ethnic make-up and the concept of the ‘indigene’ may help to protect some of the smaller minorities, but twisting it to deny rights to people who are after all Nigerian citizens, regardless of origin, is both cynical and dangerous, costing both livelihoods and lives. As the ‘indigene’ population in Jos is largely (but not entirely) Christian and the ‘non-indigene’ population is largely (but not entirely) Muslim, this is the division that emerged in the most recent conflict. According to the representatives the APPG met with, people were satisfied with the original location for counting the ballots, which was on what is perceived to be neutral territory, in a central police station. A last-minute attempt to move the ballot boxes ahead of counting created suspicion that the result would be fixed. Communities do not feel that they can trust their government or each other, and mistrust and hostility become concentrated in an ever-decreasing resource pool, resulting from corruption. Outbreaks of violence such as that which occurred in Jos cause huge suffering, particularly among the most vulnerable, and do nothing to improve conditions for Nigerians, serving only to shore up the powerful elite. The APPG believes that democracy and development in Nigeria will be driven by its people, but while fracture lines between its different communities are politically manipulated people will be distracted from the goal of seeking real accountability from their government, apportioning blame to other groups rather than expecting their leaders to make things better for everyone. The Human Rights Commission and Conflict Resolution The cycle of poverty, lack of human rights, insecurity and violence can be broken and the APPG came across some individuals making real efforts to overcome Nigeria’s human rights challenges. The Akwa Ibom State Government, for example, took swift action to arrest a bishop guilty of child abuse related to ‘child witches’ and passed the Child’s Rights Act into law after publicity of child abuse in the state. The APPG delegation met with the Human Rights Committee at the National Assembly, which is working on a bill to strengthen Nigeria’s National Human Rights Commission (NHRC). The NHRC is charged with dealing ‘with all matters relating to the protection of human rights as guaranteed by Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, the African Charter, the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration on Human Rights’, monitoring and investigating human rights violations and assisting victims of human rights violations, among other duties.1 However, the Human Rights Committee pointed out that the NHRC has one of lowest budgets among comparable organisations in Nigeria, has no capacity to carry out investigations and is not independent as it is accountable to the Ministry of Justice. The Human Rights Committee believes that the NHRC needs to be strengthened to constitute a means of redress other than riots and violence, such as those which occurred in Jos. At present, few people are aware that the NHRC even exists, yet a more visible, powerful and efficient commission could go a long way to informing people of their rights and assuring them that any breach of those rights will be dealt with by the law and institutions. The APPG believes that strengthening the NHRC is crucially important to Nigeria as it could help to improve democratic accountability if it could function properly. The Group hopes that the NHRC Bill will receive the support necessary to make vital improvements to the Commission. Another visit that the APPG made was to the Lagos State Citizen Mediation Centre. Though this is not an institution that deals directly with human rights issues, it is related as it specialises in conflict resolution between Lagos State citizens. The centre was established in 1999 and every day it deals with about thirty disputes, mediated by lawyers and trained intermediaries. The cases the centre deals with include family disputes, tenancy disputes, employment disputes and questions of property inheritance. Initiatives such as the Mediation Centre may be small relative to the scale of Nigeria’s challenges – the centre has five offices to cover a population of 15 million – but such initiatives can make a real difference. The centre offers people the chance to dialogue and compromise, so as to prevent disputes from growing and continuing. It takes pressure off the courts, the police and the people themselves. While the Lagos State Citizen Mediation Centre seeks to expand to have an office in all local government areas, the APPG believes that such centres could be of great help to people in other states also, particularly those where issues of religion, ethnicity or ‘indigene’ status appear most divisive. The APPG strongly encourages other state governments to explore what support they could provide to similar initiatives. Foreign donors can also provide support. For example, the World Bank has helped to construct offices, while DFID provides office equipment and training. Recommendation: •

The Nigeria Human Rights Commission needs to be provided with the resources to enable it to work more effectively.

