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January - March 2015 / Volume 16, Issue 1







Utah Fire and Rescue Academy Magazine







FIREFIGHTER MEMORIAL UNVEILED On October 29, 2014, members of the Murray City Fire Department (MCFD), along with other city leaders and community members, joined together for the unveiling of a new firefighter memorial. This past year, Battalion Chief Jon Harris of the MCFD spent over 60 volunteer hours at Station 81 (40 E 4800 S) chainsaw carving a seven-foottall firefighter tribute statue out of an old sycamore tree that was slated to be taken down. Harris’ vision of the tribute was to honor the many men and women in Murray who have served the community within the MCFD. He wanted it to represent the continuing legacy of the dedicated service firefighters give in their profession. “This statue commemorates the history in the Murray

City Fire Department, and I’m glad it will be here to honor our firefighters,” Harris said. Once the carving was completed, the vision was carried on to a higher level. Through donations, brick pavers were purchased and engraved with the names of retired firefighters that have served on the MCFD. Those pavers now surround the sculpture along with a dedication stone slab. This could not have been accomplished without the help of the several Murray City departments and various individuals and companies throughout Murray. Harris states that “from now on a new tradition will be carried out. Each time a firefighter retires or passes while serving, there will be new brick laid in their honor.”

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FROM THE DIRECTOR Take a moment. Remember the final exam for your last college class, maybe it was math or biology or history. It really doesn’t matter which exam you choose to remember. Do you recall the time and effort you put into cramming for the exam, staying up till all hours studying? Do you remember the anxiety you had about passing the exam, so you wouldn’t have to repeat the entire class? Now, think about your last state fire certification exam. Did you cram for the test? Did you lose sleep in anticipation of the test? Was your stress level off the chart in anticipation of test day? No??? Hence, my point. There’s really not much at stake if you can’t remember how to find x in 5x-11=29 (8), which chromosome determines the sex of a child (Y), or the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation (issued by President Lincoln during the Civil War proclaiming the freedom of slaves in the eleven states that were still in rebellion). But what’s at stake if you can’t remember, or aren’t completely competent regarding, what you learned in Firefighter I, ADO-Aerial, or the Command Training Center? You have one chance at a final exam in college. Students of some professions spend weeks in preparation for exams. In a profession such as firefighting, where so much is at stake, should the same level of difficulty be present for a certification exam as was present for that math final? Should firefighter testing be more rigorous??? I believe that your customers expect UFRA courses and subsequent testing to be difficult and comprehensive. I also believe that your customers want a high level of commitment on your part during the class and through the exam process. I know I’ve used the analogy of a commercial airline pilot in previous articles. Like us, when they go to work there’s a lot at stake. Pilots are responsible for hundreds of passengers’ lives and expensive equipment; and, they are expected to perform flawlessly during those low-frequency high-risk events.

When you board a plane would you feel confident in your pilot, and your odds of surviving an in-flight emergency, if you knew the captain had less-than-demanding training courses and his or her testing was less than challenging? What if you knew the pilot had to take his or her Airline Transport License Exam three times and on the final exam scored 71 percent? Would you feel comfortable with that pilot’s skills? I think not. We occasionally hear complaints regarding our certification exams. We hear that the instructor didn’t cover the material or that the material in the book didn’t match the test or that the test was too difficult among other things. An incredible effort is made when we purchase test banks to correlate every question to the page and paragraph of the text. Every question is scrutinized to ensure that it is relevant to the course. Do NOT get me started on the complaint about the test not being fair. The formula for success in the classroom and on testing is simple: Credible curriculum + great instructors + committed students = exceptional (NOT mediocre) firefighters. UFRA has an obligation to deliver relevant and comprehensive courses using nationally recognized curriculum that has endured a rigorous vetting process before it reaches our curriculum approval process. Our instructors must maintain an 85% approval rating to remain on staff (currently the average is over 95%), and we evaluate the delivery of every core course and instructor in an effort to improve. That is our job. Now the question remains: What is your job as the student? You must first commit to show up at every class with the intention of passing the initial exam, which saves your department money since we don’t charge for the initial certification exam. Your commitment includes the understanding that the instructor will not cover every question on the certification exam; you are expected…wait for it…to read the entire textbook and comprehend what you are reading (especially if you’re responding to my house). Your commitment includes taking great notes during the class, reading the textbook, and asking questions that you have related to the class. Your success is almost guaranteed. I have

personally been at several test sites where I’ve heard the complaints regarding material not being covered during class. My first question is, “Did you read the book?” The response to my question is the beautiful sound of silence. Students will occasionally claim that the information is not in the book. My response is always, “Give me the textbook.” I know what’s coming after I find the info in the book: “Yeah, but the instructor didn’t cover it,” or “You expect us to read the entire book? That will take days!” My answer to the first question is, “So?” And my answer to the second question is, “Umm, YES!” The point is, just like in college, take notes and read the textbook! We seem to have no problem asking for rigorous training and testing when it comes to professionals such as our surgeons, our pilots, our accountants, our attorneys, our engineers, and our baristas at Starbucks. So why not firefighters? Listen, folks, the public has set the bar pretty darn high for you as emergency responders. They expect you to know your stuff when it’s hitting the fan. Just like the pilot that I expect to know EVERYTHING that is required to save the plane (and me), the public has the same expectation for you. The only way we can do that is stiffen up the testing requirements, commit to rigorous study, and have the peace of mind that you have done everything possible to ace your certification exams (written and manipulative); and, hence, perform at the highest possible level. Next issue we will talk taboo…recertification at ALL levels within the fire service. Stay safe,

Hugh Hugh Connor was hired by the Orem Fire Department in 1979 where he worked for 27 years. He served as a Firefighter/Paramedic, Engineer, Lieutenant, Captain, and Battalion Chief. Hugh has worked at the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy since 2005.














ADVANCED STABILIZATION ........................ 7 FIRE OFFICER COMMAND REFRESHER.... 10 FIRE TACTICS............................................ 14 HAZMAT SCENARIO.................................. 18 WHAT’S GOING ON WITH THE CPAT?........ 28 THE YARNELL FIRE – PART THREE:.......... 36 THE IMPORTANCE OF FEEDBACK............ 38 LEADERSHIP.............................................. 42

Editor-in-Chief Steve Lutz Managing Editor Lori Marshall Design Phillip Ah You

Editor Kaitlyn Hedges Published by Utah Valley University

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FROM THE STATE FIRE MARSHAL I first saw the billboard while driving between Provo and Salt Lake. It says something like, “If you have a smart phone, why do you have a dumb house?” At first I wasn’t sure what exactly the company was advertising. After seeing it repeatedly, I was curious and went to the web site and took a look at the technology that is currently available for installation in existing and new homes. I’ve since seen advertising on television that talks about controlling elements in your home—lights, security, heating and cooling, etc.—via your smart phone. Not a bad concept, I thought, but most likely not in my budget or in my immediate future. I attended a conference recently where NFPA introduced a program about “Smart Firefighting.” They had a workshop and identified a number of areas where current technology exists or new designs are in production that may be of assistance to today’s firefighter and into the near future. These areas include communications; firefighter on-board electronic safety equipment (ESE), which includes environmental and physi-

ological monitoring; sensory support; location tracking; addressable PASS devices; and electronic textiles. The study areas continue with mobile sensors, data collection, hardware and software interoperability, lots of data analytics in the areas of pre-emergency, actual events and post event data, and finally, user interface delivery methods, which include hand-held devices, heads up displays, and augmented reality. Some of these items have already been introduced, such as heads up display in face masks. We’ll all soon get to experience the emergency apparatus driving simulators (EADS) that touch on the augmented reality piece. If you want to see an interesting very short video, you need to go to this address: http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=QPbZy2wrTGk. In the video you will meet Patrick Jackson, who is a firefighter with Rocky Mount, North Carolina. He is also a developer for Google Glass. You will get to see a couple of ways that Patrick has already piloted to help firefighters while using Google Glass. I won’t spoil it for you here, but it’s pretty interesting to watch. All of the concepts discussed in this presentation dealt with Cyber Physical Systems (CPS). Now probably like you, I had to go to the web to find out what CPS is all about and it’s quite fascinating (I certainly don’t purport to understand everything that I read, but…). There’s a lot of work being done by a lot of people all around the globe dealing with the “Internet of Things.” In a recent article written by Rick Stoll (director of ISO Community Analytic Services) entitled “An Analysis of Fire Service Trends and Impacts,” he states: “With

reduced fire frequency, fire departments are shrinking and have increased their focus on EMS and other hazard-related emergencies. Total calls per firefighter increased from 9.8 per year in 1983 to 29.4 per year in 2012. However, fire-related calls per firefighter decreased from 2.1 per year to 1.2 per year for the same period. As a result, firefighters have less live fire experience and less opportunity to hone their firefighting skills. At the same time, the escalating number of non-fire emergencies requires new training in a broader array of responsibilities. Due to changing room contents and housing construction materials and layouts, firefighters must respond quicker and are at greater risk of injury from an increased risk of building collapse and exposure to carcinogens.” I agree with Rick, and it is becoming more apparent that we, as firefighters, will need the added assistance of technology as we continue have fewer and fewer working fires from which to gain experience. We’ll need smart devices, smart tools, and smart clothing to assist us as we continue to try to provide the best protection and suppression efforts that we can. Since technology won’t be putting out the red stuff anytime soon, your skills and talents will always be needed. Let’s try to remember what my good friend Chief Jay Westergard always tells new firefighters: “If you put the fire out, you won’t have to jump out of the window!” Thanks for all you out there. Be safe and I hope to be able to say “Hello” to you all at Winter Fire School in St. George.


Coy D. Porter retired from Provo Fire & Rescue after 30 years of service; he then worked for almost four years as the Assistant Director of Training at UFRA. Porter enjoys his association with the firefighters of Utah in his position as State Fire Marshal.

To Subscribe: To subscribe to the UFRA Straight Tip magazine, or make changes to your current subscription, call 1-888-548-7816 or visit www.uvu.edu/ufra/news/ magazine.html. The UFRA Straight Tip is free of charge to all firefighter and emergency service personnel throughout the state of Utah. UFRA Customer Service Local (801) 863-7700 Toll free 1-888-548-7816 www.uvu.edu/ufra UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy and distributed throughout the State of Utah. Reproduction without written permission from the publisher is strictly prohibited. Send inquiries or submissions to: UFRA Straight Tip magazine 3131 Mike Jense Parkway Provo, Utah 84601 Phone 1-888-548-7816 Lori.Marshall@uvu.edu Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in the UFRA Straight Tip are those of the authors and may not be construed as those of the staff or management of the UFRA Straight Tip, Utah Fire & Rescue Academy, or Utah Valley University.

On the Cover: Photography by Steve Lutz Hazmat technicians at the Utah County interagency hazmat disaster exercise install a “C Kit” on a chlorine rail car dome simulator at UFRA.

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Message from Utah State Fire Chiefs Association MAKING A DIFFERENCE Recently our department went through the promotional process for company officer. This is never an easy endeavor, as the quality of the candidates keeps improving, and candidates are not in the least bit lacking qualifications, experience, and education. As fire chief, having to pass up very qualified individuals is one of the most disconcerting aspects of my job. No matter how fair and equitable the process is, the outcome is very discouraging for the good and loyal members of the department who are not selected. But no matter how good or loyal candidates are, there is one particular quality that distinguishes certain candidates. The greatest quality an officer candidate can possess is that of leadership. These qualities and abilities can and should surface long before the testing process begins. The challenge is how to identify and measure

leadership. Can we quantify leadership abilities? Is a person’s leadership capabilities based on our own interpretation, or are they obvious to everyone? Please don’t confuse leadership with supervision or management. Leadership is, in fact, a dynamic that is not easily achieved and requires a constant state of self-evaluation. Many times people get caught up in waiting for the opportunity to promote before displaying their leadership skills, when in reality these qualities should be exhibited long before the announcement of any promotion and before given the opportunity to “be in charge.” Making a positive difference on any level can and does happen, and it is usually recognized. Fire department personnel can be leaders and make a positive impact within the organization no matter what position they hold. These characteristics surface often. Know the qualities of leadership, practice them, and—most of all—be sincere with your intentions. Always remember that authentic leadership is not about you, it is about the people you’ll lead.

Gil Rodriguez has worked for Murray City Fire Department for 30 years. Rodriguez is originally from Los Angeles, California. He attended college at Southern Utah University, and upon graduation he moved back to Los Angeles, where he taught for three years. He moved to the Salt Lake area in 1981, where he taught for three years at South High School before getting hired by Murray City Fire Department in 1984.

photography by Russell Young Use cribbing to support lifting airbags.



