SAY YES TO PLASTICS Volume No. 92
PRN: - MCN/200/2015-2017
Issue No. 08
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Plastics News • August 2015 • 2
2015 • Plastics Plastics News News • April 2015 3 •3 August
Plastics News • August 2015 • 4
Plastics News MCN/200/2015-2017 Volume 92
August 2015 No. 8
Hon. Editor Mr. Ajay Desai
AIPMA - letter to PM Heartiest Congratulations - Arvind M. Mehta
Editorial Co-ordination: Padmesh Prabhune, Dhruv Communications, Mumbai, Tel No: 022 2868 5198 / 5049 Fax No : 022-28685495 email: email@example.com Published by Ms. Umaa Gupta on behalf of the owners, The All India Plastics Manufacturers’ Association Plot No. A-52, Road No. 1, M.I.D.C., Andheri (E), Mumbai-400 093. Tel: 67778899 • Fax : 00-22-2821 6390 E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org • Website : http://www.aipma.net Printed by her at : Dhote Offset Technokrafts Pvt. Ltd., Goregaon (E), Mumbai-400 063. Rs. 1,000/Rs. 75/-
Views/Reports/Extracts etc. published in Plastics News are those of the authors and not necessarily of the Editor. Furthermore except for copies of formal AIPMA communications no other matter in this journal should be interpreted as views of The All India Plastics Mfgrs. Association. Office Bearers Mr. Rituraj Gupta Mr. R. K. Aggarwal Mr. Meela Jayadev Mr. Sanju Desai Mr. Ashok Agarwal Mr. Haren Sanghavi Mr. Manoj R. Shah Mr. Jagat Killawala
13...... AIPMA At Work
Members Mr. A. E. Ladhaboy Dr. Y. B. Vasudeo Ms. Poorvi Desai
Annual Subscription Single issue
IS H T N
Chairman - Editorial Board Mr. Rituraj Gupta
. . . E SSU
President Vice President (North Zone) Vice President (South Zone) Vice President (West Zone) Vice President (East Zone) Hon. Secretary Hon. Jt. Secretary Hon. Treasurer
SIDBI Make in India Soft Loan Fund for Micro Small & Medium Enterprises (SMILE) AIPMA - Letter to Environment & Forest (MoEF) Suggested Amendments to Draft Notifications Of Plastics Waste Management Rules 2015
25...... Company News 29...... Features Railways to set up Plants for Converting Plastic to Diesel Exploiting the Potential of Plastic Gears Blast in Tianjin destroys LLDPE stock Gujarat Mechanic designs 'AC sofa' Plastic Lining - A Boon For Farm Pond
43...... International News 47...... Business News 51...... Product News 56...... Technology 58...... In the News
5 • August 2015 • Plastics News
Plastics News • August 2015 • 6
Plastics News • April 2015 • 4
7 • August 2015 • Plastics News
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Plastics News • August 2015 • 8
THE PRESIDENT SAYS
The ‘Start-up India and Stand up India’ n the Independence Day Prime Minister Narendra
crude may be seen below
Modi announced a new campaign ‘Start-up India;
$ 45-48bbl. Such drastic
Stand up India’ to promote bank financing for start-ups
softening of crude will
and offer incentives to boost entrepreneurship and job
surely reflect in upstream
creation. As part of the Skill India and Digital India
& downstream products,
initiative, the Prime Minister said a package of incentives
hence industry has opted
will be given to manufacturing units for generating jobs.
wait & watch policy. Hence
I think, this is one of the key announcements and one needs to understand this in proper perspective. India needs to work for the betterment and there is no denying. All that one need, is to have an encouraging atmosphere for the growth of the industry. By asking (or shall we say compelling) the Banks to provide finance for manufacturing units he has perhaps, hit the Bulls’ eye. For, the fact that India has one of the most liberalized FDI policy regimes in the world. Government has put in place an investor-friendly policy on FDI, under
the latest international polymer offers are predicted to significantly lower down. As we know RBI has decided to keep the policy repo rate unchanged @ 7.25%, and with bank credit growth being lower than previous years, hence credit availability seems to be adequate. By making a statement from the Red Fort did the Prime Minister hint for the change..? Well that’s anybody’s guess…
which FDI, up to 100%, is permitted, under the automatic
Experts are of the opinion during the financial year
route, in most sectors/activities. Significant changes have
2015-16, the industry’s raw material expenses are
been made in the FDI policy regime from time to time,
likely to increase by a faster 9.3 per cent. However,
to ensure that India remains increasingly attractive and
a slower 7.1 per cent expected rise in other operating
Investor-friendly. To boost infrastructure creation and to
expenses is likely to control the increase in total
bring pragmatism in the policy, the Government reviewed
operating expenses during the year. Resultantly,
the FDI policy in the construction development sector also
the industry’s operating expenses (after adjusting
by creating easy exit norms, rationalizing area restrictions
for unsold inventories) are projected to rise by 8.2
and providing due emphasis to affordable housing.
per cent and perhaps consequently, the industry’s
The largest cost head of the industry is raw material expenses. Incidentally the global crude prices are around
operating profits are likely to rise by 11.2 per cent for the year 2015-16.
US dollar 50/- per bbl. No one is clear about future of
Given this so called sluggish growth I think, it’s time
oil and till what extend it will see downfall. Dumping of
to Stand-up India.
Iranian oil is one of major relevant factor for continuous decrements in oil. Experts have forecasted brent
Rituraj Gupta firstname.lastname@example.org
9 • August 2015 • Plastics News
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Plastics News • August 2015 •10
FROM THE EDITOR's PEN
Start up for the betterment
his time we discuss about two technological advances but before that I would like express to our solidarity with our Chinese counterparts for the recent accidental explosion in Tainjin wherein many people have lost their lives and a huge quantity of LLDPE was destroyed. Tianjin the port city in China witnessed two harrowing explosion earlier this month. The explosions were so disastrous that the China Earthquake Networks Centre said the initial explosion, in a city with a population of nearly 7.5 million had a power equivalent to three tonnes of TNT detonating, while the second was the equivalent of 21 tonnes. The second was so big that satellites orbiting Earth picked it up as well. The explosions killed more than 50 people and also destroyed the equivalent of nearly half of the monthly polyethylene imports (LLDPE) through the port. However though things have now mellowed down and the city is on its way to normalcy. Hope the chemicals in ware house do not cause any other major accident.
India’s first dedicated 5-layer Polyolefin Line A line that produces films with outstanding physical and performance attributes, with more metres/min that too with reduced polymer consumption; all inbuilt in India’s first dedicated 5-layer Polyolefin Line – The BARON 2500 infinity POD, with which one can meet demands even after down-gauging. POD is basically a non-barrier film with a thick core layer and thin skin layer along with medium intermediate layers. There is an increased possibility to optimize the functional property of each layer and also have a higher output by using high melt strength polymers. With the die and the single cooling ring appropriately designed, one can expect better film properties, higher puncture resistance an increased film output, a BUR of 1:5 and more. The Baron 2500 infinity
POD can deliver an output of up to 550 kg/hr with the 250 mm die. With this there is a noteworthy improvement in the impact strength and sealability of the film produced and our friends in the industry can now produce shrink and lamination films with in accordance to global unmatched quality and probably at the lowest price. The company is yet to disclose the price. Plastic as Fuel Indian Railways is mulling a plan to turn waste plastic bags, bottles and cups into diesel through a waste-towealth technology developed by a government research laboratory in Dehradun. The railways plan to set up plants to produce diesel to run trains through the technology that can turn 1,000 kg plastic waste into 800 litres of high quality diesel. This means now all our broken buckets, mugs, bottle caps and other polyolefin products would be converted the cleanest grade diesel. Scientists at the Dehradun-based Indian Institute of Petroleum,a laboratory under the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research that developed the technology are currently discussing plans to scale up the process, examining the feasibility of setting up three plants to process 1,000 kg plastic a day, primarily to manage the internal plastic waste generated by passengers. The railways with its vast fleet of locomotives use up over 2 billion litres of diesel every year spending over Rs 15,000 crore. With such developments, Plastic waste will henceforth be viewed as a resource. Yes its Start up India.
Hon.Editor Ajay Desai
11 • August 2015 • Plastics News
Aipma at work
Report on visit to Udwaria, Rajasthan
To, Hon’ble Prime Minister Shree Narendra Modiji, The Prime Minister of India, South Bock, Raisina Hill, New Delhi – 110 011
10th August, 2015
Hon’ble Shree Narendra Modiji, Namaste from The All India Plastics Manufacturers’ Association The All India Plastics Manufacturers’ Association – popularly known as AIPMA was founded by Industry visionaries in 1945 making it the old & the largest Apex Body in the Plastic Industry in India, having its Head Office in Maharashtra’s economic city, Mumbai and Regional Offices in important cities of India. It has more than 25000 members through Affiliated Associations from all over India and various segments of plastic industry Through this letter, we wish to bring to your notice about the wrath of NGOs towards Indian Plastics Industry and suffering of various industry like Pharma, Food, Cosmetics etc. who are dependent on plastics as their primary packaging medium. Acts of NGOs and wrong interpretation by certain ministry is hampering industry growth and now threatening the existence. If the negative forces succeed, it would be disastrous to Indian consumer and economy because over 70% of farm produce, process food and medicines are packed in plastic packaging. Besides helping goods reach consumer, plastics also offer required shelf life to the product. For the last couple of years, an NGO “Him Jagriti Uttaranchal Welfare Society” has been active through bureaucratic channels and judiciary in spreading venom against Plastics. They first approached DTAB to ban use of plastics / PET with unsubstantiated data. They succeeded in persuading authorities at Ministry Of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) to issue gazette notification G.S.R. 701 (E) in September 2013. The gazette was stalled with timely and effective intervention by several trade associations across Globe (National & International), but not yet withdrawn – this is a concern to us. Had the gazette gone through, by now India would have witnessed severe health services issue with more than half the population not getting medicines on time. Besides this, even the economy would have been in sever crunch with most of the Pharmaceutical industry closing down. Besides these havoc by Him Jagriti, several writ petitions were filed in various NGOs in different High courts; they too are either thrashed or being pursued. It is very difficult for any industry to survive with such a combative environment. After futile attempt at Drug Technical Advisory Board, under Ministry of Health (DTAB), Him Jagriti approached NGT court in 2014 with similar unsubstantiated data seeking ban on use of plastics
Plastics News • August 2015 •12
Aipma at work
citing environmental and health reasons. The case was admitted under ref 15/2014 titled “Him Jagriti Uttaranchal Welfare Association vs Union of India and Ors” at National Green Tribunal (NGT) court. Ministries impleaded under union of India are Ministry of Environment & Forests (MOEF), Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Director General of Health Services (DGHS), Food Safety & Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) and AIPMA as others. To our surprise, there are contradictory views amongst govt. machinery. Even the honorable judge has been asking all ministries to sit together and ascertain safety and formulate strategy but invain. Also, there are no attempts to seek expertise of Indian Institute of Packaging, governed under ministry of commerce (IIP) or Bureau of Indian Standards, governed under ministry of consumer affairs (BIS) who are authentic in establishing suitability & safety of packaging and formulating relevant standards. In all these episodes, none of these bodies were consulted and their reiteration on safety was ignored. Frankly, courts are not in a position to decide safety of plastics but purely go by merits put by either party. With arguments and counter arguments refuting each other we are moving nowhere but hurting Indian economy and confusing common man. Hence, we seek your intervention to stall the impasse by constituting competent body to investigate into all aspects from safety to environmental impact/recycling and give recommendation to Govt. and courts. To our belief, Indian Institute of Packaging, a premier body under Govt. of India is competent to study and ascertain. They are also competent to suggest alternates if a particular packaging is found unsuitable. IIP study will ascertain consumer safety and protect Indian economy from collapsing. We seek your earliest convince for meet you in person to clarify any concerns on this recommendation. Looking forward for your rightful intervention and advising respective courts to adjourn during the intervening period. Thanking you, Yours sincerely, For The All India Plastics Manufacturers’ Association Rituraj Gupta President
13 • August 2015 • Plastics News
SIDBI Make in India Soft Loan Fund for Micro Small & Medium Enterprises (SMILE) Term Loan Textile and Garments
Media and entertainment
IT and BPM
Objective • To provide soft loan, in the nature of quasi-equity, and term loan on relatively soft terms to MSMEs to meet the required debt-equity ratio for establishment of an MSME as also for pursuing opportunities for growth for existing MSMEs. Target MSME Sectors • All the identified 25 sectors or other sectors as may be added, in the Make In India Programme. Deserving proposals from any other sector can also be assisted on merits. Eligible Enterprises • New enterprises in the manufacturing as well as services sector. Existing enterprises undertaking expansion, modernization, technology upgradation or other projects for growing their business will also be covered. Loans extended under the scheme cannot be used for repayment of earlier loans. Project Cost • All MSMEs as per MSMED Act 2006, with the emphasis on financing smaller enterprises within MSME. Minimum Promoter’s Contribution • 15% of project cost for projects up to ` 1 crore and 20% for the rest.
• 75% for enterprises with total project cost up to ` 1 crore (for Debt-equity ratio of 3:1) and 2/3rd of the project cost (for Debt-equity ratio of 2:1) for the rest. Soft Loan • 10% of the project cost subject to a maximum of ` 20 lakh. • Up to 15% of the project cost for the enterprises promoted by Scheduled Caste (SC) / Scheduled Tribe (ST) / Persons with Disabilities (PwD) and women, subject to a maximum of ` 30 lakh. • Persons belonging to these categories must own controlling stake (i.e. 51% or higher). On expiry of 3 years from the date of first disbursement, the outstanding soft loan together with any dues thereon shall be converted into secured term loan and the entire loan shall carry applicable rate of interest as per internal rating of the borrower. Upfront fee • Upfront fee of 0.5% plus applicable service tax Rate of Interest • On soft loan - Prevailing concessional rate of interest as applicable under the scheme from time to time. • On term loan - Prevailing concessional rate of interest as per applicable rating under the scheme from time to time. Minimum Term Loan Size • ` 50 lakh for new enterprises and ` 25 lakh for existing enterprises going for additional investment. Repayment Period • Not exceeding 7 years inclusive of the moratorium upto 1-1/2 year for term loan and upto 2 years for soft loan. Security • As applicable under the scheme. Other conditions • As applicable under the scheme.
For enquiries, please contact the nearest SIDBI office www.sidbi.in
Plastics News • August 2015 •14
Aipma at work Date: 11th August, 2015 Mr. Ashok Lavasa Secretary, Ministry of Environment & Forest (MoEF) Government of India (Government of India) Indira Paryavaran Bhavan, Jor Bagh Road New Delhi 110 003 Sub: MoEF Draft Notification Plastic Waste Management and Handling Rules, 2015 and Solid Waste Management Rules 2015 published In the Gazette of India, Part-II, Section-3, Sub-section (i) Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.
