THE TERRAIN N -T IO T H A E N P E
VIRAL - THE P E H SY C - T
Maintaining an effective perspective of scale in a world that is defined by exponential rates of technological change; along with the corresponding impact on individuals, societies, and our global ecosystem has become increasingly important. This work is structured as a journey through nine levels: The Viral,
The Psyche, The Body, The Shelter, The Community, The Hierarchy, The Nation,
The Terrain, The Pale. These levels are created through the establishment of
tive is at times arbitrary, fluid and ambiguous but the intent of this journey is to ascend boundaries by observing our world through the lens of scale. Archetypal journeys provide some guideposts as well as the poetry of technological advancement. As often is the case, the journey ends where it begins, but with a new understanding of our world.
- THE HIERAR TY C HY NI
boundaries to help facilitate the human frame of reference. This human perspec-
YC H E
E H T - THE SHELTER DY BO
-T H E C Designed & Written by Ainsleigh Douglas A HUGE thank you to my professor, TA, friends and family
M M O
Our world is defined by bottom up creation - starting from the atomic level to the universal. To understand the mechanics of the micro you first have to grasp scale and its consequence. To keep things relevant we will begin with nanoscaled structures and travel up through nine levels to the global. To understand the relationship of man made and organic nano particles, we will explore the meaning of the concept viral and its ability to permeate a multitude of borders. The most recognizable sense of â€œthe viralâ€? is disease, specifically viruses. A virus, at the scale of 140 nanometers, has its own set of physical criteria to meet in order to multiply and survive. It is a microorganism that is solely reliant on conquering barriers, that not only apply to its physical structure but also barriers that inhibit and help its survival. .
The basic structure of all viruses involves a
nucleic acid genome, either RNA or DNA, and a protein capsid that covers the genome. Some viruses that infect animals have a lipid envelope or a viral envelope that protects the genetic material
E-S T UR T
during progression from one organism to the next. The envelope is pertinent to the virion’s success rate of inhabiting the animal cells.1 The viral envelope takes many forms as the virion’s infection process takes place. Before entry the virus removes and manipulates genetic material from the host cell to make up a large part of the viral envelope. Inside the cell, layers of the virus are shed as protection from the host cells defenses and the virus successfully delivers the genetic payload. Upon exiting, the virus acquires its lost layers and moves on to the next cell. The viral envelope is deemed as a genetic mutation that is lost when a virus attacks an organism that has cell walls. This
T- IN N E
BE I N TO
specific existence, or nonexistence, of this border LITY I plays an important role in the success of the virus, B however it does not eliminate the fact that the virus A has a much more predominant handicap: its inability to survive on its own.
AR interactive graphic
This handicap is the key factor to the virions' detrimental effect on organisms, and in our case the
human race. Even more importantly, the survival length outside of the living host depends on the type of virus. Some viruses can exist for hours or days and others, like polio, can live indefinitely in sewage until they detect
PEN D DE
a host. The irony is that a virus is not even classified as living; it is more of a vehicle for transporting “information”. That “information” is simply instructions on how to replicate and transfer itself. Take this example to understand the difference in complexity between us and the virus “Our cells contain over 20,000 genes, but by comparison HIV, which in a sense is a relatively complex virus, only contains nine genes” 3, yet they have the ability to conquer millions and millions of living organisms. The virus's invincibility can be connected to its ability to reproduce at alarming rates and spread in deceptive ways.
reproduces offspring with the same genetic modifications. The magnitude of this change is demonstrated as different strains evolve and make it difficult for a vaccine of any help to be
UCTION D 4
created. The malleability of a virus makes it difficult to track
and even if a vaccine is created the virus can alter and become incurable again. The novel abilities of the virus to reproduce and spread are a consequence of it’s interactions at the nanoscale These seemingly simple interactions enable the virus’s effectiveness in reproduction and travel through and between human systems and across the globe as well.
