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AIR AIYANG JIANG 877726 Semester 1,2018 Tutor Alessandro Liuti

Fig.1. Flex Shell. Retrieved from http://www.parametricdesign.net/?p=1083


CONTEXT A.0 INTRODUCTION A.1 DESIGN FUTURING A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION A.3 COMPUTATION / GENERATION A.4 CONCLUSION A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES A.6 APPENDIX

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PART A. CONCEPTUALISATION

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A.O INTRODUCTION

I'm Aiyang Jiang, currently pursuing a Bachelor of Environments majoring in Architecture at the University of Melbourne. I finished my first year study in the University of Adelaide. My interests in architecture developed from painting at a young age. At very first step I imagined that what architectural design is just to turn some amazing and fascinating ideas into reality. Throughout my previous studies, my notions changed based on some basic understanding of design processes. So to me architectural design is like solving equations, we find the optimal solution under numerous constraints.

Through the Studio Air, I hope to explore more designing process, concepts and tools, especially parametric design, as parametric design is a future trend of architecture. In my perspective, after the computer intelligence catch up with the level of human brain in the future, data acquisition and analysis from computer will take the place of the experiences and judgments by human brains. So that's the reason why we study parametric design, cause it may provide better solutions through the development of computation algorithmics. The study of Studio Earth and my learning in AA visiting school Beijing provide me some limitied experiences in digital design, but I still severely lack techniques and experiences in digital design but I'm looking forward to develop my ability in the future study.

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Studio earth

AA Beijing Visiting School – Invent(ory) @ Fact(ory) 1.0

Year 1 Studio in Adelaide University

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A.1 DESIGN FUTURING

There is a fact becoming clear that many problems we face are more serious than they appear, such as overpopulation, water shortages, or climate change.We should recognize that many huge problems can't be broken down, quantified, and solved. To prevent our design’s inbuilt optimism from complicating things greatly when we're facing the challenges, trying to channeling resources into fiddling with the world. Sometimes, we have to accept the conditions by changing our values, beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. However, that is not to say that design is meaningless and negative, for example, so called speculative design inspire and encourage people’s imaginations to flow freely. Overall, acting as a catalyst, design can redefine our relationship to reality.1

Now we're facing the prospect of escalating conflicts over natural resources, so in design area, what is significant is that in order to make a real difference, methods to mobilize appropriate technologies at the scale needed is the challenge. By talking to other disciplines, the complexity of design can be engaged as a world-shaping force. Moreover, focusing on ‘Sustain-ability’ is a considerable aim. For now, slowing the rate of defuturing is important in our design area, which means the humans the problem adds up to the diminution of the finite time of our collective and total existence.2

1.Anthony Dunne and others, Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press, 2013 ), p.3 2.Tony Fry, DESIGN FUMING SUSTAINABILITY, ETHICS AND NEW PRACTICE (BERG, 2009), p.1-8 3.DETAILS, 'Research, development and daring – Frei Otto wins the Pritzker Prize', Topics (DETAILS, 2015) < https://www.detail-online.com/article/researchdevelopment-and-daring-frei-otto-wins-the-pritzker-prize-26524/ > [16 March 2018]

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"We must think more, research more, develop, invent and dareâ&#x20AC;Ś"3

Frei Otto

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Fig. 1. Nighttime inverted the flow of light through the canopy wells. Image © Frei Otto

CASE STUDY 1 Project: The German Pavilion in Expo 67 Architect: Frei Otto Date: 1967 Location: Montreal

Fig. 2. STRUCTURAL REVISIT TO GERMAN PAVILION, EXPO ’67, MONTREAL. Image © PROPUESTA

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The German Exhibition Pavilion is a lightweight cable net structure also a tensile canopy strcuture covering a translucent, polyester textile membrane with a pre-stressed steel cable mesh designed by Frei Otto In collaboration with architect Rolf Gutbrod in 1967 at Montreal. It was assembled in a mere 6 weeks and Once it had been designed and pre-fabricated, the German Pavilion in Montreal was assembled on-site in a mere six weeks, only to be dismantled shortly after the fair,which can demnstrate his proposition that the need for temporary structures that were easy to assemble, and just as easy to take down and recycle.1 It was a radical simplification of traditional methods to build that valued rigidity and permanence and influenced later architectures a lot. Frei Otto was influenced by Mies’s “less is more” motto2, but there was no computerized simulation tools available at that time, so he devoted himself to the form finding studies. As he noted soap film will spread naturally to offer the smallest achievable surface area if giving a set of fixed points, 3 the form of German pavilion is reflected the undistorted give and take of forces on material fabric with minimal artificial interference, capturing the beauty of natural mathematical and physical relationships.4

Fig. 4. Draft of structure and biological diagram and the evolution of pressure structure system Image © Frei Otto

1 David Langdon, ‘AD Classics: German Pavilion, Expo ‘67 / Frei Otto and Rolf Gutbrod’, Archdaily, the world’s most visited architecture website (Archdaily, 27 April 2015) < https://www.archdaily.com/623689/ad-classics-german-pavilion-expo-67-frei-otto-and-rolf-gutbrod> [16 March 2018] 2 Antonello Ferraro, ‘Frei Otto and Lightweight Construction’, Domus Architecture (Domus, 02 November 2005) < https://www.domusweb.it/en/

reviews/2005/11/02/frei-otto-and-lightweight-construction.html > [16 March 2018] 3 METALOCUS, ‘FREI OTTO, THE GERMAN PAVILION, EXPO 1967’, Metalocus (Metalocus,2015) <https://www.metalocus.es/en/news/frei-otto-germanpavilion-expo-1967> [16 March 2018] 4 Langdon, ‘AD Classics: German Pavilion, Expo ‘67 / Frei Otto and Rolf Gutbrod’ 5 Ferraro, ‘Frei Otto and Lightweight Construction’ 6 Mario Carpo, The Digital Turn in Architecture 1992 - 2012, Enhanced Edition (A John Wiley and Sons Ltd Publication,2013), p. 245. 7 Patrik Schumacher, ‘Parametricism - A New Global Style for Architecture and Urban Design’, AD Architectural Design - Digital Cities, Vol 79, No 4, (2009), <http://www. patrikschumacher.com/Texts/Parametricism%20-%20A%20New%20Global%20Style%20for%20Architecture%20and%20Urban%20Design.html > [16 March 2018] 8. Tony Fry, DESIGN FUMING SUSTAINABILITY, ETHICS AND NEW PRACTICE (BERG, 2009), p.1-8

