Cruz Baskar Joseph S.
“OUR PROBLEMS STEM FROM OUR ACCEPTANCE OF THIS FILTHY, ROTTEN SYSTEM.” Dorothy Day
There is a growing tendency of suspicion in our rotten system A system that has demarcated and paved way to injustice Justice delayed is just Justice denied is also just Rebelling and whisking for a cause has unembellished upshot Men of yester days have pinned down a list and this list still buzzing
10. Injustice Absence of justice, or injustice, is generally in reference to abuse or neglect by some legal system.
9. Child Labour This practice snatches the childhood of a child and halts his development. The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act of 1986, prohibits the working of children below the age of 14.
8. Dowry Dowry system is the cause of subsequent death of the wife as she is beaten to death for failing to provide the family some financial benefits. Dowry is now prohibited in the Indian law under The 1961, Dowry Prohibition Act in Civil Law and punishable under the section 304B and 498A of the Indian Penal Code.
7. Addiction It impairs the ability of the person to think rationally and impaired control. When not in control, addicts sometimes ends up doing things they normally won’t do. According to NDPS (Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985, the possession and usage of drugs is punishable by law. Rally
6.Corruption Corruption is the deeply inflicting evil of the society. Abuse of political or position power results in the bribery and both of the members in the exchange are responsible for the operation. According to Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988, the practice of the same is punishable by law.
5. Illiteracy The literacy rate is 74.04% for adults and 82% for youth (2001 statistics) in India. It is one of the major setbacks in the society, and it halts the growth of India. Right to Education Act (RTE), 2009, under Article 21a of the Indian Constitution, declares education as the Fundamental Right of its people.
4. Sexual Discrimination Somehow, the male is always right and he is above everyone else. Somehow, logic precedes his survival. Extreme cases of this prejudice may sometimes result in sexual violence and harassment. The gender stereotype can lower the performance by a notch and also, can halt the development of the woman. Under the Sex Discrimination Act of 1984, the act of prejudice – whether social, economical or political – is punishable by law.
3. Foeticide and Infanticide (Sex-selective Abortion) Infanticide has become a common practice since the girl child is often labelled as a burden, especially since the cost of her marriage is exponentially high. Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971, prohibits the act of and states it punishable by Law.
2. Terrorism It is generally a form of revenge or a jealous showcase, which ends up harming the innocent people. Terrorism is a major setback of the Indian society. Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act, 1985-1995, states it punishable by law.
1. Sexual Harassment It infringes the fundamental and basic rights of a woman of gender equality, stated under Article 14, and her rights to live freely and with dignity and respect, stated under Article 21. Penetrating our conscience each of us would have our own list and feel proud of it shamelessly. In pitching this as our context the Indian society views it as mere censorship of one’s legal rights. Justice is mere Paradox in Contemporary India. What was and what is unjust has designated as just. Social justice is injustice to weak, poor and have-nots. But, the unjust practices are just and socially accepted norm. unless we see a pinch of change in our system social Justice would be a far fetched justice. Rally
Dr. G. John National Animator
A CITIZEN of this country,
The ideals of social justice are woven around equality within a society.
each one is an equal partner in the
All women and men, fair skinned and dark skinned , elite and the ordinary,
sharing of societal resources. And
blacks and whites, able and differently abled, Dalits and non-Dalits, the
some, due to their historically
rich and the poor, the landlord and the labourer, educated and less educated,
disadvantaged positions, need to be
skilled and unskilled, literate and illiterate, boss and worker…. are born
given more than others, a little more
equal in the image of God. All of them have inalienable right which is neither
than what others rightfully and legally
conferred nor can be separated from them. As you are born, you are born
get, is the crux of social justice. The
with equal rights, ideally. But this is not so really.
word ‘Social Justice’ is more a brand
History reveals that some have enjoyed positive discrimination for
used for the furtherance of vested
centuries at the expense of others who are now the victims of unjust social
interest, than to ensure justice and
order thus created. These victims have been in the denial of fair opportunity
equity among masses.
in work, education, participation in social and religious life, and sharing of
Politicians use it to garner
social goods. It was a serious case of human rights violation – denial of
votes and in Tamilnadu they have
equality. To overcome this lacuna, those who were the victims of unjust
even captured power. Individuals use
social order need to be shown positive discrimination so that they can
this to create a brand for themselves
become equal partners of just social order.
because they can’t sell their personal
Objectives of Social Justice
brand elsewhere. People use it as a
It is a commitment of the State and its official machinery to tackle
niche to position themselves as a
structural inequalities by positive intervention. For this, the state has to
distinctive entity to attract a decent
create fair institutions and institutional frameworks to include the excluded.
sum of money to their NGOs. Still
Social justice is all about fair distribution. A fair distribution of resources
some social activists use it to project
would have the effect reducing the gap between the rich and the poor, which
themselves as ‘champion of
will inevitably involve ‘equal rights and equal opportunity to obtain social
oppressed class and Dalits’.
goods’ and ‘unequal distribution based on an individual’s needs or
Most of them are fakes who
requirements’. Renowned author Baldry sees social justice as including a
use ‘social justice’ to build business,
commitment to the view that:
to capture power, to garner votes, to
¾ A fair distribution and share ofnatural and social resourcesshould be
attain stardom, to give vent to their internal need of taking leadership, to amass wealth and money, to boost their image….. and very rarely people really understand and walk their talk. Hats off to those ‘champions of social justice’ for at least they have made us ponder over issues relating to ‘social justice’. Rally
made acrosssociety ¾ This end should be pursued by those in positions of societal, political and organisational responsibility ¾ Social justice pays attention to and is in solidarity with those who are disadvantaged and excluded in society ¾ Socially just structures are vital and should be maintained as a key to achieve social justice If an officer claims she should be given 12 subsidised cylinders like any other fellow citizen, it is equality. But when the poor claim that they 3
should be given more than 12
should not be treated equally and
subsidised cylinders, it is a case of
neither equals should be treated
equity. While equality is neutral by
unequally. Equity ensures both.
The concept of equity is
discrimination, equity is positive
more relevant where poverty
discrimination. While equality treats
is more prevalent,
all citizens alike, equity treats some
especially when the
as special. While equality is not
poverty is more
hierarchical structure. Equity assumes even greater significance when
the poverty is man-made or man-induced. “Poverty is not only an evil in itself, but sustainable development requires meeting the basic needs of all
and extending to all the opportunity to fulfill their aspirations for a better life
meets the needs of the present
… Meeting essential needs requires not only a new era of economic growth
without compromising the ability of
for nations in which the majority are poor, but an assurance that those poor
future generations to meet their own
get their fair share of the resources required to sustain that growth.”
needs. A gazetted officer’s son
Human Rights and Social Justice
studying in a school doesn’t require
The concept of Human Rights and Social justice are interrelated and
fee concession, but a farmer’s son
intertwined. Human Rights as defined in the UDHR and the subsequent
who is struggling to make his both
covenants paved the way for establishing a set of standards and principles
ends meet requires fee concession.
to assess and redress inequality. As such, it seeks to promote and
When he is given ‘fee concession or
propagate a just society that understands and values human rights and the
fee waiver’, he will have more
dignity of all human beings. When the Human Rights are breached, it is
disposable income using which he
often the victims who need the most of the societal resources, receive less
and his family can meet their basic
and less of the societal resources. This gap in resource allocation and
needs. When he is not given the fee
distribution is ensured by ‘social justice’.
concession or fee waiver he will have
For instance, Tribals and Dalits in India have been subjected to
to either forgo quality education or
historical discrimination and dispossession for centuries resulting in serious
basic needs both of which will affect
infringement of human rights. To make good for the loss suffered by them
his ability to meet his future needs.
for centuries, or to mitigate and minimize their loss, they are given preferential
This is equity and is directed toward
rights in the societal resources so that they will have a fair and equal
ensuring sustainable development.
opportunity of establishing their human rights. Author Baldry states that
The ultimate objective of
social justice is essential to ensure people who need to claim human rights
equity is to ensure ‘equality’ in the
but do not have the ability, capacity or position to do so, can; the lack of
long run. Applying the concept of
systemic social justice driving and shaping social arrangements and policy
equality presupposes ‘all are equal’.
is a key reason that countries like the USA that have plenty of rights-based
When all are equal, we may not have
legislation, have large groups of people who cannot exercise or enforce
enough room and space to talk about
rights. What is said of USA is true in Indian context too. Certain sections of
equity. No where you will find a
our society are not able to establish their human rights due to their
society where all are equal! Some
disadvantaged position and social justice is essential to fill that gap. Social
are more than equals and some are
Justice is a tool to annihilate inequality in the long run. In the absence of
less than equals. That is why we talk
this weapon, inequality that has been part of social construct would further
about equity. Because unequal
Justice â€“ An illusion
Antony Mathew George.
The most common way of doing an injustice is to do it in the name of justice. The labour contractors use fair means just to create an illusion of being true and fair. The political leaders use the judicial system to protect their revenues and to destroy enemies. A leader of a political party for a personal benefit took up the labour issue in a plant and then used the situation to buy the plant at a cheap rate. The plant at a cheap rate. The governmentâ€™s promise for free land to acquire and from the healthy and then do not distribute among the poor. These injustices do not end within the national boundaries. The developed countries like America use their technology to spy on their allies. They proclaim that these are measures to counter terrorism country it has all other date then can have a control over the other. The internet which was built for a better world in the name of justice is used to carry out spying and all such acts. The people use the judicial or the customary practises for their own good.