IT S OW H
and as this happens the virus is genetically altered which then
IT S OW H
A virus has the capability to replicate over and over,
ADS RE P As daunting as the virus may seem, understanding how it works, and more importantly how it spreads, will make this invisible foe less intimidating. A visualization presented by Dr. Marr, recognized for her intensive research in aerospace particles, shows how Brownian motion plays in the spread of virus particles. Brownian motion describes the random movement of fast and slow particles suspended in fluid, which results in their collision. This type of movement is similar to
ADS RE P
that of a smoke cloud. Dr. Marr explains that the virus spreads when the infected particles “slam” into an object. She describes the particles' random movements as “drunk”, which results in them randomly bumping into things.
However, the particles
need to move at a fast enough rate to stick when they bump into an object, such as your clothes. This goes further to explain how effective masks can be, as the fibers of the cloth stop or slow the moving infected particles. However, the virus does not stop at the individual, in fact, its ability to stick and survive is why it can travel globally. Its magnitude and presence on millions of people’s clothes and its ability to stay dormant allows the virus to defy borders. We can track now as it travels and expands from one country to almost all of them. The enormous difference in individual size and its impact on the planet are shown daily in ways other than physical.
Our current society has been blessed and cursed with the expansion of social media. It plays a key role in education but also manipulation, even more so when it becomes the sole essence of social interaction and media consumption. The internet is defined by its ability to captivate its audience and exude a sense of reliability.6 We use google daily to teach us and correct us, which is why social media seems just as informative. Social media is a first person perspective of real life events, but even so it can still be framed to the writerâ€™s preference. In reality, social media has become an emotional outlet with a highly responsive audience. The beauty of social media is its ability to travel faster than any other form of communication we have developed thus far. The news of a virus outbreak can travel halfway around the world in a day. However, one must ask if humans can react to this information fast enough in a productive way. The answer is clearly no. Panic spreads much faster than logic. As a result misinformation is exaggerated and even more panic subsequently ensues. On the other hand panic may have been an appropriate response as it is more beneficial to the well being of humans if people stay inside and disease free. Another result of the pandemic is the redefined concept of borders and barriers. The material borders manifest as facemasks and plexiglass divisions. More conceptually, months-long stay at home orders and closed public spaces have resulted in a previously unimaginable global psychological experiment. The inability to interact with others coupled with the fear of going outside has created a rise in depression related mental illnesses. An understanding of how the invisible impacts the whole has been clearly demonstrated amid the spread of a pandemic. Society in 2020 is better equipped to withstand isolation because of the internet, however it has predominantly shown that a technology heavy, isolated utopia is simply not in our DNA yet.
he next level introduces the neuron and the human psyche. The idea of the viral continues to develop in this level, as it illustrates how human desires - wants - needs are powerfully influenced by the internet. Our survival is defined by our psychological stability. This level is one of the most important to understanding nanotechnology and borders because many of these creations are developed due to a quality specific to humans: the consciousness. It is now fairly clear that our human motivations have changed over time because the decreasing need to focus on our immediate survival needs. Our quality of life is almost completely defined by our psychological interactions, which are largely facilitated by electronics. As you will see, a continuous pattern emerges here, influence is not dependent on size.matter their size, things can have a global impact.
The consciousness defines individuality
and is the “interface between three components of animal behavior: communication, play, and the use of tools” 7. Our innate ability to recognize ourselves and our actions allows us to put every individual
SCIO ON U C
SCIO U ON C
event under a line of fire. This is further enhanced by the internet in both beneficial and harmful ways. We can learn things that we have never thought of and communicate with people halfway around the world, but we can also develop an insecurity that we find impossible to overcome. A neuron, at the size of 100 microns (100,000 nm),
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IA - SOC D
facilitates the transfer of information in the brain, LM A E your brain to react a certain way. signaling CI With emerging technologies, seeing the
difference between the virtual and true reality is becoming more blurred. Machine learning now has the capability to recreate not only images but
L ME IA
videos, and it can produce seemingly perfect realism. Add augmented reality and virtual reality to the mix and the possibilities seem endless. However, the most influential interface is social media. As stated earlier, social media is highly educational but also highly manipulative. Now more than ever, it is nearly impossible to differentiate the accurate from the framed. It may seem obvious to be critical of news feeds and controversial videos but our subconscious is attacked daily by ads and feeds that are catered to both our needs and insecurities. A study was done to show the relationship between self worth and sexual assertiveness after interacting with Facebook for a duration of time. The results were obvious, as users' self worth decreased and therefore their sexual assertiveness decreased.8 This goes much further than the normal insecurity because
companies can inundate users with marketing that exaggerates these feelings. The psychological stability of a user defines the success rate of a consumer economy, to summarize, “the effect of social media usage on materialism, brand consciousness and conspicuous consumption, as examining materialism-centric behaviour is becoming important in a consumption-based economy”.9 This mass produced idea of the consumer market extending across the world is meant to influence the synapses in the consumer’s brain to fire a certain way and subsequently make the consumer think a certain way.10 To be able to conquer the manipulation crafted by marketing, let's discuss the barriers that inhibit or facilitate productivity.
