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Relocation Guide: Singapore Our guide to living and working overseas


Singapore Overview

Singapore is an island with 63 surrounding islets. The main island has a total land area of 682 square km. However, its compact size belies its economic growth. In just 150 years, Singapore has grown into a thriving centre of commerce and industry. Singapore has the busiest port in the world with over 600 shipping lines sending super tankers, container ships and passenger liners sharing the busy waters with coastal fishing vessels and wooden lighters.

Electricity: 220-240 volts AC, 50Hz. Square three-pin plugs are generally used. Timezone: GMT +8 Area: 697.1 sq km (269 sq miles) Population Density: 6,584 per sq km Capital: Singapore City State Language: Mandarin Chinese, English, Malay and Tamil Religion: Taoism, Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism and Islam Population: 4,800,000 (25% expatriate)

One of the world’s major oil refining and distribution centres, Singapore is a major supplier of electronic components and a leader in shipbuilding and repairing. It has also become one of the most important financial centres of Asia, with more than 130 banks. Business dealings are facilitated by Singapore’s superb communications network which links the nation to the rest of the world via satellite, 24-hour telegraph and telephone systems. Singapore’s strategic location, excellent facilities, fascinating cultural contrasts and tourist attractions contribute to its success as a leading destination for both business and pleasure. 1

Air Energi in Singapore

Air Energi in Singapore is the regional head office and was established in 1997 and we have over 200 contractors working for us in the Asia Pacific region.

Oil and Gas in the Region

Despite a lack of natural resources, the country has become one of the world’s leading oil and gas centres - by leveraging its strengths and maximising opportunities. The global economy may be slowing down but the world’s demand for energy shows no signs of abating. In fact, it is estimated to have grown by 71% by 2030, and will be led by Asia Pacific and the Middle East. This is good news for Singapore’s oil and gas industry. Although the city-state has neither of these raw materials, it exploited its’ strategic location to establish a port that is now one of the world’s busiest and most industrious nerve centres.

Geography

Located at one of the crossroads of the world, Singapore’s strategic position has helped it grow into a major centre for trade, communications and tourism. It is linked to Malaysia by two causeway bridges, and the key islands of the Riau archipelago of Indonesia are just a quick ferry trip away and Thailand and the Philippines are just a short hop on a plane. Singapore, with an airport served by more than 69 airlines, is very much the gateway to Southeast Asia.

Climate

Average temperature of 30ºC/86ºF during the day and 23ºC/74ºF in the evening. Northeast Monsoon Season (DecemberMarch) and the Southwest Monsoon Season (June-September). located 3° north of the equator, it is very hot and humid.

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Social Etiquette

While making introductions and during formal meetings, the title or the family name should be used. Different cultures in Singapore have different etiquettes to follow. The Chinese people use their family names first which is followed by their personal names. The Malays do not use their family names whilst Indians use the personal names first followed by the family name. Like the Western society, the Singaporeans do not generally use physical contact while greeting someone of the opposite sex such as kissing or hugging. Despite being a multilingual society, Singaporeans generally use Mandarin Chinese language though English is used in official meetings.

Business Etiquette

Business in Singapore is more formal than in many western countries. There are strict rules of protocol that must be observed. The group (company or department) is viewed as more important than the individual. People observe a strict chain of command, which comes with expectations on both sides. In order to keep others from losing face, much communication will be non-verbal and you must closely watch the facial expressions and body language of people you work with. Appointments are necessary and should be made at least two weeks in advance, whenever possible. The most formal way to schedule a meeting is to write to the person concerned, although most Singaporeans will schedule an appointment by telephone, fax, or e-mail. Do not try to schedule meetings during Chinese New Year (late January/early February), since many businesses close for the entire week. You should arrive at meetings on time. Punctuality is a virtue. There will be a period of small talk before getting down to business discussions. Since questioning authority is a taboo, it is important to encourage questions © Air Energi 2013


when after making a presentation and smile when a question is asked. Presentations should be accompanied by backup material, including charts and figures. Never disagree or criticise someone who is senior to you in rank as it will cause both of you to lose face and may destroy the business relationship.

