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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Abstract

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2. Introduction to SS15 Courtyard 2.1. Site Introduction 2.2. Service Floor Make Up 2.3. Floor plan

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3. Fire Protective System 3.0.1. Literature Review 3.0.2. Location of Equipment 3.0.3. Overview

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3.1. Active Fire Protection System 3.1.1. Literature Review 3.1.2. Fire Detection 3.1.2.1. Heat Detector 3.1.3. Fire Notification System 3.1.3.1. Fire Alarm Control Panel (FACP) 3.1.3.2. Manual Call Point 3.1.3.3. Manual Pull Station 3.1.3.4. System Reset 3.1.3.5. Emergency Light System 3.1.3.6. Fireman Switch 3.1.4. Fire Fighting System 3.1.4.1. Non-water Based System 3.1.4.1.1. Fire Extinguisher 3.1.4.2. Water Based System 3.1.4.2.1. External 2 Way Fire Hydrant 3.1.4.2.2. Fire Hose Reel System 3.1.4.2.3. Wet Riser 3.1.4.2.4. Fire Sprinkler System

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3.2. Passive Fire Protection System 3.2.1. Literature Review 3.2.2. Purpose and Group Compartment 3.2.2.1. Separation of Fire Risk Areas 3.2.2.2. Fire Rated Door 3.2.2.3. Fire Rated Walls and Floors 3.2.3. Fire Appliance Access 3.2.4. Means of Escape 3.2.4.1. Fire Evacuation Route 3.2.4.2. Escape Travel Distance 3.2.4.3. Fire Escape Staircase 3.2.4.4. Emergency Exit Sign 3.2.4.5. Assembly Point

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3.3 Summary

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

4. Mechanical Ventilation System 4.0.1 Literature Review 4.0.2 Overview 4.03 UBBL Compliance 4.1 Air Handling Units (AHU) 4.1.1 Overview 4.1.2 Location of AHU Rooms 4.1.3 Main Components of AHU 4.2 Ductworks and Exhaust Systems 4.2.1 Overview 4.2.2 Location of Duct Shafts, Exhaust Fan Rooms and Ventilation Spaces 4.2.3 Components of Ventilation System 4.3 Summary

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5. Air-Conditioning System 5.0.1. Literature Review 5.0.2. Overview and Equipment Connections 5.1. Cooling Tower 5.1.1. Overview 5.1.2. Location & Position in A/C system 5.1.3. Constituent Part of Cooling Tower 5.1.4. Process 5.1.5. Building Context 5.2. Chilling Tower 5.2.1. Overview 5.2.2. Location & Position in A/C System 5.2.3. Constituent Part of Chiller 5.2.4. Process 5.2.5. Building Context 5.3. Air Handling Units 5.3.1. Overview 5.3.2. Location & Position in A/C system 5.4. Packaged Chiller 5.4.1. Overview 5.4.2. Location & Position in A/C system 5.4.3. Constituent Part of Air-Cooled System 5.4.4.Process 5.4.5. Building Context 5.5. Ductless Split-Type A/C 5.5.1. Overview 5.5.2. Location & Position in A/C system 5.5.3. Constituent Part of Split A/C system 5.5.4. Process 5.5.5. Building Context 5.6. UBBL Compliance

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

6. Mechanical Transportation

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6.0.1 Literary Review 6.0.2 Floor Plan diagram 6.0.3 Overview of arrangement 6.0.4 Overview (in relation to building) 6.1. Elevator 6.1.1 Overview 6.1.2 Lift Type and Specifications 6.1.3 Building specific explanation & purpose 6.1.4 UBBL regulation study 6.1.5 6.2 Escalator 6.2.1 Overview 6.2.2 Mechanisms of an Escalator 6.2.3 Safety Precautions 6.2.3 Summary

7. Summary

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8. References

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ABSTRACT

1.0

ABSTRACT

A building, much like most of us, are comprised of skin, bones, circulatory system and muscles. It’s artificial counterparts are, respectively, the building fabric, structural frame, circulatory infrastructure and building services. Without either, they wouldn’t exist to be. The directive of this report is to technically address and analyse the four types of building services crucial to aid, comfort and secure a building’s occupants. In many cases, the lay-person fails to acknowledge the importance of these elements that often times stay tucked away inconspicuously. What’s out of sight isn’t necessarily out of mind. These four services will be the focus of the report - Mechanical Ventilation Systems, Air-conditioning Systems, Fire Protection Systems and Mechanical transportation - and how they work in tandem. UBBL codes and regulations are referred to, ensuring compliance to its corresponding usage and/or building conditions. Our site visit came in three stages, with consent from the mall management. Our group were granted access throughout the visit while being accompanied by the staff. We were lead on a tour of the mechanical ventilation & air-conditioning systems on the first day, April 8th. On April 19th, we visited the fire protection systems and finally the mechanical transportation systems on April 27th. Relevant service rooms/facilities are recorded through notes and photographs, with their location pinpointed on a floor plan received from the management office head, Mr Chang. Here are our findings.

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INTRODUCTION

2.1 SITE INTRODUCTION SS15 Courtyard is a mixed-typology establishment covering 300 square feet of gross built-up area by developers Titijaya Asset SDN. BHD. The first four floors houses a commercial mall, predominantly of food outlets. A purpose built grocery store occupies half the Lower Ground floor, as an anchor tenant, with retail stores scattered around the mall. An open car park sits atop the mall from the 2nd to the 5th floor. The upper levels are divided into two towers where the private offices and residences of First Subang are located, occupying floor 6 to floor 16. A sky-lobby on the 6th floor serves as the main access point to this section of the building. The building sits in the middle of a cluster of commercial shoplots that plays a vital role as a hub of commerce within SS15, hence bringing in high volume traffic in and around the building. A high volume of visitors are accounted for when designing the building, making the quality of building services of high priority. 2.2 SERVICE FLOOR MAKE UP The Courtyard’s Mall makes up a total of 4 floors, the first being the basement. The central cooling tower is located at the 6th floor, above the 2 carpark floors, and supplies air to the entire mall, while the grocery store air conditioning is supplied by a stand-alone refrigerant on the 2nd floor. The mall shares a network of wet-risers connected to a main water tank, supplying water to fire rooms and water sprinklers to the floors of the mall. Naturally, this tank is set on the 4th floor of the mall with a water pump to aid in the production of the necessary pressure. The mall shares a grid system that eases compartmentalisation in the event of a fire, equipped with shutters and fire doors. Fire rooms are also found on every floor of the building as per requirements.

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INTRODUCTION

The basement contains much of the bulk of mechanical ventilation that work in tandem with active fire-protection systems for safety measures, especially in an enclosed basement carpark. The mall shares an entire length of two lift lobbies for mechanical transportation of patrons. 2.3 FLOOR PLANS Below are the floor plans:

Figure 2.3.1. Basement floor plan

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Figure 2.3.2. Lower ground floor plan

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INTRODUCTION

Figure 2.3.3. Ground floor plan

Figure 2.3.5. Second floor plan

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Figure 2.3.4. First floor plan

Figure 2.3.6. Sixth floor plan

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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.0.1. Literature Review

The need of having fire protection in a building is necessary as the system protects building occupants, building structure, building properties and prevent fire from spreading. The life safety of occupants in a building must always be the priority and it is possible by minimum fire protection in respect of various aspects such as means of escape, containment of fire within a building and means of detection and extinguishment of fire. Planning for fire protection involves an integrated approach in which system designers need to analyze building components as a total package. Fire protection itself is divided into two categories which are: ●

Active Fire Protection

Passive Fire Protection

3.0.2 Location of Equipments

Figure 3.0.2.1. Basement floor plan

Figure 3.0.2.2. Lower ground floor plan

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.0.2 Location of Equipments

Figure 3.0.2.3. Ground floor plan

Figure 3.0.2.6. Second floor plan

Figure 3.0.2.4. First floor plan

Figure 3.0.2.7. Sixth floor plan PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.0.3 Overview & Equipment Connections As an overview, to detect early stages of fire, manual and automatic means of active fire protection system plays a part in fire detection, fire notification and fire fighting system. On the other hand, the three main criteria in passive fire protection system that are considered during the planning stage in designing the commercial building, SS15 Courtyard are purpose group and compartment, fire appliance access and means of escape. The following combined plays a huge role in maintaining the building and most importantly ensuring the building’s occupants safety in a case of a fire.

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ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.1 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

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ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.1.1. Literature Review Active fire protection (AFP) is an essential part of fire protection system. Contrary to passive fire protection system, AFP requires a valid amount of motion and response in order to work. Fire can be suppressed either through manual or automatic control. Manual control consists of using fire extinguisher or hose-reel system and automatic control includes fire sprinkler system which would usually be found in large commercial building such as SS15 Courtyard. This system aims to detect early stages of fire, allowing fire extinguishing and excavation of occupant process to be done safely.

1.

Fire Detection System

2.

Fire Notification System

3.

Fire Fighting System

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ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.1.2. Fire Detection System Fire detection system’s main function is to quickly detect a growing fire and alert building users and emergency response department before any major damage occurs. There are 3 different types of fire detection systems by detecting either through: 1. Heat Detector 2. Smoke Detector 3. Flame Detector

UBBL 1984 SECTION 225: Every building shall be provided with means of detecting and extinguishing fire and with fire alarms together with illuminated exit signs in accordance with the requirements as specified in the Tenth Schedule to these By-laws.