Dear Sir, Greetings from Team AIPMA! The All India Plastics Manufacturers’ Association – popularly known as AIPMA was founded by Industry visionaries in 1945 making it the old & the largest Apex Body in the Plastic Industry in India, having more than 22000 affiliated members. AIPMA is sincerely thankful to Honourable Minister for Environment and Forests, Mr. Prakash Javadekar for his positive thinking towards Plastics and support to the industry. We have seen the notifications on your website and after studying the same, have noticed that the recommendation sent to you vide Letter dated 4th April, 2015 and 27th July, 2015 has not been added in the Draft Rules. Requesting you for amendments of the below points through this letter. Our suggestions are very brief and point to point. The main importance lies in the definition of Carry bags which needs more clarity on the product as in the past the same notification had lot of ambiguity and lead to industry being troubled by various departments and state level Pollution Control Boards to non-carry bag producers. The other most important point we wish to highlight is EPR responsibility for the complete chain of producers from Polymer producers and importers to Final retailers and consumers of the plastic packages. We would be obliged to support MOEF in any manner that would serve the Plastic Industry and create a positive image of it. Thanking you, Yours sincerely, For The All India Plastics Manufacturers’ Association Rituraj Gupta cc: (1) Mr. Bishwanath Sinha – Jt. Secretary, Ministry of Environment & Forest
(2) Mr. Shard Sapra - Scientist D, Ministry of Environment & Forest (MoEF) (3) Mr. E. Thiru - Jt. Secretary (4) Mr. Surjit Chaudhary – Secretary, DCPC (5) Mr. Avinash Joshi - Joint Secretary, DCPC
15 • August 2015 • Plastics News
Aipma at work
AIPMA's Suggestions Suggested Amendments to Draft Notifications - Plastics Waste Management Rules 2015
n preambles we suggested to remove the word “Polluter” or define “Polluter”. The word “Polluter” can be replaced with “Waste Generator’s”. Anywhere in the complete notification the words Polluter must be eliminated if found.
“Plastics” and the definition should be simplified as follows: “Plastics” means material which contains as an essential ingredient a high polymer which at some stage in its processing into finished products can be shaped by flow;
2. Applications: the notification has everywhere mention of Manufacturer and Producer but nowhere mentioned Importer. So the word Importer needs to be added everywhere there is manufacturer and Producer’s responsibility. Also the word Importer should be well defined.
3 (n) “Plastic Sheet” should be replaced with following “Plastic Sheet / Films”
3 (b) The definition of Carry bags need to be reverted to either same as 2009 definition or bring more clarity on “CARRY BAGS” word as the other packaging are considered to be carry bags under the current definition. We Suggest “Carry Bags” mean bags from plastic material, having carrying features used for the purpose of carrying or dispensing commodities, but do not include bags that constitute or form integral part of any other packaging in which goods are packed/sealed prior to use 3 (g) The words “environmentally sound management” should be explained with more details. 3 (i) The following words should be added before recycling “….collection, storage, recycling…” 3 (k) Under “Manufacturer” either we include Importer or separately add “Importer” and define it. 3 (m) “Plastic” should be changed to
Plastics News • August 2015 •16
3 (o) in the end following words can be added “as per IS 14534:1998 “ 3 (q) “Producer” definition should be rephrased as “Producer” means a complete value chain of Persons, Industries or individual’s engaged in the manufacture of Polymers and Packaging of Plastics. 3 (w) The words “Scientific” should either be better explained or eliminated. The word “reclaiming” should be added. The words “or disposal” must be removed as Plastics are meant to be recycled and not disposed. 3. More definitions / clarifications should be added as follows: 1. Importer/s 2. Recycling which should be phrased as “Recycling can be of any type Mechanical, Waste to Energy or Waste to Fuel.” 4 The word “Import” should be added after manufacture and before stocking. 4 (b) The para should be rephrased as “The food contact layer of Packaging sheet / Film shall not contain recycled
Plastic or products made of recycled Plastics” 4 (c) & (d) The “Carry Bags” thickness should be maintained at 40 Microns and not increased. If increased it will lead not only lead to increase of packaging cost and hit common man’s pocket but also lead to excessive consumption of precious fuel. Stringent Penal Clause should be implemented on companies not producing “40 Microns thickness Carry Bags”. Increasing thickness will not lead to better collection as value increase of “Waste Carry Bag” will increase negligibly. The thickness also should be across the board maintained in all states and each state should not be permitted to change these norms. 4 (e) The words “Importer” should be added after manufacturer. 4 (h) The year of IS Standard should be changed from 2008 to 2010. 4. MOEF must add one more condition “Mandatory use of recycle content in the next 2 years to a minimum of 25% in Carry bags and non food Packaging as per international Guidelines and norms. Lower percentage of recycled content can be passed if the the quantity requirements doesn't allow so as per international guidelines. BIS should define standards for such materials“.The above clause will create a PULL effect in generating value for thin plastic waste which will inturn self-develop a sustainable ecosystem. 9 Responsibility of Producers should also include “& Importers”
Aipma at work 9 (2) The Para should be rephrased as “The Producers of Multilayer Film’s, Sheet’s and Packaging should work together with Urban Local Body and Gram Panchayat’s to educate, promote and support recycling processes.” 9 (3) Time Frame for Implementation should be amended and increased 9 (4) Time Frame for Implementation should be amended and increased 1. EPR guidelines need to be defined with clarity, we recommend to form a committee of associations / stakeholders to frame these guideline
2. A technical Nodal agency should be identified who will certify which plastic materials are recyclable. We recommend that CIPET should be notified as the Nodal agency.
4. The above clause will create a PULL effect in generating value for thin plastic waste which will in turn self develop a sustainable ecosystem.
3. “Mandatory use of recycle content in the next 2 years to a minimum of 25% in Carry bags and non food Packaging as per international Guidelines and norms. For special applications lower percentage of recycled content can be suggested as per international guidelines. BIS should define standards for such recycled waste content and quantities.“
5. We should not target Multi layer packaging as the same is recyclable now, we recommend that we instruct the industry that in 3 years from now only RECYCLABLE materials to be used for packaging. The list of recyclable materials are notified by a technical NODAL agency like CIPET.
Suggested Amendments to Draft Notifications - Solid Waste Management Rules 2015
n the complete notification MOEFCC should replace 'Wet & Dry Waste' with "Biodegradable and Non Biodegradable Waste."
3 Add definition of "Bulk Generators and specify size of bulk generators"
2. Application: Include the word "Census Towns" before statutory towns. Also need to include "Defense Areas / Cantonments / Establishments, Central Govt. Towns, APMC"
8 (c) MOEF must work out modalities for Inter State Hassle Free movement of compost and waste.
3. (V) Add words "In absence of Oxygen" before to produce methane rich biogas. 3 (l) Include the word "territorial areas" before Municipal corporation, "Census Towns" before notified area. Also need to include "Defense Areas / Cantonments / establishments, Central Govt. Towns, APMC" before notified area. 3 (ii) should be completely deleted. 3 Add Definition of "Decentralized Waste Management means closer to the source of waste generation"
7 (b) Time frame of 6 months should be given.
After 8 MOEF must add duties of MNRE and state Energy department. They should be directed to provide subsidies for waste to energy projects. Clear policy for waste to energy must be included. Also should make MNRE and State Energy Department to facilitate waste to energy, electricity and power projects. 12 (b) will read as "Formulate the standards of ground water, ambient air, leachate in respect of all solid waste processing & disposal facilities" 12 (e) include time frame of 6 months
of State level duties. Also the word "/ parameters" must be added after guidelines. 12 (j) the line should read as "Provide guidelines & mitigation measures to State or Union Territories in respect of processing and disposal of waste and compost and rdf or processed by products of waste on interstate movement of waste." 13 (f) add words "or private sector participation" after mode, 13 (q) add words "organised" before waste pickers. 13 (z) replace and with or before cap 13 need to add "ULB may incentivize the waste generators for waste management" 13 (zf) (v) more clear demarcation required to identify the Biodegradable wrapping or sanitary waste.
12 (h) This point should also be part
17 • August 2015 • Plastics News
Aipma at work
AIPMA’s participation in Exhibitions In Pack Plus 2015 from 30th July, 2015 – 2nd August, 2015 at New Delhi
In Plastics Vietnam – Internation Plastic Exhibiiton, at Saigon Exhibition & Convention Center, Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam 2015 from 23rd July, 2015 – 25th July, 2015
Mr. Kailash Murarka – Chairman Plastivision India 2017, Mr. Kishore Sampat – Chairman Plastiworld 2015 along with Ms. Kothare – Manager Exhibition, AIPMA and Mr. Naresh Sah – Regional Manager North Zone, AIPMA
Heartiest Congratulations Appointment of Shri Arvind Mehta as Chairman Empowerment Committee, Plastindia International University Vapi (Proposed) It is a matter of pride for AIPMA that our Past President and Chairman Governing Council Shri Arvind Mehta has been elected by the Plastindia Managing Committee as Chairman, Empowerment Committee, Plastindia International University (Proposed). The Plastindia International University is going to be set up at Vapi, Gujarat in 35 acres of land. It is for the technical education, to provide the industry with technically qualified youth to supplement huge growth of Plastic Industry of India. They can support the plastic
Plastics News • August 2015 •18
Mr. Sanju Desai – Vice President (West), AIPMA, Mr. Swaminathan – Smart Expos along with dignitaries in Vietnam.
Arvind M. Mehta Chairman Governing Council AIPMA Past President – AIPMA &Plastindia
industry as the Technical Head or CEO and / or even start their own unit. The education level targeted is of global standard. This land was purchased by Shri Arvind Mehta himself during his tenure as President of Plastindia Foundation from 2006-2009. Mr. Raju Desai has been nominated as Member of Main commiteee and Mr. Harish Dharamsi as Special Invitee in the PIU Project.
19 • August 2015 • Plastics News 43 • April 2015 • Plastics News
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Plastics News • August 2015 •20 Plastics News • April 2015 • 40
2015 •• Plastics Plastics News News 2141 • August • April 2015
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23 • August 2015 • Plastics News
Plastics News • August 2015 • 24
GAIL commission 2 greenfield projects at Kanpur
AIL (India) is likely to commission two greenfield projects that will help its petrochemical capacity nearly double to 1.7 mln tpa in the second quarter of FY16. Currently, the PSU produces high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and linear lowdensity polyethylene (LLDPE). For the expansion, the company proposes to increase capacity of the Pata plant, near Kanpur to 900,000 tpa. Also, the greenfield projects promoted by GAIL through Brahmaputra Cracker and Polymer Ltd (BCPL) (with ONGC Petro-additions as partner) is near completion. According to GAIL official “The robust growth in the
petrochemicals business in India provides an opportunity for the company to expand its petrochemical business further. Over the last 15 years, GAIL has emerged as one of the leading petrochemical companies with a pan-India marketing network.” The additional capacities are being added at the petrochem which are being fed by an expensive feedstock (imported LNG). However pressure on margins have started showing after long-term LNG supplies from Qatar has become expensive compared with spot buys, forcing India to cut supplies by 30-35% from Doha. The equation has altered since mid-2014.
Kiefel celebrates 60 years
iefel, a Brückner Group’s company, enjoyed the most successful year in its history last year. Turnover, including its subsidiary companies, increased by approximately 20% at well over 100 million euro, surpassing the previous record year in 2013. Celebrating its 60th anniversary this year, the company is confident of a better future. There will be steady growth in food packaging including trays, containers and hinged packs worldwide definitely within the next five years driven by three factors: growing world population, even more urbanization and a growing middle class worldwide," observed Thomas Huber, Director Sales Packaging Industry, Kiefel. Mr Frisch also
revealed that Kiefel is engineering a new Smartformer machine for the packaging industry that is expected to be introduced this year. A Sharpformer is also in the making for the appliance industry. Earlier at CHINAPLAS 2015, Kiefel focused on the efficient stacking in the packaging area with demonstration of its new system KEST 78/56.Highly transparent, polypropylene (PP) cups were produced on the KTR 5 SPEED thermoforming machine combined with the innovative stacking system KEST 78/56.An efficient stacking system brings about a quicker removal and packaging or filling of formed parts and thereby increases productivity, the company explained.
Ineos and Sinopec move towards patent resolution
hemicals giant Ineos and Chinese state-owned oil and petrochemical giant Sinopec are reportedly close to settling a dispute over patents related to the industrial chemical acrylonitrile. Earlier in March 2014, the Swiss firm filed a lawsuit against Sinopec after its subsidiary Sinopec Ningbo Engineering allegedly broke a technology agreement. Ineos chief executive Jim Ratcliffe was quoted in the Financial Times as saying: "The companies are close to a settlement based on a thorough discussion of the subject, based on a good relationship.”
Liquid Light signs agreement with Coca-Cola Liquid Light has signed a technology development agreement with The Coca-Cola Company. The objective of the agreement is to accelerate the development of Liquid Light's technology which can make monoethylene glycol (MEG) from carbon dioxide (CO2). Liquid Light's approach enables more efficient use of plant material to make MEG. For example, a bio-ethanol production facility could make bio-MEG from the CO2 byproduct that results from converting plant material into ethanol. The technology has the potential to reduce both the environmental footprint and the cost of producing MEG.
25 • August 2015 • Plastics News
CNOOC selects AEG Power Solutions in Jiaxing Petrochemical to Huanghua city license INVISTA’s EG Power Solutions, a global system of torch recovery and the P8 process provider of power electronic transformer substation for recycled systems and solutions for industrial water, as well as the transformer technology
power supplies and renewable energy applications, announced that CNOOC (China National Offshore Oil Corporation) has selected its power systems solutions to secure critical loads applications at its petrochemical production center, which is located in Huanghua City in the province of Hebei in China.
The center will start operations in 2016. It includes a crude oil distillation facility with a capacity of 2.5 million tons, a catalytic cracking unit, a storage tank area for gas and petrochemical by-products and a sewage treatment plant. AEG Power Solutions is providing fifteen Protect 8 UPS and two Protect 4 UPS, as well as batteries, to secure the power supply to the main critical equipment of this sensitive operation center. The systems will be powering applications such as the control
substation and control system of air partial pressure. Protect 8, which represents the main part of this contract, is one of the most reliable UPS in its class.
The system’s design is based on an innovative modular architecture, enhanced manufacturing processes, and “fit to specification” concept, which ensures that each application gets exactly what it needs to guarantee optimal performance levels and to achieve world class performance. “We were able to adapt the technical configuration to the specific requirements of the site and the applications,” explains Ever Guo, Managing Director at AEG PS China. “The performance of our products even in harsh conditions is renowned, and we have proven track records in the petrochemical industry which made the difference”
LyondellBasell French petrochem plant estimates damage worth US$20-30 mln
yondellBasell Industries NV estimated damage costs at US$2030 mln from a fire earlier this month at two hydrocarbon tanks at its Berre cluster petrochemical plant near Marseilles, France, as per Economic TimesLyondell said that the fires were under criminal investigation by
Plastics News • August 2015 • 26
authorities. French authorities said that the fires were almost certainly started deliberately and that the incident was being treated as arson. The company said previously that the fires were put out by midday on July 14 and that the facility was running under normal conditions
Invista Performance Technologies (IPT) and Jiaxing Petrochemical Co., Ltd., a subsidiary of Tongkun Group Co., Ltd., have reached agreement for the licensing of INVISTA’s latest P8 process technology for Jiaxing’s second purified terephthalic acid (PTA) line. Jiaxing Petrochemical’s first PTA line, in operation since 2012, also utilizes INVISTA’s technology. “I look forward to cooperation between both sides to ensure successful project execution of the second PTA line.” Mr. Xu, president at Tongkun Group, expressed his trust in INVISTA’s PTA technology: “I look forward to cooperation between both sides to ensure successful project execution of the second PTA line.” M i k e Pi c k e n s , I P T p r e s i d e n t , commented, “The signing of the second PTA line license agreement represents the latest milestone in our relationship with Jiaxing and Tongkun. We are very appreciative of the trust that Chairman Chen Shiliang and his team have placed in INVISTA, recognizing that selection of industry-leading technology is critical for a good return on investment.
Hindustan Petroleum shelves refinery plans in Andhra Pradesh
industan Petroleum Corp has shelved a plan to build a refinery in Andhra Pradesh, although it will go ahead with a proposed petrochemical unit, as per Economictimes.com. State-run HPCL will build the petrochemical plant in partnership with GAIL Ltd. The two companies had discussed the possibility of setting up a refinerycum-petrochemical complex for years, but the inability to find foreign partners to fund the project has kept the plan from taking off "We will just do the petrochemical plant," said Nishi Vasudeva, chairman and managing director of HPCL, adding that the
company's refinery at Visakhapatnam is being almost doubled, obviating the need to add capacity in the state at present. The two companies have evaluated the prospects of setting up a refinery-cum-petrochemical complex costing Rs 85,000-95,000 crores, and only petrochemical unit for about Rs 35,000 crores. Due to the huge investment required and a glut in the country's oil refining capacity, the companies have been wary of adding capacity. Their search for a foreign partner is still on and talks with potential partners are being held.
