Page 1


PRN: - MCN/200/2015-2017

Issue No. 12

Pages 76

December 2015

Rs. 75.00

Plastics News • December 2015 • 4

5 • December 2015 • Plastics News

Plastics News • December 2015 • 6

7 • December 3 • April 2015 • Plastics News

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Plastics News • December 2015 • 8


MCN/200/2015-2017 Volume 96

December 2015 No. 12

Chairman - Editorial Board Mr. Ravinder Kumar Aggarwal Hon. Editor Mr. Ajay Desai

Summit–Make-In-India - “Promoting Entrepreneurship & Innovation” Organised By Assochem On 19th November 2015 In Mumbai.

Editorial Co-ordination: Padmesh Prabhune, Dhruv Communications, Mumbai, Tel No: 022 2868 5198 / 5049 Fax No : 022-28685495 email: Published by Ms. Umaa Gupta on behalf of the owners, The All India Plastics Manufacturers’ Association Plot No. A-52, Road No. 1, M.I.D.C., Andheri (E), Mumbai-400 093. Tel: 67778899 • Fax : 00-22-2821 6390 E-mail : • Website : Printed by her at : Dhote Offset Technokrafts Pvt. Ltd., Goregaon (E), Mumbai-400 063. Rs. 1,000/Rs. 75/-

Views/Reports/Extracts etc. published in Plastics News are those of the authors and not necessarily of the Editor. Furthermore except for copies of formal AIPMA communications no other matter in this journal should be interpreted as views of The All India Plastics Mfgrs. Association. Office Bearers Mr. Ravinder Kumar Aggarwal Mr. Sanju Desai Mr. Jagat Killawala Mr. L. K. Singh Mr. Meela Jayadev Mr. Ashok Agarwal Mr. Haren Sanghavi



16...... AIPMA At Work

Members Mr. A. E. Ladhaboy Dr. Y. B. Vasudeo Ms. Poorvi Desai

Annual Subscription Single issue


. . . E SSU

President Senior Vice President Vice President – Finance Vice President (North Zone) Vice President (South Zone) Vice President (East Zone) Vice President (West Zone)

Msme Cell – Clarifying Definition Of Msme Definition Of Msme as per Msmed Act 2006 IndPlas’15 Exhibition at Kolkata Plasteurasia-2015 Plastivision Arabia 2016

25...... Company News 31...... Features Goldmine In The Gunk The Glitter Effect Plastic-Eating Mushroom Discovered A war on plastics? The ICM with stack moulds The Environment-friendly Packaging Plastics in Agriculture a way forward Retrofit Homogeneity Biomimetric Membrane For Water Purification Intellectual Property Rights

47 ...... International News 52...... Business News 58...... Product News 65...... Technology 68...... In the News

9 • December 2015 • Plastics News

Plastics News • December 2015 • 10

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MNC Molder approached us because of color streak issues. At the same time he wanted to improve his process in terms of Masterbatch consumption and cycle time.

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11 • December 2015 • Plastics News


Plastics News • December 2015 • 12


Breakthrough in Solid Waste Management


onversion of waste to power is common in the West but has not been successful in India so far. Recently Berlin-based INTEC Micro Powder AG, a pioneer in conversion of waste into

energy, has signed a deal with the Howrah Municipal Corporation to build a Rs 3,400-crore plant at Domjur where garbage of over 2000 metric tonnes will be processed daily to generate 70 MW electricity per hour. The garbage-to-energy plant would be the first of its kind in India, giving the much needed boost. According to official estimates on an average 51percent of urban municipal waste in India is organic, while 17.5percent is recyclable and 31 percent is inert waste.Waste-to-energy or energy-from-waste is the process of creating energy in the form of electricity or heat from the incineration or processing of organic waste .The project a public-private partnership to be executed by a joint venture not only promises Howrah a clean, renewable source of energy but also an easy solution to its problem of mounting garbage. Hopefully it will also solve the nuisance of littering (including plastics). In my view, the project proposal is well founded and convincing. I feel the project seems to be sound as well for the project is all about providing a sustainable solution to (Howrah’s) garbage problem. Once the waste is taken away, the land where it is being dumped would become available for better purposes over a period of say ten years. The one good thing about this initiative is that the company offers a solution to turn even mixed municipal solid waste into electricity whereas the earlier projects could not take off because it wasn’t possible to segregate the waste and only biodegradable waste could be utilised to generate power. And if it can happen in Kolkatta then it can happen anywhere in India. I think we need to have such plants across the country for it would not only help in generating electricity as renewable energy source but would also stop mounds of garbage and further help in freeing the land that would be available for commercial purpose across the country. Adhering to such plants would not only get rid with the garbage but it will also eliminate Ground water contamination. Even the byproducts like fertilisers and road additives can be sold by civic body to increase revenue. And above all one of the best features of such projects is that it could generate employment on larger scale with over thousands of jobs for a single plant spread over 15 hectares of land. Also the project being executed on the PPP mode 90percent of the cost is borne by the private companies thereby saving governments money. We are aware of the fact that burning of fossil fuels, such as gas, coal or oil, disrupts the natural carbon cycle and we are experiencing the effects of global warming. Finally, it’s time to act. Hope the waste to energy project sees the light of the day. I wish a Merry Christmas and Happy New year to all of you. Happy Reading… R. K. Aggarwal

13 • December 2015 • Plastics News

Plastics News • December 2015 • 14


Innovative Developments


nnovation is the driving force for success. We have discussed many innovations earlier be it Machinery, Application, processing and alike. In this issue we have two innovations one in Masterbatch and second, Processing. Recovery-friendly range of Colourants Masterbatches play important role in plastic packaging and this time around we have something that would help recovering high quality material in plastics recycling. Yes, U.K based Masterbatch producer Color Tone Masterbatch has developed a new recovery-friendly range of colourants that could increase the recovery of high quality materials, diverting them away from landfills. The company has introduced patent pending range of sortable colourants ‘Irdent’ that could be identified by the recycling automation process; like NIR spectroscopy to detect the polymer type. The company claims that Irdent is a Waste & Resources Action Programme-tested, collection of detectable pigments that will allow processors of black rigid plastic packaging to ensure that their products are also truly recyclable apart from offering excellent color quality. I think this will be of help for all of us know that most of the rigid black plastics packaging, plastics components in end of life vehicles and Electrical and Electronic waste cannot be identified by the Near-Infra Red (NIR) systems as they contain color pigments that are very good infra red absorbers and therefore remain undetectable. Sorting of polymers is essential to ensure that the resultant recycled material is commercially attractive to processors. Colorants like these can increase the recovery of high quality materials for sure and perhaps help in making the concept of 'designing for end of life’ a reality. New composite press-forming processes - PtFS UK based Surface Generation is developing new press-forming mold faces incorporating its patented Production to Functional Specifications (PtFS) technology for the production of high-performance thermoplastic composite components. The Thermocomp project; which is seeking to develop short-cycle-time, high-volume manufacturing processes that can be used by automotive and aerospace manufacturers for producing carbon-fiber-reinforced thermoplastic components. PtFS provides automotive and aerospace manufacturers with a new level of sophistication in compression molding. The ability to dynamically control the heat applied to each mold area throughout the cure cycle means manufacturers can quickly and cost-effectively upgrade existing production lines for thermoplastic composites and significantly reduce their cost of production. A major barrier to mainstream adoption of novel, aligned fiber-reinforced thermoplastics within the automotive sector is the difficulty of economically achieving short cycle times within a high-volume production environment. Surface Generation's PtFS technology has the potential to meet this challenge by eliminating process stages and enabling manufacturers to rapidly form composite components using a one-shot stamp-forming process. When it comes to building lighter, more fuel-efficient aircraft, every gram counts but traditional press forming processes are not economically viable for producing even a medium volume part with complex geometry. By incorporating PtFS process into conventional press forming processes, Surface Generation might open the door to a very exciting new era in aerospace manufacturing.

Hon.Editor Ajay Desai

15 • December 2015 • Plastics News

Aipma at work

Plastics News • December 2015 • 16

Aipma at work

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17 • December 2015 • Plastics News

Aipma at work Summit–Make-In-India - “Promoting Entrepreneurship & Innovation” Organised By Assochem On 19th November 2015 In Mumbai. Mr. Raja Shah, Chairman, AIPMA MSME – Cell had a special invitation from ASSOCHAM to attend this Summit.

Minister expressed in single word “Welcome, Government shall give full support.”

The event was graced by VIPs:

The event was attended by 90 delegates and it was concluded with vote of thanks by the ASSOCHAM.

1. Shri Deepak Vasant Kesarkar, Hon’ble Minister of State, Finance, Rural Development & Planning, Government of Maharashtra 2. Shri Subhash Desai, Hon’ble Minister of Industries, Govt. of Maharashtra Both the Ministers stressed and explained, how Government of Maharashtra has now programmed - “Make-in-Maharashtra” as parallel to “Make-in-India” – PM Programme. Under this Programme, there are many new schemes having special incentives for entrepreneur to start Industries in Maharashtra. Mr. Raja Shah specially discussed with Mr.Deepak Vasant Kesarkar, Hon’ble Minister of State, Finance Rural Development & Planning, Government of Maharashtra how Flexible Plastic Packaging Industries can be promoted in Konkan District having products of variety of fruits and fish etc. The Hon’ble

Mr. Deepak Vasant Kesarkar, Hon’ble Minister of State, Finance, Rural Development & Planning, Government of Maharashtra, discussing with Mr. Raja Shah about promotion of plastic industries in Maharashtra state. Mr. Shah presented the Minister brochure of AIPMA.





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Plastics News • December 2015 • 18

Aipma at work

Plastics News • April 2015 • 4

19 • December 2015 • Plastics News

Aipma at work

Msme Cell – Clarifying Definition Of Msme Definition Of Msme as per Msmed Act 2006 Dear Readers, We have received many queries about the Definition of the Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises. It seems there is a confusion about its Classification / Definition. Definition: The MSMED Act, 2006 revised the Definition of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises as given below: Definition as per the MSMED Act, 2006 Manufacturing (Investment in plant and machinery

Services (Investment in equipments)










For Registration as MSME and its formalities / procedures, please watch the next issue. How to calculate the Investment in Plant & Machinery for MSME as per MSME Act 2006. MINISTRY OF SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES NOTIFICATION New Delhi, the 5th October, 2006 S.O.1722(E). – In exercise of the powers conferred by subsection (1) of section 7 of the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006(27 of 2006) herein referred to as the said Act, the Central Government hereby specifies the following items, the cost of which shall be excluded while calculating the investment in plant and machinery in the case of the enterprises mentioned in section 7(1)(a) of the said Act, namely :i) equipment such as tools, jigs, dies, moulds and spare parts for maintenance and the cost of consumable stores; ii) installation of plant & machinery; iii) research and development equipment and pollution control equipment; iv) power generation set and extra transformer installed by the enterprise as per the regulations of the State Electricity Board; (v) bank charges and service charges paid to the National Small Industries Corporation or the State Small

Plastics News • December 2015 • 20

Industries Corporation; vi) procurement or installation of cables, wiring, bus bars, electrical control panels (not mounted on individual machines), oil circuit breakers or miniature circuit breakers which are necessarily to be used for providing electrical power to the plant and machinery or for safety measurers; vii) gas producer plants; viii)transportation charges (excluding sales-tax or value added tax and excise duty) for indigenous machinery from the place of their manufacture to the site of the enterprise; ix) charges paid for technical know-how for erection of plant and machinery; x) such storage tanks which store raw materials and finished products only and are not linked with the manufacturing process; and xi) fire fighting equipment; 2. While calculating the investment in plant and machinery referred to in paragraph 1, the original price thereof, irrespective of whether the plant and machinery are new or second hand, shall be taken into account provided that in the case of Imported machinery, the following shall be included in calculating the value, namely: i) Import duty (excluding miscellaneous expenses such as transportation from the port to the site of the factory, demurrage paid at the port); ii) Shipping charges; iii) Customs clearance charges; and iv) Sales tax or value added tax. If you have any query, please email to the undersigned: Mr. Raja M. Shah, M.E. Mob: 9833116051 Email:

A PETITION AIPMA will file a petition in Karnataka High Court to oppose the ban on use of Plastics in the state of Karnataka.

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21 • December 2015 • Plastics News

Aipma at work

IndPlas’15 Exhibition at Kolkata T

he 7th Plastic Exhibition Indplas’15 was organized by IPF (Indian Plastic Federation) in Kolkata from 27th – 30th November, 2015. From AIPMA following dignitaries were present in this exhibition Mr. R. K. Aggarwal – President, Mr. Ashok Agarwal – Vice President (East Zone), Mr. L. K. Singh – Vice President (North Zone), Mr. Kailash Murarka – Chairman PVI 2017, Mr. Harish Dharamsi – PVA 2016, Mr. Raju Desai – Chairman National Advisory Board, Mr. Arvind Mehta – AIPMA Governing Council, Mr. Yogesh Shah – Managing Committee Member, Mr. Anil Reddy – Managing Committee Member,

Purpose: To Promote Pvi 2017 & Pva 2016 Back Ground of this Fair: The East and North East India is going to emerge as the fastest growing region with huge potential of increase in the consumption of plastics. Eastern India’s per capita consumption of plastic is 2.8 kg against the national average of 9.7 kg. The all India growth rate of Plastic Industry is 11-12%, whereas Eastern India’s growth is at 9%. Eastern India comprises of 30% of total Indian population, however consumption of Polymer is just 6-7% of the total Indian consumption of Plastics. An untapped market for new entrepreneurs with existing and growing demand for finished products being catered

Mr. Ashok Agarwal – Vice President (East Zone), Mr. Kailash Murarka – Chairman Plastivision India 2017, Mr. tapas Ray – Regional Manager (East Zone) with a delegate at AIPMA & PVI 2017 Stall.

from outside Eastern India. Lateral growth in related industries such as cement sector, food processing, cold storage and handling, infrastructure and housing, agriculture, water management and retailing are acting as drivers for the growth in the Eastern region. Export of finished plastic products to neighboring countries as well as to other countries are the other areas presenting large-scale opportunities. These growth drivers are further supported by the special incentive scheme offered by the Government of India to the North Eastern States. Easy availability of Polymers with expanded capacity of Haldia Petrochemicals Ltd. HPL) and upcoming capacity of Brahmaputra Crackers & Polymers Ltd. (BCPL) in Assam. # CONCLUSION:

Mr. Harish Dharamsi – Chairman Plastivision Arabia 2016 and Ms. Sanjeevani Kothare – Manager Exhibitions attending the visitors

Plastics News • December 2015 • 22

The fair was organized in a decent manner. The ambiance was quite industry friendly and a large no. of volunteers were deployed from IPF to look after the visitors. Everybody there displayed a much cordial and warm hospitality.

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23 • December 2015 • Plastics News

Aipma at work

PLASTEURASIA-2015 Held from 3rd-6th DECEMBER 2015, Istanbul, Turkey.


th International Istanbul Plastics Industry FairPLASTEURASIA–2014 was held in Tuyap Fair Convention Centre which is located in the outskirts of Istanbul at a 45 minutes drive from the Ataturk Airport.

From AIPMA, PLASTIVISION INDIA-2017, & PLASTIVISION ARABIA-2016, Mr. Kailash Murarka – Chairman PVI-2017 and Ms. Sanjeevani Kothare attended and participated in the exhibition. 1) FACTS & FIGURES: • Spread across 1.00.000 sq. mtrs of area divided in to 10 Halls the net floor area of approx. 30,000 sq. mtrs was occupied by more than 625 local and international exhibitors. • As per data available the exhibition was attended by more than 55000 business & professional visitors from 70 plus countries. • There were international pavilions from China, Taiwan, Korea, Iran, Saudi Arabia & some other Asian Countries. • Taiwan pavilion exhibitors suggested us to visit Taipei Exhibition

Mr. Kailash Murarka – Chairman Plastivision India 2017 with Turkish delegate at the stall 2) General observations, Key Learning’s : a) There was no stall possession system. Everything was ready before the opening day. b) Opening ceremony was delayed and held at 11.40 AM with much fanfare after the show had already begun. c) The entire outer area was washed with water and inside area was cleaned with vacuum cleaner. Everything looked sparkling, neat & clean. d) Entry for visitors was free and seamless. Allowed children also. e) There was free shuttle to & from city at regular interval. f) There was a proper Locker / baggage system for any National or International visitor. 26th Edition of PLASTEURASIA has been announced from 3 - 6 December 2016 at Istanbul, Turkey

Plastics News • December 2015 • 24

Aipma at work

2015 News 43 • April 2015 News • Plastics 25 • December • Plastics

Plastivision Arabia 2016

Media cliPpings

The PVA team addressed the Media in Sharjah elaborating on. The Media did respond favorably by carrying the reports. Plastivision Arab ia 2016

to court food indu

stry - Middle East ern Plastics

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December 14, RSS

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Indu sands of exec importers, deale utives and mber 2015: stry observers re-export the rs and distributo t- resources to repackage food butarals point out that shows will be rs from acros ding hub for foo the concurren jah, 14 Dece astics, prin a boon for them s the country ding hub for Sh t Plastivision to find the right Here an E es not only a tra Arabia & Print ssors canents targeting the pl 380/70 mach not only a tra packaging solut Pack Arabia ine is injection Together, Plast ions for their arjah are UAE thus becom d al food procetrade ts, ev” Sh mould ivision Arabia foo ion businesses. al in s reg cups using auto ion and rie reg ere Print Pack Arabia will mation from Wald emen packaging indust ce where place wh be featuring some o and a mould of the latest print dpo rising food but also a pla from Otto Hofs ckaging requir ing an pa of e ir ing and tetter. ag the Ex nt source , CEO, g to take adva 1 of 2 of e dfa Mi nc ge Al er ed mm min e em ha ai th Mo d if an Sa t d or sai -exp de. imports & re gional hub of food tra . a re Centre Sharjah 12/18/2015 2:50 the UAE as PM 16 and 2nd 20 ia ab Ar held astivision ich will be The 3rd Pl wh , 16 20 jah abia ar Ar Sh ck re Pa t nt Ce Prin sly at Expo been simultaneou , have also ry 22 to 25 ocesfrom Februa tract regional food pr lated to at positioned E for food-re the ck to the UA that time in sors who flo g rin du ld g he events bein country.

