Page 1

Education Reform Toolkits: Resources to achieve results

Expanding Advanced Placement (AP*) Access A Guide to Increasing AP Participation and Success as a Means for Improving College Readiness

developed by district and charter operators with support from

Updated 6/1/2010 For more information or district contacts, email: tools@broadfoundation.org.

1


Table of Contents I. What is this guide and who is it for? ................................................................................... 3 II. Why address AP access? ...................................................................................................... 4 III. Steps to increasing AP participation: Establish a foundation .......................................... 6 A. Appoint a district-wide “champion� to oversee AP expansion.............................................. 6 B. Set aggressive but attainable district-wide goals.................................................................... 8 IV. Steps to increasing AP participation: Short-term intervention strategies .................... 16 A. Build awareness: Achieve teacher, school counselor and principal buy-in......................... 16 B. Identify prospective AP students.......................................................................................... 21 C. Provide training and support for AP and pre-AP teachers ................................................... 28 1. Train more AP and pre-AP teachers ................................................................................. 28 2. Create additional support infrastructure around AP ......................................................... 30 3. Establish learning communities and provide professional development.......................... 32 D. Build awareness: Achieve parent and student buy-in .......................................................... 35 E. Provide academic support for AP students........................................................................... 38 1. Provide extra hours of instruction to help students prepare for AP exams....................... 38 2. Conduct summer ramp-up institutes ................................................................................. 40 F. Motivate school leaders and staff: Provide performance-based incentives.......................... 42 G. Motivate parents and students: Remove financial barriers and provide incentives ............. 46 1. Remove financial barriers to increase AP participation ................................................... 46 2. Provide student incentives ................................................................................................ 47 V. Secure funding to expand the AP program ...................................................................... 50 VI. Steps to increasing AP participation: Long-Term intervention strategies.................... 54 VII. Options, cost and timing for a district-wide AP expansion program ............................ 58 A. Suite of options available for AP expansion........................................................................ 58 B. Approximate costs associated with AP expansion............................................................... 63 C. Generalized timeline associated with AP expansion............................................................ 65 VIII.Conclusion........................................................................................................................... 66 IX. Appendices........................................................................................................................... 67 A. Methodology for calculating student attrition en route to AP success ................................ 68 B. Job description for district-wide AP coordinator from Guilford County Schools, N.C....... 70 C. AP data on EUSD (Example District).................................................................................. 73 D. Quantifiable successes from other districts.......................................................................... 79 E. Long Beach Unified School District, Calif. presentation on AP to the school board .......... 85 F. AP Potential: Correlations between PSAT/NMSQT and AP performance.......................... 99 G. Materials for encouraging teacher buy-in, HAPIT ............................................................ 100 H. Materials for encouraging parent/student/community buy-in............................................ 118 I. Program budgeting tool from the National Math & Science Initiative ............................... 125 J. Long-term AP expansion timeline from Long Beach Unified School District, Calif. ....... 131 *AP, Advanced Placement, AP Potential, Pre-AP, and SAT are trademarks owned by the College Board. PSAT/NMSAT is a registered trademark of the College Board and the National Merit Scholarship Program. The College Board and the National Merit Scholarship Program were not involved in the development and/or production of these materials.

2


I.

What is this guide and who is it for?

This is a guide for superintendents, chief academic officers (CAO) and their deputies who are working to improve college-readiness among high-school students, particularly low-income students and students of color, by increasing access to Advanced Placement (AP) coursework and exams. The guide draws on effective practices from organizations1 nationwide that have implemented strategies to both increase AP enrollment and increase the number of students scoring a 3 or higher on AP exams. It focuses on short-term (zero to three years) intervention strategies proven effective for identifying, preparing and motivating increasing numbers of students to succeed in AP programs. Longer-term (three or more years), comprehensive strategies such as curriculum re-design from K-8, better alignment of coursework across yearly transitions, etc., are largely outside the scope of this document. Specifically, this document addresses how school districts can: • • • • • • •

Set aggressive, but attainable goals for expanding AP participation and success Garner support from parents, teachers, students and administrators for an expanded AP program Identify additional students who are likely to succeed in AP courses Provide training and support to AP teachers and students Assign staff leaders for a district-wide AP expansion effort Select meaningful incentives to motivate teachers and students Obtain funding for an expanded AP program

1

A special thanks to the organizations contributing to this guide, which include A+ College Ready (Jefferson County Schools, Ala.); ACT Inc., Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools, N.C.; College Board; Duval County Schools, Fla.; Edison Learning, Fairfax County Public Schools, Va.; Guilford County Schools, N.C.; International Baccalaureate, Knox County Schools, Tenn.; Long Beach United School District, Calif.; Montgomery County Schools, Md.; National Center for Educational Achievement, National Math & Science Initiative; Northside Independent School District, Texas; Pflugerville Independent School District, Texas; Rochester Public Schools, N.Y.; San Diego Unified School District, Calif.; and San Francisco Unified School District, Calif. Thanks also to Emily Chiswick-Patterson who was instrumental in writing this manuscript.

3


II.

Why address AP access?

Recent research shows a correlation between the rate of students taking and scoring a 3 or higher on AP exams and the rate of students graduating from college.2 Yet, according to the College Board, though 60 percent of high school graduates go to college, only 21 percent of high school graduates take even one AP or International Baccalaureate (IB) course. These statistics highlight the gap between the number of students with college aspirations and the number of students actually completing high school courses that will prepare them for rigorous college coursework. Furthermore, gaps exist between the number of African-American, Latino and low-income students and their white and more affluent when it comes to taking AP exams and scoring a 3 or higher on those exams. A state-wide study conducted in Texas by the National Center for Education Accountability found that six-year college graduation rates rose from approximately 15 percent for African-American and Hispanic students to more than 60 percent if they scored a 3 or higher on at least one AP exam. 3 In response to this challenge, many school districts are mobilizing to implement AP access programs, expand AP training for teachers, launch awareness campaigns for parents and students, identify more and more candidates for advanced academic programs and even, in some cases, provide monetary incentives for students who succeed in rigorous academic programs. The College Board itself has encouraged teachers, AP coordinators and school administrators to make equitable access a guiding principle for their AP programs. These efforts only touch the tip of the iceberg; most districts across the country are still struggling to achieve broader AP access for their students. The diagram on the following page illustrates how our nation’s students face barriers to AP participation and success at every step along the way. For every 100 kindergarteners entering school, we can expect that no more than 11 will ever pass an AP exam, thus demonstrating their ability to handle rigorous college-level coursework. It is our hope that the strategies captured within this guide will be used expand AP access and AP success for all students, particularly for low-income and minority youth.

2

“Preparing Students for Advanced Placement: It’s a P-12 Issue,” Chrys Dougherty and Lynn Mellor, Harvard Education Press, 2009. 3 “Operations Manual,” National Math and Science Initiative.

4


Student attrition en route to success with AP courses & exams4 Out of 100 entering kindergarten students, # Milestone that … Are aware of college readiness < 68 requirements by 8th grade

30

Are academically prepared for the next step on a path leading to AP by 8th grade

25

Take PSAT (grades 9-11)

20

Achieve a PSAT/NMSQT score that indicates a 50% likelihood of success on AP

15

12

11

Common Barriers

Enrolled in 1 or more AP courses (grades 10-12) before graduation

Take at least 1 AP exam before graduation

Lack of awareness [teacher, student, parent]

Lack of preparation/ support [student, teacher]

Lack of seats [not enough teachers trained]

Students with potential not identified

Insufficient motivation/ incentives [teachers, students]

Lack of funds [school, parents, students]

Score 3 or higher on at least 1 AP exam by graduation Source: The Broad Foundation analysis of data from The College Board, Annual Report to the Nation; National Center for Education Statistics (NCES); Long Beach Unified School District (LBUSD); The Broad Prize. Numbers meant to demonstrate general attrition over time.

4

See Appendix A for methodology used to generate this chart.

5


III.

Steps to increasing AP participation: Establish a foundation

Districts must commit to two things to establish a foundation for increasing AP participation and success: (1) appoint a “champion” of AP expansion at the central office and (2) set clear and aggressive goals for the AP expansion effort that are shared widely throughout the district.

A. Appoint a district-wide “champion” to oversee AP expansion Objective: Key Players: Cost: Time Required:

Enlist a qualified district-wide AP coordinator as early as possible Superintendent Salary for district-wide AP coordinator (up to $80,000 fully-loaded5) two to four months (depending on amount of time needed for hiring)

Rationale: Appointing a district-wide AP coordinator, or “champion,” establishes a single point of accountability and signals the importance of the work. The AP coordinator also provides a conduit for communication among schools both vertically (K-12) and horizontally (all high schools together, all middle schools together, etc.) and serves as a resource for school-based AP coordinators and teachers. Procedure: The job description for the district-wide AP coordinator should clearly specify that the AP coordinator has primary responsibility for the initial rollout of a district-wide AP expansion program. The description would include language like: • The AP coordinator will have passion, drive and commitment to hold principals, teachers and school counselors accountable for each piece of the expansion plan. • The ideal candidate will be an accomplished AP teacher/coach and/or principal of a school with high AP performance rates, but this is not an absolute requirement. • The AP coordinator will work closely with subject-area AP coaches and principals to devise and roll out a multi-year expansion plan, including designing internal professional development workshops, identifying external training opportunities, and obtaining funding for training and incentives for both teachers and students.

5

Cost will vary greatly by state and district. The amount listed reflects salary in a major urban center such as New York or Chicago.

6


Example: The Example Union School District6 (EUSD), located in California, is home to 85,000 K-12 students, 20,000 of whom are in high school (10 high schools total). The school board has recently appointed a new superintendent, Mr. Brown. Wanting to get an AP expansion program running immediately, Mr. Brown tasks the chief academic officer (CAO) with this work. The chief academic officer, knowing that her time is too limited to take on this assignment on her own, promotes Ms. Green to spearhead the project. Ms. Green has been a successful AP teacher for 10 years in one of the district’s high schools where she was widely recognized for increasing the number of low-income, Latino and AfricanAmerican students taking AP courses at her school. In most cases, superintendents select the district-wide AP coordinator from a pool of internal candidates, rather than through an external search, largely due to time considerations. Internal searches typically take two months. External searches can take up to four months. See Appendix B for an example of a job description for a district-wide AP coordinator. Real-World Examples: Terry Grier, former superintendent of Guilford County Schools, N.C.—currently the superintendent of Houston Independent School District—delegated primary responsibility for AP expansion to his chief high school improvement officer, and the two worked closely together to roll out expansion strategies in the district. Some districts hire a non-profit organization to manage much of the work that an AP coordinator would otherwise perform. For instance, when Jefferson County Schools, Ala. received a grant from A+ College Ready through the National Math & Science Initiative (NMSI) to expand the number of students taking and receiving a 3 or greater on AP exams, A+ College Ready managed the funding, programming and data analysis/program evaluation of the district’s AP program.

6

Example Union School District is a theoretical district, a conglomeration of several real life examples. It will be used throughout this tool in order to illustrate how a district might address the steps and issues of AP expansion.

7


B. Set aggressive but attainable district-wide goals Objective: Key Players: Cost: Time Required:

Define a precise set of outcomes that will constitute continuing success of the program Superintendent, district-wide AP coordinator, school board, central office instructional team None One month

Rationale: Increasing the number of students prepared to succeed in an AP-level curriculum often requires a cultural shift among teachers and principals (and often among students themselves). Such a shift is easier to achieve if the superintendent demonstrates a major commitment to expanded AP enrollment throughout the district, sets clear goals with aggressive targets and communicates them to principals, teachers, students, parents and the general public. These goals can be set as part of a larger strategic plan, or can be announced as a separate AP-focused initiative. Procedure: Step 1: Gather and analyze baseline data Review the most recent data on the number of AP teachers, courses and exams taken throughout the district. The data should be analyzed for the district as a whole, as well as broken out by gender, race, Free and Reduced-Price School Lunch (FRSL) status, English Language Learner (ELL) status, and special education/learning disability status. The initial data will highlight any existing performance gaps based on these categories, and will serve as baseline data for setting annual targets for the AP expansion initiative. Example: Having read that success on at least one AP exam (a score of 3 or higher) correlates with college success, Mr. Brown decides that increasing AP participation and access will be one of his first major initiatives as the new superintendent of EUSD, and includes it as part of the districtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s strategic plan. To set aggressive but attainable goals, he assignes a deputy in the districtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s research and evaluation department to collect historical AP data broken down by ethnicity (note that he intends to do the same to examine ELL populations, FRSL, etc.), the result of which was a series of tables (see Appendix C for full detail). Table 1, below, is an excerpt showing the 10 high schools in the district.

8


Table 1: EUSD High School Statistics

In examining the data, Mr. Brown and Ms. Green quickly notice that four of the 10 high schools in EUSD offer no AP courses (Schools #7-10), four offer only three courses (Schools #3-6), and the remaining two magnet schools (Schools #1 and 2) offer more than 10 each, a striking disparity among schools across the system.

9


Table 2: EUSD High School Percentages by Ethnicity

Looking at the percentages (Table 2, above), Mr. Brown and Ms. Green also identify significant discrepancies in percentage of AP enrollment, percentage of students taking the Preliminary SAT/National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT), and percentage of seniors scoring 3 or higher on at least one AP test among African-American, Latino and white students. For example, only 8 percent of all students enrolled in AP courses are African-American, even though 10


African-American students represent 30 percent of the total student body across the 10 high schools. Similarly, while 69 percent of white students have taken the PSAT/NMSQT by the end of their sophomore year, only 14 percent of Latino students have done so. Step 2: Review AP expansion benchmarks from other districts and nationwide Once the previous yearsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; district AP performance data is gathered, the next step in goal-setting is to gather national and district benchmarks against which to measure past performance as well as future growth. Use of such benchmarks has proven helpful to a number of districts as they set targets for growth. For other district success stories and results, refer to Appendix D. Example: EUSD collects benchmark information from national sources such as the U.S. Department of Education and the College Board. The output is in Table 3, below; note that the national averages and benchmarking numbers are real, collected in 2009.

11


Table 3 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Historical EUSD performance vs. national average

* National averages provided by The College Board ** N/A = Not Available; National averages for these metrics were unavailable in this form

Step 3: Set aggressive, but attainable district-wide performance improvement goals Using the district baseline data and benchmarks from other districts as a starting point, the district-wide AP coordinator and superintendent should set performance goals in one-year and multi-year intervals. Goals should be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Timely) and based on historical performance and other district comparables. Keep in mind that there is no universal set of performance goals for AP expansion, as the baseline data will differ from district to district. Goals should be ambitious enough to move performance forward, but achievable so as to increase morale and support for the program among principals, teachers, parents and students.

12


Example: After reviewing the national averages, Mr. Brown and Ms. Green set their annual targets as illustrated in Table #4 below. They generally aim to beat national averages over the long term, but set a ramp-up period based on the districtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s baseline position. For instance, the national average for students enrolled in AP courses that actually sit for the corresponding AP exam is 75 percent. EUSD therefore set their three-year target at 80 percent.

13


Table 4 – EUSD targets for 2010-2012

* National averages provided by The College Board ** N/A = Not Available; National averages for these metrics were unavailable in this form

Step 4: Create an AP dashboard and regularly evaluate progress Create performance dashboards to track progress of the initiative and hold leaders—such as the district-wide AP coordinator and chief academic officer (CAO)—accountable. Such a programmatic dashboard should include short-term, as well as long-term metrics for success. The district-wide AP coordinator or regional superintendents, in turn, should have the authority to hold principals accountable for school-based progress (through performance review input or bonus conversations), while principals hold AP teachers accountable. It should be clear what each school’s contribution will be toward the overall district goals (e.g., if one district goal for the first year is to increase overall AP participation by 3 percent, certain schools may be expected to raise their number by 5 percent while others may target only 2 percent growth in participation). The individual school targets must add up to the overall district target, as described in the EUSD example below: Example: Mr. Brown and Ms. Green set their PSAT/NMSQT participation target for the 2009-2010 school year at 45 percent (up from 34 percent the previous year: see Table 4, above). Given the total 10th-grade enrollment at EUSD (5,262 students), this means that 580 14


additional students need to take the exam during the 2009-2010 school year compared to the previous year (2,369 students to take it in 2009-2010 compared to the 1,789 students who took it in 2008-2009). Looking at High Schools #1-10, they determine that Schools #1 and #2 should increase their PSAT/NMSQT attendance by 10 students each (to 210 out of 263 and 220 out of 263 students attending, respectively), that Schools #3-6 should increase their PSAT/NMSQT attendance by 50 students each (to 300 out of 592), and that Schools #7-10 should increase their attendance by 90 students each (to 190 out of 592). If each of these schools achieves their individual goal in the coming year, the district will have reached its overall goal of 580 additional students taking the PSAT/NMSQT (or 34 percent of all sophomores). At a minimum, schedule a biannual review of student, teacher, school and district progress. Focus on areas behind target and on the steps that must be taken to rectify any areas of poor performance. Revise target goals each year to reflect what is ambitious and measurable. Example: Ms. Green, the district-wide AP coordinator for EUSD, is required to hold quarterly meetings with the chief academic officer to discuss progress toward goals set around the number of AP classes offered at each high school and the number of students enrolled in AP courses. The CAO, in turn, is required to brief Superintendent Brown on progress twice a year. Real-World Example: Fairfax County Public Schools, Va. decided in 1999 to give its high schools the option of following an AP, IB or dual enrollment curriculum (classes that count for both for high school credit and college credit), but required that each school adopt just one of these models. The superintendent met with the district-wide instructional team to set student achievement goals based on baseline data from 2005-2006. Statistics from that year indicated that 63 percent of students took at least one AP, IB or dual enrollment class, with 70 percent of white students, 70 percent of Asian students, 43 percent of Latino students, and 30 percent of African-American students participating. In response, the team set the following achievement goals: • All students will take at least one AP/IB/dual enrollment class in high school. • The percentage of students who take at least three such courses will rise every year. • Every student will reach his/her academic goals. Once these goals were identified, the superintendent presented them to the school board for official adoption. These goals then served as the target for all AP/IB/dual enrollment expansion programs in the district, and provided the basis for accountability—teachers, principals and academic district administrators all became responsible for making sure schools achieve these goals.

