№ 1. 2011
CONTENTS Aircraft 04 Chengdu J-20. China’s ram for “cheese boxes on rafts”
Bangalor's Sky Waiting
Summing-up 12 Russia’s aviation industry in 2010: from Sukhoi PAK FA to Tupolev TU-204SM Review of the Most Important Events of the Last Year
Engines 20 The Motor Sich: Development, Production and Services
Avionics 24 “Radionix” (Microwave Systems Design Company) — crisis solutions to upgrade fighters’ avionics
Navigation 28 Compas: priorities of space navigation
View of analyst 32 India and Russia: new joint military projects 44 Russian arms trade
Editorial Yet another exhibition of world aviation industry achievements — Aero India 2011 — has opened its doors. The show gathered a large number of professionals from many countries, two of which are India and Russia. These two powers have much in common in the aviation sector, and India has been Russia’s strategic partner for many decades. Since the early 1960s India has been purchasing Soviet and Russian aviation equipment. Today, this partnership has stepped to a new level. Not only does India purchase aircraft but the two countries work on joint development projects, the most important one is the PAK FA T-50. India keeps stressing the critical importance of the project in the light of the recent flight tests of China’s Chengdu J-20 fighter. The T-50 is developing successfully; the second prototype is currently passing tests. Apart from this, in 2010 a joint venture was established to develop the multipurpose transport plane (MTA). The project also holds the status of joint programme which is of great concern for both Russia and India. The third important fact is that Russia is taking part in tender for selling 126 fighters for the Indian Air Force with its MiG-35. These aircraft have successfully completed flight tests in both countries, and Russia has every chance to win the tender partly because MiG-35 has been unified with the MiG-29K fighter, which is currently entering service with the Indian Navy. Apart from the mentioned competition Russia is also participating in tender for supplying the light scout helicopters for the Indian Armed Forces with its K-226s. Russia also hopes the final choice will be in favour of these machines. Trying to describe the scope of Russian-Indian partnership it’s noteworthy that India’s advanced jet trainer is equipped with Russian AL-55 engines. Some other interesting facts come to my mind as well... A lot can be said about Russian-Indian joint projects and military and technical cooperation but let’s sum it up to one phrase: “There is no other country like India for Russia to lead such a great number of joint projects and sign contracts to supply various aircraft equipment. Today, India is Russia’s major strategic partner in the aviation industry”. While reading feature of this issue you’ll face some facts proving the statement and will find a lot of interesting and useful information. I wish you successful and fruitful work at the Aero India 2011, as well as fresh impressions and prospective business contacts. Yours faithfully, Alexander Gudko
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CHENGDU J-20. CHINA’S RAM FOR “CHEESE BOXES ON RAFTS”
On 11 January 2011 the new Chinese combat jet flew for the first time (in public, at least). The new airplane is referred to as the Chengdu J-20. Chengdu is the name of the city which houses a few aviation industry enterprises, including aircraft manufacturing plants producing jetfighters and design houses developing them. Great many outsiders watched the J-20 fly, as they happened “by chance” to be around the fence of Chengdu factory’s aerodrome on that day. The flight itself was uneventful. It took place in the conditions of clear skies allowing photographers to make some good shots. Before touching off the ground, the pilot made several passes over the runway so as to expose his airplane to the cameras of “aviation admirers” all round the place. Those took photos of the aircraft from different angles and depicted everything they wanted except for doors of internal weapons bays. These doors were either thoroughly hidden or removed from the shots by the picture takers on the insistence of very competitive advisers. But it is even more likely that these doors were not actually fitted to the J-20 first operable prototype. They are not needed on the very first operable aircraft dedicated to assessment of flight performance, flight envelope, various engine settings, functioning of the essential onboard systems, proving flight control algorithms. As a rule, third or even later prototypes are devoted
to weapons testing, but these are yet to be constructed and outfitted. The J-20 first public flight occurred just in time when US defense secretary Robert Gates was in Beijing on an official visit. Once there, he was trying to calm down the Chinese leaders who were much worried about pending deliveries of modern US-made weapons to Taiwan. Beijing considers this island an essential part of China. A lot of pictures appeared on the Internet on the memorable day of 11 January. These shots gave more information on the new airplane. In particular, they reveal the shape of the wing and its positioning in relation to fuselage. This makes it possible to make some preliminary conclusions about the aerodynamics layout and technical characteristics of the J-20, and make guesses as to the main task the new
jet shall be solving after entering squadron service. The J-20 represents a relatively large tactical jet with the canards (foreplanes) and large delta wing. The fuselage length is somewhere between 23 and 25 meters, wingspan between 13 and 14 meters. By our estimation the maximum takeoff weight shall be in the region of 40 tons, and operating empty weight twice less than that. Many aviation experts believe that the J-20 relies on a pair of Russian engines or their Chinese copies. In other words, the J-20’s engines are picked out among members of the big family uniting the Item 117, AL-31F, WS-14 and WS-10 Taihang. Two engines together develop in between 30 and 40 tons of thrust. If that is so, then the capability of the propulsion system
Aircraft is enough for supercruise, or supersonic cruise flight at military power (highest power setting without afterburning). We may also expect that the J-20 with restricted fuel and combat load (for instance, when flying air-to-air mission) can fly vertical without losing speed at subsonic regimes and low altitudes. When in-flight photos appeared, the J-20 became the hottest topic for discussion among aviation enthusiasts round the world. But as it appeared, the enthusiasts, and even world-famous western journalists, had difficulty in classification of the new Chinese warplane. Is it a superiority fighter? Is it a supersonic bomber? Or, perhaps, it is a multirole, multimode airplane? Even columnist and experts with world’s leading aviation magazines hesitated to give their clear answer to these questions, — that in the view of them hav-
ing good sources in the US and European intelligence bodies, defense ministries and the industry. It seems that not only journalists, but the professionals were in some state of shock after seeing the new Chinese bird. First of all, let’s determine J-20’s center of gravity position. There are some photos available of the J-20 taxiing, in which we can clearly see its long fuselage, wingto-fuselage connection and landing gears. The J-20 undercarriage is fighter’s classics: three-point with a nose gear. And so it makes it easy to determine center of gravity position. To do that we take the main landing gear strut, and attach a line to it starting on the wheel’s ground contact point. The line goes up with at an angle of, say, 15 degrees, leaning towards the nose of the airplane. The point where it crosses the fuselage center line is the most likely
The J-20 relies on a pair of Russian engines or their Chinese copies coming from the big family uniting the Item 117, AL-31F, WS-14 and WS-10 Taihang
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position for the airplane’s center of gravity. Here comes the first surprise: the likely center of gravity position rests… too far from the mean aerodynamics chord (MAC) of the wing. As a first iteration for aircraft designers, the center of gravity must be somewhere 25–35% of the wing’s MAC, — like so is prescribed in the classic aircraft design books. But the Chinese airplane appears to have the center of gravity position somewhere at MAC’s edge. It is fairly strange for a maneuverable fighter, since balancing of the aerodynamic forces and the gravity will require relatively high deflection of the control surfaces — canards in the J-20’s case. Should this airplane try to execute high-G maneuvers at subsonic speeds, the deflection of the canards could be a limitation. All this is rather strange for a maneuverable fighter… But not for the J-20, which does not appear to be one of those! Let’s take a look at other available photos, in which the J-20 goes in for the landing with landing gear down. Apparently, the canards are set at a rather high positive angle (leading edge upwards), while the wing has its leading edge deflected downwards. The trailing edge surfaces are also deflected down, at rather a small angle. Obviously, at the approach for landing configuration, the wing’s center line is highly curved by means of the leading and training edges down, which increases lift (achieved through altering the camber of the wing). But not so much as in the case of classical flaps. All this is, again, fighter classics for the delta winged aircraft with foreplanes. And here lies their limitation: the pilot cannot move the trailing edge further down, since the resulting lift force that builds up on the training edge will be hard to balance with the canards, in the view of their limited deflection scope (in the view of them stalling). It is well known from the aviation history how to enable delta-winged airplanes to generate more of the lift force at landing. For that purpose the canards are placed as close to the fuselage’s nose as possible, to have a larger distance to
F-35C Lightning II
the center of gravity. For instance, the Tupolev Tu-144 supersonic jet liner had foreplanes that were retracted into fuselage all the time except landing. But Chengdu designers did not do this. Rather, they positioned the canards fairly close to the center of gravity position, and thus sacrificed their effectiveness at landing for some other purposes. What purposes? Firstly, for non-retractable foreplanes it is important to have them within the supersonic cone as it sets on the top of the airplane’s nose at Mach
What is the J-20? Is it a superiority fighter? Is it a supersonic bomber? Or, perhaps, it is a multirole, multimode airplane? Few columnists and experts dared to give their explicit answer 6
numbers exceeding 1.0. This lead to a conclusion what the Chinese must have been purposely shaping the J-20 for supersonic flying. Why the Chinese shaped the J-20 in the way it is? Perhaps, they are unfamiliar with the classic solutions for a delta-winged, canard-equipped fighter? No, this is not the case knowing that Chengdu’s previous design was the J-10 light weight fighter, now in service with PLAAF. On its first public flight, the J-20 was escorted by a J-10B twin seater, the operational trainer version of the baseline J-10 single seat fighter. This airplane was the star of the Airshow China 2008 and 2010, when it flew superbly with the PLAAF display team pilots at the controls. The J-10 is a very maneuverable airplane, and this is the testimony of the Chinese designers’ skills in development of maneuverable fighter aircraft.
Importance of proper shaping of supersonic fighters can be illustrated by the case with the Sukhoi Su-27S, where suffix “S” points at the optimized version with reduced transonic drag. The optimization effort was made by Sukhoi designers in cooperation with TsAGI, as they tried to improve transonic performance of then-new fighter. Three TsAGI’s big wind tunnels, the T-112, T-108 and T-109 were used in the process. As a result of very accurate optimization of the fighter’s cross section distribution diagram, the Su-27’s “wave drag” was reduced by 25% — not before the designers had virtually redeveloped the airplane (the initial aircraft was referred to the Su-27, improved the Su-27S).
Chengdu J-10B twin seat operational trainer
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The J-10 is a classic design with “proper” positioning of the center of gravity, like in the books. This is clear to tell looking at the main landing gear struts attached to the fuselage somewhere near 15–30% of the wing’s MAC. So, let us ask ourselves the same question again, why the Chinese designers shaped the J-20 in the way it is? Here are some suggestions. First, to achieve smooth airflow with desirable parameters at the entry to the engine’s fan, the J-20’s designers have to make the air intakes rather long. This was an important consideration at design stage. Second, they also needed to make the air channel S-shaped, so as to hide the fan blades from the radio waves emitted by enemy radars. The latter is needed for a lower visibility of the airplane. It is worth to notice that the J-20’s air intakes resemble those first tried on the Lockheed
Martin F-35 Lightning II. This gives move ground to assert that the J-20 is optimized for supersonic regimes and supercruise, much like the F-35. Third, let us make distribution diagram for the airplane’s cross section along
the J-20’s fuselage centerline. We need to take account of the thickness of the wing, canards and tailplanes. The diagram is very smooth, — exceptionally smooth! It comes without a peak, running smoothly at approximately the same height from
Mike Badrocke, AIR International
F-22 Raptor — Cutaway
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Matej Furda, www.hitechweb.genezis.eu
the tops of the air intakes all the way to the engine nozzles. This seems to be the main thing for the Chengdu designers. Apparently, they wanted to make the airplane’s equivalent body of rotation as narrow as possible. And they needed to make provision for internal carriage of weapons, which is a characteristic feature for fifth generation fighters. In actual fact, the J-20 has much smoother cross section distribution diagram than the F-22A Raptor, the F-35 Lightning II and the Sukhoi T-50 (PAK FA or FGFA). Apparently, it required quite an effort from Chengdu designers and so made them go for compromises on other things. Should the designers from Chendgu have made it “classic”, they would not have moved the wing all the way towards the engine nozzles. But they did because it was the only effective way to make the airplane as narrow as possible, with the need for big air intakes, air-supply channels and internal weapons bays. Again, this is the main thing about the J-20 design, and it sets it apart from all other known next-generation fighters. Other designs have “peaks” in some 60–70% down the way from the fuselage nose tip to the engine nozzles. A smooth cross section distribution diagram is important for transonic drag. Supersonic aircraft are being designed in accordance with so-called “area ruling”. For high Mach numbers (M>2) the distribution diagram is not so important as for transonic regimes, M=1…1.5. It seems the Chinese designers optimized their new jet for transonic regimes and moderate supersonic speeds. Our impression from the J-20 is that it is an uncompromised airplane for supercruse, for flying at moderate supersonic speeds corresponding to Mach M=1.3– 1.6. Such speeds can be achieved without afterburning. Surely, the J-20 can accelerate to M=2 and faster, but this would require engaging afterburners. In turn, the fuel burn will go high, lowering operational range of the aircraft and enlarging its heat signature. In our view the Chinese designers optimized their new jet for M=1.3–1.6.
