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02 2015

TOMORROWTODAY Developing the technologies, methods and tools of tomorrow


Smart Grids 2.0

Michael Hlava Head of Corporate and Marketing Communications, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology Please do not hesitate to contact me if you have any further queries: michael.h.hlava@ait.ac.at

Photos: Peter Rigaud; c/o Shotview Photographers; Armin Kübelbeck

Research for tomorrow’s infrastructure The AIT Austrian Institute of Technology is exploring the key aspects of tomorrow’s infrastructure. One research area concerns future energy supply in which renewables such as wind and solar power will play an ever greater role. However, far-reaching infrastructural changes are needed in order to integrate these sources into the power grids, and one of the most important will be to transform formerly passive electricity networks into active and intelligent storage and control systems. Smart grids are the only way to integrate weather-dependent and distributed wind and solar-generated power into the grid in a manner which ensures that future networks continue to remain stable. AIT has comprehensive expertise in smart grid research and its ‘SmartEST Lab’ is one of the world’s most modern testing laboratories in the field. We are particularly pleased that a high-ranking panel of experts has awarded top marks to SmartEST; the international experts on the evaluation committee see the laboratory as a “unique test infrastructure” for developing and testing components for tomorrow’s smart grids, and expect that “new ancillary services and business models for renewable energy sources can be developed in the lab” in this seminal field. Find out more about smart grid research at AIT and much more on the following pages. n

The AIT Energy Department supports policy makers, systems operators, service providers and manu­ facturers in planning and implementing tomorrow’s intelligent power networks.



Energy Infrastructure

Smart Grids 2.0 Smart grids are essential for integrating wind and solar power into stable electricity networks.

This has been demonstrated by the initial experiences of the Smart Grids Model Region Salzburg (SGMS) in which the formerly passive power distribution system is already actively directing power between energy generators and consumers. Now the technology is ripe for rolling out on a large scale. When it comes to developing smart grid technologies, the AIT Austrian Institute of Technology numbers among the top international institutes, offering intelligent control strategies for efficient voltage management as well as simulation models for the new and smart energy world. Smart grids: from pilot projects to complete network restructuring Renewable energy from wind and the sun faces energy suppliers with a series of challenges: the larger the number of weatherdependent wind and solar power facilities that are integrated into a network, the harder it is to keep the power network stable. Smart grids are the solution. They can balance peak loads by temporarily cutting off power to major energy consumers such as cooling

systems or industrial facilities whose consumption is not timecritical. They will also save consumers considerable costs in the future, for example by activating household appliances or battery chargers for electric cars only when cheap surplus wind or solar power is available. Thus everyone profits from an intelligent power network. The AIT Austrian Institute of Technology is one of the world’s leading institutions involved in developing smart grid technology. Not only does it have one of the most modern smart grid laboratories in the world, allowing the hardware and software for intelligent networks to be tested under real-world operating conditions, it also generates application-oriented expertise during smart grid pilot trials or in model regions. “The field of smart grids has developed considerably over the past ten years,” stressed Brigitte Bach, Head of the Energy Department at AIT, recently at the Smart Grids Dialogue event in the Salzburg Residenz. “Now it’s time for the big roll out.” The Smart Grids Model Region Salzburg (SGMS) and many other projects offer a first glimpse into the future. The Rosa Zukunft residential scheme in Salzburg is an indicator of how the smart-age future might look: here cutting-edge energy technologies and intelligent power meters (smart meters) have been installed, together with feedback systems such as an app which shows when power is cheapest. This has already brought the residents significant savings. The Smart Grid model community

Smart grid model communities are currently being used to test how active power networks can intelligently manage energy supplies in the future.

Smart Grids 2.0

Köstendorf project, headed by AIT, has also demonstrated that it is possible to manage a very high proportion of PV facilities and charging stations for electric cars by using intelligent power networks. Smart grid technology is now sufficiently advanced to completely restructure the entire energy network, controlling the large quantities of solar or wind power being fed into the grid while maintaining stable power supplies.