Trinseo gets US FDA approval
rinseo, the US-based materials supplier formerly known as Styron, announced that several grades of MAGNUM acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) resins are certified as food contact compliant by US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) after obtaining the Food Contact Substance Notification (FCN) approval.
The food contact grades are MAGNUM ABS 3453, 3904/3904 Smooth and 8391/8391 MED Resins. As defined by USFDA, food contact compliant indicates that the materials can contact food safely, an essential approval for manufactured involved in applications such as kitchen appliances, kit ch enware , and food packaging. Trinseo said FDA
compliance is especially important to its Consumer Essential Markets (CEM) Medical Devices business, as medical customers are likely to prefer food contact compliant materials as a product enhancement beyond the compliance to biocompatibility standards alone Produced using a proprietary mass polymerization process rather than a traditional emulsion process. MAGNUM ABS resins feature superior purity, enhanced lot-to-lot consistency, exceptional whiteness and color and general stability, according to the material supplier. The resins have been approved under the FDA's Conditions of Use E through G, room temperature to frozen storage.
Victrex enhances solution capability
ictrex has further enhanced its ability to provide complete 'integrated' solutions following acquisition of US-based polymer gears specialist Kleiss Gears. The acquisition by Victrex, the leading global PEEK polymer-based solutions provider, will help facilitate the rapid development of answers to key challenges facing customers across industries, including enhanced durability and reliability, better performance, significant reductions in energy consumption and weight, and up to 50% reduction in noise, vibration and harshness (NVH), compared with metal gears.
MRPL to amalgamate with ONGC Mangalore
RPL has initiated its downward integration by amalgamation
with ONGC Mangalore Petrochemicals Limited (OMPL). A scheme of amalgamation of OMPL with the company has been proposed for approval of various regulatory authorities. The synergy between OMPL and MRPL will provide higher returns for stakeholders. OMPL had recently commissioned a stateof-the-art Aromatic Complex with 914,000 tpa capacity of Paraxylene and 283,000 tpa capacity of Benzene.
27 â€˘ August 2015 â€˘ Plastics News
P&G to use more recycled plastic
rocter & Gamble plans to use more recycled plastic in more fabric care product packaging — in some cases going from zero to 50%, in a move that will impact hundreds of millions of containers. The company is reaching out to plastic recyclers around the world to push use even higher.
The push toward using more recycled plastics in the company’s fabric care unit is part of a larger overall environmental effort by the company that also includes the announced end of phosphates in detergents. The decision will impact an expected 230 million high density polyethylene and PET bottles annually starting next year. Brands, primarily sold in Europe,
such as Ariel, Dash, Lenor and Unstopables, all are covered by the increase. P&G already uses some recycled content in packaging for some of the impacted brands, but others will see recycled plastics for the very first time. Accounting for the increase in recycled content, the company said it expects to use a total of 7.6 million pounds of recycled plastic in the 230 million bottles. P&G plans to roll out the increased recycled content in different markets as soon as possible rather than waiting for a unified introduction in every market at once. This will allow for the benefits of using recycled plastics to be realized as soon as possible, the company said.
Husky names Gerardo Chiaia president of global beverage packaging
usky Injection Molding Systems has named Gerardo Chiaia, a 21-year veteran of the Bolton, Ontario, Canada-based machinery manufacturer, as president of global beverage packaging. Most recently, Chiaia served as president of Husky’s hot runner and controllers. Since joining Husky in 1994, he has held a variety of positions, including vice president of beverage packaging, and Asia-Pacific president. He started out as a Husky service technician. Chiaia holds a master’s degree in engineering and automation from Metz University in France and an MBA from Sacred Heart University
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in Luxembourg. Husky is the largest maker of PET preform injection presses. Over the last several years, Husky has invested in beverage packaging, rolling out innovations every 18 to 24 months. Stefano Mirti, general manager of hot runner and controllers, will lead that business. In 2013, Husky established hot runners and controllers as its own stand-alone business. Mirti, who joined Husky in 1995, has worked in a variety of global roles at the company. He holds an engineering degree from Ecole des Mines des Nancy in France and an MBA from Sacred Heart University in Luxembourg.
Ningxia Baota to use Honeywell UOP's technologies
hina's Ningxia Baota Chemical Fiber Co. will use Honeywell UOP's latest generation technologies and equipment to build an energyefficient petrochemical complex. The Chinese complex in Yinchuan City, Ningxia, will produce valuable petrochemicals as well as highquality gasoline, and is expected to come online in 2018. The new complex will be the first in China to use Honeywell UOP's energy efficient aromatics complex design to convert heavy naphtha into 800,000 tpa of high-purity paraxylene. The plant will also produce 520,000 tpa of high-quality gasoline and 200,000 tpa of benzene. In addition to licensing, UOP will provide the basic engineering, commissioning services, training services, proprietary equipment, catalysts and adsorbents for the new complex. "Nowhere in the world is paraxylene demand growing as fast as it is in Asia," said Mike Millard, vice president and general manager of Honeywell UOP's process technology and equipment business. "UOP's next-generation aromatics technology combines the latest catalysts and adsorbents with an energy-efficient design to reduce energy consumption by as much as 20%, helping achieve the lowest cost of operation for para-xylene producers in the industry," he added.
Railways to set up Plants for Converting Plastic to Diesel
ndian Railways is soon to set up plants to manufacture diesel for mechanical traction with technology patented by scientists at the CSIRIndian Institute of Petroleum (CSIRIIP). Announcing this in Dehradun, Dr Harsh Vardhan, Union Minister for Science and Technology and Vice President, CSIR, laid out the roadmap for further exploitation of opportunities in alternative fuel sources. The country’s premier research establishment in hydrocarbons has achieved significant success in reducing national dependence on fossil fuels. “I have myself campaigned on the streets of Delhi against pollution and plastic proliferation. Today, I am glad to announce that diesel conforming to Euro-5 specifications in sulphur content has become a reality thanks to the CSIR-IIP & GAIL’s diligence and ingenuity” he said. The rapid decision to embrace the technology by the world’s largest railway network, Indian Railways, speaks volumes for the Narendra Modi government’s resolve to apply out-ofthe-box ideas to reduce India’s carbon footprint. The Minister remarked: “United States President Barack Obama has described Shri Modi as India’s reformer-in-chief. This is not surprising.” CSIR-IIP, which is part of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), is currently blazing the trail in offering solutions to global warming. Reducing India’s high dependence on imports and sparing the fossil fuels for the future generations constitute the major focus of its present R&D thrust. He said, “At the inauguration of the Indian Science Congress in Mumbai in
January, I had stated our government’s resolve not to be distracted by falling oil prices by continuing to fund R&D into clean energy. I had CSIR-IIP in mind at the time because I was confident that the time when I could announce to the world this amazing news was drawing near” The Minister elaborated “We are the first to have the capability to convert 1 tonne of broken buckets, mugs, toothpaste tubes, bottle caps and other Polyolefins products into 850 litres of the cleanest grade of diesel. This is the best news yet for the planet this year because henceforth plastic waste will be viewed more as a resource than a nuisance.” The Minister, who visited the IIP’s campus, inaugurated the Advanced Triblogy Research Centre. He was accompanied by Dr M.O.Garg, DirectorGeneral of CSIR who is also the Director of the prestigious establishment. Dr Sudeep Kumar, Head, PPD of CSIR and other scientists were also present. Another feather in CSIR-IIP’s cap is the successful project to produce low-carbon jet fuel from the inedible, drought-resistant Jatropha plant. This has already captured the imagination of several governments worldwide. Dr Harsh Vardhan said, “We have gone several steps ahead in developing alternative sources of jet fuel. Jatropha apart, CSIR-IIP has the knowledge to make jet fuel out of any non-edible oil –even the waste cooking oil from our kitchens is soon to become prized material in the market” The Minister, who has initiated several renewable energy missions in the national capital –including a project to run public toilets with solar powerfuelled taps, exhaust fans and lights –
said “We must make a social movement out of alternative fuel use. Our cultural heritage has been one of the most environment friendly. Our villagers have used cowdung cakes as a fuel source for thousands of years. In recent decades we had been following the mad path of over-consumption. Now, thanks to our scientists we can revert to our original mindset of preservation” While moving fast with alternative fuels, CSIR-IIP has continued with its founding mission of developing cleaner forms of fossil fuels. This has led to the development of world class sweetening catalyst which helps to remove excessive foul smelling mercaptans from LPG. After capturing the Indian market, recently 600 Kg of this new material hit the international market”, Dr Harsh Vardhan announced. The Minister remarked that the advanced training courses on Petroleum Refining and Petrochemicals which have been run by the institute right from inception for the Indian hydrocarbon sector has made a major impact on human resource development. He stressed on the importance of imparting necessary skills to operate and optimize plant operations at the international level. “Energy and environment are two side of the same coin”, he pointed out. “I urge our scientists to constantly strive to develop new technologies and products with zero defect and zero effect which can help to produce a higher GDP per unit of energy consumed. India must be at the forefront of fighting climate change. We would thus help realise the vision of our Hon’ble Prime Minister and President, CSIR.”
29 • August 2015 • Plastics News
Exploiting the Potential of Plastic Gears - Andy Ulrich
Plastic gears are now being used in drives of higher power and higher precision than in the past
lastic gears afford appliance designers dramatic opportunities to reduce drive cost, noise, and weight. However, due to the properties of engineering resins, plastic gears require a greater engineering effort than metal gears. This paper examines current applications of plastic gears and explains the payoffs in reduced cost, weight, and noise. It also provides insight into the design process for plastic gears and discusses the importance of a gear design team.
turn to plastic gears in higher-power, high-precision applications. Some current examples illustrate the possibilities: • When Maytag engineers designed their new washer transmission around plastic gears, they effectively eliminated the noise of steel gears (Figure 1).
Fig.2 The Whirlpool “splutch” used molded plastic gears to reduce parts count and extend the life of the World Washer.
The presentation covers: • Current plastic gear applications • Accuracy of plastic gears • Weight and cost savings possible with plastic gears • Drive design considerations when using plastic gears • Plastic gear design fundamentals • Gear design team Gas-Fired Furnaces vs. Electric Furnaces Introduction For mechanical engineers, plastic gears are a powerful means of cutting drivecost, weight, noise, and wear. Plastic gears also open new opportunities for smaller, more efficient transmissions in many products. What are the payoffs when using plastic gears in place of metal? Where do they make most sense? How are they specified, and which resins are best? These are timely questions as more engineers
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Fig.1 Hewlett-Packard took plastic gears to AGMA class Q9 quality standards to give its new color printer precise paper motion They also saved 13 pounds and did away with 42 parts compared with a previous metal gearbox. Gears injection-molded from unfilled and fiberglass-reinforced Celcon® acetal copolymer maintain their strength and tight tolerances even in an oil-bath transmission. They also demonstrate the long-term durability essential in an appliance expected to have a long service life. • Hewlett-Packard and molder UFE took plastic gears to new standards of manufacturing quality in the DeskJet 660 color printer (Figure 2). Acetal copolymer cluster gears
were specified to comply with the high-quality standards of AGMA (American Gear Manufacturers Association) Quality Class Q9. The accuracy was necessary for precise paper movement to prevent “banding” - obvious skipped lines or overprinting. For 48-pitch gears, 1.25 inches in diameter, AGMA Class Q9 denotes Total Cumulative Error (TCE) of just 0.0015 inch, and Tooth-ToTooth (TTT) error of 0.00071 inch. • To improve the reliability of the “World Washer” manufactured in several countries, Whirlpool Corporation introduced a splined clutch or “splutch,” containing a spline and gears molded in acetal copolymer (Figure 3). The lowwear epicyclic gear assembly lasts four times the projected life of the
FEATURES washing machine. It also reduces the number of moving parts by 20% when compared with earlier designs using metal gears.
Fig 3. Plastic gears made an HVAC actuator quieter and less costly. The gears are molded in Celcon® acetal copolymer. Gears are critical, complex drive components that directly affect function and reliability. Engineers must therefore understand both the potential and the pitfalls of plastics to get the most from them in gearing applications. Gearing Up Injection-molded plastic gears have come a long way. Historically, they were limited to very low power transmissions such as clocks, printers, and lawn sprinklers. Today’s stronger, more consistent engineering polymers, and better control of the molding process, now make it possible to produce larger, more precise gears that are compatible with higher horsepower. For example, Whirlpool enhanced another washing machine with a spin gear molded in fiberglass reinforced acetal copolymer. The molded plastic gear cost about a fifth of what the original machined metal gear cost and made the drive lighter. As the experience base with
plastic gears has grown, computer aided design tools have advanced. For instance, CAD software can now optimize plastic gear designs based on temperature, moisture pickup, and other environmental factors.
convalescent bed to eliminate powder metal gears and reduce parts count from three to two. The acetal gears reduce noise, improve durability, and cut total drive costs by one-third when compared with the original design.
The unrealized potential of plastic gearing is becoming more apparent to the industry. Testing of plastic gears specifically to characterize gear resins in different service environments has begun. The new data will allow design engineers to more accurately predict gear performance. Better predictions mean faster, shorter design cycles since the development phase may be approached with greater confidence.
Injection-molding is fast and economical compared with hobbing teeth in metal blanks. Plastic gears can usually be used as-molded and require no finishing. Consequently, they have a significant cost advantage in production quantities. The cost of plastic alternatives can be one-half to one-tenth that of stamped, machined, or powder metal gears, depending on the manufacturing technique. For example, the manufacturer of a damper actuator for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems calculated that 14 acetal copolymer gears in the gear train cost half as much as comparable metal gearing.
Payoffs in Plastic Typically, gears are a means of positively transmitting uniform motion with constant drive ratios. Thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers have long provided alternatives to metals in low-powered, unlubricated gear trains. Gears machined from phenolics and other thermosets can be used at higher operating temperatures, and they are more resistant to lubricants that are generally required. However, injection-molded thermoplastic gears have better fatigue performance, and unlike those manufactured from thermosets, can cut manufacturing costs significantly compared with metal gears. Thermoplastics are now finding their way into applications demanding lubricated drives, higher horsepower, and higher AGMA quality standards. For drive designers, thermoplastic gears offer multiple advantages over metal and thermosets. They enable the maker of a gear motor drive for a
Plastic gears are also inherently lighter than metal. The specific gravity of steel is 7.85, while the specific gravities of glass-reinforced nylon 6/6 and low-wear acetal copolymer are close to 1.4. Differences in specific gravity alone, however, are not direct indicators of weight saving. For example, to transmit the same power, plastic gears must usually be larger than metal gears. However, once tradeoffs in size and power are made, plastics can lend themselves to smaller, lighter drive trains as well as innovative gear designs that may not be feasible in metal. One example is split-path planetary drives, which are rarely considered by designers because they demand greater numbers of expensive metal
31 • August 2015 • Plastics News
FEATURES gears. With inexpensive plastic gears, compact, split-path transmissions can actually be less costly than with multistage, single-branch spur drives.
gears one or two AGMA classes higher in quality. In the home healthcare bed mentioned earlier, acetal gears reduced operating noise significantly.
Quiet and Smooth
Low coefficients of friction associated with acetal copolymer and other engineering plastics help minimize gear wear. Lower friction also means less horsepower wasted in heat. Maytag estimates its cooler-running plastic transmission reduced heat rise by 10 to 15% when compared with previous metal drivetrains. Greater efficiency is important in light of anticipated future US Department of Energy standards for appliances.
