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AUCKLAND GROWTH STRATEGY An analysis of the landscape factors, elements, processes and patterns within the South East Auckland Region

Blair Clinch, Dave Parker and Aidan Power


Contents Introduction

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HYDROLOGICAL SYSTEMS _________________________________________________________Floodplain _______________________________________________Valleys and Catchments RURAL CHARACTER _________________________________________________Cadastrals and Roads High Producing Grasslands FOOTHILLS ______________________________________________________________Slope _____________________________________________________________Aspect REVEGETATION __________________________________Landcover and Significant Natural Areas __________________________________________________Land Use Capability

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MERGED MAPS HYDROLOGICAL SYSTEMS AND RURAL CHARACTER _______________________________________Floodplain, Cadastrals and Roads

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HYDROLOGICAL SYSTEMS AND FOOTHILLS __________________________________________Slope, Valleys and Landcover

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HYDROLOGICAL SYSTEMS AND REVEGETATION 11. _______________________________Floodplain, Valleys and Land Use Capability 12.

RURAL CHARACTER AND FOOTHILLS _____________________________________________________Roads and Slope

RURAL CHARACTER AND REVEGETATION 13. ____________________________________________________Roads and Valleys

AUCKLAND GROWTH STRATEGY

Introduction

The draft Auckland Plan addresses the considerable challenge of accommodating a million new citizens for Auckland in 2050 by advocating the model of a compact city. This model, based on a number of overseas case studies, uses several techniques to concentrate urban growth within a defined geographical limit; encouragement of high-density apartments and arbitrary development lines – RUB or Rural Urban Boundary at the edge of city. The aim of these measures is to make the city more sustainable through increased density. The appropriateness of the ‘compact city’ model for Auckland is one of the most controversial questions in the current debate around the Auckland Plan. We are investigating the possibilities of an alternative model of urban development– horizontal urbanization outside the proposed urban limits. The focus will be on the ecological performance and ‘liveability’ (high quality of life) of the proposed developments. If ecological performance measures were included in the design process, would there be a difference in the outcome? Can enhanced spatial, political and social outcomes be achieved through alternative approaches to managing growth development and environmental protection and enhancement? These are some of the questions explored through this project, channelled through a framework of landscape ecological system understanding. Our particular focus is on the Clevedon valley, located East of Papakura, in South-East Auckland. After a site visit and investigation it was discovered that the majority of the Clevedon valley was a floodplain with highly productive soils and that the people of Clevedon are of the opinion of keeping the areas rural character. This knowledge led us to forming the opinion of preserving the floodplain as productive land for crops and pastural use with no development upon it. Through this preservation of the natural hydrological system that is the floodplain, in turn, the rural character will also be preserved. By forming this opinion we had to ask ourselves the question- if we’re not going to develop in the floodplain, where will we develop?

FOOTHILLS AND REVEGETATION 14. __________________________________________Land Use Capability and Slope

Through analysis of the site the solution was to build in the foothills of the Clevedon valley where there is low productive soils on appropriate slopes and no important landcover. The slight variations in these characteristics of the site and also the closeness to existing infrastructure and settlements dictated the densities of development in the foothills.

LAYERED ELEMENTS _____________________________________________________Layering Process ___________________________________________________Layering Outcome ______________________________________________________Layered Extent _Proximity to Settlements,Roads and suitable Land Use Capabilty for development

Because of the development in the foothills, revegetation was considered due to the possible contamination of the water running through the valleys in the foothills and down in to the floodplain due to the developments. This brought to our attention that the land uses on the productive land may also negatively effect waterways so revegetation was also considered for within the floodplain to filter runoff.

CLEVEDON VALLEY DEVELOPMENT AND REVEGETATION SCHEME 19. __________________________Density of Development and Revegetation Scheme 20. ________________________Clevedon Valley Development and Revegetation Plan

This document compile a series of ArcGIS Maps that document our landscape ecological process from assessment and analysis of the site to our plan for development and revegetation, to form our alternative urban development solution to the Auckland Plan ‘s ‘compact city’ idea.

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_____________________________________________________DREAM TEAM

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HYDROLOGICAL SYSTEMS Floodplain

Valleys and Catchments

The large floodplain within the Clevedon valley is an important natural feature that contributes heavily to not only the biological factors in the area such as species diversity but also abiotic factors such as depositing nutrients to form highly productive soils, ideal for produtive pastural and crop use.

The Valleys and Catchments were seen as important factors for us as they directly effect the floodplain as water runs into it from these valleys. This meant extra consideration of where to develop and even revegetate in regard to these valleys to avoid polluted runoff from developments flowing into the floodplain, which we are preserving, and damaging the important processes and factors within it.

The importance of the floodplain in regard to the entire ecosystem within the Clevedon Valley Catchment led us to forming the opinion of preserving it for productive land use, meaning that the highly productive soils are taken advantage of whilst the natural processes of the floodplain and those processes that it effects are minimally effected.

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RURAL CHARACTER Cadastrals and Roads

High Producing Grassland

Through initial analysis of the Clevedon Valley area it was discovered that locals wanted the rural character of the area to remain intact. This led us to wanting to preserve this characteristic of the Clevedon Valley along with the floodplain.

Grasslands are the fundamental characteristic in forming the rural character.

Factors that contribute to making up this rural character include the roads and cadastrals/ plot sizes. The rural character is far less dense in both roads and cadastrals in comparison to those areas inside the Metropolitan Urban Limits (MUL).

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The high producing grasslands that form this rural character are important areas for pastural and crop production. We went out with the intention of preserving these grasslands as much as possible, particularly within the floodplain.