The field of smart grids has developed considerably over the past ten years. Now it’s time for the big roll out. Brigitte Bach, Head of Energy Department, AIT

Photos: AIT, APA/Salzburg AG

The network as ‘conductor’ The power network no longer serves only to deliver power, it also acts as a ‘conductor’ and storage system – provided that it is fully informed about its consumers and power suppliers. The smarter the network, the more savings can be made. According to Michael Strebl, Managing Director of Salzburg Network GmbH, smart grid projects can play a significant role in making energy transition affordable. For example, using smart grid technologies to integrate renewable energy into the power network is up to 50 % more economical than conventional network extensions. In order to demonstrate the new technologies in the Smart Grids Model Region Salzburg (SGMS), an interdisciplinary team has been formed which incorporates the power industry, the housing sector, industry, consulting and research. The first phase in which the passive distribution networks were turned into active grids and tested in pilot projects is now complete. “Now it’s about using this operating experience to continue development, combining the individual projects and then extending them to cover larger regions,” explains Wolfgang Hribernik, Head of the Electric Energy Systems Business Unit at AIT. The test results from the completed projects show where adaptations need to be made to the old infrastructure to create a totally new, intelligent network. Top marks for the AIT Smart Grids laboratory ‘SmartEST’ AIT’s SmartEST (Smart Electricity Systems and Technologies) laboratory in Vienna is playing an important role in this respect by using scientific methods, technical concepts and design tools to improve the integration of distributed renewable energy sources and storage systems. Smart grid architectures can be simulated and tested in the laboratory using real components. AIT thus offers a unique testing and research infrastructure which allows hardware and software for intelligent networks to be tested and optimised under real-world conditions. This makes it all the more gratifying that an international panel of experts have recently awarded AIT top marks in their final assessment of the project to set up the smart grids laboratory (the DG-EV-HIL research project sponsored by the Climate and Energy Fund). Alois Stöger, Aus-

trian Federal Minister for Innovation, also praised the project. “This SmartEST laboratory lays the foundations which will help speed up the path of smart grid technologies ‘Made in Austria’ from research to market.” A glimpse into the future Köstendorf shows us how the future might look. Here we already have a network with a high concentration of photovoltaic installations and charging stations for electric cars. Sophisticated solutions for medium voltage grids have already been developed in other projects. Now the primary task is to find solutions for local distribution networks in the low voltage range. The test region involved 99 households, 43 PV installations delivering a total of around 200 kWp, 36 electric vehicles, and five PV storage systems. “Using our simulation models, we were able to make a real contribution to integrating smart grid technologies into the planning and implementation of new energy systems,” said Wolfgang Hribernik. In turn, the experts are now able to use real data from the networks to optimise the models and control concepts for future projects. Complete restructuring of the network Findings from smart grid research projects to date demonstrate that the transition to a largely renewable energy system involves far more than merely replacing fossil fuel sources. Maintaining a constant balance between generation and consumption requires no less than a total restructuring of the energy system, and here information and communications technologies play a key role in significantly raising the capacity of the existing networks.

Now it’s about using this operating experience to continue development, combining the individual projects and then extending them to cover larger regions. Wolfgang Hribernik, Head of Business Unit Electric Energy Systems, AIT

Roll out After completion of the first phase of the Smart Grids Model Region Salzburg (SGMS), and many other projects in Austria, the task now is to investigate the transferability and scalability of individual projects throughout Europe. “Austria can take on a leading role in the new and smart energy future”, says Theresia Vogel, Managing Director of the Climate and Energy Fund. The first steps in this direction have already been taken. “We are currently part of a European research project to design strategies for the large scale roll out of smart grid technologies”, explains Wolfgang Hribernik, Head of the Electric Energy Systems Business Unit at AIT. The ultimate aim is provide tools for both industry and grid operators which will significantly reduce the still considerable engineering investment needed to integrate smart grid technologies and solutions. n




Focus on Performance & Success

In this edition of Tomorrow Today, we will be reporting on R & D projects from the Departments of Mobility, Energy, Health & Environment, Innovation Systems and Digital Safety & Security – and the benefits they bring to your customers.