Vehicle Extrication: Advanced Stabilization After an initial scene size-up/assessment has been completed, rescue personnel must stabilize each individual vehicle to prevent unwanted or unexpected movement. Unplanned movement of a vehicle can cause injury to rescue personnel, aggravate existing victim injuries, and damage rescue equipment. During an extrication incident, stabilization is required to provide maximum support between the vehicle and the

ground or other solid surface. Vehicle stabilization is a rescue evolution that is necessary at all vehicle extrication incidents. When analyzing the vehicle to stabilize or lift, you must consider these factors: the weight of the vehicle, the type and size, the position it is in, and the victim entrapment situation. These factors will dictate the level of stabilization necessary to control the incident. The physical directions January - March 2015 | 7

photography by Russell Young

Box cribbing combined with heavy plywood can be used to build a stable platform for airbag, jack, and hydraulic tool operation.

that a vehicle can move and rescue personnel must control are horizontal, vertical and lateral. Horizontal movement includes forward, backward, and sideways. Vertical movement includes up and down. Lateral includes rolling to the sides, rear over front, and front over rear. As soon as the vehicle position or the supporting base is altered, kinetic or potential energy exists. Gravity will cause every potential load to seek a zero energy state. Proper stabilization must be in place to prevent this movement. The weight of the vehicle must be calculated to formulate safety parameters for what equipment and techniques can be safely employed. Lifting objects that exceed the capabilities of your equipment may result in catastrophic failures. A general guideline for estimating vehicle weight is: compact cars—4,500 pounds; mid-size cars—5,500 pounds; SUV’s, light trucks, and vans—7,500 pounds. Commercial vehicles can range in weight from 20,000 to 80,000 pounds, and if loaded, the weight of the load must be added to the vehicle weight. Vehicles should always be lifted or supported at structural points, not cosmetic or dynamic points. Body panels, bumper covers, hoods, trunks and roofs may have to be 8 | UFRA Straight Tip

removed to gain access to heavier structural metal when applying struts as stabilizing or lifting equipment. It is imperative to know the victim’s orientation to the vehicle and what is causing the entrapment. The safest and most efficient lift will not lift the entire vehicle but only the portion trapping or preventing access to the victim. For a victim trapped under a vehicle on a soft surface, it may be as simple as stabilizing the vehicle and removing material such as dirt from under the victim to free him or her. When possible, rescue personnel should establish four points of contact between the vehicle and the ground or other solid surfaces to provide the best stabilization to the vehicle (three points of contact should be considered the minimum; apply three contact points to the vehicle to form a load triangle using struts and straps). Wood cribbing (4"x4"), heavy timbers (6"x6" or larger), and stabilization struts can be used to create a safe and stable platform. Wood cribbing used in conjunction with heavy plywood (3/4" – 1") can be employed to build a level platform from which to operate lifting air-bags, jacks, spreaders, and rams. Ensure that the pivot point of the vehicle is well stabilized and will not shift or slide during lifting operations. For

example, if a vehicle is on an embankment, build box cribbing under two points of the vehicle on the up-hill side using cribbing and wedges to make the platforms level (the up-hill side will be the pivot point when lifting, uneven cribbing or no cribbing will allow the vehicle to slide down slope when lifting forces are applied). Next use the same technique to build level box cribbing at two points on the down-hill side (these are used as a platform to add cribbing as the vehicle lifted). Establish a secondary level platform to be used for tool or lifting bag operation; it is imperative for the load to be lifted in a vertical direction in order to prevent unwanted and unsafe movement and tool/airbag kick-out. To prevent unwanted movement never leave a gap between the cribbing and the load. A continuous lift may result in the load Without Stabilization

shifting as it gains lateral momentum; always lift an inch and crib an inch. When building the stabilization points, always maintain awareness of potential access areas, cut zones and lifting points and ensure that these points do not interfere with other operations. Part of the stabilization process includes stabilization of the incident. Keep all non-essential personnel out of the incident area until it is safe. Unless they are part of the Extrication Team (with full protective gear) or it would be detrimental to the victim’s health, emergency medical personnel and law enforcement officers should remain on standby outside of the hot zone until the victim is extricated and moved to a safe area. If the victim’s condition requires immediate medical intervention, medical personnel must be provided and must wear the proper personal protective gear (PPE) for the incident. Incident command and the extrication team must ensure the safety of everyone involved in the incident. Invite EMS, law enforcement, and first responders to your extrication training; teamwork is the key to success. Understand the capabilities and limitations of the stabilization equipment that your organization uses; you must train and practice with it in order to perform safe, competent vehicle stabilization. There’s a significant difference between having the right equipment and being able to use it effectively during an incident. Stay Safe…Chief Young

With Stabilization

Russell Young is a battalion chief and assistant training officer for the Orem Fire Department, where he is responsible for extrication and ambulance driving operations. He is the chief of the Duchesne Fire Department and has been a paramedic for over 19 years. Young has a B.S. in emergency services management, is currently completing his MBA, has over 23 years of experience in fire and emergency medical service, and is an instructor and certification tester for UFRA.

Strut Triangle: Build a three-point stabilization triangle using struts and webbing/straps with a wide base.

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Fire Officer Command Refresher: Questions to Ask Yourself before Managing an Incident Part 2 In the last issue, I offered a number of questions to ask before having to manage an incident. Here are some additional common questions I encourage current and future fire officers to have answered in advance: • • • •

What level of resources (additional alarms, mutual aid, etc.) am I able to request without approval of a chief officer? What is 2 in / 2 out, and how does it differ from the Rapid Intervention Crew/Team (RIC/RIT)? When will I establish and not establish 2 in / 2 out? Who will I use to establish 2 in / 2 out? Which personnel? Does it have to be a crew? Is it a specific apparatus? Is it the driver and the incident commander? Is it the crew with the back-up hose line? How do I let others know that 2 in / 2 out is established? Just because four personnel are on scene does not mean 2 in / 2 out is established. Those two personnel need to know that is their assignment, and they need to be in a position to make a difference, not just check a box. How will I let the 2 in / 2 out crew know who they are? Again, don’t assume just because four or more personnel are on scene that it is established, or those you think are the 2 out crew know that is their assignment. Personally I like verbally confirming with the personnel as well as announcing it on the radio to ensure all are aware

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and that it gets onto the radio communication tapes for a time stamp and permanent documentation (assuming you save your radio tapes). When will I establish RIC/RIT and with whom? This is a debatable subject; some do it with a certain arriving engine or truck, some have the rescue unit do it, some do it as needed. I’ve seen some do it with the 2nd or 3rd arriving company. Knowing that RIC/RIT is reactive (sorry, nothing personal, just reality), I think RIC/RIT should be established after a primary and back-up hose line is in place, after search and rescue is being performed, and after ventilation is coordinated. To really save our personnel, or solve our rescue problem, the key is to put water on the fire (or even put the fire out), ensure savable occupants are removed from the hazard area, teach better air management and fire behavior, and ultimately do our best to ensure our personnel are not in the positions to need a RIC/RIT in the first place. I know, easier said than done. If I am assigned as the RIC/RIT group supervisor, what tools and equipment will I direct my personnel to cache, and on what apparatus are those items kept? Upon arrival at an incident, and after doing my 360 degree hot lap, can someone realistically survive the current environment (meaning, is it worth going in to attempt a rescue, or will it be a body recovery)?

• • • • • • •

• • •

• • • • • •

If I am assigned as the ventilation group supervisor, what tools and equipment will I direct my personnel to bring with them? Where will my first hose line go? My second hose line? My third hose line? What is my trigger point to have a crew drop a supply line? What is my trigger point to have the supply line charged? What is my trigger point to have a second supply line dropped and/or charged? What is my trigger point to request a second alarm? third alarm? Strike teams? Task forces? Other single resources? Where will the fire be when water starts flowing, as opposed to where the fire is right now? I say that because when the air brakes are activated, it can usually take a few minutes before water is applied to the fire. Knowing how fast fire propagates, make sure you have a plan B, and think five steps ahead to not get caught with the short end of the stick. How will I utilize each person on each apparatus? When will I use 1-½ inch hose lines? 1-¾ inch hose lines? 2-½ inch hose lines? Master streams? If I have to break up crews, which rigs can I break up? Crew integrity is critical to ensuring the safety of our personnel. However, at times we may have to break apart crews to do different tasks. For example, at a structure fire, the first arriving engine is usually broken up if the engineer remains at the pump panel while the other personnel go inside. Which incident command system (ICS) positions will I typically fill, in which order of priority, and with whom? Do I know the steps I will take if given a firefighter down, missing, or trapped situation? If my department utilizes volunteers/reserves/ cadets/explorers/etc., how will I utilize them? How do I request them? Do I know the 10 Standard Fire Orders? 18 Situations That Shout Watch Out? Do I understand OSHA regulations, NFPA standards (especially NFPA 1500)? Do I know what my dispatchers want to hear? Have I ever gone to the communications center to sit with them and ask what they want to hear or don’t want to hear?

Asking and more importantly answering these questions well in advance of your next incident will pay off tremendously, making you actually look like you have a clue to what you are doing. Showing up at the incident and having it be Groundhog Day does not do much for your credibility and respect as a fire officer. I always suggest that you should have prepared for and/or managed that incident long before it happens, thinking it out in advance, looking at different options and tactics while knowing that each incident is slightly different than the next. Whether you are preparing for a promotional examination or just want to be the best fire officer you can be, knowing the answers to these questions from your warm fire station or home is more comforting than trying to figure them out at o’dark thirty in the rain or snow when everyone is looking at you to solve their problem and solve it now!

Steve Prziborowski has over 20 years of fire service experience and is currently serving as a deputy chief for the Santa Clara County (Los Gatos, CA) Fire Department, where he has served since 1995. Since 1993, he has taught fire technology classes at the Chabot College Fire Technology Program (Hayward, CA). Steve is a former president of the Northern California Training Officers Association, was the 2008 Ed Bent California Fire Instructor of the year, and is a state-certified chief officer and master instructor. He has earned a master’s degree in emergency services administration and has completed the Executive Fire Officer Program at the National Fire Academy. Steve is contributing editor to Firehouse.com and FireNuggets.com, is a regular speaker at fire departments and fire service events across the country, and has authored over 100 articles in all of the leading fire service publications. Steve is the author of three books: How to Excel at Fire Department Promotional Exams, Reach for the Firefighter Badge: How to Master the Fire Department Testing Process, and The Future Firefighter’s Preparation Guide: Being the Best Firefighter Candidate You Can Be!

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VIEW FROM THE HILL WILDLAND POLICY The 2014 wildfire season was one of the mildest in recent memory. Overall, however, wildfire season is getting longer, and we’re experiencing larger, more destructive fires. Municipal and local fire departments throughout the state have responded to this trend by developing more capacity and expertise in wildland fire. In fact, records show that 98% of all wildland starts are fully suppressed before they exceed 10 acres (mostly thanks to local departments). Research suggests that not only will wildfire seasons continue to be more destructive but that development into the wildland/ urban interface (WUI) will likely increase. Based on that science, the State of Utah is addressing the problem at its roots. Governor Gary R. Herbert prompted state agencies to address catastrophic wildfires within the state, and the “Catastrophic Wildfire Reduction Strategy” is a key directive. To appropriately address problems associated with wildfire prevention, preparedness and suppression, a coordinated approach is being undertaken which will be aimed at pulling all wildland agencies together (federal, state, and local). WILDFIRE PREVENTION, PREPAREDNESS, AND SUPPRESSION (In that order) Wildfires don’t follow jurisdictional lines. Thankfully, federal, state, and local wildland cooperation in Utah is highly developed due to hard work by US Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, the Utah Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands and the State 12 | UFRA Straight Tip

Fire Marshal’s Office. Together, all the involved agencies have time-tested relationships that have resulted in saving many lives, homes, and businesses. Each landmanaging entity has a statutory authority to prevent, prepare for, and suppress wildfires on their jurisdiction. Putting fires out is something all the involved agencies do well. At times the administrative aspects of wildfire suppression are the most challenging. In fact, conflicting state statutes have resulted in unclear and inconsistent mechanisms for funding wildfire suppression. State law (UCA § 11-7-1(1)) reads: “The governing body of every incorporated municipality and the board of commissioners of every county shall provide adequate fire protection within their own territorial limits and shall cooperate with all continuous counties, municipal corporations, private corporations, fire districts, or federal governmental agencies to maintain adequate fire protection within their territorial limits.” This law means counties and state-maintained incorporated municipalities are responsible to provide for fire protection, including wildland fire suppression costs. In addition, UCA § 65a-8-202(4) reads: “The actual costs of suppression action taken by the division on privately owned lands shall be a charge against the county in which the lands lie, unless otherwise provided by cooperative agreement,” which means municipalities can argue they are not responsible for paying for wildland fire suppression costs. The current dilemma is that statute does not specifically discuss wildland fire responsibility and costs within incorporated areas. In pursuit of a rounded, consistent approach that can be tailored to fit individual counties and municipalities, discussions are taking place to create policy that will lead to a solution for the conflicting laws.