The most powerful advantages of plastic gears may be the design opportunities they afford. Gear geometries overlooked by designers accustomed to metal are often easy to mold in plastic, and they can reduce drive size, weight, and cost. For example, a common arrangement of two external spur gears with a large ratio demands a wide center distance. However, the same ratio can be achieved in a smaller space by replacing an external gear with an internal gear, which, while tough to machine in metal, is easy to mold in plastic.
Oil bath or grease lubrication enables drive designers to exploit the added strength of glass-reinforced plastic gears without excessive wear. A major automotive supplier, for instance, eliminated squeaks and wear in motorized car seats by replacing metal seat adjuster gears with those molded in acetal copolymer compatible with lubricants. Self-lubricating plastic gears also lend themselves to gear trains where the use of grease must be avoided, such as the Hewlett-Packard printer or K’Nex motorized toy where oil or grease leaks cannot be tolerated. Plastic gears provide the opportunity to cut drive noise by reducing dynamic loading. Gear misalignment and small tooth errors create tiny impacts resulting in running noise. However, lower modulus plastic gear teeth deform to compensate for the inaccuracies, and their softer material absorbs impact, often making plastic gears quieter than more costly metal
Plastics News • August 2015 • 32
Low-cost, low-wear plastic gears may also allow designers to reconsider the axiom: The fewer parts, the better. Split-power paths in parallel- or nonparallel axis drives can indeed have more parts, but they afford advantages in space, weight, efficiency, and cost. Plastic gears impose no special restrictions on gear ratios, and the required accuracy can be achieved with today’s molding machines and materials. The higher the performance requirements for the drive, the more complicated the up-front design effort required to make plastic gears work. State-of-the-art gear has advanced to where plastic gears are now in drives ranging from ¼ to ¾ hp. Future applications may take them between 1 and 10 hp in the near-term and up to 30 hp in the long-term. Horsepower limits for plastic gears
vary with the polymer, depending upon the modulus, strength, wear, and creep characteristics that change with temperature. Nevertheless, plastic gear limits can be defined in terms of contact stress and temperature for dry running gears. For lubricated gears, fatigue strength and temperature are the critical issues. Plastic gear trains are generally built around involute gear technology. This system is very forgiving of the center distance shifts inherent to plastic gears. Conversely, plastic gears are not satisfactory in non-involute systems that are centerdistance sensitive. In particular, many nonparallel axis systems are not based on involute technology and are difficult to manufacture with plastic gears. Bevel gears are an exception, as they are non-involute but often made of plastics. The low modulus of plastics makes them relatively forgiving of the alignment and manufacturing errors that are inherent in mass-produced bevel gears. Crossed-axis helical worm gears that make point-contact when new are good candidates for plastic at low loads. Their capacity is increased by initial wear that produces a line contact. Involute face gears have a line contact and are preferred to worm drives at higher power levels. To Lubricate or Not to Lubricate In the past, plastic gear applications were typically air-cooled, either unlubricated or greased. As engineering resins now move into drives with higher horsepower and greater precision, the drive designer faces the choice of oil-lubricated, grease-lubricated or unlubricated
FEATURES gearboxes. The decision to lubricate or not lubricate, and the choice of lubricant, are essential factors for the drive designer to consider. For plastic gears running in an oil bath, the oil facilitates removal of frictional heat and allows higher load capacity. Unlubricated and greased gears are aerodynamically cooled. Therefore, they run hotter with lower load capacity. Unlubricated gear sets are often molded in different materials for reduced coefficient of friction (COF). Acetal copolymer is often mated with nylon 6/6 or polybutylene terephthalate (PBT). The combinations have much lower COFs than any of these materials working against themselves. Unlubricated plastic gears often have lubricants such as PTFE, silicone or graphite compounded into the polymer. While these additives reduce friction, the COF is still higher than that of greased gears. Generally, the load capacity and life of lubricated plastic gears is governed by bending fatigue at the tooth root. Unlubricated gears, which run hottest with the lowest load capacity, often fail by wear or overheating on the tooth flanks. Greased gears will occasionally fail by wear if the grease does not stay in the mesh. While engineering resins can resist oils and greases, lubricants must be carefully chosen because some can cause dramatic changes in gear properties and dimensions. For example, extreme pressure oils are unnecessary with the low contact pressures found in plastic gearing, and some can attack plastics chemically. Likewise, the choice of resin for
the application is important. PTFE and other low-friction additives compounded in the material of plastic gears may have little or negative value, if the gears are oiled or greased. In The Know Plastics are naturally more prone to dimensional creep than metal, and creep in plastic gears depends on duty cycle and temperature. Consequently, molded gears are best used in applications without static loads. If static loads cannot be avoided, plastic gears must be designed to operate properly after teeth have deflected due to creep. The operating speed of plastic gears obviously impacts operating temperature. However, rapid loading rates can also affect material properties. For some materials, the faster a tooth is loaded, the higher the effective modulus and strength. Higher temperature reduces the modulus and strength and accelerates creep. These effects must be considered in the design process, and studies to quantify them are just beginning. Gear load analysis is complicated, regardless of gear material, and gear design remains an area of special expertise. Gears also usually demand more precision than commonly molded parts, so their tooling can be expensive. A good design of plastic gears, however, saves money in reducing trial-and-error mold iterations. For the project engineer, building a drive with plastic gears ideally should start with a team including a gear designer, molder, tool builder, and resin supplier: all experienced with gears.
The team needs the most complete application information available to create the most detailed gear specification possible. Ambient temperature, lubrication, and duty cycle impact gear life and drive performance. A housing material that matches the thermal and moisture expansion of plastic gears can help maintain precise center distances. However, plastic housings cannot dissipate heat as well as metal. Gear swelling due to moisture absorption in some resins can also stall tight-meshed gears. CAD tools can help designers allow for worstcase tolerances. Universal Technical Systems in Rockford, IL, is one supplier of such CAD tools. Driving Design Plastics also change the rules of gear and drive design. The designer of a metal pinion gear would normally limit the aspect ratio to one or less. With plastics, an aspect ratio of two or three may be acceptable as full tooth contact may be achieved. Plastic gears can require tip relief unnecessary in metal gears. The lower mesh stiffness of plastic teeth requires more backlash than found in metal gears. A hunting ratio considered desirable in many metal gear trains to equalize wear might accelerate wear with plastic gears. The guidelines for metal gear design must be examined carefully before applying them to plastic gears. Tooth forms defined in terms of a “basic rack” remain a convenient way to define and generate gear teeth in metal or plastic. Standard metal gear profiles can provide a starting point for plastic gears, although there are some
33 • August 2015 • Plastics News
FEATURES plastic profiles that are preferred. The most common profile system is described in ANSI/AGMA 1006-A97, “Tooth Proportions For Plastic Gears.” Most profiles are based on a 20-degree pressure angle and a working depth of two over the diametral pitch or two times the module. However, standard tooth profiles are a starting point for plastic gears. The profile needs to be optimized for a material with a lower modulus, greater temperature sensitivity and different coefficients of friction and wear than metal. Plastic gears commonly have greater working depths than metal gears, sometimes up to 35% greater. This allows for variations in effective center distance due to thermal, chemical, and moisture expansion. The designer of plastic gears should strive for a full root radius to enhance resin flow into the teeth during injection molding. This reduces molded-in stresses and more uniformly removes heat from the plastic during solidification. A more stable geometryresults. A full root radius will also reduce stresses at the root. Designers of plastic gears should also pay special attention to shaft attachment. Bore tolerances naturally impact true center distances, sometimes resulting in loss of proper gear action. A simplepress-fit demands extra mold precision and attention to processing for a secure mount without over-stressing the plastic. A press-fit knurled or splined shaft can transfer more torque but also puts more stress on the gear hub. Insert-molded hubs grip better but during molding, as the plastic shrinks onto the shaft, they can induce residual stresses. Ultrasonic insertion of a knurled shaft produces the lowest residual stresses.
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In some cases, a single- or double-D keyed shaft prevents slippage and minimizes distortion with assembly. However, if torque is high, these can become loose. For high torque applications, splined assemblies are preferred. Molded In What? A fundamental misconception in plastic gear design is that, whatever the resin, “It’s just plastic.” The choice of a gear resin demands careful study. Inexpensive commodity resins generally lack the fatigue life, temperature resistance, lubricant resistance, and dimensional stability required for quality plastic gears in all but the most primitive applications. However, many of today’s engineering resins provide the necessary performance for working gear trains. They also have the consistent melt viscosity, additive concentrations and other qualities essential to consistent, accurate molding. It is generally easier to mold highquality gears with resin containing minimal additives than with highly filled blends. The specifier should call for only as much glass or mineral filler or lubricant additives as are actually needed. If external lubrication is required, the drive designer, resin supplier, and lubricant supplier should work together to select an appropriate lubrication system. Crystalline resins generally have better fatigue resistance than amorphous plastics, and most gear applications have utilized the crystalline resins, nylon and acetal. Nylon 6/6 was used successfully, for example, in a lawn mower cam gear. Nylon, both with and without glass reinforcement, continues to serve in
many gear and housing applications. Acetal copolymer provides long-term dimensional stability and exceptional fatigue and chemical resistance over a broad temperature range. Other resins have found limited gear success. ABS has good dimensional stability and low shrink out of the mold, but its fatigue characteristics make it suitable for only lightly loaded gears and short service life. Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) has exceptional dimensional stability and fills the most intricate molds. To date, LCP has been used for only small precision gears under light loads, such as tiny wristwatch gears. Linear polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) has exceptional temperature and chemical resistance and good fatigue life. It has been effective in other highly loaded parts molded with fine details and should prove to be a high performance gear material. Spur gears molded in PTFE lubricated linear PPS were incorporated in an automotive steering column where their coefficient of thermal expansion matches that of surrounding die-cast parts. As plastic gears move into higher loads with larger gears in lubricated environments, the improved fatigue resistance, dimensional stability and high-impact strength of long-fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFRT) should make these materials leading gear candidates. Specify and Mold Gear resin selection requires the designer to focus on resin performance at the high end of the operating temperature range planned for the drive. Heat deflection temperatures for engineering resins range from 170°F for unfilled nylon and 230°F
FEATURES for acetal copolymer to 500°F for reinforced linear PPS at 264 psi. However, higher temperatures can lower the modulus and strength of gear resins, increase the creep rates and introduce thermal expansion into precision parts. Fortunately, the temperature response of engineering resins is well-understood, allowing designers to predict the effect on their gears. The initial engineering effort to design plastic gears is greater than
that required with metals, if only to cope with changing properties and dimensions. The most common error of plastic gear designers is starting with insufficient application specifications. The specifics of the application must be factored into detailed analysis before prototyping. The detailed drawings must contain sufficient information to manufacture the gear. Problems with prototypes can also tempt gear designers to change resins—a costly mistake given the
different shrink characteristics of various plastics. It is better to rework the tooth profile than switch the material, unless it is clear that the wrong material was chosen. To avoid the pitfalls of plastic gears and to realize their potential, expertise is available from software, gear consultants, and resin suppliers. With careful design and material selection, the power transmitted by plastic gears can be significant, and the potential savings enormous.
Blast in Tianjin - destroys LLDPE stock
wo massive explosions in the port of Tianjin, northern China, have killed dozens of people, left hundreds injured and devastated large areas of the city. The explosions in the Chinese port city of Tianjin that killed more than 50 people also destroyed the equivalent of nearly half of the monthly polyethylene imports through the port, according to latest information from IHS Chemical.
that water sprayed on some of the chemicals could have led to the blasts. Calcium carbide, known to be at the site, reacts with water to create the highly explosive acetylene. Chemical experts suggest an acetylene blast could then have detonated ammonium nitrate for a much larger blast. Officials have confirmed that calcium carbide, potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate were at the warehouse.
According to reports the blasts took place at a warehouse at the port which was reportedly storing "dangerous and chemical goods". The building is owned by Tianjin Dongjiang Port Ruihai International Logistics. Ruihai Logistics was reportedly set up in 2011, and it handles about one million tonnes of cargo annually. Chinese media said that at least one member of Ruihai's staff had been arrested. Officials insist it is not yet clear what triggered the two blasts, about 30 seconds apart.
Police have also confirmed that sodium cyanide was present near the site. It is soluble in water and, when dissolved or burned, it releases the highly poisonous gas hydrogen cyanide. The China Earthquake Networks Centre said the initial explosion, in a city with a population of nearly 7.5 million. had a power equivalent to three tonnes of TNT detonating, while the second was the equivalent of 21 tonnes. The second was so big that satellites orbiting Earth picked it up as well. Chinese data site Cnbeta published pictures showing the sudden flare.
Before the explosions, many firefighters were already at the scene trying to control a blaze, AFP reports. There have been suggestions
The explosion destroyed a significant amount of goods stored at and around the port, in the Binhai New District.
Large shipping containers were tossed into the air like matchsticks and were crumpled by the blasts. A logistics park containing several thousand cars was incinerated by the fireball. Renault says some 1,500 of its cars were lost, while Hyundai said it had around 4,000 cars on the site - although it has not yet assessed the level of damage. The blasts rippled out several kilometres from the port into residential areas. The impact rocked entire buildings, shattered windows and tore doors off their hinges. More than 720 people were taken to hospital, of whom nearly 60 are either critically or seriously injured. Reuters reports that several thousand people living near the port have had to leave their homes, and are now staying in local schools Chinese media say more than 1,000 firefighters are still at the scene, with some fires still burnin More than 200 chemical and biological experts from the military are on site. The explosions destroyed about 25,000-30,000 metric tons of linear
35 • August 2015 • Plastics News
FEATURES low density PE that was stored in the affected area was destroyed, IHS Vice President and China Managing Director Paul Pang said in an statement. While that’s equivalent to almost 50 percent of the monthly polyethylene imports through Tianjin, Pang expects the impact of the explosions on the overall chemical supply chain in China to be minor. Tianjin has suspended loading/ unloading of chemicals at the port as well as transportation of chemicals by land, IHS says. “As a result, there is an interruption in the supply of chemicals/plastics in North China.” Paul noted, however, “This
interruption is not likely to last more than two weeks. Tianjin is not a major chemical port, and the impact on the entire chemicals supply chain in China should be minor.” Pang also ruled out the possibility of bulk plastics materials involved in the explosions. “As the explosions occurred in a container warehouse, there were no bulk chemicals/plastics involved in the explosion,” Pang said. “If bulk chemicals/plastics were damaged as a result of the incident, it was not significant enough to impact supply,” he added. “Bulk chemical tank firms are not in the same district, and therefore there is no direct impact
[on the supply chain]. Only several chemical iso-tanks were damaged.” As of 3 p.m. on August. 14, local time 56 have been killed and 721 hospitalized in the tragedy, Tianjin Binhai New District government posted on its official Weibo microblogging site. Flames at the warehouse site have “basically” been put out, it said. Chinese authorities have not produced a complete list of inventory from the exploded warehouse, which is owned and operated by Tianjin Dongjiang Port Ruihai International Logistics. (Plastics News, China)
Gujarat Mechanic designs 'AC sofa' A repairman from Gujarat has successfully designed 'an AC sofa' which can be used even at outdoor events and consumes less electricity than the tower air-conditioners. Gandhinagar resident Dashrath Patel, who repairs ACs, came up with the idea some years ago. He was helped by the National Institute of Design in developing the product. "I first thought of installing airconditioner in a sofa in 2008 and started working on it. But the first sofa I made weighed around 175 kg, which was way too heavy," Patel said. "Then I heard of 'Design Clinic Scheme' of MSME ministry and I approached them. They provided me a designer who modified the design and changed the material, reducing the weight to 35 kgs," Patel said. The design clinic scheme of the ministry of micro, small and medium enterprises is being run in collaboration with NID since 2010, said Kumarpal
Plastics News • August 2015 • 36
Parmar, project executive at the institute. It was Ankit Vyas, an NID alumnus, who helped Patel make his innovation lighter and affordable. Patel said he will launch the sofa in the market with a price tag of Rs 1-1.25 lakh. Vyas, who runs a design studio here, said, "It works like a split AC with a unit inside the sofa linked by pipe to an outer unit. The air-flow will come out from the hand-rest part of the sofa." "It will simply work like a house AC. You can increase or decrease the temperature with a remote control, and it can also run on fan-mode," Vyas added. "The earlier model was of wood. All parts, including the hose pipe of the AC were wooden which made it heavy. I replaced wood with glass fibre. For pipe I used PVC," Vyas said. Asked whether it will be affordable for common people, Vyas said the product was rather targeted at businesses such as event management and hotels.