1

National Human Rights Commission, ‘The Mandate’, available at http://www.nigeriarights.gov.ng/ mandate.html. Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

The Media Institutions and people themselves need to take steps to both understand and respect human rights. The APPG believes that the international community could do more to support and strengthen Nigeria’s human rights institutions and independent efforts to improve human rights in Nigeria. The media, both Nigerian and international, have considerable power and can do a lot to help to improve human rights records everywhere through raising awareness. For example, the Channel 4 Dispatches documentary ‘Saving Africa’s Witch Children’ was a catalyst for the passing of the Child’s Rights Act into law in Akwa Ibom State. The APPG is frequently surprised and disappointed that there is not more news media coverage of Nigeria internationally, given that it is home to one-fifth of Africa’s population. One of the reasons for this is the risk to journalists working in Nigeria. The Committee to Protect Journalists reports several arrests of foreign journalists and documentary makers and even harsher treatment of local media. The APPG urges federal and state governments to urgently address this situation and ensure press freedom. Securing people’s rights in Nigeria will both empower its citizens and raise their expectations of what they should get from their government, their institutions and each other. Recommendation: •

Federal and state governments need to ensure that the rights of journalists and documentary makers are protected.

The delegation at Lagos State Citizens’ Mediation Centre Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

3. Business and Development At a meeting with Standard Chartered Bank in Lagos, the APPG delegation was told that it sees Nigeria’s potential as similar to that of China and India. Nigeria is considered a country of vast untapped opportunity for international and domestic investors. Nigeria has an enormous domestic market, which drives many successful local businesses. Reform of the banking sector brought great success to it. There is room for investment in housing and construction and the potential in the telecommunications sector is considerable. However, while opportunities for success in business in Nigeria exist, the potential is undermined by the country’s lack of power and infrastructure, by the negative perception of Nigeria internationally, and by corruption and insecurity. Despite some improvements, businesses continue to try and navigate their way through these difficulties. Transaction costs are higher than in many other countries, but despite these challenges it is possible, given time, to make great gains by investing in Nigeria, thorough research, diligence and good local partnerships. Nurturing Nigeria’s business potential is an essential factor in the country’s development. Unfortunately, exploiting Nigeria’s vast oil reserves has left much of its economic potential untapped. The proposed 2009 budget is based on a crude oil benchmark of $45 per barrel. The decreasing price of oil and reduced oil production as a result of the ongoing troubles in the Niger Delta may have the positive impact of increasing Nigeria’s reliance on the non-oil sector for economic growth. However, like the rest of Africa, Nigeria is not immune from the economic difficulties that will be caused by the global financial crisis. Nigeria has seen a decrease in export earnings due to the fall in the price of oil, and a depreciation of the Naira. Unemployment is likely to increase and foreign and local businesses reduce or withdraw. Dunlop is to shut down its tyre plant and Michelin has closed business. This is bad news for Nigeria’s already diminutive manufacturing sector. The President initially submitted a cautious budget in terms of spending, though the revised budget passed by the National Assembly at US$21.3 billion exceeds this by 8.1%. Priorities of the final budget include housing, urban development, improving basic infrastructure, and agriculture. Though there is acknowledgment of the importance of human capital in the budget, the real evidence of dedication to Nigeria’s development comes in implementation. It has been suggested that less than 35% of the 2008 budget was implemented. The APPG hopes that real action will be seen to be taken, particularly in education and healthcare. A sector that could be of great benefit to the country is agriculture, which in 2008 contributed up to 42.07% of GDP.2 Boosting the agricultural sector is one of President Yar’Adua’s seven priorities for 2

