Issuu on Google+

ADS Air Ainin Leong 376072


ADS Air ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072


Architecture As A Discourse


Bridge Accross Rathdowne Street

ADS Air

ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072

Personal Project

This project is a bridge designed for pedestrian and cyclist accross Rathdowne Street. The basic idea is to convey a feeling of being in the woods through the shadows casted within, and hence reminding the users about the beauty of the natural environment, and eventually pull the users closer to the natural environment. Though not relating the design to the landscape, it is related to the context as the bridge is connected to the Carlton gardens. Walking through Carlton Gardens from afar, the bridge can be seen as blending in with the trees in the gardens, yet stands out among the trees due to its white colour. The shape of the bridge cover is generated through simplication of tree branches. This design could have been developed further or explored further with the usage of Rhino and Grasshopper. The design process and model making process could have been done in a shorter duration as multiplication of the basic form could be easily done using Grasshopper and be produced using digital fabrication. Through this subject, the potential of computational design can be explored to understand its functions and the possibilities that could be didcovered.


ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072 ADS Air

This London Aquatic Centre by Zaha Hadid designed for the upcoming 2012 Olympics got its form inspired by the fluid geometry of water in motion. Its main aims are to create spaces and a surrounding environment closely related with the river landscape beside it. The undulating roof geometry sweeps up from the ground like a wave enclosing the pools within with a sense of seamless fluidity for the overall structure. Such effect would not have been possible without the use of digital application since the seemingly simple fluid surface requires specific calculations for joining each pieces with each other given that the curving angles and dimension for each individual pieces vary in response to the design. This shows how computational technologies contribute to the feasibility for design construction. By means of computational design, interesting forms of fluidity can be created for the gateway project.


Aquatic Centre London, UK

Zaha Hadid & Patrik Schumacher

The fluidity of both form and pattern of the gateway project is expected to add in excitement to the otherwise boring site and also appear as something that sweeps across the site, which was achieved by the aquatic centre. On the other hand, the building managed to create a discourse with its parabolic arch roof. While some perceives it like a turtle waving oversized flippers, some sees it like an UFO crash. It is interesting how a water motion-inspired form could be built to such abstract manner that successfully stirred the curiosity of the public. This idea could be related to the gateway project as the design, particularly when the design theme would be fluidity as well, should be able to generate a new discourse for the community besides being apprehensible for people of all ages as stated in the brief.


ADS Air

ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072

Frank Gehry’s Walt Disney Concert Hall designed in 1987 is one of his most ambitious large-scale project in LA. It is intended to establish a sense of place by having an intriguing design and also extensive gardens and outdoor performance spaces. Gehry’s method of designing usually begins with a very rough sketch of his idea of how his design should look like and how it sits on the site. He experiments his design by making various models and choose the best out of them beofre digitising them. Due to the complexity of the concert hall’s structure, it requires an extraordinary number of parameters to define its geometry and requires unusual precision in the placement, positioning and assembly of constructive elements in order to build it. The constructive viability of the concert hall was developed and studied by Gehry using new technologies. Thus, this building could be said to have epitomized the new possibilities of architectural language introduced through the use of C.A.D./C.A.M. techniques(Marcos 2011). Besides, Gehry is considered one of the pioneers in parametric design. His approach using softwares such CATIA certainly brought changes to the way people imagine how buildings look like. With the use of computational technology, the concert hall has contributed to architecture discourse where it completely changed the design process and changed the traditional building norms of that time. Parametric design also enhanced architectural design complexity with the aid of computer programs that generates and manages complex surfaces (Marcos 2011). This subsequently has contributed to the freedom of form. Gehry’s usage of unconventional forms proved that there are many possibilities to building forms which introduce the people to new spatial experience.