Other Risks

Currency

Public Hospitals

The currency is the Singapore Dollar (S$). Singapore uses 5c, 10c, 20c, 50c, and S$1 coins. Notes are in denominations of S$2, S$5, S$10, S$50, S$100, S$500, and S$1,000. The islands also have a S$10,000 note. The currency of Brunei is also legal tender. Foreign currencies can be changed in any authorized money changer. Both traveller’s cheque and cheques can be encashed in most bank. Cheque clearance is only available Monday to Friday. Credit Cards and ATMs AMEX, Diners, MasterCard and Visa are accepted in major stores. ATM machines are conveniently available islandwide. Banking Hours Most banks operate from 11am to 6pm Mondays to Fridays with some branches operating on extended hours till 7pm and Saturdays from 10.30am to 2.30pm. Import Restrictions Duty free liquor may be imported into Singapore by a person aged 18 years and older without exceeding: • • •

1 litre of spirits 1 litre of wine 1 litre of beer

Restricted Items Poultry products, weapons, chewing gum and tobacco products must be declared upon arrival.

Prohibited Imports

No weapons, controlled drugs, endangered species, pornographic films, reproduction of copyrights of any kind

Prohibited Exports Following • • • • • • • • • •

items will require export permits: Firearms Ammunition Explosives Animals Telecommunication equipment Films & videotapes Percious metals Stones Drugs Poisons

Health/Vaccinations

Regulations can change at short notice. Please seek medical advice before you travel. For up to date vaccination requirement please log onto http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/ travel/default.aspx

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There is a risk (albeit small) from dengue fever in Singapore. Travellers should take normal precautions against being bitten by mosquitoes.

Health Care There are seven public hospitals in Singapore comprising five general hospitals, a women’s and children’s hospital and a psychiatry hospital. Non Singapore citizens and Permanent Residents may only stay in the A (1 or 2 beds per room) and B1 (4 beds). The Ministry of Health compiles a list of complete charges including doctors’ fees for a comprehensive range of procedures at public hospitals http://www.moh.gov.sg/ mohcorp/billsize.aspx?id=302 Six national specialty centres provide cancer, cardiac, eye, skin, neuroscience and dental care. There are also community hospitals for intermediate healthcare for the convalescent sick and aged who do not require the care of the general hospitals. For medical emergencies, you may head straight for a hospital’s Accident and Emergency (A&E) unit. Usually, some form of identification and a doctor’s referral letter (if any) will be requested for. At public hospitals, non Singapore citizens and Permanent Residents may only stay in A (with 1 or 2 beds per room) and B1 (4 beds) class wards. The charges in these wards are not subsidised Charges in Singapore’s public hospitals are as transparent as it gets. The Ministry of Health compiles a list of complete charges including doctors’ fees for a comprehensive range of procedures at public hospitals http://www.moh.gov.sg/mohcorp/billsize. aspx?id=302

service your policy here, to cover critical illness or hospitalisation bills in Singapore.

Food and Drink

Eating is a national pastime in Singapore. The range of food available is vast and ranges from Malay, Chinese, Indonesian, and Indian, to Thai, Japanese, Western food and Korean, to name but a few. There is also Singapore’s vast array of food stalls and restaurants that range from global franchises to gourmet delis and six-star settings. To further promote this delicious pastime, there are seemingly endless food promotions and tours - including the Singapore Food Festival in July - which are held throughout the year. A sumptuous meal at most food courts will cost you S$3 on an average. If you prefer a home-cooked meal you need to be careful about the grocery items you buy. The supermarkets in Singapore can be expensive. But some groceries can be cheaper Vegetables like cabbage, carrots, horseradish and ginger are reasonable, likewise tea, coffee, nuts and red beans. You can enjoy a moderate dining experience in this modern city for less than S$300 a month. Tap water is safe to drink.

Transport

Trains and buses run on time, and taxis are plentiful and relatively inexpensive. The transport system is carefully integrated, so train stations usually have a taxi stand or bus stop nearby. To travel on the bus or MRT, an EZ-Link fare card will save you money and fuss, and can be easily purchased and topped up at MRT passenger service desks.

Private Hospitals

The private hospitals in Singapore include Camden Medical Centre, East Shore Hospital, Gleneagles Hospital, Mount Alvernia Hospital, Mount Elizabeth Hospital and Raffles Hospital. Most private hospitals offer executive or VIP suites. Some also offer premium medical services, such as Gleneagles Hospital’s elite health screening and the International Patients Centre at Raffles Hospital. Camden Medical Centre, which is also centrally located, houses some 59 specialist clinics and the latest suite of supporting medical facilities and services.