Gulf Industry



Sharjah Shows Woo Food Industry With Superior Packaging Tech (14 December 2015) The upcoming trade events targeting the plastics, printing and packaging industries in Sharjah are aiming to take advantage of rising food imports & re-export and the emergence of the UAE as a regional hub of food trade. The 3rd Plastivision Arabia 2016 and 2nd Print Pack Arabia 2016, which will be held simultaneously at Expo Centre Sharjah from February 22 to 25, have also been positioned to attract regional food processors who flock to the UAE for food-related events being held during that time in the country. The UAE imports about 85 per cent of its food, and the country is also importing food items, commodities and ingredients and using local resources to repackage and re-export them. The UAE thus becomes not only a trading hub for food but also a place where regional food processors can source their packaging requirements,said Mr. Saif Mohammed Al Midfa, CEO, Expo Centre Sharjah.

Latest news, comments and reviews from The Gulf Today |


December 15, 2015

SHARJAH: The upcoming trade events targeting the plastics, printing and packaging industries in Sharjah are aiming to take advantage of rising food imports & re-export and the emergence of the UAE as a regional hub of food trade.

The 3rd Plastivision Arabia 2016 and 2nd Print Pack Arabia 2016, which will be held simultaneously at Expo Centre Sharjah from Feb.22 to 25, have also been positioned to attract regional food processors who flock to the UAE for food-related events being held during that time in the country. “The UAE imports about 85 per cent of its food, and the country is also importing food items, commodities and ingredients and using local resources to repackage and re-export them. The UAE thus becomes not only a trading hub for food but also a place where regional food processors can source their packaging requirements,” said Saif Mohammed Al Midfa, CEO, Expo Centre Sharjah. The food-related events happening in the UAE during this time attract tens of thousands of executives and decision-makers from food processing units, importers, dealers and distributors from across the country and the region. Industry observers point out that the concurrent Plastivision Arabia & Print Pack Arabia shows will be a boon for them to find the right packaging solutions for their businesses. Together, Plastivision Arabia and Print Pack Arabia will be featuring some of the latest printing & packaging technology, materials and machinery that offer resilience, hygiene, protection, attractiveness and above all environmental friendliness and value for money. “The impressive Indian participation and the expanded presence of Taiwanese firms will mostly cater to the processing and packaging sector and

Plastics News • December 2015 • 26

thus will be a great opportunity for the regional food industry.’

In its over

Media cliPpings


The PVI team addressed the Media in Kolkata during the Indplas'15 elaborating on the significance of PVI 2017. The Media did respond favorably by carrying the reports. Snippets of clippings:

27 • December 2015 • Plastics News


The first stage of Assam Gas Cracker project commissioned


he first phase of long-delayed Rs 9,285 crore Assam Gas Cracker project, the first petrochemical project in the North East, has been commissioned earlier this month. "The cracker, polypropylene (PP) unit, gas processing unit and all utilities have been commissioned," said B C Tripathi, Chairman and Managing Director of GAIL India, the majority stake holder in Brahmaputra Crackers and Polymers Ltd (BCPL) that is building the project. The plant has started producing ethylene and the LDPE/HDPE unit will be made operational after receipt of ethylene from the cracker plant.

"The entire plant will be commission in next two weeks time," he said. Foundation stone for this project was laid in April 2007 at Lepetkata. The project is finally being commissioned now. From an initial Rs 5,460 crore, project cost was revised to Rs 9,285 crore. Apart from changes in design, escalating costs of steel, cement and other construction materials were cited as the main factors responsible for the hike. GAIL holds 70% stake in BCPL while the remaining 10% is equally split between Oil India Ltd, Numaligarh Refineries Ltd and the Assam government.

LyondellBasell plans to build world's largest PO and TBA plant


utch chemical giant LyondellBasell has officially announced plans to build the world's largest propylene oxide (PO) and tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) plant in the greater Houston area. Pending final decisions on the construction launch dates, the project would be completed sometime in 2020, said Scott Buchman, spokesperson for LyondellBasell. The final square footage or acreage has yet to be determined. The complex will have two units split between the Channelview and Pasadena areas. The former will be the site for the PO/TBA unit while the Bayport Choate site near Pasadena will house the ethers unit that will produce oxy-fuels for high-octane gasoline. The idea is that that the two sites will operate synergistically. The PO/TBA project's annual production

Plastics News • December 2015 • 28

capacities are expected to reach one billion pounds of propylene oxide and two billion pounds of tertiary butyl alcohol. We are moving forward in a deliberate fashion to develop what could become the single-largest capital investment in LyondellBasell's history," said CEO Bob Patel in a statement. Patel had hinted that he was eyeing Texas for such a project, going so far as to say the company planned to spend up to US$4 billion in capital through 2020 along the Gulf Coast, mostly in Texas, the Houston Chronicle reported. In its initial phase, LyondellBasell will launch front-end engineering design work, filing environmental permit applications and ordering long leadtime equipment.

Genomatica and Braskem producing butadiene


enomatica and Braskem announced that they have been successfully producing butadiene at lab scale since June 2015, using their direct, bio-based process. The companies are jointly developing a commercial process for the onpurpose production of butadiene made from renewable feedstocks, as announced in December 2013. Butadiene is a raw material used in the production of rubber for tires, as well as for electrical appliances, footwear, plastics, asphalt, building materials, and latex. The demand for butadiene is over 20 billion lbs per year worldwide, and growing. By producing a renewable butadiene, the everyday products made with it, like tires, can become more sustainable, with a smaller environmental footprint. Pr o g r a m r e s u l t s i n c l u d e : 1) Direct, continuous production, 2) Development of mult iple direct pathways and novel enzymes to develop an optimal process, Genomatica used its computational tools to figure out every possible way that a microorganism could theoretically make butadiene, and identified 60 potential biological pathways.. 3) More intellectual property


Borealis signs agreement for Neste Jacobs to deliver complete EPCM services


echnology, engineering and project management company Neste Jacobs and Borealis, a leading provider of innovative solutions in the fields of polyolefins, base chemicals and fertilizers, have signed an agreement for Neste Jacobs to deliver the complete EPCM services for the upgrade and revamp of four cracker furnaces to the highest currently available standards in process safety and energy efficiency. The investment programme entails revamping 4 of the current 6 furnaces and shutting down completely the two remaining, ageing ones. Safety and process safety will receive the highest priority during programme implementation and start-up phase. The project investment value is 160 MEUR and it is scheduled to begin in late 2015 and be completed by 2020. Neste Jacobs carries out the project from its offices in Sweden and Finland."We are very proud that a leading company like Borealis considers Neste Jacobs as an essential

part in the achievement of their objectives in their cracker operations upgrade," says Jarmo Suominen, CEO of Neste Jacobs. adding further he said, "This extensive furnace revamp project reinforces our position as a leading solution provider for petrochemical companies in the Nordic countries and it is great that Borealis has chosen Neste Jacobs as their strategic partner." "Safe as well as highly reliable and efficient operations of our Stenungsund cracker are important for our success and therefore we chose Neste Jacobs as a competent and trustful partner," says Johann Berger, Vice President Technical Development and Engineering of Borealis. "Neste Jacobs has carried out already a significant part of the Basic Engineering of our cracker furnace revamp project and on the basis of this good co-operation, we want Neste Jacobs to carry out the implementation phase as well."

Supreme Petrochem Chennai EPS plant disrupted due to heavy rains


upreme Petrochem has the informed the bourses that operations at the company’s EPS plant at Chennai have been disrupted due to the heavy rains and floods. The state of Tamilnadu witnessed heavy rainfalls earlier this month with Chennai having the maximum affect of floods disrupting the system in totality.The expected downtime

can be assessed only after normalcy returns, it added. However, the company does not anticipate any material loss of revenue as customers can be serviced from its EPS plant located at Village Amdoshi/Wangani, District, Raigad, Maharashtra. The plant has adequate insurance cover against natural calamities, Supreme Petrochem said.

Clariant to set up healthcare packaging plant in Tamil Nadu


lariant is all geared to set up healthcare packaging plant in Tamil Nadu. Clariant plans to invest about CHF 10 million in a healthcare packaging unit at Cuddalore in Tamil Nadu. The plant will manufacture moisture control products to support the growing pharmaceutical packaging market in India. Clariant healthcare packaging, a member of masterbatches business unit, manufactures a full range of controlled atmosphere packaging solutions including pharmaceutical desiccants, equilibrium sorbents, adsorbent polymers, oxygen scavengers and pharmaceutical closures and containers. The new plant in Cuddalore will initially produce desiccant canisters and packets, compliant with all relevant current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) and US FDA standards. Ketan Premani, head of Clariant healthcare packaging sales in India, said, “India is the largest provider of generic drugs globally making it a key market for Clariant’s desiccant products. We want to ensure that we serve our customers here as directly and efficiently as possible. When the plant is complete, they will now have the ability to procure Clariant’s global-standard products directly produced in India.”

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SABIC consolidates in North America


ABIC is consolidating operations in North America. The company announced it is merging its technology and innovation operations from its Exton, Pittsfield, Massachusetts, and Selkirk, New York locations into one operation in Selkirk. The consolidation of this combined research and development expertise will take place as soon as the necessary modifications to Selkirk facilities are completed, which is estimated in 2017. At that time, SABIC will exit its Pittsfield Polymer Processing Development Center and close its Exton site. This announcement follows SABIC’s disclosure that it planned to shut its manufacturing plant in Thorndale, sometime in March.

In explaining the moves, SABIC said the reorganization will improve its research and development practices. “This integration will not only drive important efficiencies, it will also merge material science, process engineering and application development into a collaborative environment that will lead to new innovation breakthroughs,” said Awadh Al-Maker, executive vice president of SABIC Technology & Innovation. “A collaborative R&D environment will result in a wide variety of problem-solving options for our customers and will accelerate our development cycle,” said Thierry Materne, vice president, Technology & Innovation.

Sadara Chemical achieves key milestone


he Dow Chemical Company announced that its joint venture in the Middle East – Sadara Chemical Company (Sadara) – has achieved a key milestone of first polyethylene production, meeting previously announced targets to begin production by year-end 2015.

“Sadara is a significant chapter in Dow’s consistent and deliberate drive towards targeted, high-margin markets, and today’s milestone is the latest milestone in a new era of transformative growth,” said Andrew N. Liveris, Dow’s chairman and chief executive officer.

This landmark investment has been a key pillar of Dow’s targeted, strategic growth actions over the last several years, and supports the Company’s strategy to enable costadvantaged growth in fast-growing regions such as Asia Pacific, the Middle East, Africa, India, and Eastern and Central Europe. Sadara is a joint venture developed by Dow and Saudi Arabian Oil Company (Saudi Aramco).

The Sadara joint venture is an extraordinary collaboration that builds upon the unique strengths of its parent companies to deliver a performancefocused portfolio to drive this global growth, and this investment is further demonstration of Dow’s commitment to deliver consistent, long-term earnings growth and reward our shareholders.” Sadara’s 26 manufacturing assets remain on schedule.

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Coperion launches new facility in China


operion has opened a new facility in Nanjing, China, to manufacture the STS and CTE twin-screw extruder series. Coperion (Nanjing) Machinery relocated from its previous facility – which was rezoned by the local government – to the new plant in the Jiangning District.Construction started in May 2014 and finished in June 2015 with a footprint of more than 161,459 square feet.The company said the plant features advanced machinery production technology with engineering and manufacturing know-how from Coperion’s headquarters in Stuttgart, Germany, and an optimised, tailormade workshop layout for highly efficient production. Coperion’s entire executive team attended the Nov. 18 inauguration ceremony, along with representatives from the local government, industry associations, and 150 customers and suppliers. C o p e r i o n Pr e s i d e n t Ki m b e r l y Ryan said the company has grown from a few employees in 1997 to almost 400 today. The move is in response to the importance of the markets in China and Asia, she added.Joanne Shen, managing director of Coperion Nanjing, said: “Our new test lab, upgraded with a high-end extruder from Coperion’s sophisticated ZSK Mc18 series and a wide variety of other equipment, displays Coperion’s flexibility and commitment to our Nanjing plant and underscores high expectations for future development.”

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Schulman to build PP compounding in Saudi Arabia


aterials supplier A. Schulman is expanding capacity in the Middle East with a large polypropylene compounding plant, in a joint venture with Saudi resin maker National Petrochemical Industrial. According to the company reports the new facility, in Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, will have capacity of 220 million pounds a year. It will be located next to an existing 880 million pound PP resin manufacturing plant operated by Natpet, which will supply the material for compounding. The US firm seems increasingly interested in the region, and said the 50/50 joint venture with Natpet will let it better supply customers in Europe, the Middle East, Asia, Africa and India. Schulman had also announced earlier this year it was building a smaller masterbatch facility in Turkey, and in a move the company may follow that with an engineering plastics compounding plant in Turkey. Horst Klink, vice president of engineering plastics for Europe, the Middle East and Africa, said the majority of Yanbu’s production would be targeted outside the immediate Persian Gulf region. The company said it is seeing increased demand from durable goods, automotive and electronics markets in the Middle East, Africa and India. The joint venture plant will make the company’s line of Polyfort and Polyflam flame retardant compounds,

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along with other materials. “We are expanding our product portfolio and expanding our product reach,” he said.Schulman still sees long-term growth in places like Turkey, even with global economic uncertainty, wars and the refugee crisis cutting the plastics industry’s growth there from 8% to about 3.5% this year, said Ekin Kurt, A. Schulman’s general manager for Turkey. In explaining Schulman’s focus on the region, Klink said that Turkey’s plastics processing industry is now the second largest in Europe, trailing Germany but ahead of Italy, and that many of the fundamental drivers of growth there remain. He also said Schulman is starting to get customer requests from what are newer markets for the firm, like Nigeria, and the Yanbu plant would better position them for that. “We have customers who want us to be represented in Nigeria,” he said, before adding that it’s “very early stage” and is “probably a market for tomorrow.” Natpet said in the announcement that it sees the Yanbu plant as also providing a boost to local downstream processing industries.“It is a crucial enabler of creating further downstream projects by provision of key ingredients to manufacture auto and appliance components,” said Helmi Kutbi, president, downstream for Natpet.

Royal Dutch Shell shuts ethylene cracker complex at Pulau Bukom


oyal Dutch Shell has shut its ethylene cracker complex at its Pulau Bukom manufacturing site in Singapore for maintenance to repair external corrosion in some areas, as per Reuters. "We have had to initiate a shutdown of the ethylene cracker complex for maintenance work to rectify accelerated external corrosion in specific areas. As a result, we have declared force majeure on our ability to supply a number of chemical products from Singapore."

The cracker produces more than 900,000 tpa of ethylene. Shell has informed its customers, and its supply team is working with them on alternate sources of supply. The company declared force majeure on base chemical products on December 1, on high purity ethylene oxide and glycols on December 4, and on propylene oxide, monopropylene glycol and polyols on December 7. The spokeswoman did not say how long the cracker will be shut or how long the force majeure will be in place. The impact of the shutdown on the regional market, however, is expected to be minimal because there are few maintenance shutdowns scheduled over the winter for other crackers in Asia, which means petrochemical supplies will remain ample. Shell experienced a glitch at the ethylene cracker complex earlier in October.