As Frei Otto is considered a pioneer of so-called ecological architecture (Ökologisches Bauen)5, his interdisciplinary approach between construction and biology was reflected in the German pavilion. From the exploration in internal space of biology, purpose of best result using the smallest amount of energy and materials to form spaces can be achieved. His concept and inspiration is always collaboration with nature rather than against nature. Overall, what relected in the German pavilion is Frei Otto's form-finding method, analogue models for the material computation of structural building forms6. This form-finding method simulates by physical model rather than traditional composition or making forms directly , which is the reason why Patrik Schumacher regard him as the precursor of parametricism.7 This is also what we'll go through in the future study of parametric design. There are good reasons to believe that form finding methods from Frei Otto contribute the ideas of more variations and possibilities in construction fields. By talking to other disciplines, his methods of formfinding and interaction of biology already engage as a world-shaping force.8 Form finding methods become as a common research step nowadys during the stages before final design, which helps a lot to optimize design. Furthermore, basing on the experiences learnt from Frei Otto, we have computerized simulation tools available now such as kangaroo in GH that can help us easily to imitate the forces to find forms without the limit at that period.

Fig. 3. Experimenting with Soap Bubbles. Image © Frei Otto

Fig. 1. Nighttime inverted the flow of light through the canopy wells. Image © Frei Otto. Retrieved from https://www.archdaily. com/623689/ad-classics-german-pavilion-expo-67-frei-otto-and-rolf-gutbrod/55074402e58ececc4100006e-nighttime-inverted-t Fig. 2. STRUCTURAL REVISIT TO GERMAN PAVILION, EXPO ’67, MONTREAL. Image © PROPUESTA. Retrieved from http://www. wintess.com/es/portfolio/structural-revisit-to-german-pavilion-expo-67-montreal/ Fig. 3. Experimenting with Soap Bubbles. Image © Frei Otto. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Frei-Otto-Experimenting-with-Soap-Bubbles_fig2_318103333 Fig 4. Draft of structure and biological diagram and the evolution of pressure structure system Image © Frei OttoRetrieved from http://chuansong.me/n/1365608#0-tsina-1-2090-397232819ff9a47a7b7e80a40613cfe1

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Fig.1. Los Manantiales / Felix Candela

CASE STUDY 2 Project: Los Manantiales Architect: Felix Candela Date: 1958 Location: Xoxhimilco, Mexico

Fig.2. Workers arrange the scaffolding for Los Manantiales. Image © Juan Guzmán

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The Los Manantiales is a hyperbolic paraboloids shell structure which is the signature of the architect Felix Candela.This is a surface that is curved along two planes at once, to create a seamless concrete structure, which sometimes is as thin as only 1 inch. The vaults of The Los Manantiales were made by pouring concrete on the temporary wooden structures with wire mesh rather than making precast concrete.1Therefore, the Los Manantiales is a lightweight strcuture although it was made by concrete. The remarkable contribution of Felix Candela and his work the Los Manantiales to the structural field are the shell structures generated from hyperbolic paraboloids.Both artistry and cost savings are satisfied, for low labor and material costs2made it all the more feasible to realize his daring designs. However, Candela’s doubly curves could be constructed with simpler techniques by straight lines, the structural engineering that Candela did for this building was not so simple. Between each parabola, the groinsconceal a steel-reinforced V-beam, which lends the shell of the structure to be called a groin vault. The purpose of the V-beam design is in order to address tempeature changes within the concrete to keep cracks from forming and propagating.3

What we can find in the section drawings is that the parabolic arch along the groins and the inverted arch through the highpoint of each vault.

Fig 3 . Section and elevation Drawings from Los Manantiales

The basic components of the roof are parabolic saddles, they repeat circularly for 8 times, converging at the centre, creating groins. They repeated the circumference is trimmed into a tilted overhang of parabolic surface. the shell reaches up and outwards in a wave like pattern. The internal forces of these overhangs antagonistically cancel out with the compression along the groins, reducing shear pointing outwards. 4 From my own perpective, Felix Candela's Los Manantiales takes an important role in showing how to design the daring shape in limited conditions (cost, techiniques,knowledge...)Although we're living in the period which is high-tech with many supporting research tools (Rhino, grasshopper,kangaro...), Felix Candela's thinking is still important. Los Manantiales can be seen as a collaboration between construction technology and aesthetic purpose.