J-20 seems to be intended for antishipping: firing missiles at enemy warships while evading interceptors by means of higher speeds structed fifty monitors modeled on their namesake and made them the backbone of their navy. For their rather strange looks, these ships were called “cheese boxes on rafts”. Since the memorable Battle of Hampton, the North Americans never lose at sea, and now their cheese boxes sale when and where they want. China prepares a ram for them. Vladimir Karnozov
Here comes the clue: the J-20 is a missile launching platform able to evade enemy interceptors by high cruise speed. The J-20 may prove a good interceptor, — very possibly. But its main task seems to be anti-shipping: firing missiles at enemy warships while denying their air defense cover. It may well be that one day the new Chinese jets would be used in anger. And it would probably be PLAAF sending their pilots to attack warships off the coast of a freedom-loving island not far from the mainland China. The history of the powerful US Navy can be traced back to the famous duel of the USS Monitor and VSS Virginia (Merrimack) on 9 March 1862, the first-ever battle of ironclads. Although the Confederacy gunners scored hundreds of direct hits, shells bounced off her armor: the Monitor seemed to have impunity to enemy fire. The USS Monitor, a 987-ton armored turret gunboat, was built at New York, with a large single cannon turret on a low freeboard. After the battle, the North Americans con-
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RUSSIA’S AVIATION INDUSTRY IN 2010:
FROM SUKHOI PAK FA TO TUPOLEV TU-204SM
Review of the Most Important Events of the Last Year
The year of 2010 turned to be a momentous year for the Russian aviation industry. It was marked by the first test flights of the Sukhoi fifth generation fighter and new Tupolev civil airliner at the beginning and at the turn of the last year, respectively. Such events as certification of SaM-146 engine, which is intended for Sukhoi Superjet-100, and integration of the Russian and Ukrainian aircraft manufacturers are no less important. First Fifth Generation Fighter On 29 January 2010, Sukhoi conducted the first flight of its prototype of the PAK FA fifth generation fighter from KnAAPO’s (Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association) site. The Sukhoi PAK FA (or Promising Aircraft of Frontline Aviation)
will replace the operational fighters of previous generations resulting in achievement of the strategic parity between the Russia’s and US Air Forces in terms of fighter aviation technologies. As reported in the official press release by the Sukhoi Company, unlike the fight-
ers of previous generations the PAK FA combines the features of both strike aircraft and fighter. The fifth generation aircraft is equipped with brand new avionics, which integrates an “electronic pilot” function, as well as with phased-array antenna radar. As such, it significantly decreas-
of the new aircraft amounts to 0.5 square sible to use AL-41 engine developed for metres while the same characteristhe MiG 1.42 new generation fighter since tics of the Su-30MKI fighter equals to it has different dimensions which are not 20 square metres. Some Russian media acceptable for the Sukhoi PAK FA. Howsources reported that this effective reflectever the technologies applied in the AL-41 ing area of 0.5 square metres in the forengine may be certainly used for the deward hemisphere was related to airframe. velopment of a new engine, which has not After application of anti-radar coating and acquire any name so far. replacement of the cockpit canopy with The Sukhoi PAK FA will be equipped with the one with radio wave absorbing coatactive phased array radar developed by ing, the effective reflecting area value may V. Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute decrease up to 0.01–0.03 square metres. of Instrument Design in Zhukovsky. The acAll weapons intended for the new fifth tive phased array radar is expected to begeneration fighter are kept inside the fusecome the core of the multifunctional intelage bay. This crucial feature increases its grated avionic system. In addition to the rastealth capability and ensures a supersondar the multifunctional integrated avionic ic cruise speed at unboosted engine opersystem includes electronic warfare sysation. The view of the Sukhoi PAK FA from tem, identification friend-or-foe (IFF) sysbelow clearly shows the half-doors of two tem, and suspended millimetre-wave radio weapon bays arranged longitudinally one detector. after another. Their size makes it possiThe second PAK FA fifth generation proble to room the advanced missiles develtotype (T-50) will join the flight test prooped by Tactical Missile Weapon Corpogramme at the beginning of this year. This ration in accordance with the Comprehenwas declared by the president of the Unitsive Target Programme on Development ed Aircraft Corporation Alexey Fyodorov of New Air Weapons, which is being imin December 2010. According to Alexey plemented along with the PAK FA develop- Fyodorov, this new aircraft is not an equivment programme. Some media sources realent of the developed prototype, but port that the PAK FA developers managed “rather a supplement to the performance to solve the problem regarding opening of the first fighter’s prototype”. the half-doors and launching missiles in suIn July 2010, the first deputy defence personic mode. minister of the Russian Federation VladiThe first fifth-generation fighter protomir Popovkin said that the new Russian fifth type is equipped with engines, designated generation fighter would be purchased toas “product 117", developed by Saturn Re- gether with the weapons and ground sup-
es pilot load and allows concentrating on fulfilment of tactical missions. New aircraft onboard equipment allows real-time data exchange with ground control systems as well as within the air group. Application of composite materials and innovative technologies, aerodynamic configuration, and actions based on engine noise reduction provide unprecedentedly low level of radar, optical and infrared visibility. This significantly enhances the combat effectiveness against air and ground targets at any time of the day in both visual and adverse weather conditions. According to the Russian analytical reports, the effective reflecting area A I R
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The second PAK FA fifth generation prototype (T-50) will join the flight test programme at the beginning of this year search and Production Association in Rybinsk. In fact, this engine is a deep modernization of the well-known AL-31FP with improved specific and long-term performance characteristics. Many experts agree that the Sukhoi aircraft will require a new engine in order to achieve the same flight and technical characteristics as the American F-22A. In this respect, it is hardly pos-
port equipment. He did not mention the exact amount of funds to be allocated by the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation for acquisition of the T-50, but he noted that the Air Force needed at least 50–100 aircrafts of this type. During the next two years Sukhoi is planning to complete testing of the PAK-FA airframe and in 2013 the Ministry of Defence
Photo by Nikolai Solovjov
of the Russian Federation will conclude a contract with Sukhoi Company for delivery of ten aircrafts for testing their weapons. The first stage of trials is to be completed by the end of 2013. According to the preliminary data, the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation will purchase a number of the Sukhoi PAK-FA fighters in 2016.
Tu-204SM: Deep Modernization Eleven months later, on 29 December 2010, Aviastar SP (Ulyanovsk) witnessed the first flight of the Tu-204SM prototype. This new aircraft is a deeply modernized version of the Tu-204-100 developed by Tupolev Design Bureau in the Soviet times. According to the developers, the Tu-204 has competitive performance, and therefore it can be compared with major foreign competitors (the Tu-204 is considered to be an equivalent to the Boeing 757 manufactured from 1982 till 2005). The cost-effectiveness analysis of medium-range jet airlines, conducted by Tupolev, justified the feasibility of modernizing the Tu-204 to increase its competitiveness in the respective market.
This modernization resulted in development of the Tu-204SM airliner. The PS-90A2 engine was selected as the power plant. PS-90A2 is a unified, turbofan, two-shaft engine with core and secondary flows provided with a reverser in the secondary flow and sound-attenuating system. The engine was designed by Aviadvigatel JSC (located in the city of Perm) in cooperation with the US Pratt & Whitney Company. The PS-90A2 engine was certified on 25 December 2009 (the related decision was made at the meeting of the Presidium of the Aviation Register of Interstate Aviation Committee in Moscow). As reported in Aviadvigatel official press release, PS-90A2 was developed to meet all international requirements, namely AP-33 (airworthiness) and AP-34 (environmental protection). In addition, this new engine developed by Perm Design Bureau will significantly reduce the life-cycle cost (by 35â€“37%) and increase the reliability of the product compared to the baseline PS-90A engine. Unlike the basic version, the PS-90A2 engine is equipped with high-pressure turbine with single-crystal
rotor blades made of ZHS-36MONO alloy, and new automatic control system. The developers applied sound-absorbing structures of the second generation, new digital electronic engine controller, and implemented the advanced design and technological solutions that ensure break localization of the damaged rotor blades. The document emphasized that certification of the PS-90A2 engine went hand in hand with its commercial production by Perm Motor Plant. In addition, the Tu-204SM will be provided with a new auxiliary power unit (APU) TA-18-200 with a 90 kW generator instead of TA-12-60. Apart from that it has efficient fuel consumption, greater altitude performance, and lower life cycle costs. Initially, the TA-18-200 auxiliary power unit with a 60 kW generator was designed for the AN-124 and AN-70 aircrafts. In August 2010, the deputy director general and chief designer of Aerosila Research and Production Enterprise Leonid Plakhov said that flight testing of the new APU should be completed in the second or third quarter of 2011. Another important advantage of the modernized Tu-204SM
is crew reduction. The crew number will be reduced from three to two people, namely the aircraft commander and co-pilot excluding flight engineer. The flight-navigation system will be replaced with a new
one developed by Aviapribor Company. It will allow landing as per IIIA category. In addition, the Tu-204SM is to be provided with new communication system, and digital air conditioning system. At the same
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time, the plane continues to hold the same position which lies between the Boeing 737/Airbus A320 families and twin-isle Boeing 767/Airbus A330. The completion of certification and first deliveries of the new airliner are scheduled for the end of this year. Red Wings Airlines will be the first customer to purchase 44 aircrafts of Tu204SM type from Russia’s largest aircraft lessor, Ilyushin Finance (IFC). The contract concluded between IFC and Red Wings is estimated at 1.5 billion dollars. The aircraft assembly will continue till 2015–2020. After 2015, the Tu-204SM production capacities will be refocused on the production of promising Irkut MS-21 jet airliner. According to the developers, the MS-21 will be by 30% cheaper than its counterparts, by 20–25% more efficient in terms of fuel consumption and by 15–20% cheaper in terms of usage and maintenance. Apart from that it will have 1020 more seats in the passenger compartment and the fuselage will be by 10– 20 cm larger in diameter. Irkut Corporation president Oleg Demchenko said, “The MS-21 will become the world leader
in terms of application of composite materials among the narrow-body long-range aircrafts”. The timeline for MS-21 development programme was specified last year. The first operating model of the Russian-made PD-14 engine, which is intended for this particular jet along with the American R1000G, will appear in 2012. The engine will be certified two years later according to Aviadvigatel chief designer Alexander Inozemtsev. According to the president of Aerokompozit JSC (subsidiary company of the United Aircraft Corporation) Anatoly Gaydansky, the first wing for MS-21 will be ready by 2013. The jet itself will perform its first flight in 2014 and will be introduced into the market in 2016. As far as today goes, some foreign customers show an interest in procurement of the Irkut MS-21 jet airliner. For instance, Malaysia's Crecom Burj Bhd (investment holding) signed an agreement with Russian Irkut Corporation for the procurement of 50 MS-21.
the Air Force would start batch supplies of the Yakovlev Yak-130 jet trainers. At the same time they will be supplied to Algeria. The Yak-130 jet trainer is intended for training of cadets at the flying school, training of pilots at the combat training centres for specific type of combat aircraft in order to extend the operational service life of combat aircraft. Apart from that, the trainees are taught such skills as tak-
ing-off, landing, piloting, navigating, performing sophisticated manoeuvres, acquiring the special skills to operate an aircraft at the limiting flight operation modes or in case of various failures of the system or pilot’s errors, performing close combat formation flight operations during the daytime and in clear weather conditions, learning weapon systems and its fundamentals when being used to engage ground and
Yak-130: Batch Supplies At the end of 2010, the deputy chief of Russia’s Air Force, lieutenant general Igor Sadofyev officially announced that
SSJ-100 & SaM-146
air targets, and training offensive and defensive manoeuvres. By the way, the aircraft’s manoeuvring performance simulates the flights of the fourth and fifth generation combat aircrafts. The integrated control system with the reprogramming function allows the pilot to be taught for any aircraft, i.e. Su-30, MiG-29, F-16, F-15, Rafale, Typhoon, F-22, and F-35. The new Yak-130 has a takeoff weight of 9 tons, fuel capacity of 1.6 tons, and operating ceiling of 12,000 metres. It attains a top speed of a thousand miles per hour. The aerodynamic design enables the controlled flight at an attack angle of up to 35 degrees. It can be also used as a light strike fighter. The Yakovlev Yak-130 is equipped with six struts and can carry all kinds of modern air weapons. The cockpit and power plant are provided with light armour protection.
Engines: SaM-146 Certification and Launching of Gas Generator for PD-14 On 13 August 2010, the Interstate Aviation Committee issued Certificate No. 315-AMD for the SaM-146 power plant developed by Saturn Research and Production Association (Russia) and Snecma S.A. (France). The SaM-146 is an integrated power plant which consists of engine, engine nacelle and reversing thrust
device. The SaM146 engines are installed on the Sukhoi Superjet-100 produced by Sukhoi Civil Aircrafts (Russia) in cooperation with Alenia Aeronautica (Italy) supported by Boeing (US). “The SaM-146 has all necessary advantages to approach the world market in the face of fierce competition when the customer demands low cost, on-call mission high reliability, high level of maintainability and compliance with the up-todate environmental requirements,” the developers note. The batch supplies of power plant intended for the Sukhoi Superjet-100 began in late August last year. The certification testing of PD-14 engine is still to take place. Meanwhile, Aviadvigatel launched the experimental gas generator for PD-14 on 26 November 2010. As noted in the press release, its launching was successful. One might say that the advent of a new unified gas generator has broken new ground in Russian civil aircraft- and engine-building industry. Aviadvigatel director general Alexander Inozemtsev emphasized that such gas generator had no equivalents in the world as of today. It is known that many countries are implementing research and development works to design the advanced engines. These works are being at different stages today, though
all information regarding the market players is tracked. According to the current business plan, engine-demonstrator PD-14 based on a new gas generator is to be constructed in April 2012. “Our analysis shows that the engine will be competitive in the thrust range from 7 to 20 tons. If it is less than 7 tons, the engine is considered too large and its performance will not be competitive, and if it is over 20 tons, the gas generator will be overboosted and it hardly be possible to ensure high engine life,” Mr. Inozemtsev said. The new engine is developed with application of the advanced technologies. As such, it will be provided with lightweight fan hollow blades despite the fact that the conventional blades are not used in 2-metre engine in diameter due to their heavy weight. Ufa plant will become the fourth largest centre which applies this kind of blades after Rolls-Royce, General Electric, and Pratt & Whitney. The latest technologies are also used in production of low-pressure turbine (hightensile alloys based on intermetallic titanium compound allow obtaining the lowest possible weight). The engine structures as well as nacelles should be made of glass and carbon fibre reinforced plastics (the share of composite materials amounts to about 65%). According to experts, if all parameters and characteristics are achieved, this engine will be competitive in the next 20–25 years.