3.1.2.1. Heat Detector Heat detectors are created to be able to respond during the increase of temperature through thermal energy of a heat sensitive element. It is used to assist in reducing property damaged. This detector is suitable for spaces such as kitchen as the heat detectors does not react to to smokes, meaning they are not prone to false alarm from cooking or exhaust fumes. As SS15 shops are mainly restaurants and cafes, this helps in reducing any faulty alarms from occurring.

Figure 3.1.2.1.1 Heat detector

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ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.1.3. Fire Notification System Manual fire alarm systems depend upon human intervention, either through manual call points or pull stations which are motorized bells or wall mounted sounders.

UBBL 1984 SECTION 237: (1)

Fire alarms shall be provided in accordance with the Tenth Schedule to these By-laws.

(2)

All premises and buildings with gross floor area excluding car park and storage areas exceeding 9290 square metres or exceeding 30.5 metres in height shall be provided with a two-stage alar system with evacuation (continuous signal) to be given immediately in the affected section of the premises while an alert (intermittent signal) be given in adjoining section.

3.1.3.1. Fire Alarm Control Panel (FACP) A fire alarm control panel (FACP), also known as fire alarm control unit (FACU), is the component that controls a fire alarm system. When information is acquired on the panel from environmental sensors that is designed to detect changes associated with fire, monitors operational integrity and provides for automatic control of equipment, and transmission of information that is needed to prepare the facility for fire based on a predetermined sequence. 4 different types of basic FACP panels: 1.

Conventional panels

2.

Coded panels

3.

Addressable panels.

4.

Multiplex systems.

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ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.1.3.1.1. Conventional Panel A conventional panels employs one or more circuits connected to sensors that are devised to rapidly decrease the circuit resistance when environmental influence on any sensor exceeds a predetermined threshold. Structure of the building is subdivided into definite zoning,(eg. Different floorings of a multi-storeys building), to facilitate location and control fire within a building.

UBBL 1984 SECTION 238: Every large premises or building exceeding 30.5 metres height shall be provided with a command and control located on the designated floor and shall contain a panel to monitor the. Public address, fire brigade communication, sprinkler, water flow detectors, :fire detection and alarm systems and with a direct telephone connection to the appropriate fire station by-passing by-the switchboard.

Figure 3.1.3.1.1.1. FACP (1)

Figure 3.1.3.1.1.2. FACP (2)

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ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.1.3.2. Manual Call Point Manual call point systems are usually connected to a central fire alarm control panel (FACP). It is used to activate an alarm signal by operating the break glass or a simple button press and at times it is connected to a nearby fire station dispatcher. When triggered, there will be an indicator on the monitoring unit to point out the location of the call point and can only be manually reset if situation is rectified.

Figure 3.1.3.2.1. Break glass manual call point

3.1.3.3. Manual Pull Station Pull stations are commonly a single actions where it only requires the user to pull down the handle to ring the alarm. Fire alarm can only be reset by a building personnel or emergency responders by opening the station with a key. This causes the handle to resume to its original position, which allows the alarm to be reboot from the FACP to stop the ringing of the alarm. Usually it is placed near an exit to ensure that occupant excavating during an event of fire is able to pull down the pull station and warn everyone in the building.

Figure 3.1.3.2.2. Break glass and pull handle station

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Figure 3.1.3.2.3. Key ignition panel 18


ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.1.3.4. System Reset

This component resets the panel after an alarm condition. All triggered devices are reset, clearing the panel from any alarm conditions. A system reset is frequently needed to clear supervisory conditions, however it does not commonly clear trouble conditions as usually majority of trouble conditions will clear automatically once conditions are back to normal.

Figure 3.1.3.4.1. First floor plan of system reset panel

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ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.1.3.5. Emergency Light System

Emergency lighting are created to automatically turn on when the primary source of power ceased. Exit signs are also used in junction with emergency lighting to ensure means of egress lighting; exit discharge is known as the portion of the means of egress system between cessation of the exit and a public way. The sole purpose of emergency lighting is to direct occupants safely out of the building by providing a sufficient level of visibility towards the exits or escape routes.

Figure 3.1.3.5.1 Emergency light system

Figure 3.1.3.5.2 Emergency light system

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ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.1.3.6. Firemen Switch In the event of an emergency, firemen is able to quickly disconnect power from high voltage devices with a fireman’s switch which is a specialized switch. They can be used to switch off any electrical equipment in case of fire or to prevent explosions from overheating equipment. However, in order for the switch to be a valid device it has to comply the following standards: • It has to be isolated from all live conductors and there should only be one switch that is able to control the entire exterior and a second switch for the interior. • Has to be labelled with a nameplate “FIREMAN’S SWITCH “ and painted red on the switch for indication.

Figure 3.1.3.6.2 Firemen switch

Figure 3.1.3.6.1. Lower Ground floor plan

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ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.1.3.7. Fire Alarm Bell Fire alarm bell delivers high pressure sound pressure output gicing warning to users during an event of fire. Most of the fire alarm bells makes sounds like a siren with alternative frequencies

Figure 3.1.3.7.1. First floor plan with fire alarm bell

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ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.1.4. Fire Fighting System A fire fighting system consist of two types of system that is applied to control the fire, which are non water based system and water based system.

UBBL 1984 SECTION 245: (1)

All fire fighting installations and appliances other than those conforming to the standards listed in by-law 244 shall be of those as tested and approved by the D.G.F.S.

(2)

Every plan, drawing or calculation¡ in respect of any automatic sprinklers or other fixed installations shall be submitted together with the relevant forms as prescribed in the Tenth Schedule to these By-laws.

3.1.4.1. Non Water Based System Non water based systems uses other agents besides water to suppress fire.

3.1.4.1.1. Dry Powder Portable Fire Extinguisher A fire extinguisher is a device that is used to extinguish and/or suppress small fires during emergency situations. It consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressure vessel that contains an agent, in this case dry powder based agent, which will be discharged when triggered. However it is not intended to be use on an out of control fire that has reached the ceiling or endangering users.

UBBL 1984 SECTION 227: Portable extinguisher shall be provided in accordance with the relevant codes of practice and shall be sited in prominent positions on exit routes to be visible from all directions and similar extinguishers in a building shall be of the same method of operation.

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ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.1.4.2. Water Based System Water based system is basically using water as the main element to suppress fire. Components using water based system are as follow: - External 2 way fire hydrants - Fire hose reel system - Wet riser system - Automatic sprinkler system

UBBL 1984 SECTION 247: (1)

Water Storage capacity and water flow rate for fire fighting systems and installations shall be provided in accordance with the scales as set out in the Tenth Schedule to these By-laws.

(2)

Main water storage tanks within the building , other than for the hose reel systems, shall be located at ground, first or second basements levels, with fire brigade pumping inlet connections accessible to fire appliances.

(3)

Storage tanks for automatic sprinkler installations where full capacity is provided without need for replenishment shall be exempted from the restrictions in their location.

UBBL 1984 SECTION 248: (1)

Wet riser, dry riser, sprinkler and other fire installation pipes and fittings shall be painted red.

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ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.1.4.2.1. External Two Ways Fire Hydrant

An external fire hydrant, also known as fireplug, is a connection point from a water supply that the firefighters can tap into. A hose is attached from the fire hydrant to the fire engine consisting a powerful pump to boost the water pressure once the valve is opened manually. Requirements: - Not more than 30m away from the breeching inlet for the building - Not less than 6m from the building - Spaced not more than 90m apart along access road - Minimum width of access road is 6m.

UBBL 1984 SECTION 225: (2) Every building shall be served by at least one fire hydrant located not more than 91.5 metres from the nearest point of fire brigade access. (3) Depending on the size and location of the building and the provision of access for fire appliances,, additional fire hydrant shall be provided as may be required by the Fire Authority.

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ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

Figure 3.1.4.2.1.3. External Fire Hydrant

Figure 3.1.4.2.1.1. Ground floor plan

Figure 3.1.4.2.1.4. External Fire Hydrant

Figure 3.1.4.2.1.5. External Fire Hyrdrant

Figure 3.1.4.2.1.2. Lower Ground floor plan BUILDING SERVICES | BLD60903 | PROJECT I - REPORT

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ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.1.4.2.3. Fire Hose Reel

A fire hose reel systems are located strategically in a building to ensure easy accessibility with controlled supply of water to assist in combatting fire. It consists of pumps, pipes, water supply and hose reels that needs to be activated manually by opening a valve that enables the water to flow into the hose that is usually 30 meters long.

Figure 3.1.4.2.3.1. Fire Hose reel

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ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.1.4.2.4. Wet Riser System Wet risers are charged with water from a pressurised supply, often pumped from a storage tank, with landing valves at specified locations on each floor.

UBBL 1984 SECTION 231: (1)

Wet rising systems shall be provided in every building in which he topmost floor is more than 30.5 metres above fire appliance access level.

(2)

A hose connection shall be provided in each fire fighting access lobby.

Figure 3.1.4.2.4.1. First floor plan with water tank location

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ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.1.4.2.5. Fire Sprinkler System

Fire sprinkler system consist of a water supply system to provide a sufficient pressure and flowrate to a water distribution piping system that is connected to it. SS15 courtyard is made up of both wet and dry pipe systems.

