RSA PROJECT PROFESSIONAL DESIGN STUDIO 2013 MSC IPD AISLING WANG 1216352
CONTENTS INTRODUCTION & PROJECT PLAN PART 1 RESEARCH OVERVIEW KEY FINDINGS OF SECONDARY RESEARCH PESTEL ANALYSIS KEY FINDINGS OF PRIMARY RESEARCH
1 2-6 2 3 5 6
PART 2 CONCEPT
OVERVIEW DEFINITION CONCEPT 1-3
7 8 9-14
PART 3 DEVELOPMENT OVERVIEW & CONCEPT EVALUATION USER RESEARCH TECHNOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT & INDICATING CONCEPT ANALYSIS INSPIRATIONS OF OPTIMISING RECORDER FANTASY STORYBOARD OF USAGE 3D MODELS & DIMENSIONS BLUEPRINT & SYSTEM MAP BEHAVIOUR CHANGE & LEARNING CYCLE CONCLUSION
15-32 15 17 18 20 21 26 27 28 32 34 35
Putting the people back into premiums WHAT
The RSA brief: “Design a means of making car insurance more affordable for young people, namely students, by encouraging safer driving behaviour.”
The main reasons young drivers are involved in accidents including their inexperience, misjudgments, over-conﬁdence and a need to show off. Insurance companies base their decisions solely on facts and ﬁgures. There are no personality traits that young drivers possess that would affect their premium.
A in-car device combined with services to help drivers developing better driving habits. Drivers use the device mainly while driving on road.
The user would get the product / service at the early stage of driving on road to help developing good driving habits as soon as possible.
The design processes were focusing on younger generations especially teenage drivers. Improper driving behaviours occur among this group so it has chosen to be the target group.
The product / service is considered to be affordable and carefully designed for the age group so it would be user -friendly.
DISCOVERY Secondary research
IMPORTANCE Concept Development
Research: Tech., Vehicle
RESEARCH User Research
Scenario & Storyboard Final Output Modeling & Reﬁnements
Video taping Research of in-car technology
Analyze design oppotunities Evaluate concepts
DELIVERY Develop individual design concepts Individual design briefs
Research: Speciﬁc Tech. Concept Presentation
Select 3 insights
User journey map
Break the brief
Design research is foundational to creating products, services, and systems that respond to human needs. In the public and international development sectors, understanding and meeting human needs are critical for improved livelihoods and better governance. As the ﬁrst stage of this project, the role of research process is pointing out key issues and leading the direction of design. Comprehensive secondary research is considered to be useful including data from previous research, insurance company and expert interviews. Based on the key ﬁndings, a series of primary research was done such as user survey and video taping of driving behaviours.
From the several issues identiﬁed from the initial brainstorming and research, the group developed 3 insights which are: Attractive people, advertisements and technology. The topics outlined all relate to distractions to the driver. It can be debated that the lack of experience can be the main reason of crashing, however the lack of experience can also contribute to how easily distracted the driver is. At the end of the research process, we as a group delivered our design opportunities: 1. Encouraging safer driving behaviour 2. Camera eye recognition and warning system 3. Intuitive in-car technology e.g. temperature sensors to control air conditioning
KEY FINDINGS Key ﬁndings of secondary research
BEHAVIOUR OF YOUNG DRIVERS
BLACK BOX CAR INSURANCE
CAR INSURANCE PREMIUMS
‘There is a wealth of research and casualty data showing that young drivers - particularly young male drivers - are at a much higher risk of crashing than older drivers’ (Brake, 2005). The statistics say that males between the ages of 17-24 are seven times more at risk than other male drivers. This ﬁgure rises to seventeen times more at risk when they are driving between 2am and 5am.
‘If you’re willing to prove that you’re a safe driver you could pay less for your cover with a Black box car insurance policy’ (Confused , 2012).
Liaison with the AA Insurance and Financial services has attracted the interest of Ian Crowder, the Public Relations Manager, and has agreed to share his insight and several resources regarding uninsured, and young drivers.