Fig 4. Diagram of hypar forms

1.Aehistory, ‘1958: Los Manantiales Restaurant – Xochimilco, Mexico’, History of Innovation (Aewordpress,n.d.) < https://aehistory.wordpress.com/1958/10/09/1958-los-manantiales-restaurant-xochimilco-mexico/> [16 March 2018] 2.Patrick Sisson, ‘Felix Candela, the architect who showcased concrete’s curves’, CURBED (CURBED,Jan 2018) < https://www.curbed.com/2018/1/25/16932400/felix-candela-architect-concrete-los-manantiales> [16 March 2018] 3.Aehistory, ‘1958: Los Manantiales Restaurant – Xochimilco, Mexico’ 4.Michelle Miller, ‘AD Classics: Los Manantiales / Felix Candela’, Archdaily, the world’s most visited architecture website (Archdaily, April 2014) < https://www.archdaily.com/496202/ad-classics-los-manantiales-felix-candela/> [16 March 2018]

Fig.1. Los Manantiales / Felix Candela. Retrieved from https://www.archdaily.com/496202/ad-classics-los-manantiales-felixcandela/53493e7fc07a80f351000082-ad-classics-los-manantiales-felix-candela-image Fig.2. Workers arrange the scaffolding for Los Manantiales. Image © Juan Guzmán. Retrieved from https://www.curbed. com/2018/1/25/16932400/felix-candela-architect-concrete-los-manantiales Fig.3. Section and elevation Drawings from Los Manantiales. Retrieved from https://www.archdaily.com/496202/ad-classics-losmanantiales-felix-candela/53493e7fc07a80f351000082-ad-classics-los-manantiales-felix-candela-image Fig 4. Diagram of hypar forms. Retrieved from https://www.archdaily.com/496202/ad-classics-los-manantiales-felixcandela/53493e7fc07a80f351000082-ad-classics-los-manantiales-felix-candela-image

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A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION

Paramatric deisgn is created from the environment that the digital in architecture in integration with new digital technologies,which defines a digital continuum from design to production. It’s a new and comprehensive domain of architectural theories including the interaction of science, technology, design and architectural culture.Parametric design is not only seen as a design technology,it is a new direction of the logic of digital design thinking. 1 Architecture now is in a digital age. Using computer as a virtual drafting board to increase the efficiency of editing and analysising and to increse quality, precision of drawings is called “computerisation“, while “computation“ allows designers to extend their abilities to deal with highly complex situations, even go beyond the intellect of the designer, providing more inspiration and variations.2

The goals and the solution are interdependent, thus the whole design process necessarily oscillates between goals and solutions, creating a form which is influences by both of them. 3 In this way, computation design method can influence both of goals and the solution,thus the whole form of design might change. The ability of computation can bring a new way of thinking and open up people's mind thus clients might ask for not only a conceivable and achievable construction, materials or texture which is used to be built in the past. And according to the properties of computation design, architects can explore new design options and to analyse more architectural decisions when they are in designing process. Therefore, it's possible that the better simulation and communication in design process by computation design method . Also the experience and the creation of meaning in design can be developed.4

The project of an architect has been always linked to the use of drawing as a design tool. Thus,tools choosing is important in the form, materials and construction of design.

1 RIVKA OXMAN and others, THEORIES OF THE DIGITAL IN ARCHITECTURE (London; New York: Routledge,2014), p1-10. 2 Brady Peter, The Building Of Algorithmic Thought (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2013), p.1-8 3.Kalay, Yehuda E. Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press,2004),p5-25 4.Peter, The Building Of Algorithmic Thought, p.1-8 5. Katerina Eleni Economou, ' “The Autopoiesis of Architecture” Patrik Schumacher’s Parametricism And Theory',Postmodernisms (Revised May, 2015) < http://blogs.cornell.edu/ arch5302sp15/2015/05/20/the-autopoiesis-of-architecture-patrik-schumachers-parametricism-and-theory/> [13 March 2018]

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“The concept of space in architecture is the equivalent of the democratization of the political system, or the liberalization of the economy…”5

Patrik Schumacher

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Fig. 1. Entrance of Silk Concrete Pavilion. Image © Ji Shi

CASE STUDY 1 Project: Silky Concrete Pavilion Architect: ASW Workshop Date: May 2015 Location: China

Computing Deisgn Process:

1.Vault footprint

2.Force analysis to generate load-bearing vault

1.ASW Workshop, 'Silky Concrete Pavilion–蚕丝混凝土', ASW数字建筑设计工作空间(ASW Workshop, May 2015) < http://www.asworkshop.cn/silky-concrete-pavilion/> [16 March 2018] 2. 'Silky Concrete Pavilion–蚕丝混凝土', ASW数字建筑设计工作空间 3. 'Silky Concrete Pavilion–蚕丝混凝土', ASW数字建筑设计工作空间

3.Divide the vault into hexagon panels with Lunbox

4.Use kangaroo hexagon in one

All images retrieved from http://www.asworkshop.cn/silky-concrete-pavilion/

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Silk Concrete Pavilion is a lightweight structure pavilion built by ASW workshop in Beijing as a research study of 3D printing space. The biommetic concept of it comes from silk that will create silkworm cocoon. This is a unique innovations how computation present the new geometries, connecting the theories of Biomimetic. So the design process is based on the same logic that spatial self-supporting linear system based on microscopic silk structure. Traditional concrete materials are combined organically with silk structure component to create a composite material which is both lightweight and suitable for the silk shape.1 Silk concrete pavilion is an example to demonstrate the argument of Mouzhan Majidi, who say one example of the impact of computational design is in component design. The bigger impact how computing affect the design process is about how architects build, while what we design hasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t simply transformed yet.2 As the diagrams show below, every single component is pinted out before assembly. Component design is far more delicate and dynamic compared with the traditional composition design, for 3D print G-code is used to evry single panel to bring the omposite material sense of silk. Therefore, unconceivable and unachievable geometries

o to make each plane

5.Add thickness to the optimized hexagon faces

The arch structure algorithm of pure compression system was introduced in the space structure design of silk concrete. The large continuous surface is divided into a series of polygonal plate structures according to the principle of reasonable force. (see diagrams below) And it is printed out by 3d printing to form a special concrete mould. 3 Although the form is complex, the installation precision reaches the millimeter level. There are good reasons to believe that computational methods such as 3D printing technology impact the construction, materials, geometries and patterns in the design. Moreover, this computational design technique is far more efficient. Using 3D printing technology is conducive to future maintenance, reprinting and replacing of damaged component is easy. Therefore, it can be seen that the computational simulations methods are alternatives.