UBBL 1984 SECTION 226: Where hazardous processes, storage or occupancy are of such character as to require automatic sprinklers or other automatic extinguishing system, it shall be of a type and standard appropriate to extinguish fires in the hazardous materials stored or handles or for the safety of the occupants.

UBBL 1984 SECTION 228: (1)

Sprinkler valves shall be located in a safe and enclosed position on the exterior wall and shall be readily accessible to the fire authority.

(2)

All Sprinkler system shall be electricity connected to the nearest fire station to provide immediate and automatic relay of the alarm when activates.

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ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.1.4.2.6. Wet Pipe System

Wet pipe sprinkler system is commonly used as they are more reliable due to their simple operation process, having just the automatic sprinklers as a component. A glass bulb type sprinkler head will spray water into the room if sufficient heat reaches the bulb and causes it to shatter triggering each sprinkler heads individually.

Figure 3.1.4.2.6.1 Glass bulb sprinkler system

3.1.4.2.7. Dry Pipe System Wet pipe sprinkler system is commonly used as they are more reliable due to their simple operation process, having just the automatic sprinklers as a component.

Figure 3.1.4.2.7.1. Dry pipe system blocked

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PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.2 PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

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PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.2.1 Literature Review

Passive Fire Protection (PFP) is the term applied to the components of a building where it offers sufficient fire performance. The system works in conjunction with active fire prevention, such as sprinkler systems, extinguishers, and fire safety education of building occupants. It plays important role in safeguarding people, as well as limiting damage to buildings and their contents against flame, heat and smoke. Passive fire protection works by: ●

Limiting the spread of flame, heat, and smoke by containing it in a single compartment in its area of origin

Protecting escape routes and providing vital escape time for occupants

Protecting a building’s critical structural members

Protecting a building’s assets

The group of systems compartmentalize a building through the usage of fire-resistance rated walls, floors and ceilings where it helps to slow or prevent the spread of fire or smoke from one room to the next. The choice between active and passive systems, or a combination of the two, is based on the size and type of fire, the duration of protection required, the equipment or structure requiring protection, water availability, and the time required for evacuation.

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PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.2.2 Purpose Group and Compartment

3.2.2.1. Separation of Fire Risk Areas

Dividing a building into different compartments to their intended usage prevents the spread of fire within a building or to another building. Compartment walls are required to have a minimum degree of fire resistivity where it is expressed in terms of the number of minutes of resistance that must be provided by different parts of a building. Protected shafts are spaces that connect fire compartments. These include spaces such as stairways and service shafts as they must be protected to restrict fire spread between the compartments. The condition and operation of fire separation materials and devices must be checked regularly to ensure optimum performance.

The few examples of additional requirements depending on the type of building are as such: 1.

Parts of a building that are occupied for different purposes should generally be separated from one another by compartment walls and compartment floors.

2.

Walls common to two or more buildings should be constructed as compartment walls.

3.

Compartment walls in the top storey beneath a roof should be continued through the roof space.

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PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

UBBL Section 139 – Separation of fire risk areas The following area uses shall be separated from the other areas of the occupancy in which they are located by fire resisting construction of elements of structure of a FRP to be determined by local authority based on the degree of hazard: (c) repair shops involving hazardous processes and materials; (d)

storage

areas

of

materials

in

quantities

deemed

hazardous; (e) liquified petroleum gas storage areas; (g) transformer rooms and substations; (h)

flammable

liquids

stores.

Figure 3.2.2.1.1. Separation of Fire Risk Areas

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PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

Location of shutters on floor plans:

Figure 3.2.2.1.1. Basement Floor plan

Figure 3.2.2.1.3. Ground Floor plan BUILDING SERVICES | BLD60903 | PROJECT I - REPORT

Figure 3.2.2.1.2. Lower Ground plan

Figure 3.2.2.1.4. First Floor plan 35


PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

Location of shutters on floor plans:

Figure 3.2.2.1.5. Sixth Floor plan

Similar to fire walls, the building uses fire shutters as it is not permanently visible and is fixed at one location. The fire shutters are wired into the building’s fire detection system, working in hand with active fire protection and automatically shuts once the signals from the fire alarm is received. It deploys a predetermined safe height that allows occupants to escape from the building while acting as a smoke barrier, before fully closing and acts as a fire resistant barrier.

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PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.2.2.2. Fire Rated Door

Fire doors and windows are installed in an opening of a fire barrier to maintain its fire resistance. It is used to contain the spread of fire or smoke between compartments, and to give occupants enough time to enable safe escape from a building. It should be fitted with intumescent fire and smoke seals, either around the edges of the door leaf or the frame. These seals are an integral part of a fire door structure and ensure that, not only is the spread of fire prevented, but also and more importantly the ingress of cold smoke in the early stages of a fire. The door frame itself has to be a suitable material that is designed with fire protection in consideration. The door ironmongery especially the hinges should withstand high temperature so that it does not cause failure where the fire door can jam and block an escape route. The last step would be the installation of the door where it has to be installed by a contractor with the required skills to ensure that the door is fully functional.

UBBL Section 162 - Fire doors in compartment walls and separating walls: (2) Openings in compartment walls and separating walls shall be protected by a fire door having a FRP in accordance with the requirements for that wall specified in the Ninth Schedule to these By-laws. (3) Openings in protecting structures shall be protected by fire doors having FRP of not less than half the requirement for the surrounding wall specified in the Ninth schedule to these By-laws but in no case less than half hour (4) Openings in partitions enclosing a protected corridor or lobby shall be protected by fire doors having FRP of half-hour.

UBBL Section 164 - Door closers for fire door (1) All fire doors shall be fitted with automatic door closers of the hydraulically spring operated type in case of swing doors and of wire rope and weight type in the case of sliding doors.

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PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

UBBL Section 173 – Exit Doors (1) All exit doors shall be openable from the inside without the use of a key or any special knowledge or effort. (2) Exit doors shall close automatically when released and all door devices including magnetic door holders, shall release the doors upon power failure or actuation of the fire alarm.

Figure 3.2.2.2.1 Fire rated door

Figure 3.2.2.2.2. Door closer

The door found in the building has a FRP of 1-1/2 hour (90 minute) and a FRP of 2 hour walls. They are found in corridors and stairwells in the building. All doors are easily accessible from the inside without a key as well. When escaping, the door swing must be towards the direction of exit as it allows a smooth escape. Automatic door closers allow self-closing as well as prevent the spread of fire to other areas. The steel bearing hinges used is beneficial compared to non-ferrous metals as the latter becomes “elastic” at low temperatures thus dislocating the door during a fire.

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PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

Location of fire doors on floor plans:

Figure 3.2.2.2.3. Basement Floor Plan

Figure 3.2.2.2.5. Ground Floor Plan

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Figure 3.2.2.2.4. Lower Ground Floor Plan

Figure 3.2.2.2.6. First Floor Plan 39


PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

Location of fire doors on floor plans:

Figure 3.2.2.2.7.. Second Floor Plan

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Figure 3.2.2.2.8. Sixth Floor Plan

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PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.2.2.3 Fire Rated Walls and Floors

Fire barriers include fire-rated walls, floors, and ceilings (often made of concrete, combination wood, gypsum, or masonry). These barriers are used to limit the spread of fire in a building and allow safe egress while buying sufficient time for the occupant and users to escape. Walls extend from a fire-rated floor to the fire-rated ceiling above, and continue into concealed spaces for full protection. As for suspended or false ceilings, fire resistivity should extend up to the floor slab level above.

UBBL Section 138 - Other walls and floors to be constructed as compartment walls or compartment floors (c) Any wall or floor separating part of building from any other part of the same building which is used or intended to be used mainly for a purpose falling within a different purpose group as set out in the Fifth Schedule to these By-laws;

The material used for the building’s walls are fire rated brick wall and gypsum board plasterboard. Gypsum board is a good fire-resistant material. Other materials in the building include non-combustible materials such as concrete, which provides a division between floors. The brick wall and gypsum board plasterboard acts as a compartment for the commercial blocks while the concrete floors act as a compartment between each floor.

Figure 3.2.2.3.1. Compartment wall with FRP door

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PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.2.3. Fire Appliance Access

UBBL Section 140 - Fire Appliance Access All buildings in excess of 7000 cubic metre shall abut upon a street or road or open space of not less than 12 m width and accessible to fire brigade appliances.

Volume of Building in Cubic Metre

Minimum proportions of perimeter of building

28000 to 56000

One-fourth

Figure 3.2.3.1. Location of fire appliance access

The road Jalan SS 15/4e is proposed to be the fire brigade access as the fire hydrant is located nearby, providing water supply and aid in the fire rescue process. It is important for fire trucks to arrive without trouble during to the building in a fire case. The open space is large enough and

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PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

clear from any obstruction to prevent a delay when accessing appliances such as turntable ladders and hydraulic platforms.

UBBL Section 225 – Detecting and Extinguishing Fire (2) Every building shall be served by at least one fire hydrant located not more than 91.5 metres from the nearest point of fire brigade access.

UBBL Section 247 – Water Storage (2) Main water storage tanks within the building, other than for hose reel systems, shall be located at ground, first or second basement levels, with fire brigade pumping inlet connections accessible to fire appliances.