Walt Disney Concert Hall Los Angeles Frank Gehry

“I started making shapes that were hard to draw. That led us to the computer and to Catia software which made me realize the possibilities and the level and degree of accuracy you could create in your documents and your relationships because of the software.” Frank Gehry

“We don’t have to worry about whether or not we are fitting in with a paradigm of planned sections and elevations, all the other typical drawings that architects are obliged to use. We can go straight from our computer to the stonemason’s yard, to their computer and we only sort of, negotiate though the prototypes that we make, and what we look at on our screens.” Mark Burry


Computation In Architecture

ADS Air ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072


Generative Design Topological Geometry Topological geometry are geometric forms that are not usually affected by changes in shape or size. Through computationally-based processes of continuous one-toone transformations or elastic deofrmations, such as stretching or twisting, it will still remain unvarying. Transforming and deforming it results in infinite number of forms. Their intrinsic property of one-sidedness have a potential in architecture as the boundaries between the interior and the exterior are blurred, and when translated into architecture, avoids the distinctions og “inside” and “outside”. An interesting sample of the study of topological geometry is the Möbius Strip and studies of how to utilise the möbius into architecture were made. A pure Möbius Strip is analised and modified to allow a person to walk along it and to make habitable space out of it.

Moebius Band modified to create internal space

Moebius seating


Moebius school

Moebius museum

ADS Air ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072


A built example of the usage of Mรถbius Strip is the Moebius House designed by Ben van Berkel. The conceptual possibilities of geometries are challenging but the conceptual qualities are often difficult to truly show tectonically. Moebius House on the other hand did show some extent of the usage of topological geometry. In the house, the understanding of movement is reinforced by the changing positions of the two main materials used for the house, glass and concrete, which overlap each other and switch places. As the loop turns inside ourt, the exterior concrete shell becomes the interior furniture and the glass facades turn into inside partition walls. As the house is used for both work and living, van Berkel has managed to find an additional meaning to the Moebius strip diagram which is the blurred limits between working and living. I find this method of generating form is intriguing as it provides many possibility that can be further developed into something new and fun. Computation can ease the exploration of more complex form spatial qualities.

The extraction of the Moebius concept and application of it in the design of the house

The Moebius House


Parametric Design

ADS Air ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072


Parametric Design & Visual Scripting and Culture: Digital Tea House The Digital Tea House is a workshop held at the University of Tokyo aiming to build 3 pavilions for hosting the Japanese tea ceremony through parametric design. It seems unrelatable at first thought but this project was not plainly the reconstruction of the traditional tea houses but an attempt to produce new images of a tea house. Using the concept of the traditional tea houses, this workshop proved that digital design process can be a tool to retain architecture convergent with cultural values (Ko & Liotta 2011). It can be argued that this workshop seems pointless as traditions are meant to be preserved instead of altered in any way. It may also seem weird to complicate the design of the Japanese tea house which is known for its beauty in simplicity that bring calmness to people taking pleasure in their tea. However, parametric design enabled the participants to extract, edit and abstract the traditional aspects and created possibilities to what a contemporary tea house might look like. Another interesting point that adds to the advantage of implementing present technologies is that the tea house is seen to be intepreted in a contemporary digital manner that can be thought of reviving the tradition of avant-garde (Ko & Liotta 2011). It is interesting to see how traditional architecture, something so rigid and schematic could be interpreted in a modern way but at the same time not loosing its original meaning. For the Gateway Project, it would be very exciting to incorprate the culture of the Wyndham City into the design which besides proving the advancement of Traditional elements interpreted in a more contemporary and computational technology, also represents abstract way the culture of the people.


ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072 ADS Air

Pavilion “Poetry and Parametrics” interior view

Pavilion 130008252010 interior view

Pavilion “Nami-no-Ma” exterior and interior views


ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion Stuttgart

ICD & ITKE Stuttgart University

In 2010, the Institute for Cmputational Design (ICD) and the Institute od Building Structures an Strutural Design (ITKE) of Stuttgart University designed and constructed a temporary research pavilion in the campus. What is unique about this project is that it is a material-oriented computational design, simulation and production process in architecture. This project demonstrates an alternative approach to the scripting culture as the computational generation of form is directly driven and informed by physical behavior and material characteristics. The structure constructed is based entirely on the elasticity and bending behavious of birch plywood strips.