15


IV.

Steps to increasing AP participation: Short-term intervention strategies

This section describes strategies for increasing AP participation that districts can employ during the first year of an AP expansion program. It highlights steps to increase enrollment in AP, such as earning stakeholder support, supporting and motivating teachers and students, and identifying underrepresented AP students. According to the National Math & Science Initiative, a focus on clear victories achieved in the short-term is the key to the long-term success of any AP expansion initiative. “The objective is to scale up in a few schools and then to build on those successes to extend the reach of the program. This has been the historical path to success: start out in a few high schools, harvest the ‘low hanging fruit’ and demonstrate quick, tangible results. Once results have been achieved in a few schools, other schools then want to implement the same strategies to achieve success.”7

A. Build awareness: Achieve teacher, school counselor and principal buy-in

Objective:

Build support for AP expansion among teachers, counselors and principals by sharing information about the correlation between AP and college success and about existing equity gaps in the district

Key Players:

Superintendent, district-wide AP coordinator, middle and high school principals, teachers, school counselors ~$100 per school depending on materials and refreshments Five months total: two months to collect data; one month for all principals to attend central office training; two months for principals (or designee) to lead same training at their respective schools

Cost: Time Required:

Rationale: Increasing the ethnic and socioeconomic diversity of students prepared to succeed in an AP-level curriculum often requires a cultural shift among teachers and principals. Such a shift is easier to achieve if principals and teachers are made aware of AP participation and achievement gaps among white and non-low-income students and non-white and low-income students. Similarly, understanding participation gaps between their school and/or district and comparable schools and/or districts across the country is an important first step in raising awareness among stakeholders. 7

“NMSI Operations Manual,” National Math & Science Initiative.

16


Procedure: Step 1: Gather success stories from current AP teachers and students in the district and from similar districts that have implemented AP expansion programs The district-wide AP coordinator should send a survey to all principals and AP teachers in the district, asking them to share strategies that have worked to increase student participation rates in AP courses and/or success on AP exams. For quantitative evidence of successes from other districts, see Appendix D. Districts may also contact the College Board (http://www.collegeboard.com/) or the National Math & Science Initiative (http://www.nationalmathandscience.org/) for examples of strategies. Finally, districts may consult the U.S. Department of Education’s online list of 2008 Advanced Placement Initiative Program grantees, as it provides detailed descriptions of program components. This list can be found at: http://www.ed.gov/programs/apincent/2008awards.html. Step 2: Gather research from studies that demonstrate the links between student success in AP courses and student success in college The strategy most frequently cited by districts as useful for garnering school-level buy-in is to share academic studies that include quantitative and qualitative data demonstrating links between an expanded AP program and high school graduation rates, college enrollment rates and college graduation rates. The College Board has a strong collection of materials available for this purpose. Step 3: Work with the school board to fine-tune the proposed approach to AP expansion Armed with AP success stories and research data demonstrating the link between AP participation and college success, district representatives (superintendent or district-wide AP coordinator) should present preliminary expansion plans to the school board for review and feedback. This feedback should be incorporated into the district AP expansion plan. See Appendix E for an example of a school board presentation made by Long Beach Unified School District in California. Long Beach Unified was the 2003 winner of The Broad Prize for Urban Education (A $2M award given to a school district for college scholarships to honor performance and improvement), and a five-time finalist. Step 4: Work with the teachers union to agree upon approach to AP teacher evaluation and incentives District representatives (superintendent or AP coordinator) should have a series of meetings with union representatives to discuss plans for expanding AP access and how this will affect teachers. Specifically, these meetings should be used to agree upon: • Selection process for additional teachers to be trained to accommodate the AP expansion effort • Pay rates for AP teachers running Saturday sessions or after-school classes • Incentive compensation for AP teachers (e.g., based on students scoring 3+ on AP exams)

17


Step 5: Present AP expansion plans to all middle and high school principals at a district-wide meeting The superintendent and district-wide AP coordinator should organize a mandatory district-wide meeting for all middle and high school principals to share information collected in Steps 1 and 2 above. It is important for the superintendent to present the AP information and the plans for AP expansion directly to convey the importance of the AP expansion initiative. Middle school principals should be involved since an AP expansion program will require expansion of pre-AP programs. The district-wide AP coordinator should invite people from within the district, other districts, and/or national organizations like the College Board, to share success stories of AP expansion programs in person. Example: EUSD organizes a district-wide half-day meeting for principals. Mr. Brown, who is in attendance to help signal the importance of this initiative, kicks off the discussions with a rousing speech on the potential for all children to succeed in rigorous secondary school courses, and the initial plans for the AP expansion effort. The group of principals subsequently separates into break-out groups. Each group has a set of flip charts and markers to capture their brainstorming: one to list “hopes/positives” for the initiative, a second to record “challenges/concerns” of implementation, and a third to capture any “other issues” that arise during the small group discussion. After 45 minutes of small group discussion, the AP coordinator brings the entire group of principals back together to share and discuss what they have written. For three principals who had concerns that could not be fully addressed during the meeting, the chief academic officer (CAO) clears blocks of time the following week for meetings with them. In two cases, the CAO is able to address the principals’ concerns by assuring them that additional resources will be made available to support students who might not have previously been a part of the AP program. For the third principal, it becomes clear to the CAO that she is not willing to go along with the AP expansion program, and that additional conversations with this particular school leader will be necessary. Step 6: Create a presentation and set of FAQs to be used by principals at school-based meetings The district-wide AP coordinator should develop materials to help principals with the meetings they will need to hold at the school sites. These materials should include a presentation that the principal can use, as well as a template letter and set of FAQs addressing the most common questions/concerns that the principal can distribute to teachers. The presentation and the FAQ should address the following topics/questions:

18


Topic Why is AP expansion important?

When does this initiative start?

How are untrained students going to make it through the rigorous AP curriculum? How will AP teachers be evaluated on this initiative? Will they be penalized if their AP exam pass rates go down initially?

Will AP teachers be compensated for extra work generated by this initiative (Saturday classes, after school tutoring, etc.)? Just how large of an expansion in AP classes are we talking about? Will additional AP teachers be trained to accommodate this bolus of incoming AP students?

Possible approach(es) Increases chance of college completion, reduces cost of college, exposes students to more rigorous curriculum Immediately. The district is working to identify additional students with AP potential and identifying mechanisms to prepare this new cadre of students for the rigors of AP. District-offered after school and Saturday classes as well as tutoring. AP teachers will be the front line of this effort and are expected to welcome non-traditional AP students into their classrooms. They will not be penalized for a temporary decrease in passing rate, but instead will be rewarded based on the total number of students passing the AP exam. Yes, AP teachers will be paid a stipend for extra work done outside of normal school hours. Our goal is to double the enrollment in AP courses by the end of three years. Yes, based on preliminary estimates, a few more AP teachers will be trained this year. In subsequent years, we will train more based on student demand.

Step 7: Support principals in organizing school-based meetings to share AP expansion plans with all middle and high school teachers and school counselors At the district-wide meeting, give all principals paper and electronic copies of the presentation as well as FAQâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s with common teacher questions/challenges and corresponding responses so they can use it at school-based meetings to engage teachers and school counselors. The district-wide AP coordinator should attend school-based meetings to show that this expansion is a priority for the superintendent, to convey that programs will be supported by the central office, and to answer any questions. AP teachers who have had success with non-traditional students in AP courses should be encouraged to share success stories at these meetings. Example: Ms. Johnson, the principal of Traditional School #3, returns to her school after a meeting with the superintendent and AP coordinator, excited about the opportunity to expand their AP offerings and to increase access. With the districtwide AP coordinator present, Ms. Johnson holds what is to be the first in a series

19


of lunchtime discussions at her school regarding Superintendent Brown’s announcement that the district will focus on AP expansion at the beginning of the next school year. While enjoying pizza provided by the school, her teachers raise a number of questions and objections to this notion. They include comments like: a. Do you really believe ALL students can be AP material? b. Opening access is going to water down the program and hurt the students who’ve “worked” for it. Having consulted her FAQ sheet as well as much of the research ahead of time, Ms. Johnson is able to address most of these concerns in an articulate and thoughtful way. Step 8: Announce the district’s intentions to expand AP access To minimize resistance to expanded AP access, superintendents and district-wide AP coordinators should announce AP expansion plans as soon as a clear path has been solidified. The announcement to expand the AP program should be made as part of a school board vote, followed by an update on the district website. On the day of the board vote, a press release should be sent to the local newspaper to inform the broader community of the initiative. Real-World Examples: A+ College Ready, a nonprofit organization managing the National Math & Science Initiative’s AP expansion program in Jefferson County, Ala., gives principals baseline data on how a school compares to the district, state and nation in terms of size, number of students enrolled in AP classes, number of students taking AP exams, and number of students scoring a 3 or higher on AP exams. Principals (and district administrators) can then break out data by ethnicity and income level to show gaps, and can share this information with teachers as a way to demonstrate the need for AP expansion. Guilford County Public Schools, N.C. uses the district website to promote successes of individual principals and teachers in AP expansion. For instance, Angelo Kidd, a former principal (now regional superintendent), increased the number of AP exams taken in one year at his school from 658 to 1,806. The district shared his success story through the website, highlighting Kidd’s strategy of standing at the school’s main door as students entered the building on the first day of school, and welcomed each pupil with the refrain, “You’re going to take at least one AP class before you leave this school!”

20


B. Identify prospective AP students

Objective:

Key Players: Cost: Time Required:

Use an objective tool or set of indicators to identify students capable of AP work who may not have been identified by teacher or counselor recommendations District-wide AP coordinator, school-level AP coordinator, principals, teachers, school counselors ~$500 per high school for training on AP Potential predictor Two months for district-wide training

Rationale: Once expansion and access goals have been set, the district will need to decide how to identify which students will be eligible to take AP courses. Traditionally, most districts have relied on feeder programs such as elementary- and middle-school gifted education programs to populate their high school AP courses, and/or teacher or school counselor recommendations. Many have also enforced minimum GPA requirements as a gating factor for AP enrollment. Together, these methods have resulted in the reservation of AP courses for an elite group of students, largely white and socioeconomically privileged. The use of a predictive formula based on a standardized test score is an easy and relatively unbiased way to identify additional students likely to succeed in an academically advanced curriculum. Using this, school counselors and teachers can encourage students to enroll in AP courses. For this strategy to be effective, the district must ensure that all students are financially able to take the Preliminary SAT/ National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT), either by paying for all exams, or by paying for PSAT/NMSQT exams for low-income students. The district must also set aside time for everyone to take the exam. Procedure: Step 1: Contact the College Board to obtain the AP Potential tool By far the most common strategy used by districts to increase enrollment in AP courses is to work with the College Board to use their AP Potential tool. AP Potential is a free, web-based tool developed from research that shows strong correlations between PSAT/NMSQT scores and AP exam results. It allows schools to generate rosters of students who are likely to score a 3 or better on a given AP exam, based on the success of their answers to specific PSAT/NMSQT test questions. At this time there are no other predictive exams known to correlate with AP success, but these results can be combined with grades, teacher recommendation and student interest to provide a comprehensive picture of AP readiness.

21


More information about AP Potential, including links to the research showing correlations between PSAT/NMSQT and AP success, can be accessed at: www.collegeboard.com/appotential and in Appendix F. Step 2: Set AP Potential threshold The AP Potential tool works based on the correlation between PSAT/NMSQT scores and likelihood of scoring a 3 or higher on individual AP exams. For example, the College Board has found that a student scoring150 on the combined critical reading, writing and math portions of the PSAT/NMSQT has a 50 percent likelihood of scoring a 3 or higher on the AP U.S. History exam. It is up to each district to set the “threshold” probability of AP exam success to use for their student identification process, though we recommend setting that number in the 50 percent range. If a district sets a threshold at 50 percent probability of AP exam success, a student would have to score a 150 on combined critical reading, writing and math portions to be eligible for an AP U.S. History course. A student would need a score of 101 or higher on critical reading and writing to be eligible for placement in an AP English Literature course. Districts can use the College Board expectancy tables to set their own threshold scores for each AP course. The tool can be found online at http://www.collegeboard.com/counselors/app/expectancy.html Example: EUSD had great disparities between the number of African-American and Latino students and the number of white students taking AP courses, as well as between the number of AP courses offered at its two magnet high schools and the number of AP courses offered at the other eight high schools in the district. To involve as many students as possible without jeopardizing students’ chances of scoring a 3 or higher on the AP exam, the AP coordinator decides to set the AP Potential threshold at a 50 percent probability of success on the AP exam. The four non-magnet high schools that already offer AP courses (Traditional Schools #3-6) offer U.S. history, English literature and calculus AB classes. According to AP Potential expectancy tables, the 50 percent probability levels for each of these exams are: AP U.S. history: 150 or higher on the PSAT/NMSQT (critical reading + writing + math) AP English lit: 101 or higher on the PSAT/NMSQT (critical reading + writing) AP calculus AB: 55 or higher on the PSAT/NMSQT (math) Having set these threshold scores, the four schools continue identifying and recruiting students as described in subsequent steps below.

22


ADVISORY NOTE FROM THE COLLEGE BOARD “While counselors and teachers may use the expectancy tables in many ways to have an additional indicator of the likelihood of success in AP, the tables cannot be used as the only source of information or as an absolute standard or minimum requirement. Student interest and motivation are important aspects for success in any course, and these are likely to be more important for rigorous college level courses, such as AP, where a highly motivated student with average ability in a subject may be more successful than a disinterested student who has higher test scores.” Maureen Ewing, Wayne J. Camara, and Roger E. Millsap, “The Relationship Between PSAT/NMSQT® Scores and AP® Examination Grades: A Follow-Up Study,” The College Board, 2006. http://www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/appotential/rr2006-1.pdf

Step 3: Hold a district-wide AP Potential information session for school-based AP coordinators and school counselors The district-wide AP coordinator should require all school-based AP coordinators and school counselors to attend a meeting at the district office to describe the use of AP Potential to increase participation. The purpose of the meeting is to ensure that key school-level personnel understand the workings of the AP Potential tool (so that they can use it) and the rationale for employing it (so that they can answer staff questions at their respective school sites). Refer to Appendix F for links to materials available from the College Board describing in detail the AP Potential tool, as well as studies describing the correlation between scores of 3 or higher on the AP exam and college success. During the meeting, the district-wide AP coordinator should emphasize that: • School counselors and teachers are still a key recruitment force for AP students. • Teacher and counselor recommendations will still be requested as indicators of AP readiness. • AP Potential will be a tool to supplement, not supplant, current student identification methods. See Appendix G for a PowerPoint on the HAPIT tool, the AP student identification tool used in Montgomery County, Md. Step 4: Administer the PSAT/NMSQT to all 10th-grade students Administer the PSAT/NMSQT to all 10th-grade students in October. To ensure that test fees are not an obstacle to student participation, districts should, at a minimum, cover fees for lowincome students. The 2009 fee for taking the PSAT/NMSQT was $13 per student. For information on how districts can find funding for such expenses, see Section VI of this guide.

23


Example: By the second year of their initiative, the EUSD district had expanded PSAT/NMSQT participation to all 10th-grade students by paying test fees and by notifying parents and students that the test was now a district requirement. The district administers the PSAT/NMSQT in high schools during the school day in October so that all students can participate. Two make-up days are scheduled for students who are absent, thus ensuring maximum participation. Step 5: Run the AP Potential calculation The College Board scores the PSAT/NMSQT exam and makes results available about two months after the exam is taken (e.g., results of tests taken in October are available in December). Scores are mailed to students and are available online to registered school and district personnel. The school-based AP coordinator should run student scores through the AP Potential formula for various AP exams, the result of each will be a readout of student scores falling above the threshold set by the district (usually in the range of 50 percent likelihood of success on any individual AP exam). The list of students scoring above the threshold for each AP subject area should be provided to the principal and all school counselors and a meeting organized to discuss the strategy the school will use to recruit these students. Example: By January, EUSD AP Potential scores have been calculated, and approximately 2,500 students across the 10 high schools in the district score above the 50 percent probability level for success in at least one existing or planned AP course for the following school year. At the four high schools in the district that did not previously offer any AP courses (#7 ,8, 9 and 10), principals ask their newly-appointed AP coordinators to calculate the 50 percent probability level PSAT/NMSQT scores for the following AP courses: biology, calculus AB, English language, human geography and world history. These courses are selected as they represent all four core subject areas (science, math, English and social studies), and traditionally have few, if any, pre-requisites (with the exception of calculus). According to AP Potential expectancy tables, the 50 percent probability levels for each of these exams are: Biology: 105 or higher on the PSAT/NMSQT (critical reading + math) Calculus AB: 55 or higher on the PSAT/NMSQT (math) English language: 96 or higher on the PSAT/NMSQT (critical reading + writing) Human geography: 95 or higher on the PSAT/NMSQT (critical reading + math) World history: 95 or higher on the PSAT/NMSQT (critical reading + math) The number of students scoring above these thresholds in Traditional School #9 is displayed in Table 5, below:

24


Table 5: AP Potential results for School #9

School/Subject Name School #9 Total # of 10th-graders Total discreet number of students scoring above at least one AP Potential threshold Biology Calculus AB English language Human geography World history

Number of Students Scoring Above Threshold 592 250 150 100 225 200 200

Step 6: Inform students whose scores are above the threshold (and their parents) about the AP program Guidance counselors or school-based AP coordinators should send letters home to every student who scores above the AP Potential threshold in at least one AP subject offered in the school. Guidance counselors or AP coordinators should also schedule an in-school assembly for these students, and should follow up with one-on-one meetings.8 Example: The EUSD school-level AP coordinators inform all 2,500 students scoring above the AP Potential threshold about the AP program at a series of in-school assemblies across the district in February, and explain that all students scoring over the threshold are automatically scheduled to take AP courses unless their parent attends a one-on-one â&#x20AC;&#x153;opt outâ&#x20AC;? meeting with the principal. By instituting this policy, the district hopes to push more students into AP who have demonstrated the ability to succeed in rigorous courses, but who might not be motivated to sign up for such classes. Step 7: Determine which AP courses will be offered If a school already offers AP courses, school counselors should enroll students in these courses if they pass the AP Potential threshold. While counselors should review whether students have completed prerequisite courses in the appropriate subject areas, a lack of traditional preparation should not dissuade schools from encouraging students to enroll in AP courses. In such situations, a district might create subject-based summer AP preparation institutes. Students who have not completed a traditional pre-AP curriculum would be required to attend the institute in order to enroll in the corresponding AP courses in the fall.9 Furthermore, students who request to be enrolled in AP courses, display motivation to succeed, and/or receive strong recommendations from teachers should not be turned away. 8 9

For more information on how to engage students in AP courses, see Section IV_G. For more information on preparing students for AP, see Section IV_E.