Goldmine In The Gunk

Cities across India come up with measures for generating power from waste


owrah Municipal Corporation to build a Rs 3,400-crore plant at Domjur where garbage will be processed to generate electricity. India is facing a garbage crisis like never before; across the country, cities are drowning in detritus. From Mumbai to Bengaluru to Delhi, the effects are starting to tell. In Bengaluru, what was once a serene lake turned into a frothing mess in Bellandur, an eastern suburb, as an array of garbage wreaked havoc. In

Delhi, two strikes by collectors quickly saw masses of garbage pile up and exposed the explosive rate at which urban India generates trash. According to data from Indiaspend. com, a data journalism initiative in Mumbai, 377 million people in urban India generate 72 million tonnes (MT) of garbage daily. Some 45 MT of this is untreated, becoming a source of environmental pollution and, further down the line, an assortment of ailments. The kind of garbage India generates

too is changing; plastic waste and ewaste are growing rapidly and staterun agencies don't have the capacity and capability to deal with this new surge. Instead, computers and mobiles (often with lead, mercury and other dangerous materials inside) are either tossed into landfills or crudely recycled with little concern for the health and safety of people handling this junk. India doesn't know what to do with its trash, even as it continues to generate many metric tonnes more. Landfills are filling up and new ones are facing stout resistance from locals, who have become aware recently of the ills of having mountains of refuse in their neighbourhood. Along with the Narendra Modi's government's Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, which is attempting to clean up the streets of India's cities and towns, fresh thought is required to solve the larger problem of drastically reducing the quantum of garbage generated. And, existing resources (civic administrations with limited facilities), it has become evident, can't do it all. Part of the challenge in coping with this crisis is trying to slow the avalanche of trash across the country, especially in urban India. As the pace of urbanisation sustains

and more people head to cities, the mountain has only gotten bigger. In the next decade, 69 metros, each with a population of 1 million or more, will house 78 per cent of India's population, according to a study by consultancy McKinsey & Co. Existing facilities have buckled in the face of this explosion of garbage and the problem is only likely to worsen if these urbanisation targets are met. Cities have little chance of keeping up — Hyderabad has been scouting for a new landfill site for years, with little signs of a consensus. Other cities too are staring down the abyss. While in Mumbai the Deonar Dumping Ground spread across over 326 acres in northern Mumbai has accumulated a massive 18-metre pile of garbage and for the past nine decades has been where much of the commercial capital's refuse ends up. In a few months according to civic authorities this massive site may be out of space — as early as March 2016,. In this context, private enterprise hopes to step in where public services fall short. The Howrah Municipal Corporation hopes to free this dumping ground in Belgachhia, around 7km north of Howrah station, in a decade. Today, Mt. Garbage stands around 30 storeys tall. Picture by Anup Bhattacharya A German company promises to turn Howrah's mountain of garbage into a fountain of energy. Berlin-based INTEC Micro Powder AG, a pioneer in conversion of waste into energy, has inked a deal with

33 • December 2015 • Plastics News

FEATURES the Howrah Municipal Corporation to build a Rs 3,400-crore plant at Domjur where garbage will be processed to generate electricity. If the garbage-to-energy plant sees the light of day, it would be the first of its kind in India, giving Swachh Bharat a new spin. The project not only promises Howrah a clean, renewable source of energy but also an easy solution to its problem of mounting garbage. The civic body has been looking for a dumping ground to replace the one at Belgachhia (not to be confused with the locality by the same name in north Calcutta) that is already a 30-storey mountain of waste. "We are going to collaborate with INTEC Micro Powder AG, which has the world's best and newest patented technology for conversion of solid waste into renewable energy, to tackle our garbage problem," Howrah mayor Rathin Chakraborty said after a meeting last week with municipal affairs minister Firhad Hakim, representatives of the German company and CESC officials. The project is a public-private partnership to be executed by a joint venture company named Solid Waste Energy Private Ltd, comprising the municipal corporation, INTEC Micro Powder AG and FEAL Techno Pvt Ltd, the facilitator. Also 90 per cent of the funding would be by a consortium of German companies - Juvema Lux, a finance organisation, FEAL and INTEC. All three have committed to make equal contributions. The remaining 10 per cent will be provided by the municipal

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corporation, 30 per cent in cash and 70 per cent in bank guarantees. In addition to this, the civic body is required to provide more than 35 acres free of charge for the project. A 15-hectare plot (37.06 acres) in Raghunathpur Mouza of Domjur, next to NH6, has been selected for the plant. In that area of Howrah, the market value of land is about Rs 3 crore an acre. "The foundation stone for the plant will be laid in January and we hope to commission it 24 months down the line," said Debasish Mukherjee of FEAL, India. "The plant will have the highest performing waste-to-energy system in the world, producing 2.2 MW/hour from one tonne organic waste," said Andreas Kruger, INTEC's chief executive officer who was in Howrah for talks with the mayor. The company operates seven plants in Germany, the UK, Vietnam and other countries that convert waste to energy using patented technology. The Howrah plant is expected to generate 70MW per hour. The plan is to sell the power to CESC. A purchase agreement is being readied under which power generated at the plant would be purchased by CESC at the existing rate of Rs 5.11 per watt. There is a provision to raise the rate later. According to sources, CESC has also sent a proposal to the state electricity regulatory board to purchase the power generated at the plant at Rs 5.11 per watt. A purchase agreement would be signed if and when the board approves the proposal. German consul general Olaf Iversen

Only for representation said he was excited to bring German technology to Bengal. "We are fascinated by this waste-togas-to-energy project. It is a new technology. Howrah could make headlines all over India and beyond if the project is implemented here on the scale proposed. In my view, the project proposal is well founded and convincing," he told Metro. Iversen said the project was all about providing a sustainable solution to Howrah's garbage problem. "Once the waste is taken away, the land where it is being dumped would become available for better purposes." The civic body is aiming to reclaim Belgachhia in a decade. "In about 10 years, we hope to rid Belgachhia of its garbage dump and use the land for development," said municipal commissioner Nilanjan Chattopadhyay, who has visited an INTEC plant at Wessel, about 300km from Dusseldorf in Germany. "The site chosen for our plant is just 15km away from the Belgachhia trenching ground. Being close to the national highway, it will be easy to transfer garbage to the site," Chattopadhyay said.

FEATURES as one of Germany's leading waste management companies.

The plant would provide employment to about 300 people in the first phase, with scope for adding 200 jobs in the second phase, according to official projections. Conversion of waste to power is common in the West but has not been successful in India so far. Environment activist Subhas Datta attributed this to problems in waste segregation. "There had been an attempt to undertake a waste-to-power project in Howrah in 2007-08 under the erstwhile Left Front government. The project failed because it wasn't possible to segregate the waste. Only biodegradable waste can be utilised to generate power. And in Howrah, it will be very difficult to introduce waste segregation with the kind of population we have," he warned. But INTEC Micro Powder AG offers a solution to turn even mixed municipal solid waste into electricity. "The complete value chain starts with the collection of industrial, household and rural waste within a dedicated waste management and waste-separation scheme adapted to the respective local conditions," wrote Christian Hirte, member of the German Parliament and a former member of the Committee for Environment, Nature Protection and Nuclear Safety, in his recommendation of INTEC AG

Municipal commissioner Chattopadhyay said "the biggest advantage" of collaborating with INTEC was its technology that allows generation of power from unsorted or unsegregated waste. "All we have to do is transfer about 2,000 metric tonnes of waste every day to the plant. Howrah and Bally generate 1,500 metric tonnes of waste daily. Plus, we will be taking the accumulated waste from the Belgachhia trenching ground." Unlike in Germany, where INTEC purchases garbage to convert into electricity, the Howrah civic body won't be charging for the waste. The German consul general said states like Maharashtra and Gujarat had expressed interest in the technology. "I can well imagine that once this project is running, there could be a demand also in Calcutta for the same type of project." He added: "The project would be mutually beneficial. The investors can expect a gradual refinancing over approximately 20 years through the sale of electricity to CESC. Howrah can expect a substantial clean investment and up to 1,000 jobs." Similarily there have been innovative measures tyaken on PPP basis that seemsto have worked. For example Daily Dump in Bengaluru, started in 2006 with 30 customers in Bengaluru, is now in 17 cities with its composting solutions. Elsewhere, Attero Recycling, a provider of ewaste

recycling, raised funds last year and says it recycles nearly 500 tonnes of such trash annually. It now wants to build more recycling plants and is even thinking of taking its business overseas. In other segments, G PS Renewables is converting waste to watts, targeting both industries and homes with their innovative power solutions. In August this year, Saahas Waste Management raised fresh funding as it seeks to expand to quadruple the 20 tonnes of waste it handles daily.

Conclusion The going won't be easy. This subject has been closely controlled by government agencies and prone to red tape, corruption and interference from all sides. Companies have to deal with slow payments, meddling officials and intertia-laden administrators loathe to change. The attitude to garbage too is slow to evolve at home

and at work, with individuals slow to change old (bad) habits. As these ventures wade through this muck, building a scalable and profitable business may take longer than other sectors. But, as the progress of these firms shows, there may be a goldmine in the gunk.

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The Glitter Effect New glittery plastic baskets to deter thieves


akers Basco, which manages a pool of approximately three million bread baskets, has unveiled a new “glitter” additive to deter equipment theft. The firm has impregnated its plastic bread baskets and dollies with a special additive that not only makes identification of the plastic possible even after recycling and reprocessing, but can negatively impact recycling processes. The loss of plastic bread baskets through theft and unauthorised abuse results in millions of pounds’ worth of lost equipment for the baking industry each year. In many cases, the bakery equipment is illegally used and stolen for the raw monetary value of the plastic polymer, in much the same way that metal is stolen. The equipment now contains a special traceable additive that has been

added to the polymer material at the manufacturing stage. Once implemented, the additive can never be removed. It is claimed the material can be easily identified in whatever form it may be in – even if the plastic has been recycled – as it reduces the opportunity to mix with pure plastic. Bakers Basco general manager Steve Millward said: “We have introduced this initiative to help reduce the possibility of plastic baskets and dollies not being returned to their legitimate owners.” “This is an important issue that recyclers and waste management officials should be aware of as the glitter can have a negative impact on their processes. At the same time, we hope that it will encourage abusers to ask themselves, is it really worth the risk?”

The “glitter” baskets are currently being used in the manufacturing and delivery of products made by more than 20 leading bakers, including Warburtons, Hovis, Frank Roberts & Sons, Fine Lady Bakeries and Allied Bakeries. “Attrition has been a tremendous issue in the industry for many years, incurring considerable costs for bakers,” added Millward. “Although tough measures are already being taken by our recovery team against anyone found to be using unauthorised bread baskets and other equipment, this latest step marks our commitment to reducing the amount of losses within the industry as a whole.”

Plastics processing machinery market to reach $36bn by 2019


he global market for plastics processing machinery is expected to rise 4% a year in the next four years 2019 to reach $35.8bn (£24bn), says a a new report

According to a report from the Freedonia Group, a Cleveland-based industry research firm, said 3D printers, will be the fastest growing equipment type, with sales projected to exceed $2bn (£1.3bn) in 2019. Analyst Zoe Biller, said: “This trend is projected to continue, and plastics processing machinery sales will

Plastics News • December 2015 • 36

expand into new markets, such as dental, educational, and medical applications.” Injection moulding equipment, however, will remain the most widely used variety of plastics processing machinery in the near-term, due to its versatility and its high quality production capacity. As a result, injection moulding will account for fully two-fifths of global plastics processing machinery demand in 2019, the report suggested. The report said the Africa/Mideast

and Asia/Pacific regions will record the strongest growth in percentage terms up to 2019, led by some of the fastest growing national markets in the world, including Vietnam, India, and Indonesia, which have rapidly expanding plastic product industries. The Africa/Mideast region will be led by such fast growing markets as Turkey and Saudi Arabia, as many countries in the region look to move away from resource extraction economies and toward higher value manufactured goods.


Plastic-Eating Mushroom Discovered Is it a Solution for our trash saturated world


n a world addicted to plastic, it’s hard to imagine life without it. The problem is, plastic doesn’t breakdown safely and has proven itself to be exceedingly toxic for the planet and its inhabitants. We’re drowning in the stuff and it doesn’t look like our reliance on the material will end anytime in the near future. Radical solutions are needed — and soon. Recently, a team of students discovered what very well may be part of the answer: a plastic-eating fungus. Choking to Death on a Modern ‘Wonder’ Material Plastic is a relatively new material, developed in the last seventy years or so. As I wrote previously in “Plastic is Killing the Planet and Our Health — Here’s How We Can Turn the Tide,” the widespread use of the material is directly linked to the military needs of the United States: “During World War II, raw materials were in short supply and we needed a resilient, economical and easily manufactured substitute. Plastic to the rescue! Made from readily available petroleum, plastic was the go-to material for the war machine. It was also a boon for oil companies as they had an entirely new market to tap — from 20 million pounds in 1927 to 650 million pounds by 1943. That’s a 3,000% increase in just a few short years.” Jump to the present day. A recent article from The Huffington Post gives us a glimpse into how much plastic American consumers throw away

each year, citing sobering data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Plastic Plates and Cups: 780,000 tons were produced, and all 780,000 tons were discarded. Plastic Bags, Sacks and Wraps: 3,960,000 tons were produced. 9.8% was recovered (390,000). 3,570,000 tons were discarded. Plastic Trash Bags: 930,000 tons were produced, and all 930,000 were discarded. “Other” non-durable g o o d s including p l a s t i c disposable diapers, footwear and clothing: amounted to 4,810,000 tons produced with all 4,810,000 tons discarded. PET Bottles and Jars: 2,680,000 tons were produced, 27.2 % were recovered (730,000 tons) and 1,950,000 tons were discarded. HDPE (white translucent homopolymer bottles): 750,000 tons were produced, and 29.3 % (220,000 tons) were recovered. 530,000 tons were discarded. “Other Plastic Packaging” including coatings, closures, lids, caps, clamshells, egg cartons, produce

baskets, trays, shapes, and loose fill: 3,720,000 tons were produced. 3% (110,000 tons) were recovered, and 3 Million 610 Thousand Tons were discarded. Plastic isn’t really something we can sweep under the carpet and have it magically disappear without it causing problems, although we’ve certainly tried our best to do so — by dumping it into the ocean (so another country will have to deal with it), burying it in landfills (which eventually leach a

toxic mess into the soil and ground water) or burning it (airborne DDT and PCBs anyone?). The material is made to endure — which it does, for hundreds of years. Every piece of it that was ever made is still with us today, most likely creating harm. Wildlife is strangled by it, toxic chemicals are released from it and humans suffer endocrine disorders because of harmful additives within it. Scientists can rant and rave about the dangers of plastic forever, but the reality is that most people

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aren’t willing to give up convenience and our single-use culture. What we need are creative, think-outside-thebox kind of solutions. As luck would have it, a group of students from Yale University have discovered a unique fungus which literally feasts on plastic. A Healthy Appetite for Polyurethane During an expedition to the Ecuadorian rainforest, students from Yale’s Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry screened several dozen fungi in an attempt to establish their ability to break down synthetic polymer polyester polyurethane (PUR). Published in the journal Applied Environmental Microbiology, the team found that “[s]everal organisms demonstrated the ability to efficiently degrade PUR in both solid and liquid suspensions. Particularly robust activity was observed among several isolates in the genus Pestalotiopsis, although it was not a universal feature of this genus.” Apparently the mushroom can survive on polyurethane as its only food

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source. What’s more, it can live in a completely a n a e r o b i c (oxygen-free) environment, such as a landfill. The students believe the fungus is a promising approach to waste reduction, especially since it uses a natural, non-polluting processes to breakdown substances like plastic. Additional Methods for Taming the Plastic Beast Even though plastic-eating fungi are truly wonderful, they won’t completely solve our plastic troubles. What we need is a multifaceted approach. There’s always the old standby: Reduce. Reuse. Recycle. — which is a step in the right direction and certainly helps on a personal level. However, to really make a dent in our plastic load, we need to get industry on-board with biodegradable/recyclable packaging and products made from materials like hemp paper, cellulose, glass and metal. A petition is available here which urges manufacturer’s and retailers to embrace fully biodegradable packaging, eliminate single-use plastic bags and provide bulk purchasing options. Another workable solution involves converting waste plastic into usable fuel (gasoline, kerosene and diesel). A Japanese company has created a plastic-to-oil conversion system,

which can be used for both industrial and home applications. By utilizing this method, CO2 emissions are reduced by an impressive 80% compared to conventional burning of plastic. The creator stresses that if we were only to use fuel from plastic — instead of oilfields — we would drastically reduce our pollution and waste. You can read more about the process here. There is one possibility that is glaringly absent from the recommended ecofriendly list: bioplastics. This is because biodegradable, plant-based plastics generally need to be disposed of at an industrial composting facility, which are few and far between. Some products are beginning to emerge that can be composted at home, but they aren’t mainstream yet. When dumped in a traditional landfill, bioplastics rarely breakdown in the anaerobic atmosphere. And when they do, they release methane gas — one of the worst emissions contributing to global warming. Moreover, bioplastic in the ocean takes months to breakdown, which is plenty of time to endanger wildlife. We also have to take into account the impact plastics made from renewable resources will have on arable land, fresh water supplies and soil erosion. Ethanol gas is one example of how a ‘green solution’ can compete with the food supply — in this case, corn. Even though bioplastics are not a viable, long-term solution for our growing plastic crisis, there are plenty of other ways we can minimize our plastic waste footprint. Have a look at this article for practical ideas and inspiration.


A war on plastics? It’s not a war on plastics, at all. It’s a war on those who can’t, or won’t see what’s happening around us


f the headline of a recent interview conducted by Bloomberg’s Niclas Rolander with Stora Enso Oyj (Helsinki, Finland) CEO Karl-Henrik Sundstroem is anything to go by, plastics as we know them are on their way out. “Anything that you do with fossilbased materials, you’ll be able to do out of a tree,” Sundstroem said in an interview in Bloomberg’s Stockholm office. He estimated that within a decade, packaging made from tree and plant fibers could overtake the petrochemical-based variety.

cope with. ‘Old’ carbon, that has lain trapped in the earth for millions of years, is entering the atmosphere and wreaking havoc with the climate. And we are now realizing—finally—that it’s time to act.

More than 40 technology firms, the latest of which is Google, have joined the renewable energy initiative. Four hundred companies have joined the We Mean Business initiative, pledging to work towards a lowcarbon economy. Across industries everywhere, innovative technologies are being developed in response to the need for change.

bold prophecy, to say the least. On the other hand, why not? The story of the plastics industry worldwide has, from the start, been one of innovation and growth. Starting with Alexander Parkes’ cellulosebased Parkesine in 1862 and Belgian chemist Leo Hendrik Baekland’s accidental invention of Bakelite, which was derived from coal tar, the industry has since bounded ahead with the introduction of an ever-wider range of novel materials we can no longer imagine doing without. And, like so much of our industrial progress of the past few centuries, we’ve based this success on the use of coal, oil and natural gas. Today, however, we’re starting to experience the flipside of that. We’ve discovered that burning fossil fuels, such as gas, coal or oil, disrupts the natural carbon cycle, by releasing more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere than plants and trees can

Industries are taking steps to make the changes needed to cut CO2 emissions. At the conference, for example, negotiators and delegates acknowledged that transportation has the highest growth in carbon dioxide emissions of any industrial sector. Initiatives are being launched that are projected to reduce emission in this sector by 50% in 2050. Pledges to develop nearly zero carbon buildings have been made by 16 major European firms.

One sign that the world has woken up to the need for action is the 21st Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change—COP21—now taking place in Paris. As Al Gore said in his speech at the Conference: “Do we really have to change the energy, transportation, agriculture and forestry systems in the world to shift to a low-carbon pattern?” “The answer is yes […] because the answer is coming from nature itself,” he said. Adding: “The television news every evening is like a nature hike through the Book of Revelation.”