Similar to talent, consciousness can take
borders to overcome is one's personal barrier between
many forms, however it is shaped through outside
knowledge and ability. Talent Without Borders: Global
alterations. Psychedelic drugs have been known to
Talent Acquisition for Competitive describes one's talent
alter one's perceptions of the world, a process often
as a “person’s overall capacity to create impact” and “the
defined as “mind expanding”. To clarify this further,
sum of a person's knowledge, skills, abilities, personality
the psychedelic state is known to give the user a
large range of content to fill their consciousness.
The description of talent
that is widely accepted describes talent as visible, which
traits, values and interests”.
One of the most important yet challenging
ELIC ED H
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- PSYC E ED LIC H
RSU VE S
Beyond just the high, psychedelic drugs are known to leave lasting effects on the user. One idea that is being studied is the user’s growing “bandwidth of consciousness”, the increased input of sensory content experienced after using a psychedelic. There is much debate as to how psychedelics can help those who have compromised state of consciousness. It has been shown that the psychedelic state heavily impairs the user’s working memory, but they still have a fairly coherent declarative memory. Additionally, the psychedelic state often increases creativity in an insightful way. However, the brain is unable to form a barrier between genuinely insightful statements and those that only seem to have the same properties.
Through researching the effects of psychedelics, it was discovered that the drug activates a receptor, which has the potential to explain the neural basis of consciousness. A chemical endemic to the brain, Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), is shown to have a correlation with near-death experiences. The psychological response to the dose of DMT during a near-death experience is that of transcending one's body or traveling to an alternate realm. The result of of course it is. However, talent should not be granted or
a near-death experience actually results in an overall
denied as a result solely of one's physical output in a
positive long term result, which essentially manifests
certain field. Talent is diverse. This takes us back to
in a greater appreciation for one's personal life as
fully understanding how social media plays a toll on our
well as those of others. 13 To understand the feeling of
death would be the biggest step in understanding the barrier between life and death. Unfortunately, hallocanegiencs and psychedelics don’t gain much traction because of the user’s inability to decipher the difference between genuine and fallacious.
We now surface upon something more tangible: our physical barriers and their relationship to the immediate physical world around us. Although our psyche constructs our perception, it is partly based in how we view our physical entities. Individuality and otherâ€™s immediate perception of us is based on the corporeal appearance. Identity is constructed of our likes, needs, and wants but also by the creases in our foreheads and sunspots on our arms. We differentiate ourselves by age and color, which is only defined by our varying epidermis. Outside of perception, our bodies have evolved to carry certain characteristics to protect us from the outside world. The barrier created by flesh and hair, as well as our clothes, in part determines our success at survival.