25


If a school does not already offer AP courses, the AP coordinator should use AP Potential to calculate which core subject courses (math, English, science, social studies) have the most qualifying students, and should offer at least two different AP subjects the following fall. All students who meet the AP Potential threshold should be enrolled in at least one of these courses. Example: Mr. Orange, the principal of Traditional School #9 (a school that previously had no AP courses) knows that EUSD does not have the resources to train his teachers in five subject areas by the start of the next school year. He also does not want to enroll non-traditional AP students in more than one AP course in their first year of AP involvement. Thus, he decides to start with two new AP courses, selected based on the greatest overlap with his students’ predicted capabilities: AP world history and AP English language. Based on the AP-potential predictions, he expects around 225 students to be enrolled in the English language course and around 200 to be enrolled in the world history course. Assuming each teacher can teach, at a maximum, 150 AP students (25 students per class times six periods per day), the principal determines that he needs at least four teachers trained for this endeavor, two for world history and two for English language.10 Real-World Examples: Jefferson County Schools, Ala., gives the PSAT/NMSQT to all 10th-grade students in October, with test fees covered by the district. By January, the central office produces a list of all students who score high enough on the PSAT/NMSQT to be referred to AP courses. Combined with teacher recommendations and parent requests to enroll their child in AP courses, these scores serve as the basis by which to identify non-traditional students who are capable of success in AP courses, but who have not necessarily been part of a pre-AP curriculum. Thanks to this strategy, in combination with others, “the state of Alabama has seen the largest increase [in the country] in African-Americans scoring a 3 or higher on an AP exam. [In 2008], 7.1 percent of students who scored a 3 or higher on an AP exam were African-American, up from 4.5 percent in the class of 2003.”11 Guilford County Schools, N.C. also uses AP Potential to identify students. The district requires all 10th-graders scoring 45 or higher on the PSAT/NMSQT to take an AP class in 10th grade, unless their parent attends an “opt-out” one-on-one conference with the principal. This simple strategy smoothed the pathway to AP, removing barriers to enrollment (students were formerly required to have both a 3.0 GPA and a letter of recommendation from a teacher or school counselor to qualify for AP enrollment), and instead creating a barrier to not participating in the curriculum. By using this strategy as part of an AP expansion program, Guilford County increased the number of AP exams taken from 2,800 to more than 8,000 in eight years. 10

More detail on the teacher training aspect of preparing AP programs can be found in the following section IV_C entitled, “Provide training and support for AP and pre-AP teachers” beginning on p. 28. 11 http://www.collegeboard.com/html/aprtn/theme_2_reflect_demographics.html

26


Other districts that have used the AP Potential tool to increase AP access include CharlotteMecklenburg Schools, N.C., Duval County Public Schools, Fla. and Fairfax County Public Schools, Va.

27


C. Provide training and support for AP and pre-AP teachers

1. Train more AP and pre-AP teachers Objective: Key Players: Cost: Time Required:

Prepare more teachers to conduct AP courses in anticipation of expected increase in the number of AP-enrolled students District-wide AP coordinator, district-wide AP coaches, school-based AP coordinator ~$2,000 per teacher including cost of training workshop and teacher training stipend six months to one year

Rationale: According to the College Board, research on factors impacting a studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s decision to enroll in an AP course points to encouragement by AP teachers as the primary motivating factor in the decision to take both the course and the exam. This fact underlines the need for teachers to support an AP expansion program in order for it to succeed. Although sharing qualitative and quantitative successes of expanded AP programs in other districts is an important factor in garnering principal and teacher support, providing initial training and ongoing support is crucial to empowering teachers with the skills necessary to implement the program. Procedure: Step 1: Identify the need for additional AP-trained teachers The district-wide AP coordinator should begin by reviewing the most recent district data on the number of AP teachers, courses and exams taken in previous cycles district-wide and on a school-by-school basis. The data should be available as a result of the baseline and goal-setting exercise referenced in Section IV of this guide. Based on the expected additional student enrollment, the district should determine how many additional teachers (by school) must be trained to cover the increase, or if current teachers may simply take on more sections of AP classes. Example: Mr. Orange, the principal of Traditional School #9 (in which no AP courses were offered the previous year) knows that only two of his teachers are trained to deliver AP courses. One is trained for AP biology, the other for AP world history. Remember that Mr. Orange earlier determined that he would need four AP 28


teachers (two for AP world history and two for AP English language) for the following year. Thus, he determines that the teacher already trained for AP world history will serve as one of the four teachers, leaving him short one teacher for AP world history and two teachers for AP English language. He then selects three teachers to participate in the College Board-sponsored AP summer institute the following summer. Step 2: Send AP and pre-AP teachers to AP professional development workshops and institutes endorsed by the College Board The College Board–endorsed AP and Pre-AP Summer Institutes are subject-specific professional development opportunities to provide teachers support and training. Institutes are managed by staff at sponsoring institutions, using College Board materials. Beyond summer workshops, rigorous, content-focused training during the school year helps teachers upgrade knowledge during one or two day workshops. These workshops allow both AP and pre-AP teachers to bolster their pedagogical skills and content knowledge, as well as to receive assistance in such areas as syllabus writing, developing instructional materials or modeling best practices. More information on training opportunities endorsed by the College Board can be found on the College Board website at: http://professionals.collegeboard.com/prof-dev/workshops, http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/Pageflows/InstitutesAndWorkshops/InstitutesAndWorksh opsController.jpf, and http://professionals.collegeboard.com/prof-dev/events?excmpid=MTG15ED-9-pdcat/apac/2009/ Step 3: Ensure that each new AP teacher completes the AP Course Audit so that their curricula meet rigorous College Board standards After teachers are trained to teach AP, they must submit to the College Board a subject-specific AP course audit form (a standardized document designed to evaluate the course content and rigor) alongside the course syllabus. Having each AP teacher submit a course audit is a requirement for schools that want to label a course “AP” This serves not only to provide teachers and administrators with clear guidelines, but also to give colleges and universities confidence in the rigor and standards of the course. For more information about the College Board AP course audit process, visit this website: http://www.collegeboard.com/html/apcourseaudit/ Step 4: Partner with professors from local college(s) to help improve AP teaching and curriculum Over time, district leaders can form partnerships with professors at a local college who are willing to work with AP teachers (in a paid or volunteer capacity). The professors can provide coaching for the teachers and review AP curriculum alignment with introductory college

29


curriculum. To see an example of a university supporting AP high school teachers, refer to http://www.houstonact.org. Real-World Examples: Fairfax County Public Schools, Va. operates its own College-Board endorsed summer institute for AP and pre-AP teachers. Participants focus on developing curriculum, sharing and discussing teaching strategies, and reviewing the contributions of research to content and teaching. Teachers are required to attend an institute every five years to ensure their content knowledge is up to date. In 2009, the district ran an in-house program for 250 teachers participating in 13 subject-specific institutes. It showcased courses on: strategies to meet the needs of ELL and learning disabled students in advanced courses, differentiation, and ninth and tenth grade pre-AP strategies. The district stressed the cost-saving benefits of running an in-house institute, since other external trainings had cost up to $2,000 per teacher in the past. Thanks to these and other strategies, Fairfax administers the third largest number of AP exams in the country (behind New York City and Los Angeles), even though it is the thirteenth largest district in the country. Note, however, that Fairfax County is one of the most successful AP programs in the country, and its ability to build and maintain its own top quality training program derives from that. Most other districts would be better advised to seek training from the College Board and local colleges for a number of years before designing and running their own AP teacher training programs. Montgomery County (MD) relies heavily on professional development institutes endorsed by the College Board. In addition, the district sends its AP teachers to AP Summer Institutes, weeklong courses hosted by local colleges and universities that provide in-depth content knowledge and instructional strategies for AP teachers.

2. Create additional support infrastructure around AP Objective: Key Players: Cost: Time Required:

Create roles at the district and school level designed to provide AP support District-wide AP coordinator, district-wide AP coaches, school-based AP coordinator $10,000-$30,000 per high school per year Four months

Rationale: Any time a new or expanded program is launched, it is important that leadership be in place to guide the work and to help with the transition and new roles and responsibilities as well as to facilitate knowledge sharing. Specifically, central office AP coaches, school-level AP coordinators, and school level lead AP teachers for various subjects will all contribute to better teacher training, best practice sharing and problem-solving as an expanded AP program is implemented.

30


Procedure: Step 1: Hire district-wide AP coaches to conduct in-house professional development For district-wide AP coaches, the National Math & Science Initiative recommends appointing teachers who have a record of success teaching AP and/or pre-AP, lending them credibility with other AP and pre-AP teachers. These leaders should have experience and interest in training other teachers, as well as the ability to problem-solve and to create and maintain resources to share with program teachers. Ideally there will be coaches in all four core subject areas: English, math, science and social studies. These teachers will perform their coaching roles in addition to their regular classroom duties, so most districts either provide them with an additional stipend for the extra hours or lighten their class loads to make room for these new duties. Step 2: Designate an AP coordinator at each high school to serve as a campus-based “AP champion” Encourage principals to identify a staff member, preferably an associate principal or equivalent, to become the school-based AP coordinator. This person, trained by the district-wide AP coordinator and AP coaches, will help lead the AP expansion program at the school, serving as a facilitator and an aide to the principal and district-wide AP coordinator in the roll out and support of the AP work. School-level AP coordinators typically spend about half of their time on AP related duties (the work is, by nature, cyclical) and half on other duties. Typical salaries range from $30,000 per year to $60,000 per year, depending on the region and other duties involved. Successful AP coordinators tend to be well-organized, have good coordinating skills, and should believe in the expansion of AP access. Note that for purposes of fairness and equity, the AP coordinator cannot also serve as an AP teacher, since the AP coordinator has access to confidential exam materials. Refer to page 9 on the following College Board Link for more information on the subject: http://professionals.collegeboard.com/profdownload/ap-programguide.pdf. For a timeline describing important dates and deadlines written by and for school-based AP coordinators, see this article on the College Board website: http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/members/features/11858.html Example: Ms. Green, the district-wide AP coordinator, speaks with each principal in EUSD about selecting a school-based AP coordinator. Because of their history with the AP program, the principals at Magnet Schools #1 and #2 already have schoolbased AP coordinators. Ms. Green talks in more detail with the principals at Traditional Schools #3 through 10, explaining the duties and benefits of the role and the qualifications required. Most of the schools—even Schools #7, #8 and #10, which previously offered no AP classes—are able to identify an AP coordinator from among their ranks to take on this new leadership responsibility. School #9 has trouble, however, feeling that neither of its two existing AP trained

31


teachers is a good fit for this role. Ms. Green promises to continue working with the principal to find the school-based AP coordinator. Step 3: Designate lead AP teachers in each subject area at each high school These lead teachers are master AP teachers who mentor other AP or pre-AP teachers in their schools. Their teaching load should be reduced to allow them to dedicate time to training and other leadership activities, but they should still teach at least one AP course. Lead teachers may: organize projects such as vertical teams that meet to align curriculum; share best practices; organize student preparation sessions; discuss the concepts and necessary skills of the AP course; help all school professionals work together to fulfill the goals for their school; and assist teachers in improving student performance. Real-World Examples: Jefferson County School System, Ala. promoted three teachers of AP math, science and English to serve as district-wide coaches for new AP teachers. These district-wide AP coaches were selected because they helped students achieve the highest scores in the district in their AP subjects. As a team, they conduct site visits to middle and high schools to observe pre-AP and AP classrooms, while the district-wide AP coordinator works with school administrators. These district-wide AP coaches serve as a conduit for communication between pre-AP and AP teachers, and help the district better align curricula across these courses. They also make recommendations regarding the promotion of pre-AP teachers to AP teachers as course offerings expand and run district-wide professional development by subject area.

3. Establish learning communities and provide professional development Objective: Key Players: Cost: Time Required:

Create a culture of collaboration and continual learning among AP teachers District-wide AP coordinator, principals, school-based AP coordinators, AP teachers, AP coaches Up to $10,000 to set up online community One year

Rationale: Subject matter content and teaching techniques are constantly updated and improved. Teachers can gain pedagogical skill and content knowledge through participation in ongoing training and immersion in a culture of continuous learning. Moreover, since many schools only have one AP teacher per subject, such teachers may be isolated without the proper supports in place for collaboration with other teachers across the district.

32


Procedure: Step 1: Host school-based meetings about AP at the beginning and end of every year These meetings may be short check-ins, or longer, content-focused gatherings, but they should provide a chance to discuss and review the AP program. Principals, school-based AP coordinators, and the district-wide AP coordinator, if possible, can speak with the teachers and counselors about the importance of the AP program, highlight what changes will be enacted as a part of the AP expansion effort, and kick off or close the school year on a positive and encouraging note. In addition, the school-based AP coordinators can use these meetings to share data regarding the performance of the AP program to date, including points of strength and areas for improvement. Step 2: Host an annual district-wide AP conference during the school year This may take various forms, such as a half-day subject-focused conference, or a full-day of presentations and conversation. Whatever the format, it should allow all AP teachers—and preAP teachers, if possible—to come together across the district. The annual conference serves two main purposes: 1. To allow groups to meet for professional development and conversation about the program’s progress and how it may be improved. 2. To foster a sense of community among the teachers and AP program leaders with others they do not have a chance to interact with often. As a year-round continuation of this conference, coordinators should put together electronic discussion groups for each AP subject area. Teachers may then use this list to easily communicate with one another, pose questions, or share materials, worksheets, syllabi and other best practices, even when they are not working in the same building. Step 3: Mandate quarterly support visits from district-wide AP coaches The school year can get busy. Mandating and scheduling quarterly observations of each school by district-wide AP coaches will ensure that teachers receive ongoing support and a regular opportunity to ask questions or request feedback. It will also help the district ascertain how schools are doing with their AP programs, and make sure that teaching and subjects are consistent across schools. Step 4: Establish a school-based teacher mentoring and knowledge-sharing program Teachers within a school can be a great resource to one another, and should be tapped where possible. Lead AP teachers act as mentors to other AP teachers, observing teaching and modeling lessons as necessary. Beyond this, teachers can learn from each other through informal structures, such as pairing senior teachers with less experienced colleagues for conversations and advice, or more formal structures like new AP teachers spending their “prep” period observing an experienced AP teacher’s class.

33


Moreover, school-based AP coordinators and/or principals should create common planning time in schools that have more than one AP teacher in a subject area. In addition, all AP teachers and AP coordinators should be encouraged to join the applicable College Board “electronic discussion group,” such as the AP art history electronic discussion group or one specifically designated for AP coordinators. These groups provide teachers with entrée into a worldwide community of AP educators committed to trading best practices, teaching tips and other ideas. Participation is free and voluntary, and can be accessed through the AP Central Web site (http://www.apcentral.collegeboard.com). Step 5: Encourage AP teachers to become College Board readers College Board readers are university faculty and AP teachers from around the country who read and evaluate the free-form responses on the AP exams. As College Board readers, teachers not only become exposed to the quality of AP student work from across the country, but also gain access to a national professional development network of other readers. Readers work side-byside with other educators from high schools, colleges and universities for one week each June to score the AP exams. AP readers attest that the experience of scoring hundreds of AP exams provides powerful professional development, and has a significant impact on the ways they assess their own AP students’ work. Schools that are still in session in June, during the AP reading, are encouraged to provide substitute teachers so that the AP teachers can participate in the AP reading. AP readers are paid $1,600 per week by the College Board. Real-World Examples: Fairfax County Schools, Va. not only holds quarterly staff development trainings at the district office for all school-based AP coordinators, but also holds annual, day-long, district-wide conferences for all high school principals, teachers, counselors and coordinators involved with AP. For these conferences, the district-wide AP coordinator sends a survey to the school-based AP coordinators to get a sense of the most pressing professional development needs. Fairfax County’s 2009 AP conference featured workshops on how to support AP students with learning disabilities, given that the rate of these students scoring a 3 or higher only increased one percentage point from the prior year. In Guilford County, N.C., AP teachers meet by subject area for an annual, district-wide, half-day professional development session. They are paid a $75 stipend and served lunch. Teachers also meet district-wide at community-building sessions twice a year—once in the fall to discuss annual AP goals by school and for the district as a whole, and once in the spring to discuss course-based and before/after school strategies 60 days before AP exams begin. Duval County Schools, Fla. found many of its schools were running “singletons”—courses with only one section per subject area—and thus many teachers were isolated. In response, administrators established professional subject-area learning communities across the district, to allow best practice sharing. Next year’s (2010) peer support groups will also examine how teachers can use the Summary of Answers and Skills (SOAS) tool of the PSAT/NMSQT to identify targeted instructional needs for students entering AP classes for the first time.