Integration of UAC and Antonov ASTC: Breaking the Ice
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It is worthy to note another event. It is not associated with the production and marketing of new products, but it is of crucial importance for the whole aviation industry of Russia. On 27 October 2010, United Aircraft Corporation JSC (UAC, Russia) Antonov Aeronautical Scientist/Technical Complex (Antonov ASTC, Ukraine) signed an agreement on establishment of joint venture UAC — Civil Aircraft Ltd. Managing Company. This agreement was signed in the presence of Russia’s prime minister Vladimir Putin and Ukraine’s prime minister Mykola Azarov making it a high-status
Producing of the An-148-100 aircraft in the assembly shop of the Voronezh Aircraft-Building Joint Stock Company
An-148-100 is the only aircraft which was jointly developed and commercially produced by Russia and Ukraine for the last 20 years agreement. In addition, the document concerning the rights of participants was initialed by UAC president Alexey Fyodorov and chairman of the Board of Antonov ASTC Dmitry Kiva. Establishment of the joint venture is the first step towards integration. â€œIt will take one or two years until Antonov ASTC performs an independent evaluation,â€? UAC president Alexey Fyodorov comments. Afterwards, the parties will be offered various integration options and, in particular, the opportunity to define the amount of shares to start an integration process. Mr. Fyodorov clarified that each of the parties would have the opportunity to abandon the offer and put forward its options for discussion. The joint venture, therefore, will be aimed at coordination of interaction between two aircraft building companies. After completion of all the necessary preliminary unification processes, the joint venture will be liquidated and the Ukrainian party will be able to participate in development of the Russian aircraft projects, such as MS-21 or Sukhoi Super JetNG (130). The UAC sources say that Ukraine has always taken the strongest positions in the field of construction of com-
posite wings and other parts where such advanced materials are used. Therefore, the Ukrainian developers are sure to take a significant place in this project. Meanwhile, UAC president Alexey Fyodorov outlined four tasks to be solved by the joint venture: 1) Coordination of sales and promotion of jointly developed products (the Antonov An-148 family). 2) Unification of conditions on delivery of component parts (in terms of price) to aircraft-building factories in Kiev and Voronezh. 3) Establishment of spare parts depot for operators (Alexey Fyodorov added here that the United Aircraft Corporation could establish these warehouses by direct procurements. However, the replacement of parts and assemblies at the aircrafts is usually accompanied by a broad range of questions to the developers of aircraft. Therefore, the participation of the Ukrainian party in this project is a must). 4) Preparation for integration and mutual assistance regarding this issue. For example, the Russian party could share its experience in evaluation and corporatization of the state enterprises with Ukraine.
According to Mr. Fyodorov, Antonov ASTC integration into UAC will bring a much-needed technical and technological revolution in the Ukrainian aviation industry. It should be mentioned that in December 2009 Russia began commercial operation of the new short-range jet airliner Antonov An-148-100, developed by the Antonov Aeronautical Scientific/Technical Complex and assembled in Russia. This is the only aircraft which was jointly developed and commercially produced by Russia and Ukraine for the last 20 years. The development of this aircraft involved more than 200 enterprises, 70% of which are located in Russia, 25% in Ukraine, and 5% overseas. Its final assembly was implemented by VASO JSC (Voronezh Aircraft-Building Joint Stock Company). The AN-148 was developed on the principle risk-sharing partnership. The total investment volume exceeded 400 million dollars. In February 2010, the first three An-148-100 airliners were handed over to Rossiya, the launch customer for the aircraft, which leased them according to financial leasing agreement with Ilyushin Finance Co. (IFC). VASO is going to produce 9 more jets of this type by the end of this year. In future it will produce 36 aircrafts per year. In general, the demand for this aircraft on domestic and foreign markets is estimated at 500 aircrafts. Mikhail Nayden
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THE MOTOR SICH:
DEVELOPMENT, PRODUCTION AND SERVICES
The Motor Sich JSC in Zaporozhye — is one of the biggest Enterprises which realizes the full cycle of modern air engines creation from marketing research, development and production to maintenance while operation and repair. During the years of its activity the Enterprise won respect and authority among Customers and successfully cooperates with leading firms of the former Soviet Republics and foreign countries. Indian Republic with its one of the most intensively developing economy in the world is for Ukraine а leading partner in the counties of the Asian-Pacific region. Ukraine is а foreign trade partner of India in CIS and two-sided turnover between our countries has а steady growth trend. А considerable part of turnover make up aerotechnics deliveries and rendering services to ensure its operation. The corporation between Ukraine and India started in far 1961 and is successfully developing at present time. In 1984 more than one hundred militarytransport airplanes An-32 were supplied
Vyacheslav A. Boguslayev Chairman of the Board of Directors, Motor Sich JSC
The Quality and reliability of production, which is produced by Enterprise, confirmed by its successful exploitation in more than 120 world countries. Due to objective estimation the aircraft industry of Ukraine is among the first ten world countries if taking into consideration its research-and-production potential and airplanes produced by Antonov — SE as well as engines produced by Motor Sich JSC and Ivchenko-Progress — SE are its visiting card at all aerospace saloons.
to Indian Republic, which were designed in Ukraine in accordance with technical requirements specified by Ministry of Defense in India. High aircraft performance characteristics and reliability guaranteed by airplanes An-32 and their engines AI-20 during exploitation in extreme conditions of mountainous regions and hot climate promoted Ministry of Defense in India taking the decision about this airplane modernization with the purpose of its further exploitation.
Corresponding Ukrainian-Indian contract was signed in 2009. It presupposes sequential service life extension from 25 to 40 years as well as new navigation and radio equipment installation. With the purpose of ensuring running extended service life for airplanes in the end of 2009 the procurement contract was signed with our Enterprise according to which 100 new engines AI-20 will be purchased. It should be mentioned that besides several hundred engines AI-20 another more than thousand engines produced by Motor Sich JSC are successfully exploiting in aeronautical engineering and rocket technology of Indian armed forces such as military and transport helicopters “Mi” and “Ka”, anti-submarine patrol airplanes IL-38 as well as anti-ship system “Uranium”. With the help of “Motor Sich JSC” the repairing process for engines operating in India AI-20, TV3-117 and AI-9V was implemented at 3 BRD IAF (Chadigarh) With the purpose of its further presence expansion in the aeronautical engineering market the Enterprise is involved in creation activities and new future-technology engines production startup as well as commercial engine modification. They are creating by Motor Sich JSC designers and also together with traditional partner Ivchenko-Progress –SE — the company with which Motor Sich JSC founded in 2007 A I R
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joint corporation: Scientific Production AsThe Enterprise pays the great attention sociation A. Ivchenko. Here we mean ento engine production for helicopters used gines D-436-148, AI-450-MS, AI-450M, with different purposes. Our engines are TV3-117VMA-SBM1V, MS-500V and mounted practically on 95% helicopters AI-222-25. “Mi”, “Ka” including those, which are exEngine D-436-148 is created on the baploiting in India — the largest helicopters sis of the best constructive decisions and in the world Mi-26. designed for passenger airplanes family The smallest helicopter engine produced An-148. It is produced by Motor Sich JSC by Motor Sich JSC is AI-450, designed toin cooperation with “Salute” FSUE “MPP” gether with Ivchenko-Progress –SE. (Moscow). In its different modifications it can ensure Base airplane An-148 can take on its the take-off power form 370 to 600 hp. board from 68 to 85 passengers. its comAt present time our Enterprises focused mercial operation started in June, 2009. their efforts on modification creation AIThe modification of this plane An-158 has 450M aimed for re-motorization of earlier the seating capacity from 85 to 99 perproduced helicopters Mi-2 where it will resons. its regular operation in airlines should place engine GTD-350. be started in 2011. To increase aircraft performance charAlso we are working at creation of busiacteristics of middle-class helicopters ness class airplane An-168 with the range while exploiting them in mountainous reability up to 7 thousand kilometers and gions and in countries with hot climate Motransport modification An-178 with paytor Sich JSC created new helicopter engine load 13,5…15tons which can replace perTV3-117VMA-SBM1V with increased refectly well taken out of exploitation in India source values — resource up to first overairplanes An-12. haul — 4000 hours/cycles and specified For different modifications An-148 and resource — 12000 hours/cycles. other passenger and transport airplanes Engine was developed by Motor Sich with main engine family: D-436 two-shaft JSC designers on the basis of commercial auxiliary gas turbine engine AI-450-MS turbine engine TV3-117VMA-SBM1 using was designed at “Motor Sich JSC” Enterits gas generator and free power turbine. prise. It ensures main engine start as well Engine automatic control system as compressed air and power supply to TV3-117VMA-SBM1V allows, dependplane’s airborne system with running main ing on helicopter’s type, take-off powengines. er adjustment in the range from 2000 hp
(supported up to 51°С) to 2500 hp (supported up to 35°С). Higher characteristics as for take-off power support depending on outside air temperature and engine critical altitude, specified during engine creation TV3-117VMA-SBM1, were confirmed by carrying out а number of tests in climatic test bench at the Enterprise named by P.I. Baranov FSUE TsIAM where engine ensured steady start when reaches the altitude up to 6000 meters and stable operation when reaches the altitude of 9000 meters in the whole range of possible outside air temperatures. Engine TV3-117VMA-SBM1V has the same weight and dimensioning specifications as engines mounted on helicopters “Mi” and “Ka” and this allows its installation on all earlier produced helicopters families: Mi-24, Mi-8MT/Mi-17 while only minimum helicopter and its system modification is needed. Hence engine installation TV3-117VMA-SBM1V gives the possibility to increase essentially the performance of new and earlier produced helicopters as well as to increase payload at minimal costs. Due to their high characteristics helicopters “Mi” and “Ka” with engines TV3-117VMA-SBM1V will be invaluable while exploiting in mountainous regions of India. For application in new helicopter projects engine modification
TV3-117VMA-SBM1V series 1 is developing with new electronic-numeral automatic control system with full accountability (FADEC). The use of such automatic control system will lead to further engine and helicopter performance uprating. The airplane Mi-8MTV equipped by engines TV3-117VMA-SBM1V on the 19th of May, 2010 took off from the airdrome of aircraft repair plant in Konotop. While
testing helicopter reached the altitude of 8100 meters for record 14 minutes. Earlier during previous test the helicopter Mi-24 with engines TV3-117VMA-SBM1V also showed record climbing capacity — it reached the altitude of 5 kilometers only for 9 minutes and this means that climbing capacity was increased in 2.5. Taking into consideration high engine characteristics TV3-117VMA-SBM1V and the fact that Motor Sich JSC is ready for cooperation with HAL and GTRE in the sphere of creation of its modification adapted to exploitation conditions on new multipurpose 10-tonned Indian helicopter which is planned for development and therefore this can become the weighty argument in favour of such Indian-Ukrainian engine. Taking into consideration that helicopter world market conditions are constantly changing our Enterprise is involved in creation activity: meaning new family engine MS-500V, power class is 600...1000 hp, designed for mounting on multipurpose helicopters with takeoff weight 3,5.. .6 tons. The leader sample of different modifications MS-500V will become the engine with takeoff power 630 hp., which is de-
Engines signing in accordance with performance specification specified by helicopter plant in Kazan for helicopter type “Ansat”. While engine designing MS-500V “Motor Sich JSC” uses the experience received during the creation of auxiliary engine AI-450-MS for airplane An-148 as well as existing advanced and proven constructive technological decisions. While continue eight-year tradition of engine production for trainer airplanes “Motor Sich JSC” in corporation with “Salute” FSUE “MPP” implemented engine commercial production AI-222-25 with maximum thrust force 2500 kgf. For trainer-military airplane Yak-130, the delivery of which to pilot training centers Russian airforce has already started and in the nearest future it will be supplied to Algeria. For mounting on next military airplane modifications Yak-130 and on similar supersonic airplanes of other countries on the basis of engine AI-222-25 the modification with afterburner was designed. This is the engine AI-222-25F with takeoff afterburning thrust 4200 kgf. At present time engine modifications AI-222-25 and AI-222-25F are mounted
on Chinese experimental trainer-military airplanes L-15. In the end of October this airplane first flew with engines operating in afterburning mode. For more than 50 years Motor Sich JSC has been producing engines for different robot aircraft and cruise missiles including strategic X-55 and those which are the armament of the Indian Ministry of Defense
anti-ship X-35 and rockets air-to-surface class Х-59M. Today we can propose several new more modern engines for such type aircraft. At present time Motor Sich JSC actively and successively is looking for reliable partners, extends the existing and discovers new segments of the air engine world markets. We hope that these efforts will be crystallized into quite obvious results of cooperation with aircraft industry in Indian Republic, to which Motor SICH JSC can propose a whole series of modern engines for realization of Indian programs dealing with new airplanes, helicopters and robot aircraft creation.
Motor Sich JSC 15, Motorostroiteley Avenue, Zaporozhye, 69068, Ukraine Tel.: (+38061) 720-48-14 Fax: (+38061) 720-50-05 E-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org http//www.motorsich.com A I R
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“RADIONIX” (MICROWAVE SYSTEMS DESIGN COMPANY) — CRISIS SOLUTIONS TO UPGRADE FIGHTERS’ AVIONICS Due to the current economic situation caused by the global financial crisis, most countries have significantly adjusted their programmes for the Air Forces development in the direction of increasing the amount of work on upgrading of existing aviation equipment in military service and waiving the purchasing of new models, because of the high costs for their development and production.