Figure 3.2.3.2. Location of fire hydrant on Lower Ground Floor Plan

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Figure 3.2.3.3.. Location of fire hydrant on Ground Floor Plan

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PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.2.4. Means of Escape

3.2.4.1. Fire Evacuation Route

Fire evacuation routes on floor plan:

Figure 3.2.4.1.1. Fire evacuation route on Basement Floor Plan

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Figure 3.2.4.1.2. Fire evacuation route on Lower Ground Floor Plan

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PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

Fire evacuation routes on floor plan:

Figure 3.2.4.1.3. Fire evacuation route on Ground Floor Plan

Figure 3.2.4.1.4 Fire evacuation route on First Floor Plan

Figure 3.2.4.1.5. Fire evacuation route on Second Floor Plan

Figure 3.2.4.1.6. Fire evacuation route on Sixth Floor Plan

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PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

UBBL SECTION 166 – Exits to be Accessible at All Times (1) Except as permitted by by-law 167 not less than two separate exits shall be provided from each storey together with such additional exists as may be necessary. (2) The exits shall be so sited and the exit access shall be so arranged that the exits are within the limits of travel distance as specified in the Seventh Schedule to these By-laws and are readily accessible at all times.

UBBL SECTION 169 – Exit Route No exit route may reduce in width along its path of travel from the storey exit to final exit.

Evacuation Process Stage 1 – Upon hearing the fire alarm, electrical appliances, lift and escalators should not be used due to possible failure. Occupants should prepare to evacuate the building. Stage 2 – Occupants should proceed to the nearest exit and close the doors without locking. Stage 3 – Escape the floor to the ground level using the fire escape staircase. Stage 4 – Occupants should exit at lower ground or ground level away from the building.

Figure 3.2.4.1.7. Evacuation route

Based on SS15 Courtyard’s floor plan, the commercial block includes the lower ground to the second floor while the residential is on the sixth floor. There are on an average of 5 to 7 escape routes through the fire escape staircases around the commercial block’s corridors while the residential block has 3 escape routes due to the difference in occupancy levels. There are no obstructions throughout the emergency routes thus allowing occupants a safe and fast evacuation process. Signage directing the escape route is placed throughout the building where it is noticeable to the occupants near the lift. BUILDING SERVICES | BLD60903 | PROJECT I - REPORT

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PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.2.4.2. Fire Travel Distance

UBBL Section 165 - Measurement of Travel Distance to Exits (2) In the case of open areas the distance to exits shall be measured from the most remote point of occupancy provided that the direct distance shall not exceed two-thirds the permitted travel distance. (4) The maximum travel distance to exits and dead end limits shall be as specified in the Seventh Schedule of these By-Laws. UBBL Section 174 - Arrangement of storey exit Where two or more storey exits are required they shall be spaced at not less than 5m apart.

UBBL Section 174 - Arrangement of Storey Exit (1) Where two or more storey exits are required they shall be spaced at not less than 5m apart.

Figure 3.2.4.2.1. Fire travel distance on Ground Floor Plan

The distance of an escape route should be measured from a remote location of a building to the nearest safety location such as a protected stairway to the nearest final exit. All exit points within the building are well distributed at more than 5m apart. This prevents congestions of the occupants when evacuating the building.

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PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.2.4.3. Fire Escape Staircase Location of fire escape staircase on floor plan:

Figure 3.2.4.3.1. Fire escape staircase on Basement Floor Plan

Figure 3.2.4.3.3. Fire escape staircase on Ground Floor Plan

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Figure 3.2.4.3.2. Fire escape staircase on Lower Ground Plan

Figure 3.2.4.3.4. Fire escape staircase on First Floor Plan 48


PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

Location of fire escape staircase on floor plan:

Figure 3.2.4.3.5. Fire escape staircase on Second Floor Plan

Figure 3.2.4.3.6. Fire escape staircase on Sixth Floor Plan

UBBL Section 168 - Staircases (1) Except as provided for in by-law 194 every upper floor shall have means of egress via at least two separate staircases. (2) Staircases shall be of such width that in the event of any one staircase not being available for escape purpose the remaining staircase shall accommodate the highest occupancy load of any one floor. (4) The required width of staircase shall be maintained throughout its length including at landings. (5) Doors giving access to staircases shall be positioned that their swing shall at no point encroach on the required width of the staircase or landing

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UBBL Section 174 - Arrangement of Storey Exit (2) Each exit shall give direct access to (a) a final exit (b) a protected staircase leading to a final exit; or (c) an external route leading to a final exit.

1800mm Figure 3.2.4.3.7. Landing of fire escape staircase

Figure 3.2.4.3.8. Fire escape staircase

Figure 3.2.4.3.9. Lighting of fire escape staircase

The fire escape staircase found in the building are half turn staircases with a width of 1300 mm with a riser height of 1800 mm and thread of 290 mm. A continuous handrail is provided throughout the staircase. The fire escape staircase is well lit from mechanical lighting to increase the safety of occupants when escaping the building.

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PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

3.2.4.4. Emergency Exit Sign Location of emergency exit signs on floor plan:

Figure 3.2.4.4.1. Emergency Exit Signs on Basement Floor Plan

Figure 3.2.4.4.3. Emergency Exit Signs on Ground Floor Plan

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Figure 3.2.4.4.2. Emergency Exit Signs on Lower Ground Floor Plan

Figure 3.2.4.4.4. Emergency Exit Signs on First Floor Plan 51


PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

Location of emergency exit signs on floor plan:

Figure 3.2.4.4.3. Emergency Exit Signs on Second Floor Plan

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Figure 3.2.4.4.4. Emergency Exit Signs on Sisth Floor Plan

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PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

UBBL Section 172 - Emergency Exit Signs (1) Storey exits and access to such exits shall be marked by readily visible signs. (2) A sign reading “KELUAR” in plainly legible letters not less than 150mm high with the principal strokes of the letters not less than 18mm wide. (4) All exit signs shall be illuminated continuously during periods of occupancy. (5) Illuminated signs shall be provided with two electric lamps of not less than fifteen watts each.

Figure 3.2.4.4.5. Emergency Exit Sign

In SS15 Courtyard, the “KELUAR” signs are placed before the escape staircase. The emergency exit sign is important as it directs occupants to the shortest escape route out from the building and to the assembly point safely. Being illuminated, the sign is permanently lit and visible at all time to occupants in the building.

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3.2.4.5. Assembly Point UBBL 178 – Exits for Institutional and Places of Assembly In buildings classified as institutional or places of assembly, exits to a street or large open space, together with staircases, corridors and passages leading to such exits shall be located, separated, or protected as to avoid any undue danger to the occupants of the place of assembly from fire originating in the other occupancy or smoke therefrom.

Figure 3.2.4.5.1. Assembly point location

In a case of evacuation, occupants should leave the building immediately and gather at a designated assembly point at least 50 away for the Emergency Personnel to access the building clearly. As the building is surrounded by streets and commercial blocks, it is understood from the building’s evacuation route that the assembly point is designated to be the streets surrounding it. There are 3 exit points on the building which are the main entrance, the secondary entrance and the back entrance, which all leads to a brick pavement road away from the building.

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The open space is large enough and clear from any obstruction to prevent a delay when accessing appliances such as turntable ladders and hydraulic platforms. UBBL Section 225 – Detecting and Extinguishing Fire (2) Every building shall be served by at least one fire hydrant located not more than 91.5 metres from the nearest point of fire brigade access. UBBL Section 247 – Water Storage (2) Main water storage tanks within the building, other than for hose reel systems, shall be located at ground, first or second basement levels, with fire brigade pumping inlet connections accessible to fire appliances.

3.2.3. Summary

As a conclusion, passive fire protection system is vital when considering the design and construction of a commercial building like SS15 Courtyard. It is important to put the safety of the building’s occupants first thus considering the group of systems to separate compartments, have easy appliance access and a smooth means of escape in case of an evacuation. All in all, the passive fire protection system in SS15 Courtyard is well considered and has showed a clear understanding and importance of how the system works in conjunction with active fire protection system.

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MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM

4

MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM

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MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM

4.0.1 Literary Review

Ventilation in buildings is the means of replacing air from outside or circulating air within an enclosed space. Requirements for an acceptable amount of fresh air supply in buildings will vary depending on the nature of occupation and activity conducted in the allocated space. Mechanical ventilation systems circulate fresh air using ducts and fans rather than relying on natural airflow. This system allows for more control and provides filtration, dehumidification, and conditioning of incoming outside air.

The three types of mechanical ventilation systems are the supply system, the extract system and a combination of both of them, the combined system.

4.0.2 Overview In commercial developments such as SS15 Courtyard, mechanical ventilation throughout the building is driven by Air Handling Units (AHU) connected to ductwork systems that supplies and extracts air from the interior of the building. Due to the large amount of restaurants present in the building, adequate mechanical exhaust systems are provided in kitchens for removal of heat, odors and fumes and for fire suppression. The same mechanical exhausts are used in the bathrooms to remove odors and reduce the humidity. Extraction fans are used in the basement carpark for efficient removal of fume exhausts and for smoke clearance

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4.0.3 UBBL Compliance MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM

41. UBBL 1984 Mechanical Ventilation and Air Conditioning (I) Where permanent mechanical ventilation or air- conditioning is intended, the relevant building by-laws relating to natural ventilation, natural lighting and heights of rooms may be waived at the discretion of the local authority.