34


D. Build awareness: Achieve parent and student buy-in

Objective: Key Players: Cost: Time Required:

Increase parent and student awareness of the links between student success in AP courses and student success in college Parents, students, school counselors, parent coordinators, principals, school-based AP coordinators $200 per high school for AP parent info night refreshments One month to hold parent and student meetings at all middle and high schools in the district

Rationale: Parents and students who are unfamiliar with the AP curriculum or with college readiness milestones in general will be better equipped to support and participate in AP classes if schools provide them with easily accessible information. Students may be more likely to pay attention to information if they attend such a meeting with their parents. Additionally, many ELL students serve as translators for their parents. Procedure: Step 1: Notify all parents and students about AP expansion All parents and students should be notified by mail and/or email about the district’s AP expansion initiative, including the strategic goals set by the superintendent. Letters should include the importance of AP to college readiness, and should outline steps that parents can take to best support their child at every school level (elementary, middle and high). The district also should publish this information on a website. Note that this information should be shared with families before the PSAT/NMSQT is administered, so that all students can take the test and have the opportunity to participate in AP classes. The purpose is not to target particular families with this step, but rather to inform all families about the new district focus on AP and the rationale behind it. Step 2: After AP Potential scores12 are calculated, notify parents whose children score above the threshold High school parents whose children score above a district’s chosen AP Potential threshold (a score indicating the percentage likelihood of success on an AP exam) should receive an invitation to a school-based meeting about the AP program. These parents should be called the week of the meeting, with an emphasis on parents of low-income and/or African-American and Latino students. Districts with high numbers of non-English-speaking parents should be sure to 12

The AP Potential tool, and the use of it for identifying and creating thresholds, is discussed in section V_B entitled “Identify prospective AP students” beginning on page 7.

35


send translated materials and to have phone calls made by bilingual school staff whenever possible. It might be possible to partner with ethnic advocacy associations if no school personnel are fluent in a language represented by a significant number of students. See Appendix H1 for an example letter to parents provided by the College Board. Step 3: Host school-based meetings for students scoring over AP Potential threshold and their parents All 10th-grade students who score over the AP Potential threshold should receive a letter requiring attendance at an in-school meeting about the importance of AP courses for college readiness. School-based meetings should be hosted by the principal and school-based AP coordinator13 and should outline any pre-requisites to participation (refer to Appendix H2 for an example flyer to students regarding the expectations in AP courses), as well as stressing benefits and incentives to AP participation.14 The district-wide AP coordinator should attend whenever possible to convey the importance of AP expansion as a district priority. The principal should emphasize that students who earn a 3 or better on AP exams 1) can save money on college courses if their credits are accepted by the college they attend (see Appendix H3 for a primer on saving money in college as a result of AP exams) and 2) that performing AP coursework increases the likelihood of earning a college degree and increased lifetime earnings potential. Current AP students and recent graduates/current college students should be invited to attend to share anecdotes about the importance of AP participation to academic success. See Appendix H4 for a skit generated by Pflugerville Any students and families who do not attend the meeting should be targeted by school counselors for one-on-one meetings. Example: Once the results of the AP Potential are calculated, Traditional High School #9 in EUSD hosts an “AP Showcase” for parents and students on a Wednesday night in January. In preparation, students receive flyers in their Advisory classes, and letters are mailed home to parents. All parents of students scoring above the AP Potential threshold receive phone calls. A special outreach effort is made to African-American parents, and the Spanish-speaking parent coordinator prioritizes her calls to parents of the school’s Latino students. The school contracts with a Hmong community group to reach out to Hmong parents. The school’s newly selected AP coordinator hires a teacher from the neighborhood Headstart program to provide childcare for all children between the ages of two and six so that parents with young children are deterred from attending. Since this school does not have a previously existing AP program, it cannot feature alumni on a panel. However, an admissions officer from Example 13

The school-based AP coordinator role is outlined in Section IV_C entitled “Provide training and support for AP and pre-AP teachers” beginning on p. 28. 14 See Section IV_G entitled “Motivate parents and students: Remove financial barriers and provide incentives,” beginning on p. 46 for more information on student incentives.

36


State University attends the meeting and hosts a Q&A session on AP credits and the weight of AP coursework in admissions decisions. The Showcase ends with students and parents attending three 10-minute “mini-AP classes” of their choice, during which new AP teachers present overviews of the classes that will run the following year, including expectations and typical assignments. As an added incentive for attendance, a buffet-style dinner from a local restaurant is served, where two iPod Shuffles and a gift certificate from a popular local hair and nail salon are raffled. Parents and students are informed about dinner and door prizes in advance.

Real-World Examples: Starting in the sixth grade, Long Beach Unified School District in California holds parent conferences to raise awareness about the AP high school program and to educate parents about middle school courses that their child should take to be AP-prepared. Fairfax County Schools, Va. invites parents of 10th-grade students who have qualifying AP Potential scores to attend a meeting to learn more about the links between AP and college readiness. School-based AP/IB coordinators at each high school also lead parent information nights every winter for sixth- and seventh-grade parents, since algebra is given in the eighth grade. Because the district has a large Latino population, it employs a bilingual Latino parent liaison at each school and targets Latino parents with phone calls during the week leading up to the meeting. Many schools in the district also have Parent Minority Achievement Committees to engage parents in the work of closing achievement gaps in its AP courses. Additionally, the district’s K-12 Office of Advanced Academics holds four regional parent meetings every fall to raise awareness of key college-readiness steps and the importance of rigorous academics as early as possible in a student’s career.

37


E. Provide academic support for AP students

Even students with the potential to succeed in an advanced curriculum and with effective, welltrained AP teachers will require additional school and district support to guarantee high rates of success. This support can come in the form of better AP preparatory classes, extra hours of instruction, summer institutes, night and weekend sessions, and, once the AP class is underway, test preparation sessions.

1. Provide extra hours of instruction to help students prepare for AP exams Objective: Key Players: Cost: Time Required:

Ensure that all students, including non-traditional AP students, are prepared to do their best on AP exams School-based AP coordinators, AP teachers, district-wide AP coordinator, honors students from local colleges, AP students Extra pay for teachers/tutors; potential for minimal â&#x20AC;&#x153;incentiveâ&#x20AC;? costs (e.g., pizza) One summer to set up the program

Rationale: Extra hours of instruction are beneficial to students studying for AP exams, both in helping them to review material and in giving them confidence. This extra time is particularly important in the weeks leading up to the test, though students should be encouraged to attend throughout the semester to promote useful study skills (and avoid cramming). Procedure: Step 1: Determine the scope of the AP student support program The district will need to make sure there are enough funds to cover related expenses, such as teacher time, instructional materials and classroom space (see Section VI for information on funding). Then the district must consider what the AP student support program itself will look like. Will extra hours be made available before or after school or on Saturdays? Will it be open to all students or only struggling students? Will the extra sessions cover the review of previously covered course material, provide opportunities to take AP practice tests, etc.? Will sessions be held throughout the year or only in the weeks leading up to the test? Will they be run districtwide or on a school-by-school basis? Are any/all students required to attend?

38


Example: To ensure that students are getting extra instruction to help prepare for their AP exams, Ms. Green decides that schools should run their own tutoring sessions to give those working most directly with the students more control over helping them. She checks the budget, then contacts each of the school-based AP coordinators and suggests they scope out a program of two-hour Saturday review sessions for students in the three months leading up to their AP exams. She explains that teachers should be encouraged to work with small groups of students to help them gain knowledge and confidence for the test. Step 2: Present the tutoring program to AP teachers The tutoring program materials should be generated by recognized AP teachers in each of the subject areas offered by the district (additional compensation should be offered to teachers for performing this task). These materials should then be vetted by other AP teachers and adjusted according to feedback. The materials should be developed during the school year in an ongoing fashion so that they are ready in time for summer programs. They can then be adjusted as necessary to be used in tutoring sessions during the following school year as well. Ensure that any teacher concerns are acknowledged and addressed during the preparation phase. Step 3: Contact local college honors departments to find tutors When possible, hire students from local college honors departments who have backgrounds similar to those of your high school students to work as tutors at these sessions. In addition to serving as extra “adults” available to work with AP students, perhaps providing one-on-one or small group instruction, they will be role models showing what academic success looks like. Step 4: Secure space to hold the program Depending on the type of program, the type of space required might be a large auditorium, a classroom or several small meeting spaces. A high school might be able to host the program; so might a local community center or library. Wherever the program is held, make sure that getting there is not a barrier—financial or physical—for students, teachers or tutors. Step 5: Evaluate the program and adjust as necessary Tutoring programs should be evaluated on metrics that matter—student and teacher attendance, student satisfaction with the tutoring, and ultimately, AP exam score differentials between those attending tutoring and those who did not. If students do not seem to be learning well in this environment, try another format. If students or teachers are not attending regularly, ask why and try to adjust. Attendance leading to progress (with both skill and confidence) must be a goal for any tutoring program.

39


Real-World Examples: Many districts provide extra hours of AP preparatory instruction. For example, over the course of a school year, Jefferson County Public Schools, Ala. offers 18 hours of supplemental instruction per AP subject on Saturdays. Duval County Public Schools, Fla. runs after-school tutoring sessions for students in AP courses, and summer bridge programs for those who are preparing to enter AP courses in the coming year. Some schools in Fairfax County Public Schools, Va. pay teachers to conduct weekly after-school tutoring sessions, with each day of the week focusing on a different subject area. Other schools in the district offer these tutoring sessions during the school day as well to accommodate more students (e.g., at lunch or during breaks). Regardless of which strategy districts use, schools are sure that extra supports are offered at no cost to students, to avoid financial barriers to AP success.

2. Conduct summer ramp-up institutes Objective: Key Players: Cost: Time Required:

Ensure that all students, especially non-traditional AP students, are prepared to do their best in AP courses School-based AP coordinators, AP teachers, principal, district-wide AP coordinator, AP students Extra pay for teachers; potential for minimal â&#x20AC;&#x153;incentiveâ&#x20AC;? costs (e.g., pizza) Spring semester to set up the program

Rationale: It is possible that many students enrolled in AP courses will not be fully prepared for the rigor of the coursework. Ramp-up institutes, held the summer before taking a course, can help arm students with the basic skills and confidence necessary to succeed. Procedure: Step 1: Determine the scope of the program With budgets in mind, districts must decide whether the summer ramp-up program will be a short, intensive venture; or a more spread out and/or less intensive. The district must also decide whether the summer institutes will be subject-specific or if they will they focus on generally applicable expertise such as research, writing and study skills. Step 2: Present the summer ramp-up program to AP teachers As with the school-year tutoring program, AP teachers should be required to help staff and lead the summer institutes. Ensure that enough teachers are willing to work the program by conducting a survey several months before the program is to start. If there is weak interest among the teaching staff, consider recruiting AP teachers from nearby schools. Assuming there is sufficient interest, teachers should be confirmed with enough time to prepare the curriculum,

40


hold a student sign-up (refer to Appendix H5 for a flyer from Fairfax County advertising their AP summer institute) and finalize the program. Step 3: Secure space to hold the program Consider how the program will be run to determine what facilities are needed (desk and chair configurations, size of room, etc.). Find a facility that offers the best mix of low cost and convenience. A school building, community center or religious center may provide good options. Like with the tutoring program, ensure that transportation to the facility is not a barrier for either students or teachers. Example: The school-based AP coordinator at EUSD Traditional School #3 knows that with the AP expansion program underway, more atypical AP students will be signing up for courses and might feel unprepared for the work facing them. After talking with Ms. Green, the district-wide AP coordinator, and the principal of the school, he organizes a week-long “AP Camp” at the school in August for interested students. AP teachers are paid to staff the camp and to teach students skills valuable to their AP coursework, such as essay writing organization and summarization skills. Step 4: Evaluate the program and adjust as necessary While a summer ramp-up institute is likely to be too short to make adjustments the first summer (beyond small fixes such as changing group instruction size, altering the method of presentation or changing materials), it is important to take stock of the program after its first summer. The district can consider what went well and what could be improved within the scope and set-up of the institute. Also, over the course of the year, school-based AP coordinators and the districtwide AP coordinator can evaluate the program’s effectiveness by reviewing the performance of students who participated in the institute versus those who did not. Real-World Examples: In August 2009, Oakton High School (part of Fairfax County Public Schools, Va.) offered a four-day, two-hour-per-day AP summer institute for students enrolled in AP or advanced courses for the first time. Sessions focused on critical thinking, reading and study skills to help prepare students for the rigor of the advanced courses. Long Beach Unified School District, Calif. holds a “Summer Bridge” program, going so far as to offer elective course credit for the program. This program lasts three weeks (five hours per day).

41


F. Motivate school leaders and staff: Provide performance-based incentives

Objective: Key Players: Cost: Time Required:

Increase motivation for AP expansion among teachers and administrators by instituting performance-based incentives District-wide AP coordinator, principals, counselors, superintendent, teachers’ union, school board Up to $200 per student scoring 3 or higher on an AP exam One year

Rationale: Performance-based incentives and consequences may provide extra motivation for school leaders and AP teachers, particularly at the beginning of an AP expansion effort. Procedure: Step 1: Design a system of incentives that are aligned with the most important components of an AP expansion program. The most important metric of a successful AP program is the number of students scoring a 3 or higher on AP exams, since this factor is what has been proven to correlate with whether students will graduate from a four-year college.15 AP teachers are most often paid additional stipends for two things: (1) extra time put into AP work (e.g., running tutoring sessions, attending summer trainings) and (2) student success (i.e., the number of students scoring a 3 or higher on the AP exam). Counselors may be incentivized for meeting goals or metrics set around AP enrollment or reaching out to families. Principals are best rewarded for metrics concerning their entire school, such as the number of AP courses at full enrollment or the increase in exam scores of 3 or higher. Example: The EUSD AP coordinator and superintendent notice teacher resistance to expanding AP access to a broader range of students. To address this, they decide first to reward teachers based on an increase in the number of students taking the AP exam, with the plan to incorporate passing rates in the incentive system in subsequent years. They work with the teachers union and principals to develop the following incentive structure, which is then incorporated in the union 15

Chrys Dougherty, Lynn Mellor, and Shuling Jian, “The Relationship between Advanced Placement and College Graduation,” National Center for Educational Accountability, 2005 AP Study Series, Report 1, February 2006, p.13

42


contract. All parties agree to revisit the incentive structure (to continue it, revise it or end it) at the end of the third year of the AP expansion effort. AP Influencer Principals

AP teachers

Either the head counselors responsible for AP and/or the AP coordinators at school sites

Incentives in Year 1 • Awarded $500 for an increase of at least 20 percent more students completing at least one AP course vs. baseline year. • Also eligible for award of $500 for an increase of at least 30 percent more low-income, Hispanic and African-American students completing at least one AP course vs. baseline year. • Awarded $500 per AP class for any AP class where the student enrollment is 50% or more low-income students.

Incentives in Year 2 and 3 • Awarded $500 for an increase of at least 20 percent more students completing at least two AP course vs. year prior. • Also eligible for award of $500 for an increase of at least 30 percent more low-income, Hispanic and African-American students completing at least two AP courses vs. year prior. • Also eligible for award of $500 if number of students passing AP exams increases by 25 percent vs. year prior. • Awarded $100 per low-income student who passes any AP exam with a score of 3, 4 or 5.

Awarded $500 for increase of at least 20 percent more students completing at least one AP course vs. baseline year. Also eligible for award of $500 for an increase of at least 30 percent more low-income, Hispanic and African-American students completing at least one AP course vs. baseline year.

Awarded $500 for an increase of at least 20 percent more students completing at least two AP courses vs. year prior. Also eligible for award of $500 for an increase of at least 30 precent more low-income, Hispanic and African-American students completing at least two AP courses vs. year prior.

Step 2: Engage key stakeholders The superintendent or another district representative should hold meetings with: • The school board – Representing the interests of the community and acting as the district governing body, the school board should be apprised of the superintendent’s general plans for incentives and their feedback collected regarding incentive types and approaches. • The head of the teachers union – The teachers union should be engaged early and often to solicit teacher feedback regarding the incentive program types/approaches and improve teacher buy-in.

43


School administrators – Meetings should be held with the district-wide AP coordinator and each school principal to agree on what the principal will be held accountable for and how the incentive program will work.

Step 3: Update existing performance evaluations to include AP expansion goals Any existing performance management systems should be updated to include data and targets for the AP expansion program. For instance, data warehouses should track the number of students enrolled in AP courses, the number of students completing AP courses, the number taking AP exams, scores on AP exams and grades in AP courses. Teacher evaluations should include a benchmark for percent of students taking AP exams as well as the number scoring a 3 or higher on AP exams. Evaluations should also indicate gaps between students’ course grades and students’ scores on AP exams. Consequences should be enforced for poor teacher performance, and might include mandatory professional development. Principals and counselors should be held accountable for meeting the reasonable and mutually agreed-upon enrollment goals for their schools, and principals should be held ultimately accountable for the number of students scoring a 3 or higher on AP exams. WARNING! Focus performance management consequences for AP teachers on the total number of students passing the AP test rather than on the percentage of students passing, particularly in the early years of AP expansion. It is to be expected that expanding access to students who previously were not included will lead to a dip in passing percentages in the short term, and administrators should account for this in evaluations.

Step 4: Communicate incentives/consequences clearly and in a timely fashion Once a program has been designed, the superintendent should announce new incentives and consequences to principals, teachers and counselors through written communication with teachers/counselors and through a district-wide principals’ meeting (to be followed up with school-based meetings between principals and teachers/counselors). WARNING! School counselors can be the hardest group to convince that more open AP enrollment is a good idea. Without a clear incentive to recruit more students into AP courses, school counselors may feel unmotivated to implement increased enrollment strategies. As school counselors are often the gatekeepers of college readiness in schools, they are a significant stakeholder in the success of an expanded AP program.

44


Real-World Examples: In Guilford County, N.C., teachers are awarded $150 for each class in which the number of students scoring 3 or better on the corresponding AP exam exceeds the national average. Teachers who attend professional development sessions throughout the year are entered into a raffle, where they can win prizes including a laptop and an all-expenses-paid trip to the national AP conference. Prizes are distributed at a fall event (based on the prior yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s performance) as a way to kick off the new school yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s AP program and to build a sense of shared purpose district-wide. One of the main components of The National Math & Science Initiative model (which is based on the Advanced Placement Strategies program in Texas) is monetary incentives for AP teachers and students based on exam results. In Jefferson County, teachers are given a $500 yearly bonus if they teach an AP course; $100 for each of their students receiving a 3 or higher on the exam; and up to $3,000 for meeting the programâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s annual benchmarks. Moreover, administrators at schools launching AP programs are rewarded up to $3,000 for the overall success of the program through an incentive for achieving scores of 3 or higher.

45


G. Motivate parents and students: Remove financial barriers and provide incentives

Many factors may contribute to students not participating in an AP expansion program. By addressing two of the largest—cost of taking the tests and general apathy or lack of excitement— more atypical AP students may be inclined to take courses.