Bribe-a common scene today, Bikes get caught everyday. License, RC Book, Insurance comes in a tone, They catch while you are on phone. The predators choose their prey, By seeing the price for bike you pay. They act stern and scary, But amount each take totally vary. Whatever your offence may be All you have to do is give them a cut. It starts with 500 and goes down to 50 But yours offence is forgotten swiftly. Corruption is what everywhere prevails We need someone new to hail. Rally
THE DYNAMIC quality human beings with its constant desire for growth and development call for careful and affective scrutiny of the “signs of the times.” This scrutiny of the signs will help us to focus our attention on the relevant issues that are to be addressed and tackled. Today the wind that blows around the world carries the air of different ‘signs of the time’ of which the cry for human rights and justice are significantly focused. The continuous and more sensitive cry for human rights and justice are stimulated by the continued and multiplication of violations of human rights and denial or delay in administration of justice to the victims. Human rights are still too often disrespected, if not scoffed at. India proudly proclaims to the world with its cultural diversity using a very catchy phrase “Unity in Diversity.” Yes, well said and proclaimed, as the meaning of the two main words of phrase ‘unity’ and ‘diversity’ are contradictory, the same contradictions happen in the country. The diversity became a dividing force in the minds of people. To bluntly put it cultural diversity is not a thing that all Indians accept it or are happy about it. May be the understanding of the ‘diversity’ is so diverse that a common understanding could not be evolved. In spite of the fact that India strongly claims Arunachal Pradesh as an integral part of the country, a young boy, who hailed from that same place could not enjoy that sense of being an integral part of the Indian society. The recent tragic death of (L) NidoTaniam (19) a first year student from the state of Arunachal Pradesh is nothing but barbaric act of racism. Taniam died hours after being trashed by the shopkeepers in South Delhi’s busy Lajpat Nagar market on Friday, 31st January, 2014. Was he an outsider intruding into the Indian society? No, the son of an elected MLA from one of the constituencies of India cannot be an outsider. He is the son of Arunachal Congress MLA NidoPavitra. A young boy growing up amidst free and fresh atmosphere could have made him liberal in his thoughts. The natural scenic beauties of the hills of North East that he enjoyed had inculcated in him a sense of style and beauty which probably led him chose a hair-style he admired and comfortable with. For a North Easterner the sense of being taged as a different section of race or culture does not strike much when one is in the region. This becomes significant only in the mainland mega cities. The one question that all North East tribals who are in the mega cities undoubted get is, “Are you a Chinese?” Till now every North Easterner answers it negative. Rather they would affirm their belongingness to India as an Indian citizen. Who knows some sections of the region may have to give affirmative response (pray this don’t happen) to the ‘question’ if the Indian government continuously fails to protect this people even at its capital and prevent the incursions of the Chinese in the borders. Taniam has paid a too heavy the price for his choice of beauty- his N. Samuel DouminthangBaite, 2nd MSW, Loyola College, Chennai Rally
hair-style. If the Arunachali guy was made fun of his dyed hair, a Punjabi or a Himachali too could suffer similar harassment. This is no fault of his but 6
the racists’ mentality and barbaric acts of his own fellow citizen with whom he could be saluting the National flag and singing the national anthem together with pride on Independence Day. The tragedy of the day could have been prevented had the policemen not taken a step motherly actions but a genuine concern for the victim. If one cannot be protected by the so called ‘custodians of law’ present at the spot, who else can? Where is “Unity in Diversity”?, where is national brotherhood? Where the respect for person’s right is? Deep within the heart bleeds and the mind is unrest to find answers for this but where can one finds it if the basics that governs that nation-the constitution and laws are least respected and law implementers are least responsible. It must be remembered that in 2012 the ugly face of racism showed itself when the North Easterners became victim of intimidations and attacks because of the rumour that spread in the southern Indian cities. It resulted in the mass exodus of the people from the region to their home towns in the North East. Prior to that, there were the Richard Loitam case and Dana Sangma case which grabbed the attention of many but the powerful and the racists. Following the assault and death of Taniam, public uproar continued in the city. Young people led by Arunachal Students’ Union and supported by various North East students’ organizations staged protests on the streets seeking justice. People from different walks of life joined in a candlelight vigil in the city to pray for the soul of Taniam. The young students joined their hands against racism in mainland India and also urged people of the region to unite to fight against discrimination against students and citizens. After much cry for justice and rounds of talks with officials concern and the student leaders, the Central government and the Delhi government started waking up assuring justice. We can’t say to what level and how and when the promised justice will be materialized. The fight and the cry go on….. The church acknowledges that all men share a basic equality since they all have the same nature and origin. For this reason, “with respect to the fundamental rights of the person, every type of discrimination, whether social or cultural, whether based on sex, race, colour, social status, language or religion, is to be overdone and eradicated as contrary to God’s intent.” If we Christians wish to be peacemakers and to spread harmony among nations, we cannot “remain indifferent in the face of the many grave and often systematic violations of human rights.” (Ref: The Church and Human Rights, 2012) As we defend and enjoy our rights it is duty to lend our voice of protest and entreaty to all the silent victims of injustice. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations on 10th December, 1948 was a landmark in the modern history of mankind in valuing the dignity of human beings. From then on remarkable changes, no doubt, have taken place in understanding of human rights and its related issues. These changes though significant have not yet addressed the whole Rally
issue of human rights violations and justice in the world, particularly in India. The country is proud to have the lengthiest constitution adopting the bests of many countries’ constitutions. In many cases legislation do not keep up with real situations. Legislation is necessary, but it is not sufficient for setting up true relationships of justice and equality. The legislations on various issues pertaining to different sections of the society, if examined carefully are no less good than any advance nation of the world. But the implementation does so. The core issue of the incident is not about the hair-style but the lack of respect and acceptance of a person as he is. The main root cause might be just selfishness or lack of love which rips off families, marriages, communities, religious and ethnic minorities. The judicial system may take its course to bring justice to the incident. People in authority may or may not fulfill all what they promised. But, can you and I learn a lesson from it and accept the third person with a brotherly love? Each one need to learn and give a positive answer to this basic question if we are truly standing and fighting for a just cause. When love from God is in human heart, unity comes and drives away all fears. We can pray for a better world and stop such horrifying attitudes and incidents from spreading. February 2014
POLITICAL (IN) JUSTICE IN INDIA
THERE IS MUCH OF INJUSTICE TAKING PLACE IN THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA IN THE NAME OF JUSTICE. THE LAWS OF THE NATION ARE ALWAYS CHANGED, MODIFIED AND SHOWN FAVOURABLE TOWARDS THE RICHER. THE GOVERNMENT IS UNDER THE WEALTHY BUSINESS MEN ACCORDING TO THEIR WELFARE AND PROFIT BENEFITS. INDIA BEING A DEMOCRATIC NATION, THE CITIZENS ARE INDIRECTLY THE SLAVES, THERE IS NO HARSH PUNISHMENT FOR THE PEOPLE WHO FOUND GUILTY OF CORRUPTION, POSSESSION OF ILLEGAL THINGS, BLACK MONEY, WHICH LEADS TO OUR INDIAN ECONOMY TO FALL DOWN AND HIGH INFLATION AND WHICH FURTHER LEADS TO BURDEN TO THE PEOPLE, THE POLITICIANS ARE LIKE WOLVES, THEY ALWAYS WANTED THEIR RICHES TO BE INCREASED, AND DO ANY INJUSTICE ACTIVITIES AGAINST THE NATION FOR THEIR PERSONAL GAINS. IN WHICH THE PEOPLE AND DOWNTRODDEN PEOPLE GETS AFFECTED.
They asked me to write a poem.....
Whatever we do,
A poem on injustice in India,
Whatever we don’t do....
Where do I start?
It doesn’t reflect on us alone
Do I start with corruption?
But on our children
Or do I start with the injustice to women?
On our grand-children....
Do I start with child Labour?
We need to stop thinking
Or do I start with the injustice done to students?
And start acting
For those who do not get the above line,
Make hay while the sun shines,
The incident of law college students,
An old saying on grabbing opportunities
Rings a bell?
But here its,
Everything, just every single thing,
Every single injustice becomes a news after a while,
Be the sun that shines, Not the hay that makes use of the sun..........
The Delhi gang rape.... How many of us still remember that? Still the mother of that girl dreams, Of her daughter’s blood-curdling, ear-piercing screams! Corruption?....... We talk about it, yes but what else? The rich still becomes richer, The poor still become poorer. Rally
I give food to the poor they call me a saint.
When I ask why they are poor they call me a communist.” - Dom Helder Camara TODAY we live our lives amidst of psychic discomforts.
from the 1840s, including the Jesuit ‘Luigi Taparelli’,
Indifference and social impotency of present generation
based on the work of St. Thomas Aquinas. “Social
is leading to null and void sort of answers to human
Justice”, according to Justice Krishnan Iyar, “is a
miseries. Evidently humanity is not far from the abyss
generous concept, which assures every member of
of human rights violations, issues of social justice as
society a fair deal.”The Notion of fair distribution can
well. It has multiple levels of human perpetuated
be best known as distributive justice, which is concerned
complexities, which are the results emerging out of
with the fair allocation of resources among diverse
multiplied human subjective claims and ‘might is right’
members of a community. Fair allocation typically takes
paradigm that are decaying the essence of social growth,
into account the total amount of goods to be distributed,
progress and development. Issues such as global
the distributing procedure, and the pattern of distribution.
environmental threats, terrorism, technological outburst,
Armstrong distinguishes between distributive justice
genocides, war, bloodshed, economic elitism, religious
generally and principles of distributive justice. He defines
fundamentalism, hunger, poverty, political hegemony,
distributive justice as the ways that the benefits and
and corruption need to be solved in answering the issues
burdens of our lives are shared between members of a
of human rights and social justice, the progress of the
society or community. Principles of distributive justice
world, therefore is not the real progress. Instead it leads
tell us how these benefits and burdens ought to be
to chaos and calamities which hinders social justice.
shared or distributed. The common answer is that public
Vehemently this distorts the dynamisms of human
assets should be distributed in a reasonable manner so
wellbeing. Keeping society at stake, the cultural
that each and every individual receives a “fair share.”
relativism kills the objective outlook of the world to the
But this leaves open the question of what constitutes a
greater extend. Strangely, the hate and enmity are
overruling our lives to its gratifying ends. What was most
“Justice as fairness” says Western political
shocking was how this denial happened in the annals of
philosopher John Rawls in his Theory of Justice; He
history. Time and again History of India is misquoted by
claims that one’s place of birth, social status, and family
Indian historians as well as vastly Brahmin controlled
influences are matters of luck that should not unduly
mass media, where subaltern issues were rooted out
influence the amount of benefits we receive in life. He maintains that the job of
from its very frame work, in order to draw new
distributive justice is to limit
the influence of luck, so that
goods might be distributed
synthesis (TAS) model of
Robert Nozick, on the The first modern
other hand, believes
usage of the specific term
that distributive justice is a matter of setting
“social justice” is typically attributed to Catholic thinkers Rally
Antony Lourduraj. A 9
down rules that individuals February 2014
should follow in acquiring and transferring resources and
based on the concepts of human rights and equality,
benefits. The aim of distributive justice is not to
and can be defined as ”the way in which human rights
achieve any particular outcome of distribution, but
are manifested in the everyday lives of people at
rather to ensure a fair process of exchange.
every levels of society”.