Cyber Security

Cyber Attack Information Systems L e op ol d Skopi k Bl e i e r

und Erkenntnisse aus rheitsforschung

s Internet schnell zu einem massiven wirtschaftlichen Betätigungsfeld entwickelt, mungen. Das Ausnutzen von Schwachstellen in IKT-Systemen ist inzwischen ein staatlich geförderte Forschungsprojekt CAIS beschäftigte sich deshalb mit der tack Information Systems auf nationaler Ebene mit dem Ziel, die Widerstandsn Systeme zu stärken und ihre Verfügbarkeit und Vertrauenswürdigkeit zu erhöhen. n die Identifizierung der künftigen Cyber-Risiken und -Bedrohungen, die ken zur Anomalieerkennung, die Entwicklung modularer Infrastrukturmodelle nen zur Risiko- und Bedrohungsanalyse, und schließlich die Analyse und mögliche ber Attack Information Systems.

1 Cyber Attack Information Systems

ttack tion Systems

Hel mut L eopold Florian Skopi k Thomas Bleier (H r s g .)

Cyber Attack Information Systems

Er fa hr u ngen u nd Erkennt nisse a u s d e r I K T- S i c h e r h e i t s f o r s c h u n g

ISSN 1439-5428 ISbN 978-3-662-44305-7

Helmut Leopold, Florian Skopik, Thomas Bleier (Eds.): Cyber Attack Information Systems. Erfahrungen und Erkenntnisse aus der IKT-Sicherheitsforschung, Springer Vieweg, Vienna

The tricks played on the internet by cyber criminals are becoming increas­ ingly malicious. Businesses and infrastructure installations, from power grids to oil pipelines, are being attacked with ever more sophisticated methods. Exploiting weak points in ICT systems has now developed into a lucrative “business model”. As networking and connectivity continue to grow, so the attacks will become increasingly more refined and more frequent in future. Consequently AIT’s Digital Safety & Security Department has already been focussing on cyber security for some time and played a key role in the development of the state sponsored research project Cyber Attack Information System (CAIS), funded by the Austrian security research programme KIRAS of the Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology. CAIS aims to increase the robustness and resilience of networked ICT systems using new techniques. “These will help to identify, quickly and reliably, anomalies resulting from access by external and unknown servers”, explains Helmut Leopold, head of AIT’s Digital Safety & Security Department. The book on the research project summarising all the experience gathered was published by Springer Verlag at the end of March. n

Cancer Research

AIT joins research consortium for the early detection of cancer The Austrian Institute of Technology recently joined the international Early Diagnosis Consortium (EDC), a co-operative initiative between Cancer Research UK and Abcodia, which focuses on early cancer detection. New research methods are designed to make cell changes visible at the earliest opportunity, even before symptoms occur or the tumour can metastasise. AIT is contributing its expertise in biomarker research, especially in the autoantibody method. If tumour cells develop, the body produces proteins which trigger an autoimmune response. These autoantibodies produced by the human organism can sometimes be found in the blood months, or even years, before the disease is diagnosed clinically. AIT experts have already identified and patented biomarkers for diagnosing breast, colon and lung cancer.  n

Our innovative autoantibody technology allows us to improve minimally invasive diagnosis so that we need only minimal amounts of blood or saliva. Martin Weber, Head of Business Unit Molecular Diagnostics, Health & Environment Department

Photos: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg; AIT

Leopold Skopi k Bleier (H r s g .)