1. Remove financial barriers to increase AP participation Objective: Key Players: Cost: Time Required:

Ensure that all students can take the PSAT/NMSQT and AP exams, regardless of socioeconomic status School counselors, district AP coordinator, school AP coordinators $13 per PSAT/NMSQT, and up to $86 per AP exam per student. Zero to twelve months (depending on availability of funds)

Rationale: Many students do not take the PSAT/NMSQT or AP exams because either they cannot afford them or don’t believe that their value justifies the expense. To mitigate this barrier, most districts implementing an expanded AP program cover part or all of the test fees for at least their neediest students. Although the College Board and the U.S. federal government partner to provide fee reductions for students who qualify for free and reduced-price school lunch (FRSL), many students may require financial assistance who do not qualify for it. Procedure: Step 1: Review the eligibility requirements and determine which students qualify for the combined College Board/federal fee waivers The College Board provides a $22 fee reduction per AP exam for students with acute financial need (i.e., FRSL-eligible students) and federal government programs will cover the rest. If a school prefers to use a method other than FRSL for determining which students qualify for the fee reduction, any of the following criteria are allowable: • The student’s family income is at or below the Census Bureau’s “poverty threshold.” The Census poverty threshold varies by family size and the ages of family members, but it is not adjusted for differences in the cost of living. If using poverty threshold to determine a student’s low-income status and eligibility, use the 2007 information available at: http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/threshld/thresh07.html • The student’s family receives assistance under Part A of Title IV of the Social Security Act

46


The student is eligible to receive medical assistance under the Medicaid program under Title XIX of the Social Security Act16

Step 2: Apply to College Board for the AP fee reduction for all qualifying low-income students School-based AP coordinators or school counselors must follow three steps to obtain fee reductions for students who qualify: 1. When ordering AP exams, the school-based AP coordinator is required to provide the names of each student who meets the criteria for receiving the fee reduction, and to attest that the school has records that demonstrate that each named student meets the criteria. 2. On the qualifying student’s registration answer sheet, fill in the “Option 1” or “Option 2” fee reduction oval. The AP Coordinator’s Manual contains instructions for properly marking the answer sheet so that the school will be billed at the reduced rate. 3. After the AP exams have been administered, the school-based AP coordinator needs to indicate on the online invoice the actual number of exams that were taken by students who met the guidelines, and return that invoice by mail to the College Board. Real-World Examples: Some districts, like Jefferson County Schools in Alabama, are able to cover 50 percent of fees through the district budget for all students, but must raise supplemental funds to cover the rest. Others, like Fairfax County Public Schools in Virginia, can pay 100 percent of all students’ exams through district funds, spending $3.2 million on these fees in the last year alone. San Diego Schools in California covers 100 percent of all AP exam fees for all students who wish to take the exam. This led to a one-year increase from 9,400 exams to 10,400 exams being taken. Progress was seen especially among students of color, with Latino students taking 734 more exams and African-American students taking 200 more exams than the previous year.

2. Provide student incentives Objective: Key Players: Cost: Time Required:

Motivate students to enroll in and excel in AP courses Superintendent, district-wide AP coordinator, principals, school-based AP coordinators, teachers, students Up to $100 per score of 3 or higher Up to six months to collect funding, two months to design, two months to announce the program to staff members, parents and students

Rationale: Incentives provided in the start-up phase (the first three to four years) of an AP expansion program can be a strong lever to create a lasting cultural shift for open/expanded AP enrollment in schools. Although the research about the effects of monetary student incentives on student success rates in AP courses is inconclusive—there is some thought that student participation 16

http://professionals.collegeboard.com/testing/ap/coordinate/fee-assistance and http://www.collegeboard.com/school/ap_ordering_help.html

47


drops back down when incentives end—some districts have implemented incentives as part of their AP expansion programs and have seen a subsequent increase in student participation. Procedure: Step 1: Create a program that links student incentives to key steps along the AP trajectory The incentives offered necessarily depend on the amount of funding available. The table below displays both monetary and non-monetary incentives. Note that all the examples below have been used in at least one real-world school district. Table 6: Student incentives for AP participation

STUDENT INCENTIVES FOR AP PARTICIPATION INCENTIVE

REQUIREMENT

MONETARY $25 to $100 per student per exam A chance to win a laptop in a raffle A chance to win a $2,500 scholarship to a local college A chance to win a car in a raffle Potential savings on college tuition (if AP credits are accepted at school of choice) Two free passes to the movies A chance to win an iPhone in a raffle A chance to win an iPhone in a raffle Free pizza coupon from local eatery NON-MONETARY INCENTIVES AP course given more weight in students’ grade point averages (e.g., 5.0 for an A), giving AP students a chance to raise their overall GPA Free field trip during school time Reward AP success with an academic “letter” for letterman’s jackets Designation as a College Board AP Scholar Host “scholars breakfast” for students enrolled in AP Waive the final course exam

Earn a grade of 3 or higher on an AP exam Earn a grade of 3 or higher on at least 3 AP exams Earn a grade of 3 or higher on at least 5 AP exams Earn a grade of 3 or higher on at least 5 AP exams Earn a 3 or higher on AP exam(s) Attend at least three Saturday tutoring sessions Attend all Saturday tutoring sessions Attend summer ramp-up institute Attend one Saturday AP tutoring session

Student completes AP course (alternatively, this benefit may be granted ONLY to those students who also take the corresponding AP exam) Earn a 3 or higher on at least one AP exam Earn a 3 or higher on AP exam(s) Earn a 3 or higher on at least three AP exams Enrollment in one or more AP course Student takes AP exam for the corresponding course

48


Step 2: Create a budget for the incentives program and obtain funding For an example of a budgeting tool, see the National Math & Science Initiative’s Excel-based tool in Appendix I and available online at: http://www.nationalmathandscience.org. For ideas on how to obtain funding for incentives, see Section V of this document entitled, “Secure funding for AP expansion” beginning on page 50. Step 3: Announce the incentives program school-wide In the first year of an AP program, incentives should be announced in meetings for students scoring over the AP Potential threshold (or being otherwise invited into AP courses), and in the written letters and emails sent to all parents. All students should learn about the program through announcements in advisory classes and school-wide flyers. Step 4: Create a school-wide culture celebrating AP students Incentives can be used not only to motivate students in AP courses, but also as a way to publicize the benefits of AP participation to other students. School-based AP coordinators can set up bulletin boards and web pages (through the school website) and make announcements over the school public announcements system to acknowledge students who have received incentives through the AP program. School-based AP coordinators should also organize an end-of-year academic awards ceremony to distribute cumulative prizes and conduct raffles that require students to participate in a certain amount of extracurricular tutoring or earn a certain number of scores of 3 or higher on AP exams in order to “earn a ticket.” Such events can also serve as positive press opportunities for a district. Real-World Examples: Guilford County Public Schools, N.C. partners with local businesses to run a student incentive program called “Cool to be Smart.” Through this program, a local car dealership offers a free car in a lottery open to all students who have taken and passed at least five AP courses with a 3 or higher on the exam. The district also partners with a local grocery store chain to donate a portion of every customer loyalty card purchase to the district. Money from this pool is then used to provide laptops and scholarships in a lottery to graduating students who have passed AP courses. During the program’s first year, 100 of about 60,000 students qualified. In its second year, 389 qualified, and by its third year, the number was up to 400 students. In addition to providing monetary rewards or prizes, many districts have incentivized students to take more AP courses by giving the courses more weight in students’ GPA calculations. After Fairfax County Schools, Va. weighted AP courses so that a score of 5 on the AP exam would count as a 5.0 in GPA calculations (instead of a traditional 4.0 for an “A”), the district saw a 3 percent increase in the annual rate of growth of AP students.

49


V.

Secure funding to expand the AP program

Objective: Key Players: Cost: Time Required:

Secure the necessary resources to fund an AP expansion program District-wide AP coordinator, superintendent, district “grant-writing” department, school-based AP coordinators No direct costs; indirect cost of staff time Zero to 12 months

Rationale: Many of the strategies outlined in this document require significant resources that the district may or may not have. Paying for exams, training teachers, running awareness campaigns and organizing tutoring sessions can be costly. However, there are funds available through federal and state grants, nonprofit initiatives and private organizations. The current federal stimulus (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act) funding has specifically identified AP expansion to low-income students as a priority area. Procedure: Step 1: Secure federal and state funds Table 7: Federal funding sources Program/ fund U.S. Department of Education (ED) Advanced Placement Incentive Program (AP IP) ED AP Test Fee Program

ED Teacher Incentive Fund

ED Smaller Learning Communities Program (SLC)

Purpose

Eligible AP expansion elements

To increase the participation of low-income students in pre-AP and AP courses and tests To help states pay AP test fees for low-income students

To monetarily incentivize teachers to assume additional responsibilities or to attain high levels of student achievement

To improve student academic achievement in public high schools with enrollments of 1,000 or more students

50

Can pay for teacher training, infrastructure support ,and materials/supplies directly tied to expanding AP access

Can pay for AP exam fees Can pay for teachers incentive awards (i.e., bonuses for increase in number of AP exams passed) and/or stipends for teachers who take on larger roles in the AP expansion effort (i.e., school-based AP coordinators or district-wide AP coaches) Broad-based funding, as long as the AP expansion elements are being instituted along with a wider school change toward “Smaller Learning Communities” in these large schools


Federal Funding Sources U.S. Department of Education (ED) Advanced Placement Incentive Program (http://www.ed.gov/programs/apincent/index.html) This program is not awarding new funds in 2009 or 2010 unless current appropriations change. However, its intention is to increase the participation of low-income students in both pre-AP and AP courses and exams. The program awards grants to support teacher professional development, curriculum development, book and supply purchase, or other activities that relate directly to expanding AP access and participation for low-income students. State Education Agencies (SEAs), Local Education Agencies (LEAs), including charter schools that are considered LEAs under state law or national nonprofit educational entities with expertise in providing Advanced Placement services, are eligible for the three-year competitive grants. SEAs may award money in the form of sub-grants to LEAs. ED Test Fee Program (http://www.ed.gov/programs/apfee/index.html) This program offers grants to states to help pay AP test fees for low-income students. The grant aims to cover part or all of the cost of tests given by the College Board or IB. In 2009, 41 new awards were made at an average of $357,000 per state. Note that only SEAs are eligible to apply for these grants. The dollar amount is determined by the number of students eligible under the ESEA Title I Basic Grants programs. All 50 states have a method for schools to help low-income students to get an AP test fee waiver. To find out what funds are available, and to get instructions on how to access them on a school-by-school basis, contact your SEA or go to: http://professionals.collegeboard.com/testing/ap/coordinate/feeassistance/state17 ED Teacher Incentive Fund (http://www.ed.gov/programs/teacherincentive/index.html) This fund offers teachers monetary incentives to assume additional responsibilities or to attain high levels of student achievement (as measured by test scores). Districts could use these funds to support AP expansion initiatives if such initiatives include opportunities for teachers to take on new leadership roles (such as school-based AP coordinators or district-wide AP coaches), or to receive monetary bonuses for studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; AP test results of 3 or higher. Districts also could use a portion of funds awarded to train more teachers to become AP instructors. $200 million in Stimulus Package funds have been appropriated for a new grant cycle. The application is scheduled to be published in winter 2009, and awards will be made by spring 2010. LEAs, SEAs, and nonprofit organizations are eligible for funding. ED Smaller Learning Communities Program (http://www.ed.gov/programs/slcp/index.html) This program awards discretionary grants to support the implementation of Smaller Learning Communities and activities to improve student academic achievement in public high schools 17

Further detail may be found on the program statute at: http://www.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/pg14.html

51


with enrollments of 1,000 or more students. As districts are making school-wide changes, AP expansion strategies may be implemented and covered through this grant system. LEAs are eligible to apply for grants on behalf of one or more high schools with at least 1,000 students. State Funding Sources As noted in the federal funding section above, each state provides a way to access funding for test fees of low-income students. Though the approach for securing funding in each state varies, a comprehensive list of contacts and approaches by state can be found on the College Board website at: http://professionals.collegeboard.com/testing/ap/coordinate/fee-assistance/state Furthermore, individual states may be able to provide grants to LEAs or schools for projects relating to AP expansion. Public sources vary by state; please contact your SEA and LEA to explore this possibility. Step 2: Approach the local business community In addition to seeking federal and state funds, districts may be able to secure funding for AP expansion programs from their local business community. The most effective strategies are to ask locally, and to ask big. Rather than pursuing multiple small donations, districts can often secure large contributions by prioritizing larger local corporations or the overall Chamber of Commerce instead approaching many small businesses one-at-a-time. Furthermore, it is timeeffective to ask for multiyear investments. Businesses are often compelled by data, such as the district promising measurable results and a clear timeline for success. Local businesses that may not be able to give large-scale grants may still be helpful to the district or school by offering smaller donations for incentive programs (such as the car offered in Guilford County, N.C.). Prizes or discounts may be offered to students succeeding in AP classes, or to teachers, principals or counselors leading the AP initiative. Real-World Examples: The central office of Fairfax County Public Schools, Va. provides student achievement grants to high schools through an RFP. Every school can apply for up to $10,000 for an initiative to recruit and support underserved students in advanced courses. $130,000 was disbursed through this program in the 2008-09 school year. When Jefferson County Schools, Ala. needed supplemental funding for the monetary incentives included in the National Math & Science Initiativeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s AP expansion model, the district approached the local chamber of commerce and large corporations headquartered nearby, such as Boeing. The districtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fundraising efforts yielded three separate contributions of $400,000 to 500,000 each.

52


On a smaller, yet equally effective scale, Terry Grier, the former superintendent of Guilford County Schools, N.C.—and current superintendent of Houston Independent School District— secured funds for “Cool to be Smart,” a student incentives program, from local businesses. He met with business owners about the benefits of corporate social responsibility, securing new car donations and student/staff discounts from a car dealership in exchange for marketing promotions among students and staff in the district. With this same win-win tactic, he was able to secure laptops from a computer company, and $2,500 scholarships from local colleges and universities.

53


VI.

Steps to increasing AP participation: Long-Term intervention strategies

Long-term intervention strategies are critical to creating a successful and stable expanded AP program. Starting a program is one thing; maintaining it can be much more difficult. The following section only begins to explore a few things a district or school might do to help longterm adoption of increased AP participation. It should be considered a basic starting point, rather than a comprehensive guide to long-term strategy. Objective:

Key Players: Cost: Time Required:

Raise the level of rigor at all school levels, district-wide, to ensure more students are prepared to take AP courses and exams by the time they enter high school Superintendent, central office academic staff, principals, teachers, school counselors Varies widely based on extensiveness of program At least three years

Rationale: Success with the short-term AP expansion strategies described above can be used as a foundation for implementing a long-term college-readiness strategy throughout the district. Procedure: Step 1: Align the K-12 curriculum Just as success in college begins earlier, with rigorous high school work such as AP courses, success with AP courses and exams begins before high school. Districts and schools may ensure a greater likelihood of student academic success by ensuring curriculum leads along a path to achievement from the beginning. Administrators and teachers may use backwards mapping from college-readiness benchmarks—perhaps as defined by the College Board and/or ACT as a starting place—to help align the curriculum across grade levels. In English, math and science, the College Board has prepared and posted on their website a set of standards back-mapped from AP and college that enable districts to align their curricula in middle school and high school so that students develop the knowledge and skills fundamental to successful performance in AP and college courses. These standards can be accessed at: http://professionals.collegeboard.com/k12/standards. Step 2: Utilize curriculum programs to help better prepare atypical pre-AP students Supplemental college readiness programs—such as AVID (Advancement Via Individual Determination), the College Board’s Springboard, or Laying the Foundation—seek to buttress students in an expanded AP program. They work to help underachieving middle and high school students prepare for and succeed in colleges and universities. For example, AVID program

54


components include note taking, study skills, time management tips and high-level reading comprehension skills. More information about the program can be accessed at: http://www.avidonline.org/. Laying the Foundation, Inc., is a nonprofit designed to serve educators by providing a comprehensive pre-AP training program, including resource and planning guides, in-district training, summer institutes, conferences and online resources for English, math and science. This program started in Texas to support Advanced Placement Strategies, and is now in place throughout the country. More information can be found online at: http://www.layingthefoundation.org/ Step 3: Incorporate state, local and College Board standards into courses To ensure that previous coursework prepares students for AP courses, utilize challenging standards from state, local, and College Board sources. By holding students to high standards throughout their academic careers, they will be better prepared for, and more likely to participate successfully in, expanded AP programs. Step 4: Give students an early taste of success When applicable, enroll eighth- or ninth-grade English Language Learner students in the AP exam corresponding to their native language (e.g., the Spanish language exam). This can both expose them to success and to a rigorous curriculum, but also may help to avoid frustrating students with language barriers in addition to difficult subject matter. Step 5: Host high school and middle school parent and student meetings about advanced academics and college readiness In the longer term, both middle schools and high schools should organize annual meetings for parents of students in the grades immediately preceding key pre-AP or AP course offerings. For instance, if algebra (a pre-requisite for AP calculus) is offered in eighth grade, parents of seventh-graders should attend a meeting about the scope and sequence of the district’s pre-AP and AP math curriculum. In addition to hosting meetings for all 10th-graders about the PSAT/NMSQT, schools should hold assemblies for middle and high schools students in the grades immediately preceding key pre-AP or AP course offerings. As with the parent meetings, if algebra (a pre-requisite for AP calculus) is offered in eighth grade, students in seventh grade should attend a meeting about the scope and sequence of the district’s pre-AP and AP curriculum. Schools should outline incentives and benefits of AP participation at these meetings, including any monetary incentives18 that the district will provide, and the costs that can be saved on college tuition when students score a 3 or better on AP exams.

18

See Section V_G entitled “Motivate parents and students: Remove financial barriers and provide incentives,” beginning on p. 46 for more information on student incentives.