Above: 3D model showing the computer-generated position of all connecions Right: FEA simulation of the pavilion


ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072 ADS Air

Day arial view of the pavilion

Scripting in architecture has enabled designers to explore different aspects of architecture such as forms, materials, construction methology and engineering. As quoted from MESNE (cited in Burry 2011), “where we see interesting work occuring is in the decelopment of interfaces between different software applications that enable designers to further test architectural ideas that bridge across related disciplines such as engineering and construction�. Though scripting is critiqued being a tool that enables designers to clone, thus producing many same underlying models, research done as shown from this project proved that scripting is still able to produce endless possibilities. Hence, for the Wyndham City Gateway Project which asks for an inventive design with significant impact, the use of scripting is irrevocably beneficial.

Night arial view of the pavilion


Close up view of the wooden strips during the day

“Today’s scripters are inventive, however, scripting is a relatively new technique for the exploration of architectural designs and designers are still figuring out new potentials for using scripting as a design tool.” Brady Peters, cited in Burry 2011

Taking the research pavilion as an example, designers may be promted to start developing their own scripts to create truly inventive designs and fully explore the potential of scripting. Perhaps it still need more time until designers fully embraces scripting to develope a scripting culture based on genuine invention and creativity.

Close up view of the wooden strips during the night


Experimentation

ADS Air ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072


Input: Overlapping Paterns Ourput: Data Driven Shading The main idea of this experiment is to explore the results of overlapping layers of dufferent colours. As shown in the image above, layers with different colours produce more interesting effect and the overlapped layers resulted in new colours. The output geometry was also changed to see the effect of combined geometry. Not only flat surfaces, solids such as spheres were also used to explore the effect and it obviously has different result which was bulkier and blurred image projected, as shown in the third image on the right. By moving the layers slowly away or towards each other, interesting changes would occur however this combination does not suit the idea I had for the gateway project.

Input: Using Surface Normal Associative Technique: Using Sets


ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072 ADS Air

Associative Technique: Curve Attractor Output: Data Driven Rotation Here, the definitions are used produced twisted order of perforation on a surface. Again, the output geometry was changed to see how different shapes will affect the outcome.


Input: Overlapping Patterns Associative Technique: Multiple Maths Function Different functions produce different order of perforation on the surface. By overlapping different geometry and functions, interesting patterns were produced. Different sizes of geometry too resulted in different feel: busy or calm.


ADS Air

ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072

Input: Using Surface Normal Output: Data Driven Rotation

The above two definitions are to experiment with application of the perforation on a curved surface. It is interesting to see how the results differ from perforation on a flat square surface.

The matrix presented above represents the search outcome for the development of the Gateway Project design. Candidates of solutions were produced for consideration and some were chosen for further develpment. According to Kalay (2004), this is a design process under the catagory of ‘search’ when the outcome of an action cannot be fully decided in advance. From this design method, it was realised that this method is more productive when done digitally. Not only it provided great amount of possibilities, it also helped to reduce amount of time consumed in search of a favourable design possibility. Through those possibilities, more choice were presented for the best to be chosen and be developed into something promising, thus contributes to the final design outcome. From the above, a few were chosen to be further explored for the Gateway Project. However, it does not necessarily need to be confined into using the same method as how the patterns were formed. Different and more relevant methods will be used to effectively utilise them and the final most satisfying result will be adapted into the final design outcome.


Case Study Project


ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072

Restaurant Aoba-Tei Sendai, Japan

Hitoshi Abe + Atelier Hitoshi Abe Perforation, abstraction from nature

ADS Air

Input: Boolean Patterning Output: Data Driven Shading

Using the above definitions, by inserting an image of the Zelkova tree into the image sampler. a rough perforation of the tree image is produced.