National Bureau of statistics, Abuja

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

his country, but pressures of the economic crisis and the drop in crude oil prices may threaten investment in agriculture. However, agricultural production could increase as a result of vulnerable families seeking to produce more food in reaction to pressures from the economic crisis. While in Ibadan in December, the APPG delegation visited the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), which is carrying out important work to improve crops, agricultural techniques and food security. The IITA works to increase production and also income for farmers. It does this by carrying out training to increase output, developing virus-resistant crops, educating farmers on the use of technology in agriculture and distributing materials to farmers. In the last four years the IITA has introduced forty-three improved crop varieties to Nigeria. The IITA also aims to build the capacity of the country’s agricultural institutions. Under former President Obasanjo, a Presidential Initiative on Cassava directed millers to use 10% cassava flour in making bread. This has caused a significant increase in domestic demand for cassava, which has been important to farmers. An enhanced agriculture sector is extremely important to Nigeria as it could offer a source of employment, food security, and exports to the region and beyond and the APPG hopes that the federal and state governments will actively pursue implementation of their plans to grow this sector. Implementation and Delivery Hopes that spending on basic infrastructure may be supplemented by private investment could be quashed by the global financial crisis. The crisis will also make things more difficult for many Nigerians as it is likely to cause a decrease in remittances from family and friends living abroad. Aid will not and cannot be a panacea: while Britain’s aid to Nigeria through DFID is set to increase from £100 million to £140 million, the total of all donors’ aid to Nigeria currently is equivalent to only two weeks of oil profits. What could help Nigeria through economic difficulties caused by the financial crisis are improvements in systems, institutions and implementation. Billions of dollars of Nigeria’s oil revenue have been squandered in the past. Underdevelopment and poverty in Nigeria are not due to lack of money but the result of corruption, mismanagement and lack of capacity. Now more than ever, what Nigeria needs is improvements in delivery systems, particularly at the state and local government level, and donors have been and can be of assistance in this. When the APPG delegation met with the Nigerian House Committee on Power it heard that the last cash injection of $13.28 billion into the power sector produced no results as both contractors and officials were found to be involved in truncating deals and failing to monitor funds. In fact, today Nigeria’s national grid is generating between 2,000 and 2,400 megawatts of electricity, about 50% below the Power Holding Company of Nigeria’s (PHCN) installed generation capacity. It is estimated that in order to achieve its Vision 2020 target,3 Nigeria will need to generate between 30,000 and 50,000 megawatts of electricity. 3

The vision of placing Nigeria among the twenty largest economies in the world by 2020.

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

Clearly the challenge the power sector presents is significant, but the issue needs to be addressed urgently to enable development. Ordinary people in Nigeria need to see change: they need water, electricity, education, healthcare and employment. These issues also pertain to the Niger Delta troubles, which are often regarded as an economic problem on the grounds that if development and employment could be advanced, the Niger Delta crisis would be resolved.

Discussing freedom of information

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

4. Danger and Opportunity in the Niger Delta The APPG was once again unable to visit the Niger Delta region owing to security concerns. This is greatly regrettable as the APPG believes that international attention, engagement and mediation are needed in the Niger Delta. The Chair of the Group met with a delegation from Delta State in November 2008. It was clear from this meeting that there is a will, among many in the Niger Delta, to enable a return to a peaceful environment. This is dependent, however, on a tangible change in people’s circumstances in the Delta region. They need to see development. However, in order for development to happen there needs to be security. At present the situation in the Niger Delta remains little changed. Oil workers remain potential targets for kidnapping by militants and all Nigerian civilians are at risk from violence and kidnapping by armed criminal gangs. Many people make a distinction between the militant groups, particularly the most prominent Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), and criminal gangs, but this line appears to be increasingly blurred as profit supplants politics as motivation. However, MEND, a loose affiliation of leaders of armed groups, remains the most visible and apparently well-organised group when it comes to conflict politics and attacks on oil installations and workers. It has also shown its dominance by intervening in the activities of criminal gangs operating in the area. The crisis in the Niger Delta will take great efforts by multiple parties to resolve. Without a unified effort to date by federal, state and local government, oil companies, the international community, international NGOs and the people of the Niger Delta, it is unsurprising that there has been little progress. However, while progress is slow, the region’s most vulnerable people face daily insecurity, perhaps the risk of violence and most certainly the costs of poverty. The APPG hopes that the Minister of the Niger Delta will be able to undertake this task of bringing the various actors together to enable some kind of coordinated effort to move forward. The Group also believes that the UK could play an important role as convener and mediator. There are practical steps that could be taken now to help ameliorate the situation in the region. In 2008 President Yar’Adua asked for assistance in reaching international agreements to have bunkered oil classified as ‘blood oil’. This would help to prevent profiteering from the theft of oil for sale on international markets, and thereby reduce the flow of illegal arms to the region. Once the technology for crude oil finger-printing is ready, the APPG believes that the British Government could take a lead role in trying to bring about an international agreement on the classification of ‘blood oil’. This important step would, however, require the support and cooperation of other governments as well as international oil companies. At the same time as trying to end crude oil theft for major profit, there needs to be investment in infrastructure and social projects in the region, with the goal of creating jobs. In the APPG’s report Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