55


Step 6: Expose students to a college environment Conduct field trips to local colleges for middle and high school students who have yet to take an AP course. Besides simply getting those who may never have been on a college campus to see one (and thus able to imagine college more tangibly), the trip should include meetings with admissions officers who can talk to the students about the importance of AP and its link to college-level success. Real-World Examples: Duval County Public Schools in Florida is using federal funding to roll out a pre-AP curriculum in its middle schools using the College Board’s Springboard curriculum as a guide. This model is focused on building rigorous math and English skills for sixth- through 12th-graders to help them prepare for the PSAT/NMSQT and AP courses. Lemon Grove Middle School in San Diego, which has a large number of low-income, native Spanish-speaking students, began offering AP Spanish in 2008. The school’s goal “is to help these students see that they can handle a rigorous academic class and encourage them to take AP courses in other subjects in high school.”19 Similarly, nearly 90 middle schools in Texas teach AP Spanish, targeting their native Spanish-speaking students. A study conducted in Texas looked at eighth-grade native Spanish-speakers taking the AP Spanish Language exam, and found that 80 to 90 percent were scoring a 3 or higher.20 In Long Beach Unified School District, Calif., district-wide parent coordinators personally call parents who are hard to reach—especially African-American and Latino parents—to encourage them to come to family events to help spread the word about AP work. For example, in October they host a district-wide seventh-grade math conference, emphasizing the importance of algebra during middle school years as a gateway to college. In 2008 more than 1,200 families came to this weekend meeting. Between 2005 and 2008, both participation rates and passing rates for African-American and Latino students taking Advanced Placement exams in core subjects increased in Long Beach. Refer to Appendix J for the timeline used in the Long Beach AP expansion program.

19

“A dialect of confidence,” Leonel Sanchez, The San Diego Tribune, Feb. 23, 2009. http://www3.signonsandiego.com/stories/2009/feb/23/1m23aplemon23354-dialect-confidence/ 20 Treviño, María. and Pérez, Rosanna. "Power of Language: Middle School AP Spanish for Spanish-Speakers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center, San Antonio, TX, Nov 12, 2007 http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/1/8/9/1/8/p189189_index.html

56


Montgomery County Public Schools in Maryland has invested substantial time and effort into a system geared toward long-term success with preparing students for college, primarily through AP courses and exams. The district has been particularly successful: • 60 percent of the class of 2007 took at least one AP exam in high school, compared with the national average of 25 percent • 46 percent of the class of 2007 scored a 3 or higher on at least one AP exam, more than triple the national average and double the Maryland average • In 2007, the percentages of both African-American and Latino students earning scores of 3 or higher on AP exams were higher than the national average of 15.2 percent for all students21 Moreover, Montgomery County has created “7 Keys to College Readiness” (graphic below), steps which it touts on its website for all students. The district backwards maps students who earn at least a 3 on AP exam to see what level of performance these successful students achieved along the way. The schools are then able to communicate these keys to teachers and parents as a diagnostic tool, such as explaining that an eighth-grader unprepared to take algebra may not be college-ready by graduation. 7 Keys to College Readiness22 Montgomery County, MD Schools: Key 1: Advanced reading in grades K-2 Key 2: Advanced reading MSA in grades 3-8 Key 3: Advanced math in grade 5 Key 4: Algebra 1 by grade 8, ‘C’ or higher Key 5: Algebra 2 by grade 11, ‘C’ or higher Key 6: 3 or higher on AP exam, 4 or higher on IB exam Key 7: 1650 SAT, 24 ACT

21

“Annual Report to the Community 2007-2008,” Montgomery County Public Schools, http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/info/annualreport/ 22 http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/info/keys/

57


VII. Options, cost and timing for a district-wide AP expansion program Summarized in this section are the time, personnel and money required for a successful AP expansion effort. A set of possible approaches, their approximate costs and generalized timelines are included, although costs and timelines will vary from district to district and state to state.

A. Suite of options available for AP expansion Understanding that districts will have varying appetites and pocketbooks for aggressive AP reform, we have created a framework (table below) that categorizes various AP expansion strategies into “bronze,” “silver” and “gold” groups. The bronze standard includes steps that are essential to the success of an AP expansion program. The silver standard includes all of the bronze standard steps, and expands into strategies for faster, more effective results. Finally, the gold standard includes all of the bronze and silver elements, but also includes longer-term strategies. Though the allocation of a particular strategy into one category or another is somewhat subjective, this breakdown should allow districts looking for ready-to-go “AP packages” to get started immediately. Please refer to page 8 of the College Board’s AP Program Guide at http://professionals.collegeboard.com/profdownload/ap-program-guide.pdf for further detail about the requirements for AP programs.

58


Components of a District-Wide AP Expansion Program Category Staffing/ Infrastructure AP coordinators

BRONZE STANDARD (Essential)

SILVER STANDARD (Include where possible)

GOLD STANDARD (Nice to have)

Appoint district-wide AP coaches in all four core subject areas (English, math, science, social studies) (Section IV_C_2, p.30)

Designate AP lead teachers by subject at schools with multiple AP classes in the same subject (Section IV_C_2, p.30)

Appoint a district-wide coordinator of AP expansion (Section III_A, p. 6) Appoint a school-based AP coordinator to help with roll out at every school (Section IV_C_2, p 30)

AP coaches and subject leaders

Goal-Setting Goal-setting

Awareness Principal awareness

Teacher and school counselor awareness

Set district-wide goals for AP expansion, including baseline and trend data (Section III B, p.8)

For principals: Build awareness of the importance and demonstrated success of AP expansion through a district-wide meeting (Section IV_A, p.16) For teachers and school counselors (middle and high school): Build awareness of the importance and demonstrated success of AP expansion through school-based meetings (Section IV_A, p.16)

59


Category Parent and student awareness

BRONZE STANDARD (Essential) For parents and students: Build awareness among families of high school students of the benefits of AP participation through school-based meetings (Section IV_D, p.35)

SILVER STANDARD (Include where possible) Build awareness of the benefits of AP participation among middle school parents and students through schoolbased meetings (Section IV_D, p.35)

GOLD STANDARD (Nice to have) Conduct field trips to local colleges for middle and high school students, including meetings with admissions officers to discuss the importance of AP and the ties to collegelevel curricula (Section IV_D, p.35)

Provide training for all pre-AP teachers through the College Board or another proven intermediary (Section IV_C_1, p.28)

Partner with local colleges to have professors provide coaching for AP/pre-AP teachers and to align AP/pre-AP curriculum with college curriculum (Section IV_C_1, p.28)

Partner with a local college or university to provide annual summer AP training institutes for AP teachers (Section IV_C_1, p.28)

Partner with a local college or university to provide annual summer AP training institutes for pre-AP teachers (Section IV_C_1, p.28)

Identify Prospective AP students Administer the PSAT/NMSQT as a PSAT/NMSQT to all 10thpredictor grade students; use â&#x20AC;&#x153;AP Potentialâ&#x20AC;? to identify students likely to succeed in AP courses/ exams (Section IV_B, p.21) New AP courses

Launch new AP courses based on AP Potential scores and student interest (Section IV_B, p.21)

Teacher Training and Support Train more AP teachers Teacher training through the College programs Board or another proven intermediary (Section IV_C_1, p.28)

Summer institutes

60


Category

BRONZE STANDARD (Essential)

Learning groups and conferences

SILVER STANDARD (Include where possible) Establish district-wide subject-based learning groups to coordinate on teaching strategies (Section IV_C_3, p.32)

GOLD STANDARD (Nice to have) Send AP teachers to national AP conference (Section IV_C_1, p.28)

Host an annual districtwide conference for AP teachers (Section IV_C_3, p.32) Host school-based meetings for all teachers to discuss each school’s AP program at the beginning and end of each year (Section IV_C_3, p.32)

In-school teacher to teacher sharing

Have new AP teachers sit in on classes of experienced AP teachers of equivalent subject (Section IV_C_3, p.32)

Create a common planning period during the school day for AP teachers, based on subject area (Section IV_C_3, p.32) Auditing/certification

Complete the College Board’s AP course audit before labeling any courses “AP”23 (Section IV_C_1, p.28)

Student Preparation and Support Early AP preparation

23

Encourage all experienced AP teachers to become College Board AP readers (Section IV_C_3, p.32)

Implement a preAP/college-readiness program (such as AVID, Springboard or Laying the Foundation) in sixth-10th grades (Section VI, p.54)

Offer students an inschool daily Advisory course that focuses on college readiness skills and awareness from sixth12th grades (Section IV_D, p.35)

In addition to being an essential component of any AP program, AP course audits are mandatory.

61


Category High school AP “catchup” programs

BRONZE STANDARD (Essential) Offer in-school and afterschool AP tutoring for students (Section IV_E_1, p.38)

SILVER STANDARD (Include where possible) Offer Saturday AP study sessions for students (Section IV_E_1, p.38)

GOLD STANDARD (Nice to have)

Conduct subject-based AP summer ramp-up institutes for students (Section IV_E_2, p.40) Incentives and Consequences Pay for PSAT/NMSQT Offset student costs – registration for lowPSAT/NMSQT income 10th-grade students (Section IV_B, p.21)

Pay for PSAT/NMSQT registration for all 10thgrade students (Section IV_B, p.21)

Offset student costs – AP Exam

Cover AP exam fees for low-income students via College Board Fee Waiver and federal AP exam fee reductions (Section IV_G_1, p.46)

Student incentives

Offer non-monetary student incentives (e.g., weighted points to AP classes) (Section IV_G_2, p.47)

Create school-based and district-level celebratory student events and schoolbased displays touting accomplishments of AP students (Section IV_G_2, p.47)

Staff evaluations/ consequences

Include AP expansion program as part of principal and AP teacher evaluations (Section IV_F, p.42)

Include AP expansion program as part of school counselor evaluations (Section IV_F, p.42)

Staff incentives

AP teachers and tutors paid for additional hours worked on AP preparation (Section IV_F, p.42)

Offer monetary incentives to AP teachers for program success (e.g., $100 per student scoring a 3 or higher on the AP test) (Section IV_F, p.42)

62

Pay for AP exam fees for all students (Section IV_G_1, p.46)

Offer monetary student incentives for taking and scoring a 3 or higher on AP exams (Section IV_G_2, p.47)

Offer monetary incentives to principals and school counselors for increasing participation levels and success in AP courses. (Section IV_F, p.42)


B. Approximate costs associated with AP expansion Although costs of AP program expansion will likely vary from one district to the next, a general idea of costs for various expansion strategies is provided in the chart below. The chart should be used as a general guideline on the kinds of expenses a district might incur in the process of AP expansion. The costs included assume a district of 85,000 students, 10 high schools, 20,000 high school students, and 70 AP teachers. Note that the silver costs include all components of bronze and the gold costs include all components of both bronze and silver. Assumptions are outlined on the chart on the following page.

63


64


C. Generalized timeline associated with AP expansion The timeline for executing various strategies aimed at expanding AP access will vary from district to district, but most implementation can be completed within two years. The chart below depicts a hypothetical timeline derived from several districts interviewed for this guide. Some of the sub-strategies outlined in the cost chart above, have been condensed here for simplicity.

65


VIII. Conclusion It is our hope that this tool provides districts with useful strategies to expand AP access in general, and particularly for low-income students and students of color. When considering the achievement gap and the research demonstrating the correlation between scoring a 3 or better on AP exams and graduating from college, the call to action is clear. The content of this manual is compiled from education leaders at schools and districts that have successfully implemented AP expansion or access programs. It therefore demonstrates not only how it might be done, but that it has been done. With the right preparation, support, training and motivation, instituting a program that will reliably expand AP access is an achievable goal. If we as a nation can help remove the barriers to our studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; success, providing more youthâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; particularly those too often marginalized and underperformingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;routes to educational achievement, the question should not be whether to act, but how swiftly can we do so.

66


IX.

Appendices

67


Appendix A

A. Methodology for calculating student attrition en route to AP success Out of 100 entering kindergarten students, # Milestone that … Are aware of college readiness < 68 requirements by 8th grade

30

Are academically prepared for the next step on a path leading to AP by 8th grade

25

Take PSAT (grades 9-11)

20

15

12

11

Common Barriers

Achieve a PSAT/NMSQT score that indicates a 50% likelihood of success on AP

Enrolled in 1 or more AP courses (grades 10-12) before graduation

Take at least 1 AP exam before graduation

Lack of awareness [teacher, student, parent]

Lack of preparation/ support [student, teacher]

Lack of seats [not enough teachers trained]

Students with potential not identified

Insufficient motivation/ incentives [teachers, students]

Lack of funds [school, parents, students]

Score 3 or higher on at least 1 AP exam by graduation Source: The Broad Foundation analysis of data from The College Board, Annual Report to the Nation; National Center for Education Statistics (NCES); Long Beach Unified School District (LBUSD); The Broad Prize. Numbers meant to demonstrate general attrition over time.

68


Appendix A CITATIONS / RATIONALE Description/ calculation < 68

Aware of college readiness th requirements by 8 grade

th

Source • 68% of Long Beach students were aware of A-G requirements (note this is not just freshmen, and long beach is “advanced” based on Broad Prize analysis.

30

30% 8 grade reading proficiency

• NAEP 2007

25

=(2.5M students taken PSAT by 1 end of junior year) / (9M sophomores and juniors 2 combined in the US) * (86% 2 retention through junior year) .

20

=((624,000 students over 50% threshold for English literature)*(1.4 multiplier for other 3 exams) /(4.4M total class size))

• College Board – 5 Annual AP Report to the Nation, 2009 2 • National Center for Education Statistics • Assumes linear dropout rate, where th 14% dropped out by 11 grade 3 • College Board

15

=(21% of graduating seniors had enrolled in at least one AP 1 course nationally) * (73% high 2 school graduation rate)

• College Board – 5 Annual AP Report to the Nation, 2009 2 • National Center for Education Statistics, AFGR (Average freshman graduation rate), 2008

12

=11% (from below)* 10/9 (1 in 10 students who take at least 1 AP 1 exam do not pass any)

• College Board – 5 Annual AP Report to the Nation, 2009

= (15.2% of graduating seniors 1 score 3+ on at least one exam ) * (73% high school graduation 2 rate )

• College Board – 5 Annual AP Report to the Nation, 2009 2 • National Center for Education Statistics, AFGR (Average freshman graduation rate), 2008 • Assumes all students entering th kindergarten reach 9 grade (thus this estimate is an upper bound)

11

1

th

1

th

1

th

1

th

69


Appendix B

B. Job description for district-wide AP coordinator from Guilford County Schools, N.C. GUILFORD COUNTY SCHOOLS JOB DESCRIPTION JOB TITLE: COORDINATOR – AP AND IB PROGRAMS CURRICULUM AND ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL STATEMENT OF JOB Under limited supervision, performs a variety of supervisory and administrative tasks in overseeing and monitoring services and programs for the Advanced Placement (AP) Program and the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Program. This position serves to enhance the effectiveness of the educational process for gifted students through the implementation and administration of the Advanced Placement Program, the International Baccalaureate Diploma Program, and other special opportunities offered to this population of students. Employee oversees the implementation of these programs, monitoring their effectiveness, providing staff development opportunities, and ensuring adherence to federal, state and local policies and procedures. Employee is responsible for the Academic All-Star Camps, the Governor’s School, and College Board partnership activities such as Vertical Teaming, AP Potential, and AP Teacher Training, AP celebration events (Cool to Be Smart), Gifted Education Licensure and staff development in Differentiation of Instruction district-wide. Employee also coordinates with outside agencies and organizations to share ideas and services to better meet the needs of these students. Works closely with a staff of middle grades teachers, and AP and IB teachers in middle and high schools as well as Academic All-Star Camp teachers. Reports to Executive Director for AL/IB/AP programs. SPECIFIC DUTIES AND RESPONSIBLITIES ESSENTIAL JOB FUNCTIONS • Serves as the AP Coordinator for the school system which involves coordinating training for teachers, counselors and administrators, collecting and disseminating information and data, and facilitating events to recognize AP students and teachers. Manages the budget for all of these activities. • Serves as the IB Coordinator for the school system, assisting local school IB coordinators in promoting and managing the IB program. Facilitates the IB Diploma process and incentives related to it. • Directs the Academic All-Star Camps for rising 9th grade students each year. Arranges for the selection of students and the application process. Manages the camp set-up including facilities, food, faculty and staff, bus transportation, materials, and field trips and the budget for all of those. Serves as liaison to the host institutions or higher education and the corporate sponsors. • Directs the activities, selection procedures and data collection for any programs that specifically involve advanced learners such as Governor’s School, National Merit Scholarships, Duke’s TIP and MAP programs, NC Scholars, etc.

70


Appendix B • • •

• •

Maintains open communications with various groups, facilitates special and related services, assures liaison with the community and initiates and participates in activities which advance the program. Assists in the development of a projected annual budget for the education of Advanced Learners (AL) in 6-12 which includes AL students, IB Students, All-Star Camp students, AP students. Coordinates and supervises the collection and treatment of data needed for the purposes of reporting, planning, and decision-making as it relates to Advanced Placement students, International Baccalaureate Diploma Candidates, Governor’s School participants, National Merit Scholarship recipients, and Academic All-Star Campers. Coordinates the development of guidelines and procedures needed to implement all services for Advanced Learners. Facilitates the dissemination of best practices of curriculum development and instructional methodology regarding differentiation to all of the schools in the district. Requires the use of communication skills and technological skills necessary to maintain and to analyze a current and comprehensive database of the status of all eligible and potential Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Diploma students to monitor growth, provide pertinent information, and assess progress toward increasing enrollment, particularly minority representation in these programs. Maintains on-going communication with other departments within Guilford County Schools, with other school personnel, with parents and other community groups and organizations.

ADDITIONAL JOB FUNCTIONS • Advises the Early College administration and supports the selection of candidates and the evaluation and training of faculty. • Performs other related work as required. MINIMUM TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE Master’s Degree in Education, Gifted Education or a related field, Certification in Gifted Education, Certification in Administration and Supervision, and 5 to 7 years of experience working with gifted students (advanced learners) either as a teacher or in an administrative capacity; or any equivalent combination of training and experience which provides the required combination of knowledge, skills, and abilities to supervise multiple programs, personnel and budgets related to the education of advanced learners. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS Possession of a valid driver’s license issued by the state of North Carolina. Must maintain a safe driving record. An employee assigned to this position is designated as Category “A.” Category “A” employees are governed by Guilford County Schools Policy GA and Administrative Procedure GA-P, “Drug and Alcohol Free Workplace,” which spells out specific drug testing requirements, procedures and consequences of positive alcohol or drug tests or arrest for alleged violation of any alcohol or drug-related offense. Must possess Certification in Supervision and/or Administration and a valid teaching license in Gifted Education as defined by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction.