Other Medical Services

There are also many specialist clinics in Singapore offering services such as dental and optometry.

Medical Insurance

Insurance policies that have been bought in your previous country of residence may still be valid in Singapore, a check with the insurance company will confirm if they can www.airenergi.com

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Taxis

Most busy areas have a taxi stand, or you can walk out to a main road and flag one down – except in the CBD (Central Business District), where legislation forbids this. At commuter hours, or when it’s raining, it’s best to call a taxi on the phone – it’s worth the callout fee. Fares can be paid in cash – smaller denominations are preferred – or by credit card. Some taxis also accept NETS. Although taxi drivers speak English, differences in accents can occasionally cause confusion.

Buses

Singapore’s bus system is better than in many major cities around the world. Some two million bus rides are taken each day on the island, across 300 different services. The easiest way to navigate Singapore by bus is to use an EZ-Link card (the same card can be used for the MRT) and to buy a Mighty Minds Bus Guide from a newsagent ($3.90).

MRT

Much of the ongoing construction work in Singapore’s suburbs relates directly to the development of the MRT (Mass Rapid Transit) system. New lines and stations continue to open (most recently, part of the Circle Line). The aim is for the MRT to be more extensive than the London Underground. Adult fares start at $0.71 using an EZ-Link card, up to $2 for the longest journey without EZ-Link.

Driving

Validity of foreign licenses: No additional documentation is required to drive in Singapore during short stays if the visitor has a valid driver’s license written in English. If the license is written in another language, either an official English translation or an International Drivers Permit is required. If the duration of stay is for over 12 months, it is required that the visitor convert their license to a Singapore license. It is also required that the foreign license is switched to a Singapore license as soon as possible for those who are living in Singapore with a student pass, employment pass, dependency pass, or work permit. To do this, one simply needs to pass the basic theory test, which informs the driver of driving regulations within Singapore. It is strictly forbidden to drive to work in Singapore if holding a work pass unless it explicitly states “driver”, or unless the overseer of the work pass gives permission.

Main Airports

Changi International Airport (SIN) www.changi.airport.com.sg Located at 11 miles (18km) NE of Singapore Singapore’s modern Changi International Airport is vast, efficient, and organized. There are banking and money-changing facilities, a post office, which is open 24 hours a day, credit card phones, free phones for local calls, Internet facilities, free hotel reservation counters, luggage 3

facilities, restaurants, day rooms, fitness centers, saunas, business centers, and over 100 shops. The airport even provides free films, bars with entertainment, hairdressers, medical facilities, a swimming pool, and even a mini science discovery museum. In other words, Changi International Airport has almost everything a visitor would require. Changi Airport currently has five terminals. Terminals 1, 2 and 3 are directly connected with a common transit area, with air-side passengers being able to freely move between the terminals without going through immigration. Transport within and between these three terminals is provided by people movers and the skytrain system, although it is also possible to walk between the terminals on foot for land-side visitors. Situated beside Terminal 2 is Jet Quay, which has its own check-in facilities for premium passengers and where transportation to aircraft in any of the other terminals is by personal buggy. The budget terminal, purpose-built for lowcost carriers, is physically separated from the main terminals towards the south, where connections are possible via a zero-fare shuttle bus service to Terminal 2. Seletar Aiport (XSP) Located in Seletar in the north-eastern area of the main island, and is managed by the Changi Airport Group. Facilities: There are two check-in counters, an outdoor car park, three sets of credit-card telephones, disabled restrooms, a vending machine, drinking-water tap, outdoor covered waiting seats, passenger service and VIP lounge, taxi stall, etc. Food is available from a canteen opposite West Camp Road. Operating Airlines: Airmark Aviation and scheduled service only on Berjaya Air, with charter flights operated to Batam, Indonesia.

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Main Sea Ports

Singapore is the world’s busiest port in terms of total shipping tonnage, it also handles a fifth of the world’s shipping containers, half of the world’s annual supply of crude oil, and is the world’s busiest trans-shipment port. Thousands of ships drop anchor in the harbour, connecting the port to over 600 other ports in 123 countries and spread over six continents. The port is critical for importing natural resources, and then later re-exporting them after they have been refined, for example crude oil. To get more details and assistance in entering Singapore waters, please contact Maritime Singapore or log on to http://www.mpa.gov.sg/sites/ global_navigation/maritime_singapore.page for more details.