Director of Radionics Ltd. Stanislav Zavyalov
– Increasing the target detection range and radar’s ECM immunity; – Creating the basis for further modernization of SUV27, SUV-29 by the expansion the types of armament being used; – Increasing the unification degree of N019 and N001 radars at the unit and subsystem level; – significant increasing of reliability; – N001, N019 radars tactical and technical characteristics improvement by
an integrated approach to modernization of standard equipment and by introduction of a number of additional units and functional constructive modules. High technical and operational characteristics of the upgraded units and newly developed blocks, would lead to a significant increase in performance characteristics of the entire radar. By now, LLC “Radionix” together with the state enterprise “Novator” have de-
UU52155A(B,G), UU52172A(B), UU52158
signed and commercially produced for the foreign customer a range of microwave devices (such as frequency synthesizer UU52155A (B, G); low-noise heterodynes UM45211 and UM45213; twochannel frequency converters UM45210 and UM45212). These products are fully functional analogues of microwave modules designed in the USSR, but they are made with the new technology solutions and new components applying and as
Avionics the result the significant technical characteristics improvement has been achieved. Application of microwave modules, developed by LLC “Radionix” can considerably improve the quality characteristics of the MiG -29, Su-27 and Su-30MKK fighters weapon control systems radars. One of the most important and difficult task is to implement a fundamentally new operational modes for radars, such as ground mapping by the lateral search mode with the antenna aperture synthesis algorithm application , multi-position operational modes, modes of long-distance detection that can provide a multifunctionality for the fighters under modernization. In order to implement the ground (sea) target search radar modes the following units developed by “Radionix” company should be installed: – N019-09R — multi-channel microwave receiver; – N001-22R — multifunctional frequency synthesizer (BZG); – BTSO-R — digital signal processor unit which includes: the module of standard radar modes (MSRR), the module for assessment of air situation (ITI) and the module for radar antenna aperture synthesizing (MTSRSA). Installation of new microwave receivers and applying the optimized algorithms for digital Doppler filtering of BTSO-R unit allows to increase significantly the detection range of aerial targets (up to 30...35% of the existing system range), and also provides wideband signals implementation by generated microwave signals phase modulation to realize the ground targets search modes.
In contrast to the well-known concept of the bypass channel, realized by “Russian Avionics” company, all the processing of analog signal, including linear amplification and quaternary processing, is performed within a universal receiver module which is included in N019-09R receiving unit. Installing a new 3-channel microwave radar receiver N019-09R with the two separated channels at the intermediate frequencies of Fpr1=28MHz and Fpr2=84MHz (narrowband and broadband channels respectively ) allows to realize two different modes of radar signals processing The mode of narrowband Doppler filtering is used to detect targets in a free space while
the broadband mode involves radar working with high resolution to detect small, stationary and low speed targets against the backdrop of ground or sea surface. N001-22R-multifunctional frequency synthesizer (BZG) is a complex, multifunctional product designed to generate a full range of HF, microwave signals with the desired characteristics in accordance with the information being sent from the onboard computer. A new concept of frequency synthesis, applied in the development of the multifunctional frequency synthesizer (BZG), provides a low frequency noise and phase noise characteristics, the possibility of simple programming adaptation
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF N001-22R UNIT Frequency range Frequency channels number microwave signals output power, mW synchronization signals power, mW carrier isolation (between the pulses), dB power density of the stray radiation set up time, min A I R
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Х band 52 20 20 60 10 –7 mW/sm2 3
to the national frequency spectrum requirements, as well as to the radio-link types to control air-to-air guided weapons. The separate modules and subsystems of BZG unit have a high degree of unification with the regular devices, which provides an opportunity to repair the old units by using the newly developed modules. BTSO-R unit for digital processing of radar signals equipped with the module of standard radar modes (MSRR) implements the narrowband Doppler filtering optimized algorithms, which allows to significantly improve the selection of signals reflected from moving targets on the backdrop of ground noise in the air-to-air radar modes, detection and close-in action when working with high and medium pulse repetition frequency. The air surveillance module (MDO) is an optional one, which implements
the algorithm of the Doppler signal processing with longer period for coherent accumulation. It became possible due to the increase in parameters of long-term frequency stability for N001-22R unit (BZG) MTSRSA module is designed to implement the ground targets search modes for the ground (sea) surface, and implements the algorithms for straight forward and lateral antenna aperture synthesizing and Doppler beam sharpening.
Thus the installation of a new BTSO-R unit into airborne radar system will make possible to: – significantly improve the detection characteristics; – increase ECM immunity of airborne radar; – improve reliability and maintainability of the system without any significant changes in the radar maintenance schedule. Technical solutions that were found and implemented by the company specialists in the process of creating the microwave modules of “coherent chain”, as well as the development of upgraded units for the N001 and NO19 radars, have brought the company to the level of system developers. Currently, the results obtained during the works on modernization of airborne radar systems for jet fighters are used to design the microwave assembly for weather and
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF N019-09R UNIT frequency band noise figure ,dB P-1 input signal level, dBm input VSWR bandwidth on fпч2=28 MHz at level –3 dB ,MHz bandwidth on fпч2=84 MHz at level –3 dB,MHz
Х band 3,5 35 1,5 5 30
Avionics navigation radar called “Esmeralda”, which is currently being developed by the company. Apart from a standard set of weather and navigation modes this radar will have the modes for detection of wind shear, and turbulence, for scanning the ground surface with synthesizing of aperture (SA) and Doppler beam narrowing (DOL). In future, this system will provide a platform for testing the design solutions required for creation of multifunctional airborne radar systems. It is assumed that the expansion of the radar functionality will be achieved through improvements in software and optimization of algorithms for digital processing of information from the weapon control system. The application of a programmable signal processor (PSP) has allowed to use one (or group) of the processors for various tasks, including communications and navigation, which significantly
extends the radar capabilities. First of all the growth of PSP productivity with fast Fourier transform algorithm application would affect the ability of radar to distinguish the signals from the target in a wider spectrum in real time. The practical outcome of such feature could be automatic (without request) detected target nationality and type recognition. Information signs of recognition in this case will be the fluctuations of the reflected signal in a broad band (wide range). Measuring the spectrum and amplitude characteristics of fluctuations would allow compare the parameters of the reflected signal with the available database and, thus, it would be possible to identify with high probability the type of the target. The expanding of radar capabilities in air-to-ground mode, such as higher resolution in mapping mode and recognition of moving targets (ground
ones with a relatively low speed) may be considered as a second application of the improvements in question. Another direction of the company activities is developing a aircraft perspective radio-electronic protection system, called “Omut” (Whirlpool), which is intended to replace the outdated L006LM and L203B(I) systems. This radio-electronic protection system includes radio-electronic surveillance system, with programmed database of threats and their priority, and an electronic countermeasures system, thus provides high probability of suppression of the enemy target acquisition radar systems. “Omut” (Whirlpool) radio-electronic protection complex provides real time detection and identification of enemy radars, evaluates the level of threat and selects the optimal set of electronic countermeasures for radars of anti-aircraft missile systems, fighters, as well as of missiles with active and semiactive homing devices. Since the moment of its creation, the company embarked on the creation of competitive complex set of products which are not inferior in their technical characteristics the best world standards. High scientific and technical potential, the availability of material and test facilities and technological capabilities allow the company to implement a full cycle of development, testing and serial production of the most sophisticated products of modern avionics.
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF EW COMPLEX Multiple radar suppression capability, radars frequency band output power at P-1, W, not less than operating temperature range, °С weight, kg, not more than number of preprogrammed ECM systems, not less than A I R
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20 Х, Ka 80 –60…+80 45 200
COMPAS: PRIORITIES OF SPACE NAVIGATION The Compas Moscow Design Bureau (Open Joint Stock Company) is an up-to-date research & production enterprise majoring in development and manufacture of consumer professional equipment for high-precision navigation operated by signals of GPS/GLONASS/GALILEO satellite navigation systems.
Mikhail Pestrakov, Commercial Director, Director of special projects and at large, Compas MDB
The company has a rich history starting from 1918, when the Soviet government issued a decree on establishing a plant for manufacturing telegraph devices. The Compas MDB created a first ever powerful (for that time) transmit-receive airborne radio station of up-to 5,000 km operational range, which provided for the Moscow — North Pole -Vancouver record flight by Valery Chkalov’s crew aboard ANT-25 on July 18 to 20, 1937. In 1948, the Compas Design Bureau was detached to become an independent structure dealing with the development of navigation and communication equipment. As an item of radio navigation equipment products, the Bureau developed a ra-
dio direction finder called ‘Golden Arrow’, which was helpful in assisting the crew in adverse weather conditions to find the direction of required maneuver, so as to reach the airfield and carry out landing. The modern radio direction finder is an automatic portable device of relatively low energy consumption, featuring the wide use of digital signal processing techniques and almost not requiring field maintenance. When developing hardware, the staff of Compas MDB relies on the most up-todate technologies, for the company mainly specializes in delivering products for aviation and rocket-and-space facilities. In the 1970s the digital signal processing techniques were largely used in the company’s innovative developments. Those techniques helped reduce the hardware weight, size and power consumption and create: – For the Air Force — A-723 radio navigation receiver-indicator which operated with Alpha and Omega ground radio navigation phase systems of global coverage, as well as with pulse phase systems, including Chaika and Loran-S; – For the Navy — Mars-75 multi-frequency phase radio navigation system designated for supporting ship navigation, executing hydrographic and operational works, as well as servicing flights of aircraft at speeds not exceeding 1,000 km/h. The GLONASS, GPS and GALILEO global satellite navigation systems are subject to active radio interference, due to the low strength of signals emitted by space vehicles. On the horizon of earth surface, they are 40 decibels weaker than natural radio noises. The signals of such a low level are effectively suppressed by radio electronic warfare facilities, where a 1-watt strong noise interference transmit-
ter would disturb the operation capacity of satellite radio navigation systems’ hardware within a radius of 32 km. In order to level down the influence of natural and artificial interference, we have created satellite navigation equipment which features a higher level of interference immunity. Taking into account the imperatives of our era, the hardware is being worked out for aviation and guided weapon systems, and the research and development works are going on to enable the accomplishment of combat tasks in the environment polluted by enemy radio electronic countermeasures. To jam the new equipment, an enemy would need jamming stations of such a high capacity that will make them easily discoverable and vulnerable for destruction by appropriate means. The enhancement of digital components of navigation hardware allows minimizing the share of analogous devices. When the hardware is mounted to different vehicles, their capabilities have to be modified in conformity with specific tasks and parameters of a vehicle. In terms of analogous equipment, it would mean serious problems of adaptation, to the extent of restarting the development cycle. For the digital equipment, in most cases it is enough to update the software, and so to obtain new qualities of a product. In order to enable the efficient execution of all the above mentioned procedures before mounting a product in vehicles, the satellite navigation system simulator, modeling GLONASS/GPS/GALILEO, has been developed. The development of the satellite navigation system simulator turned to be a complex task, with the use of most modern techniques of digital signal processing. The functions fulfilled by
GNSS IM-2 signal simulator
the simulator in the industrial and research field are very broad. Those are, for example, definition of technical solutions at the stage of consumer navigation equipment (CNE) development, adjustment and settings, the assessment of work quality during the production process at the manufacturing plant, issues of incoming inspection and periodical checks during the CNE life cycle, training technical staff in operating it, conducting a complex of scientific and laboratorial researches, as well as in-line simulation with the goal of defining a place for mounting the CNE in the vehicle, including highly dynamic systems, working out scenarios of CNE-mounting vehicle movement in the prescribed trajectories with the consideration of complex impacts of atmosphere, ionosphere (radio wave propagation conditions), and use of a priori and a posteriori information on the location of satellites in the space grouping at a certain time period. The A-737 basic product (airborne GLONASS/GPS satellite radio navigation systems receiver-indicator) was developed in the 1980s, primarily for the military aviation. Today, the products of this series are mounted almost virtually in all the aircraft. The purpose of our equipment is to define the position vector of an aircraft, i.e. three location constituents, three velocity constituents, and to receive the exact time reading, since the use of satellite navigation enables to tie to the unified time system. The A-737 product provided a basis for several modifications, which support addiA I R
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tional functions and enhance the product capabilities in precision of position finding. For instance, the A-737I product brings together the capabilities of satellite navigation and navigation based on terrestrial pulse and phase radio systems. Such a technological solution is due to the fact that the interference resistance of receiver-indicators of satellite navigation systems is not very high, and as for the signals of pulse-phase systems, it is much more difficult to jam them. In combat environment the use of two-system equipment would largely enhance the capabilities of combat operations when enemy uses electronic countermeasures. The next modification is A-737D, which supports differential operation mode. The results of navigational measurements defined by the satellite navigation systems’
receiver-indicators contain errors. One of them is related to the inaccuracy of data about the space vehicle movement parameters (ephemeral information). Since the distance is measured from the vehicle to space vehicles, and such distances are used for calculating the vehicle’s position, the precision of the whole system depends on the accuracy of definition of space vehicle position. The second error is related to the fact that the signal emitted by the space vehicle goes through the ionosphere, troposphere, where it is refracted and twisted, and, therefore, the measured distance to the space vehicle proves to be inaccurate. To get rid of these errors, especially when high precision in position finding is required, for example, in the guided weapons operational employment, the differential error-corrections are used. These corrections are formed by the terrestrial segment of the system, enabling to increase the precision to single meters, which is essential for destroying pin-point targets. In the same time we were given a task of creating equipment for the guided highprecision weapons. This task primarily had to be solved for the correction enabled aviation weapons. We created the satellite navigation hardware specially for that purpose. During the testing of the product using the differential mode, we succeeded in achieving the circular probable error calculable in single meters. The hardware belonging to this class is mounted to the correction-enabled aviation weapons.