"It will be used by event management firms or the terrace restaurants," Vyas said. "At political or religious gatherings, tower ACs are used which consume a lot of electricity. AC sofas consume 10 per cent less power," Vyas said, adding, even for hotels installing AC sofas would make more sense than using tower ACs. According to Parmar, under the MSME's scheme 60 per cent of the expenses of designing are borne by the ministry and it gives the balance to the product innovator in the form of a grant.
Plastic Lining - A Boon For Farm Pond National Committee on Plasticulture Applications in Horticulture (NCPAH), Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India, Delhi
he Indian agriculture is dependent on favorable monsoon. Agriculture continues to remain the major backbone of Indian economy and contributes nearly 14 % to Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Total net sown area is 140.8 mha out of which nearly 65.3 mha is irrigated by all sources of irrigation. The tank contributes nearly 4.6 % to the net irrigated area.
Due to the impact of climate change resulted into unfavorable monsoon, erratic rainfall, hail storm etc. affects productivity of crops in the country. Occurrence of drought & flood has always resulted in loss of crop & farm income affecting millions of farmers in the country. Govt. of India under national mission programmes have been promoting creation of water resources and use of plastic films as lining materials in such water bodies. Today with rapid industrialization, rise in population, reduced available operational land holdings etc. have created pressure on land & water resources. Govt. of India has already extended green revolution to eastern and north-east states and included drought and desert development regions of the country. Hence the importance of water management & its conservation has been getting attention both by the end users’ and policy planners. The common problem in earthen is the seepage losses. Nearly 1.21 to 10.54 cumec /million sqm in case of heavy clay loam soil to porous gravelly soils. To avoid such water losses plastics film lining has proved to be an effective tool against seepage in farm ponds and reservoirs / canals. It also avoids depletion of stored water used for irrigation purposes. It is also an effective and economic method to harvest rain-water for supplementary irrigation & other agri-allied activities. Farm ponds need to be designed based on cropping pattern and crop water requirements (CWR). Mostly farm ponds created are individual & community level to irrigate farms between 2 -10 ha. Considering different type of soil, texture, rainfall pattern, runoff etc. different type of wide width films have been used
in such farm ponds. Linkage of micro Irrigation system with these water bodies may bring more area under to achieve more crop per drop. Advantages of Plastic film lining in Farm pond: • Reduction in seepage losses to the maximum extent up to 100% and hence water availability over a longer period of time. • Provide supplemental irrigation to the standing crops at a critical growth stage. • Integration of these water bodies with micro irrigation system can bring more area under irrigation. • It is highly useful in porous soils where water retention in ponds and water harvesting tanks is minimal. • Eliminates water logging and prevents upward intrusion of salts into stored water. • It can also be used in the lining of saltpans for improving productivity as well as quality of salt. • Economical and effective method of storing water.
Indian Standard on Plastic Films: Looking at the technical requirements and field functionality, Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has developed various standards on lining films that are given below:
Selection Criteria for plastic films: The selection of plastic films (single & multi layers) and thickness depends on soil type & condition, cubic capacity,
37 • August 2015 • Plastics News
FEATURES users’ economic capacity etc. Normally the thickness of film used in farm ponds ranges between 300 microns to 500 microns. Thicker films are usually recommended because
Govt. Initiatives on Plastic lining: of enhanced durability. Thinner film is economical but susceptible for puncturing by uneven soil surface, impact of feet, weed growth, exposure to sun light etc. Generally, trapezoidal shape of farm pond is recommended for plastic lining where horizontal: vertical slope varies between 1:1 to 3:1 in case of Heavy clay loam to Porous Gravelly soils.
Lining of Plastic Films in a Pond: To avoid the puncturing of plastic film, smoothening of rough surface of dugout pond needs to be taken care by putting thin layer (minimum 12mm) of sand with a little silt content or wetted sand that would stand well on slopes before laying of plastic film. In case of small ponds, the film should be laid lengthwise to minimize joints. One end of the film is anchored at the proper position on the bank and then unrolled in a direction perpendicular to flow. The success of pond or reservoir lining depends on the careful installation and joining of films.
Indicative film requirement (Trapezoidal section): The quantity of plastic films required in a farm pond at different slop at 3m depths is given below:
Plastics News • August 2015 • 38
Govt. of India has been emphasizing creation of farm ponds under various mission programmes and scheme to increase area under irrigation. Under the Mission, assistance are available for creating water sources through construction of community ponds/reservoirs with plastic lining to ensure life-saving irrigation to the crops. For smaller size of the ponds cost will be admissible on pro rata basis depending upon the command area. Some of the major programmes under which financial assistance available are , Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH), Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), Rain-fed Area Development Programme (RADP), Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) etc. The minimum thickness of plastic films must conforming to BIS standards are 500 micron for community pond (100m x 100m x 3m) and 300 micron for individual farm pond (20m x 20m x 3m) under MIDH scheme. The Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India has a national agency “National Committee on Plasticulture Applications in Agriculture & Horticulture (NCPAH)” to provide effective ways & means on the use of plastics in agriculture including farm ponds. NCPAH supervises & monitors 22 Precision Farming Development Centres (PFDCs) & standardized field protocols on use of plastic films in farm ponds. These centres also conduct training & awareness programmes to create both skill and capacity development of perspective users’ of farm ponds in the country. Farm Pond not only stores water required for plants but lining films ensure its availability for sustainable agriculture.
39 • August 2015 • Plastics News
Plastics News • August 2015 • 40
41 • August 2015 • Plastics News
Plastics News • August 2015 •42
China imposing VOC tax on plastics and rubber production Starting 1 October plastics and
Ministry of Finance, Development
will be distinguished. While Beijing
rubber material producers will be
and Reform Commission and the
decides the standards, enforcement
imposed charges for VOC emissions
Ministry of Environmental Protection,
and collection will fall on the
such as non-methane hydrocarbons
the charges will be levied based on
shoulders of local environmental
(alkanes, alkenes, alkynes,
a “pollution equivalent” number
protection agencies. The levied
aromatic), oxygen-containing organic
calculated by dividing the weight
funds will be turned over to the
compounds (aldehydes, ketones,
of emitted VOCs (in kilograms) by
state treasury into general public
alcohols, ethers, etc.), halogenated
a benchmark number — which is
budget. In addition to plastics and
tentatively set at 0.95 kilograms.
rubber materials, other impacted
compounds, and sulfur-containing
Emissions will be measured by direct
industries include oil refining, organic
compounds. According to the new
measurement, material balance and
chemical feedstocks, synthetic fiber,
regulation, announced by the
modeling. Different emission sources
warehousing and packaging printing.
NYC restaurants push back against foam ban
ew York City is getting significant push back from more than 1,000 restaurant owners over the city’s move to ban expanded polystyrene foam food-service products.
Yorkers use every day,” he said in
ban for food and drink containers
the statement. “Denying foam’s
while 26 percent were against the
recyclability is like denying the sky
idea. Support was highest for those
is blue. It just doesn’t make sense.”
making $100,000 or more, at 81
New York City officials in support of
percent, and highest among those
The business owners, through the Restaurant Action Alliance, are backing a petition that calls for Mayor Bill de Blasio to reverse his ban on the products, which technically started July 1. New York, however, is not enforcing the ban until January 1 next year .“The Restaurant Action Alliance believes steadfastly that the City’s decision to ban foam was based not on evidence or fact, but on fulfilling political agendas,” alliance leader Robert Jackson said in a statement. He is a former City Council member. “Foam is 100 percent recyclable and there is a robust national market for recycling the takeout cups and containers tens of thousands of New
the ban excoriated EPS food-service
living in Manhattan, at 78 percent.
products when they announced
The lowest support, 64 percent, was
the ban earlier this year. “These
for people making less than $50,000
products cause real environmental
per year and those living on Staten
harm and have no place in New York
Island, 57 percent, the university
City,” de Blasio said at that time.
reported.Small businesses and
But there’s been plenty of push-
non-profit groups with less than
back from EPS and food-service
$500,000 in annual sales can apply
manufacturers, and the city has
for what the city is calling “hardship
been sued by the alliance and foam
exceptions,” the city indicated
products maker Dart Container Corp.
earlier this year.But the restaurant
over the issue.A 2013 poll of New
group said small restaurant owners
York City residents, however, shows
will be hit the hardest as other
support for a ban among a majority
carry-out packaging cost more than
of those who were asked about
double the price of foam. The group
the issue.Quinnipiac University
claims the ban will raise prices, cost
pollsters found that 69 percent of
jobs and potentially cause business
the respondents supported a foam
43 • August 2015 • Plastics News
Competition Tribunal imposes R534 mln UK's Surrey waste penalty on Sasol site ordered to pay £19,000 he Competition Tribunal found local plastic converters and caused
Sasol Chemical Industries Limited, a subsidiary of Sasol Ltd., guilty of charging domestic customers excessive prices for purified propylene and polypropylene between January 2004 and December 2007. The Tribunal stated that the price SCI charged Safripol, SCI’s only external customer for purified propylene and a competitor of SCI downstream, was to Safripol’s detriment and inhibited its ability to effectively compete with SCI. In addition, SCI’s locally charged polypropylene prices have had a significant adverse effect on the
them harm during the complaint period The Tribunal imposed a penalty of R205.2 million in the case of purified propylene and R328.8 million in respect of polypropylene. It also imposed remedies for determining SCI’s future pricing of both purified propylene and polypropylene that would see SCI’s prices charged to local customers drop. The Tribunal’s finding comes after a lengthy hearing into allegations of excessive pricing brought by the Competition Commission against SCI.
Breathable film maker Plastica expands Polish plant
olish specialist films and packaging producer Plastica is planning to expand its manufacturing base at Kowalewo Pomorska in central Poland.The company which turns out permeable film and laminates used in the medical, hygienic products and clothing industries, has obtained a planning permit to grow its operation in the Pomeranian Special Economic Zone. Plastica is set to invest almost €5m in an expansion project to install new production lines at its manufacturing facility and expects the scheme will lead to the creation of another 30 jobs, according to Poland’s Economy Ministry. Plastica
Plastics News • August 2015 • 44
is part of the sanitary products, cosmetics and medical devices manufacturer TZMO Holding Group headquartered in Toruń, Poland. Founded in 2004, the company started operating a business enterprise on land belonging to TZMO in the Pomeranian Special Economic Zone four years later. Since 2009, Plastica has been producing flexible packaging and hygienic products under the brands ‘Happy’, ‘Seni’ and ‘Bella’ as well as medical devices in the ‘Matopat’ label. The latter products are sterilised by means of ethylene oxide on the premises. Plastics processing is an additional company activity
waste company in Worcester Park, UK has been ordered to pay a total of £19,000 in fines and costs after pleading guilty at Guildford Crown Court for operating an illegal waste transfer station. The court heard that the site was being used to store 4,000 tonnes of construction demolition waste, and at least 17 skips of builders’ waste including plastic piping, carpet off cuts, wooden panels, paper and cardboard.
Charges were brought when an Environment Agency investigation found Feely Skip & Grab Hire, of The Old Mill, Old Malden Lane, Worcester Park, Surrey, operating a waste facility without an environmental permit or exemption. Company director Mr David Feely rented land in Worcester Park for parking and storage, but Environment Agency officers found that the site was actually being used as a waste transfer station for construction and demolition waste.His Honour Judge Critchlow fined the company £10,000, ordered it to pay £9,000 towards the prosecution’s costs, and imposed a victim surcharge of £120. Environment Agency environment manager Alan Cansdale said: “The court heard today how waste crime can undermine legitimate businesses. The company took in waste inappropriately, and the site posed a risk to the local environment.”
New French law introduced to strengthen bioplastics market European Bioplastics, a trade group that represents the bioplastics industry, has welcomed new French laws to introduce biobased, compostable plastics to some packaging and fruit and vegetable bags. The French parliament this week adopted the law on energy transition and green growth proposed by Ségolène Royal, minister of ecology, sustainable development and energy. European Bioplastics chairman François de Bie said: “We fully support the clear commitment to plastics which are biobased and biodegradable.” Besides plans to reduce the share of nuclear power in the French energy mix, the law contains a wide range
of legislative proposals, for example on renewables (40% by 2030) and CO2 reduction (-40% by 2030).Bioplastic lightweight bags for fruits and vegetables, for example, will need to be biobased and compostable in home composting from 1 January 2017. Furthermore, plastic packaging for commercial mailshots will have to be biodegradable/compostable in home composting in the same timeframe. “France has taken a step forward to the responsible consumption of plastic materials and to treating waste as a valuable resource. Bioplastic materials will contribute their share to its environmentally responsible economic growth,” de Bie added
IBERS joins European bioplastic packaging initiative The Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS) at Aberystwyth University, UK has announced that it is leading the consortium ADMIT BioSuccInnovate, an initiative funded by the European Institute of Innovation & Technology (EIT), along with Reverdia and other European partners. The consortium will investigate, with the help of biorefining company CIMV, the use of local lignocellulosic feedstock, such as straw, wheat or miscanthus, to produce bio-based, biodegradable plastic packaging for consumer markets in association with UK retailer Waitrose and food tray producer Sharpak. Karen Graley, manager of packaging and reprographics at Waitrose said: “The use of lignocellulosic feedstock
for the production of bio-based plastic packaging from Biosuccinium is one of the ways we are ensuring that we tread lightly. This project is hoped to contribute to the Waitrose sustainable packaging strategy for 2020 and beyond and endorse the partner’s collaboration in making renewable packaging a commercial reality." Jo Kockelkoren, Reverdia’s Global Commercial Director said: “This venture builds on our market development work and partnership model that spans the entire value chain from biomass to consumer applications.” IBERS focuses on research in response to global challenges such as food security, bioenergy and sustainability, and the impacts of climate change.
Fire ravages Polish Coko-Werk components plant Fire has ravaged a Polish plastics processing plant operated by the German technical mouldings producer Coko-Werk in the city of Łódź.The huge blaze, thought to have broken out in the 6,700 square metre plant's warehouse early on 27 August Monday morning wrecked the site’s production hall destroying nearly 30 injection moulding machines and damaged the finished component paint shop, according to Polish media.Around 100 workers were safely evacuated from the site and no one is understood to have been injured in the fire. Fire fighters, equipped with more than 20 fire tenders, faced difficulties accessing sufficient water from local sources. They battled to prevent the blaze spreading to neighbouring industrial plants and a nearby petrol filling station.The fire fighters, numbering 150, did manage to save part of the plant offices. But the roof of the main processing hall collapsed and they were reported to be unable to enter the finishing area to extinguish fire hotbeds because of the risk of further structural collapse. CokoWerk, based at Bad Salzuflen, Germany, originally launched its plant in Łódź in 2005 and expanded the site further a year later. Today, the Polish subsidiary is reported to employ around 700 in the city. Coko-Werk is currently expanding to 5,000 square metre.