As those discussions have progressed, the aspects of wildfire prevention and preparedness have come to the forefront. Prevention programs are proven to impact human behavior, and wildfire policy should support robust prevention work on a statewide level. Preparedness programs like Ready, Set, GO! are already structured and fairly easy to employ with local support. The discussions have included talk of fuels mitigation and prescribed fire, but in reality, human behavior and responsible development guided by WUI building codes are in need of more policy-level support and structure. Although suppression is a heavy focus, more emphasis on prevention and preparedness is in the works. CATASTROPHIC WILDFIRE REDUCTION STRATEGY Governor Gary R. Herbert put out the following challenge in 2012: “My challenge to the Catastrophic Wildfire Reduction Steering Committee is to develop a comprehensive and systematic strategy to reduce the size, intensity and frequency of catastrophic wildland fires in Utah.” The result was a 19-page document called the “Catastrophic Wildfire Reduction Strategy.” The three primary goals contained in the strategy are formed from the very best fire science and practices in existence. The goals also align with the “National Cohesive Wildland Fire Management Strategy”: 1. Restore & Maintain Landscapes 2. Create Fire-Adapted Communities 3. Improved Wildland Fire Response 2014’S SENATE CONCURRENT RESOLUTION 7 During last year’s legislative session, Senator Evan Vickers and Representative Joel Briscoe sponsored SCR 7 entitled “Concurrent Resolution on Comprehensive Statewide Wildland Fire Prevention, Preparedness, and Suppression Policy.” The resolution passed unanimously in the Senate and House. In the legislation, two key statements now guide the state’s progress toward the 3 goals. 1. “BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Legislature and the Governor strongly urge the Division of Forestry, Fire, and State Lands to implement the recommendations in the Catastrophic Wildfire (CatFire) Reduction Strategy.”

2. “And strongly urges the Utah Division of Forestry, Fire, and State Lands to coordinate the development of a Comprehensive Statewide Wildland Fire Prevention, Preparedness, and Suppression Policy.” With these directives in mind, the Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands has asked local government organizations, including Utah League of Cities and Towns, Utah Association of Counties, Utah Sheriff ’s Association, and Utah State Fire Chief ’s Association, to “steer” that process and ultimately help produce a final Comprehensive Statewide Policy that works on a local level. Some of the policies being discussed are: 1. The State of Utah would pay for all wildfire costs incurred during “extended attack.” 2. What officially constitutes “extended attack” in context of suppression costs? 3. How can we empower local governments to play a larger role in prevention and preparation? 4. Adopting the Wildland Urban Interface Building Code as a part of the code package. 5. Tax incentives to mitigate risk on an individual homeowner level (for completed constructions). 6. The role and funding mechanism for county fire wardens. 7. Maintaining the successes of current county cooperative agreements while providing for improvements where needed. Once all of the ideas are gathered and concerns addressed, a bill or bills will be drafted and presented to the legislature. One or more bills may be introduced in January, but ultimately that decision belongs to Senator Vickers and Representative Briscoe. Everyone feels that this needs be done right, not fast. If you have ideas, contact Jason Curry at jasoncurry@utah.gov.

Jason Curry is the PIO, Fire Investigator and Law Enforcement Officer for Utah Forestry, Fire & State Lands.

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BASEMENT FIRE TACTICS One of the most high-risk fire events that we respond to is a basement fire. Fighting fire “below grade” places firefighters at an extreme risk, especially in older structures with smaller casement window openings and no exterior doorway. Arriving on the Scene •

Be aware of the basement access point. This awareness is crucial and can be accomplished by a 360 walk around on arrival. As the first arriving company officer, you can (and should) quickly accomplish this task as your firefighters are pulling a hoseline off the engine. On most occasions as you approach the scene, you will have a good visual on the Alpha, Bravo, and Delta sides of the structure. A quick “hot lap,” as John Mittendorf describes it, will give you a view of the Charlie side and the necessary situational awareness to determine hoseline placement, area of involvement, access issues, and fire conditions. Read the smoke by determining volume, velocity, pressure, density, and color. This will give you the situational awareness of the fire’s volume and what is burning. Reading smoke is a whole class in of itself and gaining that knowledge through training is critical!

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Check for exterior entrances. Is the structure built on a grade with a full walk-out access? Is there a cut out exterior stairwell? These are excellent (and safer) fire attack options. If your attack line can go through an exterior door, remember to support the attack with a second line to the top of the interior stairs to limit vertical extension. If there is no exterior access and an attack must be made from the main level, the company officer must realize this is an extremely high-risk tactic. If during the 360, you observed fire through any basement window, remember that knocking down the fire always makes things better. There is certainly nothing wrong with a quick blast from a hoseline through an exterior window to increase the tenability before interior fire operations. After all, if the only access is through an interior stairwell, your fire attack will be the equivalent of descending into a chimney.

Basement Fire Considerations Basements are utilized for many reasons. Often there are bedrooms, game rooms, theater rooms, and most likely storage rooms. There are often water heaters, furnaces, and other utilities. In older homes it is not unusual to find electrical service panels. Finished basements will pro-

vide more protection for the stairwell and help to limit fire spread. Unfinished basements will pose a bigger risk to the integrity of the stairs. Another issue to consider is whether or not there is a basement door or open stairwell. Often in basement fires there is a delay in fire detection when there is a closed door. I remember early in my career being introduced to a “cellar nozzle” or Bresnan (in honor of the inventor). My captain talked about the value of this nozzle in knocking the fire down through a small access hole in the floor above (sort of like a makeshift sprinkler system) as well as using it through an exterior window to increase fire attack tenability. If the department doesn’t own one of those, another option is to use a piercing nozzle to employ the same tactics. Remember, water application before entry through an interior stairwell (if that’s the only option) into a well-involved basement will make things better. Basement fires need resources! Make sure you have enough people coming for all operations, especially Rapid Intervention Team(s). Basements are very prevalent in Utah. When I was a company officer in Arizona, basements were a bit of a novelty. I made it a habit as part of our preplanning to go through the model homes in subdivisions. In one particular home there was a built-in bookcase that had a sign that read, “Check behind for a surprise.” I pulled on the hinged bookcase to reveal a stairwell down to— you guessed it—a basement game room area nearly half the size of the main level and no other access whatsoever!

In summary, preplanning your area is crucial and obtaining situational awareness through a 360 is paramount. Exterior access doors are preferred for safety and to eliminate having to descend into a chimney. Exterior water application before interior fire operations will make things better. If you can still find your cellar nozzle, train with it and consider its use on limited access basement fires. Fighting basement fires is already risky enough. Proper training for and understanding of basement fires can help mitigate risk and keep us safer.

Kevin Ward is a 37-year fire service veteran, having been the fire chief for Layton City since 2004. Prior to this appointment, Chief Ward progressed through the ranks from firefighter/paramedic to battalion chief with the Chandler Fire Department in Arizona. He holds several NWCG qualifications, such as ICT3 and Structure Protection Specialist, and is an instructor for the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy. Chief Ward has been an instructor for UFRA’s Command Training Center since its inception.

January - March 2015 | 15

SCIENCE ON SCENE In the last issue we discussed the evolution of smoke alarms. As I was researching that story, I came across an important new safety device that multiplies the effectiveness of smoke alarms. It was developed right here in our backyard by 8-year Provo firefighter Peter Thorpe. He noticed that a lot of calls they went on were for cooking fires. It’s easy to get distracted by kids, doorbells, phone calls, and daily events, and then food cooking on a hot stove can be easily forgotten. According to NFPA and US Fire Administration statistics (compiled by Marty Ahrens) during the five-year period of 2007-2011, U.S. fire departments responded to an estimated yearly average of 156,600 home structure fires in which cooking equipment was involved. Together, these fires caused an average of 400 civilian deaths, 5,080 reported civilian fire injuries, and $853 million in direct property damage per year. These accounted for 43% of reported home fires and 38% of reported home fire injuries, 16% of home fire deaths, and 12% of the direct property damage resulting from home fires. Thorpe says on his Fire Avert website, “En route to yet another fire, I could see the header of smoke on the horizon. On arrival we found a large apartment complex with smoke bellowing from the structure and occupants fleeing for safety. As we pulled our hoses and forced open the door with the ax, flames and black smoke rolled out of the doorway. Tenants in nearby apartments were coughing as they fled their homes for safety. They watched helplessly as the fire spread towards their apartments. Like many other apartment fires, this tragedy was caused by unattended cooking.”

16 | UFRA Straight Tip

Thorpe talked about the problem with other firefighters and they thought that there should be something that would turn off a stove if neglected cooking started to generate smoke and before flames spread. It’s not uncommon for firefighters to come up with clever solutions to fire problems, and Thorpe was a handy guy with a vision of reducing the risk to the people he serves. He came up with the concept for a device that would hear a smoke alarm and shut off the power to a stove. He and a team of engineer buddies built a device they call the Fire Avert. It plugs into a kitchen range outlet and the range plugs into it. When smoke triggers a nearby alarm, the Fire Avert senses that and power to the range is instantly cut. This allows the stove and the burning food to cool before serious damage begins to occur. The Fire Avert also comes in a version that attaches to an electric clothes dryer. Makes sense, since another common cause of home fires is ignition of accumulated lint in a dryer or duct. Either version costs $195. They’ve sold almost 1300 units and claim to have prevented 35 fires, so far. They are now developing a similar product to turn off a microwave. I just wish they had a device for my gas stoves! For more information go to http://www.fireavert.com/ Steve Lutz has spent the last 38 years working in the fire service as a firefighter, fire chief, instructor, Public Safety Director and currently as an Assistant Director at the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy.

Battalion Chief: Chief Level Leadership As a chief officer you will be exposed to every imaginable philosophy on leadership. The act of leading pushes the fire service forward only if leaders guide using the principles that founded the profession of firefighter. Organizational core values differ but are almost always based on qualities of honesty, integrity, professionalism, accountability, and selfless service. When you were promoted to chief officer, you accepted a pledge to honor and uphold the values espoused by the proud profession of firefighter.

Captain candidates are often put through a role play exercise during the testing process. Many times test candidates must address the poor behavior of a subordinate firefighter. During this make believe process, it’s difficult to find someone unwilling to take action to confront and stop the errant behavior. In the real world, many of us find it very difficult to hold somebody accountable after working with the person for an extended period. Friendships develop and loyalty between job and subordinate can become blurred. Chief officers must not only hold others accountable but also instill the same sense of duty in mid-level managers that report to them. If you’ve been a chief officer for many years, the above words will ring true. You, no doubt, have stories of when your chiefly duties were easy and when your moral obligation conflicted with a personal or group agenda. If you are new to upper management or are just considering entering the battalion chief promotional process, you may want to listen to the stories of tenured chiefs. Most lessons of leadership are not learned in classroom theory but are hardfought lessons learned through the course of your career.

The further you progress in your organization, the more acutely aware you will become of the forces that will conflict with the path you know your fire department and you, as a chief, should be on. Chief officers must be organizationally minded while listening to individual member input. In the end, organizational decisions that benefit the tax-paying citizenry, the profession of firefighter, and your entire organization are the highest responsibility of every fire organization’s administration. As a chief officer you will help shape and direct your department’s future. You have left the ranks of mid management and now give direction to the captains that report to you. It is your responsibility to make sure mid-level managers are true to the position they hold. That is, captains ensure administrative directives (aka SOP’s and policies) are carried out. Fortunately for chief officers, most captains understand this duty and need little direction.

Leading as a chief officer takes personal conviction and is not always comfortable or easy. Competing agendas may see you as a threat and attack you in one way or another. Know your course and rationale and stick to your guns. In the long run, personal agendas will give way to organizational progress and improvement that center around values we should all agree on.

Paul Hewitt began his career as an Orem City reserve firefighter in 1987. After 20 years with the Salt Lake City Fire Department he served as a Fire Chief in Arizona before his 2011 appointment to Fire Chief of the Park City Fire District.