sensations like touch. In addition to keeping things out, the epidermis regulates body temperature and keeps nutrients in. The epidermis is in a constant state of flux, casting off old skin cells and replacing them with new ones. Melanocytes contain pigments that define our skin tone, but also filter out ultraviolet radiation to prevent cancer. Zinc oxide, commonly referred to as zinka, is a cream (sunscreen) that absorbs ultraviolet light. At a nanoscale, zinc oxide has a large enough band
microbes and the elements, and recognizes
a nano level could help researchers make skin that is more compatible with the patient's anatomy. Biomedical engineering professor Hongjun Wang
fragile yet extremely resistant. It protects us from
be improved. Understanding how skin develops at
skin grafts have been used for years but still can
covering our muscles and internal organs. It is
Advancements in healing illustrate steps to solving life changing injuries. Technologies like
P CE TIO
Skin functions as a three layer sheet
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explains that in these grafts, the “new material works like a conventional skin graft but, in addition to patching a wound in the skin, this material is responsive”. Using nanotechnology, it is possible to build artificial skin that heals and grows in place of human skin. The skin graft is constructed from - specially designed nanofiber mesh from “collagen, polycaprolactone (a biodegradable polymer) and TGF-β1, a human growth-factor protein”
, which allows the skin to
adapt and mesh with the pre existing skin.
gap to remain transparent to human eyes. As the skin ages, the epidermis becomes thinner and the number of melanocytes decreases, leading to higher at risk skin. Over time the blood supply to the skin weakens, reducing the amount of oxygen and nutrients that is delivered. This results in susceptibility to hot and cold weather.
Beyond functioning as a protective barrier, the skin is a defining feature of individuality. Facial expressions and touch are human qualities facilitated by our conscious decision to express emotion.15 Injuries and disease can alter one's appearance, leading us to also alter our perception of them. The matter is not simply material looks, but the means of recognition and familiarity that all humans desire. A disruption of one's flesh border can lead to great changes in their overall quality of life.
An additional border that exists between us and the natural world is clothing. Similar to skin,
clothing provides a layer of protection, security and protective clothing and biohazard suits, but under-
establishes identity. Obvious examples of this are fire
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standing how nanofibers work has led researchers to discover materials that could also improve our day to
day clothing. A subtle incorporation of nanomaterials like Silver nanoparticles that are antimicrobial reduce bacteria thriving on your clothes. However, there is a much more interesting development in hydrophobic materials, which at a visible scale repel water. But at a micro level superhydrophobic materials can repel particles. As described in the viral, infected particles move randomly at fast speeds, which causes them to Other than skin related injuries, physical barriers, like injury and disabilities, play a huge role in a person's quality of life. Individuals with congenital
means. Humans as a species are very persistent adaptive,
superhydrophobic materials would make it even more difficult for those fast moving particles to stick.
borders daily that are beyond their physical and
slam and attach to objects, specifically clothing. Using
construct alternate versions of limbs. Prosthetics are commonly seen as a removable and replace-
Applications like the ones described are not limited to one's individual being but can be applied to a multitude of materials and either make borders stronger or more malleable depending on the intention.
able part of the body, however a new developing technology - osseointegration - allows for patients to
Osseointegration permanently fixes a titanium prosthetic directly to the bone, in which human bone cells can attach directly to the metal. To have an osseointegrated limb allows the patient to feel that the prosthetic is an extension of one's body instead of a removable part. 17
The next level takes our individual understanding of protection and individuality and how we separate and fulfill our survival needs in a society. As a fundamental human need, shelter provides security, protection and privacy for its occupants. It is a scale which is often defined by individual familial relationships or as that of a “home”. This scale and boundary can be seen as both protection and isolation, both roles have been pushed to extreme by recent global circumstances. Like the prisoners in Plato’s cave, the divisive effects of isolation, can be felt as we attempt to interpret shadows on our internet walls.
The next level goes beyond the individual and explores the first barrier that is defined outside of our control, and instead by other humans. The complexity that arises from borders existing as either tangible or invisible entities is thoroughly demonstrated in our communities. We see divisions in culture, socio-economic status and accessibility, with each one having their own branches of complexity. What is important to understand is that communities are not defined purely by location because technology allows us to no longer limit our corporeal selves. We use community as both self identification and a means of expanding our relationships with others. Unfortunately, communities also play a role in hindering diverse and divergent thinking by placing societal norms on what is accepted. Looking into what components build a community, no matter the scale, will help one have a more holistic understanding of society.