Fig. 2. Component of Silk Concrete Pavilion. Image Š Ji Shi

6.Use triangulation algorithm to generate the frame

7.3D print G-code to single panel

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Fig. 1. Interior of The Japan Pavilion. Image © Shigeru Ban Architects

CASE STUDY 2 Project: JAPAN PAVILLION, EXPO 2000 Architect: Shigeru Ban Date: 2000 Location: HANNOVER - Germany

Fig.2. Constructing Process. Image © Shigeru Ban Architects

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The Japan Pavillion in Expo 2000, which is a grid structure made of ​​ recyclable paper tubes resulting in a building with honeycomb, is designed by Shigeru Ban together with Frei Otto. The concept of the builidng is in order to give a response to the theme ‘The protection of the environment' of Expo 2000, which is also a creation of athe structure using paper tube and fireproof paper in technological methods of doing as low as possible, that could be recycled when it was dismantled.1 The Japan Pavilion is a lightweight structure builidng. The structure was mainly built by pressed paper tubes, which can facilitate their demolition and recycling after expo exhintion ,while the secondary structure is necessary wood structural reinforcement. The membrane structure was also covering the paper, adding a PVC membrane with five layers fireproof and waterproof for fire safety issues.2

Fig. 3. Diagrams of Construction steps. Image © Shigeru Ban

1.Shigeru Ban Architects, 'JAPAN PAVILLION, EXPO 2000 HANNOVER - Germany, 2000', WORKS - Paper tube Structures(Shigeru Ban Architects, n.d.) < http://www.shigerubanarchitects.com/ works/2000_japan-pavilion-hannover-expo/index.html > [16 March 2018] 2.En+, 'Japan Pavillion Expo 2000 Hannover', Buildings & Projects (en+, n.d.) < https:// en.wikiarquitectura.com/building/japan-pavillion-expo-2000-hannover/ > [16 March 2018] 3.En+, 'Japan Pavillion Expo 2000 Hannover'

The wavy shape of the Japan Pavilion is constructed by the gird shell structure and consisted of cardboard tubes. The process of placing paper tubesat a flat track on a temporary scaffold took 3 weeks. The paper tubes was then used to push the grid paper to the final form. After 3 weeks , the main structure of the tubes and connected with the curved wooden structure that was placed in position. Further, since paper tubes themselves would rotate to draw gentle S -shaped curve, the hinge allowing the 3D motion.Acting as diaphragms planes, the two semicircular walls extreme force needed.3 Therefore, the project Japan pavilion in expo 2000 can be see as collaboration between advance technology and foreseeing vision of material uses. Not only the material choices but also the connections and junctions of all elements demonstrates Shigeru Ban's architectural philosophy. Furthermore, due to the propeties of grid structure made ​​of recyclable paper tubes which it is lightweight, relatively fast and cheap to construct as well as reusable, which is also influential in the future design trend of designing with sustainability. The explorations and experiences of paper architecture now is widely used to satisfy the needs from the large-scale natural disasters, which proves that the paper architectures further influence people’s way of thinking and living.

Fig. 4. Structural Diagram. Image © Shigeru Ban Architects

All images retrieved from http://www.shigerubanarchitects.com/works/2000_japan-pavilion-hannoverexpo/index.html

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A.3 COMPOSITION / GENERATION

Architecture is currently experiencing a shift from composition to generation, which can also be seen as a shift the drawing to the algorithm. In the design process, conceptual idea is impact by designing tools. More responsive designs options can be created as well as more architectural decisions can be analysed benefit from the development of computational simulation tools.1 Generation design was seen as a contrastive method with compostition methods, specifically linked with parametric or algorithmic design. Compared with the composition methods, traditional compositional methods are more rational in designing process, while generative design has possibilities to provide inspiration and transcend the experiences and intellect of designer,which is more creative and excisting for the generation of unexpected results.2

Generative design now is not a widespread method, but apart from 4 organisation ways mentioned by Brady Peter (such as the internal and external specialist group, the computationally aware and integrated practice, and the lone software developer/designer), architects are allowed to gain knowledge from computation then adapt to their own design of digital tools. 2Thus, we can see this trend that form computation can be fully integrated into the actual design process as a integrated form. However, there is still some shortcomings of generation in the architecture design process. As Hugh Whitehead mentioned that what is danger is that scripting degenerates to become an isolated craft rather than to become into an integrated art form4, which means computering skills need to be closer with real design even becomes to the part of design itself.

1.Brady Peter, The Building Of Algorithmic Thought (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2013), p.1-8 2.Peter, The Building Of Algorithmic Thought, p.1-8 3.Peter, The Building Of Algorithmic Thought, p.1-8 4.Peter, The Building Of Algorithmic Thought, p.1-8 5.Peter, The Building Of Algorithmic Thought, p.1-8 6.Kas Oosterhuis and others, The Architecture Co-laboratory: Game Set and Match II : on Computer Games ... (episode publisher, Rotterdam 2006 ), p.210

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When architects have a sufficient understanding of algorithmic concepts, when we no longer need to discuss the digital as something different, then computation can become a true method of design for architecture.5

Design computation is still only seen by many as 'just a tool' and remote from the real business of creative design.6

Brady Peter

Kas Oosterhuis & Lukas Feireiss

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CASE STUDY 1 Project: Khan Shatyr Entertainment Centre Architect: Fosters + Partners Date: 2010 Location: Astana, Kazakhstan

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Fig. 1. KHAN SHATYR. Image © Walls Cover.