Alongside the statistics on accidents, further study has shown that, although it’s rarely covered by media, driving is one of the most common activities that can cause fatal injuries to young people. Their statistics show that:
Looking into the insurance premiums for young drivers. Crowder states that, although drivers under 24 represent around 1 in 8 drivers, they are responsible for 1 in 3 crashes; young men being 10 times more likely to be involved in a fatal accident than drivers aged 35 or over, young wom- en being ﬁve times more likely. Insurance claims on the AA database also reﬂect this statistic:
- 30% of drivers age 17-24 killed in road crashes are over the drink- drive limit
It is believed that the reason teenagers crash more between 17-24 is because the frontal lobe part of brain does not develop until 25. The Frontal lobe is responsible for, emotion, risk taking and decision-making. Therefore, the immature brains of young drivers are often the cause of most of their accidents. Young drivers are also more likely to ‘seek thrills’ from driving fast and cornering at high speed than older drivers. Even sticking to the speed limit can be too fast in the wrong conditions - such as on bendy country roads - but young drivers, particularly male drivers, may be reluctant to drive under the speed limit for fear of ‘losing face’ in front of friends’ (Brake, 2005). The behavioral changes when with friends are ones that researchers are ﬁnding common when studying why youngsters are more at risk. Current research has shown that young drivers become even more at risk when they are carrying passengers.
Telematics was introduced to avoid the high premiums costs that are associated with young drivers car insurance. ‘Telematics is a method of monitoring a vehicle. By combining a GPS system with on-board diagnostics it’s possible to record – and map – exactly where a car is and how fast it’s traveling, and cross reference that with how a car is behaving internally’ (Carter, 2012). ‘Once the box is ﬁtted, your speed, braking and cornering style, the time of day you tend to drive and the types of road you travel on will all be tracked. Should the data collected indicate that you are a safe driver, your premiums will fall throughout the year to reﬂect this. The AA claims that motorists who are deemed to be safer drivers could see a reduction in their overall premiums in just 60 days. However, not everyone will receive a discount. Those seen to be exceeding speed limits, cornering sharply, breaking heavily or driving a lot at night are likely to see their premiums rise instead’
- Average claim cost for male drivers aged 17-24 is £4,500 - Average claim cost for female drivers aged 17-24 is £2,00 - Average claim cost for drivers aged 35 and above is: £1,200 (male) and £1,000 (female)
- 25% of young drivers admit to using a mobile device to e-mail/tweet/ access social networks while driving - 1 in 4 (26%) of young drivers have been involved in a crash whilst driving within six months of passing their test - AA/Populus study shows that 16% of 18-24 year olds have travelled as a passenger in a car where they knew the driver was over the drink drive limit, more than twice as many as the next age group: 7% of 25- 35 year olds - Road crashes are the biggest killer of young people in the world.
Key ﬁndings of primary research
PESTLE analysis of secondary research
THE CAUSE OF ACCIDENTS
Insurance premiums for females and are lowering for males because of the European on gender discrimination law (Effective end of December 2012) Government are taking measures into investigating artiﬁcial claims. In the long term, the regulations put in place from the investigations can potentially reduce insurance premiums
Car insurance affected by artiﬁcial claims and duration of replacement car hire, regardless of whether the accident involves young drivers. Rise in Tuition fees: The rise in tuition fees have discouraged students from going into university. Those without higher educations will have to deal with low pay jobs, whereas students whom graduate from universities will have student loans to handle.
Peer Pressure: A study on the subconscious need in young drivers to impress when in the presence of friends as passengers, has shown to have affected their driving. Independence: Most young drivers do not pay directly for their insurance: the majority, if not all, are paid for by their parents. Black box: A method of tracking your driving behaviour and gives money back, as well as potential decrease on car insurance. The black box encourages safer driving. Driving simulators: Are capable of introducing basic hazard perception skills to the driver, but most are used for studying driver behaviour. People driving without insurance: People without insurance have a higher chance of leaving without con- sequences after a crash. Although this does not directly affect insurance premiums this is a potential gap in the market that can be looked into.