Cost of Living

Singapore holds the reputation of being one of the costliest destinations in Asia, preceded only by Tokyo, Seoul and Hong Kong. The quality of life is good as this chic metropolis offers you the best convenience in entire South-east Asia. Singapore is the preferred choice for the settlers owing to its highquality infrastructure and health facilities. Whether you intend to stay and study in Singapore or plan to settle down in this cosmopolitan country, it is always prudent to do an intensive research on the cost of living in Singapore. Getting to know lifestyle trends and living standards will certainly prove useful. The cost of living ranging from food and accommodation to transportation and clothing is a common worry for expatriates.

Short-Term Accommodation

You may need to look for short-term accommodation when you first arrive in Singapore. There is a wide variety of options available to suit your budget and your personal

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preferences. These range from budget hostels, serviced apartments to world class five-star hotels. Please visit the Singapore Tourism Board website www.visitsingapore. com, to access a comprehensive directory of places to stay and their estimated price range.

Long-Term Accommodation

If you are looking to stay in Singapore for more than six months, you could rent public and private housing on a longer-term basis, or alternatively purchase certain private properties which are available for foreigners.

Communications

Telephone / Mobile phone

Singapore’s country code is 65. There is no city code for Singapore. IDD calls can be made from the numerous card and credit card phones, which are located in post offices and around the city area. Phone cards come in denominations of S$2, S$5, S$10, S$20, and S$50. Roaming agreements exist with international mobile phone companies. Coverage is good.

Internet

WIFI hotspots are available islandwide. For up to date location click onto http://www. infocomm123.sg/wireless_at_sg/coverage_ areas for more details. Alternatively, there are lots of internet cafes available for public access.

There are 3 service providers (Singtel, Starhub and M1) who offer competitive rates to install broadband at home.

Postal Services

Singapore Post services the postal service islandwide. There are many postal boxes located islandwide for easy drop off. To get an exact location on post boxes and post offices, visit www.singpost.com.sg.

Education and Schools

Studying in Singapore is not exactly a costly affair as there are a number of state-run or aided schools. These schools are cheaper than their international counterparts. The annual fee may range between S$3,500 and S$15,000. When it comes to buying books and stationery, be prepared to spend between S$30 and S$100, depending on the course of studies. The state-sponsored colleges and universities in Singapore are also more economical than the private ones. For more information visit: http://www. singaporeexpats.com/guides-for-expats/ international-schools.htm.

Visa Information

Visitors to Singapore should have valid passports and visas to enter Singapore. Applications for such visas can be made at the respective countries’ high commissions or overseas missions. However, visas are not required for Commonwealth citizens, British passport holders, and Republic of Ireland citizens for a stay of up to 14 days. All onward

visitors should have passports valid for at least three months from the time of arrival. They should also have return tickets, and sufficient funds for the length of their stay in Singapore.

Entertainment

Singapore nightlife is never dull with entertainment ranging from bars, clubs, discos, karaoke pubs, street opera, night market, river cruises, cinemas, theatre productions and international stage shows. Boat Quay and Clarke Quay have an abundant selection from restaurants to pubs and lively bars. Changi Village, Holland Village and Bugis Street are very popular areas for food and entertainment. Singapore’s first ever Casino operated in 2009 at the two new “Intergrated Resort” in Marina Bay Sands and Sentosa. Stop by the Universal Studios to enjoy a fun day in the sunny island.

Pets

The entire process of moving a pet to Singapore can be delegated to a local pet moving service which will handle the paperwork, meet the pet at the airport and provide transport to the quarantine kennels. The import of personal pets must comply with the veterinary conditions of the AgriFood & Veterinary Authority of Singapore (AVA), which includes requirements such as health certification, quarantine and inspection by the AVA. All dogs and cats imported into Singapore are required to be kept in quarantine for at least 30 days on arrival, unless they are imported from Australia, Ireland, New Zealand or the UK, in which case there are no quarantine requirements. For further details on how to import pets to Singapore, please visit http://singapore. angloinfo.com/countries/singapore/pettravel. asp.

Shopping

Orchard Road is the main shopping area in Singapore but there are plenty of malls located around the island. Due to the rich mixed cultural background of the nation, you will be able to find good from all over Southeast Asia in one city at very competitive prices.For more information on shopping in Singapore, see the Singapore Shopping brochure published by the Singapore Tourism Board. Shopping hours: Mon-Fri 10:00-21:00, Sat 10:00-22:00. The Mustafa Centre in Little India is open 24-hours.