Khan Shatyr Entertainment Centre is designed by Norman Foster, standing at the northern end of the axis in Astana, Kazakhsta. This 150m-high dome demonstrates the concept of Kazakh history and a giant transparent tent that contains an indoor city, acting as a beacon to the surroundings. Khan Shatyr Entertainment Centre is a lightweight structure archituecture, for it use a predominant single-masted cable net form because of simplicity and efficiency of material. In this structure, beams don’t have to carry all loads ,because cables and roof skin share the tension with a single compression mast to lift the net and create a large volume underneath.1 Another consideration to design it as a lightweight structure is the use of materials of ETFE cushion, which is light,cheaper and thermoresistant. The flexibility of ETFE cushion envelope is suitable for the cable net's designed range of movement of around +/- 1 meter.2 Also, it's an environmental strategy which is a combination of mechanical and passive systems to choose ETFE cushion roof rather than glazing.

Fig. 2. Initial structural design. Image © Designingbuildings.

1.Buro Happold, 'Khan Shatyr Entertainment Centre', ice(Designingbuildings,2014)< https:// www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Khan_Shatyr_Entertainment_Centre#Introduction> [16 March 2018] 2.Annette LeCuyer, ETFE: Technology and Design (Birkhäuser Verlag AG, 2008), p138-141 3. Amanda Birch, 'Foster & Partners’ Khan Shatyr Entertainment Centre'< http://www. solaripedia.com/files/792.pdf> [16 March 2018] 4.Burohappold Engineering, 'KHAN SHATYR ENTERTAINMENT CENTRE', Burohappold (Burohappold Engineering,2008) < https://www.burohappold.com/projects/khan-shatyrentertainment-centre/> [16 March 2018] 5. Engineering, 'KHAN SHATYR ENTERTAINMENT CENTRE'

Apart from the reason of lightweight, as Ben Morris mentioned, the choice of ETFE element of the entertainment centre is also because it is built in unpleasant climate.3 Computation or generation, which is seen as framework for negotiating and influencing the interrelation of datasets of information, takes important role in the design process and problems sovling of Khan SHatyr Entertainmemt. In the design process, ATES, which is An aquifer thermal energy storage system provides a all-year-round sustainable source of base-load cooling and heating. Thermal modelling and 3D CFD (computational fluid dynamics analysis) allowed the complex building physics of the centre to be examined and design improvements were made as a result. 4The structure and engineering of Khan Shatyr Entertainment Centre learns experiences from techniques of the King Abdul Aziz University Sports Hall, which is an ealier cable net structures developed by BuroHappold.5

Fig.3. ETFE cushion envelope . Image © Designingbuildings.

Fig. 1. KHAN SHATYR. Image © Walls Cover. Retrieved from https://wallscover.com/image-post/6553-khan-shatyr-3.jpg.html Fig. 2. Initial structural design. Image © Designingbuildings. Retrieved from https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Khan_Shatyr_Entertainment_ Centre#Introduction Fig.3. ETFE cushion envelope . Image © Designingbuildings. Image © Designingbuildings. Retrieved from https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/ Khan_Shatyr_Entertainment_Centre#Introduction

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Fig. 1. Integrative Demonstrator of ICD-ITKE Research Pavilion. Image ŠLaurian Ghinitoiu , Burggraf / Reichert

CASE STUDY 2 Project: CD/ITKE University of Stuttgart Architect: Fosters + Partners Date: 2017 Location: Stuttgart, Germany

Fig. 2.Two stationary industrial robotic arms work tgether. Image ŠUniversity of Stuttgart

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ICD-ITKE Research Pavilion 2016-17 was developed by the institute for computational design and construction and the institute of building structures and structural design at the university of stuttgart. From the biological role models, some construction and fabrication concepts were abstracted. the team were able to transfer nature’s morphological and procedural principles for long span fibrous construction into an architectural application by the potentials of computation, algorithmic modelling and generation through the studies of Biomimetic Investigation of 2 species of leaf miner moths, the Lyonetia clerkella and the Leucoptera erythrinella1.

Self-weight of material is highly concerned in the architectural production. The pavilion 2016-2017 is a lightweight structure, which the lightweight materials resin-impregnated glass and carbon fibre composites material of it provide the Pavilion 2016-17 a radically different approach to fabrication with its high tensile strength.

Fig. 3. Shelll Analysis

Industrial robots and drones are used for the pavilion’s fabrication process is based on ‘the unique affordances and characteristics of fiber construction’.2 The untethered freedom and adaptability of the UAV is combined with the robots, creating the possibilities for material arrangements and structural performance not feasible with the robot or UAV alone.3 Two stationary industrial robotic arms with the strength and precision necessary to ensure a continuous material structure.4 Therefore, in this case study, with the use of lightweight materials and robots and drones, it’s obvious that development of computation has become integrated with architectural design in this generative method. More strategies are produced because of computational tools can be used to increase efficiency and allow for better communication.

Map Stresses To Carbon Ribs

1. METALOCUS, 'New ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2016-17', METALOCUS, (METALOCUS ,2017) < https://www.metalocus.es/en/news/new-icditke-research-pavilion-2016-17 > [16 March 2018] 2.Philip Stevens, ' drones and industrial robots create this year's ICD / ITKE research pavilion', Designboom, (Designboom,2017) < https://www.designboom.com/ architecture/icd-itke-research-pavilion-university-of-stuttgart-germany-robot-drone-fabrication-04-14-2017/> [16 March 2018] 3.METALOCUS, 'New ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2016-17' 4.Archdaily, ' ICD-ITKE Research Pavilion 2016-17 / ICD/ITKE University of Stuttgart', Archdaily, (Archdaily ,2017) < https://www.archdaily.com/869450/icd-itke-researchpavilion-2016-17-icd-itke-university-of-stuttgart > [16 March 2018] > [16 March 2018]

Beam Analysis ©University of Stuttgart

All images retrieved from https://www.archdaily.com/869450/icd-itke-researchpavilion-2016-17-icd-itke-university-of-stuttgart

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A.4 CONCLUSION

In the study of Part A.1, we realized that we are facing the prospect of escalating conflicts over natural resources, so what we can do as a student is to interact and talk to other disciplines to broaden horizon. Focusing more on the sustainability in our study,which means the humans the problem adds up to the diminution of the finite time of our collective and total existence. In the study of Part A2.3., we learnt the difference of computerization and computation, and the difference between composition design and generative design, which refreshd my mind that I have never experimented with computation techniques, all the previous designs were all finished in techniques of computerization. So for me what is important is that, we donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have to forgive all the traditional design methods, new computational design are based on previous knowledge and experiences.