People fear youngsters Inexperience is the most associated attributes to a young driver. Be- cause of such there is a fear that young drivers will use their inexperi- ence as an excuse to drive irrationally.
INEXPERIENCE PHONE CALLS
SURVEY - YOUNG DRIVER BEHAVIOUR From the survey result of young drivers (age 19-24) we learnt that inexperience is the main cause for accidents. Besides, distractions from both internal and external of the car caused crashes. Theses distractions including phone calls, GPS, peers and partner, parents, music, attractive people, billboards, sunlight and bad weathers. As shown in the result, phone calls take the ﬁrst place among all kinds of distractions. Up to 73% of young drivers admit that they use mobile phone while driving and some of them even text messages.
One of other ﬁndings of this survey is that young drivers usually holding a good mood on road and most of them are willing to respect road regulations. However, nearly 30% of young drivers would behave better while driving with parents. Another factor affects driving behaviour is the car price. 26% of the young drivers claimed that they would drive more carefully if the car was worth more.
In Car Technology
OVERVIEW Concept design is aiming to develop different design opportunities and to dig deeper about user needs. Two problem areas are deﬁned based on the group research: Solving problems related to bad driving behaviour on road and using mobile phone while driving. The ﬁnal objective is clear which is to provide affordable car insurance for young drivers based on reduction of accident rate among this population. Further research about existing in car technologies helps to support design concepts. 3D printing technology, air pressure detector and human-machine interaction are used in initial concepts. The use of existing technologies in innovative design is the big idea of the whole design stage.
Design concepts related to using mobile phone in car are “Air trigger” and “Sticky wheel” while another concept is focusing on building good driving habit named “Recorder fantasy”. Three design concepts are mapped and deﬁned according to three essential aspects: What kind of in-car technology is utilized, what user needs is met and what kind of distraction issue is it aiming to solve.
Driving recorder Navigation system
like to be cool
Driver’s eyes off road
Bad driving behaviour on road
Use mobile phone while driving 7
Driver been distracted
High rate of accident Driver’s hands off steering wheel
Expensive car insurance
Smartphone fans Other drivers
wallet friendly Insuranc e
A lovely little friend on
3D Printing Figurine
OBJECTIVE Help young driver to develop good driving behaviors from real-time feedbacks and encourage them by reducing insurance fee.
your da shboa rd
Clear plastic shell
Spring, Speaker & Recording system
By putting a 3D printing ﬁgurine on the dashboard, it makes psychological implications of self behaviour which helps the drivers to become responsible for themselves.
Audio alert: Help to develop good driving behavior
Driving Recorder The ﬁgurine’s head hits the shell when the driver drives improperly. (Making sharp turns, sharp braking, or hit the gas too hard)
The number of hits will be recorded as a reference of the driver’s driving behavior.
Reward system: Insurance company charge differently according to driver’s driving behavior.
LED indicator ďŹ‚ashes while the car door open or close. (Air pressure sensor)
OBJECTIVE Help young driver to put on Bluetooth headset in timeand to use mobile phone safely in car.
KEY POINTS The device is charged by solar energy and use the air pressure sensor to trigger the LED indicator.
Smartphone holder on the dashboard
INTERACTIVE ANSWERING SYSTEM OBJECTIVE
INSPIRATION Keep driverâ€™s hands on steering wheel. Avoid holding mobile phone while driving.
Heads-up Display Projection
By squeezing the steering wheel to answer phone calls, it makes psychology implications to the driver to keep concentrate while making communication.