January - March 2015 | 17

Provo Fire Department Hosts Provo Fire & Rescue was asked to host a train derailment training exercise. The scenario was based on a train derailment involving multiple chlorine tank cars, a flat bed of 1-ton chlorine cylinders, along with a box car of military munitions being transported to an unknown military base. The incident was focused on the tactical interaction between state and local agencies as well as other regional and state agencies. The exercise allowed everyone involved to exercise their response protocols, activate hazmat teams, set up a unified command structure, initiate a soft standup of the city / county EOCs, and test the information / request for State assistance procedures. The train derailment was based on a simulated 6.0 earthquake hitting the Wasatch fault on Nov. 1. Many areas 18 | UFRA Straight Tip

throughout the Salt Lake region experienced some minor damage. The evening of the Nov. 2, a 7.0 aftershock rocked the area again. The stronger aftershock devastated the infrastructure through the I-15 corridor from Davis County down to Nephi. Vigilant Guard is a readiness exercise utilizing the National Guard to assist the already taxed agencies and resources. Nov. 3 at 0715, Provo dispatch received a 911 call informing them of the derailment. Provo Fire responded with a first alarm response. Upon arrival, the first on scene unit found multiple tank cars involved. There was a white cloud of vapor coming from one tank car, and fluids leaking from another. Details were given to the IC as what was real world and what was reality. The information and exercise details

Photography by Steve Lutz

Hazmat Scenario were closely guarded by the scenario organizers, (Fire / Military) to keep everyone working the event in real-time. The scenario tasked the participants with air monitoring, hazmat technician skills, site entry plans, product identification, decon line/corridor, mobile command post, and product mitigation. According to the scenario evaluator, the various entities involved demonstrated a good working relationship with each other as well as a shared understanding of each other’s capabilities. The integration of the agencies on site was seamless and information was readily shared. The scenario was based at the rail yard in Provo but was hosted at UFRA due to safety concerns.

The players in the scenario: Provo Fire & Rescue, Provo Police, Provo City Emergency Manager, Utah County Emergency Manager / Dispatch, Metro Bomb Squad, Utah Valley Metro Special Response Team, Utah National Guard 85th Civil Support Team (CST), Pennsylvania 3rd CST, Colorado CST, New Mexico CST and Oklahoma CST, and the Vigilant Guard Command Staff. Scenario exercises can be extremely helpful in training. If you are interested in setting up a training scenario with other agencies and need UFRA props, assistance or the training ground, please contact the UFRA program manager assigned to your county.

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FARMINGTON CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT PLACES FEDERAL EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY (FEPP) APPARATUS IN SERVICE After accepting the position of fire chief in 2011, Guido Smith performed a detailed Hazard & Needs Assessment of Farmington City, located a few miles north of Salt Lake City. Farmington is nestled up against the Wasatch Mountains and presents the department a long list of challenges regarding urban interface fire protection. Settled in 1847, Farmington boasts a rich history within Davis County and continues to grow at an exponential rate with various developments in the works.

Water Tender 711 responding to a call in the Wasatch National Forest located above Farmington.

20 | UFRA Straight Tip

One of several areas identified in the assessment included the need for tactical water tenders to support interface fire suppression activities, freeway fire responses, and alternative means of water delivery throughout the community in case of seismic events. With limited budget and funding in short supply, Chief Smith started looking to

alternative funding and networking opportunities throughout the region. Chief Smith’s quest led him to the State of Utah Department of Natural Resources / Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands, which helped acquire various pieces of apparatus through the Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) program. The FEPP program refers to Forest Service–owned property that is on loan to state foresters for the purpose of wildland and rural firefighting. Most of the property originally belonged to the Department of Defense. Once acquired by the Forest Service, the property is loaned to state cooperators for firefighting purposes. The state forester may then place the property with local departments to improve local fire programs. State foresters and the USDA Forest Service

Water Tender 71, shown near the “Firebreak Road” on the east bench of Farmington during the “Spine” Fire 2013.

Water tenders utilized in structure protection training above Farmington Canyon. Farmington FD provides initial fire protection to nearly 40 structures within the canyon and upper valley area.

have mutually participated in the FEPP program since 1956 and have helped many communities provide specialty apparatus otherwise not obtainable. The Farmington Fire Department received several pieces of apparatus, including two 5-ton 6x6 trucks capable of meeting the service needs identified within the assessment. After processing each truck through vigorous and comprehensive mechanical assessments, Chief Smith and his staff faced the challenge of retrofitting the apparatuses to become effective firefighting machines. To comply with FEPP program requirements, Smith needed to strip and paint these trucks immediately and was able to network with the United Auto Workers–Labor Employment and Training Corporation (UAW– LETC) based out of Freeport Center Clearfield. This advanced automotive training program is designed to provide students from all over the nation high-quality training while

providing unprecedented savings to customers willing to enter apparatus into the program. “By no means is this program sketchy,” said Smith. “All students receive detailed instruction and supervision under the skillful mentorship of highly experienced career instructors.” Smith also explained he was only charged the expense of supplies and raw materials—pennies on the dollar. “It’s a great way to support the educational development of our next generation, as many of these students would not have such opportunities otherwise,” said Smith, referring to the UAW–LETC program mission of helping many underprivileged students from all over the country. After the UAW–LETC work was completed, the apparatuses received extensive in-house work (using NFPA 1901 & 1906 as guides), including installation of 1500-gallon tanks, pumps, and emergency signaling devices. Much of the electronic equipment was donated by local law

Complete teardown, preparatory work, painting, and reassembly at the UAW– LETC facility at Job Corps, Clearfield.

enforcement agencies, who supplied excess equipment. Additional equipment was acquired through regular budget process. It took a total of 18 months to complete the water tender project, including the extensive training of operators. In 2014, the department upgraded both water tenders to tactical water tenders after receiving funding through the Utah Fire Department Assistance Grant. Both FEPP tenders will continue to play a vital role in fire suppression activities throughout Farmington and surrounding areas. The Farmington City Fire Department would like to thank all parties involved with the success of this program and congratulate its personnel for a job well done! For more information regarding this article, please contact Fire Chief Guido Smith at gsmith@farmington.utah.gov. January - March 2015 | 21



After talking with some of the old timers around town about the beginnings of the Levan Fire Department (LFD), I learned a crucial lesson: be careful who you talk to and about what subject. You could be in for a long conversation. While talking with them I learned that Levan Fire Department’s roots go back into the 1920’s, when the department started with a hand pump on a cart with rubberized buggy wheels, and the storage for the hose was around the axle. Fighting fires back then was a community effort; one individual would ring the fire bell situated on top of the fire shed, one person would grab the cart, and the rest of the town would go to the fire. That cart served this community until 1943, when they acquired a twowheeled trailer. The first engine came

22 | UFRA Straight Tip

to town in 1946; it was a military surplus engine. From 1920 to 1950 Levan used a bell to alert the community of a fire, then they upgraded to a siren on top of the shed. The siren served its purpose until the introduction of a pager system. Most volunteers these days work with the pager system. Levan Town is nestled close to the center of the state, where SR-28 cuts the town almost in half. It is 10 miles south of Nephi and 90 miles south of Salt Lake City. The population is approximately 900. Levan Fire Department was started as a volunteer department and remains one today as part of the Juab Fire District. We operate with 10 firefighters, who are notified by pagers 24/7 in the event of an emergency. Covering an area over 116 square miles, LFD also covers unincorporated Mills, Yuba recreation area, a feed mill, a rendering facility, a propane farm, 17 miles of I-15 (which

is 10 miles from town), and a coal rail head thrown in for fun. Needless to say doing all this by ourselves would be difficult. We are grateful for mutual aid support from Nephi, who responds automatically on all structure fires, as well as Mona and Rocky Ridge fire departments. We also receive supporting help on freeway and brush fires from Scipio and Gunnison fire departments when needed, and we are willing to return the help. LFD moved in to our new building in August of 2008, moving trucks from all over the city to one location. It has four bays, all pull through, deep enough for two structure trucks end to end. It has a conference/training room and a large storage area upstairs with a training window built in for rope and high angle second-story window rescue training. Taking up the spaces in the bays are:

in St



2nd North

2nd North

4th East

3rd East


1st North 1st East

1st West

2nd West


Country Junction

2nd East

Main St


28 Center St

Center St

3rd West

Levan Town Fire Department 1st South

1st South

200 South

4th East

3rd East

200 South

2nd East

1st East

1st West

Slaughterhouse Ln

200 South

2nd West


3rd South

3rd South

Needless to say, with such a large area comes the problem of finding a source of water at the scene of the fire, and as most of you know there is never a convenient fire hydrant anywhere

nearby. So our SOP on all fires is that the water tender is the second truck out. We were fortunate enough to have been able to replace both structure trucks this year with the help of the Juab Fire District. We replaced a 1979 American Lafrance and a 1985 Ford Smeal (both open cab). LFD responds to structure fires, wildland fires, vehicle fires, hazmat situations and, when needed, will assist Levan Ambulance on medical emergencies. LFD is very active in the community, with different activities at Christmastime, the 24th of July, and Halloween; we even get to help out with the Levan Town Buckaroo Rodeo. Levan firefighters are striving to keep up with training and holding down full-time jobs. Most of the department members are Firefighter II certified and have their Wildland Red cards. I am proud to be with Levan Fire and to be a part of the firefighter brotherhood. It truly is a great service that firefighters provide.

The pictures are: A few trucks with the new station in the background. Photography by Alese Stewart The picture of the truck in the shop was taken the day it was picked up and driven 2400 miles from Florida to Levan. Photography by Alese Stewart An old LFD engine. Photography by Ryan Pettit The Levan Fire that started on July 24, 2014. Photography by Alese Stewart

January - March 2015 | 23

4th East

3rd East

• 2014 Pierce Freightliner Responder • 1997 E-One Pumper • 1995 Peterbuilt 4000gal Water Tender with dust control abilities and a PTO pump • 1976 International 4000gal Water Tender • 2002 F-550 Ford Type 6 brush truck w/300gal water tank • 1986 FEPP Chevrolet D30 Military Type 6 brush truck w/200 gal water tank • Newly acquired and in construction: • FEPP 5 ton military cargo truck, which will be used as a 6x6 type 4 heavy brush truck for those hard to reach places • 2006 Chevrolet K3500 w/12' flatbed donated to us by Mitchell, Lewis, and Staver that will replace the 1986 type 6



South Jordan City Fire Chief Chris Evans has announced his retirement effective January 1, 2015. In his career, Chief Evans has worked as a part-time firefighter, firefighter, police officer, SWAT medic, fire lieutenant, and fire captain for West Jordan Fire. In 2001 he was hired by South Jordan Fire Department as an operations battalion chief. In August 2005 he was promoted to deputy chief and then chief of the department in January 2006. Among other accomplishments, Chief Evans was instrumental in establishing a Public Access Defibrillator program in South Jordan that has gained national attention.

South Jordan City has announced that Chief Andrew Butler will be appointed as the South Jordan City fire chief effective January 1, 2015. Chief Butler began his career working part time for Draper City Ambulance and Salt Lake County Fire. He was hired on by the South Jordan City Fire Department in 1997. Chief Butler has served as a part-time firefighter, firefighter, paramedic, captain, and battalion chief. Chief Butler holds an associate of applied science from Utah Valley University, a bachelor of science in finance, and a master of business administration from the University of Utah. He is currently

in his final year of the Executive Fire Officer Program at the National Fire Academy. Provo Battalion Chief Jeremy Craft will begin service as Lehi’s fire chief Dec. 15, 2014. Craft has 20 years in the fire service, and spent 18 of those with the Provo Fire and Rescue Department, the past six as battalion chief. Craft also has six years of experience as an EMS team member, five years as a Life Flight paramedic and nine years as an instructor at the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy at Utah Valley University. He has also worked concurrently for the North Fork Fire Department for the past two years

2015 UTAH FIRE TRAINING CONVENTION April 2nd | 1:00 p.m. – 5:00 p.m.

April 3rd & 4th

Keynote Speaker

Training Sites Throughout SL Valley

Chief Rick Lasky 34-year member of the fire service, author of Pride & Ownership Chief Lasky takes a hard look at the fire service and gives upfront, honest views about leadership. South Towne Expo Center -10450 S. State Street, Sandy Registration: $10 for Day 1 $25 For All 3 Days Registration Deadline: March 5

• • • • • • • •

Truck Ops (2-day class) Vehicle Extrication (2-day class) TIC (1-day class) Elevator Rescue (1-day class) Flashover (4 hr blocks on both days) Search and Rescue (1 day class) Logical Incident Command (1-day class) Rescue Task Force (Active Shooter, 2-day)

One-day classes will be offered on both days

To register contact: mbailey@ufa-slco.org. For course info contact: Battalion Chief Greg Reynolds greynolds@ufa-slco.org

Convention Sponsors: Salt Lake Valley Fire Alliance, Utah Fire & Rescue Academy, Professional Firefighters of Utah

Certification Council Changes by Lori Howes

Scott Spencer presents service awards to Karl Steadman (top) & Kevin Bowman (bottom)

The Certification Council is the governing body of the firefighter certification system in Utah. They establish uniform minimum standards for firefighter certification and ensure quality and uniformity. Council members serve three-year terms and are devoted to making the Utah Fire Service Certification System one of the finest in the nation.