According to the theory of relative deprivation, a
Social Justice is the belief that every individual
sense of injustice is aroused when individuals come to
and group is entitled to fair, just and equal rights and
believe that their outcome is not in balance with the
participation in social, educational, and economic
outcomes received by people like them in similar
advantages. Let me categorize people into three strata.
situations. When people have a sense that they are at
First, People of good will and service model see social
an unfair disadvantage relative to others, or that they
justice as charity “Do not wait for leaders; do it alone,
have not received their “fair share,” they may wish to
person to person,” says Mother Teresa. Justice calls
challenge the system that has given rise to this state of
us not to do things FOR the poor but rather do things
affairs. This is especially likely to happen if a person or
WITH them, in service and in community. Charity is
groups’ fundamental needs are not being met, or if there
giving something from our abundance or share what we
are large discrepancies between the “haves” and the
have, while justice is helping them to find a job or to
“have-nots.” Noble laureate and welfare economist
gain skills for a job, so that they can buy the clothes for
Amerthiya Sen, says in his ‘theory of poverty’ as a
themselves. It is best defined by second set of people
capability deprivation in contrast to the theory of relative
namely people of capacity building model or self-help
model, as the famous Lao Tzu says, “Give a man a
‘From each according to his ability, to each
fish; you have fed him for today. Teach a man to fish;
according to his need’ is a replica of Jesus Christ’s
and you have fed him for a lifetime”. Thirdly people of
teaching in the Bible, also a slogan popularised by Karl
social action model views social justice in this regard.
Marx in 1875 in his work ‘Critique of the Gotha Program’.
Saul Alinsky says, “The price of a successful attack is
This quote of Marx resolves the problem between equal
a constructive alternative, so pick the target, freeze it,
distribution vs just distribution, but conflict strategy of
personalize it, and polarize it. In conflict tactics there
Marx is highly debatable in the Indian context, where
are certain rules that [should be regarded] as
Gandhian philosophical idea of conflict differs in its
universalities. One is that the opposition must be
approach, when it firmly believes “Gestures of goodwill
singled out as the target and ‘frozen.’...” this was quoted
towards the opponent” is something worthwhile to
in his works, Reveille for Radicals, 1947, and Rules for
consider, but how far this is practicable in current times.
Radicals: A Pragmatic Primer for Realistic Radicals,
Recently in a press meet at Vatican, Pope Francis
1971. Basing these intellectual claims avenues of Social
said “The promise was that when the glass is full, it
Justice is wide open for social interventions.
would overflow, benefitting the poor. But what
In India, Increased insensitivity towards the
happens instead, is that when the glass is full, it
vulnerable are self-evident these days, walking on the
magically gets bigger, nothing ever comes out for
streets of Waholi, Pune, happened to notice a man
the poor.” From this one can clearly understand the
brutally attacking a woman, kicking on her bosom,
stance of the Catholic Church, which preaches her Social
everyone passed by the side walked so passively as if
Doctrine more in terms of vested interest of each
like nothing happened, after rescuing her with my
individual of the society constitutes the issues of social
colleagues, we intended to file an FIR on that person,
justice as a whole. Therefore, Social justice is also a
so we approached the nearby police station along with
concept that is used to describe the movement towards
the victim and few local public, but police said, “we have
a socially just world. In this context, social justice is
plenty of works to do, it is none of our duty.” At instances
as such I started deeply to reflect into myself where are
defence establishment resisted attempts in 2012 to
we moving towards? And what type of society are we
revoke or revise the Armed Forces Special Powers Act
(AFSPA), which permits soldiers to commit serious
Second instance, In Budhuwarpet, Pune, people
human rights violations with effective immunity. Few years
celebrate ten days of Ganapathi festivel so colorfully,
back near War Memorial a young boy, who entered the
but the bitter fact I observed was that Budhuwarpet is
army area, climbed a tree for Badam fruit was shot dead
the place where immoral sex trafficking of minors from
by a defence personnel. In June 2012, Pinki Pramanik,
different states of India and forced sex work legally
a renowned woman athlete, was arrested on allegations
flourishes with the help of law (Makers) breakers. Almost
of rape. Male police officers mistreated her while taking
half of the money goes to the pockets of the law
her into custody and authorities conducted “gender
(Makers) breakers, on what grounds it goes to their
determination” tests in violation of her rights to consent,
pockets we do not know, may be as a brokerage,
privacy, and dignity. A video of her undergoing some part
hopefully not I suppose. If one tends to question the
of the abusive examination was made public. In more
system and approach it from radical perspectives of
recently the Neelangarai issue, where the police took a
change then his throat will be cut off and will be tortured
minor under custody and shot him in his throat while
to death like Narendra Dabholkar, time and again I
doing an investigation.
questioned myself in discernment. Am I living in a
Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 (MGNREGA) -
which guarantees 100 days of work to every rural
The Mahatma Gandhi National
Yet another example such as, TASMAC shops
household - is a progressive measure. However,
are located just opposite to schools in Chennai, I have
Corruption and inadequate implementation, role of
witnessed, where my young students are addicted to
intermediaries exists. Despite the Employment of
alcohol, go to these shops, by seeing the mature
Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines
physique, unknowingly workers sell liquor to children of
(Prohibition) Act, 1993, more than 7,70,000 ‘manual
age below 18. Whom do I blame for this? Do I blame the
scavengers’ in India (including more than 80% Dalit
Government, Parents or myself, as a teacher I fail in my
women) continue to be forced to clean human excrement
duty on educating my students? As an outcome of my
with their bare hands for little or no wages, even in the
reflective practice of my profession I realised that it is a
public sector. A number of manual scavengers have been
need to move from marks oriented Piggy Banking model
assisted under the National Scheme of Liberation and
of education to value oriented conscientizaiton model of
Rehabilitation of Scavengers but many are still to be
education as that of Paulo Freire.
Though India has achieved a sustained ‘growth’
Discrimination against women is systemic in
rate, the promise of ‘inclusion’ has not been fulfilled.
India, embedded in socio-cultural norms. Family laws
India committed to address inequity, but while the
are codified with reference to religion and custom rather
average growth rate over 2007-2011 was 8.2%, poverty
than constitutional rights. Uniform Civil Code is highly
declined by only 0.8%. Data indicates further
debatable, despite piece-meal legal reform; women have
marginalisation for more than three fourths of the 1.2
unequal succession, guardianship rights, and no right
billion Indians. The national poverty rate is estimated at
to matrimonial property. The state justifies this inequality
37.2%. India’s economic policies continue to perpetuate
as being essential to respect minorities and cultural
‘exclusion’ and violate Fundamental Rights and Directive
diversity. Violence against women is highly pervasive
Principles of the Constitution.
and perpetrated with impunity. Reports indicate that every
Members of security forces implicated in serious
60 minutes two women are raped, and every six hours a
rights abuses continued to enjoy impunity, in large
young married woman is found beaten to death, burnt or
measure due to India’s laws and policies. The Indian Rally
driven to suicide. Women are also targeted on account February 2014
of their caste, sexuality, disability, and other status.
instance where CBI was pushed to investigate the Socio-
Targeted violence of Dalit women, stigma, systemic
cultural agency in terms of monitoring; in such incident
persecution, and violence against lesbians,
‘Tamil Maiyam’ of Rev. Fr. Jagath Kaspar was screened
transgenders, and women with disability occurs with
by Central Bureau of Investigations. In doing so the
impunity. Sexual violence is not fully addressed by penal
government acts beyond the principles of welfare state
law. A comprehensive law must include all forms of
and crushes the rights of the minority Christians and
sexual assault, in aggravated and non-aggravating
culturally heritage Tamils. My serious question today is
circumstances, and include reform in procedure and rules
that why Sangparivar (RSS) is not banned in India after
of evidence. There is no reparative justice for sexual
proved the saffron terror in various incidents?
violence in peace times or during riots, or conflicts or
Examples like these can be multiplied endlessly
any law on sexual abuse of children. Violence against
in almost in our country, if these are the unfathomable
women (and men) in the name of ‘honour’ is a serious
realities, which fall in the purview of human Rights
concern, where family members, or community leaders
violation and Issues of Social Justice, then whatever
ostracise and kill young couples, often with the collusion
the vision that the state dreams to achieve will be in the
of the police. Dharmapuri incident of previous year must
air. Participatory Democracy mechanism gets breakdown
be considered in this regard.
by keep on misusing the autonomous bodies through power corruption.
Until recently, homosexuality was criminalised by the law punishable with a maximum of life sentence, by
The current trends in political advents in India as
section 377 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), leading to
an outcome of which the episode of enthronement of
multiple levels of stigma, discrimination, and violence,
corrupted politicians by the civil society are more visible
without recourse to the law. In 2009, homosexuality was
fact in the case of Aam Adhmi Party in the recent Delhi
de-criminalised by the Delhi High Court. Discrimination
State Elections. These are the signs of the time to renew
however, continues and the judgment is under appeal in
our professional social Work practice into a radical social
the Supreme Court by conservative sections of society.