Perfomance & Success

Process Optimisation

Light alloys in the spotlight Aluminium and magnesium are metals which are highly valued in numerous applications due to their lightweight nature and other material properties. However huge amounts of energy are required to manufacture and process them and some of these processes also involve substantial environmental pollution. Light Metals Technologies Ranshofen (LKR, Business Unit of the AIT Mobility Department) is now turning the spotlight on the entire process chain in the COMET project Amoree*. For, according to LKR’s managing director Andreas Kraly, “factors such as energy consumption, the environment and weight concern not only the finished product”. Research work is focussing on both aluminium and magnesium alloys. Specific issues relate to process routes for continuous casting, pressing and rolling and joining technology. These are being tackled jointly with renowned industrial partners such as AMAG, HAI, Magna, nonferrum, HPI and MAS as well as scientific partners ETH Zurich, Salzburg University, Vienna University of Technology and Graz University of Technology.  n Aluminium and magnesium processing optimisation with special respect to resource and energy efficiency


Motivation Research

Photos: LKR; AIT Michael Bösendorfer; Shutterstock

Moving for fun How do you motivate people through games to be more physically active? This is the fundamental issue which the GEMPLAY (Gendered Games Motivating Physical Activity) project is addressing. The approach is as follows: specific computer games could be developed which would motivate both men and women to take regular exercise. GEMPLAY is now looking at the behaviour of individual people as regards their physical activity levels and computer gaming habits. The particular aim is to discover gender-specific dif­ ferences as well as similarities. Based on specific needs and preferences, genderappropriate gaming approaches will be developed. n

In GEMPLAY we harness the fun aspect of computer games to motivate people to take more physical exercise. We want to design games which appeal both to men and to women.” Elke Mattheiss, Scientist, Business Unit Technology Experience, Inno­vation Systems Department

GEMPLAY: aims to motivate both male and female couch potatoes to exercise more through specially developed gaming ideas.


Perfomance & Success

Focus on Performance & Success

Innovation Models Electromobility

Speed for SME Motor sport is considered the most rigorous test environment for vehicle development. This also goes for electromobility as the trend to increased use of electric motors now even takes in rallying.

What are the benefits of crowdsourcing or open innovation? The manner in which innovation takes place in business and society is currently undergoing a dramatic transformation. New information technology, clients’ readiness to get involved in the development process and social networks all make novel forms of innovation possible. Karl-Heinz Leitner, Senior Scientist Research, Technology & Innovation Policy Innovation Systems Department

How can you harness the knowledge of the crowd for your own innovation process? What are the benefits of open innovation? These and similar issues are currently being examined by the AIT’s Innovation Systems Department, on behalf of Austria Wirt­ schaftsservice GmbH. Open innovation, crowdsourcing and business model innovation are some of the new development trends found throughout the world which are also increasingly being adopted by Austrian businesses. A number of workshops are being organised to identify possible barriers and analyse success factors which could be addressed by innovation policy and promotion. n “Speed for SME”* is a project which allows small and medium-sized enterprises to develop components and prototypes that make electric-powered vehicles suitable for racing. Light Metals Technologies Ranshofen (LKR, Business Unit of the AIT Mobility Department) has an advisory role in the incorporation of lightweight solutions in rally vehicles and develops the early prototypes for lightweight electric motor casings manufactured through low pressure casting. “The priority is to integrate the components in the overall concept and make optimal use of the available space with a compact design”, explains LKR project leader Richard Kretz. A smart combi­ nation of development tools, such as casting and solidification simulations, are used in the manufacture of electric motor casings. The result: faster and improved production of components suitable for rally vehicles. n

Speed for SME: rally sport with electric-powered vehicles. LKR Ranshofen is involved in working on new overall solutions.