(2) Any application for the waiver of the relevant by-laws shall only be considered if in addition to the permanent air-conditioning system there is provided alternative approved means of ventilating the air-conditioned enclosure, such that within half an hour of the air-conditioning system failing, not less than the stipulated volume of fresh air specified hereinafter shall be introduced into the enclosure during the period when the air-conditioning system is not functioning.

(3) The provisions of the Third Schedule to these By-laws shall apply to buildings which are mechanically ventilated· or air- conditioned.

( 4) Where permanent mechanical ventilation in respect oi lavatories, water-closets, bathrooms or corridors is provided for· and maintained in accordance with the requirements of the Third Schedule to these By-laws, the provisions of these By-laws relating to natural ventilation and natural lighting shall not apply to such lavatories, water-closets, bathrooms or corridors.

4.1 Air Handling Unit (AHU)

4.1.1 Overview Air handling units (AHUs) are used to supply and circulate air around a building, or to extract stale air as part of a building’s heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Air Handling Unit systems comprise of a large insulated metal box that contains a fan, heating and/or cooling elements, filters, sound attenuators and dampers. In most cases, like in SS15 Courtyard, the AHU is connected to air distribution ductwork. When AHU systems are used to extract stale air from the building, a controlled proportion of this air may be recirculated to avoid having to condition all supplied air .

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4.1.2 Location of AHU Rooms

Figure 4.1.2.1. Lower ground floor plan

Figure 4.1.2.3. First floor plan BUILDING SERVICES | BLD60903 | PROJECT I - REPORT

Figure 4.1.2.2. Ground floor plan

Figure 4.1.2.4. Second floor plan 59


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4.1.3 Main Components of AHU

Figure 4.1.3.1 Components of AHU Retrieved from https://www.alibaba.com/product-detail/Vertical-air-handling-unit-AHU-precision_6008 7269253.html

Each AHU Room in the building contains a Vertical Type Floor Mounted AHU which works in a similar way to the diagram above. The Main components of this machine are the mixing chamber, filters, cooling elements, fans and connecting ducts.

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Filter Air filtration is almost always present in order to provide clean dust-free air to the building occupants. Filtration is typically placed first in the AHU in order to keep all the downstream components clean. Depending upon the grade of filtration required, typically filters will be arranged in two (or more) successive banks with a coarse-grade panel filter provided in front of a fine-grade bag filter, or other "final" filtration medium. â—?

Air brought in by the fresh air ducts are sucked in and filtered through the HEPA fliters. These filter removes minute particles and airborne bacteria from the air.

Figure 4.1.3.2. Filter

Heating/Cooling Elements Air handlers may need to provide heating, cooling, or both to change the supply air temperature, and humidity level depending on the location and the application. Such conditioning is provided by heat exchanger coil(s) within the air handling unit air stream, such coils may be direct or indirect in relation to the medium providing the heating or cooling effect .

â—?

The AHU receives the cooling coils carried by the CHWS pipes and is installed into the compartment.

Figure 4.1.3.3. Heating/cooling element

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Mixing Chamber In order to maintain indoor air quality, a mixing chamber is used which has dampers controlling the ratio between the return, outside, and exhaust air. The air gets mixed with recirculated and outside air in the chamber after getting filtered.

Blower/Fan Air handlers typically employ a large squirrel cage blower driven by an AC induction electric motor to move the air. Multiple blowers may be present in large commercial air handling units, typically placed at the end of the AHU and the beginning of the supply ductwork (supply fans). They are often augmented by fans in the return air duct (return fans) pushing the air into the AHU. A region of low pressure is created by the fan positioned before the supply spigot. This draws in the air through the mixing chambers into the Chilled Water coils, where the heat exchange happens.

Ductwork

The conditioned and dehumidified air is then blown through the supply spigot, into the ductworks. Ducts distribute the conditioned air through the building, and return it to the AHU.

â—?

Ducts distrbuting supply air from AHU

Figure 4.1.3.4. Ductwork

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Switch Panel

Figure 4.1.3.5. and Figure 4.1.3.6. Control voltage power supplied to AHU

4.2 Ductworks and Exhaust Systems 4.2.1 Overview Ducts and exhaust systems are essential in commercial buildings to circulate cooled air and remove heat and humidity to maintain the indoor air quality. Ventilation systems in SS15 Courtyard include ducts and fresh air ducts, exhaust fan rooms, existing smoke spill fan rooms, existing kitchen exhausts, fan rooms and existing car park ventilation spaces..

Figure 4.2.1.1. showing ducts distributing and returning air to and from the AHU Image source : http://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2012/03/in-previous-air-conditioning-sys tem.html

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4.2.2 Location of Duct Shafts, Exhaust Fan Rooms and Ventilation Spaces

Figure 4.2.2.1. Basement floor plan

Figure 4.2.2.3. Ground floor plan

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Figure 4.2.2.2. Lower ground floor plan

Figure 4.2.2.4. First floor plan

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Figure 4.2.2.5. Secondt floor plan

4.2.3 Components of Ventilation System Supply Ducts and Vents

Ventilation ducts channeled from AHU with outlet vent. These are installed throughout SS15 Courtyard to move cooled processed air from the AHU to spaces around the building.

Figure 4.2.3.1. and Figure 4.2.3.2. Central ventilation duct and outlet vent

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Figure 4.2.3.3. Outlet vent in toilets

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Extraction Ducts and Vents Located mostly in toilets and kitchens of restaurants in the building.

Figure 4.2.3.4. Vent fitted in toilets

Figure 4.2.3.5. Example of bathroom exhaust system Image source : http://www.greenbuildingadvisor.com/blogs/dept/musings/bathroom-ex haust-fans

Exhaust Systems

Mechanical exhausts are present to control odors and sometimes humidity. Exhaust fan rooms and existing kitchen exhausts are located on the second floor car park mainly for extracting higher amounts of heat and fumes from kitchens. Centrifugal fans are used to extract hot humid air from most of the kitchens

Figure 4.2.3.6. Exhaust fans located outside building

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Figure 4.2.3.7. Centrifugal fan in kitchen exhaust room above Texas Chicken, second floor

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Fans

The three types of fans used are propeller fans, axial fans and centrifugal fans. Propeller fans are used in basic and simple exhaust systems around the building such as toilet extract systems whereas centrifugal fans are required for larger extractions such as removal of heat from kitchens. Axial fans are used in the basement carpark as they are able to create large volume of airflow and promote better ventilation with little power input. 1.

Propeller Fans

Figure 4.2.3.8 Propeller fan in motor room

2.

Axial Fans

The fan consists of an impeller with blades of aerofoil section rotating inside a cylindrical casing. The air flows through the fans in a direction of parallel shaft.

Figure 4.2.3.9. Axial Fan located in basement carpark

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Figure 4.2.3.10. Schematic of the low-aspect-ratio axial-flow fan facility Image source : https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijrm/2011/146969/fig1/

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Figure 4.2.3.11. And Figure 4.2.3.12. Brand of axial fans : Systemair

Large axial fans function as smoke-spill fans in a fan room in the basement carpark. These fans are used to extract large amounts of smoke, dust and fumes when there is a fire. Smoke is brought out through ducts and exhaust vents to the external environment.

Figure 4.2.3.13. The large size of the fans allow for a high volume of smoke to be efficiently extracted out of the building

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3.

Centrifugal Fans

Centrifugal fans are located on the second floor carpark. These fans are used in the kitchen exhaust systems because they are efficient in moving large or small quantities of air over a wide range of pressure. These fans consist of an impeller which revolves inside a casing shaped like a scroll. The direction of air moving through the inlet is 90°. airflow created by centrifugal fans is directed through a system of ducts or tubes

Figure 4.2.3.14. Centrifugal Fan on second floor carpark

Figure 4.2.3.15. Components of Centrifugal Fan Image Source : http://www.leesii.com/what-are-the-important-aspects-of-cent rifugal-fan-blades/

Figure 4.2.3.16. Brand of centrifugal fan : Daikin

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Figure 4.2.3.17 Connected to ducts which pass out air that needs to be extracted

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4.3 Summary

To conclude, mechanical ventilation systems play a big role in maintaining human comfort levels and indoor air quality in commercial buildings such as SS15 Courtyard. As seen in the floor plans, extraction locations and exhaust room locations are vital for proper releasing of heated air out of the building. The type of fans used in exhaust systems are heavily taken into consideration as well depending on the volume of air change that needs to take place in different locations of the building. Overall, the ventilation flow at SS15 Courtyard is well managed and has helped us understand further the significance of this system and how it works.

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AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM

5

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AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM

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AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM

5.0.1 Literature Review Air-conditioning, a subset of HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning) often shortened to A/C or A.C., is the process of removing heat and supplying dehumidified air to a confined space room. This cools the air and improves air quality, adding to the comfort of a building’s occupants. Cooling of supplied air is often achieved by utilizing a refrigeration cycle, particularly in humid geographical conditions, while evaporation and free cooling can also be used as a more cost efficient alternative. Compounds that remove moisture the air (dessicants) and ground-coupled heat exchangers using subterraneous pipes removing heat into the ground - are less common methods of air conditioning. 5.0.2 Overview & Equipment Connections The diagram below shows how each equipment is interconnected through a system of pipings and ductwork, circulating coolant and conditioned/used air through the building.