Letâ€™s begin with the permeable and rigid borders
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of a community and the different ways in which they manifest. Permeable borders are those that exist to be challenged and crossed in some way. These flexible-type borders appear predominantly in social interactions but also could be something as simple as a doorway. Importantly, they also exist digitally and present us with opportunities
to learn outside of our immediate scope, especially outside of what humans would define as local cultures. The largest source of cultural representation is at our fingertips, which leads us to examine why online interaction is becoming beneficial to real-life community building. Communities in a generalized term are collections of similar people based on a multitude of factors. The main way to organize a community is through governmental jurisdiction and legislation. It is difficult to ignore the current climate of the world when discussing communities because we are being shown now more than ever the influence the internet can exert. What began as boredom resulting from stay at home orders turned into an outbreak of awareness. Online forums became collections of people wanting to discuss issues outside of their personal physical realms. Now more than ever, we have the opportunity to see that we are not required to live by our preexisting labels. Humans thrive off validation, which we gain through the idea that we are being heard. Social media and other modern means of connection allow for underrepresented communities to be heard. Social media should not be measured by its superficiality but instead should be taken advantage of as a means of influence
Now we will take an even bigger step towards understanding the vastness of organization and how it is applied across species. It may seem that interspecies compatibility is impossible due to our differing levels of consciousness, intelligence, and physical ability. However, there are qualities that we define as human that are innately animalastic. We will begin by unraveling the similarities across species and how the barriers that divide us actually hold more applicable uses to advancements in technologies.
Culture, a product of humans, is defined as “the arts and other manifestations of human intellectual achievement regarded collectively”. The ability to manifest a new idea of creative communication is not limited to what humans produce. Richard Dawkins describes culture as a transmission
of “ideas”, resembling that of genetic transmission which
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results in evolution (or change).19 The idea comes from bird
songs and how some birds can create new songs outside of their pool of pre-existing songs. This resembles a sort of mutation as the song changes as the birds repeat it and before long a new song is created. This conception of culture is enhanced when you add the human consciousness to the mix. We culturally mutate more than just songs, but every facet of what we define as culture - ceremonies, fashion, technology, and so much more - and we then apply that to our identity.
U MM NIC O
U MM NIC O
ION - C T A
”Vocal” communication can be seen as a continuity
between species. Studies show that there is little to no similarity between animal cries and human symbolic language. Animals rely on context dependent sounds and gestures as communication with basic meanings connected to survival.
ION - C AT
However animals' ability to “play”, or interact in a meaningful way other than survival, shows rise to the possibility of language.20 The bottom line is that communication is a behavior meant to encourage a reaction or change the behavior of another animal. This occurs in interspecies interactions and is generally universal.
Looking for cross species compatibility will lead us to more opportunities to expand our predefined knowledge. Alongside humans, species have evolved to fit their niches and have taken the time to become suited for their environment.
T -NE EC L
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In one of the most novel cases - the discovery of penicillin - neglected, unwashed petri dishes and a vacation resulted in the discovery of one of the most famous antibiotics of all times. Through studies of the activity of bacteria and with the help of some dumb luck, Alexander Fleming was able to cultivate a antibiotic that cured millions.22 This
leads us to present day research of the properties of other organisms and how their means of survival has impacted our way of life. What we learn from other species has a wide variety of applications. The basis in understanding the anatomy of humans is yeast, a single celled organism known for producing the key to human survivalâ€Ś.. bread. Unlike bacteria, yeast has a nucleus similar to the construction of human cells. However, unlike human cells, yeast can grow alarmingly fast. These qualities make it perfect for testing drugs or chemicals that would be used on organisms similar to humans.