– monitoring, security and centralized control systems for rail transport; – dedicated navigation equipment for the control systems of automobile transport. One of the main lines of activities in the Compas MDB is the development Automatic of navigation complex for helicopter ship radio compass ARC-35-1 landing. We were a success in creating such a system. Its main difference from the same The Compas MDB currently deals with is- standard systems is that it operates sues of development and production of rain the mode of relative navigation. That dio navigation systems in various lines: is, when the system is activated, the air– Small size automatic direction finders craft ‘ties’ itself to the center of landing for all aircraft of military and civil aviapad of the ship. And wherever the ship was tion (ARK-32, ARK-35, ARK-40); going, and whatever was the helicopter – A series of A-737 aviation receivermovement, its position is always defined indicators for the high precision porelating to the center of the helipad. sition finding of different vehicles by We expect that the successful test results GLONASS/GPS satellite navigation would open up new alternatives of using system signals (GALILEO in future) and the system in civil industries. Today there terrestrial radio navigation pulse-phase is a topical issue of providing the helicopand phase systems; ter communication with shelf-based drilling – products for ground-supported trajecplates, ensuring flights of deck-based avitory measurements of boosters, upperation of the icebreaking fleet, scientific restage rockets and space vehicles (dissearch ships and other sea vessels. posable load); In 1996, the company created navi– map-enabled navigation pads, providgation means providing ground-supporting the planning and execution of flights ed trajectory measurements for products on air-routes and any prescribed routes of rocket-and-space industry: boosters, out of the air-routes, as well as the airrockets, upper-stage rockets and paycraft special employment tasks, operload. The equipment functions efficientates with signals of GLONASS/GPS ly and reliably in rocket-and-space vehisatellite navigation systems; cles and is demanded by rocket manufac– equipment of navigational medium forturers. One of reasons of the demand for mation: local system of differential ersuch an equipment is the need for highror-corrections, retransmitter of satellite precision control of trajectory parameters. signals; There is no secret that the rocket when de– instrument landing system for aircraft viating from the trajectory beyond the ad(helicopters) onto air capable ships and missible limits, has to be destroyed. Since unequipped loading sites; the creation and maintenance of terrestrial – portable receiver-indicator for the percomplexes of ground-supported trajectosonal use of signals of GLONASS/GPS ry measurements is a very expensive activisatellite navigation systems (GALILEO ty, the use of satellite navigation equipment in future); facilitates the task significantly. – a number of aerials of different destiAs our company gained a certain expenation; rience, it succeeded in creating the equip– dedicated jam resistant consumer navment of smaller size, less weight, with betigation equipment operating with ter characteristics. Compared to the first GLONASS/GPS satellite navigation product installed to the booster which was systems for aircraft of all kinds and pur4.5 kg heavy, the equipment now weighs poses; 1.5 kg, and there is a trend of further re-
duction of weight and size characteristics. There are examples of building these products into the telemetric complexes of minor space vehicles. About ten of such minor space vehicles have been launched, and the first ‘Zeya’ vehicle equipped with our receiver-indicator was set into orbit in 2007. By that we reconfirmed the possibility of using satellite navigation hardware at very high vehicle movement speeds. The obtained high results in the use of satellite navigation in the precision weapons, namely aviation weapons, primarily, the correction-enabled aviation bombs, lead to the fire accuracy enhancement, in the context of cannon artillery. A new trend in the context of diversification of company’s product mix is the development of search and rescue system with the use of GLONASS/GPS equipment, as well as the “Gonets” satellite communication segment. The above-mentioned system will help significantly reduce time for search and rescue of the those in distress as well as boost the search operations efficiency. It is notable that the existing systems do not allow appropriately performing the set tasks. The search and rescue operation begins with the reception of distress message, which can appear as a signal of distress received or vehicle’s fallout from the radar’s screen or missing scheduled radio contact. After establishing the fact of distress, it is necessary to find the location of those suffering distress with the sufficient accuracy for rescue groups to contact directly those in distress. For the sake of accomplishment of search and rescue tasks, fast and effective coordination of actions of search and rescue forces, the two-way information exchange between them and those in distress, thus decreasing the detection time and reducing the duration of search and rescue operations. The missing possibility of such an information exchange should be considered as one of the main drawbacks of the existing systems. In order to remove the mentioned shortcomings of the system, the space system of search and rescue is now under devel-
opment. It envisages the two-way data exchange between the distressed and rescue services. The systems is comprised of three segments: – The space segment is represented by navigation space vehicles of GLONASS/GPS satellite navigation systems, as well as satellites of global communication systems; – The user segment includes emergency radio buoys designed both for being mounted to mobile vehicles (ARB) and for the personal use (ARB-N). There is also a tendency for using radio beacons in certain fixed installations, with the purpose of sending warning signals in critical conditions (for example, in case of ecological or other emergencies); – The control system consists of the Unified Coordination Center (UCC), which collects information about arisen emergencies, and a network of regional command and control posts. The UCC functions include the monitoring of the whole system.
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The emergency radio buoys define their positions through the GLONASS/ GPS navigation signals. When using both the two global satellite positioning systems, the probability of exact position finding for ARB increases a lot. The emergency message made in the ARB is delivered to the UCC through the radio channel of global satellite communication systems. The emergency messages contains the ARB’s identifier, the exact position of the ARB at the time of emergency signal or message sending, the accident time and accident characteristic. The UCC makes the response (acknowledgment) to the received emergency message, which goes to the distressed ARB through the channel of global communication systems. This system does not require the development of communication system, since there is a possibility of using the formerly developed and currently operating global satellite communication systems, which allow not only organizing the two-way communication channel, but the all-weather and round-the-clock radio communi-
cation. The main advantage is that there are no interruptions in communication sessions. Therefore, the information about the distressed will be delivered to the UCC in the minimum time. The use of the two-way data exchange will enable the fast and effective coordination of actions of search and rescue teams and those in distress, and at that the distressed will be informed that their distress signal has been discovered and the search and rescue services have initiated the rescue operation. The company’s future plans are related with the improvement of radio navigation equipment, increase of interference resistance, integration with other navigation systems, precise control of air-dropped loads, logistics navigation systems and complexes of transport communications, navigation products of general usage. Mikhail Pestrakov, Commercial Director, Director of special projects and at large, Compas MDB
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INDIA AND RUSSIA: NEW JOINT PROJECTS IN THE FIELD
OF MILITARY AIRCRAFT TECHNOLOGIES
View of analyst Russia and India are going to implement a number of scale projects in the Field of Military Aircraft Technologies. A wide representation of Russia at the AERO INDIA-2011 Air Show testifies to the fact that the Indian weapon market is of crucial importance for Moscow. The exhibition will coincide with another round of negotiations between Russia and India regarding a number of projects to be implemented in the field of aircraft technology in the near future. The related future programs may be divided into two types, namely the agreed projects on direct procurement of the Russian aircrafts (or on their joint development and production) and tenders which invite the largest global manufacturers of aircraft technology including Russia. Today India is the only country Russia is going to cooperate with regarding the tenyear military-technical cooperation (from 2011 till 2020). Under this cooperation program two nations are collaborating on a number of projects in the field of aircraft, helicopter, marine, and land technologies. However, most large-scale programs are being implemented in the field of aircraft technologies. The tender for the supply of mediumlift multi-role fighters for Indian Air Force, which cost is estimated at $10-12 billion, is crucially important to determine the trend in military-technical cooperation between India and Russia.
CURRENTLY RUSSIA PARTICIPATES IN FOUR TENDERS OFFERED BY INDIAN AIR FORCE AND NAVY FOR THE SUPPLY OF MILITARY AND DEFENCE AIRCRAFTS Tender for Supply of 126 MediumLift Multi-Role Fighters The contract on procurement of 126 medium multi-role combat aircrafts (MMRCA) is expected to be signed by mid 2011. In December 2010, the Indian Air Force completed the assessment of requests for proposal, and forwarded tender documentation to the Ministry of Defence of India for approval. A I R
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The aircrafts submitted to tender were tested in India in 2009–2010 under the corresponding operational environment. Their flight testing was attended by the specialists of Bangalore Aircraft and Systems Testing Establishment (ASTE) in Bangalore, Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL), Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), India’s Ministry of Defence and Air Force.
The aircrafts were tested under humid weather conditions at the airfield in Bangalore, hot desert conditions in Jaisalmer, and cold mountain condition in Leh. The Indian Air Force expects that the contract will be signed by July 2011. Yet, six other aircrafts lay claim to the victory in tender as well. These are the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, the Lockheed Martin F-16IN, the Mikoyan MiG-35, the Saab JAS 39 Gripen (Sweden), the Dassault Aviacion Rafale (France), and the Eurofighter EF-2000 Typhoon.
View of analyst According to the tender requirements, the winner will supply 18 aircrafts to the Indian Air Force in 2012. Other 108 aircrafts will be manufactured at the facilities of Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL) which shall commission the first aircraft in 54 months after signing the contract. It is expected that all aircrafts will be delivered to the customer by 2020. New MMRCA fighters will remain in service for 40 years. The future contractor will have to reinvest 50% of the contract value into the Indian defence industry. According to the request for proposal announced by the Indian Ministry of Defence, the number of purchased aircrafts may increase by 50%, that is to say 189 aircrafts. The Russian Mikoyan MiG-35 fighter is in the running to win the tender.
Tender for Supply of CarrierBased Fighters for Indian Navy Aircraft Carrier In November 2009, the Indian Navy announced the tender for procurement of the carrier-based fighters for future aircraft carriers. The Navy has forwarded the requests for information to Boeing, Dassault Aviacion, and MiG companies. It is expected that India will purchase 16 carrier-based fighters and will probably increase the order up to 40 aircrafts to be based on three Indian aircraft carriers. The first aircraft carrier was laid at Cochin Shipyard in February 2009. According to the schedule, it will be handed over to the Indian Navy in 2015.
Tender for Procurement of Aerial Refuelling Military Aircrafts In September 2010, the Indian Ministry of Defence announced a new tender on procurement of aerial refuelling military aircrafts after cancellation of the results of the previous tender nine months ago. The Government of India decided to resume tender for procurement of six aerial refuelling military aircrafts after the Ministry of Finance refused to approve a $1.5 billion contract on acquisition of the Airbus A330 aerial tankers with EADS in September 2009. The updated requests for proposals (RFP) have been forwarded to the companies in the USA, Europe, and Russia. The procurement contract cost is estimated at $2 billion. As compared to the previous tender, the requirements have remained unchanged except for an issue regarding statement of costs for the whole service life of the aircrafts.
It is expected that apart from Airbus Military and Rosoboronexport the new tender participant list will include Boeing as well. It will take at least 2 years for the Ministry of Defence of India to evaluate the RFPs and determine a winner. Earlier in 2003â€“2004, the Indian Air Force acquired six Ilyushin Il-78 aerial refuelling aircrafts which can carry 75 tons of fuel and refuel the Dassault Mirage 2000, Jaguar and Su-30MKI aircrafts being in service of the Indian Air Force.
Tender for Procurement of Medium Range Maritime Reconnaissance Aircrafts The Indian Navy made a decision to acquire six to eight new medium range maritime reconnaissance aircrafts (MRMR) again. In early October 2010 the Ministry of Defence sent the request for information to the interested companies regarding the MRMR procurement tender. New medium range maritime reconnaissance aircrafts have the cruising range of more than 350 nautical miles. Like the Boeing P-8A Poseidon long range maritime reconnaissance (LRMR) aircrafts purchased by India earlier, the MRMR aircrafts should be equipped with multi-mission surface search radar and armed with anti-submarine warfare, including torpedoes. The potential participants of a $247 million tender (approximately 11 billion rupees) are the Russian Be-200 and Canadian Bombardier Q-400. The new aircrafts will join a three-tier system to guard the countryâ€™s coastline 5.4 thousand km long.
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READY-TO-IMPLEMENT PROMISING INDIA-RUSSIA COOPERATION PROGRAMS Program 1 Modernization of forty Sukhoi Su-30MKI fighters being in service of the Indian Air Force can be called the first program of this type. The upgraded aircrafts should be equipped with BrahMos cruise missiles. In May 2010 the Safety Committee of the Government of India approved the program on modernization of forty Sukhoi Su-30MKI aircrafts to be equipped with BrahMos cruise missiles. Apart from BrahMos cruise missiles the aircrafts will be provided with a number of other advanced technologies. As such, they are to be equipped with new radars, onboard computers, and electronic fly combat systems. The project will be implemented by Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL) and Irkut Research and Production Corporation. The program will start in 2012. The modernization program will likely provide for installation of Zhuk-AE active phased array radars manufactured by Fazotron on new aircrafts. The Zhuk-AE radars is capable of tracking up to 30 air targets and firing eight targets simultaneously. Currently, the Sukhoi Su-30MKI fighters are equipped with the N011M pas-
sive radar which can track up to 15 targets and fire four air targets simultaneously. The N011M radar has some limitations in background noise processing and requires more time for maintenance. Two Indian Sukhoi Su-30MKI aircrafts will be modernized in Russia in 2011â€“ 2012. Since 2015 the modernization will be implemented by Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL). According to this program India will upgrade forty Sukhoi Su-30MKI fighters manufactured by HAL under the Russian license. In future the Indian Air Force is going to equip two to three squadrons of fighters with BrahMos cruise missiles. The first testing of BrahMos cruise missiles is scheduled for 2011, while the first test flight of the Sukhoi Su-30MKI equipped with new cruise missiles is to be carried out in late 2012. At present, the Indian and Russian experts are working on integration of BrahMos cruise missiles on the Sukhoi Su30MKI aircraft. For this purpose BrahMos Aerospace Company has reduced the weight of the aerial missile version to facilitate its onboard installation. The missile weight is 2 550 kg, length 8.3 m, and body diameter 0.67 m.