of its 2007 visit, it recommended that President Yar’Adua visit the region and inaugurate a new public service such as a clinic. No such thing has happened yet, but the APPG firmly believes that resolving the Niger Delta crisis must be led by the Nigerian government. The federal, state and local governments need to work together to see that investments produce results and that projects are brought to fruition. This challenge relates to the need for improvements in delivery systems and institutional capacity mentioned in the previous section. International governments, NGOs and media can all also play a role in helping to take the first steps towards overcoming the Niger Delta troubles. Those governments with influence over international oil companies operating in the Niger Delta could exert more pressure on the oil companies to take further steps to reduce gas flaring. Gas flaring in the Niger Delta not only ruins the lives of communities living near them in the Delta, it also worsens the problem of climate change given the huge and unnecessary amounts of carbon dioxide it releases into the atmosphere. As the Niger Delta troubles are rooted in underdevelopment, poverty and lack of opportunity, international NGOs can play a role in helping to improve the situation with small and successful projects. They could be of great assistance in helping to build local government capacity and also in bridging the divide between state and local governments and communities. There are examples of international NGOs working consistently and successfully in the Niger Delta, making a difference to people’s lives. International media can help to raise the profile of the Niger Delta troubles and also to inform and improve decision-making on the area with consistent and accurate reporting. The APPG is under no illusions about the complexity of the Niger Delta crisis and the time it will take to resolve it. The Group is aware of the poverty, hardship and grievances that the people in the Niger Delta live with; of the widespread and deep-rooted corruption which means that public funds are diverted and there is no public service delivery; of the prevalence of unemployment and lack of opportunity for the region’s population; of the widespread availability of small arms; of the greed and cynicism of individuals who act for their own gain, leaving the most vulnerable to struggle on; and of the dangers, both real and perceived, that prevent many from operating in the Niger Delta. The APPG is also aware of those working tirelessly in the background carrying out research, consulting people and producing reports and recommendations in an effort to help to overcome the challenges of the Niger Delta. The Group firmly believes that despite the difficulties that the Niger Delta situation presents, it is extremely important to remain engaged, to look for opportunities for implementation and delivery of benefits to the people, and to show a willingness to listen to and speak with all parties involved. Recommendations: •

The UK government in cooperation with the EU and United States government could explore the creation of an international cooperation group on oil bunkering.

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

Governments with influence over international oil companies should bring more pressure to bear on the companies to take further steps to stop gas flaring.

Those countries with an interest in the Niger Delta and the wellbeing of its people should begin discussions on a joint strategy for international cooperation with federal and state governments and select a lead-mediator.

Federal, state and local governments should make every effort to jointly deliver one or two small public services to Niger Delta states within the year, to be inaugurated by HE President Yar’Adua.

International non-governmental organisations should reach out to state governors and engage with the government and communities on development projects.