45 • August 2015 • Plastics News
Russia wrestles with PET beer bottle ban
ussian legislators are continuing to wrestle with the intractable issue of whether or not to ban beer bottled in PET plastic containers. Last year, the State Duma, the lower chamber of the Russian parliament, which has been debating the subject since 2013, adopted a draft law calling for a ban on the sale of alcohol stronger than 4% in PET bottles larger than 0.5 litres from January 2016. Since 2014, the Russian government has intervened opposing the introduction of what it termed “tough measures” on the use of plastic bottles for alcoholic beverages. It recently urged legislators to focus on proven scientific evidence and come up with a “balanced solution”. A second reading of the State Duma bill was expected to be debated in parliament this May but the debate was subsequently
postponed. Now, in a compromise move, a leading Duma deputy Anatoly Aksakov has written to the government putting forward a phased ban proposal. This would see a ban on all alcohol, regardless of strength, bottled in containers over 1.5 litres in force from July 2016 and all plastic bottles of more than 0.5 litres banned from 2020. Aksakov, chairman of the Duma’s economic policy, innovation and entrepreneurship development committee, urged gradual implementation of a ban to take account of the views of small and medium sized national brewers. A phased reduction in plastic bottles would allow the companies time to restructure their business process and it was important to take account of all views on such a change.
US in pole position to benefit from shale gas boom
he commercial use of shale gas in the US in the ensuing decade of increasing dependence on this cheap and abundantly available energy source is expected to be a savior of the country’s plastics industry and provide it a strong boost, as it will enable the plastics industry to compete against foreign suppliers and also bolster US exports. This is the crux of a report compiled by experts at the American Chemistry Council (ACC) which tracks the fortunes of the chemical industry, particularly its investment announcements. Since
Plastics News • August 2015 • 46
the discovery of shale gas, the mood in the plastics and chemical industry has been buoyant, with the industry expected to invest billions of dollars for expanding existing chemical manufacturing capacity or creating new ones, thus also generating in the process thousands of new jobs. According to the ACC experts, shale gas has become a “game-changing factor” for the US plastics industry. US manufacturers use natural gasbased feedstock while the competing European and Asian suppliers use oilbased feedstock.
S h a n d o n g Chambroad the first Chinese Co. commissions C3/C4
handong Chambroad Holding Co., Ltd. has become the first company in China to commission a combined C3/C4 dehydrogenation unit to meet growing demand in Asia for plastics, high-octane gasoline and synthetic rubber. The new unit, which is the first of three in China, uses Honeywell UOP's C3/ C4 Oleflex™ process technology to produce propylene, a building block for making plastics, packaging and synthetic fiber, and isobutylene, a component used for high-octane gasoline and synthetic rubber. The unit, which is only the second of its kind in the world, successfully started up in May and all production targets have been accepted. Two other Chinese producers have also licensed the technology for start up in 2017. Located in Binzhou City, Shandong Province, the new unit will produce 116,000 metric tpa of propylene and 104,000 metric tpa of isobutylene. "As the demand for transportation fuels and petrochemicals continues to grow in China, petrochemical companies there see a real benefit from integrating processes," said Mike Millard, vice president and general manager of Honeywell UOP's Process Technology and Equipment business. "The start up of the first combined C3/C4 Oleflex unit in China is a milestone in the region's petrochemical production.
GSFC revives plan for 10,000 crore petrochem at Dahej
ujarat State Fertilizers and Chemicals Ltd (GSFC) is reviving its five-year old plan to set up a petrochemical complex at Dahej in Gujarat at a cost ofRs.10,000 crore. “The company is contemplating to set up the petrochemical complex at Dahej with an estimated capital outlay between Rs.8,000 and Rs.10,000 crore,” the company said in a note to the exchanges. “The status of this complex at present is at the feasibility study/DPR (detailed project report) as well as search/selection of technology suppliers.”
The company, which is primarily a fertilizer manufacturer, also has a prominent presence in two major specialty chemicals—caprolactum and melamine—and enjoys a virtual monopoly in these segments. The Gujarat State Fertilizers and Chemicals Ltd (GSFC) has a 60% and 40% market share, respectively, for these two chemicals in India. GSFC had earlier envisaged setting up of a 100,000 tpa caprolactum plant and a 40,000 mtpa of melamine pant at Dahej, along with capacities for urea and ammonia.
Haldia Petrochemicals likely to get tax relief Haldia Petrochemicals likely to get relief from the Directorate General Foreign Trade (DGFT) from the Rs 2,600 crore fine as it failed to respect the export obligation between 2010 and 2013, as per businessstandard. com. According to a senior government official in West Bengal Industrial Development Corporation (WBIDC), HPL will be granted more time to clear the penalty and a certain portion might be waived off. The technicalities of the deal are still being worked out. State finance minister Amit Mitra is reported to have met the Finance Minister to seek his intervention in this matter, and has been assured that all steps would be taken to ensure that the company continues operation. The company which is now being run by the Purnendu Chatterjee-led The Chatterjee Group (TCG) has been performing 85 per cent efficiency and production is on at full capacity. The consortium of HPL's lenders led by Industrial Development Bank of India
(IDBI) had recently agreed to sanction Rs 2,300-crore restructuring package to the plant. If HPL has to pay the penalty, it would put the future of the company in jeopardy. " We are closely watching the issue as there is a huge exposure to HPL," said a banker. A source in TCG pointed out that the relaxation of customs duty would also determine how fast the stake sale process of the company gets completed. "It should be remembered that this liability was not mentioned in the quotation when we had bid for it, hence we are not bound to pay it," the source mentioned. TCG had agreed to buy 520 million shares (30.8 per cent of the equity) of WBIDCat Rs 25.10 each, matching the price offered by Indian Oil Corporation after the government invited an Expression of Interest last year. HPL, one of the largest manufacturers of high-density polyethylene in the country, supplies different grades of polymers mainly in the eastern Indian region.
S-Oil awards contracts to Axens South Korea's S-Oil has awarded contracts to Axens to provide services for expansion of its residue conversion facilities at Onsan refinery, the residue upgrading complex project (RUCP) is the result of a conceptual study conducted by Axens' Performance Programs business unit. The project is designed to reduce the production of fuel oil, and increase polymer-grade propylene quantities by converting atmospheric residue. Under the contract, Axens will provide an atmospheric residue desulphurisation unit (Hyvahl) to produce diesel and enhance residue quality. This unit includes a permutable reactor system (PRS). The deal also covers a highseverity FCC unit (HS-FCC), Sulfrex unsaturated liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) extractive sweetening unit, Prime-G+ desulphurisation unit, and a C4-stream processing section. HS-FCC is designed to convert the hydro-treated residue produced by the Hyvahl unit, while Sulfrex will be used for treatment of LPG cut generated from the HS-FCC unit upstream of polymergrade propylene recovery process (PRU). Using a down flow reactor, the HS-FCC technology maximises propylene production. Prime-G+ is designed for the treatment of HS-FCC gasoline. The C4-stream processing section includes a C4 selective hydrogenation unit, a MTBE unit, a super-fractionator and a butane isomerisation unit. The unit will produce MTBE and 1-butene.
47 • August 2015 • Plastics News
STEER forays into Brazil and Mexico
TEER, creator of materials platform technology that effectively transforms and functionalises materials in the field of pharmaceuticals, plastics, food & nutraceuticals, biomaterials and bio refining, using the core application of co-rotating twin screw extrusion, announced its plans to further strengthen and expand its presence in The Americas with an entry into Brazil and Mexico STEER, which already has a very strong presence outside India, has appointed Uniflon in Brazil and JM LORD International LLC in Mexico as its representative agents to market its co-rotating twin-screw platforms, advanced EPZ technology as well as specialized components, and
service new customers in the area of plastics and polymers, to capitalise on the burgeoning opportunities in these markets. The company will be introducing its revolutionary Omega 1.71 Do/Di materials platform, with patented fractionlobe special elements and advanced EPZ Technology, to give compounders the capability and the control to work with demanding, difficult-to-manage polymers as well as low-bulk density and shear-sensitive materials. Other offerings include the Mega Special 1.55 Do/Di platform and the 1.49 Do/ Di Alpha series, STEER’s proven outperfomers for standard compounding needs. STEER’s standard replacement elements, trusted by over 5500 lines across the globe, will also be available in these markets
Eni’s Versalis signs SBR sales contract with Reliance
ersalis, a subsidiary of Italian energy major Eni, has signed a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) sales agreement with India's Reliance Industries to commercialize the rubber produced by Reliance in a new Indian plant. The SBR sales agreement follows the license agreement that the two partners entered into in 2011 when Versalis seized upon Reliance's plan to expand its activities in the market of synthetic rubber by offering a technology license and know-how for the construction of a new 140,000tpy emulsion styrene-butadiene rubber (ESBR) production unit at
Plastics News • August 2015 • 48
Reliance's plant at Hazira. India, targeting in particular the tire market segment. The new plant is now up and running and part of its production will be distributed by Versalis in China, where the automotive and tire industries are developing rapidly and represent a massive potential for rubber producers. Versalis says it has been placing strong effort on its elastomers business development to keep a global leading position on the marketplace. To this purpose, a very active licencing strategy is one of the tools used to tap synergies and expand the industrial footprint in Asia.
GS Engineering win contract for KPIC's naptha cracker
outh Korea’s GS Engineering and Construction Corp has signed a contract to expand a Korea Petrochemical Industry Co (KPIC) naphtha cracking plant for 311 billion Korean won (US$270 million), as per energyvoice.com. The project will help KPIC expand its ethylene production capacity to 800,000 tpa from 490,000 tpa, along with its raising benzene, toluene and xylene production capacity to 300,000 tpa from 220,000 tpa. The completion of the expansion is scheduled for May 2017, with commercial operation set for H2-2017. The plant is located at Onsan in the city of Ulsan, about 315 kilometres southeast of Seoul.
Hanwha Chemical merges two of its chemical compounds businesses
o u t h Ko r e a - b a s e d H a n w h a Chemical has merged two of its chemical compounds businesses, Hanwha Next and Hanwha Compound. The combined entity, named Hanwha Compound, will produce polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. The company will operate manufacturing plants in Yeosu and Suncheon, with an annual capacity of 100,000 tons. The company expects the merger to improve management efficiency across its petrochemical affiliates and related businesses.
OPAL likely to be commissioned by year D S M a n d C V C end, revives Stake sales together forms h e m u c h - d e l a y e d m e g a a public float sometime next year ChemicaInvest B.V.
petrochemical complex of ONGC Petro Additions Ltd (OPaL) at Dahej in Gujarat all set to be commissioned in the next six months. With this, ONGC Petro additions Ltd (OPaL) has revived talks for stake sale to strategic partners, especially to Petrochemical Industries Company (PIC), a subsidiary of state-run Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC).
PIC is in talks to pick up as much as 40% stake in OPaL, according to two people familiar with the development who did not wish to be identified. The deal size is expected to be around Rs.3,5004,000 crore. OPaL is also looking for other strategic partners from India and overseas and would shortly appoint another financial advisor for the same, as per sources, adding that
is also under consideration. OPaL is promoted by government-owned Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) and co-promoted by GAIL India Ltd and Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation.
The project has run into a number of delays which has led to an overshoot in its project cost. The plant was initially estimated to cost Rs.12,440 crore but since then the project cost has been revised multiple times to Rs.21,396 crore in August 2012. The petrochemical project has achieved over 95% of overall project completion. The pre-commissioning activities are going on in full swing currently and it’s a matter of 5-6 months when the plant would be on full stream.
Iran working out “special plan” for exports of petrochemical products
special plan for exports of petrochemical products to the US is being worked out by Iran, as per the secretary of the Association of Petrochemical Industry Corporations (AIPC) Ahmad Mahdavi.
The plan is part of Iran’s bid to diversify its petrochemical market which opening up once sanctions are lifted. Iran currently has no problems for sales of its petrochemical and polymer products but the removal of sanctions will cut export costs
and boost their advantages for the target markets, he said. “Presently, there is not even one metric ton of petrochemicals without customers in Iran. With the abolition of the sanctions, demand for purchases from Iran will certainly increase.” In May 2013, Washington blacklisted eight major Iranian petrochemical companies, including Bandar Imam Petrochemical Co., Bou Ali Sina Petrochemical Co. and Mobin Petrochemical Co.
oyal DSM, the Life Sciences and Materials Sciences c o m p a n y, a n d C V C C a p i t a l Partners (CVC), one of the world's leading investment advisory firms, announced that the partnership for DSM's activities in Polymer Intermediates (Caprolactam and Acrylonitrile) and Composite Resins through the formation of a new company, ChemicaInvest B.V., has been finalized. The partnership was announced on 16 March 2015. With all regulatory approvals now received, DSM and CVC have completed the transaction effective as per 31 July 2015. All approximately 1,900 employees have transferred to ChemicaInvest, which is 65% owned by CVC and 35% by DSM. DSM contributed its global caprolactam business (Europe, North America, its 60% stake in DNCC (China) and the caprolactam licensing business), acrylonitrile business and composite resins business including its 75% stake in JDR (China). DSM's 65% stake in the service organization Sitech Services held via its caprolactam and acrylonitrile businesses was also transferred. ChemicaInvest operates as an independent company with three business units: caprolactam, acrylonitrile and composite resins.
49 • August 2015 • Plastics News
RadiciGroup acquires polyamide engineering plastics division of Resinas TB
adici Plastics Mexico S. de R.L. de C.V., a new RadiciGroup company: the RadiciGroup Plastics Business Area has strengthened its production capacity in the North American market by acquiring the polyamide engineering plastics division of Resinas TB, a Mexican manufacturer with over 40 years’ experience in the plastics industry. The sale was closed yesterday on 4 August.
Located in Ocotlán near Guadalajara – a logistically strategic area to serve automotive firms in North and Central Mexico, the Mexican facility has an installed production capacity of 8,000 tpa and employs over 30 people. The newly acquired Radici Plastics Mexico, will allow RadiciGroup, already present in North America with its Radici Plastics USA Inc. production unit in Wadsworth, Ohio, to operate directly on the Mexican market, thus strengthening its market and
competitive position in North America and Central America. “In the last three years, Mexico has kept up double-digit growth in our business,” said Luigi Gerolla, CEO of the RadiciGroup Plastics Business Area. “It is an extremely attractive market for us, particularly in automotive, a steadily growing business. The main players in the automotive industry, top brands such as FCA, BMW, General Motors, Nissan, Ford and Volkswagen Audi, to name just a few, have been investing heavily in Mexico for some time, as have the major world automotive part manufacturers.” “Radici Plastics Mexico, which is already in full operation,” noted Danilo Micheletti, COO for North America, South America and China of the RadiciGroup Plastics Business Area, “will synergistically combine our well-established sales network, our knowledge of the Mexican market
and Resinas TB’s competence in the polyamide industry, with the state-ofthe-art know-how in nylon chemistry and the vertically integrated raw materials production that epitomize our Group.” “Thanks to this acquisition,” Mr. Micheletti continued, “we can support a series of important new projects that we are working on with auto industry players in Mexico and all of Central America. What’s more, we can better support the customers we have been serving through our US site , ensuring greater competitiveness in terms of both production and logistics. The technical content and quality of our raw materials, formulations and product range, as well as our technology, will be identical to those available at all of RadiciGroup Plastics’ other locations around the world.”
LyondellBasell set to purchase SJS Plastiblends lastics and chemicals maker LyondellBasell (Houston, TX) is set to buy India-based polypropylene compounds (PPC) maker SJS Plastiblends. Terms of the financial agreement have not been disclosed.
manufacturing footprint and allow us to better compete in the long-term growth of India's automotive market," said Bhavesh V. (Bob) Patel, CEO and Chairman of the Management Board of LyondellBasell.
products and technologies are used to make items that improve the quality of life for people around the world including packaging, electronics, automotive parts, home furnishings, construction materials and biofuels
The purchase will expand LyondellBasell's existing footprint in India and expand the Company’s position in India's growing automotive market. The deal is expected to be finalized in late 2015."This acquisition will expand our global PPC
"We are very proud of the strong, global reputation we have built by manufacturing high-quality products and providing excellent service to our customers. We look forward to continuing this tradition in India through this expansion." LyondellBasell
SJS has approximately 60 employees and one manufacturing site with annual production capacity of approximately 12,000 metric tons of PPC, used in everything from car parts to home appliances.