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FOOTHILLS Slope

Aspect

The slope within the South East Auckland area varies greatly, from very steep slopes in areas such as the Hunua Ranges that form the Eastern edge of the Clevedon Valley to the valley itself which is almost flat in its entirety from Papakura in the South to the Hauraki Gulf in the North.

Throughout the targeted areas for development in the Clevedon Valley Foothills there are varied aspects. Due to the predominant shallowness of the slopes targeted for development the aspect of the areas isn’t a major factor, however, in the areas of development from 8-15* it becomes more a factor.

There are areas however outside of the flat preserved floodplain and the steep ranges that are potential areas for development. These areas are in the Foothills surrounding Clevedon Valley, on slopes predominantly ranging from 0-8* with some potential for development on slopes up to 15*.

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REVEGETATION Land Cover and Significant Natural Areas

Land Use Capability

There is vastly varied land cover in the area of analysis. These different land cover types take different priority of importance, with natural forset being of high priority for preservation, whereas low producing grasslands take low priority for preservation but high priority for development opportunity.

The Land Use Capability of the South East Auckland area clearly illustrates the importance of the floodplain and its function. Throughout the floodplain area there are the most productive soils and as you head up into the hills the least suitable the land becomes for pastural use.

These land cover types are also considered in the analysis for revegetation. Areas unsuitable for development have potential for revegetation such as around wetland areas.

Potential development areas are those areas not suitable for pastural use and within the Clevedon Valley Foothill regions.

This revegetation contributes to the ecosystem of the Clevedon Valley and could have functions such as cleaning runoff from developments.

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Potential for revegetation is in all Land Use areas. In the more severe areas revegetation could hold the soils together and perhaps filter any runoff.

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HYDROLOGICAL SYSTEMS AND RURAL CHARACTER

HYDROLOGICAL SYSTEMS AND FOOTHILLS

Floodplain, Cadastrals and Roads

Slope, Valleys and Land Cover

The floodplain clearly effects where varying densities of development occurs.

When layering slope, valleys and land cover together it indicates the areas that have the potential for both development and revegetation.

Due to the natural flooding process occuring within it, it means little development occurs upon it.

Valleys upon low productive grasslands is a possible combination of these factors that requires, or is best suited for revegetation, whereas if there was no valley upon this low productive grassland there is potential for development.

Legend Valleys 0-5 5-8 8 - 15 15 + other Cropland - Annual Cropland - Perennial Grassland - High producing Grassland - Low producing Grassland - With woody biomass Natural Forest Other Planted Forest - Pre-1990 Post 1989 Forest Settlements Wetland - Open water Wetland - Vegetated non forest 0 1.25 2.5

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HYDROLOGICAL SYSTEMS AND REVEGETATION

RURAL CHARACTER AND FOOTHILLS

Floodplain, Valleys and Land Use Capabilty

Roads and Slope

Combining the floodplain, valleys and land use capability into one map illustrates how the valleys flow into the floodplain and what land they travel upon. This provides insight into areas suitable and not suitable for development and also revegetation in regard to the hydrological sytems in the area and also the capability of the land.

By combining roads and slope together it portrays how the roads travel through varying steepnesses of the land in the area and also how far they stretch into the hills surrounding the valley. It gives an idea of potential development considering closeness to roads throughout varying slopes.

Legend Roads

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RURAL CHARACTER AND REVEGETATION

FOOTHILLS AND REVEGETATION

Roads and Valleys

Land Use Capabilty and Slope

The relationship between the roads and the valleys show areas for revegetation along the valleys and how they interact with the roads and grasslands of the Clevedon Valley to potentially form buffers.

As the steepness of the slope increases the limitations for productive land use increases. This means that in general potential for low density development where there can be family use crops is in the lower, shallower steepness foothills and medium density in the higher, steeper slopes.

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LAYERED ELEMENTS Layering Outcome

Layering Process The layering of selected important features from slope, LUC, land cover and valleys upon the floodplain, cadastrals and roads forms the basis of where we are going to preserve, where we will develop and where will revegetate.

Land Cover

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LAYERED ELEMENTS Layered Extent

Proximity to Settlements,Roads and suitable Land Use Capabilty for development The layering of proximity to settlements, roads and suitable land use capability upon the initial map of potential development areas refines broader areas of development to prioritise the closer areas to settlements and roads as better places to develop, meaning changes in development densities.

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Density of Development and Revegetation Scheme The final development scheme takes into account floodplain, slope, land use capability, land cover, valleys and aspect to form areas suitable for high, medium and low density development and areas for revegetation both inside and outside the floodplain. There is 143ha of suitable land for high density development, 3298ha for medium density development, and 2728ha for low density development, meaning 5000 people can populate the high density development areas, 33000 people in the medium density development areas and 5500 people in the low density development areas.

CLEVEDON VALLEY DEVELOPMENT AND REVEGETATION SCHEME

Clevedon Valley Development and Revegetation Plan We believe that other areas in the South East Auckland area such as Papakura and Beachlands can accommodate a large proportion of the 250000 extra people predicted to be living outside the current MUL by 2050. Other areas in North and South Auckland such as Albany also have the potential to accommodate the extra population to ultimately accommodate the predicted 250000 extra population. We feel that the ecological importance of the floodplain far outweighs any need for extra development and is thus in our development scheme preserved indefinitely.

This means that 43500 extra people can be housed within the Clevedon Valley Catchment in the future according to our landscape ecologically approached development scheme.

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Dave Parker

Aidan Power

Blair Clinch


Studio 6225 - Auckland Growth Strategy - Clevedon Valley