Richard Kretz, LKR project leader of Speed for SME: “We are using a smart combination of development tools.”


 ystematic development of propulsion systems S for enhanced electro mobility drive trains

Longevity Research

Specialised ribosomes counter the ageing process How can you stay healthy while ageing? This is a question which hundreds of research groups around the world are current­ ly investigating. Researchers at Vienna’s University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (Boku), together with national and international partners including AIT, have made an important discovery in longevity research. They have observed that gene NSUN5, hitherto largely ignored by scientific studies, can influence the ageing process of various organisms. If this gene is deactivated, protein synthesis in cells is “reprogrammed” such that model organisms like fruit flies or threadworms live longer. The mechanism of action discovered in this research mainly targets ribosomes which are responsible for protein synthesis in the cells. The study has recent­ ly been published in the prestigious scientific journal Nature Communications. n

Photos: LKR; AIT Krischanz Zeiler


Innovation Calendar

Innovation Calendar 7

27 April

Workshop “Plastics – shaping the future with foresight” The AIT Innovation Systems Department organises a workshop on the introduction to foresight methods in cooperation with the Plastics Cluster. Venue: Tech Gate Vienna, 1220 Vienna Registration: beatrix.wepner@ait.ac.at

29 – 30 April

Seeing and understanding – images help us in decision making AIT and the VRVis Centre for Virtual Reality and Visualisation present state-of-the-art technology developments in the field of image processing and visualisation in cooperation with the Tech Gate Vienna Science and Technology Park. A panel discussion entitled “R&D expertise in Vienna – a motor for economic growth?” will be held on 29 April, 5 pm, the evening before the exhibition opens. Venue: Tech Gate Vienna, 1220 Vienna Information: ikt.wien



8 June

AAL Workshop as part of the International Conference on Communications This Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) Workshop will focus on the topic of ICT enabled services and technologies for eHealth and ambient assisted living. Venue: London Information: aalworkshop.org


OTTI Forum Air Source Heat Pumps The conference will give participants an overview of the state of the art, current developments in R & D, trends and perspectives in the field of air source heat pumps for retrofitting applications in urban areas. Venue: TECHbase Vienna, 1210 Vienna Contact: thomas.fleckl@ait.ac.at

18– 22


9– 12 June

Intersolar Europe Intersolar Europe is the world’s leading exhibition for the solar industry and its partners. Venue: München Information: intersolar.de

10 June

Smart Grids Week The Smart Grids Week has established itself as a meeting point for business, grid operators, research and administration in the field of smart power infrastructure.

VEROLOG-ELOCOT The conference and panel discussion on current research in the field of electromobility and freight logistics will be organised by AIT in cooperation with the VEROLOG conference taking place from 8 to 10 June.

Venue: Tech Gate Vienna, 1220 Vienna Contact: Wolfgang Hribernik Information: smartgrids.at

Venue: Wien Contact: Jakob Puchinger Information: select-project.eu/elocot

31 May– 3 June

16– 18 June

EuroNoise 2015 Acoustics experts from across Europe will gather at the 10th Congress of the European Acoustics Association to discuss the latest developments in noise research and control. Venue: Maastricht Contact: Manfred Haider Information: Euronoise2015.eu

1– 5 June

I am online This initiative supported by AIT offers school classes and their teachers a firstrate technology programme with international experts, keynotes, numerous interactive workshops and an exhibition.

CTS 2015 The AIT Innovation Systems Department will organise a Special Session on “Intelligent Cooperative Driving and Autonomous Connected Vehicles” as part of the Inter­ national Conference on Collaboration Technologies and Systems (CTS 2015).

Venue: Innsbruck Information: ichbinonline.at

Venue: Atlanta, USA Information: cts2015.cisedu.info

Automotive Testing Expo 2015 Automotive Testing Expo Europe is the leading event focusing on the quality, sa­ fety, reliability and durability of vehicles across Europe and will showcase new technologies in the fields of automotive testing, evaluation and quality engineering. Venue: Stuttgart Contact: Helmut Oberguggenberger Information: testing-expo.com

16– 20 June

GIFA Some 800 exhibitors from over 45 countries are expected to attend the world’s most important trade fair for foundry technology. Attendance 2011: over 48,000. Venue: Düsseldorf Contact: Andreas Kraly Information: gifa.de



AIT Top Journal Papers

AIT Top Journal Papers Research results obtained by AIT scientists were recently published in high-impact international journals.