CWS

CWR

CHWR

CHWS

Figure 5.0.3.1 Central A/C Water-Cooled Retrieved from

http://www.climatecontrolengineers.com/

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The cooling tower AC system and packaged refrigerant supplies coolant and air through different systems, the former serving the general air-conditioning of the mall, and the latter being used specifically for the purpose-built grocery on the Lower Ground.

CHWR

CHWS

Figure 5.0.3.2 Air-Cooled Chiller

Supplementary split air-conditioning needed by occupying retailers are also given space around the outer walls of the building to place their outdoor units. These are privately owned and are not regulated by the mall management. These units are directly connected to the indoor units of their respective shoplots and are (electricity) billed accordingly.

Figure 5.0.3.3 Air-Cooled Chiller Retrieved from daikin.com

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5.1 COOLING TOWER The central cooling tower of the building is a fanless, open circuit, field erected unit. Fanless cooling tower are used when taking into account noise emissions and low maintenance costs. This equipment is as shown:

Figure 5.1.0.1 Cooling Tower

5.1.1 Overview The tower works by evaporation where heat is removed from the water circulating in the system by evaporating a small portion of it and acts as condenser of heat pumps

This system takes advantage of the water pressure produced by the circulation pump located within the water screens with special ejection pipe nozzles. The pressure differential in and out of the tower is generated from the flowing speed of water screen which produces a mild vacuum, taking in surrounding ambient air.

In addition, this system uses no mechanical fan drive, hence less maintenance costs and a quieter operation span.

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5.1.2 Location & Position in A/C System The plan highlights the central cooling tower of the building on the 6th floor. This is where the condenser liquid cycle starts and carries on to its consequent equipment where it ends, returning the heated coolant back to be cooled. The cooling tower is the head equipment in a large scale air-conditioning system and is highlighted in the diagram below.

Figure 5.1.2.1 Central Unit Connection Retrieved from http://www.climatecontrolengineers.com/

and Figure 5.1.2.2 6th Floor Plan

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Pressure Control Valve

CWR

CWS

Figure 5.1.2.2 Piping Connections

CWR

CWS

Figure 5.1.2.3 Piping Connections

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AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM

5.1.3 Constituent Parts of Cooling Tower

Figure 5.1.2.4 Retrieved from http://www.tradekorea.com/ 5.1.4 Process 1.

Intake pipes, known as Condenser Water Supply contain coolant that has absorbed the heat load of the building from the chillers.

2.

The water is then diffused through a water screen, ejected by high pressure nozzles.

3.

Eliminators situated at the top of the tower prevents the water droplets from being released into the exposed air, putting at bay the release of chemicals and airborne particles from contaminating the water.

4.

The droplets then rain down into the fill chamber, aluminum decks to increase the surface area of the chamber.

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AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM

5.1.4 Process (cont.) 5.

Air sucked in due to pressure differential flows alongside the droplets. In this particular system, the effectiveness of cooling down the water is achieved through the louvres that can regulate the ambient air sucked in through the fills. The supplied water is always in contact with the ambient air during water diffusion and falling processes, resulting in efficient rejection of heat.

6.

The silencer is used to dampen noise as water hits the water collection basin.

7.

The product (condenser) is then carried off into pipework into a pump. This network is known as the Condenser Water Return

8.

Countermeasures such as pressure control valves and overflow drains are installed toavoid condenser carryover and overflowing.

9.

The process then carries on to the Chiller Room located at P2 for further cooling.

5.1.5 Building Context

In context of the building, the 6th floor is where the mall parts into two towers of residential and office units. An inconspicuous design with a quiet operation is required. Hence a fanless cooling tower is used, fenced with additional louvres hiding the pipings and control panels.

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5.2 CHILLER ROOM The chiller room of the building is driven by 3 compressor units that borrows the chilled water from the tower as its coolant. The units are screw driven, water cooled compressor units. When paired with the fanless cooling tower, this combo results in a more efficient while having a lower environmental impact. Although more expensive to maintain, the lower cost cooling tower offsets the total expenditure used to maintain the system.

Figure 5.2.0.1 Chiller Unit

5.2.1 Overview Chiller rooms are spaces to contain compressor/condenser units, which functions as the middle component in the air conditioning of large buildings. They produce their cooling effect via the "Reverse-Rankine" cycle, also known as 'vapor-compression'. In lieu of a piston compressor system, a rotary-compressor is utilized for high-pressure output, especially in conditioning the volume of air required for a mall. This is the equipment where the condenser liquid and the chilled water meet. Though in separate chambers, the CWS is to carry heat away from the Condenser while the CHWR is to release heat into the Cooler.

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5.2.2 Location & Position in A/C System The diagram below shows the location of the chiller room housing the compressor equipments. As stated, this is the equipment where most of the heat transferring process occurs. These water-cooled units need to be operated in shelter - indoors - as opposed to air-cooled units. Both Chilled Water piping and Condenser Water piping networks meet in this unit as heat transfer occurs through the refrigerant, a medium found in the compressor units. Though these water pipes don’t meet physically, the heat transfer process still occurs due to the 2nd law of thermodynamics.

Figure 5.2.2.1 Central Unit Connection Figure 5.2.2.2 Central Unit Connection Retrieved from http://www.climatecontrolengineers.com/

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Compressor

CWS Evaporator

CWR

CHWR Condenser

CHWS Figure 5.2.2.3 Chamber connections

CWS

CHWS

CWR

CHWR

Figure 5.2.2.4 Piping connections

Liquid Receiver

Figure 5.2.2.3 Refrigerant tank

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5.2.3 Constituent Parts of Chiller

Figure 5.2.3.1. Parts/Process

5.2.4 Process 1.

The refrigerant cycle starts from the Condenser chamber as a HPL, after being cooled down from a HPG state by the Condenser Water Return from the Cooling Tower.

2.

The refrigerant liquid then passes a thermal expansion valve that restricts the flow of refrigerant, lowering the pressure of the liquid to be sent to the Evaporation chamber. This reduction in pressure lowers down the temperature of the liquid further.

3.

The exchange of heat from the Chilled Water circuit occurs in this chamber to be sent out to the building’s AHUs as CHWS.

4.

This exchange of heat expands the refrigerant’s liquid state into an LPG. The following compressor draws out this gas from the Evaporator chamber.

5.

The Screw-Driven Compressor compresses the refrigerant LPG to a HPG to contain all the latent heat to be dispersed in the next process.

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6.

The refrigerant gas gets ushered into the Condenser chamber by the compressor to go through the final heat exchanging process with the coolant water from the Cooling Tower through the CWS pipe. The Coolant water then goes through a water pump to be returned to the Cooling Tower.

7.

The valves monitored by the computer of the Variable-Speed system to analyse and respond to the varying pressure of the involving fluids to avoid internal damage/malfunction.

5.2.5 Building Context The Cooling Tower requires very minimal maintenance so it only makes sense for the compressors to be equally reliable in the long run. This particular model claims to have a compressor blade life of 50 years in constant operation. Screw-driven compressors are also known to produce less vibrations during operation. The usage of a chlorine free HFC-134a, reducing environmental impact, cutting down harmful gaseous discharges.

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5.3 AIR HANDLING UNITS An Air Handling Unit (AHU) are equipments that contain and handle the cooling coils from the compressor units. AHUs are typically isolated in special rooms with air intake ducts leading to the outside of the building. They help distribute the conditioned air into ductworks that flow through and into the building. In the Courtyard Mall, multiple AHU rooms are situated at every floor, equidistant to each other. This helps in bulk air distribution a mall requires to regulate optimal thermal conditions. Shown below is an AHU unit on the 1st floor of the mall.

Figure 6.3.0.1. AHU HEPA Filter Louvres

5.3.1 Overview AHUs function to control the following parameters of a confined space ● ● ● ●

Temperature Humidity Air Movement Air Cleanliness

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The AHUs found in the building are draw-through systems of vertical configuration. Draw-through systems are known to be better at extracting energy from the heat exchange coils supplied by the CHWS pipes. As opposed to the blow-through configuration where air tends to be blasted at a smaller proportion of the coil face, a draw-through unit the air is gently drawn through the mass of the coil surface area, leading to a more efficient energy exchange. 5.3.2 Location & Position in A/C System THe AHU is a simple piece of hardware in principle but it is a key part of the A/C system. The ductwork divide the coils carrying chilled water through a continuous ductwork travelling vertically through a building and is installed into the AHU. The AHU is responsible for intaking outdoor air and recirculating indoor air while filtering dust and harmful airborne particles. AHU units are the final plants in the loop before releasing the treated air into the building environment.