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A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES

In three weeks study, I realized that in past times, I have never experimented with computation techniques as the explorations or practices, what I was using in past projects for drafting and drawing digitally are totally techniques of computerization. However, this provides me an opportunity to touch a brand new world. Learning Grasshopper can be seen as a start of computation design learing for me. By using Grashopper, generative algorithms with capability of generating parametric designs is no longer far away. I also realized that the development of computation change our world a lot. It is clear that computation enables new ways of thinking.computation can provide more inspiration and variations even go beyond the intellect of human. Moreover, I have learnt a lot in my case studies. Such as form-finding methods from Frei Otto teach me how to find a optimized form as a research step in my design process, hyperbolic paraboloids shell structure of Los Manantiales from Felix Candela teaches me structure of a building can also satisfy the aesthetic purpose. I also find the strong connection between Biomimetic research and 3D printings architecturutal projects, for biological texture can always be an innitial concept to generate the surface of projects.

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A.5 APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES Aehistory, ‘1958: Los Manantiales Restaurant – Xochimilco, Mexico’, History of Innovation (Aewordpress,n.d.) < https://aehistory.wordpress.com/1958/10/09/1958-los-manantiales-restaurant-xochimilcomexico/> [16 March 2018] Archdaily, ' ICD-ITKE Research Pavilion 2016-17 / ICD/ITKE University of Stuttgart', Archdaily, (Archdaily ,2017) < https://www.archdaily.com/869450/icd-itke-research-pavilion-2016-17-icd-itke-university-ofstuttgart > [16 March 2018] > [16 March 2018] ASW Workshop, 'Silky Concrete Pavilion–蚕丝混凝土', ASW(ASW Workshop, May 2015) < http://www.asworkshop.cn/silky-concrete-pavilion/> [16 March 2018] Birch, Amanda, 'Foster & Partners’ Khan Shatyr Entertainment Centre'< http://www.solaripedia.com/files/792.pdf> [16 March 2018] Burohappold Engineering, 'KHAN SHATYR ENTERTAINMENT CENTRE', Burohappold (Burohappold Engineering,2008) < https://www.burohappold.com/projects/khan-shatyr-entertainment-centre/> [16 March 2018] Dunne, Anthony and others, Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press, 2013 ), p.3 DETAILS, 'Research, development and daring – Frei Otto wins the Pritzker Prize', Topics (DETAILS, 2015) < https://www.detail-online.com/article/research-development-and-daring-frei-otto-wins-the-pritzkerprize-26524/ > [16 March 2018] En+, 'Japan Pavillion Expo 2000 Hannover', Buildings & Projects (en+, n.d.) < https://en.wikiarquitectura.com/building/japan-pavillion-expo-2000-hannover/ > [16 March 2018] Ferraro, Antonello, ‘Frei Otto and Lightweight Construction’, Domus Architecture (Domus, 02 November 2005) < https://www.domusweb.it/en/reviews/2005/11/02/frei-otto-and-lightweight-construction.html > [16 March 2018] Fry, Tony, DESIGN FUMING SUSTAINABILITY, ETHICS AND NEW PRACTICE (BERG, 2009), p.1-8 Happold, Buro, 'Khan Shatyr Entertainment Centre', ice(Designingbuildings,2014)< https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Khan_Shatyr_Entertainment_Centre#Introduction> [16 March 2018] Carpo, Mario, The Digital Turn in Architecture 1992 - 2012, Enhanced Edition (A John Wiley and Sons Ltd Publication,2013), p. 245. Langdon, David, ‘AD Classics: German Pavilion, Expo ‘67 / Frei Otto and Rolf Gutbrod’, Archdaily, the world’s most visited architecture website (Archdaily, 27 April 2015) < https://www.archdaily.com/623689/ ad-classics-german-pavilion-expo-67-frei-otto-and-rolf-gutbrod> [16 March 2018] LeCuyer, Annette, ETFE: Technology and Design (Birkhäuser Verlag AG, 2008), p138-141 METALOCUS, ‘FREI OTTO, THE GERMAN PAVILION, EXPO 1967’, Metalocus (Metalocus,2015) <https://www.metalocus.es/en/news/frei-otto-german-pavilion-expo-1967> [16 March 2018] METALOCUS, 'New ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2016-17', METALOCUS, (METALOCUS ,2017) < https://www.metalocus.es/en/news/new-icditke-research-pavilion-2016-17 > [16 March 2018] Miller, Michelle, ‘AD Classics: Los Manantiales / Felix Candela’, Archdaily, the world’s most visited architecture website (Archdaily, April 2014) < https://www.archdaily.com/496202/ad-classics-los-manantialesfelix-candela/> [16 March 2018] Osterhuis, Kas and others, The Architecture Co-laboratory: Game Set and Match II : on Computer Games ... (episode publisher, Rotterdam 2006 ), p.210 OXMAN, RIVKA and others, THEORIES OF THE DIGITAL IN ARCHITECTURE (London; New York: Routledge,2014), p1-10. Peter, Brady, The Building Of Algorithmic Thought (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2013), p.1-8 Schumache, Patrik, ‘Parametricism - A New Global Style for Architecture and Urban Design’, AD Architectural Design - Digital Cities, Vol 79, No 4, (2009), <http://www.patrikschumacher.com/Texts/ Parametricism%20-%20A%20New%20Global%20Style%20for%20Architecture%20and%20Urban%20Design.html > [16 March 2018] Shigeru Ban Architects, 'JAPAN PAVILLION, EXPO 2000 HANNOVER - Germany, 2000', WORKS - Paper tube Structures(Shigeru Ban Architects, n.d.) < http://www.shigerubanarchitects.com/works/2000_japanpavilion-hannover-expo/index.html > [16 March 2018] Sisson, Patrick, ‘Felix Candela, the architect who showcased concrete’s curves’, CURBED (CURBED,Jan 2018) < https://www.curbed.com/2018/1/25/16932400/felix-candela-architect-concrete-los-manantiales> [16 March 2018] Stevens, Philip, ' drones and industrial robots create this year's ICD / ITKE research pavilion', Designboom, (Designboom,2017) < https://www.designboom.com/architecture/icd-itke-research-pavilion-universityof-stuttgart-germany-robot-drone-fabrication-04-14-2017/> [16 March 2018] Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press,2004),p5-25