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Teknor’s new Monprene® IN-23000 series
new series of styrenic block copolymer elastomers from Teknor Apex Company exhibits performance comparable to that of thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) widely used in window gaskets while offering new options for building product manufacturers.
Unlike most TPVs used for weatherproof seals in metal, wood, or PVC window frames, Monprene® IN23000 Series styrenic block copolymer compounds are readily available in small lots and pre-colored grades and require no pre-drying. Some grades in the new Monprene IN-23000 series can be processed with the same tooling used for PVC profiles at similar throughput rates and die pressures. “We have adjusted the viscosity and
melt strength of Monprene IN-23000 Series TPEs to increase throughput while reducing or eliminating the common problem of die drool,” said Gert Joly, European R&D manager for the TPE Division of Teknor Apex. In the coextruded structures widely used for window gaskets, all of the new compounds exhibit excellent adhesion to the polypropylene or highmodulus TPE substrate that serves as the rigid supporting component. They provide sufficient stiffness to facilitate window assembly and, unlike most TPVs, resist staining from paints. Like TPVs, Monprene IN-23000 Series TPEs exhibit the end-use properties essential for airand moisture-proof window gaskets, including rubberlike seal recovery,
Tomra developes Autosoft flake sorter
ecycling companies have traditionally struggled when it comes to meeting the high purity levels demanded by customers for food grade recycled PET flakes. To address this challenge, Tomra Sorting has developed an Autosoft flake sorter that combines a visible range spectrometer camera to detect color and non-transparent contaminants, a near infrared spectrometer to detect different polymer types and a metal sensor to detect ferrous and non-ferrous particles.
The Autosoft flake sorter is capable of identifying and sorting flakes as small as 2 mm. The Autosoft unit is capable of detecting and separating
out white opaque PET bottles and PET trays. The Autosoft unit can also be used to achieve 100 percent recycled content clear foils. After the Autosoft separates out the case PE foils from the other in-feed material, the contamination is then targeted to remove all fines and improve the purity of the end fraction. Tomra has developed another unit to separate food and non-food PE. The unit uses an extended wavelength scanner to detect the difference between and separate the homo (food) and co-polymer (non-food) material. It effectively separates two polymers within one polymer group. Purity rates on both end fractions of close to 100 percent are achievable
low-temperature toughness, and UV resistance. “In offering styrenic TPEs alongside TPVs, Teknor Apex has taken a ‘polymer-neutral’ approach to the market for window profiles, expanding the range of options for building product manufacturers so that they can select precisely the best compound for their requirements,” said Stef Hordijk, senior market manager. Teknor Apex can produce Monprene IN-23000 Series compounds at all of its TPE manufacturing locations worldwide, ensuring dependable and steady supply in any region around the globe. “As a custom compounder, we are well prepared to accommodate customers who require rapid sampling, small lots, or pre-colored compounds,” noted Mr. Hordijk
Floreon gets patent for its PLA based polymer blends Bioplastic technology company Floreon Transforming Packaging Ltd, based at Hull, U.K., has been granted a patent for Floreon, a biodegradable, polyesterbased polymer blend of a standard bioplastic, polylactic acid (PLA). The patented technology yields a resin that is much tougher and easier to process than current materials and has the potential to expand the uses of bioplastics. Produced from sustainable (plant) feedstock, conventional PLA has been characterized for lack of toughness and a tendency to lose strength during storage in warm conditions, which has limited its use. Floreon is a PLA-based bioplastic suitable for manufacturing articles such as bottles, but with improved mechanical.
51 • August 2015 • Plastics News
Ansell’s HyFlex 11-318 Ultra-light cut-resistant range of safety gloves
he newest style in Ansell’s ultralight cut-resistant range of safety gloves, the HyFlex® 11-318, sets a new standard in top-quality gloves. The high performance and highly comfortable product results from the collaboration between Ansell, a global leader in health and safety solutions, and DSM Dyneema, whose Dyneema® Diamond Technology material enables thinner designs that provide the same cut protection levels as gloves twice as thick. The HyFlex® 11-318 enables Ansell to further build on the impressive market penetration achieved since the 2012 introduction of the company’s first glove made with Dyneema® Diamond Technology, the HyFlex® 11-518. Both glove styles offer a unique combination of low
weight and superior comfort through the use of an innovative fiber that is 50 percent thinner than the materials normally used to make cut-resistant gloves. The HyFlex® 11-318 glove, featuring an ultra-fine 18-gauge knit construction, is made with Dyneema® Diamond Technology fiber, providing it with EN Level 3 cut protection. The HyFlex® 11-318 offers an ideal hand protection solution for workers in the automotive, aerospace, electronics and white goods segments of industry. The design features spandex fibers in the knuckle and palm guaranting a snug and comfortable fit. It also for users handling small parts with sharp edges require enhanced dexterity and optimum tactile control.
American Kuhne’s new program
merican Kuhne customer Thermwood Corporation, a leading US-based manufacturer of CNC routers, has announced a program to develop a 3D Additive Manufacturing System capable of making large carbon graphite reinforced composite thermoplastic components. The systems utilize a ‘near net shape’ approach where a custom-built vertical, integrated extruder deposits or ‘prints’ carbon graphite filled thermoplastic material to quickly create a structure that is close to the final shape. Once it cools and hardens, it is then fiveaxis machined to the final net shape. This innovative process minimizes three challenges of conventional 3D
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printing, particularly for large parts: uneven cooling, material waste, and extensive post-print processing. These new systems will be based on Thermwood’s Model 77, semienclosed, high wall gantry machine structures, which are currently offered in sizes up to sixty feet long. With the addition of an optional second gantry, both the ‘additive’ and ‘subtractive’ processes can be performed on the same machine. ‘Thermwood’s systems will feature full six axis articulated additive deposition head, allowing it to build layered structures on both planes canted in any direction up to ninety degrees from horizontal.
Evonik launches V E S TA M I D ® HTplus glass-fiber reinforced molding compound
vonik has launched a glass-fiber reinforced molding compound with superior properties based on polyphthalamide (PPA)- VESTAMID® HTplus M1035 P1.Dynamically stressed casing components in the automotive industry need outstanding mechanical properties: high burst pressure strength is essential to withstand alternating stresses. Good chemical resistance against corrosive media is also required. Evonik's VESTAMID® HTplus M1035 P1 PPA was developed especially for use under these difficult conditions. Evonik’s new PPA grade also achieves very good results as regards to the impact strength.In addition to the excellent mechanical properties, customers also benefit from the good flow behavior. As a result, the surface of the injection-molded parts tends to be smoother and defects-free. Evonik’s VESTAMID® HTplus product family was developed to replace classic metal applications. This is a semi-crystalline, polyphthalamide (PPA)-based material that is resistant to high temperatures with a very good price-performance ratio. It combines high temperature stability with outstanding resistance to chemicals and exceptionally good mechanical properties.
Plasticizing system for molding optical- EREMA launches grade PC INTAREMA® p l a s t i c i z i n g s y s t e m t h a t system for processing lens-grade or RegrindPro
combines special component designs and flow surfaces helps injection molders of optical-grade polycarbonate (PC), acrylic, and similar polymers to produce highclarity, enhanced-quality parts are developed by Nordson Corporation. The Nordson Xaloy PC Molding System addresses common challenges encountered in molding opticalgrade polymer by delivering a homogeneous melt with a minimum level of the shear that can cause yellowness or discoloration in PC; and by avoiding polymer sticking points or “dead” spots where blemishes such as black specks can form. Nordson recommends the
colored PC for automotive lighting, eyeglasses, optical disks, and electrical and telecommunications components. “The Nordson Xaloy PC Molding System provides superior quality in critical parts such as lenses by developing a fully homogeneous melt with optimal clarity,” said Mark Colella, Nordson Xaloy global product manager. “As a result, processors can reduce scrap and maximize productivity.” The components of the System include: a) Pulsar® II Mixing Screw Modified for Polycarbonate, b) Barrel with X-800® Inlay. Co., C) Valve for FreeFlowing Melt Delivery, d) Nickelplated end cap designed.
Guill Tool introduces The Bullet
uill Tool has introduced The Bullet™, a new extrusion head with fixed center design, multiport spiral flow design and gum space adjustment. The Bullet has no hardware, for easy cleaning, plus quick-change tooling, as tips removes from the back, die from the front
The Bullet™, a new extrusion head with fixed center design, multi-port spiral flow design and gum space adjustment, plus the added feature of no fastening hardware.The Bullet allows quick tooling changes, as the tips remove from the back and the die removes from the front of the unit. The absence of fastening hardware eliminates leaking, as does
the taper body and deflector design pioneered by Guill. High- and lowvolume applications are suitable for this head and are accommodated with the simple, easy changing of just one component. A family of crosshead designs is available and users can specify the “caliber”, that is, the max. die ID. A vacuum chamber and kit for assembly and disassembly are included with the unit. Optional keyed tooling capability offers machine designers and end users quick orientation, so the overall unit design enables faster disassembly, proper cleaning and restart, allowing the line to become more profitable.
REMA has announced INTAREMA® RegrindPro®, a highly efficient technology for the recycling of regrind & compounding . The new system enables the recycling of regrind into application-oriented secondary raw materials.
Recycling regrind as an alternative to virgin material has enormous potential for processors of plastics. With raw material prices increasing all the time, the demand for the processing of regrind to make high-quality recycled pellets is growing more and more, especially in the thick-walled packaging, electronics (WEEE) and automotive sectors. The thick-walled input material (HDPE, PP, ABS, PS, etc.), however, requires a specific treatment process which is designed to be able to handle mixed fractions with varying compositions, high bulk density and moisture, plus strong and varying contaminants through a very wide variety of impurities. The recycled pellets also have to meet exacting quality standards to be able to make end products from them with top surface quality and particularly high recyclate content. Clemens Kitzberger, EREMA Business Development Manager Post Consumer, explains: "Recyclers who use recycled pellets from regrind have to be able to rely on their end products having top surface quality. With the new product INTAREMA® RegrindPro® EREMA has succeeded in developing a system designed for thick-walled materials.”
53 • August 2015 • Plastics News
Windsor launches India’s first dedicated 5-layer Polyolefin Line
ndia’s first dedicated 5-layer Polyolefin Line -BARON 2500 has been launched by Windsor Machines. This is a line that produces films with outstanding physical and performance attributes, with more metres/min that too with reduced polymer consumption. POD is basically a non-barrier film with a thick core layer and thin skin layer along with medium intermediate layers. There is an increased possibility to optimise the functional property of each layer. And also have a higher output by using high melt strength polymers. With 5-layers, the output film get empowered to pass the most stringent regulatory standards (that too with a higher throughput), offering a significantly higher ROI (it is a matter of getting more with less, be it machine time or for that matter resin consumption).
With sustainability as expected on a big high, do we not all witness brand owners pushing to get as much from as little; so it’s actually going green with BARON 2500 infinity. Windsor has merged the concept of ‘Maximiser’ with the POD line. With the die and the single cooling ring appropriately designed, the user can enjoy all the benefits as would be expected - better film properties, higher puncture
resistance an increased film output, a BUR of 1:5 and more. The Baron 2500 infinity POD can deliver an output of up to 550 kg/hr with the 250 mm die, at a significantly low cost-tofeature ratio. With a 5-layer POD line, there is a noteworthy improvement in the impact strength and sealability of the shrink and lamination films with unmatched quality and probably, at the lowest price
Micro-Epsilon launches Inline colour measurement system
ermany-based instruments maker Micro-Epsilon has launched an inline colour measurement system that allows the colour of plastic injecti on moulded parts to be automatically checked early in the production process. The Color Control ACS7000 colour measurement system measures parts at high speed in-process while also inspecting the colour of injection moulded parts as they are extracted from the mould, without having to wait for the parts to cool down.The company claimed this dramatically reduced cycle times and allowed for
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100% quality control of colour.To assist in ensuring an exact product colour shade during the injection moulding of plastic parts, German company SKZ (Süddeutsche Kunststoff-Zentrum) has developed and tested a method to correlate the difference in colour of an object at different temperatures – known as thermochromism behaviour. With a temperature difference of 20°C, colour deviations of more than 2 ΔE units can occur depending on the colour monitored. Colour measurements carried out using the system and temperature measurements using the infrared
Thermo Meter CT sensor from, enable a master curve to be generated at several different temperature levels that describes the thermochromic behaviour of the coloured polymer. This allows colour values determined on a warm component to be converted to the actual room temperature colour values. These pre-calculated ‘cooling curves’ stored in the system software allow the colour values determined during the de-moulding process to be converted into a reference temperature (@20°C). This enables the colour to be automatically checked earlier in the process,
Kabra Extrusiontechnik offers UL approved Extrusion Controls! Yet another hallmark for KET’s engineering capability!
ollowed by the National Award for Technology Innovation for its Inline Flat & Round Drip Tube Line, KET’s engineering team has achieved yet another International Product Certification! With this recognition, KET has been authorized to apply UL mark over the Control Equipment & Panels manufactured for Extrusion Lines. Underwriters Laboratories Inc., one of the leading OSHA accredited organization, audited all aspects of engineering & certified KET as an approved & listed manufacturer to bear C-UL-US mark. C-UL-US mark demonstrates efficient and safer operation of extrusion
controls complying to the Canadian and US requirements. In India, KET is one of the first plastics extrusion company to receive UL mark for Extrusion Control equipment – another hallmark for KET’s engineering capability. KET’s Control system, ExtruTouch 9020 Plus, received great deal of attention at NPE’2015 show at USA for its truly user-friendly features, state of the art SCADA architecture & navigational touch graphics. Along with UL and CE standards, ExtruTouch 9020 Plus control offers comprehensive controls including Gravimetric metering and control, Auto profile thickness control, Automatic IBC lay flat changeovers
along with real time process data acquisition, formulation management coupled with Remote service access.
New Powder Loaders from Conair
onair has devepoed New Powder Loaders . Two new powderconveying units from the Conair Group are ideal for handling PVC and other powders down to 1 micron in size, and dusty regrind as well. Available in a PR (powder receiver) model, for use in central vacuum systems, and a self-contained PM model with integral vacuum motor, they both offer excellent conveying and filtration rates. The integral-motor version is ideal for conveying material from gaylords or bins directly to a molding machine or extruder. The PM motor loaders come in three sizes, with conventional DC brush or brushless motors. They can
transport up to 1000 lb/hr (454 kg/hr) over distances up to 50 ft (15.25 m). The PR powder receivers come in five different sizes ranging in volume from 0.14 to 3.0 cu ft (4 to 85 l) and accommodate line sizes up 4 inch (101 mm) OD. Both units operate the same way. Air and material are drawn into the receiver by the central vacuum pump or the integral motor. The powder remains in bottom of the receiver while conveying air and any suspended particles are drawn upward past as many as three pleated polyester cartridge filters that separate air from particulate. At the end of every load cycle (when an integrated fill sensor
registers that the receiver is full), a blowback system directs high-power blasts of compressed air down through the filters, blowing off accumulated material, dust and fines. In this way, each new loading cycle starts with a clean filter. A 3:1 air-to-cloth ratio ensures maximum filtration efficiency. The largest PR receiver has 168 sq ft (15.5 sq m) of filter area, and the PM units have up to 56 sq ft (5.2 sq m), and yet they are compact enough to be used even in low-headroom areas. The PM motor loader is programmed, controlled and monitored by a Conair ELC-M (Easy Loader Control) with LED icons. An optional ControlMate™ pendant allows users to enable higherlevel functions and change settings.