What about the plastics industry? The production of conventional virgin plastics is a relatively carbon heavy process. Studies have shown that the highest emissions occur during the manufacturing of the raw material, which is the carbon footprint of products made from recycled plastics is consistently found to be significantly lower. Plastics derived from renewable resources (biomass), too, generally score much better. A study from PlasticsEurope (Brussels, Belgium) and Austrian sustainability consultancy denkstatt (Vienna,

39 • December 2015 • Plastics News

FEATURES Austria) entitled, "The impact of plastics on life cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in Europe," found, for example, that on average, PE film based on renewable resources “shows an advantage of 2 to 3 kg CO2 per kg PE compared to PE film derived from fossil resources.” According to Berlin-based European Bioplastics, feedstocks for biobased plastics not only offer the combined advantages of availability and renewability, life cycle analyses have shown that their use can reduce CO2 emissions by 30-80% compared to conventional plastics (depending on the material and application). And, while we’re on the topic, just to be sure we all know what biobased plastics are: biobased plastics are plastics derived from renewable resources. They can be biodegradable. But they certainly don’t have to be. In fact, the most common biobased plastics—bio PET and bio PE—are not. They are biobased because they are made, at least in part, from bio-

monomers. To which I add the obvious point that, exactly like conventional plastics, they can be incinerated, recycled or composted (oil-based PBAT, for example, is just as compostable as some types of PLA). They are most emphatically not a solution for litter, nor are they meant to be. What we need are much better waste management systems and for more responsible attitudes towards plastic waste. But that’s a different discussion entirely. Conventional plastics obviously have a head start—they’ve been around for over a hundred years and they’ve proved their value as enablers of innovation and economic progress. Biobased plastics are at the very beginning of their development, and have a lot of catching up to do. As a speaker at this year’s International Conference on Biobased Materials in Cologne, pointed out, we still have so much to discover about renewable resources. Until now, he said, we’ve mainly concentrated on imitating

what is possible with oil. “Why limit ourselves in this way? There are a lot of exciting possibilities are out there,” he declared. ”We’ve barely even scratched the surface!” Plastic is an incredibly important material, and in the past it has brought a great deal of good. So why not embrace the advances made in the area of biobased and renewable feedstocks and move forward—just as industries ranging from textiles and transportation to energy and construction are doing? So that plastics continues to be the innovative, dynamic industry it has always been? Because we need plastic materials—we just need them to impact to a far lower degree on the environment. Bloomberg got it wrong. It’s not a war on plastics, at all. It’s a war on those who can’t, or won’t see what’s happening around us; on passivity and on those who seem to think green is a dirty word. It’s not. Green is the future. Otherwise, we might just not have one.

The ICM with stack moulds ICM using stack moulds can produce thin wall packaging that is up to 20% lighter


njection compression moulding (ICM) using stack moulds can produce thin wall packaging which is up to 20% lighter in weight than current packs, according to the technology’s developers.

then rigid packaging producer Coveris has revealed it has been running the technology since the start of 2015, saying it is the first industrial ICM and stack mould system incorporating inmould labelling (IML).

The adaptation of ICM for stack moulds involves technology patented by French mould maker Plastisud, and this was demonstrated by Netstal on its stand at Fakuma in October. Since

“The development of the new injection compression technology started in 2011 as a joint development project between Coveris, Unilever and Plastisud,” said Coveris.

Plastics News • December 2015 • 40

The system was installed at Coveris’ Centre of Excellence for IM-IML in Ravensburg, Germany. The ICM system has a 4+4 stack mould and is producing 500g Eurotubs for spreads.

FEATURES The Ravensburg facility also processes materials from Coveris divisions in other countries, including 40μm inmould labels from Coveris' EU Food & Consumer Business Unit in Angoulème, France. “By doing so, Coveris can offer its clients a real one-stop solution: a lightweight packaging with high quality decoration up to the rim,” said Coveris. Yves Caunègre, group development manager at Coveris Global Rigid, said: “Our injection compression IML is a great achievement in the improvement of the established injection moulding IML technology. I am confident that it will become a great success story for all parties involved in this technology development for thin wall packaging.” Nathalie Fabbro, head of marketing at Plastisud, told Plastics News Europe that Plastisud has no exclusivity agreement with any company regarding its patented technology and it is looking at many commercial opportunities in the rigid packaging market. “We are targeting high consumption markets where the need for stack moulds is important; the USA, for example,” she said. Plastisud uses Netstal injection moulding machines at its headquarters in Castelnaudary, France. It worked closely with Netstal to optimise the Swiss company’s machines for ICM with stack moulds. At Fakuma in October, Netstal demonstrated the process on an Elion 2800-2000 machine using a 4+4 cavity mould, making a margarine tub from PP that weighs only 10.7 g. The tub was developed specifically for the

Fakuma demonstration. The project required close collaboration between Netstal, the French mould maker Plastisud and the automation specialist Machines Pagès, based in France. The ICM process involves partially filling the mould cavities at a speed of 100 milliseconds, before the mould is fully closed. The process is performed at a low pressure which reduces stress in the material. Netstal says the high quality of the platen parallelism guarantees a synchronicity of 99.98% between the mould, machine and automation system. “It’s not rocket science, the technology is already established. But it’s not been done before with stack moulds,” said Markus Dal Pian, vice president, sales and marketing at Netstal, during the Fakuma press conference held by its parent KraussMaffei Group. He said there are various benefits of the ICM process compared with injection moulding. It reduces the clamping force needed, so the 280-tonne Netstal machine is about half the size of machines already in the market for such packaging applications. The mould is filled a lot faster too. Overall cycle time of 5 seconds is not class-leading, but Dal Pian called it “quite respectable.” But where the ICM process really comes into its own is the better quality product and the material savings that can be gained.The use of ICM can achieve 20% part weight reduction compared to an injection moulded part with the same mechanical properties. In the

example of the margarine tub, ICM saves 2.3 g of polypropylene, which corresponds to savings of €124,000 in material costs per year, said Dal Pian. The high precision of the system is the result of two years of development work by Netstal, Plastisud and automation specialist Machines Pagès, based in France, in which they mastered the challenges of combining the ICM process with the technology of a stack mould.The acceleration of the screw to 800 mm per second takes only 40 milliseconds. This is equivalent to 48 g, or roughly 20 times the acceleration of the Earth, or five times more than the maximum acceleration of the Saturn V booster rocket. Dal Pian highlighted the importance of near-100% accuracy in synchronising movements during the cycle. The compression position of the clamping unit can be completely reproduced. The clamping unit position precisely determines the start of the injection process. And the position of the screw precisely determines the start of the internal mould compression stroke. A deviation of just 1 millisecond would result in a shot weight difference of plus or minus 1.1 g. “Getting this co-ordinated with everything in the process leads to this amazing

41 • December 2015 • Plastics News

FEATURES performance in terms of part geometry,” he said. Thomas Iten, packaging application engineer at Netstal, said the benefits of ICM for packaging companies include narrow wall thicknesses and a lighter product resulting in lower

unit costs. Also, the end product (particularly lids) shows fewer signs of distortion and has greater dimensional accuracy, because of lower stresses placed on the material.“The unique injection compression moulding technology guarantees perfectly

balanced parting planes, with an extremely low dispersion rate,” said Plastisud CEO Laurent Buzzo. The automation input from Machines Pagès included IML adapted to the machine and mould. (Courtesy Plasticsnews Europe)

The Environment-friendly Packaging Sustainability a main driver in foodservice packaging By Kari Embree


oodservice Packaging Institute’s (FPI; Falls Church, VA) 2015 Trends Report highlighted industry opinions that focused predominately on environmentally friendly packaging and customization techniques to differentiate products. The annual trend report, which is in its seventh year, looks for common themes found throughout the entire foodservice packaging value chain—from raw material suppliers, packaging manufacturers, distributors and operators. “When it comes to foodservice packaging and the materials used to manufacture them, interest in ‘sustainable,’ ‘green’ or ‘environmentally-friendly’ options continue to be popular. What’s notable this year is the overwhelming number of mentions related to compostable packaging,” said Lynn Dyer, FPI’s President. “We create this Trends Report each year to help our members understand what’s driving sales so they can take advantage of these opportunities and support the changing needs of their customers.” Major trends include: • Pa c k a g i n g : E n v i r o n m e n t a l l y

Plastics News • December 2015 • 42

friendly or sustainable packaging remains a long-term overall trend. Specifically, compostable packaging was mentioned in an overwhelming number of responses. Other trends include the shift to a more natural look through the use of “Kraft” paper over bleached paper to promote the belief that “brown is the new green.” On the other hand, another trend of note includes an increase in graphics and color as operators recognize the opportunity to promote their brand on packaging. • Raw materials: “Green” packaging is apparent in raw materials, as different resins and papers are trending based on both the real and perceived environmental advantages of those materials. • Machinery: In the machinery used to manufacture foodservice packaging, the desire for highly automated machines that run faster, more efficiently and at lower costs continues—but with little innovation in the industry. • Distribution: Consolidation remains a major trend in foodservice distribution (despite the halted

merger of the two largest foodservice distributors), along with SKU rationalization and increased competition from smalland medium-sized distributors.

• Operations: In a continued effort to stand out and differentiate themselves from competitors, foodservice operators are increasingly choosing customized food and beverage items, as well as their associated packaging. Other major trends include increased breakfast business, “grab and go” items and smaller portion sizes that reflect the consumer snacking trend. The survey was published in September, gathering viewpoints from companies in the raw materials, machinery, packaging, distribution and operations sectors.


Plastics in Agriculture a way forward National Committee on Plasticulture Applications in Horticulture (NCPAH), Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, Govt. of India, New Delhi.


olymers have become an integral part of our daily life getting into almost all the areas due to its versatility, diversity, ease of processing, abundance in availability & value for money. Many conventional materials have been gradually replaced by a variety of polymers meeting the requirement in total, whereby offering few more advantages such as light weight, cost, durability, processability, wide range of aesthetic appeal & moreover an edge over traditional materials.

India is an agrarian economy for very many years and will continue to be so for years to come, as Agriculture in our country continues to be the mainstay providing food, fiber besides the largest sector for employment generation both directly n& indirectly. Almost 75% of water is consumed by agriculture, 2/3 of our population depends indirectly or directly on it which contributes around 18% of our GDP. Various external factors including changing climatic conditions & global warming is of serious concern & will have impact on the overall economy. Horticulture is a vital tool for our growth & development, not merely a means of diversification but forms an integral part of food & nutritional security playing a vital ingredient of economic prosperity. Cost of cultivation is increasing day by day, making farmers to rethink towards newer proven technologies for their survival. Varied agro-climatic zones and available of natural resources along with relatively lower cost of manpower so far, offers plenty of scope for Indian farmers with huge untapped potential. Precise application of inputs (fertilizer, water etc.) coupled with Plasticulture applications have taken the agrarian economy to much higher level offering solutions such as enhancement of production & productivity with quality of produce. Thereby providing solutions to the Indian farming community to produce more per unit area with enhanced quality and quantity of produce. Plastics used in agriculture are termed as PLASTICULTURE in which various commodity polymers are used as the base material replacing various conventional materials such as

metal & wood. Polymeric material offers a wide range of advantages such as light weight, meeting the requirements, life expectancy, and value for money & ease of processing besides least environmental impact. Slow but steadily they have penetrated into the arena & now occupy a pivotal position. Overall availability across the country has ensured the demand is supply driven at the moment. Plasticulture o f f e r s cultivation under adverse conditions, extended cultivation is also made possible resulting early fruiting & high yielding varieties of various crops towards enhancing the farmers’ income levels. This offers round the year cultivation possible with off-season & increased profitability. With per capita consumption of around 9.5 Kgs in India, compared to 3 times that of developed world, the scope is immense & yet to be fully exploited. The current penetration is picking up momentum. Around 200Kgs of polymers is required for covering an area of 1 Ha under micro irrigation. Polyolefin continue to dominate the scene with lion share. PP & engineering polymers are used only in high precision injection molded components. Extrusion dominate the process in case of Plasticulture components followed by injection moulding.

43 • December 2015 • Plastics News

FEATURES Pipes both rigid PVC/ HDPE and soft LLDPE laterals continue to grow with double digit not taking into the water carrying / conveyance which are over & above this. Highly precision emitting devices are of PP are very critical with low volume usage in micro irrigation

applications. However, in case of protected cultivation applications LLDPE films dominate the demand especially in case of cladding material such as UV stabilized FILMs. Pond lining and reservoirs have various plastic materials in use for non/semi permeable membranes such as LDPE/ LLDPE, HDPE woven & laminated fabric & PVC membrane. Vermi-compost has totally shifting to HDPE woven fabric laminates from conventional concrete- structures. Poly tunnel applications & UV stabilized mulch films are gaining popularity & find extensive use. Crop cover and plant protection nets are also made from Polyolefin. Soil solarization is another application in which plastic films are used to kill harmful soil borne diseases in the fields before next cultivation. Shade nets and bird protection nets are mainly of HDPE over and above insect protection nets in Poly houses. HDPE pipes are extensively used in sub surface drainage applications to reclaim water clogged areas thereby adding more cultivable area to agriculture. Post-harvest applications such as crates and packing materials such as leno & woven sacks are mainly from HDPE/PP. Nursery bags and crop bags are still made of Multi layer LDPE. Low cost HDPE woven tubes, layflat pipes are still being in use. Fruit cover for banana bunch as well as individual fruits to ensure enhanced shelf life are of Polymers. Most Nursery bags are UV stabilized LLDPE which find no substitute as on date.

Plastics News • December 2015 • 44

To ensure the quality standards of these plastics based applications designated sectional as well as technical committees have been constituted by Bureau of India Standards (BIS) wherein relevant standards have been formulated for each of the product. These committees overseas the product and its standards from time to time and upgrade/re-amend on inclusion of any development. In the past Govt. has initiated many such interventions to give a boost to horticulture with special focus to plasticulture sector through various centrally sponsored schemes from time to time & implements through State governments. The schemes are specifically targeted to promote proven technologies by providing financial assistance besides different kinds of institutional & technical support systems taking the industry along. These include Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH), National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) etc. National Committee on Plasticulture Applications in Horticulture (NCPAH) being the apex body under Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, Govt. of India is instrumental in promoting & monitoring the much needed technologies across PAN India over 3 decades. NCPAH through 22 Precision Farming Development Centres (PFDC) housed at SAUs, ICAR & IIT, Kharagpur which have been playing a pivotal role towards development of field based solutions for a wide range of crops with the help of such technologies across the country.

FEATURES BIS Standards for Plastics Products (Other than MI) for Agriculture. No Applications

Component Description

IS Code

No Applications

Component Description

IS Code



Surface covered cultivation IS 15177:2002 - Plastic mulching - Code of practice Dec 2007

11 Greenhouse

R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r IS 14485:1998 Heating, Ventilating and cooling of Greenhouses



L i n i n g o f c a n a l s w i t h IS 9698:1995 polyethylene film – code of practice (LDPE film)

12 Greenhouse



H D P E f i l m / s h e e t / G e o - IS 10889:2004 membrane

Surface covered cultivation IS 15175:2002 structures - Establishment and operation of mist chambers – Guidelines Dec 2007



Te x t i l e s – Ta r p a u l i n s IS 7903:2005 Made from High Density Polyethylene Woven Fabric – Specification (Third Revision)

12 Nets

Plant protection nets


Canal lining/ Multilayered Cross Laminated IS 14611: 1998 packing/ agr.i sheets and tarpaulin/covers operation specifications


Canal lining



Textiles – Laminated high IS 15351:2003 density polyethylene (HDPE) fabric for water proof lining (First revision) Textiles – Laminated high IS 15351:2008 density polyethylene (HDPE) fabric for water proof lining (First revision)



PVC Geo-membranes for IS 15909:2010 lining-Specification



Plastic film for greenhouses IS 15827:2009 - specifications

10 Greenhouse

Recommendations for Layout, IS 14462:1997 Design and Construction of Greenhouse Structures.

These modern methods not only helps savings of various natural resources including water & make it available to other sectors by conserving the same. Bulk of the water released from the source is lost by way of seepage, evaporation etc., during conveyance in the traditional surface method of irrigation. Rainfed areas are low in productivity and sustainability. By proper management of available water resource by harvesting the same to make it available to enhance irrigated area in the country. The modern method of newer technologies not only conserve

IS 10106:part 1:section 6:1992

13 Vermi-culture Agro Textiles- High Density IS 15907:2010 Polyethylene (HDPE) Woven Beds For Vermi-cultureSpecification 14 CAP covers, Cover top, tarpaulin

S p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r L o w IS 2508 :1984 Density polyethylene films (Second revision)

15 Product Packaging

Plastics Packaging Products IS 10106: Part II section 3:1984

16 Product Packaging

Plastics Packaging Materials IS 10100: Part 4 section 4:1984

17 Mulch laying machine

Surface covered cultivation- IS 15830:2009 plastics mulch laying machine – functional requirement

18 Compostable S p e c i f i c a t i o n s plastics compostable plastics 19 Ropes

f o r IS/ISO 17088:2008

Po l y e t h y l e n e r o p e s – IS 8674:1989 specifications

water, mitigate environmental issues arising out of water logging & soil salinity and by enhancing productivity improve the quality of lifestyle of the ordinary farmer. The incremental cost towards such initiatives is an investment rather than an expense. They require minimum maintenance compared to the erstwhile traditional system. Our scientists & technologists are second to none and will raise to the occasion towards achieving the same by these plastics intervention towards next generation and next evergreen revolution.