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27


CONTEXT B.1 RESEARCH FIELD B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0 B.3 CASE STUDY 2.0 B.4 TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

2


PART B. CRITERIA DESIGN

3


B.1 RESEARCH FIELD - TESSELLATION

A tessellation is any repeating pattern of symmetrical and interlocking shapes. Hence, tessellations should have no gaps or overlapping spaces. Sometimes, tessellations are referred to as â&#x20AC;&#x153;tilingsâ&#x20AC;?. However,most of the time the word tilings refers to a pattern of polygons (shapes with straight sides) only. Being formed from regular and irregular polygons, tessellation can make the patterns more intereting. Tessellating other polygons except from triangles and hexagons , particularly irregular ones, is more difficult.Tilings and tessellations are an important part of mathematics, which are in fact complex. However they can be manipulated for use in art and architecture.Tessellations are widely used in architecture,both in twodimensional and three-dimensional area, because even the simplest repeating pattern can look astonishing when it covers a large area. However, extensive planning and the use of complex computation techniques are required.

Another considerated approach may be used in my Part B design is modular design method. Modular design approach is that to subdivide a system into smaller parts called modules, that can be independently made and then used in different systems. According to the research field of tessellation I chose, modular design method can provide an economical and efficient solution to better produce the pieces of prototype with the help of computation method. The Project Cellular Tessellation is an example of tessellating irregular polygons. This tessellation proje was made in a modular design method which can be learnt for my project. Each individual cells were infilled with acrylic sheets and cladded with a weather-resistant HDPE plastic to house a 200 m of LED diodes.

https://www.ysjournal.com/wp-content/uploads/Issue07/What-are-Tilings-and-Tessellations-and-how-are-theyused-in-Architecture.pdf https://design-chronicle.com/cellular-tessellation-by-abedian-school-of-architecture/


Project: Cellular Tessellation Architect: Abedian School of Architecture Date: 2014 Location: Sydney, Australia


B.1 RESEARCH FIELD TENSILE CABLE NET LIGHTWEIGHT STRUCTURE

Cable net tensile structure is another research field of my Part B. One of the advantages of cable net tensile structure is the flexibility, which means it can be quickly and easily configured to meet the different requirements of different layout or room shapes. Moreover, existing features such as columns or other structural supports can also be accommodated by cable net system due to the inherent flexibility of the Cable net system. Another advantages of cable net is the capability to cover long spans and efficient in the use of different materials. To reduce the power and cost, cable net method is commonly used for the analysis and construction of tensile structure because they are very physical more simple In this kind of structure, as the primary load, cables carry structure.The structure itself is the evidence of logical and careful planning, which can remind us of what can be achieved with the intelligent use of cables working together in tension. The results are structures of unique depth and openness, with large spans made possible by balancing the need for reduced self weight, with the application of minimalist and efficient high tensile cable. (ć&#x201D;š)

The Munich zoo aviary was built in the Munich,Germany in 1981, measuring 18 meters in height and an area of 5000 square meters. The Munich aviary is covered by a fine mesh of thin, stainless steel to achieve the goals of solving the ethical issue of caging animals while still providing enough rooms for them to live comfortablely, while visitors can enjoy looking at them in a simulated environment that they can flourish in. (ć&#x201D;š) The Munich Zoo Aviary is a good precedent for me to further learn Tensile cable structure. It's not like that hi-tech building, it's very visible and clear, better clarifying the "Less is more" statement with the use of stainless steel canopy as lightweight structure. Unlike other buildings, the surface of aviary is the mesh itslef, which is designed for the ventilation for animals in the zoo. Thus, what I have to further develop in my Part B design is to think more about how to combine the surface material and the cable net structure better in a light way.

http://www.jands.com.au/brands/cablenet/tensile-structures http://asdsotiriou.info/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/CablelNL.pdf https://www.ronstanrigging.com/arch_w/structuralcables.asp http://www.archilovers.com/projects/151380/aviary-in-the-munich-zoo-at-hellabrunn.html#info http://www.architectmagazine.com/project-gallery/munich-zoo-aviary-6719 http://www.hellabrunn.de/news/the-latest-news/news/frei-otto-hellabrunn-zoo-aviary-architect-dies-aged-89/486a4072f0086dc6d621637fe691e252/


Project: Munich Zoo Aviary Architect: Jรถrg Gribl, Frei Otto and Ted Happold Date: 1981 Location: Munich, Germany


B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0


B.2 CASE STUDY 1 ALGORTITHM DEFINITION OF TENSILE SADDLE

1:

2:

3:

Input a mesh define the mesh properties such as using component "diagonalize" to change the direciton of mesh or "Refine" to decide the levels of mesh

Change the mesh length by using component "Mesh Edges" to adjust the naked edges and interior edges pf mesh.