Program 2 The second project is the program on licensed production of additional 42 Sukhoi Su-30MKI fighters. In June 2010, the Safety Committee of the Government of India approved the funds to be allocated for implementation of this program in the volume of 150 billion rupees (or $3.4 billion). According to other data, the total contract cost amounts to 201.074 billion rupees (or $4.34 billion). In August 2010, the program was approved by the Defence Acquisition Council of the Ministry of Defence of India. This licensed program is likely to be implemented by HAL as late as 2014. The contract will be signed in 2011. Additional Sukhoi Su-30MKI fighters will join the present Indian fighter fleet which is likely to consist of 230 combat vehicles by 2015 according to previous estimation in case of successful deals with Russia which are worth a total of $8.5 billion. As soon as the licensed production of a new batch of aircrafts is completed, the total number of the Russian Sukhoi Su30MKI fighters, which will join the Indian Air Force, will reach 270 aircrafts.
View of analyst The aircrafts are expected to be delivered by 2018, whereupon the Sukhoi Su30MKI will become the major combat aircraft being in service of the Indian Air Force. Therefore, India will finally replace the MiG-21 fighters, which until recently have formed the core of the Indian Air Force, with the Sukhoi Su-30MKI fighters. It is expected that production of 42 Sukhoi Su-30MKI fighters will start in 2014 at the HAL facilities. The procurement of the Sukhoi Su30MKI fighters will go in parallel with the tender for supply of 126 new mediumlift multi-role fighters under the MMRCA program which estimated cost is $10– 12 billion. By the time the medium-lift multirole fighters are to be delivered, the Sukhoi Su-30MKI will be the general fighter in service of the Indian Air Force, and their total cost will be twice as large as the MMRCA program cost.
Program 3 The third program is modernization of fifty Sukhoi Su-30MKI fighters delivered to India in previous years. In summer 2010, the Indian Air Force declared its intention to upgrade fifty Sukhoi Su-30MKI fighters delivered to India in previous years in the coming three to four years. With the assistance of Russia, India will install new avionics, upgrade the aircraft design and enlarge the range of aircraft weapons. It is expected that Russia will upgrade the first five fighters of the Indian Air Force. The rest 45 aircrafts are to be modernized in India.
Program 4 The forth promising project is the program on acquisition of two additional Phalcon AEW&C aircrafts. As soon as India receives the last AEW&C aircraft in 2011, it is going to order two more Phalcon aircrafts with airborne early warning and control system (AEW&C) based on the Ilyushin IL-76. The Indian Air Force has already initiated the process of acquiring two additional AEW&C aircrafts. They will join the aircraft fleet consisting of three Phalcon systems acquired according to the trilateral $1.1 billion contract concluded between India, Russia and Israel in March 2004. Pursuant to the contract, India had an option to acquire other three to five aircrafts of this type. The aircrafts are equipped with four engines of PS-90A-76 type, active phased array radars, Belgium 20-inch LCD indicators, electronic countermeasure systems manufactured by Israeli Company Albit Systems, and other systems developed in India and France. The aircrew consists of eighteen people. The EL/M-2075 airborne radar can detect the targets at a dis-
tance of 400 km and track nearly 60 targets simultaneously in 360-degree range. Two such aircrafts have been already inducted into the Indian Air Force. The first one was delivered on 25 May 2009. The second Ilyushin Il-76 with AEW&C system was supplied to India on 25 March 2010. Delivery of the third aircraft to India was initially scheduled for 2010. However, based on the experience gained during operation of the first two aircrafts, the Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) requested Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) to provide the last aircraft with additional equipment. The platform was supplied to Israel by the Russian manufacturers in October 2010. According to the preliminary data, the last aircraft will be delivered to the Indian Air Force in mid 2011. All aircrafts will be stationed at the air base in Agra, where the Il-76 military transport aircrafts and Il-78 aerial refuelling military aircrafts are kept. The $1.1 billion contract on procurement of three Phalcon EL/M-2075 radars developed by Elta Company and installation on the Russian IL-76 aircrafts was signed by the Ministry of Defence of India in March 2004.
MAJOR CONTRACTS AND AGREEMENTS CONCLUDED BETWEEN INDIA AND RUSSIA IN 2010 Fifth Generation Fighter Development Program During the official visit of the Russian President Dmitry Medvedev to India on 21 December 2010, the nations signed A I R
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a deal for design and development of advanced fifth generation fighter aircraft (FGFA). The estimated cost of the contract on draft design of the Indian FGFA ver-
sion is $ 295 million. These works are to be completed within 18 months. In general, the development and testing of these prototypes require from eight to ten years. The estimated cost
View of analyst crafts are intended for various missions. In future, the Indian fifth generation fighter will replace the three types of combat aircrafts being in service today. The single-seat fighters will be serially produced in 2017–2018. The dualseat aircrafts will be inducted into service in 2019–2020. It is planned to produce around 200 dual-seat aircrafts for the Indian Air Force.
Joint-Venture Agreement on CoDevelopment of Multi-Role Transport Aircraft
Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh and president of Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev during the official visit of Mr. Medvedev to India
of the development program is $12 billion. Russia and India will have equal shares in this program. The first time Russia offered India to develop a new fighter was eight years ago, but the parties failed to agree on business interests in the project. In October 2007, two nations signed a preliminary intergovernmental agreement on FGFA joint development on the basis of the Russian Sukhoi PAK FA (promising aircraft of frontline aviation). This is the first project in the modern history of Russia when it develops the state-ofthe-art weapon systems together with other country. Therefore, the allocation of duties in the project was an issue of crucial importance and required a thorough elaboration. As a result, it took three years to finalize the general contract and nondisclosure agreement after long-term intergovernmental negotiations. In March 2010, the parties signed a preliminary technical agreement which outlines the participation interests as well. The Indian Air Force plans to acquire from 250 to 300 fifth generation fighters. According to the HAL data, the share of the Indian defence industry in the joint
project will be nearly 30%. In particular, the Indian company will develop software for onboard computer, navigation systems, multifunction cockpit displays, components made of composite materials and self-protection system. Additionally, India will redesign the single-seat PAK FA into dualseat fighter since according to the strategy, adopted by the Indian Air Force, the air-
On 9 September in New Deli Russia and India entered into an agreement on foundation of a Joint Venture Company (JVC) to design and develop a new generation medium-lift jet multi-role transport aircraft (MTA). The shareholders of a new company are India’s Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (50%), and Russia’s United Aircraft Corporation (25%) and Rosoboronexport State Corporation (25%). The JVC headquarters will be located at Bangalore. The aircraft will be assembled both in Russia and India. The formal intergovernmental agreement on implementation of the MTA project was signed by Russia and India on 12 November 2007 when the prime minister of India Manmohan Singh visited Moscow. The estimated cost of the project is $600 million. The project will be bankrolled equally by Russia and India. Each party will allocate
The official signing of the contract between Rosoboronexport and HAL for creating a draft technical design of India’s version of the FGFA
View of analyst craft for the Indian Air Force to transport troops, materiel and cargoes. India will have an option to acquire additional 100 MTAs. The Russian Air Force confirmed the intention to acquire 100 MTAs. Essential competitive advantage of the MTA is its comparatively low cost. The aircraft may compete against Antonov An-12, An-26 and An-32 as well as against C-130J Super Hercules.
Contract for Delivery of 29 Mikoyan Mikoyan MiG-29K Carrier-Based Fighter Jets
$300.35 million towards the MTA development. This amount includes the expenditures prior to proceeding to the MTA fullrate production. The new MTA is designed to replace the aging fleet of Soviet Antonov An-12, An-26 and An-32 transport aircrafts. As of now Indian Air Force has around one hundred of Antonov An-32 transports. The twin-jet powered MTA will be 33 m long with wingspan of around 30 m. Maximum payload capacity of the MTA will be 18 to 20 tons. The MTA will feature a takeoff weight of 65 tons, cruise speed of 800 km/h, and flight range of 2 500 to 2 700 km. The service ceiling will be 12 km. The aircraft will have a glass cockpit, modern avionics, fly-by-wire system,
and full authority digital engine control (FADEC). The engine type is still not specified and will be chosen by tender. The Russian and Indian MTA models will be developed on maximally unified technologic basis. The airframe will be assembled on a 50-50 basis. Individual subsystems will be designed with allowance for potential export to third countries. The MTA can be operated at day and night in any world region, under any climatic and weather conditions. The MTA will function like a military aircraft capable of short landings and takeoffs on poorly maintained runways, including those in high-altitude air facilities in the Himalayas. India and Russia plan to produce 205 aircraft. Off take has been put at 40 air-
Russia and India signed the contract on delivery of 29 Mikoyan Mikoyan MiG-29K fighters on 12 March 2010 when the prime minister of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin visited India. The first delivery is scheduled for 2012. The contract is worth a total of $1.5 billion. Sixteen out of twenty-nine Mikoyan Mikoyan MiG-29K fighters will be based on the Vikramaditya aircraft carrier. An important part of the Indian Navy Mikoyan MiG-29K/KUB fighter acquisition program is the creation of the shorebased test facility for maintenance of aircraft and training of pilots which was constructed in April 2009 at INS Hansa, Goa. The fighters will be operated from the INS Hansa (Goa) till commissioning of the Vikramaditya aircraft carrier.
MAJOR AIR FORCE PROGRAMS UNDER IMPLEMENTATION Sixteen Mikoyan MiG-29K/KUB Fighter Supply Program The first four Mikoyan MiG-29K/KUB carrier-based fighters were formally inducted into the Navy by Defence Minister AK Antony at a ceremony which took place on 19 February 2010 at INS Hansa. The ceremony was also attended by Minister of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation V.Khristenko. The Indian Ministry of Defence signed a contract stipulating the supply of sixteen A I R
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Mikoyan MiG-29K fighters, including four dual-seat Mikoyan MiG-29K/KUB trainers, to India in January 2004. The contract is part of a $1.5 billion deal to refit and deliver the Admiral Gorshkov aircraft carrier. The first four Mikoyan MiG-29K fighters, in a knocked down condition, were delivered to India in December 2009. In September 2009 these Mikoyan MiG-29Ks passed their test flights from the deck of the Admiral Kuznetsov heavy aircraft carrying cruiser in the Barents Sea. These
trials were the part of the pilot training and test program. The remainder twelve Mikoyan MiG-29Ks are awaited to be supplied in four-unit batches in 2010–2011. Before delivery of the Vikramaditya aircraft carrier which was rescheduled for late 2012, the fighters will be based on INS Hansa equipped with a simulator for deck landing and takeoff training. The Mikoyan MiG-29Ks will be a part of the 303 squadron, nicknamed Black Panther.
View of analyst The ship-based Mikoyan MiG-29K is The Mikoyan MiG-29K fighter features the “4++” generation aircraft which is caimproved performances and reliability. pable of day/night, all-weather, yearThe aircraft avionics is based on the open round operation in any climate. The aircraft architecture. The general-purpose multiwill be able to control the air, to provide mode onboard Zhuk-ME radar is capable air defence of the ship and to engage surof tracking up to ten targets and simultaneface and ground targets. Despite of formal ous firing against four targets. resemblance the new aircraft weighs by The aircraft features an improved air30% more as against the Indian Air Force frame made of composite materials, low Mikoyan MiG-29B. The Mikoyan MiGradar signature, high payload, high-ca29K fighter will be equipped with missiles pacity fuel tanks and air-to-air refuelling capable of engaging non-LOS targets, (AAR) system, modified wing bending, and guided anti-ship missiles, unguided missiles, quad-redundant full authority digital engine control. aerial bombs and 30-mm caliber gun.
To land on the aircraft carrier’s deck, the carrier-based Mikoyan MiG-29K fighters are equipped with retaining gear and reinforced landing gear, flexible wings and special coat preventing sea water corrosion.
Indian Navy Ilyushin Il-38 Improvement Program In mid-February 2010 Russia completed refit of five Indian Navy Ilyushin Il-38 ASW patrol aircrafts. The last (fifth) refitted Ilyushin Il-38S/D landed in the naval air base in Goa. Five Indian Navy Ilyushin Il-38 aircrafts were refitted in Russia under a $200 million contract dated 2002. The major improvement was the installation of Morskoy Zmey search and target system. The improvement program made it possible to extend the Indian Navy Ilyushin Il-38 aircraft service life for 15 years and to release the Indian Navy from urgency to procure state-of-the-art aircrafts for reconnaissance and antisubmarine warfare. The refitted Ilyushin Il-38S/D aircrafts will be further used by Indian Naval Air Command, communication intelligence and control systems group, and reconnaissance air force.
Tupolev Tu-142ME Repair and Refit Program
BrahMos missile (air version)
In August 2010, on completion of the scheduled repair and refit by TAVIA JSC, the long-range ASW Tupolev Tu-142ME aircraft was handed over to the Indian Navy. The overhaul and refit of one more Indian Navy Tupolev Tu-142ME aircraft was to be completed by late 2010. In 1986 Russia supplied 8 ASW Tupolev Tu-142MK aircrafts designated as Tupolev Tu-142ME. The improved Tupolev Tu-142ME may be used for day/night all-weather surveillance and protection of national waters, electronic reconnaissance, searching, tracking and firing of advanced low-noise submarines running up-top or snorkeling at full or slow speed or lying still on sea ground. The Tupolev Tu-142ME aircraft equipped with missiles is capable of attacking surface ships, ground and coastal targets.