Re-appointed Member Jason Earl, Battalion Chief Orem Fire Department

The Utah Fire and Rescue Academy would like to thank the following individuals for their dedicated service on the Utah Fire Service Certification Council.

Newly Appointed Members Christopher Trevino, Captain West Jordan Fire Department

Term Expired Karl Steadman, Battalion Chief Salt Lake City Fire Department Retired Member Kevin Bowman, Deputy Chief South Salt Lake Fire Department

We also appreciate the willingness of our newly appointed members to serve on the council, and we look forward to the experience and knowledge they bring.

David Youngberg, Captain North Davis Fire District

Thanks From a Grateful Father I set out this morning to locate nine firefighters, EMTs and at long last, send him my thanks. And then I moved to police officers that, more than 15 years ago, responded to the next name on the list. Bill Silva, firefighter in charge a 911 call. I started with a letter sent to me in 1999 from from Station 34. He was a bit harder to find, but I got a Alan Siddoway, who was then a sergeant in the Park City hit from something called UFRA Straight Tip. A click or Police Department. I had asked Sergeant Siddoway to protwo later I was reading an article from 2011 titled, How vide me the names of the team members that responded to Go Out on Top: The Bill Silva Career. And I said to to our cry for help because I wanted to thank them for myself, “hmmm…. maybe I’ve left this thank you thing their service. The outcome that day was not good. But a bit too long.” Then I came to the second paragraph of these men had done everything they could. And they did the four-paragraph article: it with a level of dignity and consideration that was extraordinary. So I wanted “Like all firefighter careers Bill has seen his fair share of sadness. . . . to thank them. But I was lost in grief and pain. A year later I was still too fragile. And so on. Every so often I would pull out Alan’s letter and remember the incredible service these people had done us. But I couldn’t bring myself to reach out to articulate my appreciation. Not yet. It just felt too raw.

Bill recounts being called to a mansion with a person trapped in an elevator.

On the firefighters arrival, a frantic man covered in blood pleaded with the firefighters to save his four-year-old daughter. The child was mortally injured in a horrific elevator accident that day. “We lost a beautiful little girl and we lost one of my fellow firefighters; he turned his resignation in that day not wanting to experience anything like that again,” states Silva.

Today I was organizing my office and I came upon the letter. Summit County Sherriff ’s letterhead, dated February 24, 1999, and the list of names: Firefighter in Charge Bill Silva Paramedic Anthony Lewis EMT Casey Woods EMT Steve Thorlakson Officer Steven Hirzel Detective Tom James Officer Wyman Berg Sgt. Sherm Farnsworth Signed with a very heartfelt message by Sgt. Alan Siddoway. So the Internet is a wonderful thing. In about three minutes I found out that Alan Siddoway is now Lt. Siddoway and he heads up the Summit County Court Services Division. The link included his email address. So I was able to, 26 | UFRA Straight Tip

Maura Davison, a few weeks before the accident

It stunned me that, remembering a distinguished career that spanned nearly three decades, Bill would single out that one event. I was the frantic father trying to save my daughter. That day changed my family and me forever, and not too many days pass without me thinking about it. Now I realize that it also had a profound impact on the team that tried to rescue Maura. It was a singular memory for a veteran firefighter. It caused another brave man to resign the very next day. I thought we were just one of many, many tragedies that firefighters, EMTs and police experience as part of their jobs. I thought that my appreciation for their efforts was something that could wait until I was ready to open that wound again. So now I not only owe my thanks, but also a sincere apology to Bill and the rest of the men who came to the house that day. I should have reached out much earlier to let

Trained to Act by Andrea Urban

While Captain Scott Bernards was on vacation last November, his daughter was looking out a window and noticed a house on fire half a mile away. Scott knew there was someone still inside—his 74-year-old Aunt Kay. He and his brother made their way to the home. Upon entry he looked at the fire conditions and determined that he had little time to act based on what he’d been taught. Scott suffered minor burns because of lack of equipment

each man know that even though we couldn’t save Maura, their efforts did make a difference. These men were gentle and kind, and they made it possible for us to hold Maura one last time and say goodbye. The road to healing has been long and difficult, and it will continue for the rest of our lives. But those men, that day, helped us to begin that journey. They helped save us. So, gentlemen, I will do my utmost to send my appreciation to each of you. But if I don’t locate you, my hope is that this letter will be reprinted in Straight Tip and perhaps you’ll see it and know that you made a difference that day. Belatedly and eternally grateful,

Scott Davison

but his Aunt Kay is alive today because of the training and ability to act on that training.

On October 21, 2014, Captain Scott Bernards was awarded the AAA Rescuer of the Year for an act of heroism he performed in Idaho last November. At the ceremony, AAA Utah awarded the Santaquin Fire/EMS Association $10,000 in Bernards’ name. Among other things, the association plans to use the money to buy three thermal imaging cameras, Bernards said. According to Captain Bernards, the most helpful training was the training received as a volunteer with Santaquin Fire Department: “They taught me to be comfortable in my surroundings and not panic.” On this fire his mind was made up to enter the residence to risk a lot to save a lot. He assessed the smoke, the construction, the time

the fire had been burning before he arrived, and the lack of PPE, but most of all he assessed the risk involved to save a life. He was willing to rely on the training he’d received over the past 12 years to make the decisions he did. In the 12 years on the department, He’s had the opportunity to attend UFRA certification classes, about eight UFRA Winter Fire Schools, and other related courses. Because of his department leaders and the consistency of the training they offer, he has been given the chance to continue to learn and train with the best people. Scott is full of gratitude for the many who have taken the time to teach and train the “new guy,” whoever that may be, over the years, and a special THANKS to Bruce Long for all the wisdom he’s shared.

January - March 2015 | 27

SO WHAT’S GOING ON by Andy Byrnes

The Candidate Physical Ability Test (CPAT) is a timed physical fitness assessment developed by the IAFF and the IAFC in 1997 as a Wellness-Fitness Initiative. The assessment is used by many fire departments for employment screening purposes. “The purpose [of the resulting Candidate Physical Ability Test Initiative] was to develop, validate and assist fire departments with the implementation of a Candidate Physical Ability Test (CPAT) that would enable them to hire inherently physically capable fire fighters” (IAFC). The CPAT is the most common firefighter candidate physical ability test in the nation. The test provides a validated, defensible, and acceptable measurement of a candidate’s ability to perform typical fireground tasks. Until October 1, 2014, Utah Valley University (UVU) was a licensed agency and could hold a CPAT at any time, and local agencies accepted those CPAT times for their employment screening. Recently, the IAFF awarded accreditation to UVU for their CPAT facility. UVU is now only a host facility for the CPAT. Going forward, when a CPAT is held at UVU, it must be sponsored by a licensed agency usually in connection with a hiring process. These agencies will use UVU facilities and equipment to hold their CPAT. Who needs to take the CPAT? Only those individuals applying for employment with various agencies need to take the CPAT. The Recruit Candidate Academy (RCA) at UVU does not require a CPAT for admission. This change comes in conjunction with the new UVU policy on CPAT. Individuals who need a certified CPAT for employment must be sponsored by that agency or group of agencies and take the CPAT scheduled by them through UVU. These agencies will provide certification documents to the participants for a passed CPAT. How do I prepare for the CPAT? UVU has tentative dates scheduled quarterly for CPAT orientation and practice tests. These will be held for candidates who would like to prepare for the CPAT. UVU will hold these practice tests regardless of whether the formal CPAT has been sponsored. The cost for a practice test is $10.00, payable through online registration. When is the orientation and practice for the test? Orientation and practice are usually held the Friday and Saturday before the CPAT.

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2015: January 23 & 24, April 10 & 11, July 10 & 11, October 9 & 10 2016: January 15 & 16, April 8 & 9, July 8 & 9, October 7 & 8 2017: January 20 & 21, April 7 & 8, July 7 & 8, October 13 & 14 There must be a minimum of 10 participants in order to set up the practice tests. If 10 participants cannot be reached, a refund will be offered to participants. Times of Orientation and Practice for CPAT Orientations: Fridays 5:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m., Saturdays 8:00 a.m. to 10:00 a.m. Practice Tests: Fridays 7:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m., Saturdays 10:00 a.m. to 12:00 a.m. When is the formal CPAT? (These are tentative dates; watch the UVU RCA website for changes) Refrain from strenuous activity at least three days prior to your CPAT scheduled test. 2015: January 31, April 18, July 18, October 17 (9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m.) 2016: January 23, April 16, July 16, October 15 (9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m.) 2017: January 28, April 15, July 15, October 21 (9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m.) The actual CPAT will not be held unless a licensed agency has coordinated for the test to be held through UVU. How long is the test? Although the test itself lasts only 10-15 minutes, plan on a full hour for test administration. As a licensed agency, or a participant wanting a practice test, how do I schedule orientation, practice, or the formal CPAT? 1. Go to http://www.uvu.edu/esa/academics/rca.html 2. Click on the CPAT Registration link; Follow the instructions for registration. 3. Licensed Agencies please call (801) 863-7749 to schedule a CPAT at least 10 days in advance of your desired CPAT date. Problems registering? Call (801) 863-7749 What are the costs involved for orientation, practice tests, or the formal CPAT? Formal CPAT: $30.00 Practice Test and/or Orientation: $10.00

WITH THE CPAT? These costs are payable to UVU for the setup and takedown of the CPAT and the use of the facilities and equipment. Licensed agencies may charge additional fees. Information about any additional fees will be found on the registration page for your particular CPAT date or will be provided to you by the employing agency. What about agencies that use the CPAT as an annual physical fitness test? Agencies can schedule a physical fitness (PT) test using CPAT equipment. Call (801) 863-7749 to coordinate the PT test dates and times. There is a minimum $240.00/ day setup fee. Where do I go to take the CPAT or practice test? Utah Valley University – Emergency Services 3131 Mike Jense Parkway, Provo, Utah 84601 Call (801) 863-7749 or see mapping software for directions. How long is my passing time good for? This depends on the hiring practices of the licensed agency sponsoring the CPAT. Who can I contact for further questions? Contact Donna Cotterell, RCA Admin, at (801) 8637749 or Andy Byrnes, RCA Program Coordinator, at (801) 863-7721 or (888) 548-7816.

Utah Foresters Special Service Award UFRA’s Dan Cather and Steve Lutz accept the Utah Foresters Special Service Award for their extraordinary efforts to produce the acclaimed Clay Springs Burnover, 2012 video. The production was a team effort involving UFRA, including Cather, Lutz, and videographer Dan Demille; Central Region FMO, Fred Johnson; and the Oak City FD. The video includes interviews with three Oak City firefighters who were burned and nearly killed when their engine was trapped by terrain and a rapidly moving wildfire. The film points out the lessons learned through the words of the firefighters and re-enactment of the fires events. The video can be viewed online at http:// ed.ted.com/on/DLqbKLKz or DVD copies can be obtained from your UFRA program manager.

The 30th Annual Training Seminar of the Utah Chapter, International Association of Arson Investigators will be held February 22 to 25, 2015, at the Rainbow Hotel Casino in West Wendover, NV. Training will include a NFPA 921 and 1033 update as well as live burns. The registration fee is $280.00, which includes yearly Chapter dues. Watch our website utahiaai.com for updates. Utah Chapter - International Association of Arson Investigators P.O. Box 65927 South Salt Lake City, Utah 84165 January - March 2015 | 29

Emergency Apparatus Driving Simulator Creating Real Experience through Simulation At Winter Fire School January 2015 in St. George, Utah, the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy (UFRA) will introduce a new course designed for the Emergency Apparatus Driver. The course utilizes an Emergency Apparatus Driving Simulator (EADS). The simulator creates realistic experiences that enable drivers to perfect their judgment and awareness skills safely within a variety of challenging situations. Students will learn a wide range of skills, from basic vehicle operations to advanced scenario-based situational training. Simulation allows students to experience driving situations without the consequences that would follow a mistake made in actual driving situations.