Taxation

Individual income tax in Singapore forms part of two main sources of income tax in Singapore, the other being corporate taxes on companies. Payable on an annual basis, it is currently based on the progressive tax system (for local residents), with taxes ranging from 0% to 20% since Year of Assessment. The Year of Assessment (YA) is based on the calendar year commencing 1 January to 31 December, and is payable on a © Air Energi 2013

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preceding year basis, whereby taxes payable per year of assessment is based on income earned in the preceding calendar year. Taxation is based on the source principle, in which only income earned at source, in this case in Singapore, or those derived from overseas but received in Singapore, are taxable. Any income arising from sources outside Singapore and received in Singapore on or after 1 Jan 2004 by an individual (other than partners of a partnership) is exempt from tax. This system, however, has the potential in allowing for tax avoidance practises by individuals who derive income from abroad, gain tax exemptions via their non-resident status there, and utilising this income outside Singapore.

Tax on Purchases

A 7% Goods and Services Tax (GST) is levied on most goods and services purchased from taxable retailers. Tourists whose purchases

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total S$100 or more from a single retailer participating in the Tourist Refund Scheme are eligible for a refund of the GST paid on goods not consumed in Singapore. Refunds may be received at the airport, prior to departure flights.

Tipping

Tipping is not a way of life in Singapore. It is prohibited at the airport and discouraged at hotels and restaurants where a 10% service charge is included in the bill. A tip should only be exercised when the bill does not include a service charge.

Personal Safety

Singapore has earned the distinction of being one of the most crime-free countries in the world. The streets are usually quite safe at all times, even at nights. However, there are occasional pickpockets and purse snatchers

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who prey on unsuspecting victims. There are no specific areas, which are crime prone but it is better to avoid dark and secluded streets, especially if you are alone. be used. Different cultures in Singapore have different etiquettes to follow. The Chinese people use their family names first which is followed by their personal names. The Malays do not use their family names whilst Indians use the personal names first followed by the family name. Like the Western society, the Singaporeans do not generally use physical contact while greeting someone of the opposite sex such as kissing or hugging. Despite of being a multilingual society, Singaporeans generally use Mandarin Chinese language though English is used in official meetings.

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Tra vel Tips Be prepared

Generally, overseas travellers are more likely to be injured through unintentional injuries than to be struck down by exotic infectious diseases. In fact, accidents and traffic collisions are the most frequent cause of death among travellers, so ensure you have good insurance and if you are hiring a vehicle, ensure it is in good working order. It will be beneficial to have some vehicle maintenance knowledge if you are planning on travelling to the more remote areas of the world, where a breakdown in harsh conditions can cost your life.

Copy your documents

In the unfortunate event of your luggage going missing, or your passport / wallet is stolen or lost, it is a good idea to have copies that can help you with re-issues. Take 2 colour photocopies each of your passport, plus visa stamps and documents, driving licence, important prescriptions or other ID documents. Make 2 sets of the documents and keep these copies separate from your main luggage, preferably in 2 separate bags. It is also a good idea to copy scanned or phtocopied documents to an Internet based e-mail account. Make sure someone at home knows how to access it in case of an emergency.

Vaccinations

Check with your medical practitioner on what vaccines are required before your travel. Due to your medical history, you may require more than one dose, or you may need boosters for childhood vaccines. Check the latest travel advice and travel bulletins for your destination before you depart, and also while travelling, so you can ensure you have the latest information. Common diseases contracted by travellers include those which are the result of eating or drinking contaminated food or water, or not practising safe sex, plus a number of mosquito or tick-borne diseases endemic to tropical areas. Be sure to take measures to avoid being bitten such as wearing light-coloured clothing that covers your arms and legs, regularly applying an appropriate insect repellent and staying in mosquito-proof accommodation or using bed nets.

Taking medicines with you Book a checkup at your doctor or dentist, dbefore you leave. If you wear glasses or contacts lenses, bring an extra pair of glasses and your prescription. Persons taking prescription medications should make sure they have an adequate supply for the trip, and/or bring their prescription, making sure it includes the medication trade name, manufacturer’s name, generic name, and dosage. Prepare a simple medical kit of over© Air Energi 2013

the-counter medications (aspirin, ibuprofen, antihistamine, antiseptic, diarrhoea medication), bandaids, thermometer, sunscreen, and insect repellent. When travelling overseas with medicine, (including over-the-counter or private prescription) it is important that you talk to your doctor and discuss the amount of medicine you will need to take. Carry a letter from your doctor detailing what the medicine is, how much you will be taking, and stating that it is for your own personal use. Leave the medicine in its original packaging so it is clearly labelled with your own name and dosage instructions. If you have to inject your medication, inform your airline before you travel and, if necessary, arrange a letter from your doctor explaining why you need to carry them.