To reduce the busyness of the image, more perforations have to be taken away. To achieve this, a function component was added into the definition to control the sizes of the circles that need to be perforted. The white part which was originally perforated by smaller circles was omitted The result was a ‘cleaner’ image.

Experimentation was made by adjusting the radius of the circles, inverting the black and white spaces, simplifying and complicating the perforation to get as near as possible to the original facade.


This is the finalised image for the case study. It is very interesting how this is used in the restaurant where light will be shone from the back and the perforated areas will light up to create an effect of being among the trees.


ADS Air ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072


Through this case study, lighting and shadow effect were being experiment with. It was interesting to see how the shadow casted by the model changes with different angles of light and also how the concentration of light affect the shadow produced. When the model is bent, the image of the tree appeared differently. Though not apprehendable, the image still looked interesting and unique. However, eventhough the image of the tree appeared to be interesting in combination with lighting, it would be more interesting if the CUT is applied on other more interesting forms. In the Aoba Tei Restaurant, the form used is a curved sheet hovering over the customer’s head, hence creating an effect of being under the shadows of the trees. With this experiment, all that was projected was the image of the tree and some interesting patterns of the cuts when the surface was bent. In relation to the gateway project, it was discovered that it is hard for drivers to observe the shadows casted during driving in high speed. Shadows are also affected by day to day condition, which demotes the significance of the gateway project if it is to be based solely on the play of light and shadow projection. From here, it was decided that in accordance to fluidity, lighting was an interesting factor to explore with. Instead of artificial lighting, the gateway project is to aim at natural lighting,


ADS Air

ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072

Further Research-Precedent Beekman Tower Architect Frank Gehry Completed 2011 Location New York

Echoing to the theme of computation in architecture, this project used sophisticated computation method to produce the building faรงade. Though it is very typical for Gehry to build physical models, computers models were created through the scanning of physical models. Using Rhino software, the model was able to be refined and perfected to produce intended results. In relation to this subject and the gateway project, this is crucial as computation is less time consuming in producing favourable results. The surfaces of this building would not be able to achieve its current effect without parametric and script writing to analyse them. Digitising of the faรงade allowed designers to have the flexibility to alter the faรงade while still being able to remain within established parameters. During the designing process of this project, several alterations had to be done due to budget constraints. All the various component sizes, angles, and extrusion types could be tracked to a particular unit and hence, they were also tied to the manufacturing process with CNC data through to fabrication and installation. With the uniqueness and scale of the project, it would be difficult to change everything manually without the help of computation.


This example of façade is very interesting in a way that it looks like as though it is blown by the wind to result in the curves and folding effect and this also coincide with the theme ‘air’ for the gateway project. This effect is to be incorporated into the design for the gateway project. Besides, the façade of the Beekman Tower also evokes rivulets of water, crinkled sheets of aluminium foils, melting ice. At the same time, all these effects were heighten by light and shadow across the surfaces over the course of a day. This provides an interesting change for viewers when viewed at a different time of the day. In relationship to the gateway project, changes through light and shadow are important to create a static sculpture that appears to be constantly changing. This is to be achieved by utilizing and applying the sun path where different angles of sunlight may produce different outcome.


ADS Air ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072


Experimentation


ADS Air ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072

Exploring Form


Since the decided theme is fluidity, to explore fluidity of form, water was experimented with to record the forms when being poured under different condions. For example direction of pouring and strength used in pouring them. It was observed that under normal conditions, the forms of water resulted were never the same twice. This is an interesting theme to explore and it also response to the brief where the Gateway Project has to be exciting and visually interesting for the otherwise boring and straight roads.