The series of c aims to provid curves to mak shapes of mes

DEFINITION OF TENSILE CONE

The differenc tensile saddl cone is that w provide anch the mesh.


compnents de anchor ke variable sh

ce between le and tensile whether we hor curves for

4:

5:

Set the bottom anchor points using the component "Anchor".

Output the mesh in a silmulative state of force by using the Kangaroo 2 component "Solver".


B.2 ITERATION MATRIX SPECIE 1: CHANGE THE REFERENCED POLYGON MESH

SPECIE 2: CHANGE THE QUANTITY AND SIZE OF ANCHOR CURVES OF MESH

REGULAR QUAGRANGLE

1 ANCHOR CURVE SMALLER THAN MESH

REGULAR PENTAGON

1 ANCHOR CURVE BIGGER THAN MESH

IRREGULAR HEXAGON

IRREGULAR OCTAGON

2 ANCHOR CURVES

4 ANCHOR CURVES


SPECIE 3: CHANGE THE QUANTITY AND POSITION OF BOTH BOUNDARY ANCHOR POINTS AND THE ANCHOR POINTS IN MESH

ANCHOR PTS ON 2 NAKED EDGES

ANCHOR PTS ON 2 LEVELS (ANCHOR PTS ON NAKED EDGES)

SPECIE 4: COMBINE THE ANCHOR CURVES AND ANCHOR POINTS IN ONE MESH

2 ANCHOR CURVES 2 ANCHOR POINTS (EXCEPT THE BOUNDARY PTS)

2 ANCHOR CURVES 1 ANCHOR POINTS (EXCEPT THE BOUNDARY PTS)

ANCHOR PTS ON 3 LEVELS (ANCHOR PTS BOTH ON NAKED EDGES AND IN MESH)

1 ANCHOR CURVE 8 ANCHOR POINTS

ANCHOR PTS ON 4 LEVELS (ANCHOR PTS BOTH ON NAKED EDGES AND IN MESH)

1 ANCHOR CURVE 12 ANCHOR POINTS


B.2 SUCCESSFUL OUTCOME SELECTION CRITERIA (记得改的和我的方案相关) 1.GENERATIVE APPROACH Generative approach is the first step I considered the successful outcomes. All the outcomes are produced by changing the components and adding the parameters on basic definition. Outcomes which are chosen should be selected in more logical criteria rather than a more complex way. (改) 2.FUNCTION Function is the most important selection criteria. The outcomes we produced have to be thinked about what kind of architetcural applications could it be used for. Multi-functional project is the first choice.Whether the shape of it (such as openings) takes role in optimising its funciton. 3.AESTHETICS (SHAPE) Tensile cable net strcuture has the capability to cover any structural supports because of its felxibility, so the re are many possibilities of shape can be produced by providing different anchors. Once completed, the shape is expected to be elegant and eyecatching. 4.TECTONIC SYSTEM (CONSTRUCTION & STRUCTURE) Tectonics is the art of construction. Structure performance can be changed by changing the strength and length of mesh edges can be changed to adjust the structure of tensile explorations. When considering choosing the outcomes, how each outcome content be further expressed in the future study through constructional methodology and at the detail level should be considered. 5.FABRICATION Fabrication difficulty is considered an important element of seleciton. (写不出来了,下回再写)


GENERATIVE FUNCTION AESTHETICS TECTONICS FABRICATION

GENERATIVE FUNCTION AESTHETICS TECTONICS FABRICATION

GENERATIVE FUNCTION AESTHETICS TECTONICS FABRICATION

GENERATIVE FUNCTION AESTHETICS TECTONICS FABRICATION


B.3 CASE STUDY 2.0


REVERSE ENGINNERING PROCESS

Step 1 To find the basic points with help of the component "pi" to find the shape of points and mathematical method sin and cos to calculate the data

Step 8 Rising up the anchor points by

Step 2 Using the component "interpolate" to interpolate points to a line

Step 3 Using "Linear Array" to o points

Step 7 Using component "BouncySolver" to rising


offset the basic

Step 4 Transforming points to mesh using component "Mesh Frompoints"

Step 8 Using component "Load" to add gravity to imitate the real gravity condition.

Step 5 Extracting the points using component "Cull"

Step 9 Final project


B.3. LINE DRAWING OF THE FINAL OUTCOME


B.4 TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT SPECIE 1 Combine the Tessellation System and the Olympic Park

SPECIE 2 Change the anchor points (Regular)

SPECIE 3 Change the anchor points (Irregular)


SPECIE 4 Add openings on surface

SPECIE 5 Explorations with Weaverbird

SPECIE 6 Change the mesh shape


B.4. SUCCESSFUL EXPLORATIONS NEW SELECTION CRITERIA


B.6 TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL 1.INTRODUCTION OF NEW STUDENT PRECINCT The New Student Precinct will make a significant contribution to the transformation of the on-campus student experience at Parkville by delivering a worldclass student hub for the whole campus community. It will be a vibrant centre of activity that will co-locate student services and activities closer to the new heart of the campus, and to primary transport links.

Site Location

2.SITE OBSERVATION & SITE ANALYSIS

Site Pic 1

Site Pic


3.OVERARCHING AGENDA

4.DESIGN CONCEPT

To create an innovative and conducive informal study space to provide an enriching student experience Proposal Activate the site as a 24/7 study space Adequate sun shading and noise cancellation for a conducive study environment Aesthetically attractive space befitting of a top university


B.6 INTERIM DESIGN PROPOSAL

PROCESSES OF SHAPE DEVELO

PLAN

ELEVATION

SECTION


OPMENT:

RENDERED HERO SHOT


Part b tuesday 1541  
Part b tuesday 1541  
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