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The advanced technology EADS replicates the most popular vehicles used in fire, emergency medical, and police organizations. The type of vehicle used during a simulation scenario will replicate the characteristics, dynamics, and viewpoint of the real vehicle. The objective of simulation training is not to teach a student how to drive (though this is a positive side effect); rather simulation is used to instill, increase, and enhance judgment, decision making, situational awareness, and problem-solving skills. Emergency vehicle drivers must have experience and recurrent training. One of the hardest things to teach is experience; most emergency vehicle drivers get this through onthe-job training. Many organizations require new members

The advanced technology EADS replicate the most popular vehicles used in fire, emergency medical, and police organizations. Photograph by: Russell Young


Emergency apparatus driving simulators create realistic experiences that enable drivers to perfect their judgment and awareness skills safely within a variety of challenging situations. Photograph by: Candice Rich

to drive in non-emergency mode for several months before allowing them to drive with lights and sirens. This is a minimal amount of driving at best and usually in a non-stress environment. Once the probationary driving is complete, personnel are allowed to drive with lights and siren in very stressful situations. Emergency response driving is one of the worst skills to learn during on-the-job training. Learning how to enter and clear an intersection against a red light and left of center should not be taught when responding to an emergency incident. In order to develop experience, emergency vehicle drivers must be able analyze the situation and correctly determine the appropriate action. Recognition-primed decision making is the concept of recognizing and applying learned experience competently. As students develop experience, their situational recognition and awareness skills increase, which enhances driver safety.

Emergency Apparatus Driving Simulators allow the student to perform in a variety of emergency situations in a controlled environment. When the student makes a mistake in the simulator, the instructor can pause, review, and replay the scenario. While the human brain is not fooled and

understands that the student is in a simulated environment, the mind logs the training as a real event, thus the student is able to gain valuable experience from mistakes as well as the positive reinforcement of correct driving behaviors. Simulation is a powerful training tool that merges knowledge, skills, and concepts. Basic driving skills can be taught faster and more information is retained. Through simulation, students can practice single and multiple apparatus response, clearing intersections, hazard avoidance, risk-vbenefit, seatbelt applications, proper apparatus placement, inclement weather conditions, tender operations, tiller training, mechanical failures, etc. The Utah Fire and Rescue Academy Emergency Apparatus Driving Simulator program creates driving situations and experiences that allow drivers to perfect their skills by employing a variety of challenging scenarios and emergency situations. The mobile EADS classroom allows departments across Utah the ability to access this valuable training. Driver training should be considered a vital part of any department’s training program, and the Emergency Apparatus Driving Simulator is designed to provide or enhance emergency driver training programs. If you are interested in using the EADS for your department, please contact your area program manager. Stay Safe‌ Chief Young Russell Young is a battalion chief and assistant training officer for the Orem Fire Department, where he is responsible for extrication and ambulance driving operations. He is the chief of the Duchesne Fire Department and has been a paramedic for over 19 years. Young has a B.S. in emergency services management, is currently completing his MBA, has over 23 years of experience in fire and emergency medical service, and is an instructor and certification tester for UFRA.. January - March 2015 | 31

Climbing the Ladder

Nathan Nance was promoted to Captain/Paramedic in September 2014.

Shaun Smith was promoted to Engineer/Paramedic in September 2014

Brent McFarland was promoted to Captain/Advanced EMT in April 2014.

Brandon Anderson was promoted to Full-time Firefighter/ Advanced EMT in April 2014

Luke Embley was promoted to Engineer/Paramedic in April 2014

Guy Hellewell was promoted to Fulltime Firefighter/ Advanced EMT in September 2014

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Brad Wilkes was promoted to Battalion Chief in September 2014. Chief Wilkes will continue to manage the Department’s Wildland program and will assume the position of Support Services Battalion Chief and shift commander of “A” Platoon.

Layton City Fire Battalion Chief Mike Adams has decided to hang up his White Helmet and retire from the Fire Service after 26 years. Mike was very instrumental in the growth of Layton City Fire Department and the development of the personnel. Layton City had only one station and 2 people on duty when Mike started. Layton City has grown to 3 stations and 16 operations personnel per day during that time. Mike came up through the ranks of Firefighter, Captain, and then Battalion Chief. Mike looks forward to spending more time with his wife, Amy, and their 4 children. Layton City Fire Department will miss Battalion Chief Adams and his leadership and wishes him well in his new endeavors.

Supervising Fire Officers The Utah Commission on Fire Officer Professional Designation is pleased to announce that Corey Cluff, Lance Beech, Aaron Byington, Charles Stokes, and Mike Phillips have achieved designation as Supervising Fire Officers following their successful application process. For more information on the Officer Designation Program, go to: http://www.uvu.edu/ufra/resource_center/fodp.html

South Salt Lake Fire

Terry Addison

Shane Conrad

Terry Addison was promoted to Deputy Chief, Oct. 16, 2014. Shane Conrad was promoted to Battalion Chief Nov. 10, 2014. South Salt Lake Fire also hired the following: Sam Colovich (full-time) Part-time Hires: Jared Miller, James Quinn, Brandon Dougall, John Adkins, Quinton Addison and Daniel Jorgensen. South Salt Lake congratulates and welcomes everyone to their new positions!

In Memory UFRA employee Pat Nakai passed away on the morning of November 25th after a courageous battle with cancer. Pat worked for UFRA for many years. She was a tremendously hard worker and would often stay late to complete her work. Pat worked an additional job at Cinemark, and she loved movies. Pat was studying Criminal Justice at UVU and really enjoyed her classes. She’ll be remembered for her dry sense of humor. Pat was an amazing mother to five children who she referred to as her “guys,” and she would do anything for them. She was also actively involved with her grandchildren, and they loved being with her. Her absence will be felt at the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy. She will be loved and will be missed.

State Forestry Award The Utah Division of Forestry, Fire and State Lands recently presented the State Forester’s Award-Cooperator of the Year to the Santa Clara Fire Department. SCFD Chief Dan Nelson said the firefighters work with other departments for training as well as fighting wildfires. The wildland fire program started under Chief Hansen more than a decade ago and has become a model for other small departments. The department has been able to earn money for new equipment and provides employment for the

State Forester’s Award-Cooperator of the Year presented to the Santa Clara Fire Department

otherwise volunteer firefighters when fighting State and Federal lands. At the same awards ceremony, San Juan County Fire Warden Ben Huntsman received the Warden of the Year award for his efforts to unify wildland fire response and training in southeast Utah. Ben has really stepped up to bridge the sometimes rough relations between local, state and federal agencies.

Ben Huntsman receiving the Warden of the Year award

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You most likely already know, or should know, the definition of a flashover. “When flashover occurs, the combustible materials in the compartment and the gases produced by pyrolysis ignite almost instantaneously; the result is full-room involvement. Flashover typically occurs in the growth stage of fire but can occur in the fully developed stage” (IFSTA Essentials, 6th Ed. p. 247). In a recent conversation, I asked Battalion Chief Karl Steadman of the Salt Lake City F.D. and an instructor with UVU’s Recruit Candidate Academy what he thought was the most important aspect of fire behavior a firefighter should know and recognize. He said, “It’s most important for a firefighter to recognize the stages of fire and where the firefighter finds himself or herself at the time. That way, 34 | UFRA Straight Tip

they know what to expect in the present stage and what is likely to occur in the next.” So if flashover typically occurs in the growth and sometimes in the fully developed stages, what are these and what are the signs that you’re in that stage (IFSTA pp. 241-246)? •

Incipient Stage: This stage starts with ignition and is confined to the materials first ignited. Radiant heat warms adjacent fuel loads and heated gases rise to mix with cooler air before spreading horizontally across the compartment. Temperatures are only slightly above ambient.

photography by Andy Byrnes

BACK TO BASICS: Flashover! Meet the Dragon

UVU RCA students overhaul the Mobile Flashover Simulator after training. (Class #67).

Growth Stage: The fire begins to influence the environment and is largely influenced by the amount of ventilation in the room. Fire development increases as air is drawn in from all sides of the fuel, and heated gases at the ceiling level rise as radiation and convection begin to heat fuel surfaces. Thermal layering begins as hot gases begin to bank down from the ceiling. The fire is gaining speed and intensity. Fully Developed Stage: All combustible materials in the compartment are burning and releasing the maximum amount of radiant heat. This stage is intensely ventilation controlled. It depends on the opening in the compartment and the fire’s ability to consume available oxygen. Flames and heat extend to other parts of the structure. The fire is burning intensely and beginning to affect exposures. Decay Stage: As fuel and/or oxygen are completely consumed, the oxygen concentration in the room no longer supports combustion. Temperatures are still high, and depending on the amount of available fuel left over, if oxygen is introduced without proper ventilation, a backdraft can occur.

Just prior to flashover, a phenomenon known as “rollover” may occur. This is a significant flame event and an indicator of an imminent flashover. Rollover is defined by IFSTA as “a condition where the unburned fire gases that have accumulated at the top of the compartment ignite and flames propagate through the hot gas layer or across the ceiling” (p. 248). Usually after a rollover has super-heated the gas layer at the ceiling, “fingering” can occur. These are small flashes and fingers of flame that can be seen in the smoke and gas layers above your head. These are pockets of unburned gases that ignite in random areas of the gas layer. Flashover can occur in any building compartment. Fuel loads and thermal properties of the fuel will contribute to the speed of the heat build-up. The fire will be well ventilated with an abundant source of oxygen. Super-heated smoke and gas may exit at the top of doorways while fresh air is seen or felt rushing in at the bottom. Rapid volume increases of dark, turbulent smoke that is dropping in layers and intense, increasing temperatures with the apparent ignition of everything combustible in the room are all indicators of an imminent flashover (IFSTA, p. 248).

This all sounds scary. How do we really get to know the stages of fire growth and the indicators of flashover? The Utah Fire and Rescue Academy (UFRA) has a tool that answers these questions and just may save your life: the Mobile Flashover Simulator. Participants are placed in a controlled environment where they can experience and recognize the stages of fire growth and the warning signs of an imminent flashover. Once they experience the different stages of fire growth and the signs of flashover, they learn how ventilation and fire streams can be used to control flashover in these stages. It doesn’t matter if you’re the recruit who is just beginning to learn about fire behavior or a seasoned firefighter; both will emerge from the flashover simulator with the same overall objective met: “We saw the Dragon, and we know what to expect and how to kill it.” I strongly recommend contacting your UFRA program manager and setting up flashover training for you and your department—go see the Dragon.

Andy Byrnes retired after 21 years of service as a Special Operations Battalion Chief from the Orem Fire Department. He was also in Law Enforcement for 18 years and a certified Paramedic for 16 years. He is currently an Assistant Professor and the Coordinator for the RCA program at UVU. He is an experienced Emergency Services Instructor; working for local, state, and national Fire/EMS and Law Enforcement organizations. He has reviewed and contributed to several textbooks related to Hazardous Materials/WMD response and he is a frequent course reviewer and subject matter expert in the areas of Hazmat and Firefighting Leadership and Management. Byrnes is a graduate of the National Fire Academy’s Executive Fire Officer Program. He holds an Associate degree in Fire Science, a Bachelors degree in Public Emergency Services Management, and a Master’s Degree in Instructional Technology from Utah State University.

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by Doug Campbell , Will Spyrison, Jerry Chonka, Paul Orozco

“All organizations are perfectly designed to get the results they are now getting. If we want different results, we must change the way we do things.” –Tom Northup Part I of our series about the Yarnell Fire described how the Yarnell Fire began with a critical underestimation of the fire.

rors, along with corrective recommendations for the state agency, the Type II fire team, and the firefighters themselves.

Part II described how these threshold conditions translated into exceptional seasonal fire severity and local values for energy release component (ERC) and thousand hour fuel moistures, along with the fire forces of fuels, topography and weather, were indicators of the potential for extreme fire behavior.

Miscalculations at the Agency Level

This part reviews the systematic failures occurring during the tragic Yarnell Fire and describes considerations that fire agencies can consider in the future. An effective approach to problem analysis is to start and end with the whole in mind, rather than conducting a review of isolated pieces. This has been our approach in analyzing the Yarnell Fatality Fire. To view our analysis in its entirety to this point, please visit http://www.uvu.edu/ ufra/docs/yarnell_fire.pdf.1 Our past commentaries about the Yarnell Fire reflect on the finding of a 1957 Forest Service Report, which stated that fatality fires are caused by a sequence of reactions or misjudgments to a growing and peaking fire characterized by “sins of omission,” and by errors in fire management decisions. This article, and those which follow, will offer an honest assessment of those er36 | UFRA Straight Tip

We’ll start with a review of the fire conditions in the area at the moment of ignition of the Yarnell Fire. The State of Arizona was experiencing severe drought. The Regional U.S.F.S. Fire Predictive Center had issued a fire behavior alert for low live fuel moistures for the Yarnell Area. A large fire, the Doce Fire, was already burning in close proximity to the Yarnell Area. Although we do not offer a discussion of local fire agency preparedness, we can say the agencies were aware of the drought, the fire behavior alert for low fuel moisture conditions, and the large fire burning in the area. When lightning ignited the Yarnell Fire, an air attack group supervisor working the Doce Fire was asked to fly over the fire and size it up for the Arizona State Forestry (the jurisdictional authority to manage or suppress the fire). The air attack’s size up described the fire as inconsequential: “It’s a half acre and 80% out.” This incomplete assessment did not recognize that the surrounding area offered the potential for an explosive fire.