Bluet oo Head th set
Smart Wheel Cover
New age s Mes LED Indicators
Heads -up Display Projecto r
Squeeze with both hands to check SMS or to answer phone calls
TRADITIONAL DRIVING RECORDER
USERS PAY FOR IT
PROVIDE EVIDENCE IN ACCIDENT
The chosen concept is developed to be mature and its system including service design and using scenario are also completed at development stage. The key point of the chosen concept “Recorder fantasy” is user behaviour change, which is a wide and complex problem with human factors and psychological issues involved. Based on study the Kolb’s learning cycle, the feedback and learning cycle for young drivers to develop good driving habits is set carefully. As in the blueprint, both front stage and back stage operations of the system are shown clearly step by step and it also indicates the relationships between stages. The result of survey from further user study indicates younger generation’s attitude towards driving behaviours. From learning characteristics of users, the form of the product and system are deﬁned with key words “personalize, rewarding and affordable”. The type of indicating information could affect the system efﬁciency and accuracy. From comparing visual and audio alert of existing in-car warning system, the proper method of giving the driver real-time feedback is selected. After completed the system functions and service design, the ﬁnal form of the product has gone through a long period of evolution. 3D ﬁgurine is replaced by modular DIY ﬁgurine but the key point is remained as “always cool and wanted”.
CONCEPT 1 CONCEPT 2 RECORDER FANTASY
FORM GOOD DRIVING HABITS & PREVENT ACCIDENT
USERS SAVE MONEY FROM USING IT
DRIVING RECORDER: Records real time driving data
3D FIGURE: Makes psychological implications through the “mini me”
BEHAVIOUR CHANGE INNOVATION INTERACTION
TIME MAGAZINE MIRROR:
SERVICE COST ENERGY USE
Evoke the self worth, play with psychology
GYROSCOPE: Detecting the change of acceleration and directions
TECHNOLOGY & FUNCTIONS
GYROSCOPE: Detect improper driving behaviour, sharp turns and sharp brakes etc.
WIRELESS DATABASE: Transfer data to the system for generating the report.
Like to buy in-car SAFETY DEVICES to get cheaper car insurance
Think 3D printing is “SUPER COOL”
like to form better DRIVING HABITS via safety devices
Admit they’re not “GOOD DRIVERS”
AUDIO ALERT: Produce warning sound to remind the driver to drive safely.
The Recorder fantasy is ﬁxed on dashboard top so the bottom surface needs to be ﬂexible and also anti-skid.
Primary research: Online survey Target group: Young drivers ( Age 18-26 )
The theme of car interior design is usually simple and in dark colours. Colour theme of the product should ﬁt the environment.
OVERVIEW The strengths and weaknesses analysis of the chosen concept shows that there are many issues in this design and improvements are needed. The role of design in this process is optimising the concept to achieve the maximization of its strength and lower the impacts of its weaknesses.
AUDIO ALERT V.S. WARNING LIGHT In existing in-car warning system design, two types of alert are applied: warning light with or without audio alert. From research and analysing it is clear to see that audio alert always occurs with higher urgency degree while warning light is usually indicates status with lower urgency degree. The real-time feedbacks provided by Recorder Fantasy suppose to be accepted by its user immediately thus the user would be able to notice the fault and to improve driving behaviour in time. From repeating this process, the learning cycle can be built and the system could work efﬁciently. Another reason why the audio alert is necessary is that it could help to keep driver’s eye on road while warning light could distract the driver.
PARTICIPATE IN SENSE
WARNING LIGHT WITH AUDIO ALERT
Seat belt reminder light
Open door warning light Brake system warning light
REAL-TIME STATUS INDICATING
3D Printing Figurine
Degree of urgency：
ONLY WARNING LIGHT Low oil pressure warning light Discharge warning light Headlight high beam indicator light
Degree of urgency：
Plastic shell Speaker Solar Panels
INSPIRATIONS OF OPTIMISING
The LEGO Group
“ iMadeFace, make unique faces.” INTRODUCTION
Have you tired of taking yourself a photo and share it? Try self-portrait for some fresh air. The ones you love or the ones you hate, there’s always a way to create them an iconic look and make them really special. - Numerous facial components are available - Millions of unique faces are generated from the facial feature elements database. - Special ornaments can be added to facial expression - Thoughtful designed UI and ﬁnger gestures - Simply slide your ﬁngers to select facial feature and change their colors.