Additionally, genetic manipulation of yeast is simpler and more cost efficient, making gene editing more of a scientific possibility.
ing the bioluminescence produced by numerous species allows us to “illuminate” all the way
CRISPR, a powerful yet simple gene editing technology that can be used to manipulate human genes and many other species. The idea was adapted from a naturally occurring genome
The benefits of cross species knowledge does not stop at just human needs. Understand-
editing system in bacteria. The fragile ethics and concept of “designer genetics” that surround CRISPR, makes it a challenging technology to harness. The science of CRISPR, at its fundamentals, uses enzymes to bind to DNA and cuts it to shut the gene off. Using CRISPR could result in living things, from plants to people, becoming resistant to gene oriented diseases. This brings to light the conflict between the “right to health” and the “right to disability”. In the attempt to eliminate a certain harmful gene it may lead to a more 24
down to a micro level. Organisms’ naturally produced light has been used by civilizations for
Which leads us to the controversial
GENE E -
LEAR S E
centuries. Tribes used glowing fungi and miners contained and benefited from lighting bugs. There even have been proposals for using bioluminescence as a harnessed form of green energy. A form of species identification called "quorum sensing", similar to echo location, is used by Aliivibrio fischeri to count its neighbors. Researchers use bioluminescence in a similar way, by genetically inserting it into cells to track and understand the dynamics between cells and disease.
Utilizing the differences across species will help us understand better how we work as well as shed light on our animalistic traits that we so definitely classify as human.
However, beyond the ethical code that hinders CRISPR from completely editing some diseases away, our bodies contain far too many cells to edit each one and remove a genetic disease. However, there is application for CRISPR beyond human alteration that would still ultimately be beneficial for humans. The issue of CRISPR lies in the fact of its simplicity and accessibility to alter genes with unforeseen consequences, making it far more harmful than helpful in the long run if done incorrectly.
National borders and citizenship take social structures to the next scale level beyond local and community relationships. Not only the scale of a nation’s structure but it’s more rigid organizing principles separate it from the level of the community. The positive and negative effects of community are amplified at this level creating both nationalistic and isolationist tendencies that effect the permiabilty of the nation’s borders and it’s ideology.
The scale of the earthâ€™s natural features is that of mountains, rivers and oceans. Time and distance are key characteristics
immensity of geologic time witnesses the formation of mountains and the meandering change of the course of rivers.
Vast ocean distances create
isolation in one instance that fosters biological diversity and in another instance
medium for long distance commerce and travel. Rising sea levels will create global
geometry of coast lines create significant human impact.
AR interactive graphic
At the edge of our planet, we finally reach the last border this essay will discuss: the border between our rocky planet and what lies beyond. This border is defined by both mankind's politics and survival constraints, and we will explore why the layer of protective gasses surrounding Earth consists of more than just physical particles. Additionally, utilizing nanotechnology will provide solutions to problems we once thought unsolvable. Letâ€™s begin with understanding the layers that make life possible on Earth. The troposphere is the environment that organisms living on Earth's surface experience every day - it is where weather patterns exist. The stratosphere is the next level up and contains the ozone, a layer that absorbs harmful ultraviolet rays of sunlight. As we continue to rise up through the mesosphere and thermosphere, the air molecules decrease, leaving these layers most affected by changes in sun activity. Lastly, the exosphere is where atoms and molecules escape into the expanse of space. 26
- MAN N EFI ED D
Understanding the effect these layers have on humans helps in defining the undecided level of the man-made Kármán line. This disputed border exists as a boundary
between Earth's atmosphere and outer space, concieved for jurisdictional and regulatory measures. It exists to show
human judgement over what is and is not considered to be “space”.
With the recent increase in space travel, specifically
commercial, the Kármán line has become increasingly significant. Although it is a territorial response by the world's government, it has provided an interesting challenge to what is and isn’t space. We normally define space travel as something that involves rockets and space suits but it has been proven that people of nongovernmental agencies can cross this line supposedly defining outer space. However, the Kármán line is proving to be more complicated than just a symbolic border. Drawing this line will greatly affect us in the near future, considering that space travel is becoming more common. Jonathan C. McDowell was researching the flights that could be considered space flights versus air flights based on the generally agreed upon Kármán line at 100 kilometers. Is during this research that the need to lower the line to 80 kilometers was necessary. McDowell states that “80 kilometers is the point at which gravity becomes more important than the atmosphere”
, but more importantly, the
lowest point at which satellites orbit and the highest point that planes can fly. There is still much debate because leaving this definition as ambiguous allows for more flexibility in territorial laws.