In addition, the air attack and the Arizona State Forestry Agency missed the fact that the surrounding area was clearly under the threat of thunderstorms. Predictable high-force winds from these thunderstorms, with the alignment of severe fire conditions and forces, would eventually be the game changer in the struggle to keep the public and firefighters safe on the Yarnell Fire. Radical miscalculations of the initial fire and surrounding conditions represent the beginning of a series of assessment and decision errors in the management of the Yarnell Fire. The poor assessment resulted in an inadequate response by the Arizona State Forestry, which decided to wait 17 hours to engage the fire. The error sequence continued when the State Agency chose initially to engage the fire with a prison and engine crew and a Type IV incident commander. Another prison crew would be added for the initial attack. During the day, two single-engine air tankers and Type VI engines were added, mostly for standby. A Type III helicopter was also assigned. The standby resources were released during the middle part of the burning period. The release of these resources demonstrated an obvious perpetuation of the error cycle, as the fire later escaped at approximately 1700. To summarize initial errors, the Yarnell Fire’s potential was underestimated from the beginning—first during size up— then continuing through the agency’s next decisions to wait to respond (without acquiring the appropriate resources), rather than recognizing the urgent necessity to control the fire by 10:00 a.m. the next day. The 10:00 a.m. deadline is an essential and characteristic practice for managing fires in severe fire environments where high values such as public life and property, as well as firefighter safety, are at risk.

The safety margin area for protecting high value collateral (life or property) would be determined by an analysis of fire behavior outputs such as rate of spread, flame length and intensity, and other observable traits.

3. Plan, Develop, and Adopt a Process as Policy and Procedure • Use a process (like the federal fire agencies do) to record and appropriately respond to specific fire danger levels. • This process would be documented, at minimum, in the Area Fire Management Plan, and become policy and procedure for responding to all severe fires that threaten life and property. 4. Develop Training for Agency Fire Administrators at Both the State and Federal Levels • Train administrators to read the alignment of environmental conditions that lead to highly dangerous fires. • Develop policy so that state fire agencies routinely use ERC as a fire threshold indicator (as federal fire agencies do). • Improve the understanding and application of the ERC values and the NFDRS system to translate environmental conditions into predictions for fire potentials. Next: Local Fire Team Considerations

This article reflects the deliberations of a group of USFS fire managers, mostly retired. Collectively, our group has several hundred years of fire experience. Our thinking has been enriched by the contributions of fire experts still working for federal fire agencies and who prefer to remain anonymous. 1

REMEDIATIONS FOR THE AGENCY: Take Action Before the Fire 1. Know Fire Danger Levels, from Low to Extreme • Escalate or de-escalate fire danger levels, in accordance with condition indicators that change fire danger. For the Southwest Area we recommend ERC, live and dead fuel moisture threshold values, and any other appropriate local threshold indicators. 2. Respond Correctly to Extreme Fire Conditions • For any fire threatening life or property in “very high” or “extreme” fire danger circumstances, management must immediately use any necessary resources to control the fire by 10:00 a.m. the following day.

The authors recognize that within the past two years, many changes and introductory improvements have occurred in support of wildland fire safety. Our series has not chronicled and incorporated these improvements, but instead, we offer valid conclusions about fire assessments based on the analysis of the misjudgments and subsequent poor decisions during the Yarnell Fire. It is not our intention to outline a detailed plan to redesign the current system. We believe, however, that significant improvements in policies, procedures, and training for managing fire risks and hazards will improve wildland fire safety—especially in severe fire environments.

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Part 2

Photograph by Josh Zook

In part one of “What Golf Can Teach the Fire Service,” we discussed that golf teaches us the importance of acknowledging what the BALL has to tell us. I can ponder all day long how wonderful my golf swing is – but what ultimately matters is how good the golf ball thinks my swing is! This is really no different from anything else that I do – maybe I’m good, maybe I’m not. Maybe I did well, but maybe I made mistakes – as a golfer the answer comes naturally; the golf ball and my score answer this for me. But how is this done in the fire service? Where is our metaphorical golf ball? As much as we may not like it, the beauty of golf is in the fact that we get accurate, consistent, and honest feedback each time we swing. The issue in the fire service is that 38 | UFRA Straight Tip

Photograph by Paul Sullivan


this is often not the case. While we may be good, how good are we compared to national standards and best practices? Was the outcome of our actions or inactions as good as they possibly could have been? How do we know (or not know)? While we may all be very good at our jobs, improvement actually comes from critical self-analysis and open and honest feedback. But, a fact of human behavior is that we sometimes tend to overestimate our aptitude and capabilities. According to an article by the American Psychological Association (APA), Why we overestimate our competence, a Cornell University Social Psychologist stated: “people overestimate themselves…but more than that, they really seem to believe it”1. Why is this? Even though this issue is complex, it boils down to these two simple things: 1) we are not very good at self-assessment (we don’t know ourselves as well as we should) and 2) we lack accurate feedback mechanisms (or don’t accept it when we hear it). Know Thyself! Fact: we humans make mistakes. As an aside, this article is not meant to be negative (neither was my last golf swing – but that didn’t go so well) – but honest. We do make mistakes – all of us. As hard as I try (or believe I do), I fall flat sometimes. As much as I desire to be good and right, I can still come up short. As much as I like to believe I know what others think of me, I often don’t (and I know everyone talks about everyone!).

While this is a more complex subject than can be covered here, a key element to better self-assessment and personal improvement is to seek honest and consistent feedback – and to listen to it! Truth is if I’m ever going to improve and reduce my mistakes, I must open the door to feedback and what it has to tell me. And I must find those internal drivers that help or hinder my ability to adjust, adapt, and overall improve how I do what I do (it starts with why I think what I think: “Identifying your negative thinking is the first step towards letting it go”2). Developing A Feedback Culture The good news for most organizations is that we can have a very powerful impact here. If we understand humans at all, and we desire to improve both individually and corporately, we have several tools at our disposal to make ourselves better. Some of the immediate ones are national standards, lessons learned from line of duty deaths, postincident analysis, and honestly, just straightforward candid discussion. In these four lay our ball. Instituting lessons from these requires engraining them into our culture. A few questions: 1) How often does your organization perform postincident analysis (PIAs)? If you do these, how often do you invite in neighboring departments? And, when you do these, how free is everyone to speak (are they walking on eggshells, or free to vent and/or discuss issues?)? Do you compare your performance to national standards and best practices? 2) Paramedics, how often do you meet with other responders to discuss both good and bad details from calls? Can you do this with outside agencies? How about with the hospitals – are your hospitals allowed to tell you how well you did or did not do? 3) Now this is a tough one: Supervisors (captains on up), how often do you allow those below you to question you or the organization? Can they ask questions about policies, procedures, and/or rules or are they to “do what they’re told” (I recently heard tale of an organization that basically outlawed the questioning of orders, stating: “this is a paramilitary organization – you do what you’re told! I love this Japanese proverb: “none of us are as smart as all of us”3). All three of these pertain to how well we institute, facilitate, and manage feedback. Chase Sargent in Buddy to Boss tells us we should actually invite dissent: “If people are not speaking up, especially when important things are

on the table, silence becomes a lie. You need a bubbling cauldron of discussion if you are really going to reach the best solutions. Organizations that stifle discussion and stifle creativity for the sake of the status quo will eventually fail.”4 To end on a positive note, I may have a few bad swings, but I also have a lot of good ones! Likewise, we in the fire service have much to be proud of. Whether career or volunteer, we do what we do because we are thoughtful and compassionate professionals who care about those we serve; and we have solid track records that show we know what we’re doing. But no matter how good we are we know we can always do better. Strong organizations constantly seek continuous quality improvement. We owe it to our citizens and ourselves to learn at every opportunity, and to be the best we can be. What golf can teach us is to develop our organizational golf balls and listen to what they have to tell us. References 1) DeAngelis, T. (2003). Why we overestimate our competence. American Psychological Association Publishers: http://www.apa.org/ monitor/feb03/overestimate.aspx 2) Cognitive Therapy Guide.org (n.d.). Negative Thinking. http://www.cognitivetherapyguide. org/negative-thinking-patterns.htm 3) Thinkexist.com (2014). Japanese Proverbs Quotes. http://thinkexist.com/quotation/none_ of_us_are_as_smart_as_all_of/160488.html 4) Sargent, C. (2006). Buddy to Boss. Penwell Publishers, Tulsa, OK.

Paul Sullivan has been in the fire service and EMS for 34 years. In 2007, Paul retired at the rank of battalion chief from the Chandler, AZ, Fire Department to take a position as deputy chief with the Weber Fire District. He holds an associate degree in fire science and a bachelor’s in public safety administration, and is currently pursuing a master’s in public administration.

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THE BENEFITS OF BUILDING AND AREA FAMILIARIZATION Most of the classes John and I teach include a discussion on the importance of conducting building pre-plan inspections, area familiarization, and identifying hazards within our response areas. The benefits achieved by completing these tasks are so critical to firefighter safety, the decision-making process, and implementing correct strategy and tactics that it simply can’t be missed. During these programs we always ask the question, “When does size-up begin”? Most of the answers we get are really good, but some, I must say, would regrettably boggle your mind. However, on a good note for the future of the fire service, while recently teaching at a major national conference, we got the Holy Grail of common sense answers. During one of the programs we presented, we asked the attendees the question. Some obscure voice in the back of the packed classroom yelled out “Yesterday.” Wow! Finally, we found somebody else that thinks proactively like we do—that pre-fire planning, building familiarization, and hazard awareness are major components to firefighter safety and operational success. BREAKING DOWN THE SIZE-UP ACRONYM Other firefighters may still maintain that size-up or “preparing the firegound” begins when the station tones or pagers activate, and still others insist it begins on arrival. However, in our experience we have found that fire departments that prepare proactively ahead of the alarm run some of the most effective, efficient, and safe suppression operations. Think about this. Using the common 13-point size-up acronym (COAL WAS WEALTH) while conducting building and district pre-plans, we can determine 8 of 40 | UFRA Straight Tip

these critical 13 components of fireground decision making PRIOR to arriving. It doesn’t matter whether the building is a target hazard or a vacant structure, the determination can still be made. These eight pre-arrival items are • • • • • • • •

Construction Occupancy Water Supply Area Street Conditions Exposures Auxiliary Appliances Height

This leaves only five points that would need to be determined upon arrival: • Apparatus/Manpower • Life Safety • Weather • Location/Extent • Time Think about all of the indecisiveness we can eliminate and time we can save by gathering this critical information prior to standing in front of the building at 2:00 a.m. with fire blowing out multiple windows. Whether you are a firefighter, company officer, or chief officer, we all should be proactively living and breathing building familiarization, pre-fire planning, and situational awareness each and every day we work, train, or respond to incidents within the communities we serve.

left photograph: Pre-planning complexes while under construction is an excellent method of gathering critical building information.

USING INSPECTIONS AS A TOOL Since implementing proactive methods to gather information prior to arriving at an incident is critical to any fire suppression operation, let’s look at how to do it. It’s possible to provide firefighters with a sizable amount of information before the firehouse doors even go up. Every fire department, large or small, conducts fire inspections within their jurisdictions and all should conduct some type of company-based building familiarization program. Regardless of the size of or who staffs your fire prevention bureau, the individuals conducting these mandated inspections should be your department’s number one resource in communicating critical building information to your staff. Creating a team-oriented approach to prefire planning and hazard identification between your fire inspection staff and field personnel is extremely important in improving your department’s operational effectiveness. GETTING INTO THE NEIGHBORHOODS Getting your personnel into the neighborhoods allows you to acquire a detailed preview of the buildings within the community you work. Career or volunteer, big or small, it shouldn’t matter. During our 30-plus years in two different volunteer departments we can remember Sunday mornings being reserved for training and area familiarization. Groups would gather, a plan would be formulated, and off we would go to acquaint ourselves with the buildings in which we could end up operating. Same thing should be happening today in your volunteer department. Leaders who care about the safety of their personnel should embrace and implement this simple, yet critical exercise during each shift. A couple of hours a week spent on familiarizing yourself with the diverse structures, high hazard occupancies, and other locations that support unsafe conditions within your response area could make all the difference in the world during fire suppression operations. COMPLETING WALK-THROUGHS OF HIGH HAZARD OCCUPANCIES The last item available in our bag of tricks is the pre-determined scheduling or “walk-throughs” of buildings within your community that have been identified as high hazard occupancies. These may include hospitals, nursing homes, industrial complexes, schools, nursing homes, strip malls, and big box stores. Having knowledge of the fire alarm and suppression system locations, type of systems, fire department connections, fire evacuation plans, occupancy type, roof access, inherent hazards, building construction, fire load, and egress and access points will significantly improve your efficiency and effectiveness when responding to incidents in these building types.