View of analyst Maximum flight range of the Tupolev Tu-142ME aircraft is 12000 km, maximum flying speed at weight of 138 tons at 7000 m altitude is 855 km/h, cruise speed is 735 km/h, inflight endurance is 9 hours. Maximum payload capacity of the aircraft carrying six BrahMos cruise missiles is 9.6 tons (the BrahMos missile erection option is proposed by Indian Navy). Standard payload with eight X-35 ASMs is 4.4 tons. The standard ASW model aircraft accommodates up to 140 radio sonobuoys.
Indian Air Force Mikoyan MiG-29 Fleet Improvement Program In February 2009 Mikoyan MiG РСК initiated the project for improvement of the Indian Air Force Mikoyan MiG-29 fleet. The total number of Indian Air Force Mikoyan MiG-29 aircrafts to be refitted is 62. These aircrafts were supplied to India in three batches at different time and their technical condition differs a lot. Russia will bring all the aircrafts into equal operating state. Mikoyan MiG РСК plans to refit the first six aircrafts, i.e. four single-seat and two dual-seat aircrafts, at its facilities. The refit is to be completed in 2011. The remainder aircrafts will be refitted in India at the 11th aircraft repair plant. Mikoyan MiG РСК will forward all the required technical documents to the plant. Some avionics for improvement will be delivered from Russia, and some assemblies will be supplied by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). The Indian government and Mikoyan MiG РСК entered into a contract for refit of sixty two Mikoyan MiG-29 fighters on 7 March 2008. The contract is worth a total of $964 million.
Sukhoi Su-30MKI Fighter Licensed Production Program In the last few years Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) reduced the timeline of Sukhoi Su-30MKI fighter licensed production. In 2009 HAL delivered 23 fighter to the Indian Air Force. In 2010 HAL planned to supply 28 Sukhoi Su-30MKI fighters. A I R
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AL-55I Engine Licensed Production By summer 2010 the Indian Air Force acProgram quired 74 Sukhoi Su-30MKI fighters from The HAL Company plans to launch a fullHAL. rate production of AL-55I engines under Today the Indian Air Force has five Sukhoi Su-30MKI squadrons, three of them be- Russian license in the coming two-three years. ing based in Buna and two — in Bareili. InThe present-day problem is to sedia plans to deploy other two squadrons in Punjab and in the northeast of the country. lect a site in Koraputa (Orissa) to deploy the engine production facilities in two to The importance of Sukhoi Su-30MKI fighters for India is justified by the fact that three years. The AL-55I engine was deHAL was advised to complete the licensed signed by Saturn Research and Develproduction of one hundred forty Sukhoi opment Company for India special benSu-30MKI fighters by 2015 at all hazards efit. The engine was certified after successful endurance testing in Russia and is (i.e. ahead of schedule). An initial $1462 billion contract for deto be mounted on the advanced Indian livery of forty Sukhoi Su-30MKI fighters for HJT-36 УТС. Six engines have been dethe Indian Air Force was signed on 30 No- livered, and other ten have been ordered vember 1996. Pursuant to this contract and are awaited. The Indian Air Force eight Sukhoi Su-30K version aircrafts plans to acquire total 85 HJT-36 УТС. were manufactured and handed over to Summary the customer in 1997. The other contracted aircrafts were manufactured and delivPursuant to the statement by the Defence ered in Sukhoi Su-30MKI version. In 1996 Minister AK Antony, the Indian Air Force the Indian Ministry of Defence placed will consist of 42 squadrons by the end an order for additional ten Sukhoi Su-30K of the 13th schedule period (by 2022), fighters which were purchased for $277 which is more than it was previously apmillion. In 2000 India signed a $3.5 billion proved by the Indian government. agreement for licensed production of 140 According to the Defence Minister’s Sukhoi Su-30MKI fighters at HAL facilities comments on the question from depuusing vehicle sets delivered by Russia. ties of the Upper Chamber of Indian ParIn 2007 India contracted additionliament, in 2007–2022 by the end of 11th, al 40 Sukhoi Su-30MKI fighters at a cost 12th and 13th schedule periods the Indiof $1.6 billion for the Indian Air Force. an Air Force will have 35.5, 35 and 42 Besides, India effected a trade-in deal squadrons respectively. for 18 Sukhoi Su-30MKI fighters instead AK Antony stated that at the beginning of earlier delivered Sukhoi Su-30K fighters. of the 11th schedule period the Indian Air 41
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Is India Going to Achieve a Record? Russia’s Centre for Analysis of World Arms Trade (CAWAT) forecasts that arms import contracts India will conclude in 2011 will have the largest worth in its history. India has been one of the three world’s largest arms importers in the last four years. According to CAWAT’s preliminary information, India ranked third in the world by the worth of arms import contracts it concluded ($3.756 billion) in 2010 giving way only to the UAE ($6.71 billion) and Taiwan ($4.131 billion). There was a slight decrease in this figure in 2010 as India postponed taking final decisions on some projects including those carried out with Russia to 2011. It is expected to choose the winners in a number of major tenders in 2011. If India keeps to the schedule, the worth of contracts it will make this year will reach the largest figure in all its history. For comparison: In 2007, the total cost of India’s arms import contracts equaled $4.783 billion, in 2008 — $4.256 billion and in 2009 — $6.933 billion. In the last four years (2007–2010), India concluded $19.729 billion worth of arms imports contracts ranking the second in the world behind only the UAE with $21.508 billion. As for the actual volume of arms imports, India was the third with the amount of $4.556 billion in 2010 with only Australia and the US ahead ($6.134 billion and $4.886, respectively). In the above-mentioned fouryear period, India imported $12.815 billion worth of armaments thus ranking the second after the US with its $17.122 billion. In 2007, the actual volume of India’s arms imports reached $2.5 billion, in 2008 — $2.5 billion and in 2009 — 3.255 billion. Considering the figure for 2010, we can say that India has been significantly increasing its arms imports under priorly-concluded contracts year by year.
Force consisted of 32 squadrons only. Today the Indian government authorized deployment of 39.5 fighter squadrons. The Indian Air Force will be in crash air alert as soon as Sukhoi Su-30MKI fighters, Jaguar, medium multi-role combat aircraft (MMRCA), fifth generation fighter aircraft (FGFA) and light combat aircraft (LCA) are inducted into service. Over recent years India headed the list of worldwide leaders in the total weapon imports through implementation of military refit programs. India holds the top position as per the scheduled total imports of products for military purposes for the coming years.
Russia’s peers in Indian weapon market are Israel, United Kingdom, USA, France, Ukraine, Italy, Sweden and some other countries. Russia is able to reserve at least a half of the Indian weapon market. Once the quantity of the Russian-manufactured end products for military purposes to be delivered is reduced, the military technical cooperation will be focused on transfer of licenses for production of Russian products for military purposes in India, for joint and special-order R&D, and for foundation of joint venture companies to develop, produce, refit and repair the products for military purposes.
The major projects associated with transfer of license for production of Russian products for military purposes include the licensed production of multipurpose Sukhoi Su-30MKI fighters, T-90S MBT, and AL-55I aircraft engines for Indian HJT-36 УТС as well as HJT-39 and series 3 RD-33 for Mikoyan MiG-29 fighters. Due to large-scale transfer of technologies, India and Russia signed an agreement for mutual protection of intellectual property rights. One of the most successful projects is the co-production of BrahMos cruise missiles by BrahMos Aerospace JVC. Russia participates in several tenders to deliver helicopters for the Indian Air Force. This year Russia will lease out the Type 971 Schuka-B nuclear-powered submarine to the Indian Navy for a term of ten years. The rental cost is $650 million. All contract issues pertaining to refit of the Admiral Gorshkov aircraft carrier into Vikramaditya aircraft carrier have been finalized with India. The contracts for supply of 45 Mikoyan MiG-29K/KUB fighters have been signed. Now India and Russia negotiate the acquisition of other 42 Sukhoi Su-30MKI fighters and implement the program of refitting 62 MiG-29 fighters belonging to the Indian Air Force. The joint program for delivery of Phalcon AEW&C aircrafts to the Indian Air Force is under implementation. Russia and India implement several large-scale projects for Air Force, Navy and Armed Force. In late December 2010 on the eve of visit to India the Russian president Dmitry Medvedev stated that “India like Russia conducts the external policy and maintains communication with other countries in the field of military technical cooperation. It is reasonable that western manufacturers of weapon and other products for military purposes are much interested in cooperation with India”. “We do not hesitate and are ready to compete. The most important thins is to be honest and to play according to the rules”, Dmitry Medvedev emphasized. Igor Ilyin
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RUSSIAN ARMS TRADE Russia has two things that sell well in the global marketplace: natural resources (oil, gas, timber, metals) and weapons. While the former represents a much larger volume in terms of volumes and amounts, the export of weapons carries strategic importance. It helps the Kremlin build good relations with governments of other countries, and brings these nations into the Russian sphere of commercial relations, cooperation and other key areas. Another important aspect is that such activity helps domestic manufacturers stay in the business and develop critical technologies. 44
View of analyst Natural resources and weapons both grew in export volume since Russia emerged as a sovereign country after the Soviet Union’s break-up. And while the worldwide economic crisis has an impact on arms sales, the overall business volume continues to grow despite the adverse economic environment. In 2009, Russian arms exports (in executed deliveries) totaled $8.5 billion — which was $150 million above the 2008 level, according to estimations by the Moscow-based Center for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies (CAST). According to Russian government officials, the 2009 order book volume reached $40 billion — up $7 billion up from the 2008 level. These figures are big, but they fade in comparison with Russia’s oil income. According to official statistics from the Federal Customs Service, in the first half of 2010, Moscow sold fossil fuels for about $130 billion. Meantime, statistics from the state arms vendor Rosoboronexport say Russia’s weapons trade amounted to $6.46 billion in 2006; it rose to $7.55 billion in 2007 and stabilized at $8.35–8.5 billion in 2008–2009. Military export from Russia is centralized. All sales of ready-to-use weapons (not counting some minor items) go through
Rosoboronexport, a government-run comade” was caused by modifications in Ruspany responsible for military technical sian law following establishment of Russian cooperation with foreigners. SeparateTechnologies, and also was a measure to ly, 21 different Russian companies (all beboost sales of high-tech civilian products ing original equipment makers or licenseabroad (which is one of the tasks set by holders) have governmental permission to the Kremlin). work directly with foreign customers, but In published statistics, Rosoboronextheir scope of activities is limited to spare port states that its 2009 exports amountparts, repair and overhaul, training and lo- ed to $7.4 billion, which is 10% more gistics — and none holds the right to supply than the previous year. For new successes weapons systems independently of Rosoin the field of arms sales, Russian Technoloboronexport. gies head Sergei Chemezov (the man who Two years ago, Rosoboronexport and headed Rosoboronexport before receiving more than 200 other companies were his new appointment) was decorated earmoved under control of the “Russian Techlier this year with the Order of Friendship. nologies” state corporation — a huge “This is a testimony of the fact that the arms structure established by the Kremlin to con- trade developed well so far,” commented trol state assets in the Russian military-inRosoboronexport general director Anatoly dustrial complex. On the surface, the shift Isaikin. “We anticipate that arms trade volof Rosoboronexport produced little effect. ume this year will not be less than the prePerhaps the most evident change was that vious one.” During the 2001–2009 timeall Rosoboronexport representative officframe, the volume of arms sales made es outside Russia have been “re-branded,” through Rosoboronexport rose by 2.4 becoming those of the Russian Technolotimes, he added. Russia has military trade gies. This, however, does not bring much partners in 70 countries around the world. change to the everyday work. Employ“Today, we offer not only ready-to-use ees continue to focus on sales and interacsystems, but also technologies, joint protion with customers and end-users on techduction of subcomponents — and somenical support, modernization and uptimes even sell licenses for local producgrades, spare parts, training of personnel tion of ready-to-use weapons.” At a press and logistics. The need to “change the faconference in February, Rosoboronexport
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View of analyst officials said new contracts signed in 2009 exceed $34 billion, bringing the backlog to $21.5 billion. It is believed that the first figure is for deals signed and already approved by responsible governmental bodies (such as the Federal Agency for Military-Technical Cooperation) and put into force. The second is a total sum for upcoming deliveries of Russian-made weapons, not counting sales of property rights, licenses, documentation etc. “These figure make us look to the future with optimism, as the order book promises high workloads for enterprises of the Russian military industrial complex,” Isaikin commented. In addition, he said that in 2009, the sum of newly-signed contracts amounted to $15 billion. “It doesn’t mean that all of this money will actually flow into Russia during the short term…as many contracts span several years.” In the past two years, the structure of Russian arms sales by types of weapons systems seems to have settled out. Once again, aviation is the undisputable leader, representing half of the grand total. Tactical jet fighters (Sukhoi Su-27/30 Flankers and Mikoyan MiG-29 Fulcrums), Mil helicopter gunships (Mi-24/35s) utility rotary-wing aircraft (Mi-17s) and Kamov naval helicopters (Ka-28/31s) are the bestselling items. These are widely considered world-class and expect to be in demand during the next 20 years before being superseded by a new generation of systems from the same makers. The next three hardware types form a second category: items for anti-aircraft defense, land forces and naval applications. These types continue to “compete” against each other for the second and third places in Russian arms exports by the volume of annual sales. In 2009, equipment for land forces was in second place at 19 percent, and navy-related hardware was third at 13.9 percent, leaving anti-aircraft defenses one step lower at 13.3 percent. While these numbers provide some perspective on the situation, the reality is more clouded. In 2008, the London-based International Institute for Strategic Studies reported that “in recent years, it has become increasingly difficult to collect and analyze
In the past two years, the structure of Russian arms sales by types of weapons systems seems to have settled out. Aviation is the undisputable leader, with share of 50% meaningful data on Russia’s Federal Budget, and particularly the finances of Russian national defense, owing to a number of presentational changes.” Today, these words seem even more meaningful, as governmental financial statistics have only become less understandable. Independent analysts say that, as time goes on, they tend to experience more and more difficulty when assessing the flow of information from Russian sources. The regime of secrecy has tended to tighten, while the independent news media — badly hit by the economic slump — has largely lost interest in covering military subjects and have suffered a loss of skilled staff writers. One of the outcomes is the growing number of “undiscovered” arms deals and larger amounts of “unidentified” content in such deals. Equipment for navies and air defense units appears to be most difficult to identify in recent Russian export sales. This is reflected in the differences between official figures and those from independent analytics, such CAST in Moscow. For instance, CAST’s own calculations