Your health on long-haul flights

Keep important medication with you in case your luggage goes missing. To help avoid deep vein thrombosis (DVT): drink plenty of fluids, avoiding alcohol and caffeine, and whilst seated, stretch and rotate your feet and lower legs. Walking around the cabin at regular intervals will help.

Scuba Divers

If you have been scuba diving, don’t travel in an aircraft for at least 24 hours after your final dive.

Coping with Jetlag

Factor the effects of jet lag into your itinerary. In order to cope with Jetlag you should get a good deal of sleep before your journey. It is also important to rest as much as possible during your flight. Planning to arrive at your destination as near to the time when you normally go to sleep will also help with the adjustment. If you are able to plan your itinerary allow time on arrival for adjustment or plan meetings at similar times to back home. Some people advise changing their watches to destination time when they get onto the plane. While this helps many people, for those who are on regular medication, such as diabetics, watches should remain on home time until you are able to adjust your medication to local times on arrival at your destination or as suggested by your health advisor. On arrival at your destination get active as soon as possible, as exercise has been proven to improve productivity. Adjust your meals and activities to local time as soon as you can. Exposure to light is also a good way of naturally allowing your body to adjust. If you need to take a short nap, do, it will help refresh you, but don’t forget to use an alarm clock or wake up call to get you up!

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Lost Luggage

If you happen to lose your baggage on arrival at your destination airport, tell the airline immediately and get suitable compensation. Agree on an amount you can spend on essential items that you will need and give them an address to deliver the luggage to when they find it. It is wise to make a copy of your passport details and any other important papers or vaccination certificates that you are carrying with you when you travel. Leave them in a safe place in the office or copy to an Internet based e-mail account. Make sure someone at home either a partner or friend knows how to access it in case of an emergency. You will need photo identification even for air travel within the UK.

Personal Safety

Be aware of your surroundings at all times; thieves will use many tricks to distract you - wiping something off your shoulder while an accomplice is picking your pocket, getting young children to surround you while they plan to rob your belongings. Trust your instincts, especially when visiting countries where a high poverty rate comes along with high petty crime rates. When not attending meetings, try to blend in with the crowd when out and about - try not to look like a visitor! When enjoying the local nightlife, guard your food/drinks and keep your wits about you. Beware of the fact that you will be an easy target after a few too many drinks. Avoid walking home to your hotel late at night, even if it is close by. Get a taxi. Don’t take shortcuts through poorly lit areas, it pays to trust your instincts in these situations. Keep your wits about you when making new friends - men and women may come across very friendly indeed if you are the route to an easier life. Be careful of telling people where you live.

Unsafe Water - What to do

If travelling to more remote areas with poor sanitation - only drink boiled water, hot beverages, such as coffee and tea, canned or bottled carbonated beverages, beer, and wine. Ice may be made from unsafe water and should be avoided. It is safer to drink from a can or bottle of beverage than to drink from a container that was not known to be clean and dry. However, water on the surface of a beverage can or bottle may also be contaminated. Therefore, the area of a can or bottle that will touch the mouth should be wiped clean and dry.

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Malaria Awareness The Mosquito - Disease Carrier

Mosquitoes transmit the viruses responsible for yellow fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, epidemic polyarthritis, several forms of encephalitis and, most famously, malaria. Mosquitoes lay their eggs wherever there is standing water, ponds, salt water marshes, or even puddles and discarded containers. Only female mosquitoes bite, as they require blood to produce their eggs.

What is Malaria?

Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted by mosquitoes. The most deadly strain being plasmodium falciparum. The mosquito unwittingly transmits this parasite when biting its victim. These parasites then spread to the liver where they take one to four weeks to multiply. Once mature, they spread throughout the red blood cells resulting in the first symptoms - a flu-like fever, which, if left untreated will lead to liver failure, coma and ultimately, death.