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

Conclusion The role of the All Party Parliamentary Group is to support, listen and influence. It does not have the tools to implement recommendations or to force decisions. The job of the APPG is to report on what it sees and the opinions it hears and to try and connect different groups and individuals who could work together for better outcomes for Nigeria. The Group strongly believes that there is a great need for joined-up thinking on Nigeria both within the international community and between the international community and Nigeria. The APPG in this report expresses the view that reconnecting people and government, improving transparency and accountability, is key to Nigeria moving forward. Bridging the gap between people and government would enable a more effective and equitable flow of resources. Bridging this gap is a big task, but this report has sought to identify key areas where action can be taken to begin to reduce the divide. These include continuing and enhanced anti-corruption efforts including a reinvigorated EFCC and freedom of information; institution-building and support to those cases of best practice in terms of reform and delivery; small-scale cooperative development projects; rights education and a strengthened National Human Rights Commission; a reformed and properly resourced police force; implementation and tangible improvements in the power sector; and cooperation on oil bunkering and development efforts in the Niger Delta. The APPG has had a delegation visit Nigeria every year since 2005. There will, however, be no visit in 2009. Though the group acknowledges that change is slow to happen, it sincerely hopes that when it next visits the country it will find some perceptible change to people’s quality of life and to their expectations of Nigeria’s future and its government. In the meantime, the APPG will continue to listen to all those who wish to express a view on the way forward for Nigeria. The APPG will maintain its friendship with Nigeria and hopes that Nigeria will take steps towards realising its potential.

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

Appendices Appendix I Nigeria APPG meetings in 2008 (Bilateral meetings unless otherwise stated) [NB If the Centre for Strategic and International Studies is US, it should be Center. If there is space, ‘visit to Washington …’ would read better than ‘Washington, DC visit’.] Meeting date 21/02/2008 12/03/2008

Name/Affiliation of visitor Minister for Africa, Lord Mark Malloch Brown Metropolitan Police

26/03/2008

His Eminence, the Sultan of Sokoto

Nigeria general Work of the Proceeds of Crime Unit – Nigeria-related financial crime Nigeria general

02/04/2008

Shell International

Niger Delta; US trip

05/05/2008

Deputy Assistant Secretary in the Nigeria general; US policy to Bureau of African Affairs, US Nigeria Department of State (Visit to Washington) Center for Strategic and International Presentation of APPG report at Studies (Visit to Washington) roundtable meeting Professor John Paden (Visit to Northern Nigeria; national unity Washington) Heather Flynn, Professional Staff for Nigeria general; US policy to the Subcommittee on Africa and Global Nigeria Health (Visit to Washington) Chris Homan, Foreign Policy Advisor to Nigeria general; US and Africa Senator Durbin (Visit to Washington) Sarah Margon, Legislative Assistant to Nigeria general; US policy to Senator Russ Feingold (Visit to Nigeria Washington) BG Group Nigeria general; Niger Delta

05/05/2008 05/05/2008 05/05/2008 06/05/2008 06/05/2008 26/06/2008 09/07/2008

Topic

16/07/2008

Strategic Consulting and Implementation Consortium (Visit to Washington) HE President Umaru Musa Yar’Adua

07/10/2008

Niger Delta Development Initiative

06/11/2008

HE High Commissioner Dalhatu Tafida APPG, Nigeria visit and Akin Oyateru, Nigerian High Commission Stepping Stones Nigeria and Channel 4 Public screening and Dispatches discussion of documentary ‘Saving Africa’s Witch Children’ Opportunity Nigeria Economic development in Nigeria and the business sector Youth and Development Initiative, Niger Niger Delta Delta; Delta State representatives APPG delegation visit to Nigeria Nigeria

12/11/2008 19/11/2008 19/11/2008 30/11/2008 – 06/12/2008

Niger Delta Members’ roundtable meeting with the President – the agenda for reform and development in Nigeria Niger Delta