The most important thing we want you to take away from this article is the realization that firefighters and fire departments who take the time and effort to embrace and participate in pre-fire planning and building familiarization programs will have a substantial operational advantage over those that do not. Make plans now to review and improve your program.

John J. Lewis joined the volunteer fire service in 1978 and began his career as a firefighter / EMT in 1985, recently retiring as a ladder company lieutenant with the City of Passaic, NJ, Fire Department, formerly assigned as officer in charge of the Training and Safety Division. John is an instructor at the Bergen County (NJ) Fire Academy, an adjunct instructor at Kean University in Union, NJ, and a member of the NJ State Firefighter Health and Safety Advisory Committee; he holds NJ state certifications as Fire Inspector/ Fire Official, Level 2 Fire Instructor, and Fire Investigator. John was the co-author of the Rapid Intervention Awareness Curriculum for the state of New Jersey, and the NJ Firefighters Handbook Addendum. Robert G. Moran has been the fire chief in Brewster, MA, since 2011. He began his career with the city of Englewood (NJ) in 1985; in his 25-year career he held the ranks of dispatcher, firefighter, lieutenant, and deputy chief, and he recently retired as chief of department. He is an adjunct instructor for Kean University, a NJ State–certified level 2 fire instructor, hazardous material specialist, confined space and hazardous materials awareness instructor, IMS level 2 instructor, fire investigator, and fire official. Moran is the former fire marshal in Leonia, NJ, where he served in every rank including as chief of the volunteer fire department; in addition he was an investigator for the Bergen County Prosecutors Office Arson Task Force, and a safety specialist for the State of New Jersey Urban Search and Rescue Task Force. Chief Moran has authored several articles for national fire service publications as well as lectured on various fire suppression topics every year throughout the country.

January - March 2015 | 41

Honored and Humbled On September 24th, The California State Firefighters Association (CSFA) held their annual conference in Anaheim. CSFA has approximately 17,000 members. I was honored and humbled to be asked to be the conference keynote speaker. When the CSFA general manager asked me to be the keynote speaker, we discussed topic and time. We decided 20 minutes would be the time limit. He asked me about a topic. I suggested “lessons learned” from a 32-year career in the fire service, 25 years of which were as a supervisor. I told him I would use the mistakes and errors in judgment I made and the lessons I learned from these mistakes as a foundation for the talk. He was skeptical. He reminded me in a nice way that I had only 20 minutes. My plan was to talk about understanding people in order to get along and to relate how to motivate people to want to work with and for you. Allow me to remind you that these are just my thoughts and life’s lessons learned. So, here they are. Understanding People Let’s start with understanding people in order to get along. The key to understanding people is to get to know them and their “value system.” Do you ever wonder why people do the things that they do or why they say certain things or why they have certain cultural beliefs? Their beliefs and actions come from their value system and their genetics. A value system identifies how you view the world: what is right, wrong, good, bad, how people should act, what is appropriate to say or not say. A person’s value system is developed early in life. As children growing up we are like sponges, absorbing everything around us and accepting much of it as true, especially when it comes to our parents. This is where we learn a sense of right and wrong, good and bad. Additionally, your social-economic situation and environment plays a role in developing your value system. In the pre-teen and early teen years, we tend to copy people, often our parents, but also people. Rather than blindly 42 | UFRA Straight Tip

accepting, we are trying on things like clothes, to see how they feel. We may be much impressed with religion or our teachers. As I did, many of you had a favorite school teacher that you always remember. As we grow into our teens and young adulthood we become extremely influenced by our peers. We develop as individuals and look for ways to get away from the earlier programming; we naturally turn to people who seem like us. We use the same concept in the fire service during the new hire process. We like the candidates more when we see one of us in them. I grew up in San Pedro, California. We were extremely poor and my father left the family when I was 12 years old. There were times when I didn’t know if we were going to have a peanut butter and jelly sandwich, a Swanson TV dinner, or popcorn for dinner. This experience developed a value system that doesn’t allow me to waste food, that causes me to work hard so I won’t be poor, that never allows my children to be hungry, and that makes me be grateful for all that I accomplished or have. As a parent I shared these value systems, sometimes too often, with my two sons and now my grandchildren. As an example, a Stein house rule during meals was you could eat as much food as you wished. However, you must eat whatever you put on your plate. My sons never went to bed hungry so therefore they could not understand the reasoning for this rule. They didn’t experience what I did, so my discussion on food really had no impact on them. However, that was and still is part of my value system. Another part of my value system is I don’t believe in entitlements. Why? Because I worked hard to reach the successes I have in the fire service and life. No one gave me anything. If I wanted something, I worked for it. For many years while working as a firefighter I worked other jobs in construction, sometimes seven days a week. If you want it, work for it!!

Motivating People The last component of my talk discusses “how to be a motivator.” I would like to share some thoughts about motivation. Below are three rules of motivation that I have learned over the years: 1. You can’t motivate anyone to do anything; they gotta wanna. 2. People do things for their reasons, not yours. 3. Everyone is motivated to do what they do at all times whether the action is in their best interest or not. The first rule of motivation indicates that motivation is internal. What might motivate one person might not be a motivator to another person. Our job as supervisors is to provide the carrot or the triggers of incentive that bring out individual motivation. Below are some triggers that work: • Knowing your job • Constructive feedback; Up and Down • Clear expectations • Honesty, trust and respect • Clear communication • Proper authority/ownership • Follow through in commitments • Pride The second rule deals with the interest or the “what’s in it for me” concept of motivation. Personal interests are the silent movers behind the actions of people. As supervisors we need to find out what interests people have then provide incentives to satisfy those interests. You might have to look for alternative positions which meet not only your interest but your team members as well.

not.” Have you ever said something and as soon as you said it you were sorry you said it. Or have you ever done something and as soon as you did it you were sorry you did it. These actions were probably a result from stress, anger, fear, or even the need to get attention. This is a good rule to remember if one of your team members or—heaven forbid—you fly off the handle and say or do something inappropriate. In summary, the motivation of your team members starts with you. Successful leaders are givers and not takers of positive energy. Successful leaders are people of character. They build a sustainable ethical culture that nurtures and promotes motivation, integrity, accountability, respect and discourages dishonesty and other moral shortcuts. Remember, small minds discuss people, average minds discuss events, and great minds discuss ideas. Stay Safe VIVI BENE- LIVE WELL RIDI SPESSO- LAUGH OFTEN E AMA MOLTO- LOVE MUCH

Paul Stein retired as Chief Officer from California’s Santa Monica Fire Department. After retirement he served as Interim Fire Chief for the Lakeside Fire Department in California. He holds an A.S. Degree in Fire Technology and a B.A. Degree in Management. Chief Stein is a Master Instructor for the California Department of Education.

The third rule is “everyone is motivated to do what they do at all times whether the action is in their best interest or January - March 2015 | 43

EARN YOUR EMERGENCY SERVICES Now is the time to begin working on your Emergency Services degree or finish the degree you have been working on.

Why should I earn a college degree? • • •

Personal improvement Preparation for promotion Expand career opportunities

What degrees are offered? • • • • •

One-year certificate – Firefighter Recruit Candidate and/or Paramedic. Associate in Applied Science – Firefighter/Emergency Care and Fire Officer. Associate in Applied Science – Wildland Fire Management Specializations. Associate in Science. Online Bachelor of Science in Emergency Services Administration with an emphasis in Emergency Management. Bachelor of Science in Emergency Services Administration with an emphasis in Emergency Care.

How do I enroll? • •

Apply for admissions by going to: http://www.uvu.edu/admissions/ If you have attended another college or university, request an official transcript be sent to: UVU Admissions Office 800 West University Parkway MS 106 Orem, Utah 84058-5999

What will it cost? • For official UVU tuition/fee amounts go to: http://www.uvu.edu/tuition/tuitionFees13-1428-28.pdf • Some courses have “course fees” in addition to tuition. For more information regarding admissions and registration, call 801-863-7798 or 888-548-7816 to schedule a phone or office appointment with an Emergency Services Administration Academic Advisor.

Enroll early! Please note that courses are subject to cancellation due to low enrollment.

44 | UFRA Straight Tip


ESFF/ESEC FACE TO FACE CLASSES ESFF 1000 Introduction to Emergency Services ESFF 1360 Basic Firefighter Internship ESFF 250A Firefighter RCA I ESFF 250B Firefighter RCA II ESFF 281R Emergency Services Internship ESEC 1140 Emergency Medical Tech Basic ESEC 3060 Emergency Med Tech Advanced ESEC 3110 Paramedic I ESEC 3120 Paramedic I Lab ESEC 3130 Paramedic II ESEC 3140 Paramedic III ESEC 4110 Paramedic IV ESEC 4120 Paramedic Clinical Concepts ESFF/ESFO ONLINE CLASSES ESFF 1000 Introduction to Emergency Services ESFF 1120 FES Safety and Survival ESFF 2100 The Desire to Serve ESFO 1100 Fire Behavior and Combustion ESFO 1110 Fire Prevention ESFO 2050 Fire Protection Detect Systems ESFO 2080 Build Construct Fire Services



ESMG 310G Introduction to Homeland Security

ESMG 492R Topics in Trauma and Pharmacology

ESMG 3200 Health and Safety Program Management

ESMG 493R Topics in Medical Litigation

ESMG 4500 Customer Service and Marketing for the ES ESMG 489R Special Topics in EM: ES Conference

ESWF FACE TO FACE CLASSES ESWF 1400 Wildland Firefighting Fundamentals

ESMG (Online)

ESWF 2340 S234 Ignition Operations

ESMG 310G Introduction to Homeland Security

ESWF 3000 S300 IC Extended Attack

ESMG 3150 Public Program Administration

ESWF 3300 S330 Task Force Strike Team Leader

ESMG 3200 Health and Safety Program Management

ESWF 3360 S336 Tactical Decision Making in Wildland Fire

ESMG 3250 Managing Emergency Medical Services

ESWF 3390 S339 Division or Group Supervisor

ESMG 3300 Master Planning for Public ES

ESWF 4390 S390 Intro to Wildland Fire Behavior Calc

ESMG 3350 Analytical Research Approaches to Public ES ESMG 3600 Psychology of Emergency Services


ESMG 4150 Humanitarian Services and Disaster Relief

By Application Only. For more information visit http://www.uvu.edu/esa/academics/rca.html or make an appointment with an academic advisor by calling the Student Center at 801-863-7798.

ESMG 4200 Disaster Response and the Public ESMG 4400 Legal Considerations for the ES ESMG 445G Human Factors in Emergency Management ESMG 4500 Customer Service and Marketing for the ES ESMG 4550 Principles of Disaster and Emergency Mgmt ESMG 4600 Public Administration and Emergency Mgmt ESMG 4650 Emergency Services Capstone ESMG 481R Emergency Services Internship ESMG 489R Special Topics in Emergency Services

On-the-job internships are available for all RCA graduates. Application deadlines: June 1st for Fall Semester and October 1st for Spring Semester.

PARAMEDIC By Application Only. For more information visit http://www.uvu.edu/esa/academics/paramedic_emt.html or call 801-863-7700 or 888-548-7816.

Please check http://www.uvu.edu/esa for current and updated course listings.

ESMG 491R Topics in Cardiology and Medical Trends

January - March 2015 | 45

Nonprofit Organization U.S. POSTAGE

Nonprofit Organization U.S. POSTAGE

Utah Valley University

Utah Valley University





U N I V E R S I T Y P A R K W AY, O R E M , U T 8 4 0 5 8 - 5 9 9 9




Profile for ahyoudesign

January March 2015 UFRA Straight Tip  

UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy and distributed throu...

January March 2015 UFRA Straight Tip  

UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy and distributed throu...