“ Play on.” INTRODUCTION
Lego, consists of colourful interlocking plastic bricks and an accompanying array of gears, miniﬁgures and various other parts. Lego bricks can be assembled and connected in many ways, to construct such objects as vehicles, buildings, and even working robots. Anything constructed can then be taken apart again, and the pieces used to make other objects. Since 1963, Lego pieces have been manufactured from a strong, resilient plastic known as ABS. The moulds are permitted a tolerance of up to two micrometres, to ensure the bricks remain connected.
KEY FINDINGS KEY FINDINGS - Human facial components = Personalized unique faces - Freely combined components = Great fun of DIY - Colourful and expressive = Delightful and passionate
- Basic bricks to complex models - Simple is beautiful & Less is more - Sometimes animal could be cooler than human - No more than 10 colours would be good - The outﬁt or uniform can stand for special skills or occupation
SKETCHES OF THE FINAL CONCEPT
PARTICIPATE IN SENSE
REAL-TIME STATUS INDICATING
DESCRIPTION The initial sketch generates the idea of making animal-like ﬁgurines by components. Starting with the basic part, the body, arms and hats could be added to make the ﬁgurine personalized. Components are in rainbow colours to deliver the sense of joy to users. The completed ﬁgurine is ﬁx on the solar energy base which requires a certain area to ensure the efﬁciency of solar power. The front side of the main body is the LED screen which indicates the information. As an optimised concept of Recorder Fantasy, this improved concept has lower prime cost of manufacturing and maintains the strengths of the original idea.
Now, start your journey with...
Driving in safe way
Sharp braking or cornering turns are detected
TEMPORAL PONITS ABS
SLIDE IN AND FIXED
TOP: SOLAR PANELS BOTTOM: RUBBER
Number changes according to driving conditions
LED INDICATOR The LED indicator is divided into 4 parts each to indicate conditions of left turn, right turn, braking and the point amount. The Indicator lights up in white colour while the system detectes movement of the vehicle and starts to work automatically. At the moment of braking or turning the car, green light shows if the driving operation is safe while red light indicates the braking is too sharp or a cornering turn occurs. Indicators are in 3 different designs but with same functions. Users can choose one which they think is easy to read or look cooler than others. Solar panels are set at the top of the base to power the indicator. The battery keeps gaining energy from the sun even the car is parked. System will turns off if there is no movement detected in 10 minutes.
The Recorder Fantasy is assembled by 4 main parts and decorative DIY components. As shown in the picture, the body and the base both have 3 basic shapes and they can be freely combined. After connecting the body to the base, user can choose one favorite indicator out of 3 to complete building all the function parts of the recorder. Numerous of DIY components can ensure that each recorder has its own personality. Users would ďŹ nd great fun during the building process of Recorder Fantasy.
Reaching dangerous value
Indicators above are all showing same information of warning sharp brake and cornering right turn. The driver is loosing point from 100 to 86.
10 colours are available for all components which are 6 rainbow colours with black, white, gray and silver. Combination of any of two or three colours suits the younger generation. SHARP BRAKING COMPONENTS MATERIALS COMBINATION
STORYBOARD OF USAGE
Examples of 9 DIY models and indicator status
1. As a new driver, Jerry drives on road with Recorder Fantasy on top of the dashboard. When Jerry drives properly, the indicator shows green light for every turn and brakes he made.
2. Jerry saw the red light ahead but he didn’t slow down gradually but made a very sharp brake to stop. This action was detected by the recorder and it warned Jerry with red light and audio alert and the points decreased to 86.
“ Wherever you go, let me ride with you!”
3. Short message sent from Recorder Fantasy tells Jerry his achievements of the week and his total points amount. From collecting certain amount of points, Jerry could get up to 30% discount from the insurance company as reward.