The state has abdicated its role to defend the judgment,
Clarion call to Social Workers of today is to adapt
relegating defence of human rights of the LGBT to civil
a stance, which can make the professional Social Work
practice from self-help model to activist model of Radical
The stringent provisions under the Foreign
Social Work Practice playing the roles of activism,
Contribution Regulation Act, 2010 could threaten the
advocacy and lobbying from the reflective paradigm which
functioning of human rights organizations, especially
emerges more out of trial and error based approach, in
those who are critical of the government. In this regard
the course of the time one need to synthesis and keep
the UPA Government’s recent false accusation on
a balance between Gandhian and Marxian views to renew
“Poovulagin Nanbargal”, which is a Social Reform and
the Social Work Education and its practice in strategies
Human Rights Based Movement of Kodangulam is to
formation for its effective impact on social functioning
be noted worthwhile. “Power corrupts and absolute power
and human transformation amidst of burning issues of
corrupts absolutely” is a fact in India. Even today funding
agency, CARITAS India’s fund is thoroughly checked,
Professional practice must lead neither to utopian
counter-checked by the Ministry of External affairs and
notions, nor to hedonistic urges of swindling funds of
fund flow for various Church activities is stopped for some
the least advantaged sections of people nor indulging in
times, but funds for ‘Vedanta’ flows wide open from
superiority clashes, but to think beyond the boundaries
abroad unchecked. People who are in power misuse
by considering the urgencies of human needs more
the autonomous bodies of India, Continuously judiciary
precisely and holistic well-being of cosmic family as a
and Executive are overruled by legislatives. Another Rally
whole. Today in India, Social Work Practice is less
been successful in mobilizing the support of millions to
attractive and vastly people have the tendency to devalue
petition Congress and the FCC in opposition to policies
it from the more materialistic outlook. Undeniable fact
that would have allowed further concentrations of media
is that scientific professionalism, which should involve
ownership. Activism on behalf of net neutrality has
in changing the existing structures of social arenas,
attracted support on a similar scale. In 2006, Robert
keeps a remarkable silence. Prime reason for this today,
Hackett and William Carroll identify a number of framing
Social Action is taught to be an auxiliary method of
devices that have been used in attempts to capture the
Social Work, those who practice are considered
diverse energies, priorities, issues, and commitments
rebellious and radicals, and they were evidently labelled
of media activists, including
as agitators and were penalised under high treason.
Free press and freedom of expression, a
In 1993, The Vienna Declaration and Programme
frame that implicitly draws on the values of the First
of Action affirms that “Human rights education should
Amendment and emphasizes the values of mainstream
include peace, democracy, development and social
justice, as set forth in international and regional human
rights instruments, in order to achieve common
highlights democracy’s deficits and emphasizes
understanding and awareness with a view to
participatory democracy, the role of informed citizens,
strengthenuniversal commitment to human rights.”
and the responsibility of the press to serve the public
Media democratization, a frame that
Ensuring a humanitarian stand is not an optional avenue of social workers, but an obligatory avenue to
The right to communication Media, which
pericentralise, (Pericentralisation is a process that
emphasizes the importance of communication in relation
counteracts and deconstructs the pillars of
to other human rights and is most often invoked by
Sanskritisation of M.N. Srinivas and Marx in which the
activists working in international contexts;
mass re-exodus retrieves back from periphery to centre
at the same time centre doesn’t changes its nature to
borrows its trope from the environmental movement and
periphery, Pericentralisation is a term first time coined
targets toxic cultural fare by opposing the global
by Dr. James Ponnaiah, Indian Philosopher and Post-
homogenization of commercial media and market
Doctoral Scholar in Subaltern Studies)the whole world
censorship and by advocating for fairness, gender equity,
into one single homogeneous egalitarian society, which
diversity, and democratic decision making in media
is neither a utopian nor utilitarian, but it is a more
ownership, employment, and representation; and, finally
harmonious stance, where lion and deer shakes hands
and lives amicably in the animal kingdom similarly in
special resonance among minorities.
The cultural environmental Media, which
Media justice, which is relatively new and has
human society, where everyone are equal with fairness
According to Hackett and Carroll, “The Media re-
in doing just and equal distributive justice, no more
positions the project as one of social justice in a world
deprivation and discrimination, appreciating differences,
organized around global capitalism, racism and
treating everyone as equals never merely as a means to
patriarchy, and directly connotes the need for alliances,
an end, but always at the same time as an end.
even integration, with other social movements.” The
justice frame is synthetic and inclusive, not only broadly
The media reform is a first issue and to mobilize
encompassing the concerns of the other frames, but
media activism into a viable social movement have had
also very intentionally linking to and drawing on historical
limited success in the world. The use of the Internet as
struggles for social justice and civil rights, including
an organizing and mobilizing tool is transforming how
struggles for racial, class, gender, and sexual justice.
social movements are constituted and defined. Online
Source: Media, Democracy, Human, Rights, and
organizing by groups like Free Press in the world has Rally
Social Justice by Sue Curry Jansen February 2014
IN THE NAME OF JUSTICE I – INJUSTICE NJUSTICE – the word does not state any meaning in the
current trend. Why so?, because a traffic police gets Rs.100 for not wearing helmet but the actual fine is Rs.300. Though its injustice for the country, in our point of view its a profit of Rs.200, hence we justify that. This is just a sample. If we take a next level in this, the political personalities corrupt in an international level. The current trend states that all injustice is justice and vice versa. A common man cannot change anything in this. At the same time majority of the people are not willing to live the way of actual justice. If we ask them the reason, they will tell us to be practical. Its awesome to listen that being injust was justified and it is practical. I am not an individual, who wants to change things (injustice to justice). I present myself in the majority list, because I am “practical”. T. Meganandham.
‘INDIA! INDIA!’ 120 crores say,
A I D N I T S U J UN ibi -S
Where numerous ethnic tribes stay, To which no attention intellects pay, And politicians just don’t have time to care. There is an island in the southern sea,
Two people kinds having same complexion of tea, But the bigger killed the smaller on a murderous spree. Their suffer cries reached the deaf mothers ears, Who never shed her tears, But stayed dumb sending useless letters. Then came the dad, calling himself the god, Never cared for the underprivileged, but buried them underground. You want to know India, Kill hundred and twenty sparrows, feed them to the Eagle, There India is made. Rally
A Missionary with a Vision
By Tresa Paul, HC Denzil Fernandes, SJ
FR. PAUL DE LA GUERIVIERE SJ WAS A GREAT VISIONARY WHO STRUGGLED FOR GENUINE CITIZENSHIP TO ENSURE THAT ALL SUBJECTS HAVE ACCESS TO THEIR RIGHTS.
am an Albanian,
more than a decade. Simultaneously, he silently began inspiring youth while
an Indian by Citizenship, a Catholic by
working at the Secretariat of All India Catholic University Federation (AICUF) till
religion, but a denizen of the world by
1976. He spent the rest of his life striving to bring issues of the marginalized
vocation.” These words of Mother
sections of society into the academic discourse, especially during the last
Teresa of Kolkata reverberate in the
three and a half decades of service in Documentation Centres of Indian Social
heart at the thought of Fr. Paul de La
Institutes in Bangalore and New Delhi. It was during this period that he worked
Gueriviere, a Jesuit priest.
as Editor of ‘ISI Dispatch’ for twelve years and he taught Social Analysis as
During his 65 years of dedicated life
Visiting Professor at St. Paul’s Seminary, Trichy, and Vidyajyoti College, Delhi.
in India, he visited his home in France
In this manner, he worked tirelessly throughout his life to promote the
only once and on being asked to give
awareness of the stark social realities in India among youth and academicians
some contact details of his near and
throughout the country.
dear ones he replied in a similar vein
Any attempt to eulogize a person whose love for humanity gained him
as that of Mother Theresa, “I know the
enormous respect would be insufficient in words. Paul G was one of those rare
names of my sisters and brothers but
human beings who engaged himself to the dream of a just, humane and
I do not know where they are!” Indeed
liberative world. According to Dr. Ambrose Pinto SJ, “Paul G was a great votary
here is a true missionary and a true
of those who protested for improvement of quality of life for the poor. He was
citizen of India and it is a privilege to
present in many of those public protests in person.” Moreover his determination
write this tribute to him who was a
and conviction to take the side of marginalized communities; tribals, Dalits,
great visionary and missionary with a
women, children, youth, laborers and migrants in particular speak volumes
deep love for the poor.
about this great visionary. Significantly, he focused his attention on issues
Fr. Paul de La Gueriviere who
related to eviction of farmers, globalization, economic liberalization, migration
was affectionately called ‘Paul G’ by
and other socio-political problems in the country. To get a clear grasp of the
one and all was born in France in
realities that confronts the poor and the downtrodden, Paul G wanted the Indian
1920. He joined the Society of Jesus
Social Institute, wherein he spent almost 26 years of his life, to break its
in 1941. Along with his religious
structures and identify itself with the struggles of the common man on the
studies, he underwent training by the
streets. He was a great champion of the cause of the poor who neither
trade union leaders on Labor
compromised nor stood back when confronted with problems and oppositions.
Movement in 1943. After serving in the
He looked at social welfare from an integrated perspective. According to Mr.
army, in 1947, at the dawn of
Stan, one of the former members of AICUF, “Great was his influence, an
Independent India, he was sent to work
influence that led so many of us to make life choices that in turn influenced the
in Madura Mission, the present Jesuit
lives of so many people around us. He was a man who walked the earth quietly,
Madurai Province. He began his
rarely speaking, and when spoke it was more often than not almost in whispers.
mission in India in 1959 by teaching
And by example he gave us the courage to follow those ideals wherever they
French at Loyola College, Chennai, for
The legacy that Paul G has left
strive to minimize the inequalities in income, and endeavor to eliminate
behind us is a great challenge for
inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities, not only amongst individuals
those who like Paul G believe that
but also amongst groups of people residing in different areas or engaged in
another world is possible. In the
present scenario of the country, the
On the contrary the present realities of Indian society place before us a
ideas and values by which Paul G
different idea of India. We have failed to look at the poor and the exploited as
stood and lived by are of great
having equal rights and dignity. Dalits are still fighting for basic needs, violence
importance and relevance. His life and
against women are on the increase, the poor are denied access to welfare
vision for a better world help us to
schemes, communal tensions are becoming more frequent and there is still
discover the meaning of ‘Being Indian.’
discrimination and exploitation of people based on region, place of birth etc. Is
It speaks in volumes about the idea of
this what the Constitution promised the people of India? Citizenship means
nationality into the heaven of which
that every person in the country should be able to enjoy all the rights guaranteed
poet Rabindranath Tagore wanted his
by the Constitution. It means every human being has a right to a dignified self.
countrymen to awake.