Playful mobility choices Saving the climate requires motivating people to change their mobility behaviour patterns towards more sustainable forms of mobility. While new approaches rely on gamification to trigger such behavioural changes, little is known about the efficiency of these methods. A paper published by researchers from AIT and the MIT Game Lab describes a concept designed to fill this gap. They used theoretical findings concerning player types and mobility styles to develop a framework for identifying effective game mechanics which motivate users to explore new and more sustainable mobility alternatives for their route choice decisions. The results of the study form the basis for implementing game elements in mobility information services. n Millonig A. and Mitgutsch K. Playful Mobility Choices:
Motivating informed mobility decision making by applying game mechanics EAI Endorsed Trans­actions
on Ambient Systems, 03 –10 2014 | Volume 1 | Issue 4 | e3

Well embedded? What factors influence the embeddedness of regions in European research networks? AIT experts investigated this question using methods of network analysis. Embeddedness denotes a region’s position in knowledge networks in terms of so called

centrality measures. These can be used to measure how centrally network nodes are located and how significant they are in general. Spatial-econometric methods show that the level of knowledge available in a region, e.g. in the form of local research expertise, leads to a central embeddedness in research networks of different kinds. Vicinity to other centrally located regions also has been shown to have positive effects. n Wanzenböck I., Scherngell T. and Brenner T. (2014) Embeddedness of regions in European knowledge networks: a comparative analysis of inter-regional R & D collaborations, co-patents and co-publications. The Annals of Regional Science, 2014, 53, 2, 337-368

Smart Grids put to the test Increasing integration of renewable energy systems (Distributed Energy Resources, DERs) poses growing challenges to power grids in terms of stability, reliability and efficiency. The AIT SmartEST (“Smart Electricity Systems and Technologies”) Lab can be used to test the effects of DER integration into smart grids under real-world conditions. The article co-authored by AIT researchers together with scientists from internationally leading smart grids labs in the USA (NREL, SANDIA) and Europe (DNV GL) gives an insight into the latest research results. n Bründlinger R., Strasser T., Lauss G., Hoke A., Chakraborty S., Martin G., Kroposki B., Johnson J. and de Jong E. Lab Tests IEEE power & energy magazine, march/april 2015, 30–42.

New methods to combat cyberattacks

The sexual reproduction of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei has only been demonstrated recently. A new study has now shown that VEL1, a protein of the VELVET group, is important for fungal communication. It influences both the sending and receiving of pheromone signals and the secretion of small molecules as soon as a mating partner is detected close by. These new findings provide the basis for new applications in industrial enzyme production and biological pest control. n

Advanced persistent threats (APT) are cyberattacks that stealthily compromise IT systems in a way that the damage they cause goes unnoticed for a long time. Cybercriminals often use techniques that are able to steal sensitive data without being immediately detected by the system. A newly developed diagnostic system now helps to detect whether an IT system is the target of an APT attack. The method involves logging normal system behaviour and recording the complex action pattern. Based on this metadata, the system learns to detect any anomalies indicating an APT attack. n

Bazafkan H., Dattenböck C., Böhmdorfer S., Tisch D., Stappler E., Schmoll M. Mating type dependent partner sensing as mediated by VEL1 in Trichoderma reesei. Mol Microbiol. 2015 Mar 11. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12993. [Epub ahead of print]

Ivo Friedberg, Florian Skopik, Giuseppe Settanni, Roman Fiedler Combating advanced persistent threats: From network event correlation to incident detection Computers & Security, Volume 48, February 2015, Pages 35–57

Flirting fungi

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