45 • December 2015 • Plastics News



Retrofit Homogeneity

Retrofit Homogeneity Melt Blenders to Step Up Efficiencies in Extrusion Lines Static mixers, applied inin extrusion, can improve qualities, as well as increase throughputs and diminish Static mixers, if ifapplied extrusion, canproduct improve product qualities, & increase times in some cases. This leads to higher performance, less waste and higher productivity throughputsStart-up and diminish


any extrusion processes cannotexchanges be is the basic prerequisite any extrusion processes cannot central and operated at the maximum output for optimum process be operated at the maximum boundary flows, thus rate specified by the producer. The c o n t r o l . T h a n k s t o output rate specified by the producer. yielding high mixing maximum production capacity is rather the process window The maximum production capacity determined by the quality requirements considerably enhanced, performance flows at the High rates then s e t t i n g p r o c e is ratherofdetermined theoutput quality perfect constant speeds s lead to unacceptable variations in layer parameters is much requirements of the extrudate. and temperature. SMB plus is a melt blender of the latest mixer generation, with This thickness, to uneven sink marks or other easier and faster. Even optimum mixing performance,excellentself-cleaning behavior, High output rates then lead to is thewbasic quality issues. i t h hprerequisite i g h e x t r u d e r low pressure drop and highly stab unacceptable variations in layer for optimum rates ,layerprocess thickness Start-up and adjusting the operating structure..This is why melt blenders must t o l with e r a nthe c e , process surface thickness, to uneven sink marks strength is important criteria for melt control. point takes more and more time. Both have a robust design and must be made qualities and other quality characteristics Start-up cause or otherfactors quality issues. diminish productivity, blender .Under extreme circumstance even can withbehigh extruder rates ,layer adhered to within the ranges up from high quality steel, such as the expenses, can sometimes be quite and adjusting theand operating point one shown in Title gure. incorrect layout orfiinsufficient design thickness tolerance, surface qualities of defined. Additionally, distribution unnerving, takes more and too. more time. Both and other even lead to destruction of the additives and color pigments within in may quality characteristics Retrofitting Demands: the melt is far more homogeneous. This mixer structure..This is why melt factors diminish productivity, cause can be Quality Problems Due to Temperature adhered to within the ranges When retrofitting extrusion line with a can, for example, improve the protective : expenses,Differences and can sometimes be quite defined. thehave spaceaavailable often blenders must robust isdesign Additionally, distribution of as melt blender effect of an UV stabilizer added limited. Highly effi cient mixers with short Extruders unnerving, too. are supposed to melt the additives and coloror pigments master batch, may allow within for lower and must be made up from high polymer and convey it under high pressure

dosage. To provide for optimum benefit Quality Problems Due to Temperature at a constant rate. The polymer needsintothe melt is far more homogeneous. of the melt blender, it should sit at the end This can, improve the protective Differences: melt within very short time, with driving of the process line, if possible. temperature difference at a high level. effect of an UV stabilizer added as ExtrudersDue aretosupposed melt the high Good Cleaning behavior and high the nature to of the process master batch, or may allow for lower polymer temperature and convey it under high difference within the melt strength: dosage. To provide for optimum variation in temperature pressureare atobtained.The a constant rate. The Melt blender must have Selfbenefit of the properties melt blender, it should within the melt may cause in many cases cleaning with good mixing polymer needs to melt within very quality problems. as a temperature sit at performance. the end of theX-to process line. ensure the flow short time, with driving temperature gradient in the melt means flow and passes homogeneously through entire Goodmelt Cleaning behavior and deposits high cooling will vary,Due too. This difference at behaviors a high level. blender in order to prevent leads to signifi cant differences in melt that will increase pressure drop and to the nature of the process high strength:

installed lengths and low pressure loss

quality steel, such as the one shown have the edge such types of mixers in easily Title figure. integrated into an existing line without having to displace extruder or cooling line.

Retrofitting Demands:

When retrofitting extrusion line with Conclusion: a melt R e t r oblender f i t t i n g ethe x t r uspace s i o n available l i n e s w i t his often efficient mixers meltlimited. blendersHighly is relatively easy and inexpensive. This improves not only with short installed lengths and low product qualities, in many cases it also pressure loss have the edge such steps up outputs and reduces start-up types mixers times.ofThe key to easily successintegrated is to make residence times. High residence times requires additional cleaning .Extrusion temperature difference within the sure the melt blender is designed to fit into an existing line without having M e l t trials blen d e r m u s t h a v e S e l f and temperature peaks may then yield the have shown that a red colored the respective case ofor application in an melt areundesired obtained.The variation in cleaning effects of polymer degrading to displace extruder cooling line. PP properties is 100% removed by a subsequent with good mixing and building deposits. colorless PP after a cleaning time of optimum way. temperature withinof the meltThese mayare the performance. X-to ensure the flow Conclusion: challenges static mixer tackles. only 5-6 times the melt blender volume. cause in many casesthe quality problems. Flamingo Additives and passesThis homogeneously optimum self through cleaning entire behavior Retrofitting extrusion lines The Effects of a melt blender: as a temperature gradient in the melt melt enables Colorants Pvt with Ltd. blender orderof polymer to prevent thein change or color In and an extremely efficient way, this melt within a short period of time. Mechanical melt blenders is relatively easy and means flow cooling behaviors will deposits that will increase pressure Raikar Chamber, blender exchanges central strength is important criteria for melt inexpensive.511-514, This improves not only vary, too. This continuously leads to significant drop and requires additional cleaning Govandi (East) and boundary flows, thus yielding high blender .Under extreme circumstance product qualities, Mumbai in many- 400 cases it differences in melt residence times. 088 .Extrusion trials have shown that mixing performance flows at perfect incorrect layout or insufficient design outputs reduces High residence times andand temperature constant speed temperature. This +91and 9821011407 even lead destruction of the mixer also steps upPhone: a redmay colored PP to is 100% removed start-up times. The key to success peaks may then yield the undesired by a subsequent colorless PP after a effects of polymer degrading and cleaning time of only 5-6 times the is to make sure the melt blender is P L A S T I C S N E W S 27 O C T O B E R 2014 designed to fit the respective case of building of deposits. melt blender volume. This optimum application in an optimum way. self cleaning behavior enables the The Effects of a melt blender: Courtesy - Flamigo Addivitives In an extremely efficient way, change of polymer or color within this melt blender continuously a short period of time. Mechanical

Plastics News • December 2015 • 46


Biomimetric Membrane For Water Purification Highly efficient biomimetric membrane to reduce water purification costs


esearchers at the National University of Singapore’s (NUS) Environmental Research Institute (NERI) have successfully developed an inexpensive biomimetric membrane for water purification.

he NUS team led by Associate Professor Tong Yen Wah is among the world’s first to have succeeded in placing aquaporin proteins onto polymer membranes that allow only

water through its channels. This new technology can potentially reduce water purification costs by up to 30%.

Aquaporins are membrane proteins that selectively conduct water molecules in and out of cells, preventing the passage of ions and other solutes. They are also known as water channels which are present in living cell membranes of bacteriae, mangrove plants and human kidneys. With the presence of aquaporin, the mangrove plant – which survives in salt water – is able to filter between 90 and 95 percent of the salt at its roots, while the human kidney is able to purify up to 150 liters of water daily. Tong explained, “The biomimetric membrane is constructed to mimic the layers of cells on the roots of mangrove trees by embedding nanosized aquaporin-vesicles onto a stable and functional ultrafiltration substrate membrane using an innovative yet

Intellectual Property Rights


he world of business is changing at a breathtaking pace. During the last two decades, the development of information technology and arrival of the Internet have created the ‘Global Village’ we all live in today. Applications of new technologies spread quickly around the world. As a result, ever more people become familiar with these new technologies through the products they use in their everyday lives. It has led to emergence of a knowledge based world economy. Thus it places a tag of urgency on understanding and

managing knowledge based assets, such as innovations and know-how. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) being the core of a knowledge-based economy is an emanate subject of interest. Intellectual property, very broadly, mean the creations of the mind. The legal rights granted for the intellectual property is most commonly referred to as IPR. The Indian MSME sector needs more information, orientation and facilities for protecting their intellectual powers. While majority of the

simple and easy-to-implement surface imprinting technology. We found that the resultant aquaporin-incorporated biomimetic membrane allows water to pass through it faster and also display lower salt leakage than a membrane without aquaporin.” The membrane’s high mechanical strength and stability during the water filtration process makes it suitable for industrial applications in water treatment and desalination processes. This also means greater supply of drinking water at much lower costs for the public. The team is also looking forward to extend the membrane’s applications to engineer a similar biomimetric membrane that can be incorporated into wearable kidney dialysis devices in the near future.

- Ankita Jain IPR Consultant countries have adopted strategies for implementing strong IPR protection for strengthening their industries and trades Indian industries, particularly the MSME are lagging behind in recognizing the importance of IPR and adopting IPR as a business strategy for enhancing competitiveness. The objective is to enhance awareness of MSME about Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) to take measure for protecting their ideas and business strategies. The understanding and effectiveness of IPR will be discussed in my article… Stay tuned!

47 • December 2015 • Plastics News


Singapore to develop new liquid bulk terminal

E C releases new Circular



ingapore Jurong Port has inked a joint venture agreement with Oiltanking to develop, own and operate a new liquid bulk terminal that will be located opposite Jurong Island. The new liquid bulk terminal will be located on 16 hectares of existing land in Jurong Port, and will have an initial capacity of 200,000 cubic metres (cbm), with the potential to add another 230,000

cbm, for a total capacity of 430,000 cbm. It will be designed to store and handle both clean petroleum products and chemicals. The new liquid bulk terminal will support the increasing demand of storage needs in Singapore with its integration to Jurong 40%. Asia’s petrochemical industry hub. Jurong Port will hold 60% of the shares in the joint venture and Oil tanking

International Recycling Forum for Agricultural plastics held


stablished collection and recycling systems for plastics waste will play an important role in the expansion of recycling plastics used in agriculture. That was the consensus of participants in the 1st International Recycling Forum for Agriculturally Used Plastics, which took place on 4 - 6 November in Wiesbaden, Germany. RIGK, which runs collection schemes for used plastics in Germany, organised the conference in co-operation with the European Association of Plastics Recycling & Recovery Organisations (EPRO). Around 120 industry representatives from 22 countries took part in the event, where 24 speakers gave presentations. Peter Sundt, general secretary of EPRO, said in a statement that recovery systems are being organised and developed by all 18 members of the organisation, which are national associations. Many “have recognised that there are a number of common features

Plastics News • December 2015 • 48

between conventional household and industry packs, agricultural packaging and further-reaching applications of plastics in agriculture. For this reason, they have made agricultural plastics a core topic on their agenda,” he said. An exchange of know-how within EPRO and its members is needed, said Sundt, as “the experience gathered with plastic packaging can be applied to other plastic applications because the materials stem from the same producer sources, and the recyclers are also the same. Bundling existing forces to develop further well-functioning systems is therefore key for the near future. The enormous demand that exists for exchanging ideas and information is demonstrated by the success of this conference." Other topics addressed at the conference included the issue of removing contamination and the need to produce high-quality recyclate.

he European Commission has released its new Circular Economy Package with lower recycling targets than those contained in the original proposal announced in 2014, which was later withdrawn. The Commission said its new waste proposal includes: common EU targets for recycling 65% of municipal waste and 75% of packaging waste by 2030; and a binding target to reduce landfill to a maximum of 10% of all waste by 2030. In the 2014 proposal, the targets were recycling 70% of municipal waste and 80% of packaging waste by 2030, and a total landfill ban from 2025. Other key elements of the revised waste proposal include: a) ban on landfilling of separately collected waste; b) Promotion of economic instruments to discourage landfilling; c)Simplified and improved definitions and harmonised calculation methods for recycling rates throughout the EU; d) Concrete measures to promote reuse and stimulate industrial symbiosis – turning one industry's by-product into another industry's raw material; and e) Economic incentives for producers to put greener products on the market and support recovery and recycling schemes (for example, in packaging, batteries, electric and electronic equipment, vehicles).The proposal incorporates a strategy on plastics in the circular economy, which aims to address issues of recyclability, biodegradability and the presence of hazardous substances in plastics with a more ambitious target for the recycling of plastic.

Plastics News • November 2015 • 49

49 • December 2015 • Plastics News


Arkema wins €73.6m in arbitration case with Klesch


rkema has won the €73.6m arbitration case with Klesch. The International Chamber of Commerce Court of Arbitration has reached a decision in favour of Arkema as part of an arbitration procedure initiated by the Klesch Group against Arkema in March 2013.

In a statement, Arkema said: “The Court of Arbitration has dismissed all the claims made by the Klesch

Group against Arkema, and has ordered Klesch Chemicals Ltd to pay Arkema €73.6m in damages and the Klesch Group to reimburse to Arkema the majority of the costs incurred in this procedure.” In March 2013, Switzerland-based Klesch Group announced it was seeking compensation from Arkema in connection with the vinyl assets the French materials group sold to Klesch in 2012 and which became Kem One Group. Klesch claimed there were “significant gaps” between the information presented by Arkema before the acquisition was completed and Kem One’s financial results. Arkema responded in March 2013 that it denied Klesch’s allegations, saying Klesch conducted due diligence as part of its agreement. The current

Plastics News • December 2015 • 50

owners of Kem One are OpenGate Capital of the US and businessman Alain de Krassny. In 2014, they bought Kem One’s PVC and chloro-chemicals business, which has seven production plants in France and one in Spain. This business had €800m turnover in 2014 and has 1,200 employees. In August 2015, Kem One finalised the purchase of Kem One Innovative Vinyls, the former Arkema PVC compounds and profiles business which Klesch Group had separated from the upstream business. The compounds and profiles business is headquartered in France and has 13 plants in Europe, Asia and Mexico. Its annual sales are approximately €350m and it employs 1,200 people. Kem One said in September that construction work has started at the Lavéra site in France in a project to modernise the electrolysis technology used in the chlor-alkali production units. A €150m investment is being made in the construction, which is expected to be completed by the end of 2016, when the new electrolysis technology is due to be launched. The group is investing a total of €250m between 2014 and 2016 to improve its industrial performance. In May, changes were made to the production processes at the Lavéra site relating to vinyl chloride monomer units. This project focussed on reusing water produced by the condensation of steam during manufacturing, and is designed to improve the energy efficiency of the facilities.

BCC slams “broken” business rates system


he British Chambers of Commerce (BCC) has called on the government to take action to fix what it has called “the fundamentals of a broken and outdated business rates system”. New figures from the Department for Communities and Local Government have revealed that the Treasury collected £21.6bn in business rates in 2014-15.

In response, the BCC has said the government has still failed to address “deep-seated problems with the outdated business rates model”. BCC executive director of policy Adam Marshall, said: “Reform of the business rates system has stalled. Ministers have focused too much on devolving rates powers, and too little on addressing the deep-rooted failings of an outdated and poorly-designed system that hits companies hard before they turn over a single pound. “The current system discourages investment in premises improvements, plant and machinery, and places a crippling financial burden on many businesses. “We are long overdue meaningful reform of the operation and administration of business rates. We welcomed the announcement of a review in the 2014 Autumn Statement, but a year later, ministers and officials are still reluctant to engage on matters of substance or offer clarity around the process and timings.”


Australian environmental groups push for bag bans


ustralian environmental groups are pushing for bag bans in the country. According to reports an alliance of 48 environmental groups has written to all environment ministers around Australia asking them to ban plastic bags when they meet next month.Federal environment minister Greg Hunt and his eight state and territory counterparts will meet in Melbourne on 15 December to discuss a range of environmental issues, including research work conducted by the office of Mark Speakman, environment minister for the state of New South Wales, into initiatives to reduce the amount of plastic waste, including potential bans on plastic shopping bags.

H u n t ’s s p o k e s m a n s a i d t h e environment ministers, at their last meeting in February, agreed to NSW investigating “practical solutions for the phase-down of lightweight plastic bags.”The Boomerang Alliance, led by Jeff Angel, director of the Sydneybased Total Environment Centre, has asked the ministers to ban all bags up to 70 microns and introduce policies aimed at maximum adoption of reusable bags for shopping.Angel estimates Australian plastic bag use will exceed nine billion this year, including more than four billion single-use supermarket carry bags. Boomerang Alliance has asked the ministers to implement a range of actions, including banning singleuse high density polyethylene carry bags and not automatically excluding

low density PE carry bags from any ban. Angel said LDPE bags should be included in bans but case-by-case exemptions allowed if retailers can demonstrate effective management and/or minimal risk of the bags reaching the marine environment. The alliance is sceptical about oxo-biodegradable and bioplastic bags. The letter to ministers said: “While they offer some limited environmental resource benefit, using an oxo-degradable bag is as bad as a traditional HDPE bag in terms of litter and marine impacts. Until these options can provide proven benefit, they should be treated like any other plastic.”The alliance acknowledged banning single-use “non-carry” bags, for example, ice bags and sandwich, storage and freezer bags, is “more complex than eliminating plastic carry bags”, but its letter asks for “appropriate regulatory action.” The alliance also wants bags to be clear or dark coloured only and unbranded. “Colouring plastic film integrates more toxic additives and makes the bags more likely to be ingested,” its letter said. It cited a 2014 study by the University of Tasmania of necropsies of 171 shearwater sea birds that found of 1,032 pieces of plastic in their gullets, just 0.87% was clear plastic, compared to 62% lightcoloured plastic, 22% medium colours and 14% dark colours.

Appeals court rules against NYC polystyrene ban


he Appeal court in the state of New York has reuled against the polystyrene ban. There will be no ban on expanded polystyrene foam in New York City for the foreseeable future after a decision from the New York State Supreme Court’s Appellate Division. The appellate court denied a motion from the city, effectively upholding New York Supreme Court Justice Margaret Chan's September decision to overturn the ban, which primarily targeted food service containers, on the grounds that it was “arbitrary and capricious” and that the city’s sanitation officials ignored the fact that expanded PS foam is recyclable.

It is believed now that New York City Sanitation Commissioner Kathryn Garcia is now required to reconsider the city’s policy in conformity with Justice Chan’s decision and issue a new determination. If the new determination were to be challenged, the decision would go back to Chan’s court. The New York City Council also has the option of taking up legislation once again.“The Appellate Division’s decision to deny the city’s request further proves what we have been saying all along: foam products can and should be recycled in New York City,” said Michael Westerfield, corporate director of recycling programs at Dart Container Corp.“The evidence proves expanded polystyrene foam is 100% recyclable.