Figure 5.3.2.1 Central Unit Connection Retrieved from http://www.climatecontrolengineers.com/ Figure 5.3.2.2. 1st Floor Plan

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Figure 5.3.2.3 Ground Floor PLan

Figure 5.3.2.4 Lower Ground Floor Plan

CHWR

CHWS

Figure 5.3.2.5 Piping Connection BUILDING SERVICES | BLD60903 | PROJECT I - REPORT

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CHWR Panel filter equipped outside air intake

CHWS

Figure 5.3.2.6 Piping Connections

CHWR Painted/Galvanized aluminum housing

CHWS

Figure 5.3.2.7 Piping Connections

Discharge spigot to ductwork

Figure 5.3.2.8 Duct Connection

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5.4 PACKAGED CHILLER A packaged air cooled chiller system works similarly to the previous 2 systems explained (*refer to 5.1, 5.2), but both components are contained in one housing, as a single working unit. In SS15 Courtyard, this unit is installed for the purpose of providing treated air for the purpose-built grocery store at LG. This is suitable for use when displacing a moderate amount of air. In comparison, it is very similar to a personal A/C compressor unit.

Figure 5.4.0.1 Chiller

5.4.1 Overview The unit used for the building supplies air directly to the AHU regulating the grocery store. Because groceries house perishables, all cooling power is directed to the space alone to aid in refrigeration. This unit features a rotary screw compressor, very similar to the water-cooled compressor (6.2). The biggest difference is the one shown here rejects heat from the refrigerant circuitry using air, much like most cooling towers. Maintenance costs are lower since there is one less equipment to monitor.

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5.4.2 Location & Position in A/C System Since an air-cooled chiller works two jobs once, it exists separately out of the central A/C loop. The optimum operational conditions are the outdoors, hence this unit is given a piece of the carpark of double floor height on P2. Only the Chilled Water circuit is involved - the coils are piped and transported to its assigned AHU through ductworks.

Figure 5.4.2.1. Second floor plan

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Figure 5.4.2.2 Second floor plan

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Figure 5.4.2.3. System Position

CHWR Water pump

CHWS

Figure 5.4.2.4. Piping Connection

Liquid Receiver

Figure 5.4.2.5. Chiller

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5.4.3 Constituent Parts of Air-Cooled Chiller

Figure 5.4.3.1. Parts/Process

5.4.4 Process (*in reference to 5.2) 1.

The refrigerant cycle starts from the Condenser chamber as a HPL, after being cooled down from a HPG state by the air from the fans

2.

The refrigerant liquid then passes a thermal expansion valve that restricts the flow of refrigerant, lowering the pressure of the liquid to be sent to the Evaporation chamber. This reduction in pressure lowers down the temperature of the liquid further.

3.

The exchange of heat from the Chilled Water circuit occurs in this chamber to be sent out to the building’s AHUs as CHWS.

4.

This exchange of heat expands the refrigerant’s liquid state into an LPG. The following compressor draws out this gas from the Evaporator chamber.

5.

The Screw-Driven Compressor compresses the refrigerant LPG to a HPG to contain all the latent heat to be dispersed in the next process.

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6.

The refrigerant gas gets ushered into the Condenser chamber by the compressor to go through the final heat exchanging process by the forced air from the Air-Cooling panel.

7.

The valves monitored by the computer of the Variable-Speed system to analyse and respond to the varying pressure of the involving fluids to avoid internal damage/malfunction.

5.4.5 Building Context This chiller is a dedicated unit for the grocery store to ease maintenance as well putting into consideration it’s input/output volume rated at 140-350 nominal tons, lower than that of the chiller room output rated at 3x (units count) 175-550 nominal tons. This focuses more of it’s resources to a more concentrated, confined space in the building, leaving enough cooling liquid for use in refrigeration of perishable items. The unit is situated behind fences in an inconspicuous corner of the carpark, leaving no obstruction in the general vehicular circulation.

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5.5 DUCTLESS SPLIT-TYPE A/C Shown below is a string of condenser units from the ductless split-type A/Cs found throughout the mall. These are privately owned by shop-lot establishments and installed with permission from the mall management. These are connected directly to the shop-lots’ wall A/C units. These are found strung about the carparks and outer perimeters of the building.

Figure 5.5.0.1. Condenser Units

5.5.1 Overview The Mini-Split A/Cs used in the building are of varying functions of varying capacities. The most common ones are for single-room usage, ranging from 2-5 units per room. This of course depends on the lot size of the restaurant/retail establishment. These systems consist of an outside and inside apparatus, the condenser unit and the evaporator unit respectively. The outdoor unit functions similarly to a compressor (condenser) while the indoor unit to an AHU (evaporator). Only one circuit is involved, involving a refrigerant.

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5.5.2 Location & Position in A/C System There are no fixed room/space for the condenser units whereas the wall units are mounted into the shop-lots. They can be found in the basement and the upper car-park floors by the walls or in corners.

Figure 5.5.2.2. P2 Floor Plan

Figure 5.5.2.1. Condenser Units

Figure 5.5.2.3. Condenser Units

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Figure 5.5.2.4. B Floor Plan

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5.5.3 Constituent Parts of Split A/C System

Figure 5.5.3.1. Condenser Units http://www.acuqimed.com/

5.5.4 Process 1.

The refrigerant cycle starts out of the compressor, as a HPG.

2.

This gas gets air-cooled by the outdoor unit, removing pressure as the heat exchanging process occurs, where the state change also occurs.

3.

The liquid flows into the indoor apparatus through a pipe into the evaporating unit.

4.

Flow restriction happens through a strainer which reduces the pressure of the HPL, effectively converts it to an LPL.

5.

Air blows through the cooling coils, cooling and dehumidifying the room.

6.

This process evaporates the refrigerant and turns it into a LPG which gets drawn into the compressor.

7.

The compressor squeezes the gas, increasing it’s pressure and temperature. THis restarts the cycle.

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5.5.5 Building Context The air conditioning provided by the central A/C unit only regulates the mall as a whole. The various programmes each retailer/restaurant offers demand micro-climate regulation, and can only be achieved with the addition of personal A/C units.

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5.6 UBBL COMPLIANCE 4th Schedule -

Special place to house air-conditioning plants or units 110B.— (1) All buildings, other than detached, semi-detached and terrace houses, erected on or after 1st January, 2002 shall have a special place to house air-conditioning plants or units or other equipment used for air-conditioning. (2) The place referred to in paragraph (1) and the plant, unit or other equipment installed shall be hidden from public view in such manner as the local authority may approve.

5.6.1 110B - Paragraph (1) Compliance Every equipment pertaining to the A/C system is given a room and/or space to operate and are isolated from one another.

The center space of level 6 is allocated for the cooling tower.

Figure 5.6.1.1. Cooling Tower Space

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Figure 5.6.1.2. 6th Floor Plan

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The packaged chiller is placed at an unused/inaccessible corner of the P2 parking lot.

Figure 5.6.1.3. Packaged Chiller Space

Figure 5.6.1.4. P2 Floor Plan

The chiller room is housed in a room of the P2 parking lot.

Figure 5.6.1.5. Chiller Room

Figure 5.6.1.6. P2 Floor Plan

AHU units are placed in rooms scattered evenly across the floor plans.

Figure 5.6.1.7. AHU Room

Figure 5.6.1.8. 1st Floor Plan

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5.6.2 110B - Paragraph (2) Compliance All of the equipment plants are located in non-accessible areas without clearance. Equipment located outdoors are hidden behind tall partition louvres or are kept behind railings. Additional personal compressor units are left open in the Basement level.

High louvred partition walls fence the entire cooling tower and is only accessible on one side through a security locked gate.

Figure 5.6.2.1. Cooling Tower Louvres

A condenser unit massing behind the management office, kept behind a mesh fence/gate.

Figure 5.6.2.2. Condenser Unit Space

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5.7 SUMMARY The deviation of the grocery-refrigeration unit from the central A/C unit was necessary to fulfil the requirements of human comfort versus preserving food/beverage. Although both units function the same, both are operating under different conditions with different outputs. Referring to the central A/C system, the AHUs are meant to circulate an approximated 65,000 m 3 of air. While the grocery store has it’s own AHU that receives from the packaged chiller, the rest of the mall houses 8 AHUs (1st FLoor - 3 units, G - 3 units, LG - 2 units). The strategic placement of AHU rooms ensures an even and efficient distribution of cool air to the mall, eliminating the need of a complex ductwork. The air-conditioning equipment found in both systems have low environmental impact, being one of the tallest establishments in SS15. Thermal Comfort under the building fabric is well managed, low humidity and comfortable air condition. Ductwork and clunky equipment remain inconspicuous despite the need for service wiring/ducting/piping management due to competent planning. The A/C units found Basement Floors need better management or a relocation to a better operation environment. The placement of mini-split condenser units are slightly mismanaged. Most of these units can be seen on the Basement floor, exposed to the public. A simple protective cage should suffice.

Figure 5.7.1. Condenser Unit Cage http://aianos.co.uk/

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6

MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION

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6.0.1 Literary Review Mechanical transportation plays an integral part in modern buildings especially in high rise buildings where various means of vertical movements are required from floor to floor respectively. These mechanisms include the elevators and escalators which have been invented to ease building operations in means of transporting goods and passengers. The components used within the system will be highlighted and analyzed in accordance to UBBL as to identify its mechanical efficiency in its design. 6.0.2 Floor Plan diagram -

Figure 6.0.2.1. Basement floor plan

Figure 6.0.2.2. Lower ground floor plan ELEVATOR ESCALATOR

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-

Figure 6.0.2.3. Ground floor plan

Figure 6.0.2.2. First floor plan

Figure 6.0.2.3. Second floor plan

Figure 6.0.2.3. Sixth floor plan ELEVATOR ESCALATOR

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6.0.3 Overview of arrangement The keyword of ideal mechanical transportation for elevators and escalators is the arrangement where grouping of these mechanisms is to enhance the efficiency of circulation in the building regardless transporting passengers, goods and such.