71


Appendix B KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS AND ABILITIES • Thorough knowledge of federal, state and local policies and procedures regarding gifted students (advanced learners) • Considerable knowledge of school board policies, procedures and standards regarding education of students in Guilford County Schools • Considerable knowledge of the ethical guidelines applicable to the position as outlined by professional organizations and/or federal, state and local laws, rules and regulations • Considerable knowledge of the current literature, trends, and developments in the field of gifted education • Considerable knowledge of the principals of supervision, organization and administration • Working knowledge of testing and interpretation of educational data • Skill in writing and speaking • Ability to use common office machines and popular computer-driven word processing, spreadsheet, database and file maintenance programs • Ability to maintain complete and accurate records and statistics and to develop meaningful reports from that information • Ability to develop and implement appropriate programs for gifted learners • Ability to select and to develop appropriate curriculum for gifted learners • Ability to assess the effectiveness of programs and activities • Ability to interpret educational policies and procedures • Ability to effectively express ideas orally and in writing • Ability to make oral presentations before large groups of people • Ability to coordinate and supervise the work of other professionals • Ability to establish and maintain effective working relationships as necessitated by work assignments. DISCLAIMER The preceding job description has been designed to indicate the general nature and level of work performed by employees within this classification. It is not designed to contain or be interpreted as a comprehensive inventory of all duties, responsibilities, and qualifications required of employees to this job.

72


Appendix C

C. AP data on EUSD (Example District) C1. Raw numbers for high schools #1-10, 2008-09 school year

73


Appendix C

C2. EUSD â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Category definitions Category Total student enrollment

Definition The total number of students enrolled in that year

# Sophomores

The total number of sophomores enrolled at the beginning of the school year

# Graduating seniors

The total number of students graduating in a given year

Total enrollment in all AP courses (# classes taken)

The total number of AP courses completed in a year (e.g., if one student took 2 AP courses and two others took 3 AP courses each, the total enrollment for those three students would be 8 courses)

AP Exams taken

The total number of AP exams taken in a year

AP exams scored 3 or higher

The total number of AP exams taken for which the resulting score was 3 or higher

# Seniors taking at least 1 AP course by graduation

The number of students having taken at least 1 AP course amongst the class of graduating seniors

# Seniors taking at least 1 AP exam by graduation

The number of students having taken at least 1 AP exam amongst the class of graduating seniors

# Sophomores taking PSAT/NMSQT by end of The number of students having taken the 10th grade PSAT/NMSQT at least once amongst the class of matriculating sophomores # Unique AP offered

Total AP courses offered

# AP coordinators

The number of unique AP courses offered (e.g., if the school offers 4 courses of AP Spanish and 3 courses of AP calculus, the # Unique AP offered would be 2) The total number of AP courses offered in a given semester (e.g., if the school offers 4 Courses of AP Spanish and 3 courses of AP calculus, the Total AP courses offered would be 7) The number people employed in the AP coordinator role

74


Appendix C Category # Teachers AP trained Total teachers Total course enrollments

Definition The number of teachers certified to teach AP courses The total number of teachers employed for all grades The total number of courses administered in a given semester (e.g., 1000 students taking 5 courses each would result in a total course enrollment of 5000 courses)

75


Appendix C

C3. Percentages, high schools #1-10, 2008-09 school year

76


Appendix C

C4. EUSD â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Category definitions Category % of total student enrollment

Definition = (# enrolled students in ethnic group) / (# total students enrolled)

% of all sophomores

= (# enrolled sophomores in ethnic group) / (# total sophomores enrolled)

% of all graduating seniors

= (# graduating seniors in ethnic group) / (# total graduating seniors)

% of total AP enrollment

= (# AP courses completed by ethnic group) / (# total AP courses completed)

% of AP enrolled population taking the AP exam

= (# AP exams taken by ethnic group) / (# courses completed by same ethnic group)

% of population taking AP exams who scored 3 or higher

= (# AP exams scored 3 or higher by ethnic group) / (# exams taken by same ethnic group)

% of seniors enrolled in at least 1 AP course by = (# of graduating seniors in an ethnic group graduation having completed at least 1 AP course) / (# graduating seniors in same ethnic group) % of seniors taking at least 1 AP exam by graduation

= (# of graduating seniors in an ethnic group having taken at least 1 AP exam) / (# graduating seniors in same ethnic group)

% of seniors scoring 3+ on at least 1 AP exam by graduation

= (# of graduating seniors in an ethnic group having scored a 3 or higher on at least 1 AP exam) / (# graduating seniors in same ethnic group)

% of sophomores taking PSAT/NMSQT by end of 10th grade

= (# of matriculating sophomores in an ethnic group that have taken the PSAT/NMSQT) / (# of matriculating sophomores in the same ethnic group)

% of courses taken that are AP

= (Total AP courses taken) / (Total courses taken overall)

77


Appendix C

C5. EUSD benchmarking and target-setting exercise

* National averages provided by The College Board ** N/A = Not Available; National averages for these metrics were unavailable in this form

78


Appendix D

D. Quantifiable successes from other districts This section showcases quantitative successes from districts that have successfully increased the percentage of African-American and Latino students scoring a 3 or better on AP exams in core subject areas.

D1. National Math & Science Initiative States Last year, six states (Ala., Ark., Conn., Ky., Mass. and Va.) completed their first year in the National Math & Science Initiativeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s AP program (based on the Advanced Placement Strategies program in Texas). The program combines incentives for teachers and students for scores of 3 or higher on math, science, and English AP exams and implementing lead teachers, extra training for teachers, and more time on task for students. In their first year, the 67 program schools increased the number of math, science, and English AP exams taken by +52% (vs. the national average increase of +6 percent) and increased the number of exams scored as 3 or higher by African-American and Hispanic students by +72 percent (vs. the national average of +13 percent). For more information, go to http://www.nationalmathandscience.org.

79


Appendix D

80


Appendix D

D2. Pflugerville Independent School District, Texas Pflugerville ISD implemented a five-year AP expansion program in 2002-2003 school year funded by a donation from an anonymous private donor. Components included monetary incentives for teachers and students, coverage of exam fees, AP lead teachers for core subjects, and extra preparation time for students. Some components of the program, though not the monetary incentives, have been continued at district expense. High Schools - 3 Jr/Sr Enrollment - 2585

ADVANCED PLACEMENT STRATEGIES, INC.

Minority Enrollment – 52%

AP EXAMS TAKEN

Last Year of AP Incentive Program

in Math, Science, and English for African Americans and Hispanics at Pflugerville ISD 2008 AP data is preliminary

First Year of AP Incentive Program

High Schools - 3 Jr/Sr Enrollment - 2585

ADVANCED PLACEMENT STRATEGIES, INC.

Minority Enrollment – 52%

AP EXAMS PASSED in Math, Science, and English for African Americans and Hispanics at Pflugerville ISD 2008 AP data is preliminary

First Year of AP Incentive Program

81

Last Year of AP Incentive Program


Appendix D

D3. Guilford County Schools, N.C.

82


Appendix D

D4. Texas Texas Education Agency News Releases Online August 27, 2009

Texas students show strong gains on AP exams; minorities post double-digit score increases AUSTIN – Texas students continued their push for excellence by posting an increasing number of scores of three, four and five on national Advanced Placement tests, the Texas Education Agency announced today. Minority students in particular posted impressive gains of double-digit percentages in the number of students achieving a grade of three or higher over scores in 2008 according to figures from the College Board, which oversees the AP program. Both the number of Texas students taking the AP exams and the number of tests taken increased. Overall, 158,993 students took a total of 287,756 exams. That reflects an increase of 8 percent and 6.4 percent respectively over last year. Of those students tested, there was an increase of almost 10 percent in the number scoring grades of three to five on the exams over 2008. Of that total number tested, 149,045 were public school students who took 269,685 exams. The results show that the number of public school students scoring three or higher increased more than 9 percent over 2008. “This is outstanding,” said Commissioner of Education Robert Scott. “The push for excellence in education in Texas continues and the AP results show that more and more of our high school students are capable of taking the rigorous courses and excelling. "The programs which Texas has in place for improving the college readiness of our students are clearly working," Scott said. The grading scale on the exams is one to five, with five being the highest possible score. All totaled, 125,216 tests taken in Texas public schools earned scores of three, four, or five. Universities typically award college course credit for AP scores of three or more. Many selective colleges give special consideration to AP and honors classes when making admissions decisions. Among public school minority groups, the percent of students achieving grades of three or higher increased by double digits over scores in 2008. African-American students posted the highest gain, a 17.3 percent increase in the number of students attaining scores of 3, 4 or 5, while Hispanic students had a 16 percent increase over the number of students scoring three or higher in 2008. Asian-American students showed a 11.4 percent increase and scores for American Indian students jumped 16.5 percent. The number of minority students in public schools taking the tests also increased with

83


Appendix D 11.4 percent more African-American students over 2008 and almost 14 percent more Hispanic students. Almost 11 percent more Asian-American students took the tests in 2009 over 2008, while among American Indian students, almost 13 percent more students took AP exams. â&#x20AC;&#x153;I am pleased to see that more of our minority students are taking advantage of the opportunity to take the AP exams and that their performance is increasing. Over the last few years, the schools have pushed for more students to achieve college readiness, particularly among the African-American and Hispanic groups,â&#x20AC;? Scott said. "These results show that Texas is narrowing the achievement gap." Among white public school students the 2009 gains were smaller when compared with minority students with only 5.7 percent of students increasing their scores over 2008. White students taking the tests increased by 1.3 percent with only two-tenths of a percent increase in the number of tests taken. High school students who make high scores on AP exams can earn college credit for courses, saving their families thousands of dollars in tuition costs and giving students a head start on a college education. To support and recognize AP classes, the Texas AP/IB Incentives program awards campuses up to $100 for each student earning a score of three or higher on an Advanced Placement exam. State funds are also available to provide training to teachers and to help reduce the cost of the exams for all students.24

24

Texas Education Agency News Releases Online. Accessed November 9, 2009. http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index4.aspx?id=5894

84


Appendix E

E. Long Beach Unified School District, Calif. presentation on AP to the school board

85


Appendix E

What is Advanced Placement? College level classes taught during the high school years. AP courses culminate with a rigorous end of year exam that is scored on a 1-5 point rubric.

86


Appendix E

Do you think you’re up for the AP challenge? Give it a go…

87


Appendix E

AP Biology Free-Response Question Time—1 hour and 30 minutes

Answers must be in essay form. Labeled diagrams may be used to supplement discussion.

1.

• • •

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have some nonnonmembranemembrane-bound components in common. Describe the function of TWO of the following and discuss how each differs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. DNA Cell wall Apcentral.collegeboard.org Ribosomes

88


Appendix E

Why would a high school student choose to take an AP class?  An opportunity to experience the academic rigor of college  Foster self-motivation  Build confidence, responsibility and selfreliance  Be competitive in the college application process

89


Appendix E

College Board AP Access and Equity Initiative  make equitable access a guiding principle for AP programs  all students deserve an opportunity to participate in rigorous and academically challenging courses  eliminate barriers that restrict access to students from ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic groups  make every effort to ensure that AP classes reflect the diversity of the schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s student population.

90


Appendix E

The Superintendentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Goal:  All schools will develop and implement site level plans to close the achievement gaps that exist at their site.

 All senior high schools will develop and implement site level plans that increase the number of students that take Honors and Advanced Placement classes.

91


Appendix E

Support for AP Teachers:  AP Leadership Team  AP Summer Institute  Tutorials  Pre-AP professional development

92


Appendix E

Support for Students: AP Summer Bridge  offered at all high schools  novice and experienced AP students  time and stress management  introduction to lab experiences and summer readings.

93


Appendix E

Other types of student support:  PSAT for all 10th graders  Tutorials  Saturday practice exams  AP Faire, “AP Café”  Got AP?  Parent Nights  Academic Recognition

94


Appendix E

Advanced Placement (AP) Course Enrollments Over Time (Unduplicated) 2003

2004

2005

2006

Growth (2003(20032006)

DistrictWide

2,589

2,696

3,301

3,866

49%

Asian/PI

679

668

809

973

43%

AA/Black

224

257

306

393

75%

Hispanic

760

808

1,021

1,232

62%

White

914

955

1,156

1,258

38%

Source: LBUSD Research

95


Appendix E

Number of Advanced Placement (AP) Tests Taken Over Time 2003

2004

2005

2006

Growth (2003(2003-2006)

DistrictWide

3,362

3,533

4,779

5,180

54%

Asian/PI

952

988

1,235

1,356

42%

AA/Black

202

212

313

374

85%

Hispanic

829

891

1,274

1,440

74%

1,362

1,434

1,948

1,970

45%

White

Source: LBUSD Research

96


Appendix E

Advanced Placement (AP) Tests Passing Rates Over Time

Percent Passing Number Passing

2003

2004

2005

2006

55%

60%

53%

52%

1,833

2,082

2,512

2,669

Source: LBUSD Research

97


Appendix E

Next Stepsâ&#x20AC;Ś  Continue to work towards Open Access at all sites  Build Pre-AP program  Pilot AVID tutorial format in AP study sessions  Elective course credit in Summer Bridge

98


Appendix F

F. AP Potential: Correlations between PSAT/NMSQT and AP performance For a study exploring the link between PSAT/NMSQT scores and AP performance, including detailed discussion of the correlation figures, see â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Relationship Between PSAT/NMSQT Scores and AP Examination Grades: A Follow-Up Study,â&#x20AC;? by Maureen Ewing, Wayne J. Camara, and Roger E. Millsap: http://www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/appotential/rr2006-1.pdf Expectancy tables and a high-level chart of correlations may be found on the College Board website at http://www.collegeboard.com/counselors/app/expectancy.html and http://www.collegeboard.com/counselors/app/score.html, respectively.

99


Appendix G

G. Materials for encouraging teacher buy-in, HAPIT HAPIT (Honors AP Identification Tool): Closing the Opportunity Gap: Identifying African American and Hispanic Students for Enrollment in Honors and Advanced Placement Courses. Derived from Montgomery County Public Schools, Md.

HAPITŠ Closing the Opportunity Gap: Identifying African American and Hispanic Students for Enrollment in Honors and Advanced Placement Courses Dr. Frank Stetson Community Superintendent Office of School Performance

Carol Blum Director, High School Instruction and Achievement Office of Curriculum and Instructional Programs

Š Montgomery County Public Schools Rockville, Maryland

100

1


Appendix G

A unique technology tool, HAPIT© (Honors/AP Identification Tool), was designed to identify students who have the capability to participate in rigorous courses.

HAPIT© is based on PSAT results and other relevant student information. Montgomery County, Maryland, 17th largest public school system in the US, has developed unique strategies to support college-going success through College Ed in middle schools, PSAT and SAT in high school, and increased participation in Honors and AP.

MCPS is dedicated to preparing all students for lifelong success with a particular focus on ensuring that success is no longer predictable by race. © Montgomery County Public Schools

101

2


Appendix G

102


Appendix G

MCPS Path to College Readiness Š

College -Ready Pathway helps more students have college as an option and increases chances for academic success and retention once enrolled.

SAT Exposure to rigorous curriculum and materials better prepares students for level of critical thinking necessary for college-entrance exam success.

Honors/AP HAPIT helps schools identify more students capable of taking rigorous classes, with focus on African American and Hispanic students.