Therefore, the struggle for genuine citizenship is to ensure that all
Thomas Mann in a lecture on
subjects have access to their rights. This view was well articulated by Ms.
‘Democracy’ connects it with the
Aruna Roy, the renowned social activist and founder of the Mazdoor Kisan
‘highest human attributes related to
Shakti Sanghatan (MKSS), while delivering the Fr. Paul de La Gueriviere Second
the inalienable dignity of mankind.’
Memorial Lecture at Indian Social Institute in Delhi on January 24. Speaking
Going by the definition given by Mann,
before a distinguished audience of academicians and social activists on the
Paul G was a person with full of
topic “The Idea of India and Citizenship”, she lamented the fact that citizens are
treated as subjects to whom a few welfare measures are given. Listing out the
As the country is on the verge
recent laws such as Right to Information, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural
of celebrating its 65th Republic Day,
Employment Guarantee Act and the Right to Food Act, she emphasized that true
it’s apt to gather some thoughts on the
citizenship involves access to rights.
idea of India as a befitting tribute to
However, while enumerating the challenges to citizenship, she pointed
Paul G. The Constitution of India, as
out that the failure of the political system, which has protected the interests of
we rightly speak, establishes a welfare
the powerful elite through laws such as Armed Forces Special Powers Act
(AFSPA) and Special Economic Zones (SEZ), has resulted in inequalities that
guaranteed equality before law and
have given rise to extremism in several parts of the country. She highlighted the
other basic fundamental rights.
failure of the political class to eliminate poverty, hunger, malnutrition, violence
against minorities, genderbased violence, discrimination against Dalits even
Constitution unequivocally proclaims
after 66 years of Independence. She pointed out that new forms of discrimination
the values and ideals cherished by the
against races and sexual minorities have emerged in the recent past. She
makers of the Constitution and for
emphasized the important role played by social movements in political
which ‘we the people of India’ long for.
processes in the country.
These are sovereignty, socialism,
Though some social movements have entered electoral politics, there
secularism, democracy, justice, liberty,
is always space for such movements to engage with the political class to
equality, fraternity, human dignity and
transform society in a democracy that enable subjects to become true citizens
the unity and integrity of the Nation and
of the country. By invoking Paul G, she exhorted all citizens to strengthen
all these values are universal and
democracy by empowering the marginalized sections of society.
supreme to all. Further the States are
Even today, Paul G invites us to stand for and defend those who are
constitutionally mandated to give effect
systematically and structurally denied of their rights. Two years after his death,
to these values under the Directive
he continues to inspire and motivate us to be true sons and daughters of
Principles of State Policy. For instance
Mother India by ensuring that all citizens are able to enjoy the rights that have
Article 38 (2) of the Constitution directs
been enshrined in the Constitution of India.
the States that “it shall, in particular, Rally
Source: Indian Currents
Supposed Justice Karan Joshi
AMERICA still searches for ‘justice’ after the 9/11 disaster.
say justice has to be given to those who have been left in grief for the injustice given to them. But does anybody see the other side of the coin? What the world misses out on is the fact that in the name of justice, injustice is what is happening to all the Muslims in the world. It is now a well known fact that Muslims are suspected by all Americans due to a handful of their own. Is it right that all the remaining Muslims face the downright inhuman conditions they face due to a few Muslims who caused terror? They are mistreated and embarrassingly strip searched in any and every security checks in that country. They do not even let go of prominent figures such as our former president A.P.J. Abdul Kalam just because he is a Muslim. The continuous bombings in Afghanistan and Pakistan in the name of killing terrorists, they even kill innocent civilians who they are ready to turn their backs on. They do everything in the name of protecting their country, in the name of justice but what they do is actually injustice behind a veil of supposed justice.
It is a dark world,
If living was like dying daily
Where the fire burns
The prize goes,
If living became suffering daily
To the corruption.
The injustice, is it made for the poor
Money money, more value
And the justice, made for rich people? As rich people are the one who command leaders Let’s see the difference between how the police reacts When a poor commits a crime and
Used in the wrong way No development, moves the People money to the swiss bay
When the crime is committed by a rich?
A dull light which falls
What will become our society when the justice
On the people life
is made for some but not for all?
Makes them to be poor
Let’s stand for the justice for all
What happens to the society? Who is going to change the society?
Tsasa Bibanzulu Felicien Rally
Cibi Agnel February 2014
Beena Joice M Assistant Professor, SreeVee Business School
GREAT WORK! Tight Schedule for the day! Finished an article and
For that he replied humbly
set ready for publication! Packed for home!oooff..So many thoughts were
“Anna please let me sit here” .I
lingering around my mind as i was travelling home from my workplace. As
interfered and asked “why? What
i was thinking about my family my thought process segued into writing my
happened? Let she sit here”.
next article on What &When to write. As my thinking was traversing on
The reply was “No Madam IT
writing article i was hitched to the topic of leadership..Oh fine! Felt comforted
shouldn’t be” and the conductor
somewhat since i had to do it all for my course that i pursue currently. I was
alerted him “If i see anywhere you
drowsy, about to dose off though i do not prefer to sleep while travelling.
on the seats you will be pushed off
Knowing my preference there came a situation. To be out of that state
“and the person was made sit on the
i peeped through the window at a particular stop ,looking out the vendors
foot board. As i was watching the
selling nuts, colourful fresh flowers & garlands with an awesome fragrance
whole scene, a lady with a
meanwhile i didn’t realise that somebody has occupied the next seat of
professional look seized the seat and
mine in the bus. The bus started to move i turned towards the person
posed a question “How can you allow
dressed in saree, I felt ok! Still i didn’t see the person’s face..Halo
IT to sit near you?”
effect!!!Within few minutes
That question was absolutely
I felt myself discomfort of
sickening me as if i had committed
sitting since my co
some offence. I asked what?
passenger was also on
Immediately the answer was “Cha i
that same state .I turned
don’t know why people are not so
towards her & were about
conscious” in a voice of sanctity.
to ask whether the amount
I interrogated again with a subtle
of space was not enough
harshness in my voice “Who do you
.Before me asking she
kicked off with the same
She mumbled to herself. I said
question that i wanted to
to her vividly “i didn’t have any
ask her. I stared at her few
problem with that person sitting near
seconds and said “No I am
to me moreover she is one among
confortable, Thank you”
us. Why you people make fuss about
and turned back towards the window again casually.
for nothing? Don’t be so finicky. And
The bus conductor came near to my seat, in rough voice he said to the person next to me “Get up & go to the foot board and sit there” Rally 18
we are so called Educated, professional and what not. It was we February 2014
who stigmatized those people and trying to abandon them from the human
reply was ’Let he who is without sin
community” She raised her tone and said “So what you are trying to tell me
cast the first stone’
don’t speak to me laws..Ok” In a sarcastic tone i said i am speaking about
Values and not Laws Madam. If you are not comfortable at it..Please..Follow
them???What mistake have they
your path no problem for me..But kindly do not underestimate others by
done except for being born like that?
considering the societal stigma….She turned aside and I could visualise
Oh God! We speak about
the fuming anger on her face I left it. The conversation got end…
human rights, abolishing the
Who am I Speaking about?
casteism but are we not treating
The abandoned community, whom we ill-treat or consider no human at
them like UNTOUCHABLES?
all ,as if we all are angels of the world..
Again to be noted from Bible
How we name them?
(‘you hypocrite, first take the log out
It ,hijdas, Naming by number and so on..
of your own eye, then you will see
Thank god! At least now they are been decently named as
clearly to take the speck out of your
I am not going to discuss much about them I leave it to the forum..
Let us all try to give a space for
Are they not humans?
them by removing the taboos after
Are they not been created by God?
all they are humans created by GOD.
Obviously the blame falls on us for them being treated low in this world? An anecdote in the Bible reminds me of similar one above. When Jewish wanted to punish the woman who committed adultery by stoning to death,
Principally let us all try to be humans… Hope it makes sense.
the leaders challenged JESUS to find a solution for the problem. His straight
INJUSTICE OF INDIAN SOCIETY S. NITEESH KUMAR
God created everyone alike,
Not all Trans GENDERS are bad
But it is the human beings who don’t live alike
No, Not all.
They don’t want to change their gender,
It is the society which forces them to do bad deeds.
But their behaviour forces them to change
They do bad deeds because the surrounding
Outcasts them as an impure animal.
And they are insulted as TRANS GENDER
We human beings are ready to love an animal than to love them.