ADS Air

ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072

Exploring

9am during Winter (Estimated)

9am during Sumemr (Estimated)

3pm during Summer (Estimated)

3pm during Winter (Estimated)

For the planned design, it is aimed to achieve a sense of constant change so that every time when people drive through, the structure will appears different and appears changing. Such attempt is approached by exploiting the position of sun during the course of the day, both in summer and winter. The experiment is carried out in 2 parts, in which each of them have different fixed and manipulation variables in order to explore on the most suitable form of the membrane and the influence of the perforation on its surface so as to achieve the proposed changing conditions. The first part of the experiment investigated the effect of sun position on the design via the shadow it casted on the surface. Angle of light source is adjusted in reference to the sun path diagram and the results obtained show that the shadow cast on the surface is longer during winter and vice versa.


First sight while approaching the site (Driving

For the second part of the experiment, photos are taken from one end to another, just as how the drivers and passengers might have looked at the design. Here, the paper length is increased and folded in ‘S-shape’ manner as possible, hoping that the shadow can be cast on the surface of the design itself instead of casting on the road. The result, however, still turned out to be less satisfiying as shown in the figures on the left. Second sight as one passing the design

Last view as one pass through the deisgn


ADS Air ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072


The paper is modified by cutting it into a long strip of random height and folded more extensively into a number of ‘S’. This time, the results appeared to be up to expectation as given a fixed sun position, the design appears differently from one segment to another due to the shadow effect. Interestingly, the distinction between real perforations and ‘fake perforation’ resulted from shadow cast is barely recognizable. The series of photos show how each segments is different as a car drives along it. In fact, since the sun changes its position, the images seen in the estimated morning might changefor the rest of the day. This has successfully demonstrated the effect of change in the design in relation to the changes of natural phenomenon.

Since the experiment is carried out manually without digital aids, the results obtained might not be as accurate and precise as the professional one. However, it still worth acknowledged that a number of parameters has been identified for further exploration in the future. These include the placement of the design on site which could be slightly tilted so as to provide greater views for the passer-by, the various height of the design membrane which helps to create more visualized effects, the size of perforations. Most significantly, it is important to acknowledge the direction of driving so that the curvature of the design could be designed in such a way which allows maximum casting of shadow while offering maximum viewing faces for the drivers. This is because a convex faces could have part hidden from direct viewing except for passengers who can turn their around for seeing it. In short, the experiment has explored the possibilities of a number of elements which is believed to be able to affect the design for achieving the changing effect proposed. Meanwhile, it also generated a few aspects which should be taken into consideration during the design process. The results produced are then incorporated into Rhino and Grasshopper for designing the prototype which will then be fabricated.


ADS Air

ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072

Prototype 1 This prototype attempts to achieve the organic form informed by the idea of fluidity. It is intended to appear like the form of water being blew by wind. The perforation is intended to have a flowing pattern which is expected to enhance the fluidness of the form. When drivers drive pass it, it is expected that the driver would feel like he is moving together with fluids such as water.Although the membrane is static, the perforated surface will illustrate consistent change as the car is moving and the angle of viewing is changing. The sunlight will further enhance the changing effect by casting shadow on the surface. The strange form of the membrane makes it an eye-catching structure at the site to increase the excitement at the site. However , the material used for this prototype is not suitable as it is hard to produce soft and organic form. It also did not achieve the same effect as the experiment before which was made using white thin paper, which appears to be a bit transparent when shone with light. The materiality should be examined more as the form and effect are different from what was imagined.

The shadow is casted on the surface create interesting pattern can be observed by driver when drive through.


The strange shape of the Getaway will become an eyecatching icon at the site and create discourse among Wyndham community.

When sun light penetrate through the perforation cuts, it makes the membrane glow which creates visual interesting.