PSAT All MCPS students now take the PSAT in grade 9 &10. 4

Š Montgomery County Public Schools 103


Appendix G

MCPS Enrollment by Racial/Ethnic Group, 1970 – 2007 160,000 140,000 21.5% HISPANIC

120,000 100,000

15.2% ASIAN AMERICAN

80,000

23.0% AFRICAN AMERICAN

29,723 20,980 31,735

60,000 40.0% WHITE

55,411

40,000 20,000 0 1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

© Montgomery County Public Schools

104

1995

2000

2007 2005 5


Appendix G

1998―2007 Enrollment Growth is Entirely Hispanic, African American and Asian American 11908

10000

5000

0

4915

4600

African Am erican

Asian Am erican

- 10998 White

Hispanic

-5000

-10000 © Montgomery County Public Schools

105

6


Appendix G

Change in Enrollment FY 2006 to FY 2007 4000

3277

2000 1254

0 MCPS Enrollment -2000

FARMS

ESOL

-1589

Š Montgomery County Public Schools

106

7


Appendix G

1999 – HonorsAdvanced Placement Report  Equitable opportunities and access to

rigorous instruction is the right of every student.  Academic foundation in pre K-8 determines success in H/AP courses  Outreach and support are critical to success  Alignment of policies and practices  Eliminate AP placement tests  Success for every student is a shared responsibility—parents, students, community members, school staff. © Montgomery County Public Schools

107

8


Appendix G

Initial Action Steps •System-wide leadership team trainings •High School Course Bulletin •Students Rights and Responsibilities •Fee waivers •College Board workshops •AP Potential © Montgomery County Public Schools

108

9


Appendix G

Criteria for Enrollment in H/AP Courses All students with capability, motivation, or potential to accept the challenge of H/AP will be admitted based on any of the following criteria:     

Mastery of course prerequisites Parent/guardian recommendations Willingness to complete challenging assignments Student interest Teacher/counselor recommendations

No single criterion may be used to exclude a student Š Montgomery County Public Schools

109

10


Appendix G

Š Montgomery County Public Schools

110


Appendix G

More than Double the National Average MCPS Class of 2007 Taking at Least One AP Exam Percentage Taking at least 1 AP Exam

60%

60% 40%

35% 20%

25%

0% Nation

Maryland

Š Montgomery County Public Schools

111

MCPS

20


Appendix G

Number of AP Exams Taken by All MCPS Students An increase of 43% over five years

30000

22,406

20000 19,111

20,164

2004

2005

24,208

16,923

10000

0 2003

Š Montgomery County Public Schools

112

2006

2007 21


Appendix G

Number of AP Exams Scored 3 or Higher by All MCPS Students A increase of 39% over five years 20000

14,508

15,521

16,781

17,849

12,802 10000

0 2003

2004

2005

Š Montgomery County Public Schools

113

2006

2007 22


Appendix G

Number of AP Exams Taken by MCPS Students By student subgroup

15000 13,375

10000

10,535

47%

5000

6,230

76%

27%

127%

4,244 1,188 2,093

0 Asian American

African American 2003

928

Hispanic

White

2007

Š Montgomery County Public Schools

114

2,104

23


Appendix G

Number of AP Exams Scored 3 or Higher by MCPS Students By student subgroup 12000 10,768

28%

8,428

52%

6000 69%

105%

4,749 3,122 627

0 Asian American

1,062

African American 2003

605

Hispanic

White

2007

Š Montgomery County Public Schools

115

1,238

24


Appendix G

Number of AP Exams Taken by MCPS Students African American and Hispanic Students 3000

2000

1000

0

2,093

2,104

6.5 X

7.8 X

322

1999

268

2007

1999 2007 Hispanic Students

African American Students Š Montgomery County Public Schools

116

25


Appendix G

Number of AP Exams Scored 3 or Higher by MCPS Students African American and Hispanic Students 1500 1,238

1000

1,062

4.8 X

5.5 X

500

224

221

0 1999

2007

1999

2007

Hispanic Students

African American Students Š Montgomery County Public Schools

117

26


Appendix H

H. Materials for encouraging parent/student/community buy-in H1. Letter for parents of students scoring above PSAT/NMSQT AP Potential threshold (College Board) Dear Parent or Guardian of _____:

We are very happy to share with you that _____ has been identified as a potential candidate for the AP® Program, and may want to consider enrolling, specifically, in the following course(s): English Language In October, ____ took the PSAT/NMSQT®. By using AP PotentialTM, a program based on PSAT/NMSQT scores, we are able to identify students who may be ready for the challenge of AP course work. AP is a voluntary school program in which students take college-level courses while still in high school. AP courses can improve a student's chances of getting into college. AP courses also help students to be better prepared for college. Studies have shown that students who take AP courses and exams are much more likely than their peers to complete a bachelor's degree in four years or less. After taking an AP course, students have the opportunity to take the corresponding AP Exam, which, depending on their score and the college they ultimately attend, could earn them college credit and save them (and you!) time and money. AP Potential is based on research showing that PSAT/NMSQT scores are excellent predictors of students' AP Exam grades. In addition to looking at traditional signposts, such as a student's grades in previous same-discipline course work, we use AP Potential to help us find more students who may be capable of meeting the challenges presented by AP course work. (Please note that student potential for the following AP subjects cannot be predicted through AP Potential: French Language, German Language, Spanish Language, and Studio Art.) We ask that you and _____ talk about this opportunity for AP course involvement. Feel free to contact us to discuss this important decision, and we will review any prerequisites your child should consider taking prior to AP course enrollment. Contact Paste your name and/or phone number/email address here for more information. In addition, by taking the PSAT/NMSQT, _____ has also been given free access to My College QuickStart™, an online personalized college and career planning kit. With access until high school graduation, students can use this tool to help improve their academic skills, prepare effectively for the SAT®, and research majors, careers, and colleges that may be right for them. Encourage student’s name to take advantage of My College QuickStart at www.collegeboard.com/quickstart. Note: Students will need to enter the access code printed on their PSAT/NMSQT Score Reports to create their free My College QuickStart accounts. Sincerely, Paste Your Name Here

118


Appendix H

H2. Flyer for students on AP course expectations from CharlotteMecklenburg Schools

119


Appendix H

H3. Flyer: AP & the Cost of College from the College Board25

25

Download original at: http://professionals.collegeboard.com/profdownload/ap-exam-promo-flyer-2009.pdf

120


Appendix H

H4. Convincing parents on the benefits of AP (Pflugerville) This play is performed by our AP Ambassadors (students who belong to an organization designed to promote participation and diversity in our AP program). They do this at the parent information session our counselors conduct during registration season. It is done as a readers’ theater with the kids reading from the script, rather than memorizing their lines. Feel free to adjust it to match your own school’s policies and issues. Playlet One Characters: mother, father, and student Scene: kitchen at home Props: apron, pan, spoon, newspaper, backpack, handouts, three chairs Setting: Mom is stirring something in the pan as father sits reading the paper. Student comes rushing in with papers and puts backpack down. Mother: How was school today? Did anything interesting happen? Student: Well, we got the registration papers for next year’s classes. I’ve been thinking about signing up for some pre-AP and AP classes. Father: Really? I’ve heard those classes are hard! Student: I’ve heard they’re a little bit harder too, but I’ve also heard that they can be really interesting and fun. I think I can handle the work. Mother: But aren’t you worried about getting lower grades? How will this affect your class rank? Student: Because the classes are a little harder the grades are weighted in high school so that an 85 in a pre-AP class is like getting a 95 in a regular class. If I want to be ranked near the top of the class, I think I’m going to have to take some of these classes. Father: What about basketball? How will you have time for that and also for doing all of the homework? Student: Oh, I plan to keep playing basketball! Bryan Beasley who now plays basketball for Texas A&M and Marlon Williams who plays football at Texas Tech were both taking AP Calculus as seniors. If those guys can handle it, then I’m sure that I can too. Mother: But, what if you should fail one of those classes? Wouldn’t that make you ineligible?

121


Appendix H Student: Well, first of all, I have no plans to fail any class. I really think I can do the work. If I need extra help, I’ll be in for tutorials. BUT, if I were to fail, I can get an eligibility waiver if I really had put forth my best effort. Father: Are you other friends taking these classes? What if you don’t know anyone? Student: Some of my friends are taking these classes, some aren’t. I think I should do what’s best for my future goals. Besides, I think I might enjoy meeting some new people. I’ll have to do that when I go to college anyways. Might as well get used to it now. Mother: So, have you really been looking into this college thing? Student: Yep, I sure have. AP classes will help me get into college, will help me qualify for scholarships and will help me get out of college on time. I think they’re going to be worth the extra work. Father: If it’s likely to save us some money, then I’m all for it! Student: Speaking of saving money, I need you to fill out this form for the free and reduced lunch program. Mother: But I make you a lovely lunch each day! Student: I know that. I’m not interested in the food. If we qualify for the free and reduced lunch program, then I can get fee waivers for the PSAT/NMSQT test, SAT test, AP tests and college application fees. It could save you hundreds of dollars. Father: I’m all about saving money! We’ll fill out that paperwork and talk more about your classes after dinner. Student: Okay, I’m going to go start on my homework. (student exits) Play can end here for the short version. For the longer version, the mother and father continue their conversation. Mother: I’m worried about Jessica taking on these harder classes. Father: I think she’s making a smart decision that might save us lots of money and help her to achieve her goals. I think we should do everything we can to encourage her and to help her. Mother: But what can we do to help? We didn’t even go to college ourselves. Father: Well, we’ve always attended every basketball game. We now need to get up to the school and find out more about what’s going on in the classroom. I’m sure the teachers for those classes will have suggestions for us.

122


Appendix H

Mother: I would be more comfortable if more of her friends were taking the classes too. Father: Well, then we should talk to other parents and encourage them to sign their kids up too. She’s got plenty of friends who have the ability to be successful. If those kids were all taking the same classes, we could have them over here for study parties. Mother: They’ll eat us out of house and home! Father: That’s true, but it will be a small price to pay if we can help her get a college degree. It sounds like Jessica is really putting her focus on the future. I’m proud of her. Mother: Me too. I’m nervous about her trying something new, but you’re right. We need to figure out every way that we can to support her.

Discussion questions for the audience: Did you learn anything from our play? How do you think the parents can help to support their child as he chooses to take harder classes?

123


Appendix H

H5. AP summer institute flyer from Fairfax County Public Schools, Va.

124


Appendix I

I. Program budgeting tool from the National Math & Science Initiative

PROGRAM BUDGET TOOL26 For more information on this tool, go to the NMSI website at: http://www.nationalmathandscience.org/ To get an initial sense of customization and the potential for variances in each program’s budget, NMSI has created a budget tool. For each program, the district can enter its specific information into several variables, including: type of school (Launch or Gain27), teacher participation, the number of students enrolled in AP courses, etc. Then for each program the tool will generate the expected outputs – in terms of both impact (number of qualifying Math/Science/English (MSE) scores) and budgeted costs (along each cost dimension, e.g. trainings, incentives, prep sessions). Costs and student impact can be totaled across all programs. The Program Budget Tool also allows the district to quantify success by meeting the expected number of qualifying exams in each program, by having the average incremental cost per qualifying score across all programs be less than $2,000, and by having the average cost per qualifying score across all programs be less than $1,000. The Program Budget Tool begins with the Inputs, as outlined below. The district enters the specific details of each program along these rows of information below. It should be noted that all inputs are fixed numbers except the incentive levels, which can vary. PROGRAM

PROGRAM

1

2

Gain 3

Launch 1

8

5

25 3

8 3

Inputs Program basics Launch or Gain Number of Schools in Program Teacher participation Number of MSE AP Teachers in Program Number of MSE Pre-AP teachers in Program that are not also AP teachers Number of Lead Teachers

# of students enrolled in following AP courses, 26

National Math & Science Initiative, “Operations Manual Addendum,” January 2008. A Launch school is one in which the district launches a fledgling program to achieve much greater results where there is little to no history of AP presence or success. Gain schools already have established AP programs and want to experience gain in the program’s impact.

27

125


Appendix I 2007-2008 Calculus AB Calculus BC Computer Science A Computer Science AB Statistics Biology Chemistry Environmental Science Physics B Physics C English Language English Literature 2007 AP exams taken and results Number of MSE Qualifying Scores in 2007 Number of MSE Exams taken in 2007 School demographics % of students who are low income in program schools AP exam costs AP Exam cost for students in the state AP Exam cost for low income students in the state Incentive levels Incentive amount per student for each MSE qualifying Score

55 20 0 0 15 35 25 0 40 5 125 75

15 0 0 0 0 8 0 4 7 0 38 57

40 150

28 60

50

68

$85 $5

$85 $5

$100

$100

$100 $0

$100 $2,000

$500

$500

$300 $350

$100 $350

$150

$200

Incentive amount per AP teacher for each MSE qualifying

Score Recruiting Stipends (for teachers and school counselors) Teacher training Summer Institute fee per teacher Travel, hotel, and food costs per teacher to attend Summer Institute 2-day training fees Travel, hotel, and food costs per teacher to attend 2-day trainings

After the detailed information is entered in the Inputs part of the Budget Tool, the Outputs are produced (using calculations based on previous Advanced Placement Strategies experience). As shown below, each program will have projected impact (for number of qualifying scores) and projected costs (across all elements of the program). These can then be totaled across programs for estimating the entire organizationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s impact and costs. The outputs are estimate of actual costs, but will vary based on results, prep session attendance, number of AP exams taken.

126


Appendix I PROGRAM 1 Launch

PROGRAM 2 Launch

96

69

$3,945

$3,945

$5,600

$3,000

$4,000

$2,750

$10,500

$1,800

$7,500 $31,545

$1,650 $13,145

$9,600 $9,600

$6,900 $6,900

$12,000 $4,500 $35,700

$8,000 $1,500 $23,300

$6,000 $4,000 $0

$3,000 $2,500 $2,000

$10,000

$7,500

$4,380 $3,120

$540

Impact Expected number of MSE qualifying scores in 2009

Budget Training Lead teacher training summer '08 Summer Institute Training â&#x20AC;&#x201C; AP Teachers 2-day Training - AP Teachers Summer Institute Training â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Pre-AP Teachers 2-day Training - Pre-AP Teachers Total training Incentives Incentives for students Incentives for teachers Threshold Bonus for AP teachers Administrator Bonus Total incentives Stipends Lead Teacher Stipends AP Teacher Stipends Recruiting Stipends Total stipends Prep Session Budget Calculus AB Calculus BC Computer Science A Computer Science AB Statistics Biology Chemistry Environmental Science Physics B Physics C

$180 $2,940 $1,260 $3,300

$288 $144 $252

$3,840 $180

127


Appendix I English Language English Literature Total prep session budget Exam fees AP Exam Fees

$11,700 $5,100 $36,000

$3,768 $4,452 $9,444

$9,120

$3,519

$27,000

$8,870

$149,365

$65,778

COST per incremental qualifying score (ASSUMES THAT EXPECTED NUMBER OF QUALIFYING SCORES ARE MET)

$2,667

$1,597

COST per qualifying score (ASSUMES THAT EXPECTED NUMBER OF QUALIFYING SCORES ARE MET)

$1,556

$951

Equipment Equipment

Total program costs Total program costs

Cost of impact

The rationales and formulas for the program budget tool are below. Rationale of Formula

Formula

Impact

Based on APS' experience, a formula was created to predict how many qualifying scores should be attained in the first year Expected number of MSE qualifying scores in 2009 of the program.

For less than 31 qualifying scores = 1.4 * 2007 MSE Qualifying scores + 30. For more than 30 qualifying scores = 1.4 * 2007 MSE Qualifying scores + 40

Budget Training

Lead teacher training summer '08

$500 for travel, $500 for 5 days hotel, $100 for materials, $200 for food, and $15 for shared rent car

$1315 per Lead teacher for travel and hotel

AP Summer Institute (APSI) Training - AP Teachers AP Teachers * APSI costs.

AP Teachers * APSI costs

2-day Training - AP Teachers

AP Teachers * 2-day costs

AP Teachers* 2-day costs

APSI Training - Pre-AP Teachers

Maximum of 5 Pre-AP teachers/school in program * APSI costs. For Pre-AP teachers, at least one must come from Maximum of 5 Pre-AP teachers/school in each of the 3 disciplines program * APSI costs

128


Appendix I

2-day Training - Pre-AP Teachers

Maximum of 5 Pre-AP teachers/school in program * 2-day costs. For Pre-AP teachers, at least one must come from Maximum of 5 Pre-AP teachers/school in each of the 3 disciplines program * 2-day costs

Total training Incentives Incentives for students

Launch only. Amount of incentives * number of qualifying scores

LAUNCH ONLY (amount per student) * (Expected Number of MSE scores)

Incentives for teachers

Launch only. Amount of incentives * number of qualifying scores

LAUNCH ONLY (amount per teacher) * (Expected Number of MSE scores)

Threshold Bonus for AP teachers

Each teacher willl average $1500 Bonus. Assumption is that an equal amount of teachers will earn the $0, $1000, $2000, Average of $1,500 per AP teacher and $3,000 rounded up to the nearest thousand

Administrator Bonus

Launch only. $1500 per school. LAUNCH ONLY: Average is that half of Assumption is that half the administrators will each earn the $3,000 administrators earn $3,000 bonus or $1,500 per school bonus

Total incentives Stipends

Lead Teacher Stipends

Average is $1,500 per school plus $500 for presenting at each of the 3 Prep Sessions

$1500 per school + $1500 for presenting at 3 prep sessions

AP Teacher Stipends

Launch only. $500 per AP teacher

LAUNCH ONLY (amount per AP teacher) * 500

Recruiting Stipends

Amout needed to achieve results

No formula - just an input

Assumptions: 1) AP Enrollment will increase 20% 2) 50% of Enrolled students will attend Prep Sessions 3) Average Consultant is paid $500 + $300 for travel 4) 3 Prep Sessions per course for current enrollments more than 10 5) 1 Consultant for every 30 students attending 6) Lead teachers are in Calculus AB, Biology, and English Literature 7) Lead Teachers will present at each prep session 8) $5 for food and $5 for Prizes for each attended student

For current enrollments of less than 11, $10 * 1/2 of current enrollment*1.2 * 3 Prep Sessions. For enrollments of more than 10, ($800 for a consultant for every 30 attending students * 3 prep sessions) Note: subtracts one consultant for the Lead area of expertise+ ($10 * 1/2 of current enrollment*1.2 * 3 Prep Sessions)

Total stipends Prep Session Budget Calculus AB Calculus BC Computer Science A Computer Science AB Statistics Biology Chemistry Environmental Science Physics B Physics C English Language English Literature Total prep session budget Exam fees

129


Appendix I

AP Exam Fees

LAUNCH ONLY: Assumptions: 1) Number of exams taken will be increased by a factor of 1 greater than the previous factor - rounded down. 2) This factor will be multiplied by the number of expected qualifying scores in row 32. 3) Number of low income students taking exams will be equal to the amount of low income students in the program.

Number of expected qualifying MSE scores * (2007 MSE exams taken/2007 MSE qualifying exams +1 - rounded down)* % ED* cost per ED+Number of expected qualifying MSE scores * (2007 MSE exams taken/2007 MSE qualifying exams +1 - rounded down)* % Non-ED* cost per Non-ED

Equipment

Equipment

LAUNCH $5000 per school + $25 per student enrolled (assumes a 20% increase in student enrollment) GAIN $25 per LAUNCH $5000 per school + $25 per student enrolled (assumes a 20% increase student enrolled*1.2. GAIN $25 per in student enrollment) student enrolled * 1.2

Total program costs Total program costs Cost of impact COST per incremental qualifying score (ASSUMES Total Program Cost divided by (Expected Total Program Cost/(Expected number of THAT EXPECTED NUMBER OF QUALIFYING SCORES number of Qualifying scores- previous Qualifying scores- previous number of ARE MET) number of qualifying scores) qualifying scores COST per qualifying score (ASSUMES THAT EXPECTED NUMBER OF QUALIFYING SCORES ARE MET)

Total Program Cost divided by Expected number of Qualifying scores

Total Program Cost/ Expected number of Qualifying scores

Again, this Program Budget Tool is only the first step in creating a budget for the programs. As each situation is different, it is likely the actual costs will vary from these projections. However, it should prove to be a useful guide in planning. Note that the budget does not include the schoolsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; costs for substitutes, equipment, Lead Teacher release time, and PSAT/NMSQT fees.

130


Appendix J

J. Long-term AP expansion timeline from Long Beach Unified School District, Calif. 28

28

LBUSD submission for Broad Prize evaluation process

131

Expanding Advanced Placement (AP) Access