Symptoms

Malaria symptoms are very similar to flu, however you may not suffer from all of them: • • • • • •

High Fever Headache Vomiting General ill feeling Muscle and joint aches Jaundice / yellow skin tone

Medical attention should be sought immediately if you have any symptoms that could be malaria. Ensure that you can get to medical facilities 24 hours a day, and know your options when in developing countries. Bear in mind that once malaria symptoms strike, you will not feel like travelling very far. Malaria can kill within 48 hours of developing symptoms.

Risk Areas

Mosquitoes have been found all over the world, however not all mosquitos carry malaria. The countries below are malaria hotspots, if you are travelling to them, it is necessary to take medicinal precautions. Malaria is one of mankind’s oldest known killers, dating back almost 5000 years.

What attracts mosquitoes?

• Carbon Dioxide - we exhale it when we breathe and also secrete it from our pores. • Fragrances such as deodorant, soap, shower gel, even cosmetics on the skin • Body heat and sweat • Dark Coloured clothing 7

Repel Mosquitoes

• Cover up after dusk. • Use a repellant on your skin. • Close doors and windows at night. • Avoid lingering near stagnant water. ponds, lakes, and old containers are breeding grounds. • If you are out after dusk, wear a long-sleeved shirt, trousers in a closely woven fabric and cover feet with socks. • If you must wear thin clothing, buy a fabric friendly insect repellent, as mosquitoes will bite through the fabric.

On Skin

Choose insect repellents with DEET, on any exposed skin highly effective against all biting insects. Do not put your trust in products without DEET, no known natural remedies have been scientifically proven to provide a barrier for your skin. When visiting countries high in temperature or humidity, choose a repellent with 50% DEET protection, as humidity coupled with sweating will evaporate the repellent and reduce its effectiveness. Read labels carefully and do not be complacent with re-application.

Aroma Repellants

• Buy a pyrethroid coil or a plug-in insecticide. • Lemon eucalyptus oil and citronella are natural fly repellents. It is not recommended that you rely on them as their potency wears off quickly, but they may be of use alongside the above. • Ultrasonic devices and bug ‘zappers’ are not effective against mosquitoes • Make sure window and door screens are intact so that mosquitoes cannot get indoors.

Mosquito Nets

If you are sleeping in an unscreened room, a mosquito net is advised. Nets come in a range of mesh weaves - choose wisely depending on your situation. Heavy-duty nets get hot and uncomfortable, whereas others may not offer enough protection, so do some careful research into the climate your are going to be in. A permethrin spray can be used on a mosquito net and sometimes clothing. It will instantly kill any mosquito that lands on it. This, coupled with a skin repellant creates a formidable barrier.

Antimalarial Drugs

There are several different types of medication depending on such factors as area to be visited, length of stay, type of travel, your own medical history and drugs you may already be taking. Highly sensitive persons may consider antihistamines to www.airenergi.com

minimise allergic reactions to mosquito bites, and other insects you may encounter for the first time.

If you think you have Malaria

Seek advice from a medical professional to discuss the most appropriate anti-malarial medication for your needs. Visit the nearest medical facility as soon as possible for emergency treatment. If you go to an area where a wellequipped hospital cannot be reached within 24 hours, take emergency medicines with you.

Precaution Summary • Take anti-malarial medication as prescribed • Screen doors and windows • Sleep under a mosquito net • Spray your room with insecticide • Wear long trousers and sleeves after dusk • Apply mosquito repellent to exposed skin when outdoors

Awareness

of the risk of malaria if you are travelling to a foreign country.

B

ites Avoid bites and reduce the chances of getting malaria.

C

omply with the appropriate drug regimen for the area you are visiting.

D

iagnosis Malaria can be fatal but early diagnosis and treatment is usually 100% effective.


Frequently asked questions Do I need a visa to enter Japan? Yes, we will make these arrangements for you in advance and keep you informed at all times. Can I take my family with me? We advise you not to bring your family before we have secured a residency visa for you. Do I need a local bank account? No, an international account will be sufficient. Will I need a medical? You may be asked to complete a medical examination for the client you are working for, before you go. Will you provide medical insurance? No, you will need a personal medical insurance scheme, but we will help you where possible to set this up.

Contacts Asia Pacific Regional Head Office Air Energi Group Singapore Pte Ltd 1 North Bridge Road, 06-03/04 High Street Centre, Singapore 179094 Tel: +65 6511 1060 Fax: +65 6511 1050


Relocation Guide: Singapore