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Cost-saving PLA process
esearchers at the KU Leuven Centre for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis (Leuven, Belgium) have developed a process that eliminates a step in the production of polylactic acid (PLA) and reduces waste. The patent on the technology was recently sold to a chemical company that intends to apply the production process on an industrial scale. PLA is derived from renewable sources, such as corn, and is industrially compostable and recyclable, if it is appropriately collected and sorted. Because it is biocompatible, the material has medical applications, and it is also one of the few materials that is suitable for 3D printing. Despite these desirable properties, uptake of the material as an alternative to traditional petroleum-based plastics has been hampered because of the steep production costs. The production process for PLA is expensive because of the intermediary steps, as Professor Bert Sels from the Centre for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis explains in a news release from the university. "First, lactic acid is fed into a reactor and converted into a type of preplastic under high temperature and in a vacuum. This is an expensive process. The pre-plastic—a lowquality plastic—is then broken down into building blocks for PLA. Even though PLA is considered a green plastic, the various intermediary
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steps in the production process still require metals and produce waste," says Sels. KU Leuven researchers developed a new technique that involves applying a petrochemical concept to biomass. "We speed up and guide the chemical process in the reactor with zeolite as a catalyst," explains postdoctoral researcher Michiel Dusselier. "Zeolites are porous minerals. By selecting a specific type on the basis of its pore shape, we were able to convert lactic acid directly into the building blocks for PLA without making the larger by-products that do not fit into the zeolite pores," says Dusselier. Compared with conventional techniques, the technology produces more PLA with less waste and without using metals. And by eliminating a step in the production process, the cost of the material is reduced. Our intention is not to promote the use of disposable plastics, stresses Sels. "But products made of PLA can now become cheaper and greener. Our method is a great example of how the chemical industry and biotechnology can join forces," he adds. The university did not disclose the name of the company that has purchased the patent. A paper on the technology has been published in Science under the title
Student designs electricitygenerating plastic sheet
plastic sheet that generates electricity from small amounts of wind has been developed by Charlotte Slingsby, a graduate from the Royal College of Art in London who looked for a solution after her family home in Cape Town, South Africa, was found to be unsuitable for solar panels. The result was Moya (wind in the Xhosa language), an energy generation system which sees sheets of plastic with wavelike filaments attached to capture tiny amounts of wind energy that can then be stored in a battery. Moya was developed during a two-year postgraduate course in innovation design engineering that Slingsby recently completed at the Royal College of Art and Imperial College London.The system is aimed at accumulating small pieces of energy into a larger mass, in a similar way to drops of rain gathering together to eventually form a stream. The plastic sheets have slivers of bendable filaments that stand up and are moved by gusts of air. When the filaments are moved by gusts of wind, tiny pieces of energy are created. For her prototype, Slingsby used a flexible film of polyvinylidene fluoride. This energy is then passed on to a capacitor – a device used to store an electrical charge – and then eventually on to a battery.
Penn developes, low cost, lightweight, Solar car gets carbon flexible dielectric polymers fiber treatment
asily manufactured, low cost, lightweight, flexible dielectric polymers that can operate at high temperatures may be the solution to energy storage and power conversion in electric vehicles and other high temperature applications, according to a team of Penn State engineers. "Ceramics are usually the choice for energy storage dielectrics for high temperature applications, but they are heavy, weight is a consideration and they are often also brittle," said Qing Wang, professor of materials science and engineering, Penn State. "Polymers have a low working temperature and so you need to add a cooling system, increasing the volume so system efficiency decreases and so does reliability." Dielectrics are materials that do not conduct electricity, but when exposed to an electric field, store electricity. They can release energy very quickly to satisfy engine start-ups or to convert the direct current in batteries to the alternating current needed to drive motors. Applications like hybrid and electric vehicles, aerospace power electronics and underground gas and oil exploration equipment require materials to withstand high temperatures. The researchers developed a cross-linked polymer nanocomposite containing boron nitride nanosheets. This material has high-voltage capacity for energy storage at elevated temperatures and can also be photo patterned and is flexible. The researchers report their results in a recent issue of Nature.
This boron nitride polymer composite can withstand temperatures of more than 480 degrees Fahrenheit under the application of high voltages. The material is easily manufactured by mixing the polymer and the nanosheets and then curing the polymer either with heat or light to create crosslinks. Because the nanosheets are tiny -- about 2 nanometers in thickness and 400 nanometers in lateral size, the material remains flexible, but the combination provides unique dielectric properties, which include higher voltage capability, heat resistance and bendability "Our next step is to try to make this material in large scale and put it into a real application," said Wang. "Theoretically, there is no exact scalability limit." Also working on this project were Qi Li, Lei Chen and Guangu Zhang, postdoctoral Fellows; Matthew R. Gadinski, graduate student, materials science and engineering and Long-Qing Chen, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering and professor of engineering science and mechanics; Aman Haque, professor of mechanical engineering; Tom Jackson, Robert E. Kirby Chair Professor of Electrical Engineering and Haoyu Li, graduate student in electrical engineering; and Shihai Zhang, PolyK Technologies, State College. The researchers have filed a provisional patent disclosure on this work. The Office of Naval Research, Air Force Office of Scientific Research and Dow Chemical Corporation supported this work.
eijin Group companies Toho Tenax and GH Craft Ltd. are supporting Japanese institution Kogakuin University in developing an advanced solar-powered car fabricated using carbonfiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP). The vehicle will be entered in Bridgestone World Solar Challenge, the world's biggest solar car race, which will take place in Australia from October 18 to 25.The Teijin Group supplied the university with ultra-lightweight fabric made with Tenax carbon fiber, which was used to design and fabricate the racing vehicle's 2-seater body. GH Craft has been involved from the concept stage in developing the all-carbon composite body.
Tenax ultra-lightweight fabric enabled the bodyweight to be reduced by 55 kg, but still ensures practicality and safety, as well as the tensile modulus (rigidity) and tenacity (strength) needed to withstand endurance racing. Toho Tenax, together with Sakai Ovex, developed an ultra-lightweight carbon fiber fabric as thin as 0.06 mm in 2010. The CFRP produced with this material was used to fabricate the car body. GH Craft, founded in 1972, is engaged in all stages of composite structure fabrication, including design, molding and structural evaluation. In addition to thermoset CFRP developed by Toho Tenax and GH Craft, the Teijin Group is researching and developing thermoplastic CFRP at its Teijin Composites Innovation Center. Teijin markets thermoset and thermoplastic CFRP applications through its Automotive Business Development Group.
57 â€˘ August 2015 â€˘ Plastics News
in the NEWS
Brussels trade body to challenge force majeures
lastics Converters (EuPC)'s Alliance for Polymers is to respond to a recent spate of force majeure declarations by the European polymer production industry.
The EuPC said that production lines across Europe had been forced to stop at the plastics converting level due to material shortages prompted by 40 force majeure incidents in the space of just four months. The Alliance for Polymers for Europe said it would provide detailed information on the current polymer market, while helping to assist raw material users through its network of national plastics associations and aiding companies in requesting suspension of certain EU import duties to relieve the current shortages on polymer markets. The Alliance will be open to those companies and associations in Europe that needed more information on how to supply their business with polymers in the next five to 10 years. EuPC president Michael Kundel said the organisation had set up the Alliance for Polymers for Europe to
fight what he called an “unjustified situation” around some recent force majeure decisions. The Alliance is also set to launch a study looking at aging polymer production sites in Europe to provide more transparency after some sites have announced more than 11 force majeure declarations in two years. A search for more material to be imported from outside the EU will be carried out, as well as group purchasing platforms, in compliance with EU competition law, potentially being created, states EuPC. Ron Marsh, former head of packaging firm RPC Group, is to lead the Alliance and report to the EuPC Steering Committee. Marsh said, “All plastics converters in Europe will now have the possibility to rate their polymer suppliers on specific customers’ criteria and some basic commercial and ethical rules will hopefully be reinstated.“The best polymer supplier for Europe will be announced next year in 2016 during the EuPC annual meeting in Lyon, France. Hopefully the situation will have improved by then.
IMF lowers growth forecast for the UK economy
he International Monetary Fund (IMF) has lowered its growth forecast for the UK economy for 2015 and next year. In its latest World Economic Outlook the Washington DC-based organisation said it expected the UK’s economy to grow by 2.4% this year, down 0.3% from
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its projection in April, and by 2.2% in 2016, down 0.1% on its earlier forecast. Overall global growth in 2015 is expected to be slightly lower than previously thought, due to what the IMF called a “setback to activity in the first quarter…mostly in North America”.
First P-Fuel plant plans underway
nvestment company Bisan will be one of the investors behind the first P-Fuel plant in the UK, to be built at Appley Bridge near Wigan. P-Fuel technology creates a fuel source from waste plastics, and provides an alternative to biofuel. BIsan has a portfolio of investments including the myGeneration secondhand smartphone trading business and has a 16% stake in P-Fuel. P-Fuel and the Cheshire-based Appley Bridge Biomass Energy Limited will formalise a lease arrangement on an industrial park site for the plant. Engineering consultancy group Stopford Projects has been hired to apply for planning and environmental approvals to build, construct and operate the plant. P-Fuel chairman Patrick Volpe said: “P-Fuel now has a site location to launch and commission its first operating plant. “The UK Government is very supportive of the P-Fuel type of technology that effectively creates a positive fuel source from one of the world biggest nuisances waste plastics. "These waste plastics not only take hundreds of years to rid themselves from the= environment but also consume valuable land mass.” "Our fuels provide an alternative to biofuel that may use organic or plant inputs as stock feed which in some cases is also used as a food source for human consumption.
in the NEWS
Braskem sued in New York court over IoD urges support involvement in a graft scandal for EU-US trade deal
shareholder of Braskem SA has sued Braskem- theBrazilian petrochemical producer, accusing the company of involvement in a graft scandal that has engulfed key stakeholders Odebrecht and Petrobras and led to a selloff in Braskem's U.S.-traded stock, as per Reuters. The shares are down about a fifth so far this year. Plaintiff Douglas W. Peters is seeking class action status for the lawsuit, filed in a Manhattan federal court on behalf of individuals or institutions that purchased Braskem's American depositary receipts between June 1, 2010 and March 11, 2015, according to court documents. Braskem and four executives working for or linked with the company are accused in the suit of making "materially false and misleading statements regarding the
company's business, operational, and compliance policies." Braskem said in a statement it had not been notified of any legal proceedings in the United States and therefore could not comment. The defendants include Braskem Chief Executive Officer Carlos Fadigas and his predecessor, Bernardo Gradin. Marcela Drehmer, the chief financial officer of Odebrecht SA, Brazil's largest engineering firm and Braskem's controlling shareholder, was also named in the lawsuit. Braskem has long-term contracts to buy naphtha from Petrobras, the state-run oil firm at the center of a sweeping corruption scandal. The other defendants could not immediately be reached for comment. Over 100 people have been indicted on charges including corruption, money laundering and racketeering
Criminal intent suspected in two blasts at LyondellBasell facility in France
riminal intent is suspected in two fires at LyondellBasell facility in France. Two explosions, sparking huge fires, broke out at LyondellBasell petrochemical plant in southern France early on July 14. No one has been reported to be injured in the explosions that happened in Berrel'Etang near Marseille-Marignane airport. The company describes the "Berre petrochemical cluster" as "one of the largest petrochemical complexes in the south of France". Two tanks full of petrol and naphtha
caught fire after the blasts and a thick cloud of smoke was visible several kilometres away. The fire in the first tank of petrol was extinguished fairly quickly, but fire fighters only managed to put out the second blaze by late morning using foam, local authorities said.Investigators believed the explosions were the result of "a malicious act." The probability that these two fires in tanks 500 metres (1,640 feet) apart could be accidental is very low. Criminal intent is suspected in two fires.
ady Barbara Judge, chairman of the Institute of Directors (IoD), called on business leaders to fight the case for an ambitious EU-US trade deal and win over a sceptical general public across Europe. Speaking at the IoD City of London Annual Mansion House dinner Lady Barbara argued that the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), currently being negotiated between the EU and US, is “in jeopardy” and called on business leaders to make the case for free trade loud and clear. She said that she was deeply concerned that they were losing the battle on one of the central planks of western liberal democracy – that is free trade. She also said that the free flow of goods, capital and people has been proven to be the most successful route to increasing human prosperity, then you too should be concerned. “I have seen first-hand how a more open and interconnected world brings prosperity and opportunity. Europe and the United States have a history of cooperation, and of shared values and goals. TTIP offers an opportunity to continue this into the future and ensure that Europe remains relevant and competitive. “The benefits of TTIP are not about abstractions. They are about making it easier for companies, particularly small ones, to sell their goods and services in many new markets, to give consumers more, and cheaper, choices.” In a survey of IoD members, conducted in late 2014, nine out of 10 business leaders said they supported the trade deal.
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in the NEWS
Indian Waste Water Purification Tech Wins UK waste sector review launches Google Pitch Fest
hand-held waste-water filtration technology that promises zero wastage, developed by researchers at the IISc in Bengaluru, has won the Google startup festival at Zurich, Switzerland,.The filtration technique can transform highly contaminated water into very clean water, with no water wastage. The technology was developed by Sanjiv Sambandan of the Flexible Electronics Lab, Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics and his team at the Indian Institute of Science. It won the Pitch Fest at Google Zurich,
The system is membrane-less, chemical-free and scalable. It can be upgraded from a hand-held water bottle to large community based system. It can also be used as a prefilter for membrane based purifiers
thereby improving the lifetime of the membranes, according to Sambandan. The technology uses an electric field to polarise tiny impurities and cluster them into larger chunks that can then be removed by low cost meshes and if needed, these meshes can be cleaned and re-used.With just 100 MW of power needed for purifying one litre of very poor quality water, the system is highly efficient. "This implies that the hand-held bottle purifier can be powered by a hand-crank, battery or solar cell. This can be useful for people living in remote areas, people stuck in disaster hit areas, and the army," he said. Now, the researchers are planning field tests for a community based water purification system with the required automation in place.
Small Business Commissioner plans unveiled in UK
he government has set out proposals for a Small Business Commissioner to help tackle payment disputes and other unfair practices and is asking for public opinion on the role.
The Small Business Commissioner would aim to help small businesses handle disputes over late payment and other supply chain practices that hit them especially hard. It would also help small firms access advice, support, mediation and conciliation services, and have the power to look
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into complaints and report on its findings. Small business minister Anna Soubry said: “The government is backing small businesses to grow and create more jobs and opportunity. The government has asked for views on proposals to establish a Small Business Commissioner – who would help small business resolve supply chain disputes with other larger businesses – to be posted on the Department for Business Innovation & Skills’ website by 21 August.
review into the regulatory and enforcement barriers to growth and innovation in the waste sector has been launched. The study, which aims to save UK businesses £10bn, is one of the first being taken forward under the government’s Cutting Red Tape programme.
The waste review calls for evidence on the impact of regulations across the industry – from production and processing to collection, disposal and treatment – and will be used to identify and remove barriers to advancing the sector whilst ensuring human health and the environment remain protected. Calling on businesses to submit evidence, Resource minister Rory Stewart said: “This review is an exciting opportunity to look at what else we can do to cut needless bureaucracy and remove unnecessary burdens on businesses in the waste sector. “We have already delivered savings of just under £1m a year by removing requirements for businesses to create site waste management plans and I hope this review will identify more barriers we can remove to open up the industry to further growth and innovation. “The review will complement work by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs to ensure regulatory effort is targeted effectively and focused on speedy and tough enforcement action where necessary
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