ADS Air ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072

Prototype 2


Having not much relation to the inital idea of play with light and shadow, the second prototype composes of three membranes placed overlaying each other in order to illustrate the changes as a driver drives through at high speed. The membranes show different effects as the driver drive through depending on the driving speed, viewing angle and positions in relation to the structure itself. This prototype shows an alternative for attempting the desired goal by manipulating the perforated membrane in a specific arrangement rather than relying solely on sunlight position. As one move along the prototype, some perforation could be seen and some could not due to the blocking by the overlapping sheet. The prototype is interesting and was put in consideration to be further developed to create a sense of water flowing related to the main theme of Getaway project-fluidity therefore when driver drive through they will see the consistent change of water flowing. To achieve this, perforation arrangement should have a sense of fluidity.


ADS Air ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072

Prototype 3


Original position

This last prototype demonstrate the movement of separate panels on water. The series of photos shows movement of the panels on water when moved, for example by wind. It is interesting to see the panels floating freely on the water with their arrangement formed randomly depending on its position caused by the movement of the water. As the water moves, the panels will move accordingly, hence providing a sense of freedom and also fluidity.


ADS Air

ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072

Conclusion In conclusion, prototype 1 will be chosen for further development. The form is to be further developed to relate for to the theme fluidity. The perforations is to be made to mean more to the project instead of just mere perforations. As mentioned before, it is to enhance the sense of fluidity of the project itself and also make the play of light more interesting as demonstrated in prototype 2. With the above issues solved and developed fully, it is believed that the final result will achieve the goal set- never twice the same. This goal is held on to due to the fact that a constantly changing effect is expected to evoke the curiosity of the Wyndham community, which might subsequently create architectural discourse where people will discuss about the Gateway Project in terms of its design method as well as its design representation. This is important as it not only contribute to the community of Wyndham by creating a sense of excitement and visually interesting spatial urban experience for the current site condition, it also prove the success of the design, an important reward for an architect. Besides, since Wyndham city is known for its sculptural art, this proposal will become another turning point for the city’s achievement in art. This is due to the application of computaional design approach for the project where the outcome indicating that the Wyndhm community has ushered into a more technologically advance generation.


Learning Outcome When this subject is first introduced, it inevitably placed us in an active engagement with computational design, both in theories and practical work. Traditional paper-based design process is considered obsolete while digital computational design is argued to be a more promising approach for contemporary architectural practice. Through this course, the various advantages of computational design is understood. For instance, more complex geometries can be created, greater manipulation over the design is enabled, and repetitive work can be avoided while the consumption of time and resources is reduced. Through the researches on precedents of computational design, we gradually understood the capability of computational design and a hint of its development in the future. Apart of the theoretical aspect, we were given opportunities to develop practical skills using softwares such as Rhino together with visual scripting-Grasshopper. Computational design also provides a platform for exploring the unlimited possibilities never thought before and allows us to engage more with the learning of Grasshopper. By fabricating one of the CUT projects in the case studies, it is impressive to see how beautifully the prototype is produced when compared to previoius hand made models. Gradually, we are exposed to the whole process of computational design, from utilising the softwares to fabricating a design and assembling it to build a model. On top of that, the expression of interest is a new knowledge gained as it informs what it is like to be competing for projects in the real world. It prepares us for any future invovement that we might be in. However, the design process turned out to be the complete opposite. This was because we’ve encountered enormous amount of technical problems due to insufficient understanding on the algorithm behind the software. Nevertheless, it is also via such mistakes made that we learned and started to fathom the foundational computational principles behind digital geometry, data structures, and programming. In addtition, it is also found that though computational design is interesting and its outcome promising, it is still a difficult process for designers who are used to the traditional method of paper-based design. With pen and paper, it may be easier to express their ideas and creativity while computational design may be restricting and confusing espectially for beginners. As different people has different learning speed, this subject proved to be very challenging especially when one has to handle a few subjects which are equally demanding, In conclusion, the learning so far has been really interesting and challenging as well. The outcome promised by digital architectural design has indeed stimulated a sense of curiosity for further exploration on such approach in the near future. It is undeniable that this course has provided a valuable opportunity for such interesting approach which will definitely be explored with greater time commitment and practices.


ADS Air ABPL 30048

Ainin Leong 376072


Journal