They are not aliens They are not foreigners They don’t ask for money
They are also fellow citizens who are
They don’t ask for property
competitive to us They are also a pillar in the society like us
The only thing they ask is
They don’t distinguish us like the way we do
LOVE AND CARE
TAMILNADU AICUF - MEGA YOUTH EVENT 2013-2014 Place : St.Joseph’s College, Trichy Day 1 (11.01.2014) AICUFers from St. Joseph’s College and Holy Cross College, Trichy took part in Mega Youth Convention for the year 2013-14. Four hundred students got themselves into this programme. Local Organising committee members (LOC’s) were appointed to help the Ex-co’s during the course of the programme. When the members gathered in Jubilee hall of at St.Joseph’s College, Trichy a video on the history of AICUF was shown and Mr. James Immanuvel, the state president gave a brief description on AICUF, motives and objectives. Prof. Vimal Jerald (State Animator, TN AICUF) briefed us on do’s and don’ts. Anthem of Tamil Nadu and prayer song marked the inauguration. Rev.Fr. John Britto(Rector, St.Joseph’s college, Trichy), Rev.Fr.Maria Das, Mrs.Christy Subuthra, Rev. Fr. Joseph Igni, the State Advisor and Mr. James Immanuvel, the state president lit the lamp. Rev.Fr John Britto was felicitated by the treasurer, Miss.Fathima, memento was given by the vice president, Poomathi. Mrs.Christy Subuthra was felicitated by the cultural co-ordinator Miss.Rashmi and the memento was given by Miss.Swetha, Women’s Coordinator. Each of the guests highlighted on the atrocities against women and the society, how the youth could make a better society. Cultural co-coordinator Miss.Rashmi proposed the vote of thanks. The chief guest for the next session was Prof.Raj who touched on “Impact of differences in the society”. He talked on equality and to break the chains of differences. He also spoke on youth leadership and discipline. Questions were raised at the end of his session and that made it to be more interactive. The post lunch session began with AICUF kalaikuzhu (cultural group) with an action song. Dr.G.John (National Animator) and Dr.Ravichandran were felicitated by Manohar and Miss.Regina Begum, the joint secretary and Manickam, Daniel respectively. An intro to group discussion was given. Dr.G.John picked 10 volunteers to discuss on the topic “Is India a democratic country?” The participants did contribute positively Prof. Vimal Jerald, State Animator proposed the vote of thanks. The students in different groups were asked prepare and present well on the same topic. Mrs.BalaBharathi MLA set the tone to the next session. She was welcomed by Mr. James Immanuvel, the State President. She spoke on Politics. Questions were raised and vote of thanks was proposed by Prof. Vimal Jerald. Rally 20
After dinner cultural programmes on “The political reforms and the society” was presented creatively. That brought us to the close of the first day. DAY 2 (12.01.2014) Being the day of Pongal (festival of harvest in Tamil Nadu) mass was celebrated by Rev.Fr. Santhiyaghu SJ and Rev.Fr.Francis Xavier SJ in the morning. Mr.Rajan B.A, B.L, was the chief guest of the first session. Miss.Swetha, the women’s coordinator pitched on “Involvement of youth in the society” and welcomed. She was felicitated by Mr.Backia Raj and the memento was given by Miss.Akshaya. The vote of thanks was given by Miss.Swetha, State women’s coordinator. Miss.Rashmi, the cultural coordinator and Mr.Prince, the National Dalit commission Co-convener felicitated Mr.Q.Ashoka Chakkarawrathy, (Environmental researcher) was the resource person and the memento was given by Miss.Diana Racheal. He spoke on the “Need to preserve nature”. He also told on the importance of environment. The session in the noon was by Rev. Fr. Arul Ravi and he was welcomed, felicitated and presented with a memento by Miss.Regina Begum, the state joint secretary, Miss. Antonet Fehmi, National Council Member and vice president Poomathi respectively. He spoke on “changes in the society”. He was thanked by February 2014
Miss.Regina Begum, the state joint secretary. In the evening the students were well set for the Rally and to bring awareness.The Rally started at Holy Cross college at 5:00 pm and reached Chathiram bus stand at 6:00 pm. The students were welcomed by the TN AICUF kalaikuzhu team with the paraimulakam. They then performed a dance and a skit on environmental issues. The chief guests Mrs.Shivagami IAS (Rtd), Rev.Fr.John Britto SJ (Rector of St. Joseph’s College Trichy), Rev. Fr.Arul Ravi SJ, (Former state advisor of Tamil Nadu AICUF), Mrs.Saalai Selvam(Social Activist) and Mrs.Christy Subuthra along with the state advisor Rev.Fr.Joseph Igni SJ and the State Ex-co’s. The dignitaries spoke on the “The Involvement of youth in the society”. It was followed by a skit on Child marriage and the kummiaatam. A skit on “We are all searching for a good
Even Justice to Women is considered as Injustice Krishna Priya. C.
leader why not you rise as a good leader” was performed. The programme got over at 9:15 pm. The programme touched many and had its impact.
(In)justice Rohit Injustice itself is injustice
Injustice to her starts from her womb,
The Delhi gangrape, the biggest injustice,
Where she struggles hearing that she has been
Nirbhaya’s situation, unimaginable!
rejected by her society, Where food and breath is continuous but love and
One fateful night, on the sidewalk,
With her to be life partner, a peppy talk..
After all acts, she reaches the world with pain.
They got a bus,
None smiles at her birth rather left with curses,
Little child they know they were in for a big fuss!
Knowing all she grew with a smile, Where she is betrayed by her own society,
In the bus, the devils,
She consoles herself by thinking of tomorrow,
Did exactly what they were not supposed to,
Where again she faces the same.
They tied up and gagged her BF, Who was a helpless spectator.
Her childhood is passed by reasons, Her teens by curses,
Her wounds got infected,
Her adolescence by harassment;
India rose up for her support.
Her youth by care and work;
Unfortunately, her life ended, as was destined.
Her old age with responsibilities;
But we, the Indians, will not let this happen,
At last reaches the safe zone, Where she is known to her own cherished circle,
Even justice to women is INJUSTICE…. Rally
ACTIVE CITIZENSHIP FOR AN INCLUSIVE SOCIETY (Talk delivered at ‘Karnataka State Meet – 2014’ held in January at Bangalore) Dr. G. John National Animator
KARNATAKA enjoys a special pride of place in the
have certain roles and responsibilities in protecting the
formation of AICUF in its formative years. AICUF Karnataka
rights of its citizens by taking part in decision making
is as old as AICUF India. A report that appeared in the Rally
process of the country. It means involvement of people in
in the year 1930 appreciated the initiatives of Rev. Fr. Ferroli,
their local communities and democracy at all levels. “Active
SJ. in starting a Study Club at St. Aloysius College,
citizenship can be as small as a campaign to clean up
Mangalore. Name of the movement then was not AICUF,
your street or as big as educating young people about
but CYMG. Bangalore city doesn’t lag behind in it its share
democratic values, skills and participation”. Active
of glory of AICUF. A Regional Conference of SICUF was
citizenship is one of the most important steps towards
held at Mount Carmel College, Bangalore, On 7th
ensuring rights of the minorities and weaker sections of
November in 1948. Pages would not suffice and time would
the society. It can act as a watch dog against human rights
not be sufficient to recall all those past legacy AICUF
Karnataka has nurtured and created. But a warning!
Why Active Citizenship?
Past glory always gives you the warning, a warning
We are living in an illusion of democracy. We have
that you need to carry forward the legacy otherwise the
been taught, and made to believe that India is the largest
History will not forgive you. It is this expectation, challenge
democracy in the world. Just because our constitution
and a great legacy the AICUF Karnataka continues to foster
confers its citizens right to vote, can we call our country a
and fulfill. Hats off to you ALL, Fr.Brian, the State Ex-Co, its
democratic country? No, Not you and I.
President, Mr.Sahail, and NC Mr. Vishal D’Souza (NT), above
Being in slavery is nothing new to Indians. We have
all the AICUFers from various units. Let me, on behalf of
been slaves for years and centuries. Mughal elslaved us
the National AICUF thank Ronson, Natalia, Lizzel and
from 1526 to 1858, the British elslaved us from 1858 to
Stevan whose company and contributions were vital in
1947 and we got independence, in 1947 but we still continue
taking the National Movement forward.
to be in slavery. Now this time, for a change our own people,
our politicians are keeping us slavery. Our politicians
Active Citizenship is nothing new to Karnataka
continue to enslave Indians in the name democracy. This
AICUF. For instance, you had conducted a survey (St.
time our war of independence, second war of independence
Joseph’s Arts and Science College, Bangalore) on the
is against our greedy politicians and political structure.
conditions of rag pickers and dust bin dwellers in 1971.
Is it the fault of democracy? No, it is the fault of
When Babri Masjid was demolished by the right wing
‘actors of democracy’ – the people and the elected
fanatics right under the nose of the law and the State
representatives. We have chosen to follow a system of
machinery, you had organised a Human Chain with 10,000
indirect democracy wherein we elect our representatives
students. In 1998 a five day national seminar on ‘Refugees
by casting our votes. The elected representatives govern
and Displacement’ was held at ISI, Bangalore. You
this nation on behalf of the people, and for the welfare of
organized a candlelight vigil at Town Hall in support of
the people. We reposed our trust and faith in them but they
North-Eastern people. To express your solidarity with the
have breached. They have hijacked the whole system of
residents of Kudankulam, more than 1,000 of you marched
democracy and now ‘democracy’ dances to the tunes of
from the Cubbon Park to the Town Hall and protested
MLAs and MPs. As a consequence ‘democracy in India
against the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant.
has become bankrupt and it is like a stale cheque that
And last year you all ‘United in Mangalore to Ignite
can’t be encashed, as it is no longer valid.
New Hope’ by becoming agents of social change and
Absence of Inclusiveness
fought for the rights of minorities, DRAW, our target group.
In a true democracy every citizen should enjoy equal
Your active citizenship continues this year with a specific
and fair chance of taking part in the election process and
theme “Active Citizenship for an Inclusive Society”
thereby can become agents of the citizen and govern this
What is active citizenship? Active Citizenship refers
nation. Is there an equal and fair chance to contest election?
to a philosophy that advocates that members of the society
Practically speaking only those belong to top 5 percent can
run the election with the possibility of winning. Money is the
and is able to form government at the centre. This means,
first deciding factor. Only crorepatis can contest election
70 percent of the people have not voted for INC. The vote
with a fair chance of winning. The political party that chooses
share of UPA II is 37.22 percent only but still they are ruling
you, fist looks at your financial worthiness. If you can’t
India. Is it a democracy?
spend, the party will not give you ticket. Average asset of
If you are not a criminal, chances are that you will
MPs is Rs.4.56 crores and that of ministers’ is Rs.7.30
not be able to win. Chances are brighter only if you are a
crores. That means 95 percent of the Indians are excluded
criminal. In the present Parliament as many as 30 percent
from contesting the election. Is it a democracy?
of sitting Lok Sabha MPs and 31 percent of Rajya Sabha
There should be a situation where even the poorest
MPs have criminal cases pending against them, that the
of the poor should be able to contest the election with a fair
Bihar Assembly has a high of 58 percent criminals among
chance of winning.
its MLAs, while the Uttar Pradesh Assembly has 41 percent.