The historically unique quality of the space-atmosphere border was its inaccessibility, which for centuries left humans in awe of what's beyond. But with improvements in space flight and new discoveries in nanotechnology, there is a seemingly near future that shows potential for civilian space travel and not just by means of flight.
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There has been this floating idea, since the discovery of carbon nanotubes, that a space elevator from Earth to the moon would be possible, crossing the border grounding us to Earth.
But how possible is it really? The most basic description of the space elevator is a cable-like structure from earth to a location 60,000 miles away.29 The elevator would ideally be flexible, long and light, which is where carbon nanotubes play their part. Carbon nanotubes are single-layer carbon atoms (graphene) in a cylindrical form. Scientists from Cambridge University found a way to combine nanotubes that were previously considered brittle to make long, strong, and light strands. The design of the elevator involved nanomechanics and megamechanics to make its construction possible.30 This necessity is thanks to the enormous conflicting forces as the structure travels through the Earth's atmosphere into space. Although this concept needs years of development, it would provide an accessible and cost efficient way to cross the boundary into space.
EF ITS O
There are obvious human-driven reasons as to why we should explore space, even though there is much advocacy to fix what we have on Earth. There are power driven reasons, mainly money and resources, as well as pure human curiosity, all of which endorse expanding space exploration. But there are some more applicable reasons that assist the health of the species on Earth right now. Bacteria,with its small size, can go unnoticed when humans travel back and forth to space. Understanding how bacteria reacts to its new environment is beneficial for understanding how mutations occur amongst diseases. In space, bacteria has been recorded to mutate more rapidly, unveiling emerging patterns more clearly, which have the potential to lead to progress in antibiotic research. Although research on space travel and advancing space sciences is in the early stages it still shows the potential for offering more information about how our world works. The fact that there are infinitely more opportunities to learn and borders to cross shows that we are progressing. We see the possibilities, now we have to grab them.
- THE H NITY IER U M AR M O CH C Y E H
THE TE ION RR T AI NA N E H -T T -
HE VIRAL - T - T HE
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scale has provided an expanded view of a complex world. From the current global impact of the infinitely small to the seemingly limitless possibilities of the vastness of space, our technologically enhanced human perspective will continue to drive us to understand our place in the levels between.
earth to a view of the stars above them, it is hoped that this journey through
P S YC
Just as Dante and Virgil emerged from hell on the opposite side of the
Cell Walls and the Convergent Evolution of the Viral Envelope
Virus Structure - https://msu.edu/course/mmg/569/Virus%20Structure.htm
What Are Viruses and How Do They Work?
The Scientist, the Air and the Virus
How Social Media Is Shaping Our Fears of â€” And Response to â€” the Coronavirus
Human Consciousness: Where Is It From and What Is It
Facebook Involvement, Objectified Body Consciousness, Body Shame, and Sexual Assertiveness
Effects of Collectivism on Actual S-Commerce Use and the Moderating Effect of Price Consciousness
Talent Without Borders: Global Talent Acquisition for Competitive Advantage
Dimensions of consciousness and the psychedelic
DMT Models the Near-Death Experiencehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6107838/
Epidermis Function: How Skin Protects You and How You Can Protect It
These New Nanotech-Powered Bandages & Skin Grafts May Help Heal Your Wounds
What is Osseointegration
Nano-textiles: The Fabric of the Future
The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins
Human Consciousness: Where Is It From and What Is It
Human Consciousness: Where Is It From and What Is It
In case of apocalypse, here's how to make penicillin in your kitchen
Why do scientists always use yeast in their experiments?
CRISPR, a Crossroads in Genetic Intervention: Pitting the Right to Health against the Right to Disability
What is bioluminescence and how is it used by humans and in nature?
The Layered Atmosphere
Op-ed | Where does space begin? The decades-long legal mission to find the border between air and space
Why defining the boundary of space may be crucial for the future of spaceflight
Bradley C. Edwards, Ph.D.
On the strength of the carbon nanotube-based space elevator cable: from nanomechanics to megamechanics
Study of borders at scale, with an emphasis on nanotechnology