51 • December 2015 • Plastics News


U.S. House passes legislation to ban plastic microbeads


he U.S House passed a bill to ban plastic microbeads in overthe-counter (OTC) and personalcare products, starting in 2017. The legislation, which is headed next to the Senate for review, would ban the manufacture of microbeads beginning in 2017 and eliminate their use in cosmetics and over-the-counter drugs in 2018 and 2019, respectively. The bill cleared the House unanimously after previously passing the House Energy and Commerce Committee, also without objection, in November Plastic microbeads have been in the middle of a heated debate as concern has been raised among clean water advocates on the challenging removal process typically done in wastewater treatment processes. The microbeads are able to crossover into

the waterways during these, inflicting harm to marine life. Currently, there are other natural alternatives available to replace plastic microbeads in personal care and OTC products. Consumer Healthcare Products Association (CHPA) President and CEO Scott Melville released the following statement commending the U.S. House of Representatives for speedy passage of the Microbead-Free Waters Act of 2015 (H.R. 1321). The bill, sponsored by U.S. Rep. Frank Pallone, Jr. (D-NJ) and U.S. Rep. Fred Upton (RMI), provides a reasonable timeframe for the removal of synthetic plastic microbeads from over-the-counter (OTC) and personal care products. “The OTC medicine industry applauds Representatives Pallone and Upton for shepherding legislation that sets

forth feasible phase-out dates for plastic microbeads in OTC products, appropriate definitions of key terms, and ensuring uniform enforcement across the nation.The American Chemistry Council (ACC) also praised lawmakers for passing the legislation on Monday. “Plastics play a vital role in our economy—from helping build and maintain homes to advancing new technologies,” the industry group said. "H.R. 1321 is an important step to ensure we have one sensible, national standard for phasing out the use of solid plastic microbeads in personal care products across America."CHPA along with the ACC, Personal Care Products Association, and SPI: The Plastics Industry Trade Association sent a letter of support for the legislation.

Scottish Government launches new Household Recycling Charter


he Scottish Government and the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities (Cosla) have launched a new system will make it easier for people to recycle, improve the quality of recycling and help local communities reap the benefits of a more circular economy.

existing food waste and residual collections. Over time, the intention is to move to a common colour system. Lochhead said: “This new consistent approach will sweep away the confusion that we all face every time we come across yet another difficult recycling system."

Scotland’s environment secretary Richard Lochhead announced that the new Household Recycling Charter and associated Code of Practice was developed and agreed on by the Scottish Government-COSLA Zero Waste Taskforce. It includes a new three-stream recycling system, which will include one container for glass, one for paper and card, and one for metals and plastics, together with

he further added, it will maximise the quantity and quality of materials captured, and allow us to give consistent national messages about what people should do with their recycling, wherever they are in Scotland. “This is a huge opportunity for Scotland, and as I set out in my circular economy consultation, I intend to align Scottish Government and Zero Waste Scotland support for

Plastics News • December 2015 • 52

recycling with the Scottish Household Recycling Charter.” Councils can sign up to the voluntary charter from January. After signing the charter they will receive support from Zero Waste Scotland in developing plans to introduce the new system. The Packaging Recycling Group Scotland (PRGS), consisting of 34 leading food and drink companies and industry bodies, backed the Recycling Charter. Jane Bickerstaffe, spokesperson for The Packaging Recycling Group Scotland, said: “PRGS welcomes the decision of the Scottish Government and Cosla to work together and build on the success of current recycling systems."

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53 • December 2015 • Plastics News

Business NEWS

India makes big cut in tariffs on Chinese P o l y O n e b u y s molding machines concentrates ndia has cut its anti-dumping duty companies argued they were needed business from BASF on Chinese-made injection molding to protect them from unfairly priced


machines to 29 percent, down from 174 percent, a big change in a policy that has been controversial within Indian industry. India’s Ministry of Finance announced the new tariff levels Dec. 4, without commenting on why they were reduced. Sources said it’s not clear if the lower tariffs will bring more Chinese machines into India’s large injection press market. The tariffs were first put in place in 2009, and Indian machinery

Chinese competition. Local molders, on the other hand, wanted the duties removed entirely to get better access to technology and make them more competitive globally. In interviews at the Indplas 2015 trade show in Kolkata, Indian press makers downplayed the new low import tariff as a non-issue. They argued that the industry has moved away from lowend price-sensitive equipment.

Petainer Innopac JV opens PET container plant near Mumbai


etainer UK Holdings, a leading provider of innovative and sustainable PET and other plastics containers in joint venture With Innopac Containers has opened a blow moulded PET container plant near Mumbai. The JV company Petainer Innopac Packaging officially opened the new manufacturing earlier this month.

The facility also has an on-site design studio, laboratory services and warehousing.Officially opening the plant, Atit Bhatia, managing director of Petainer Innopac Packaging, said: “This is an exciting day and we are delighted that we have delivered on our timely promise to the market by bringing a world-class facility and a world-class product to the Indian market. The plant and its strategic location supports our ambitious growth plans for the region which is based on providing customers with

Plastics News • December 2015 • 54

an exciting portfolio of innovative and gamechanging solutions.” Nigel Pritchard, group CEO of Petainer UK Holdings, said, “India presents an exciting and dynamic market opportunity for our innovative packaging solutions." He added that there is huge interest and demand from brand owners in India who genuinely recognise that Petainer’s advanced polymer engineering brings significant benefits in terms of reduced cost of ownership and improved sustainability.”The joint venture business was formed in early 2015 to target Petainer’s PET products at brand owners in India. Petainer and Innopac said they have agreed to a phased approach. Petainer Innopac Packaging has also introduced PetainerKeg a oneway 20 or 30-litre plastic keg into India. This is made for the beer, wine & other beverage markets.


olyOne has purchased the Magenta Master Fibers business of BASF $22m (€20m).Magenta makes specialty color concentrates for the global fibre industry at plants in Milan, Italy; and Shanghai. The business has annual sales of $16 million, with 65 percent of that total coming from outside of North America.The sale price represents a multiple of 6.8 times Magenta’s EBITDA.

PolyOne President and CEO Robert Patterson said the Magenta deal is “another excellent strategic acquisition that will further accelerate our specialty strategy as we pursue our 2020 Platinum Vision.”Magenta produces masterbatch concentrates based on nylon and polyester for mass dyeing of synthetic fibres. Markets for its materials include clothing and apparel, outdoor equipment and multiple materials used in the transportation industry. Officials with BASF in Ludwigshafen, Germany, said that the firm will concentrate on its customized colour masterbatch business and that the Magenta unit “is not part of BASF’s future focus.” Magenta now will be part of PolyOne’s Global Color, Additives & Inks unit. The Magenta acquisition is PolyOne’s first deal since acquiring some of the assets of liquid polymer formulator Accella Performance Materials for $49m (€45.6m) in late 2014.

Business NEWS

BP plans sale of PTA plant in Decatur


P has decided to market for sale its Decatur petrochemicals complex as part of a broader reorganization of the company’s global petrochemicals business. As part of restructuring initiative for its petrochemicals business, BP plc plans to sell the plant producing purified terephthalic acid (PTA). According to the company the PTA plant does not suit its strategy of concentrating on world-scale, low-cost facilities any more. The Alabama plant is capable of producing 1 mln tpa PTA. The facility also manufactures paraxylene (PX). The Zhuhai 3 unit in Guangdong Province, China that was brought online by BP in early 2015 is the world’s largest single-train PTA production unit. This unit is also one of the largest and most efficient PTA production units in the world. The Zhuhai 3 unit is capable of producing about 1.25 million tons of PTA per year.BP is spending US$200 mln to upgrade its Cooper River, SC plant and the plant’s sister facility in Geel, Belgium. This should help the company to cut

operating costs, enhance reliability and lower emissions. BP’s refocused petrochemicals strategy is pursuing a competitively advantaged portfolio through world-scale, low-cost facilities that utilize BP proprietary technology including the production of purified terephthalic acid (PTA)a key raw material in the production of polyester. BP expects to complete a sale of all or part of the facility provided a buyer can be found and an acceptable deal can be reached. “BP’s world-leading technologies and global positions allow us to compete in today’s highly competitive marketplace,” said Tufan Erginbilgic, chief executive of BP’s global downstream business. “Our strategy is to significantly improve the cash breakeven performance of the business, enhancing earnings potential and making it more resilient to bottom-of-cycle conditions. We look to have a portfolio with BP’s world-leading technology resulting in highly efficient production of PTA in key markets around the world.”

SABIC likely to invest in India


audi Basic Industries Corporation (Sabic) is looking for investment opportunities in India. According to reports the company is likely to invest in India but would want regulatory changes before such a move, the company's CEO Yousef Al Benyan said in the sidelines of the 10th annual Gulf Petrochemicals and Chemicals Association annual forum. India is the fastest growing market and there are several investment opportunities [in the

country]. We need regulatory changes that promote investments. Sabic sees demand growth for petrochemicals in a country as 1.5 times its economic growth, Al Benyan said.Although Sabic is a major exporter of various petrochemicals to India, its physical presence in the country is limited to innovation centers in Bangalore, Vadodara, Gurgaon, Mumbai and Pune. However the company did not mention the details of the plans.

Shell announces final investment decision


hell Chemical LP (Shell) has announced the final investment decision to increase Alpha Olefins (AO) production at its chemical manufacturing site in Geismar, Louisiana, making the site the largest AO producer in the world. Shell will construct a fourth AO unit, adding 425,000 tons of capacity at an investment of US$717 mln. The new unit is expected to begin operations in 2018. "This important investment demonstrates our ongoing commitment to the growth potential in chemicals," said Graham van't Hoff, Executive Vice President for Royal Dutch Shell plc's global Chemicals business. "With the investment in new, profitable facilities, Shell Chemicals is well placed to respond to increased global customer demand for linear alpha olefins. We have strong technology, advantaged ethylene feedstock from nearby Norco and Deer Park sites, and operational flexibility to allow us to respond to market conditions."Construction of the new unit will begin in the first quarter of 2016. The new capacity brings the total AO production at Shell's Geismarsite to more than 1.3 mln tpa, the site, with a strong track record of reliable and safe performance, also produces alcohols, ethoxylates, ethylene oxide and ethylene glycols.

55 • December 2015 • Plastics News

Business NEWS

Kuwait's Petrochemical Industries Co to acquire 45% in OPAL


uwait's Petrochemical Industries Company (PIC) is close to signing a deal to acquire 45% of the OpaL chemical factory in India, the company's chief executive told state news agency KUNA. As reported by Reuters, Asaad Al-Saad attributed delays in the completion of the deal to tough Indian laws, but said he was optimistic due to the support of India's government and the strength of its economy. sONGC Petro-additions Limited, or OpaL, is currently a joint venture between three Indian companies: Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation (GSPC) and Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL). OPaL is setting up a grass root mega petrochemical project at Dahej, Gujarat, and is said to be the largest one of its kind in India. OPal has been

billed as India's largest dual-feed cracker unit plant with an ethylene cracking capacity of 1.1-million metric tones per annum (MMTA). Opal will source naphtha and C2C3 feedstock (ethylene, toluene etc) from ONGC's Hazira, Uran and Dahej plants. Inclusive of all products that will be produced, the petrochemical project will have a capacity of 1.9 MMTA and will generate Rs12,000 crore in revenue annually. The demand for polymers in India is huge and is expected to further rise with the growth in GDP. Although India will continue to be in deficit of polyethylene in the future, OPaL will also be marketing substantial part of its produce in the international market. ONGC, the key promoter will be supplying the feedstock required for this project from its Hazira, Uran and Dahej facilities.

Sinopec to buy 20% of Russia's Sibur


hina Petrochemical Corp, better known as Sinopec, has got the green light from the Russian government to buy a 20 percent stake in Russian petrochemical and gas company Sibur, a move that signals the petrochemical company's ambition to expand overseas. The takeover involves two stages Sinopec will acquire 10 percent of Sibur for about $1.34 billion then buy the other 10 percent within the next three years, according to Russian media reports. The value of the second stage has not been disclosed due to the fluctuation in value of the company's shares in the next three

Plastics News • December 2015 • 56

years, it said. Analysts said that the total amount that Sinopec has agreed to pay is considered a little bit more than the real market value, because the valuation of the Russian company was estimated to be about $10 billion in 2014. Other analysts said it is a good deal for Sinopec, especially at a time when many petrochemical companies are suffering heavy losses as a result of shrinking demand and a weak economy.The deal is a follow-up to the framework agreement signed in Beijing during Russian President Vladimir Putin's visit to China in September.

IVL acquires Micro Polypet


n d o r a m a Ve n t u r e s P u b l i c Company Limited (IVL), a worldleading producer of intermediate petrochemicals, has acquired Indian Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) manufacturer Micro Polypet Private Ltd. (MicroPet), subject to necessary legal approvals. Situated in Panipat district, Haryana state, India, the plant is located 90 kms north of Delhi and has a capacity of 216,000 tons. MicroPet is the sole PET manufacturer in Northern India and has virtual integration with the Indian Oil Corporation (IOCL) for its two major feedstocks PTA and MEG. Currently MicroPet has approximately 12% of the capacity share in India, a country with a population of 1.25 billion. It uses melt-to-resin technology that IVL has experience with at its AlphaPet plant in Alabama, the U.S.. Aloke Lohia, Group CEO of Indorama Ventures said, “This is a unique opportunity for us to establish a foothold in one of the world’s fastestgrowing developing economies. The acquisition strategically extends our footprint and scale and enhances our relationship with the world’s fast moving consumer good brands, all of whom have their eye on this huge consumer market. We are entering at the early stages of PET usage as just 0.6 kilograms of polyester per annum is consumed in India today compared to 2.6 kilograms per annum in China ” explains Lohia.

Business NEWS

LyondellBasell to acquire PP compounds assets of Zylog Plastalloys


lobal plastic maker LyondellBasell will acquired the polypropylene compounds assets of local company Zylog Plastalloys to increase its access to the Indian market. LyondellBasell's purchase of Zylog Plastalloys is the second transaction after it acquired SJS Plastiblends, another

polypropylene compounds producer, earlier this year. "This acquisition is part of our plan to strategically expand our footprint where it makes sense from an economic and strategic perspective," said Bhavesh Patel, CEO & chairman of LyondellBasell. "With investments in Zylog and SJS, LyondellBasell will be a leading producer of polypropylene compounds in all major automotive growth regions of the world." Zylog, one of India’s leading polyolefin compounding company has entered into a definitive agreement to sell its polypropylene (PP) compounding assets to LyondellBasell, one of the world's largest plastics, chemical and refining companies. "With this acquisition, LyondellBasell would have the opportunity to substantially expand

its footprint in Indian automotive sector, getting immediate access to all major automotive OEs and leading Tier I customers, that Zylog has been servicing over the years”, says Aschak Damani, Executive Director, Zylog Plastalloys. The acquisition includes manufacturing sites in Sinnar, Maharashtra, and in Chennai, Tamil Nadu and the trademarked brands of Hipolyene, Hiflex & Entek. The transaction is expected to close in early 2016. Until the transaction is complete, Zylog will conduct business as usual and continue to provide the same level of support, service and high quality products to its customers. Zylog’s advisors included PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) India as financial advisors, whereas AZB & Partners advised on legal matters. Zylog Plastalloys will continue to operate its elastomer business that includes brands Neoplast (TPV) and Neoflex (TPE). Current promoters have strategic plans in place to expand this elastomer business with new technology and product portfolio to cover wider applications in medical, healthcare, poultry, irrigation, wire & cable, building & construction, appliances and of course automotive. Besides, Zylog Composites, a new startup from the same group, is pushing new frontiers in thermoformed parts and components based on flexible and rigid TPOs, replacing rubber, PVC, ABS, HIPS focused to automotive applications.

Dow Chemical and DuPont, to merge


he two giants in the global chemical sector-Dow Chemicals and DuPont, have been reported, to be at an advanced stage of discussions towards an agreement to merge operations.

Combined, Dow and DuPont would have sales of nearly US$90 blnDow had sales of US$58.1 bln in 2014 and DuPont posted sales of US$28.4 bln. Earlier this year, DuPont attempted to improve its results by spinning off its struggling titanium dioxide unit – as well as Teflon-brand fluoropolymers – into a separate public company, Chemours. Last month the company announced another major change that involved plastics: a plan to consolidate two of its plastics-related units into a single business. From the beginning of next year DuPont’s Performance Polymers unit will merge with Packaging & Industrial Polymers. DuPont also is merging its Protection and Building Innovations units. In March this year, Dow announced that it would combine a large part of its chlorine value chain with specialty chemicals and ammunition maker Olin to create a global materials firm with annual sales of almost US$7 bln. The combination includes Dow’s global epoxy business and units that make feedstocks used in PVC production.

57 • December 2015 • Plastics News

Business NEWS

Cosmo Films to raise upto Rs 100 crore


osmo Films, a manufacturer of bi-axially oriented polypropylene (BOPP), will raise up to Rs 100 crore through Qualified Institutional Placement (QIP) of equity shares and/or any other eligible securities," Cosmo Films said in a BSE filing. The company had earlier announced plans to invest Rs 220 crore for capacity expansion. Cosmo is installing a new BOPP line with 60,000 tpa capacity by early 2017 at its Vadodara facility in Gujarat. Plans are underway to add cast polypropylene line at its Maharashtra facility at a cost of Rs220 crore, as per PTI. The project will be funded through debt and internal accruals. The line has already been ordered and will increase the company's annual BOPP production capacity to 2,00,000 tpa. "We are installing a new BOPP line with 60,000 tonnes per annum (tpa) capacity by early 2017 at our Vadodara facility in Gujarat. The cost for the said expansion is estimated at Rs 200 crore. "We are also adding cast polypropylene line at

our Maharashtra facility at a cost of Rs 20 crore," Cosmo Films CEO Pankaj Poddar had told PTI. The project will be funded through debt and internal accruals. The line has already been ordered and will increase the company's annual BOPP production capacity to 2,00,000 tpa, Poddar had said. The demand for BOPP film is growing at 12-15 percent annually. The company is anticipating a strong demand for BOPP films in the coming years, especially from the FMCG sector, which prompts it to expand its BOPP production capacity. The output for the production unit intends to be used for both domestic and export markets. BOPP films, which offer high strength, elasticity, high barrier properties, resistance to various corrosive environments and inertness, are used in making flexible food packaging, adhesive tapes, labels and lamination applications. The company is the largest exporter of BOPP films from India and also the largest producer of thermal laminating films in the world.