What about minorities? Can a minority become MLA
The Congress has 21 percent declared criminals; the
or MP? Do we have space for them? How many of our
Bharatiya Janata Party has 31 percent. At the other extreme,
elected MLAs and MPs are women? In the present system,
the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha has 82 percent criminals
you don’t have space for religious and cultural minorities.
among its MPs and MLAs. How can law breakers become
It completely excludes them.
law makers? Is it a democracy? Loot at the caliber and
What about dalits and tribals? Can a dalit contest in
credibility of these lawbreakers turned lawmakers! The
Bangalore parliamentary constituency with a fair chance of
shameless politicians, when they are not able to protect
winning? Can you show if any dalit has contested and won
common man, they tried to enact a law to protect tainted
in a general constituency? Dalits and tribals can contest
the election with a fair chance of winning only in reserve
These perils of Indian democracy can be overcome
only by the active citizenship. This is the challenge for all
What about marginalized groups like LGBTs? There
those who are engaged in civil society activism and this is
are several marginalized groups who are living in the
the challenge lying ahead of AICUFers. We need to
bottom of the pyramid, on the edges, on the outer periphery
understand these evils of democracy and create a new
of development! Do they enjoy equal and fair chance of
world where tenets of democracy are realized in the interest
taking part in the governance and decision making process
of Aam Admi.
of this country? If LGBTs had their fair chance of
It is possible!
representation, we don’t have to fight for the repeal of
Alternative, pro-people and direct democracy is
Section 377 of IPC. The Delhi high court’s decision in 2009
possible. The recent election in New Delhi has given us
to amend this section that decriminalized consensual sex
hope. This is possible by active citizenship. Bill to protect
between adults was made. This was considered
tainted ministers was thrown to dustbin, and lokpal bill
progressive and befitting of any modern, democratic society
was passed only because of active citizenship. AAP was
that recognizes the citizenry’s fundamental right to personal
able to garner support in a very short span of time only
liberty and equality. It made India the 115th country to take
because they listen to people and their decision reflects
the guilt out of homosexuality. But the recent Supreme
the sense of the people. AAP took decision to form
Court’s judgment brings back a discriminatory law that
government only on the basis of ‘janata darbar’ reflecting
was created over 150 years ago by our colonial masters.
the will of the people.
How can we call this system that excludes nearly
The biggest threat to democracy and active
95 percent of the people on the basis of economy, 50 percent
citizenship is the silence of the good people. Criminals
on the basis of sex, and 25 percent on the basis of caste
thrive on the silence of ‘the good’. Let us not keep silence
as a true democracy? It doesn’t require wisdom to say
when we witness injustice. Any injustice you notice in the
‘ours is not an inclusive democracy’ and hence it is not a
civil society will first affect our target group, DRAW. And it is
our bounden duty to register our protest, in our own little
Look at the way we decide the winner. Anyone who
away. Let us conclude recalling “Rosa sat so that Martin
can muster 30 present of votes polled can become MLA or
could walk; Martin walked so that Obama could run; Obama
MPs. Virtually all our MLAs and MPs have not been approved
ran so that our children could fly.”
by 70 percent of the people of his constituency. In the last general election the INC secured 29.69 percent of votes Rally
Injustice on Women
Who Needs Justice?
Woman ‘O’ dear woman
For the sake of justice
What would I say for you?
We are causing injustice
I’m flames of anger
Casteism in its practice
When you’re in flames of injustice
Is a form of injustice
Woman dear soft flower, I see you crashed in drills of ego
Homeless and jobless people
Is anyone there, really there?
Seem hopeless in the search of justice
Who can really bring you to green?
They lose their sense of dignity By being put aside of the society.
Woman ‘O’ dear woman I see your palms fixing with vessels
Transgenders face injustice
You’re behind the muscles of male hands
By not being considered as worthy
I grey and blue with fury’s eyes.
Their voices raised for their rights
Women, dear angels!
Are being left in the brink of the society.
Are you not the pretty hedgerows Bright sunshine to your family
Casteism, social status and culture
Why do they take your fragrance?
Seem to be the roots of social injustice
Woman the of clone of God
But justice is for one and all Whatever may be the status, caste and culture. Fr. Salomon J.F.
Is the weaker of two sex Isn’t it a lible? Forcing and forcing rests her future from the strong muscles K. Karishma A new life is born, a precious stone on earth, A life that would have changed this world, It would have dreamed about its life, This life is from an insane life, The world knows that, This world so cunning that this life was no more, This world has failed to realize the truth, Even its mother has fallen a prey to this world, This life has never shed tears or smiled at this world, This life could have been a gifted one for the beloved, This life has not seen the world Because of six-sense animals
A New Life… Never Burn…
This life would have been something precious to this world, This life is no more in this world,
Anton Erome Pius
You have sinned. Rally
THE MEDIA REFORM a first issue and to mobilize media activism into a viable social movement have had limited success in the world. The use of the Internet as an organizing and mobilizing tool is transforming how social movements are constituted and defined. Online organizing by groups like Free Press in the world has been successful in mobilizing the support of millions to petition Congress and the FCC in opposition to policies that would have allowed further concentrations of media ownership. Activism on behalf of net neutrality has attracted support on a similar scale. In 2006, Robert Hackett and William Carroll identify a number of framing devices that have been used in attempts to capture the diverse energies, priorities, issues, and commitments of media activists, including Free Press and Freedom of Expression
A media that implicitly draws on the values of the First Amendment and emphasizes the values of mainstream political liberalism.
A media that highlights democracyâ€™s deficits and emphasizes participatory democracy, the role of informed citizens, and the responsibility of the press to serve the public interest.
Right to Communication Media
Cultural Environmental Media,
The importance of communication in relation to other human rights and is most often invoked by activists working in international contexts. The borrows its trope from the environmental movement and targets toxic cultural fare by opposing the global homogenization of commercial media and market censorship and by advocating for fairness, gender equity, diversity, and democratic decision making in media ownership, employment, and representation. The media is relatively new and has special resonance among minorities.
According to Hackett and Carroll, â€œThe Media re- positions the project as one of social justice in a world organized around global capitalism, racism, patriarchy, and directly connotes the need for alliances, even integration, with other social movements.â€? The justice frame is synthetic and inclusive, not only broadly encompassing the concerns of the other frames, but also very intentionally linking to and drawing on historical struggles for social justice and civil rights, including struggles for racial, class, gender, and sexual justice. Source: Media, Democracy, Human, Rights, and Social Justice by Sue Curry Jansen
Democracy is considered to be the best form of government these days. Most of the countries in the world have adopted it. Merits of Democracy: Safeguards the Interests of the People
Based on the Principle of Equality
Stability and Responsibility in Administration
Political Education to the People
Little Chance of Revolution Rally
The democracy lies in its safeguards the interests of the people.
Real power lies in the hands of the people who exercise it by the representatives elected by them and who are responsible to them.
The social, economic and political interests of the individuals are served better under this system.
Democracy is based on the principle of equality.
All members of the State are equal in the eyes of law.
All enjoy equal social, political and economic rights and state cannot discriminate among citizens on the basis of caste, religion, sex, or property.
All have equal right to choose their government.
Democracy is known for its stability, firmness and efficiency.
Tenure of the elected representatives are fixed.
They form a stable government because it is based on public support.
The administration is conducted with a sense of responsibility.
In representative democracy, people’s representatives discuss matters more thoroughly and take reasonable decision.
The dictators do not involve people at all in decision making, people have no right to criticize the decisions of the dictator even when they are bad and against people’s welfare.
It serves as a training school for citizens.
People get impetus to take part in the affairs of the state.
On the time of elections political parties propose their policy and programme in support of their candidates.
It means of propaganda-public meetings, posters, radio, television and speeches by important leaders of the parties- are used to win public favour.
It creates political consciousness among the people.
Since democracy is based on public will, there is no chance of public revolt.
Representatives elected by the people conduct the affairs of the state with public support. 26
They donâ€™t work efficiently or donâ€™t come up to the expectations of their masters; they are thrown in the dustbin of history when elections are held again.
Democracy is based on public will. It conducts state business with public support. It is, therefore, more stable than other forms of Government.
Helps in Making People Good Citizens
Democracy creates proper environment for the development of personality and cultivating good habits.
Democracy is the first school of good citizenship. Citizens learn their rights and duties from birth till death in it.
Based on Public Opinion
â€˘ Democratic administration is based on public will, public opinion lends it strength. â€˘ It lends development and progress to individual and arouses his interest in social activities.
â€˘ Individuals readily take active part in such a government. And this is because of the eminence, devotion and conviction in man found in the nature of democracy itself. Demerits of Democracy More Emphasis on Quantity than on Quality
Rule of the Incompetent
Based on Unnatural Equality
Democracy is not based upon the quality but on quantity.
Majority party holds the reigns of government.
Inefficient and corrupt persons get themselves elected.
~ They have neither intelligence, nor vision, nor strength of character to steer through the ship of the state to its destinations. Ă‚
Democracies are run by incompetent persons.
Every citizen is allowed to take part, whereas everybody is not fit for it.
Universal adult franchise grants right to vote to everybody.
A few manipulators who can collect votes with the greatest success get democratic power.
Democracy run by the ignorant and incompetent becomes totally unfit for intellectual progress and search for scientific truths.
The concept of equality is enshrined in democracy.
It is against the law of nature. Nature has not endowed every individual with intelligence and wisdom. Menâ€™s talents differ. Some are courageous, other are cowards.
Some healthy, others not so healthy. Some are intelligent, others are not. Critics are of opinion that â€œit is against the law of nature to grant equal status to everybody.â€? Voters do not cast their vote in a spirit of duty as democracy requires them to do. }
Voters do not take Interest in Election
Contestants of election persuade them. Even then, it is generally found that turn out comes to 50 to 60 percent only.
The forfeits the very tall claim of holding elections. 27
Lowers the Moral Standard
Democracy is a Government of the Rich
Misuse of Public Funds and Time
No Stable Government
Dictatorship of Majority
Bad Influence of Political Parties
The only aim of the candidates becomes to win election.
They often employ under-hand practices, foul means to get elected. Character assassination is openly practised, unethical ways are generally adopted.
Muscle power and money power work hand-in-hand to ensure success to him.
The morality is the first casualty in election. It is a big loss for â€˜when character is lost, everything is lostâ€™ becomes explicit in due course.
Modern democracy isthe rule of capitalists.
Electioneering is carried out with money.
The rich candidates purchase votes.
The of economic power rules over the whole process.
The rich hold the media and use it for their own benefit. Big business houses influence dailies and use these dailies for creating public opinion to their favour.