DIY Recorder Fantasy
FRONT OF STAGE INTERACTIONS
BACK OF STAGE INTERACTIONS
Video introduction about the recorder
Assembly by hands
Set up recorder in car
Drive on road
Activate the recorder and start with 100 points
Recorder connect to the account
SUPPORT PROCESS Add a new member to the system
Warning of improper driving behaviour
Get feedback from SMS weekly
Generate better driving behaviour
Show the accumulation of points and footprints
Making record and rewards
Get a cheaper insurance
Convert points into discount rate
Get/lose points according to performance
One ďŹ nal score for each journey
You experience something. FEEL
"As behaviours are repeated in consistent settings they then begin to proceed more efﬁciently and with less thought as control of the behaviour transfers to cues in the environment that activate an automatic response - a habit."
HOW LONG TO FORM
Missing a single day did not reduce the chance of forming a habit.
Repeated behaviours ↓ Automatic response ↓ A habit
Making small changes is MUCH FASTER than making big ones.
It takes 66 DAYS on average for people to acquire a habit.
DO Decide what to do differently and put it into action.
KOLB'S LEARNING CYCLE
REFLECT Review what happened.
THINK Analysis of better ways.
Develop better driving habits. ALERTED
Be warned while drive improperly.
Case study has been done by researchers about forming a new habit such as eating a piece of fruit with lunch or doing a 15 minute run each day. Participants were then asked questions such as whether the behaviour was 'hard not to do' and could be done 'without thinking'. The result showed that the average time when the automaticity was reached was after 66 days. Other ﬁndings from the experiment are: - Missing a single day did not reduce the chance of forming a habit.
- Other types of habits may well take much longer.
Young drivers drive on road.
---- Prof. Wardle, UCL
- A sub-group took much longer than the others to form their habits, perhaps suggesting some people are 'habit-resistant'.
MEMORIZED Be reminded to drive safe.
REFERENCES Dobson, R. (2009). It takes 66 days to form a habit, The Telegram [Online] Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/5857845/It-takes-66-days-to-form-a-habit.html McLEOD, S. (2013). Kolb-learning styles, [Online] Available at: http://www.simplypsychology.org/learning-kolb.html LEGO, [Online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lego
CONCLUSION The Recorder Fantasy is an affodable in-car device combined with series of services to help inexperienced young drivers to build good driving habits. It meets its design objectives by providing customized product and systemised service for young drivers.
Using existing technologies to change user’s behaviour is achieved by the design. DIY components makes the hi-tech device delightful and full of the sense of participating. The LED indicator is special designed in 3 forms in order to ensure the interface is understandable and efﬁcient for people with different minds.
It attracts the user by colourful outﬁts and adorable “face expressions” and it helps to build good driving habits using its powerful recording and warning system. The learning cycle is built with constant audio feedbacks and indicating LED screen during the driving process.
Further study of this design project is needed such as to deﬁne the “Points-reward” system with a lot of user experiments and statistic analysis. In making the system more practical and proﬁtable, insurance companies must join the research and give necessary supports such as providing data.
iMadeFace, [Online] Available at: https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/imadeface/id582560267?mt=8 Crowder, I (2012) Email to Jacob Lee, 10th December, BBC News: Business (2012) Car insurance market referred to Competition Commission [Online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-19755037 (Accessed: 26 November) Brake. (2005). Young drivers: the hard facts . Retrieved November 24, 2012, from Brake: http:// www.brake.org.uk/facts/young-drivers-the-hard-facts.htm Confused . (2012). Good drivers could save money with Black box car insurance. Retrieved December 5, 2012, from Confused.com: http://www.confused.com/car-insurance/black-box#ixzz2ECAMjg44 Wintour, P. (2012) David Cameron backs new car insurance rules to cut cost of premiums, The Guardian [Online] Available at:http://www.guardian.co.uk/money/2012/feb/13/david-cameron-car- insurance-rules (Accessed: 26 November) Littlewood, D. (2009, December 9). Insurance for young drivers: How to reduce the cost. Retrieved December 11, 2012, from BBC One Show: http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/theoneshow/2009/12/ young-driver-insurance-how-to.shtml