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

Appendix II Itinerary of 2008 visit to Nigeria Sunday, 30 November 13.40 Depart London Heathrow on British Airways Flight BA75 21.05 Arrive Lagos; travel to EKO Hotel Monday, 1 December 10.00–11.00 Meeting with Professor Pat Utomi (Pan-African University) for discussion on Nigerian politics 12.30–14.30 Lunch at Residence with oil company representatives hosted by DHC [in full] 15.00–16.00 Roger Woodbridge, Head of Global Markets/Trading at Standard Chartered Bank 16.30 Return to hotel 19.00 Dinner with Shell Nigeria Country Chair Basil Omiyi Tuesday, 2 December 8.00 Depart Lagos for Ibadan 9.00 Visit to Citizen Rights Directorate/CMC1000 (Lagos State Ministry of Justice) in Ikeja 12.30 Arrive Ibadan; lunch meeting with the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture 14.00 Meeting with staff at the University of Ibadan 15.00 Meeting with staff and volunteers at the Justice, Development and Peace Commission (Campaign Against Female Genital Mutilation) 16.00 Depart Ibadan 19.00 Arrive Lagos Wednesday, 3 December 8.00 Depart hotel 9.30 Depart Lagos on flight VK45 11.00 Arrive Abuja 11.00–14.30 Drive to Kaduna 15.00–16.00 Meeting with Muslim and Christian representatives from Jos 16.00–17.00 Visit IT education and capacity-building project 17.30–19.00 Return to hotel 19.30–21.30 Dinner with State Governor HE Namadi Sambo at Nigerian Union of Local Government Employees award ceremony Thursday, 4 December 6.00 Depart Kaduna for Abuja 10.30 Arrive Abuja; breakfast meeting with HE British High Commissioner Bob Dewar 11.30 Check in to Hilton Hotel 12.00–13.00 Meeting with the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission 14.00–14.30 Meeting with Hon. Abike Dabiri-Erewa, National Assembly, regarding Freedom of Information Bill 14.30–15.00 Meeting with the Senate Committee on Power 15.30–16.00 Meeting with the National Agency for Prohibition of Traffic in Persons 18.00–18.30 Briefing at the British High Commissioner’s Residence 18.30–20.30 Reception at High Commission Friday, 5 December 10.00 Meeting with Hon. Beni Lar, Chair of the Human Rights Committee, House of Representatives 11.30 Visit Iddo Sarki Community 13.30 Return to hotel 14.15–15.00 Lunch meeting with Malachy Uzendu, Chairman of the Abuja Chapter of the Nigerian Union of Journalists 15.00–15.30 Press conference Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

18.00 20.35 2150 23.59

Depart hotel for airport Depart Abuja on flight VK54 Arrive Lagos Depart Lagos on flight VK293

Saturday, 6 December 5.55 Arrive London Gatwick

Appendix III Acronyms APPG – All Party Parliamentary Group DFID – Department for International Development EFCC – Economic and Financial Crimes Commission EU – European Union FGM – Female Genital Mutilation GDP – Gross Domestic Product IITA – International Institute of Tropical Agriculture INEC – Independent National Electoral Commission JDPC – Justice, Development and Peace Commission MEND – Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta NAPTIP – National Agency for Prohibition of Traffic in Persons NGO – Non-governmental organisation NHRC – National Human Rights Commission PHCN ! Power Holding Company of Nigeria

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

Appendix IV Media coverage of Nigeria visit Leadership, 6 December 2008

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

Abuja Inquirer, 1 – 7 December 2008

Financial Standard, 8 December 2008

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

Niger Delta Standard, December 8 2008

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

Vanguard, 8 December 2008

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

Tribune, 9 December 2008

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

Vanguard, 10 December 2008

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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All Party Parliamentary Group on Nigeria Annual Report 2009

Appendix V Map of Nigeria

Chair: John Robertson MP * Portcullis House London SW1A 2LW * Contact: edonnelly@chathamhouse.org.uk

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