found that the share of aviation equipment in new sales represented a 61 percent share (compared to 50 percent in official statistics), army equipment was at 21 percent (government figures place it at 19 percent), naval hardware was rated at 9 percent (compared to 14 percent in official statistics) and air defense at 8 percent (the government’s number is 13 percent). Such differences are expected to grow. This means that in the future, there probably will more surprises when it comes to deliveries — which are harder to keep hidden than the content of sales agreements. This also provides evidence that more and more of Russian arms exports go to countries that tend to have less transparency in military affairs — including China, Arabic nations and certain territories in Latin America. It is understood that the role of such customers in Rosoboronexport’s client base is growing. About 1 percent of Russian arms exports is equipment for special forces, such as non-recoil or noiseless rifles, rapid-fire guns, noiseless pistols, underwater shoot-
View of analyst ing devices, grenade launchers, personal self-protection suites etc. While it is a small business money-wise compared to aviation, the importance of this type of equipment should not be underestimated. There are a number of customers who buy such hardware from Russia, often without publicity. It helps in building commercial ties, as the seller and customer probably would never come together at a negotiating table otherwise. One factor in drawing this business is the unique technologies created by Russia’s military-industrial complex. Another plus for Russia is its extensive experience gained in counteracting terrorists and stopping nationalist resistance in the North Caucasus, leading to “battleproven” hardware that is well suited to realistic scenarios of special forces’ needs. In some cases, the sales of equipment to special forces have led to strong personal relations between seller and buyer — facilitating deals in other areas. This is particularly true in case of some Arab buyers. The current head of Rosoboronexport was previ-
ously responsible for sales of special forces equipment. Anatoly Isaikin managed to establish good personal relations with certain buyers, thus opening new export perspectives for Rosoboronexport. “This is a relatively small, but a stable business,” Isaikin explained. “Many of the items we sell are unique; they are being produced in very small quantities. It is always a trade between techniques of series production and needs of special forces. Certain types are under the strictest of controls, imposed to ensure the terrorists never get them.” The United Nation’s register of conventional weapons can serve as a good source for understanding the structure of Russian arms sales. Effectively, the register is a list of military equipment that every member country fills out under good will terms, along with the desire to promote transparency. Russia has been cooperative. In its report for 2008, Moscow acknowledged deliveries of 77 main battle tanks (the T-90 MBT series to Algeria and India), 46 armored vehicles (BPM-94 Vystrel and
BTR-80 armored personnel carriers to Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Algeria) and 12 artillery systems (Smerch multiple rocket launcher systems to India). There were 34 combat aircraft for Algeria, Malaysia and India, Venezuela — including the last in a batch of 24 Su-30MK2V fighters, although this number does not take into account Su-30MKI kits for Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. The figures also included 32 combat helicopters (including Mi-17s to Indonesia), 921 guided missiles, and 138 portable SAM launchers with 624 missiles. These numbers demonstrate that the United Nations register does provide a good snapshot of what Russian arms export is like these days. On the other hand, there are weaknesses in this data: for example, Russia did not include China in list of recipients for its missiles in 2008, while previous year, the given figure received by the country was 984 missiles. It also is important to keep in mind that dozens of smaller countries produce Russian weapons. Some of them are in fact
Smerch multiple rocket launcher systems
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View of analyst continuing to develop the Russian (Soviet) school of defense equipment design, manufacturing and after-sales support. Ukraine and Belarus are perhaps the best examples. In addition, Belarus sometimes is used as a vehicle to sell equipment to certain customers that cannot buy directly from Russia — or do not want to. This applies both to new and used equipment, and can be illustrated by the fact that Belarus exported 33 MiG-23s to Syria (without indentifying exact type of the Flogger, which may lead to some interesting findings in future). According to ex-president Victor Yushenko, Ukraine last year signed arms export contracts for $1.5 billion. Since most of the Ukrainian contracts are short term and executed quickly, they add to the grant total of “Russian” arms sales worldwide. In addition, despite 15 years of separation following the Soviet Union’s breakup, Russia still uses a lot of Ukrainian components in its weapons. This is a Soviet legacy, coming from the fact that Ukraine was home to many design houses and manufacturing plants involved in the defense programs of the Soviet Union’s military industrial complex. “There is no area in our military-industrial complex where Ukrainian components would not be used,” Isaikin commented. With the election earlier this year of proRussian president Victor Yanukovich, ties
Anatoly Isaikin: “Airlifters are in demand all around the world. The An-70 has good chances in the market, provided its development is completed soon”
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between the Ukrainian and Russian defense industries are expected to grow even stronger. In particular, this brings about more hope to the long-going development of Antonov’s An-70, which effectively is the only truly next-generation airlifter currently flying in the Eastern world. On the wave of warming relations with Kiev, Russian Defense Ministry leaders — including Minister of Defense Anatoly Serdyukov — began to speak about the need to finalize a contract on delivery of 40 An-70s to the Russian air force. If this happens, such a contract may finally get this development project off the ground and open export opportunities for the aircraft. Until recently, both the Russian military and Rosoboronexport remained cautious about the An-70’s sales opportunities. But this seems to have changed. Isaikin told reporters recently: “In the today’s situation, airlifters are in demand all around the world; every air force needs or wants to have an efficient fleet of aircraft. Therefore, the An-70 has good chances in the market, provided its development is completed soon.” Furthermore, the Russian air force made a positive assessment of Antonov’s idea to create a 15 metric ton airlifter, the An-178, which is based on the An-148 75-seat commercial passenger jetliner — which is in production within Russia (at the VASO plant
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View of analyst in Voronezh) and in Ukraine (at Antonov’s plant in Kiev). Today, the An-148 is most modern Eastern-built airliner, and it is in service with Rossiya — Russian Airlines (operating six An-148-100Bs as of January 2011) and Ukraine’s Aerosvit airlines (two An148-100Bs in service). Russia’s United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) has secured preliminary orders from five Indian airlines. This enabled UAC and Antonov to launch an An148 type validation campaign with India’s Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) in May 2010. First deliveries to Indian airlines are planned for 2011. In addition, two aircraft were contracted by the government of Myanmar in November 2009 for delivery in 2011; the deal is a part of a bigger one also involving delivery of 20 MiG29 fighters. So, the An-148 is on its way
Russia also is considering re-starting production of the Il-76 50-ton airlifter as a modernized Il-476 airlifter, as well as the super-heavy Antonov An-124 Ruslan cargo aircraft. The Kremlin has approached China, the U.S., India and certain European nations with the idea to join forces on these programs. Isaikin confirms this by saying that the Russian air force and undisclosed foreign customers have placed preliminary orders for Il-476. China is being urged to renegotiate the stalled deal on some 40 Il76-series aircraft in favor of the more advanced Il-476. India is likely to be offered either Il-476 or An-124 if it initiates a new strategic airlifter tender. Such a tender may be launched if India does not buy the Boeing C-17 Globemaster III under a government-to-government arrangement.
a positive reception, and now Russia and India are working together on opportunities for both the FGFA fighter and MTA airlifter, he added. In the area of anti-aircraft weapons, Russia’s S-400 Triumph draws most interest from overseas customers. “It is a brandnew system being developed for Russia’s Air-Defense Forces. Once the Russian customer’s needs are fulfilled, the system will be available for export,” Isaikin told reporters. “We are in consultations with Russian Defense Ministry in order to have an understanding of when we can start S-400 deliveries abroad. We are talking to our customers, but deliveries are some time off in the future.” In the meantime, Russia will continue to sell the previous-generation S-300,
of becoming the first Russian-built airliner in the Indian inventory (not counting a handful of Tu-154Ms and Il-62Ms that were operated for a short period of time in late 1980s/early 1990s). UAC is talking to several Indian companies on the possibility of licensed production — which would start as “screwdriver assembly” and then move to a high degree of “Indianization.” Should the An-148 become a success story, it may prove a basis for the creation of many specialized military versions, including the An178, and even serve as the starting point for development of the Indo-Russian Multirole Transport Aircraft (MTA).
Advanced airlifters add a new dimension which sometimes has become an issue to the sales of aviation equipment, which for politicians because of its capabilities. currently are dominated by tactical jet“The S-300 is a defensive system; therefighters. In the next five years, the evolving fore, it poses no harm offensive to neighFlanker and Fulcrum series of fourth-gener- boring countries,” Isaikin stated. Howevation fighters will be succeeded by the Fifth er, long-expected deliveries to Iran are unGeneration Fighter Aircraft (FGFA). likely to start until newly-imposed United The FGFA effectively is an exportable verNations sanctions are lifted. This means sion of the Russian air force PAK FA comRussia will have to find another custombat aircraft, which has been in flight test er for the already-produced systems that since January 2010. Isaikin says that Rusnow are in storage following the Russia currently has received a proposal to co- sian government’s June decision to join operate on joint development of fifth-gencountries upholding sanctions for Iran. It eration weapons systems from one counmay happen that these systems will find try — India. The Indian initiative was given their way to China, which already oper-
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ates the S-300PMU2 Favorit — the latest in the evolving S-300 series of weapons. Isaikin also sees a new opportunity for expanding Russian sales with the introduction of a new type of armored vehicle for the army — referred to as the Machine — for the support of tanks in the battlefield. He described it as a highly protected and heavily armed vehicle that can survive threats from mines and anti-tank missiles. It would interact with main battle tanks to clear the way for mainstay forces in the battlefield, he said. “Russia has developed prototypes of such a vehicle. The use of such systems will allow a reduction in loses of personnel, and that’s the most important factor for any army.” During recent conflicts in Afghanistan, Iran and Lebanon, “classic” tanks — even the heavily-protected Abrams and Merkava — fell prey to anti-tank systems, and not even necessarily the most advanced missiles available. If the new vehicle finds customers, it will help UralVagodZavod — the largest Russian manufacturer of tanks — to survive the current business crisis that has badly hit this huge enterprise. “UVZ has orders, and talks with foreign customers are ongoing on further contracts for the plant,” Isaikin explained. Among other weapons worth mentioning as offering export possibilities — including to customers in Asia-Pacific — is the PanA I R
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tsir S1 short-range missile/gun air defense system. Reportedly, deliveries of this weapon are underway to Syria and the United Arab Emirates. The export success of Russia’s Project 636 diesel submarines could be repeated with the Project 677 Lada. The lead vessel in this series was commissioned by the Russian Navy in May 2010 after several years of sea trials. As another example, the 300-mm Smerch rocket system is now being offered in a new version on a lighter wheeled chassis that carries four containerized rockets. India is a likely launch customer for this version. Also, the Ka-31 radar picket helicopter that al-
ready is in service with the Indian navy has won additional orders from this country, along with other customers in the region. In terms geographic, Asia-Pacific continues to serve the main selling point for Rosoboronexport. By contractual volume, Vietnam was the largest buyer of Russian weapons in 2009. It signed a contract valued at roughly $4 billion for six Project 636M diesel submarines (to be built at Admiralty Shipyards in St. Petersburg) together with infrastructure. This contract is a real breakthrough, since the purchasing nation does not operate submarines today. Another large sale there was for eight Su-30MK2 multirole aircraft (deliveries to be completed in 2011), in addition to four such aircraft purchased earlier. Hanoi has funded development of the Bastion shore-protection system using Yakhont supersonic missiles (similar to BrahMos PJ-10 co-developed by Russia and India) — with deliveries of these systems to began in 2009. With these deals, Vietnam is now among the largest Russian customers, together with India, China, Algeria, Venezuela and Syria. Russia will continue to use foreign components in its weapon systems — both for export and internal use. Night vision systems from Thales for use on armored vehicles, along with avionics for aircraft applications already are incorporated in the latest products from Russian manufacturers. Russia’s electronics producers are not as advanced as the French in these fields, but they are catching up. “We have started
View of analyst producing thermal imagers — quite good ones, in fact — which is something we could only have dreamed of a few years ago,” Isaikin commented. However, Russia will continue purchasing advanced components and technologies from France and other European nations, as well as develop other means of industrial cooperation and co-development in high-tech areas. At the same time, Russia has been renegotiating older agreements with other nations on licensed production of Russian weapons. This process is related with the protection of intellectual property rights. Isaikin says that some breakthroughs have been made in this area: for instance, China has been licensed to produce the Kalashnikov assault rifle, which has been in production there for decades without permission from its developer.
The fall of military trade with China is easy to explain: the local manufacturers have improved Despite this success, China’s share in Russian military export is likely to continue on a downward trend. “The fall of military trade with China is easy to explain: the local military production there develops quickly and well,” according to Isaikin. “In the past, China needed modern weapons systems because its domestic manufacturers could not fulfill the requirements of the Chinese armed forces. Today, Chinese manufacturers have improved, and they can produce more competitive systems in greater numbers for the Chinese customers. The share of Russian exports to China has gone down to
18 percent. I anticipate this may decrease further.” In the foreseeable future weapons sales will continue to serve a major political tool in the Kremlin’s hands as an instrument of keeping its allies interested in their Russian connection. Meantime, with domestic orders rising, the Russian military industrial complex, once almost totally dependent on foreign sales to keep conventional weapons production going, will increasingly see the Defense ministry of its home country as its major customer. Vladimir Karnozov