EREMA GmbH to have subsidiary in Russia


REMA GmbH is all set to announce the founding of the subsidiary "OOO EREMA" which will see it investing in its presence in the Russian-speaking area.

Kalojan Iliev, who can turn to many years of experience in the CIS area and has been responsible for this territory for EREMA for some time, will be appointed Managing Director of OOO EREMA. The 268 mln inhabitants of the CIS member states use around

Plastics News • December 2015 • 58

9.1 mln tons of plastic every year. Additionally, some 7 1 mln tons are processed to make plastic products and Austria supplies in the region of 1 billion euros of plants and machinery annually to Russia alone. Kalojan Iliev, Managing Director of the new subsidiary OOO EREMA said "With the foundation of its own subsidiary, EREMA is strengthening its presence in Soviet Union and Russian making it contractual partner with local presence.

Solvay buys Cytec


olvay will target business opportunities in advanced lightweighting materials for the aerospace and automotive industries and in speciality chemicals for mining, following its acquisition of Cytec. Following the €6.2bn deal, the Belgium-headquartered chemicals giant will now create two new global business units (GBU). Bill Wood has been appointed president of a GBU featuring Cytec's composite businesses in aerospace materials and industrial materials. Mike Radossich has been appointed president of the advanced formulations segment, combining Cytec's in process separation, polymer additives and formulated resins activities with Solvay's phosphorus-based intermediates. Solvay said it had nearly completed the financing of the acquisition. Funding for the deal consisted of issuing around €4.7bn in senior and hybrid bonds and the ongoing €1.5bn right issue. Cytec will be fully consolidated within the Solvay Group as of 1 January 2016. Solvay chief executive Jean-Pierre Clamadieu, said: “Cytec represents a decisive milestone in Solvay's transformation and opens up new horizons for growth and innovation. we will now embark on a swift and efficient integration of Cytec's businesses and its talented teams into Solvay and to accelerate value generation for our shareholders.

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59 • December 2015 • Plastics News

Product NEWS

Jagmohan launches rotomoulding machines for 3000 Litres water tank


cclaimed for its technology and innovations; but Jagmohan from India had broken that jinx 2 years before in 2013, and had Jagmohan, India’s one of the largest blow moulding machines manufacture launched and sold 3000 litres machine recently with four layer machine to Nigeria for HDPE Blow Moulded Tanks. Jagmohan is pioneer in blow moulding for last 35 years and creating the brand image with its quality, timely delivery and prompt after sales and service. Jagmohan supplied its first ever developed 1000 litre Double Layer Machine to Kenya in 2008 since then the concept got hit in the market and slowly and steadily the news was on. Jagmohan contacted Vectus, a brand name in roto moulded tanks those days. They visited the Kenyan customer and while returning back ordered two machines instantly for their Indian plants. The rest is history. Today Vectus gives 20 years Guarantee on their tanks produced from our machines.

Jagmohan exported extrusion blow moulding machine for water tank to Kenya, Nigeria, Nepal, Italy, Sudan, Saudi Arabia and Jordan; where they are running 24 × 7 workhorse. Their machines are robust producing eminent quality Tanks of HM-HDPE material which leads to the stoutness of the Tank even on much lighter in weight. Tanks made of HM-HDPE Material posses much more (~5 times) elongated life in comparison to the LDPE make roto-moulded tanks due to

Plastics News • December 2015 • 60

simple basic material properties. All these years, Jagmohan has harnessed all these properties leading to the Break Through…

a mould with different capacities into one single which reduces your Mould space in the factory, Isn’t it a great idea?

Since the raw material properties also leads to the stoutness of the tank, you can reduce on the weight of the tanks without compromising the strength by dedicated Multipoint Parison Programs controlling the thickness of the wall

Jagmohan today is known for its indigenous design with even small to small things taken are care to control its quality. Starting with Single Layer Machines, Jagmohan has continued its innovation journey creating milestones from single layer to 5 layer water tanks. More layers gives you the option of using regrind materials in inner layers and saving in virgin raw material and also provides you the open window for adding additives, UV Stabilizers to some definite amounts. Only in Jagmohan machine, you will find the option of controlling the thickness of each layer and even switching off any layer if not needed for that particular application. This unique feature is on the basis of their separate hydraulic systems for each layer with each dedicated control. Along with this, it is just not the stop with Jagmohan Water Tank Machines, you can get the best production rates of around 18-20 pieces of 500 litres and thereof. The production rate decreases with higher capacities and vice versa. Jagmohan offers you a complete range in this regard starting from 500 Litres to 3000 litres the largest of all till date they have exported the largest in its kind of 3000 litres 3 machines to Nigeria. Italy is a country globally exported 2000 litres Water Tank Machine being the first Indian Manufacturer in its category

of the tanks with more weight in the top and the middle. That’s the beauty of Jagmohan Extrusion Blow Moulding. In comparison with Roto, Jagmohan has always proved a far better in technology eliminating the additional processes like Pulverising and Pelletizing. It’s simple and automatic, means less manpower, less breakdown time, less power, less recurring costs and more profit. With Jagmohan Blow Moulding Machines, you can produce different designs of Tanks and also different capacities from the same machine. There is also an option of interchangeable moulds which means

Product NEWS

Coperion expands offering for long fiber technology


n cooperation with ProTec Polymer Processing GmbH in Bensheim, Coperion now offers complete installations for the production of long fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFTs), meeting the growing need for LFT pellets. Components made of long fiber-reinforced plastics possess outstanding rigidity with low weight and increased impact resistance. Compared to short-fiber reinforced thermoplastics they also demonstrate improved mechanical and thermic material properties. With this improved quality, long fiber reinforced thermoplastics are well suited for higher stress und demanding areas of use.The production of long fiber reinforced thermoplastics takes place within the pultrusion process. The collaboration between Coperion and ProTec Polymer Processing offers several advantages. The complete line is offered with optimized components to enable the highest quality LFT pellet manufacturing. Among these, along

with the ZSK Mc18 or STS Mc11 twin screw extruder series, is a specially designed impregnation die head, developed by ProTec, which cannot clog with filler material. Moreover, roving unwinding with rotating coils, as well as roving pre-warming with individual fiber spreading, enable the best possible fiber impregnation. The complete installation offers one further advantage: different polymers in combination with special additives can be used in the same production line. Support and development of customer-specific formulations can take place in ProTec’s Testing Center in Bensheim. This production of product samples allows to validate components manufactured with LFT pellets. Using twin screw technology and the special impregnation die head, it is also possible to use additional fillers and even regrind material. As a result, the customer receives a fully automated production line, set and optimized to the customer’s formulation.

New thermocouples for high-temperature materials from Meusburger


eusburger Georg GmbH & Co. KG (Wolfurt, Austria) announced the availability of thermocouples for temperature monitoring at up to 400°C. Temperature monitoring is one of the most important measurements in molding, and these thermocouples help to optimize temperature control during the production process to ensure quality and profitability, claims Meusburger.

Meusburger offers different types of sensors produced from highquality machined components. The E6700 thermocouple with a bayonet fitting is available in both 6 & 8 mmdiameter sizes, and features universal compatibility. A space-saving solution is the easy-to-install E6702 90° bent thermocouple.The E6704 mineralinsulated thermocouple allows various mounting options.

Sipa makes collapsible watercooler bottle


ipa of Italy has created a PET water dispenser bottle that collapses as it becomes empty, reducing its size for easier recycling.There is a growing trend for single-use PET bottles used on water-coolers because they can weigh as little as 330 g, compared with the 650 g weight of a multitrip PET bottle. The blow moulding technology company worked with various customers to develop designs for single-use watercooler bottles which collapse on themselves as neatly as possible – a challenge that is not as easy as it sounds. It used Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis on computer simulated collapsing sequences to find the buckling mechanism that would best suit the client’s requirement.“FEM analysis accelerates the time of investigation and reduces the number of trials aiming at the correct solution,” said Dino Zanette at Sipa. “It also aids in determining a minimum weight at which the collapsing mechanism is still functional.”Sipa tried out different bottle shapes, both square and round, which were analysed along with the shape of the ribs and base. Graphs together with photograms of the simulation, helped experts to better understand the collapsing phenomena and how to modify the bottle structure to get the best performance,” said the company.

61 • December 2015 • Plastics News

Product NEWS

Sonoco bringing its own clear plastic can to the market


S - b a s e d S o n o c o Pr o d u c t s packaging has developed its own plastic alternative to the omnipresent metal food can. Sonoco is unveiling the TruVue can to the market for the first time, but has been working on the project in earnest for about two years, company spokesman Brian Risinger said. The can features a multi-layer plastic wall with an easy-open metal top and a metal bottom.The TruVue can will compete against the Klear Can, which has been developed by Kortec, a unit of Milacron. “I think from an aesthetics standpoint, we’re in the same position in terms of presenting a see-through can,” Risinger said. “We’re not working with them, but perhaps trying to accomplish similar things from a marketing standpoint. “Probably about two years ago, in earnest, we really started focusing resources, technology, people against the development of it,” he said. Use of a plastic can, which allows consumers to see the product, comes as retailers like Trader Joe’s and Whole Foods continue to grow in popularity and push the idea of healthier eating.A see-through can will help bigger food companies compete in that space, he said.“When you walk down the center of the aisle right now, from the large big food companies, you just don’t see a lot of that. So for us, we saw it as white space, if you will, to help our customers differentiate themselves in a pretty crowded space in the aisle,” he said. Even if just a small fraction of the existing can food market transitions to plastic

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cans, the number would still be significant, Risinger said. “With more than 47,000 products competing for attention in the average supermarket, standing out from the crowd is increasingly important,” Sonoco CEO Jack Sanders said. “This new solution creates multiple placement opportunities around the store.” Sonoco sees products including as soups, sauces, fruits and vegetables as being candidates for using the new can. Another advantage to the TruVue can is that companies can use the new packaging on existing canning and sterilization equipment. “You can reinvent your brand without reinventing your manufacturing process. So it’s both a marketing and an operational advantage that we’re bringing to the marketplace,” Risinger said. The TruVue can has undergone field testing with several clients that Risinger said he could not name. He indicated the container could be on store shelves on a regional basis with one customer by the end of the first quarter. Sonoco is not saying which equipment manufacturer it has teamed up with to create the TruVue can, which is described by the company as having “a highly engineered, multilayer plastic substrate.” Risinger did not have particulars about the composition of the layers. “Changing consumer demands are driving the need for innovation among premium brands promising freshness, authenticity and improved quality from simpler ingredients,” Sanders said.

Colour Tone unveils new recoveryfriendly range of colourants


aerphilly-based Colour Tone Masterbatch has launched a new, patent pending range of sortable colourants which it believes will help the recovery of plastics previously undetectable by recyclers.Such plastics include rigid black plastic packaging, plastic components in end-oflife vehicles and electrical and electronic waste. Irdent is a Waste & Resources Action Programmetested, collection of detectable pigments. Currently, a large amount of potentially recyclable items cannot be identified by infrared systems as they contain colour pigments that are very good infrared absorbers and are therefore undetectable. Colour Tone believes its Irdent range can increase the recovery of high quality materials, diverting them away from landfill.The firm suggested there may be approximately one million tonnes of rigid mixed plastic packaging in the UK waste stream.Of this amount between 3-6% is considered to be black plastic packaging. Colour Tone Masterbatch managing director Tony Gaukroger, said: “This new generation of pigments now makes the concept of ‘designing for endof-life’ a reality and a vital part of planning for the adherence to end of life legislation.

63 • December 2015 • Plastics News

Product NEWS

Performance packaging develops “Pixie Dust”


new and economical way to sterilize flexible packaging and its contents has been developed by Performance Packaging of Nevada. The patented process features a ‘liquid-to-gas’ sterilization process that is so unique it has been codenamed “Pixie Dust” by the company. Advantages of the Pixie Dust process include:

A low-cost process that features GRAS (‘Generally Recognized as Safe”) materials.Results of process residuals that are below the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) “Threshold of Regulation”Sterilization can occur during storage or shipping and is achieved in less than 48 hours at room temperatureUse of the pixie dust procedure is smell- and tasteneutralSome products, such as dental tools, medical devices, or enclosed plastic, glass, or metal objects, can be sterilized within the package, and the method makes aseptic cold-fill processes possible. There is no need to irradiate the package nor does the package need to be hot-filled nor require the post-pasteurization of pouches, since the pouch is already sterile. Industry applications for Pixie Dust can include flexible packaging such as stand-up pouches, bag-in-box, any sealed package, military applications, dental tools and medical devices. Performance Packaging is working with various companies to identify additional markets and partners for the new aseptic process it has developed. During the extensive testing process

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conducted by Performance Packaging for Pixie Dust, the test organism Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372 spores (which are highly resistant to heat and chemicals such as H2O2) were added to the package contents. A specific quantity of the Pixie Dust agent was then inserted into the package. After about two days, no viable spores were recovered from any of the treated samples, which included inoculations of 4-liter, hot-fill bagin-box, 55-gallon-drum bags and 2½ gallon polyolefin milk bags. Even corners and gusset fold tests, along with laboratory-scale filling tests of treated pouches revealed no sign of bacterial growth. In addition, Pixie Dust’s new developments and improvements are underway that predict rapid, in-line sterilization prior to filling."We are currently seeking worldwide partners in the pharmaceutical and food industries to implement this technology that crosses many platforms including device sterilization as well as the foodstuff shelf life extension,” explained Rob Reinders, president of Performance Packaging of Nevada. “This development is the direct result of the invaluable contributions of Joseph Dunn, Ph.D., who joined our company earlier this year as vice president of research and development and regulatory affairs.” Dr. Dunn has more than 30 years of experience and is also the inventor of the use of pulsed light for packaging sterilization & author of more than 25 patents related to packaging industry.

EREMA introduces UpCentre®, for sampling of uprecycling


ith its UpCentre®, EREMA, the global market leader in plastics recycling systems, has opened the doors to a whole new form of upcycling service which means that customers now have COREMA® technology for the sampling of recycling compounds at their disposal. Ro b e r t O b e r m a y r, C O R E M A ® Product Manager, explains: "On the way from recyclates to madeto-measure recycling compounds you need a lot of fine tuning in practice: processors demand varying quantities of samples – as often and as long as necessary until the recycling compound meets the exact requirements of their concrete application, such as film or injection moulding parts."

Customers can now take advantage of the UpCentre® to produce sample amounts in tonnes quickly and flexibly. They benefit additionally from the process engineering knowhow of EREMA and Coperion – two global market leaders in their fields. The UpCentre® features a COREMA® 1108 T for a maximum monthly production of 500 tonnes.To enable these recyclates to be used 1:1 as a substitute for virgin material they have to have exactly specified, customised property profiles. With this EREMA have combined benefits of recycling&compounding.

65 • December 2015 • Plastics News


Curing uncertainties in cross-linked plastics


erman plastics research, testing and training center SKZ (Würzburg) is examining a different method for determining the degree

of cross-linking .Cross-linking plastics is an irreversible process where the long chains of polymers are bonded or linked together. This makes materials tougher and less flexible, and resistant to softening when heated. Crosslinking is therefore a common method that can be used to obtain mechanical, thermal and chemical properties in standard polymers, which are similar to those in high-performance plastics. It not only improves tensile strength, but can also enhance, among other properties, a polymer’s scratch resistance, temperature and chemical resistance. As a result of cross-

linking thermoplastics are turned into thermosets. The best-known examples are cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X), which has become a viable alternative for PVC in pipes, and cross-linked polyamide, which is commonly used in the automotive sector. There is also a wide range of material systems, which cure through crosslinking. These include, for example, thermosetting materials that are used as matrices in fiberreinforced composites or in thermoset injection molding and adhesives. The degree of cross-linking and curing is a decisive quality feature in these processes. However, until now, this has mainly been determined by means of wet-chemical analysis, a method relying on chemical reactions between the material being analyzed—the analyte—and a reagent that is added to the analyte. The main drawback to this method is the length of time required (more than 8 hours in the case of standard

testing) before a quantitative result is obtained, and in addition to the elaborate sample preparation involved, the procedure does not allow for 100% complete control. The German plastics research, testing and training center SKZ (Würzburg) is now examining a different method for determining the degree of cross-linking in thermoplastics and thermosets. Researchers at this center are studying the use of single-sided nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), a noninvasive material testing approach that as it is significantly faster than the current standard testing method, that also allows for inline process control.NMR is an advanced nondestructive evaluation technique in which unilateral magnetic resonance techniques are employed to generate information about the internal structure of a sample. The new research project will explore the potentials & limitations of this method for a process-oriented, nondestructive determination of the degree of cross-linking.

Power paper made from nano-cellulose


ower paper- a new material consisting of nano-cellulose and a conductive polymer with an outstanding ability to store energy, has been developed by researchers in Sweden. Each sheet is 15 cm in diameter and a few tenths of a mm thick and can store energy similar to the super-capacitors currently on the market. The material can be

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recharged hundreds of times and each charge only takes a few seconds. “Thin films that function as capacitors have existed for some time. What we have done is to produce the material in three dimensions. We can produce thick sheets,” said Xavier Crispin, professor of organic electronics at Linkoping University in Sweden. The

structural foundation of the material is nano-cellulose or cellulose fibres which, using high-pressure water, are broken down into fibres as thin as 20nm in diameter. With the cellulose fibres in a solution of water, an electrically charged polymer, also in a water solution, is added. The polymer then forms a thin coating around the fibres.