Figure 6.0.3.1 Elevator

Figure 6.0.3.2. Escalator

6.0.4 Overview (in relation to building) In relation to SS15 Courtyard, the building comprises of 18 levels altogether where it is divided into 2 sections; commercial (public) and residential (private) area where escalators are provided for the people to travel between floors in the mall whereas elevators linked the two parts of the building together. However, separate lift lobby is provided for the residents to ensure private access.

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6.1. ELEVATORS

An elevator is transport device which moves in vertical shaft to carry passengers between multi story levels and is considered as requirement for buildings over 4 storeys. The effectiveness of its performance is achieved by calculating the round trip time which refers to average time taken by a lift to complete one trip, from the main lobby to all the floors of the building and back, during peak traffic. The equipment is as shown.

Figure 6.1.1. Elevators on second floor

6.1.1 Overview The system comprises of 3 main parts which are: -

motor room where motors are located on top of the shaft

-

elevator car is raised or lowered within several floors of the commercial and residential blocks and stop at landing which refers to the floor or platform used to receive or discharge passengers or freight from an elevator car.

-

Buffers (bottom pit)

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Figure 6.1.1.2 Retrieved from /www.electrical-knowhow.com/2012/04/basic-el evator-components-part-one.html

The system shows traction geared elevator which suits the building capability for installation. Aside of having unlimited travel range, it has higher efficiency rate in its power generation hence produce greater speed which in turn reduce the waiting time. However, the cost of installation is high as it requires motor room which locate the main motors.

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6.1.2 Lift Type and Specifications With regards to the huge capacity of the building which holds both commercial and residential blocks, different types of lift are installed to serve different functionalities respectively. The grouping and placement of the lifts are taken into consideration as well. These include: 1. Service elevator Brand: EITA Schneider The service elevator is installed throughout the whole building and is used to carry goods or freight and bear greater capacity.

Figure 6.1.2.1 Service Lift

2.

Figure 6.1.2.2. Service Lift on plan

Passenger lift

Brand : EITA Schneider Carrying capacity: 16 persons (1160 kg)

Figure 6.1.2.3 and Figure 6.1.2.4 Passenger lift

Figure 6.1.2.5. Passenger lift on plan

Both commercial and residential blocks use the same elevator system but they are controlled by different motors located at different motor rooms. BUILDING SERVICES | BLD60903 | PROJECT I - REPORT

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3. Fire lift

Brand : EITA Schneider Similar to passenger lift mechanism, the fire lifts are provided as well to be accessed through an emergency exit. However, the size of the elevator as well as the motor is bigger to bear more capacity during emergency occurrence. On top of that, the lift shafts are continuous throughout the whole building including the basement area to be able to serve every storey.

Figure 6.1.2.6. Fire lift

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6.1.3 Building specific explanation & purpose

How the system works: 1.

Motor room includes motor, gear, brakes and power supply.

-

High speed motor controls mechanical movement of elevator cars by rolling steel hoist ropes over a drive sheave which is attached to the gearbox. One motor controls one elevator. Throughout

Figure 6.1.3.1. Motor

the building, there are 4 to 6 of the motors in each room with motor average dimension 24” x 48” x 48”

-

Elevator Control Panel

The panel handles every operation of the lift and enable operator to control accessibility of levels by installing bypass.

Specifications: Power: 23.1 kW

Figure 6.1.3.2. Control panel

Speed: 2.5 m/s

2. Passenger car (top) Here lies the car inspection box where it allows the car to run at inspection speed and away from normal service. It has an activation button and handled only by the operator. Figure 6.1.3.3. Passenger car

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3. Buffer (bottom pit) Landing operating panel where only authorised workers can have access for maintenance purposes and such. The spring buffer which is located at the center of the pit acts as cushion for the elevator during stops. Lighting bulb is provided at the corner of the pit for safety reason.

Figure 6.1.3.4. Buffer

4. ‘Car Preference’ A commonly installed feature is ‘Car Preference’ which enables the operator to insert a key into the lift’s control panel that stops it from responding to calls from other floors and only responds to buttons pressed within the lift car. Figure 6.1.3.5. Control panel

Figure 6.1.3.6. Passenger car key

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6.1.4 UBBL COMPLIANCE

The standard set in UBBL has been followed by SS15 Courtyard in its elevators design with compliance to: By Law-124. Lift For all non-residential buildings exceeding 4 storeys above or below the main access level at least one lift shall be provided.

By Law-153. Lift (2) Landing doors shall have a FRP of not less than half the FRP of the hoistway structure with a minimum FRP of half hour. (3) No glass shall be used in landing doors except for vision in which case any vision panel shall or be glazed with wired safety glass, and shall not be more than 0.0161 square metre and the total area of one of more vision panels in any landing door shall be not more than 0.0156 square metre. By Law -244. Fire lifts (1) In a building where the top occupied floor is over 18.5 metres above the fire appliance access level fire lifts shall be provided. (3) The fire lifts shall be located within a separate protected shaft if it opens into a separate lobby. (4) Fire lifts shall be provided at the rate of one lift in every group of lifts which discharge into the same protected enclosure or smoke lobby containing the rising main, provided that the fire lifts are located not more than 61 metres travel distance from the furthermost point of the floor

6.1.5 Summary

As conclusion, elevator runs in the building requires a lot of maintenance precautions as it comprises big mechanisms as a whole.From our observation, cleanliness of the equipments is well taken care of by the operators that would greatly affect the overall performance of the mechanical transportation system.

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6.2 Escalator

Figure 6.2.1. Escalator

Escalators are moving stairs, which transport passengers from one landing to another over short vertical distance and is a power-driven mechanism. It moves with constant speed and no waiting time is required. During certain occurrence, its flow can be reversible during peak hours and offers easy installation too.

6.2.1 Overview

In this building context, the grouping of escalators can be seen at central part of the mall and has the criss-cross pattern in its arrangement.

Figure 6.2.1.1 Escalator placement in the mall

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Figure 6.2.1.2. Criss-cross pattern (Retrieved from www.eitaelevator.com.my)

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6.2.2 Mechanisms of an Escalator

Figure 6.2.2.3 Retrieved from http://bbs.fobshanghai.com

The drive unit is an electric motor with a sprocket to drive the main shaft which is located at the upper truss extension and installed with an over-speed governor. The main drive shaft has sprockets at each end of the axle to drive the step chains whereas the third sprocket on the main shaft is used to drive the handrail friction newel wheel.

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6.2.3 Safety Precautions

Figure 6.2.3.1 Retrieved from www.eitaelevator.com.my

Brand : EITA Schneider ●

Comb lighting provides additional safety to the passenger as they step onto the escalator.

Rammed stainless steel skirt board and inclined cover board fit together and form a smooth plane, thus eliminating the danger of possible hooking.

● ●

Skirt brushes are to prevent entrapment of foreign objects and feed between the skirt guard and steps

● ●

Landing board made from rammed stainless steel with anti-slip groove designs.

● ●

Step lighting provides greater visibility and safety for the users while they are on the escalator.

● ●

Lighted arrow and No-Entry sign indicates the directional movement of the escalator to the user.

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6.2.4 Summary

To conclude, the escalator installed come with careful safety precaution in order to provide the passengers great efficiency and safe travel where it enhances the overall performance of the building functions as a whole. As a medium-sized building, placement of the escalator is just as important to ensure smooth circulation within it as the priority is to ensure satisfaction for the customers’ experiences.

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7.1 Summary

These service systems found in SS15 Courtyard are well maintained since the major renovation of the mall in 2014 due to the use of more advanced and reliable technology paired with a good maintenance crew with great insight as to how the pieces of the puzzle work as a whole. A safe environment is achieved that complies to UBBL Regulations as well as the approval of the patrons.

Although the effectiveness of the fire-safety systems (active & passive) has yet to be determined, the performance of the mechanical ventilation, air-conditioning and mechanical transportation systems have yet to be proven wrong. Considering the predominant occupation of food outlets found throughout the mall, kitchen fumes do not seep into the populated areas outside the boundaries of the shop-lots. Thermal comfort is managed well and mechanical services are safe and operates how it should - circulation through the mall did not prove to be a chore.

What can be improved is minimal - only of aesthetic amendments - but may definitely add to the overall visitor experience. (*refer to summaries of topic 3, 4, 5 and 6)

Attached

in

the

following

pages

are

the

accumulation

of

identified

service

plants/rooms/ductwork.

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Figure 7.1 Basement floor plan

-

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM EVACUATION ROUTE

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Figure 7.2 Lower Ground floor plan

-

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM EVACUATION ROUTE

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Figure 7.3 Ground floor plan

-

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM EVACUATION ROUTE

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Figure 7.4 First floor plan

-

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM EVACUATION ROUTE

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Figure 7.5 Second floor plan

-

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM EVACUATION ROUTE

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Figure 7.6 Sixth floor plan

-

PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM EVACUATION ROUTE

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REFERENCES

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REFERENCES

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