Socialist democracy is democracy in the right sense of the term because the welfare of the labour class and farming community can be safeguarded properly only under socialist democracy.
Democracy is a huge waste of time and resources.
It takes much time in the formulation of laws.
A lot of money is spent during the elections.
They are a heavy burden on public exchequer as they waste public money on their tours and recreations.
The party gets absolute majority, coalition governments are formed.
The coalition of political parties with a view of sharing power is only a marriage of convenience. }
The coalition is lost and governments crumble down.
The stable governments under democracy generally donâ€™t exist.
Democracy is criticized because it establishes dictatorship of majority.
The majority is required to safeguard the interests of minority but in actual practice it does not. Majority after gaining success at the polls forms its ministry and conducts the affairs of the state by its own sweet will.
It ignores the minority altogether; the minority is oppressed.
Political parties are the basis of democracy.
A political party aims at capturing power.
Its members are to safeguard the interests of the party. Sometimes, they overlook the overall interest of the state for the sake of their party.
THE EDUCATION has an important role to achieve a greater degree of social justice. The educational institutions are
Meaning of Deprived Groups
expected to equip children to the best of their ability for securing a meaningful place in society and thus fostering a process of developing an egalitarian society. However, a large number of children are still excluded from the educational system and hence cannot participate meaningfully in the economic, social, political and cultural life of their communities. ~ The Deprived Groups are generally used to analyze socio-economic, political, and cultural spheres. ~
The disadvantaged people struggle to gain access to resources and full participation in social life.
~ In other words, marginalized people might be socially, economically, politically and legally ignored, excluded, or neglected, and, therefore vulnerable. ~
Marginality’ is demeaning, for economic well-being, for human dignity, as well as for physical security.
~ Deprived is generally described as the overt actions or tendencies of human societies. The people who are deprived are outside the existing systems of protection and integration. ~
The limits their opportunities and means for survival.
Marginalization is to place in a position of marginal importance.
It is a multidimensional, multi-causal, historical phenomenon.
To relegate or confine to a lower or outer limit or edge, as of social standing.
There are no general laws to understand and comprehend the complex nature of marginalization.
Nature of Deprived Groups
Marginalization can be due to class, in relation to specific social, cultural, economic and political conditions, as well as ideological systems, social awareness, and human action.
It is a vary in different settings.
The religious, ecological system, patriarchy, political economy of a country, and the overall social system have an impact on the marginalization of specific groups or an individual.
It also varies from culture to culture.
This can be seen in relation to elderly people living in different countries and cultures.
The strong and supportive traditional family system in some cultures often provides better respect and care to elders than the public aided system available in others. Â
Level of awareness among the marginalized groups plays very important role.
Organized communities which are aware of their rights, demand more justice than unorganized communities. This also depends upon the support of the political-economic system of the country where they live in. Democratic institutions are favorable for most of the disadvantaged groups. Â
It happens simultaneously at the micro and macro levels.
It occurs at different levels, i.e., individual, group, community, and global. Discrimination across different social institutions, such as family, schools and neighborhood, at work places, or places of worship. 29
Many communities, a result of colonization, experience marginalization such as aboriginals, or women too face discrimination. Globalization too has increased the gap between rich and poor nations.
The influx of capitalism, information technology, company outsourcing, job insecurity, and the widening gap between the rich and the poor, impacts the lives of individuals and groups in many capacities.
Types of Deprived Groups: Marginalization at the individual level results in an individualâ€™s exclusion from meaningful participation in society such as social, economic, and political have been identified.
Social marginalization is a process of social rupture or destruction,
The individual is forced into a new system of rules while facing social stigma and stereotypes from the dominant group in society.
Socially marginalized people are largely deprived of social opportunities.
The lack of required social and cultural capital to participate in mainstream development processes. Their social networks are weak and vulnerable.
They are deprived of access to resources, such as, economic, educational, cultural, and other support systems.
This creates social isolation and limits their participation in the development process.
Economic marginalizationâ€? means being unimportant to the economy.
Some individuals or groups can be marginalized from the rest of the economy.
Poverty and economic marginalization have both direct and indirect impact on peopleâ€™s health and wellbeing.
Political marginalization does not allow the group to participate democratically in decision making, and, hence, they lose their right to every social, economic, and political benefit.
In every society, lack of political empowerment affects large sections of people, including women, ethnic minorities, migrants, and disabled persons, elderly.
Responsible for Marginalised Groups The important factors that are responsible for marginalization are exclusion, globalization, displacement, and disaster both natural, and manmade.
Marginalization is a process that denies opportunities and outcomes to â€˜those â€˜living on the marginsâ€™, while enhancing the opportunities and outcomes for those who are â€˜at the centreâ€™.
Deprived combines discrimination and social exclusion.
It offends human dignity, and it denies human rights.
Caste and class prejudice, in many societies across the globe, exclude many groups and communities, and hinder their active participation in economic and social development.
Globalization has increased openness which has promoted development at the cost of equity.
It is viewed that globalization has enhanced the gap between haves and have-nots and thus boosted marginalization.
The development programmes implemented by the government and increasing construction of development projects consistently displace a massive number of tribal, poor, and weaker sections.
The results in marginalization of already marginalized people.
Natural and Unnatural disasters are a global phenomena and a serious challenge to development.
Vulnerability is linked to broader social issues such as poverty, social exclusion, conflict, education, health, gender issues and marginalization.
Classifications of disasters Earthquake, Volcanic Eruption, Hurricane, Tornado, Ice Storm, Flood, Landslide, Wildfire, Insect Infestation, and Disease Outbreaks. Ă’
It also includes incidents involving hazardous materials such as carcinogens, mutagens, or heavy metals.
It can be associated with technological advances such as explosives, unexploded ordinance, toxic spills, emissions of radioisotopes, and transportation accidents.
Dangers are posed by structural failure of devices and machines or installations, and plants, such as bridges, dams, mines, power plants, pipelines, high rise buildings, vehicles, and trains.
These include incidents primarily involving social unrest, such as hijacking, riots, demonstrations, crowd rushes, and stampedes, terrorist incidents, as well as bombings, shootings, and hostage taking. Vulnerable Groups in the Society
Under different economic conditions, and under the influence of specific historical, cultural, legal and religious factors, marginalization of women can be seen from their exclusion from certain jobs and occupations. Women belonging to lower classes, lower castes, illiterate, and the poorest region have been marginalized more than their better off counterparts.
People with Disabilities
People with disabilities have had to battle against centuries of biased assumptions, harmful stereotypes, and irrational fears. The stigmatization of disability resulted in the social and economic marginalization of generations with disabilities, and thus has left people with disabilities in a severe state of impoverishment for centuries. }
Being past middle age and approaching old age; rather old. S Ageing is an inevitable and inexorable process in life. For most nations, regardless of their geographic location or developmental stage, the 80 year olds, or over-age group is growing faster than any younger segment of the older population.
Elderly women form the majority of marginalized groups among them.
A group that has different national or cultural traditions from the majority of the population the term, ethnic minority, refers to marginalised people of the same race or nationality who share a distinctive culture.
A minority is a sociological group that does not constitute a politically dominant voting majority of the total population of a given society. It may include any group that is subnormal with respect to a dominant group, in terms of social status, education, employment, wealth, and political power. Every large society contains ethnic minorities.
~ They may be migrant, indigenous or landless nomadic communities, or religious minorities that have a different faith from the majority.
The caste system is a strict hierarchical social system based on underlying notions of purity and pollution. Ă‚
Brahmins are on the top of the hierarchy and Shudras or Dalits or the Scheduled Castes constitutethe bottom of the hierarchy. 31
The marginalization of Dalits influences all spheres of their life, violating basic human rights such as civil, political, social, economic and cultural rights.
Literacy rates, purchasing power and poor housing conditions among Dalits are very low. Physical segregation of their settlements is common.
However, in recent years due to affirmative action and legal protection, the intensity of caste-based marginalization is reducing.
In India, the population of Scheduled Tribes is around 84.3 million and is considered to be socially and economically disadvantaged group. They are mainly landless with little control over resources such as land, forest and water. }
They constitute agricultural, casual, plantation and industrial labourers.
This has resulted in poverty, low levels of education and poor access to health care services.
In the Indian context the marginalized are categorized as the scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, denoted tribes, nomadic tribes, and other backward classes. }
Problems Related to Education for Marginalised
The Challenge of Poverty Associated with Disability:
The Challenge of Providing Adequate Levels of Training to Key Stakeholders
The Challenge of Modifying Deeply held Attitudes
With an estimated 1,027 million people, India is the worldâ€™s second most populated country.
It has 17 percent of the global population and 20 percent of the worldâ€™s out-of-school children. Despite impressive gains in the last few decades
India still has more than 260 million people living in poverty.
A large number of children with disabilities live in families with income significantly below the poverty level. While disability causes poverty, it is also possible that in a country like India, poverty causes disability.
The combination of poverty and disability results in a condition of â€œsimultaneous deprivation.
This is a syndrome that sets up barriers to the participation of persons with disabilities in the normal routines and activities of the community, including regular schooling.
The majority of schools in India are poorly designed and few are equipped to meet the unique needs of students with disabilities.
The lack of disability friendly transportation services and accessible buildings are considered by some to be far greater problems than social prejudice and negative attitudes.
Both the Central and State governments will have to provide increased resources to this aspect of education to ensure successful implementation of integrated practices in schools.
The majority of school personnel in India are not trained to design and implement educational programs for students with disabilities in regular schools.
Most teacher training programs in India do not have a unit on Disability Studies.
The universities, which do cover some aspects of special education in their teacher training programs, fail to train teachers adequately to work in integrated settings.
Attitudes of the non-disabled are proving to be a major barrier in the social integration of persons with disabilities. â€œThe more severe and visible the deformity is, the greater is the fear of contagion, hence the attitudes of aversion and segregation towards the crippledâ€?. Ă‚
Ă‚ Such attitudes reinforced by religious institutions may militate against any attempts to include students with disabilities into regular schools.
Source: Education of the Deprived/Marginalzed Gruops by Dr. V.K. Maheshwari Rally