67 • December 2015 • Plastics News


“Pixie Dust” sterilization method Super large ball introduced for flexible packaging screws could expand as Vegas-based Performance inoculations of 4-liter, hot-fill bagtonnage realm of Packaging of Nevada has launched in-box, 55-gallon-drum bags and 2 injection presses an innovative and cost effective ½ gallon polyolefin milk bags. Even


way to sterilize flexible packaging and its contents. The proprietary method involves a ‘liquid-to-gas’ sterilization process that is so unique it has been nicknamed “Pixie Dust” by the company. Products, such as dental tools, medical devices, or enclosed plastic, glass, or metal objects, can be sterilized within the package, and the method makes aseptic coldfill processes achievable. There is no need to expose the package to radiation, nor does the package need to be hot-filled or require the postpasteurization of pouches, since the pouch is already sterile. Industry applications for Pixie Dust include flexible packaging, such as stand-up pouches, bag-in-box, any sealed package, military applications, dental tools and medical devices. Performance Packaging is currently collaborating with various companies to identify additional markets and partners for the new aseptic process it has developed. D u r i n g t e s t s f o r Pi x i e D u s t , Performance Packaging added test organism Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372 spores (which are highly resistant to heat and chemicals such as H2O2) to the package contents. A specific quantity of the Pixie Dust agent was then inserted into the package. After 48 hours, no viable spores were recovered from any of the treated samples, which included

Plastics News • December 2015 • 68

corners and gusset fold tests, along with laboratory-scale filling tests of treated pouches revealed no sign of bacterial growth. Currently, Pixie Dust’s new developments and improvements are underway that predict rapid, in-line sterilization prior to filling. “Regarding specific economic benefits of Pixie Dust, we have dramatically reduced the cost of the sterilization process to an amount of, for example, about one cent (1¢) of agent will treat approximately 750,000 pouches. In contrast, large volumes of peroxide, such as 250 gallons of very expensive, high-concentration H2O2 and hot, sterile air are required to sterilize a similar number of form-fill-seal packages,” explained said Joseph Dunn, VP of Research and Development and Regulatory Affairs, Performance Packaging. “Pixie Dust is a cost-saving alternative to traditional shelf-stable methods such as hot-filling, retort processing, peroxide or peracetic baths or sprays, irradiation, pulsed light or electron-beam irradiation.” Dr. Dunn has more than 30 years of experience in industrial biochemistry and microbiology relating to packaging research. He is also the inventor of the use of pulsed light for packaging sterilization and the author of more than 25 patents related to packaging industry safety processes. Throughout his career, he has worked closely with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.


all screw supplier NSK (Tokyo) has come up with a new method for grinding the nuts employed in its products to lengths of 800 mm (1.4-times the length of conventional nuts). This was not an easy task it hastens to add, involving the development of a dedicated nut grinding machine. Longer nuts make it possible to increase the number of load balls in the nut, thereby increasing the maximum allowable axial load by a factor of 1.3 & the service life of the ball screw 2.8fold versus nuts fabricated using conventional cutting processes.NSK also employs a dedicated design for ball circulation that employs a tangential pickup method using a proprietary deflector. This makes it possible to achieve high-speed rotation even with large ball screws over 140 mm in diameter and balls that are one inch in size. Performance as delineated by the unit dn (diameter (mm) x rpm (min-1) of up to 100,000 is thereby achievable. NSK sees a particular need for large all-electric injection machines in the automotive sector for molding large plastic components such as large one-piece bumpers and door modules, as well as instrument panel interior components.Currently, the largest allelectrics offered by Japanese machine builders are Ube Machinery's 3500-ton UF?MD Series unit and the 3500emII machine from Mitsubishi.


Surface Generation boosts speed, efficiency Rajoo's Blown Film of thermoplastic press-forming processes line Technology


urface Generation (Rutland, UK), a provider of advanced carbon-fiber processing technologies, announced that it is working with WMG at the University of Warwick (Coventry, UK) and AGC AeroComposites (AGC; Derby, UK) to develop new composite pressforming processes for automotive and aerospace manufacturers.

can quickly and cost-effectively upgrade existing production lines for thermoplastic composites and significantly reduce their cost of production. As part of an integrated production line, PtFS makes it possible for manufacturers to achieve one minute Takt times for thermoplastic components."

Surface Generation is developing new press-forming mold faces incorporating its patented Production to Functional Specifications (PtFS) technology for the production of high-performance thermoplastic composite components. By integrating Surface Generation's new thermal management technologies into the mold face itself, WMG and AGC are able to continuously adapt heating and cooling levels for each mold area and process stage in real time, with the expectation of improving both the quality and throughput of compression molding applications.

Geraint Williams, Project Manager at WMG, commented: "A major barrier to mainstream adoption of novel, aligned fiber-reinforced thermoplastics within the automotive sector is the difficulty of economically achieving short cycle times within a high-volume production environment. Surface Generation's PtFS technology has the potential to meet this challenge by eliminating process stages and enabling manufacturers to rapidly form composite components using a one-shot stamp-forming process."

The work is in support of the Composites Innovation Cluster's Thermocomp project, which is seeking to develop short-cycle-time, highvolume manufacturing processes that can be used by automotive and aerospace manufacturers for producing carbon-fiber-reinforced thermoplastic components. "PtFS provides automotive and aerospace manufacturers with a new level of sophistication in compression molding," said Ben Halford, Chief Executive at Surface Generation. "The ability to dynamically control the heat applied to each mold area throughout the cure cycle means manufacturers

AGC's Materials Technology Director, Dave Conway, said, "By incorporating its revolutionary PtFS process into conventional press forming processes, Surface Generation has opened the door to a very exciting new era in aerospace manufacturing." Surface Generation's patented PtFS process is used to combine, compact, process and meld plastic, glass and composite materials efficiently and accurately than is possible using traditional injection and compression molding processes. Surface Generation's technologies are used by component providers and manufacturers across a range of industries.


echnological supremacy of Rajoo in Blown Film Extrusion, coupled with a strong intent and astute comprehension of Devendran Plastic in understanding the market needs has helped create this winning combination.

Devendran Plastic Private Limited, one of the youngest but fastest growing companies in the business of flexible packaging in South India, now orders its third blown film line from Rajoo. Satisfied with the Rajoo fully loaded 7-layer Blown Film Line for barrier packaging and the Rajoo OBC 3-layer Line, Devendran Plastic has now ordered the Rajoo fully loaded 3-layer line to specifically meet the needs and address the challenges of films for milk packaging as well as lamination grade films. The new machine is customised to produce films for milk packaging as well as lamination grade films. The line is equipped with 75mm x 2, 90mm x 1 - 3 extruders along with 12 component material conveying, gravimetric batch blending & GSM control systems to produce a film width of 2400mm with output of 650 kg/hr. Other technological advancements include circumferential profile control system with controllable external automatic air ring with triple lip, width measurement and control and integrated computerised touch screen based supervisory processcontrol panel.

69 • December 2015 • Plastics News

in the NEWS

Scientists produces world's first 100% recyclable biopolymer


cientists have produced the world's first 100% recyclable biopolymerA type of plastic that can be reheated for an hour and converted back to its original molecular state has been developed by researchers in the US, and being completely recyclable and reusable, petroleumfree, and able to broken down by living organisms, it could change everything about how we consume and reuse plastic. Researchers at Colorado State University developed the polymer using a monomer called Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), which is found in superglue removers and cleaning solutions. While the scientific literature has insisted for years that its chemical structure was too stable to convert into a plastic, the team went ahead and tried it anyway. Don't even bother with this monomer,'" Chen said, quoting the conventional wisdom. "'You cannot make a polymer out of it because the measured reaction thermodynamics told you so.' We suspected that some of the previous reports were probably incorrect." Right now, every single of one of us is consuming around 90 kilos (200 pounds) of synthetic polymers

every year, most of which isn’t biodegradable or recyclable. More than of plastic is produced each year, and 18 million of that ends up in our oceans each year, adding to the 243,978 tonnes that have already accumulated. While many of the plastic bottles and packages you use display a 'recyclable' symbol, they can only be reused to an extent. They can be processed and repurposed to give the plastic material a longer lifespan, but it’s not possible to convert them back to their base elements to start again. The number of biodegradable plastics currently on the market come with the same limitations - only partially recyclable, and the process to extends their lifecycle results in unwanted byproducts. "The big drive now is to produce biorenewable and biodegradable polymers or plastics," says Chen. "That is, however, only one part of the solution, as biodegradable polymers are not necessarily recyclable, in terms of feedstock recycling." That what’s so remarkable about this new type of bioplastic. Named poly(GBL), you just need heat it to between 220 and 300 degrees Celsius for an hour, and that’s all it takes to convert it back to GBL. Once back in GBL form, the

polymerisation process can be begin again - under conditions of around -40 degrees Celsius, the monomer molecules react to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks. Chemist Eugene Chen and his team experimented with their new polymer, making different molecular shapes by changing up the catalysts - both metal-based and metal-free varieties - in the solution and elements of the production process. While scientists attempted the same thing 10 years ago, they couldn't figure out how to convert the GBL into a polymer at anything other than crazy-high levels of pressure. Chen and his colleagues determined that poly(GBL) is "chemically equivalent" to the commercially used biodegradable bioplastic, P4HB, but much cheaper and easier to produce because P4HB can only be derived from living bacteria. They hope poly(GBL) will end up replacing P4HB in the future, and maybe even other types of plastic, if they can figure out how to make production costs comparable.The results have been published in Nature Chemistry, and Chen has also filed a patent for the discovery.

Saudi Aramco seeks further investment in Indonesia's downstream refining


audi Aramco seeks further investment chances in Indonesia's downstream refining and petrochemicals industry, amid its recent USD5.5 billion development to

Plastics News • December 2015 • 70

enhance Indonesia's biggest refinery The project is projected to raise the refinery's crude processing volume to 370,000 bpd from 348,000 bpd at present. The upgrade will consist

of a new hydro cracker unit, and expansion of production capacity of paraxylene and polypropylene.

in the NEWS

Petrochemical players in Chennai shut operations


hennai Petroleum, Manali Petro, Tamilnadu Petro & Kothari Petro facilities have shut operations due to heavy rains and flooding, as per www. business After shutting down the Chennai refinery due to rains, Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd -- an IOC company, decided to shut Cauvery Basin Refinery at Nagapattinam since December 06. The company has informed the BSE due to heavy rains and water-logging on the refinery premises, the Manali Refinery of CPCL was shutdown effective December 2, 2015 and the Cauvery Basin Refinery at Nagapattinam was shutdown effective December 6, 2015 night. Manali Petrochemicals Limited and Kothari Petrochemicals have informed the exchange that operations of the company's plants have affected due to heavy rains. Manali Petro informed

both the plants of the company remain affected since December 2, 2015 due to flood and the resultant power disruptions. The plant operations are expected to recommence shortly in a phased manner subject to resumption of normalcy in power supply, material movements and others.MPL produces and marketing of Propylene Oxide, Propylene Glycols and Polyols in India. The company operates two grassroot production facilities at Manali to manufacture propylene oxide (PO), propylene glycol (PG) and polyols. It markets its polyols with isocyanates sourced indigenously as well as imported from Japan and China and the pre-polymers produced at MPL in meeting the demand of polyurethane industry in India. Kothari Petrochemicals Limited informed that the operations at the company's factory located at Manali

industrial area, Manali, Chennai, has been disrupted due to flooding of the factory premises caused by incessant rains. The factory has been shut down since mid-night of December 2, 2015. Due to heavy water-logging and continuous rain the damage could not be ascertained as of now. The factory is adequately covered by insurance. Necessary steps are being taken to restore normalcy, said the company Tamilnadu Petroproducts Ltd also said its plant at Manali continues to remain shut. The plant operations remain suspended from December 2 due to inundation and the consequent power failure. The company said situation is being assessed and information on restart of the operations will be furnished in due course. Company's Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB) facility is located at Manali in North Chennai.

SPI endorses Prop 65 insurance plan to protect plastics companies


PI The Plastics Industry Trade Association (Washington, DC) announced its endorsement of a new insurance program designed to shield small- to medium-sized companies from opportunistic lawsuits related to California's Proposition 65. The SPI Prop 65 Protection Program insures product manufacturers, distributors and formulators of products that contain federally approved plasticizers from falling victim to predatory lawsuits. Proposition 65 gives California's attorney general the authority to serve a notice of violation against any company along the supply chain

that sells a product directly or indirectly in California containing chemicals classified by the state as carcinogens. Among the listed chemicals are plasticizers that add flexibility to commonly used products such as luggage tags, key chains and purses. Multiple plastics industry organizations say that scientific evidence shows that plasticizers included on the list are not hazardous to people's health. "Prop 65 punishes law-abiding business owners who are good actors," Terry Peters, SPI's Vice President of Industry Affairs, said. "Attorneys and the state of California are the only winners in

these lawsuits and they anticipate that companies targeted will choose to settle because it is less expensive and less time-consuming than mounting an affirmative defense." According to the California Attorney General's office, in 2014 there were 663 settlements totaling more than $29 million associated with Prop 65 notices of violation. The law affects any company providing constituent materials that end up in consumer products in California, regardless of where the business is headquartered. Unfortunately, companies can be named in multiple lawsuits and suffer even more damage to their bottom line, said the SPI release.

71 • December 2015 • Plastics News

in the NEWS

ABS prices hit 5-year low in China


n China, both import and local ABS markets have hit the lowest levels since the beginning of 2012, as per Chemorbis. New prices emerged with fresh declines for December driven by lower production costs in Asia with respect to a month ago. Players also blamed muted demand heading to the year-end amidst a slower economy in China as another reason behind the renewed price drops for ABS. A source from a producer commented, “Converters are not purchasing beyond their immediate needs given the volatile upstream chain which keeps overall demand slack. Supply, meanwhile, is regular. We believe that activity will not show any improvement in the near term unless crude oil prices witness a notable increase. We are currently operating our plant at 80-90% of capacity.” Another ABS maker was said to have reduced their operating rates for the first time in years in order to keep their offers stable for December. They are running their 830,000 tpa plant at 85% from the previous 100% nowadays. A Shanghai based trader commented on the local ABS market, saying, “The local market

is performing weakly. Most players are still waiting to hear new offers from producers and are not in a hurry to replenish their inventories yet.” Meanwhile, media reports showed that total domestic production of household air-conditioning units declined 27% on the year in October while domestic sales were also down 31.3% from a year earlier, suggesting weakness in a major ABS application. An agent of a South Korean ABS maker in Turkey argued this week, “ABS and HIPS prices are almost on par recently although ABS should traditionally carry a premium of up to US$200/ton over HIPS. ABS makers will try to recover their margins at some point.” New December offers were announced with drops of up to US$30/ton to this country. Looking at the upstream chain, spot styrene costs were down by US$35/ton on FOB South Korea basis since early November, while butadiene prices plunged by around US$95/ton in the same period amidst fluctuating energy costs during the last one month. Spot ACN prices, in the meantime, soared US$65/ton on CFR Far East Asia basis from a month ago.

Mitrajaya awarded RM186.38 mln contract from Rapid project


itrajaya Holdings Bhd (MHB) through its subsidiaries Pembinaan Mitrajaya Sdn Bhd and Syarikat Ismail Ibrahim Sdn Bhd has secured a contract worth RM186.38 mlnn from the Refinery and Petrochemicals Integrated Development (Rapid) Project in Pengerang, Johor. In a

Plastics News • December 2015 • 72

filing with Bursa Malaysia, it said the contract was for the procurement, construction and commissioning of civil and infrastructure works as well as for interconnecting, storm water drainage and utilities. The contract is expected to contribute positively to MHB group’s future earnings.

Petronas subsidiary awards two contracts to Samsung group


etronas Chemicals Group Bhd



awarded two contracts worth US$882 mln (RM3.72 bln) to build polyethylene and glycol processing plants to the Samsung group. The company informed Bursa Malaysia that the contracts were given to the consortium of Samsung Engineering Co. Ltd, Samsung C&T Corp and Samsung Engineering (M) Sdn Bhd. Petchem is a 64.35% owned subsidiary of Petroliam Nasional Bhd (Petronas).PetChem’s unit PRPC Polymers Sdn Bhd awarded the engineering, procurement, construction and commissioning (EPCC) contract for the linear low density polyethylene LLDPE worth US$305 mln (RM1.3 bln) to the group. Its other unit PRPC Glycols Sdn Bhd awarded a contract also to the group to undertake the EPCC of the ethylene oxide ethylene glycol plant estimated at US$577mln (RM2.42 bln). PetChem said the two contracts would start on Dec 23 and were expected to be completed by April 2019.

in the NEWS

SPC evaluates use of biodegradability additives for conventional plastics


he Sustainable Packaging Coalition (SPC) has released a formal position paper against biodegradability additives for petroleum-based plastics, which are marketed as enhancing the sustainability of plastic by rendering the material biodegradable. The SPC has evaluated the use of biodegradability additives for conventional petroleumbased plastics, and has found that these additives do not offer any sustainability advantage and they may actually result in more environmental harm. The position paperlists the following reasons for the stance against these additives:

sustainable without biodegradability additives,” said Adam Gendell, Senior Manager of the Sustainable Packaging Coalition. “We’ve been disappointed by the uptake from brands and manufacturers, as well as governments mandating their usage in other countries, and we’re hopeful that our position will help inform better decisions.” This formal position coincides with the recent Federal Trade Commission’s ongoing crackdown on false and misleading environmental claims, including five enforcement actions that specifically address biodegradable plastic claims.

While the FTC action centers on the efficacy of the additives and their ability to work as advertised, the SPC’s stance is centered on the idea that the additives do not provide environmental benefits even if they do work as advertised. We feel strongly that the most ideal end-oflife scenario for petroleum-based plastics is recycling,” Gendell said. “There are ample opportunities for the sustainable usage of petroleumbased plastics, and we need solutions that help realize those opportunities. Unfortunately, biodegradability additives are not one of them.”

They don’t enable compostability, which is the meaningful indicator of a material’s ability to beneficially return nutrients to the environment. They are designed to compromise the durability of plastic and the additive manufacturers have not yet demonstrated an absence of adverse effects on recycling. The creation of a “litter friendly” material is a step in the wrong direction, particularly when the material may undergo extensive fragmentation and generation of micro-pollution before any biodegradation occurs. The biodegradation of petroleumbased plastics releases fossil carbon into the at mosphere, creating harmful greenhouse gas emissions. “We strongly urge companies and government agencies to separate facts from misleading marketing language and help us generate the understanding that plastics are more

73 • December 2015 • Plastics News

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