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Fall 2016 / Volume 17, Issue 4

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Utah Fire and Rescue Academy Magazine

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CONTENTS

Message from UFRA

FALL 2016, Volume 17 Issue 4 To Subscribe: To subscribe to the UFRA Straight Tip magazine, or make changes to your current subscription, call 1-888-5487816 or visit www.uvu.edu/ufra/about/ magazine.html. The UFRA Straight Tip is free of charge to all firefighter and emergency service personnel throughout the state of Utah.

Winter Fire School 2017 by Dave Owens Incident Commander WFS 2017

With winter just around the corner, we at UFRA are preparing for the upcoming Winter Fire School (WFS)—UFRA’s annual premier training event. We offer classes covering every aspect of firefighting over the two-day event. After each year’s event, we analyze what worked well and what can be changed. New and improved, WFS 2017 should be the best we have had.

UFRA Customer Service Local (801) 863-7700 Toll free 1-888-548-7816 www.uvu.edu/ufra

Our goal is to give Utah firefighters the best training available. By all accounts, we have been reaching that goal for quite some time. Even better, we are doing it at only $40 a student—a price that dumbfounds our out-of-state speakers and instructors.

UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy and distributed throughout the state of Utah. Reproduction without written permission from the publisher is strictly prohibited.

If you have attended WFS in the past, then you know we seek feedback for almost every class. We have used your feedback and our analysis of trends to improve WFS and give you what you want. Consequently, we have changed some things this year, and I think you’ll like the changes:

Send inquiries or submissions to: UFRA Straight Tip magazine 3131 Mike Jense Parkway Provo, Utah 84601 Phone 1-888-548-7816 ufrastraighttip@uvu.edu Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in the UFRA Straight Tip are those of the authors and may not be construed as those of the staff or management of the UFRA Straight Tip, Utah Fire & Rescue Academy, or Utah Valley University.

• Every year, almost every hands-on training (HOT) class fills up within the first few hours of registration while many of the high-priced subject matter experts (SMEs) we bring in from across the country fill up slowly. So, this year we have added several more HOT classes and have cut back on out-of-state instructors. We will now rotate in out-of-state SMEs every two or three years to keep up with the latest developments in the fire service. • New classes will be on the menu this year: ■ Firefighter I & II Refresher ■ Ops and Tactics taught by Chief Kevin Ward and Chief Paul Sullivan ■ New Concepts for Rapid Intervention Crews taught by Chief Jared Sholly ■ Engaging the Public taught by Chief Jeremy Craft • Some classes from last year will be back by popular demand: ■ Firefighter Survival & RIT taught by Chief Matt Evans ■ Basic Fire Company Inspections taught by Chief Scott Adams and Chief Scott Spencer ■ Advanced Auto Extrication taught by Jeff Gates and crew (Basic Auto Extrication is a prerequisite) These lists of classes are by no means complete lists. The complete list of classes is on page 23. This year’s WFS will be the best yet, and I hope we have something for every firefighter who attends—no matter your rank. If you have suggestions for improvements, let the training program manager who is assigned to your county know, and we will see what we can do to make the event even better. WFS 2017 will be held in St. George on January 20 & 21, 2017. Registration will open online on Tuesday, November 1st at 8:00 a.m. See you in St. George!

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DEPARTMENTS 4 STATE FIRE MARSHAL 6 BATTALION CHIEF

Balancing Micromanagement and Autonomy

8 FIREFIGHTER MENTAL HEALTH

Make Suicide Prevention a Health and Safety Priority at Your Department

10 BACK TO BASICS

Changes Coming for NFPA 472— Standard for Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials/ WMD Incidents (2018)

12 FIRE TACTICS

What Do I Need to Do Next?

14 EXTRICATION

Extrication Tool Box SRS/Air Bags, Part I

16 WILDLAND

FEATURES 7 CONGRATULATIONS, FIRE OFFICER DESIGNATION RECIPIENT!

39 SPRINGVILLE’S SECOND ANNUAL GOLF TOURNAMENT A SUCCESS

22 WINTER FIRE SCHOOL 2017

40 OUT WITH THE OLD, AND IN WITH THE NEW

24 A NEW PERSPECTIVE ON FIRE SERVICE SAFETY

42 FIRE MARKS

26 ICS BRINGS WORLDS APART CLOSE TOGETHER 32 WORTHY OF TRUST IN A JOB THAT MATTERS 34 A FIREFIGHTER'S BIGGEST MISTAKE 36 DEPARTMENT SPOTLIGHT

Sandy City Fire Department

43 NEW CERTIFICATION LEVELS FOR TECHNICAL RESCUE 44 ACADEMICS

Spring 2017 Semester

45 INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF FIRE CHIEFS AWARD

ON THE COVER:

38 OH, IT’S BROKE!

Students overhauling the Flashover Prop after training.

18 FIRE PREVENTION

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You Are a Fire Inspector: What Does That Really Mean? Smartphones & Employee Privacy

42 CLIMBING THE LADDER

37 CHANGE YOUR WILDLAND WAYS

Utah’s Catastrophic Wildfire Reduction Strategy

20 FIREFIGHTER LAW

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STATE FIRE MARSHAL

Most of you may not know, but there is a National Association of State Fire Marshals (NASFM). We meet annually, typically in late July, and we are hosted by a different state each year. This year we were hosted by New Mexico State Fire Marshal John Standefer in Albuquerque. There are quite a few unique issues that are presented and discussed, and generally we find out what’s happening all over our country and how the fire service is dealing with the issues that are perhaps long standing or recently trending, e.g., fireworks, e-cigarettes, or hover board fires. It’s a great group of dedicated fire officials who have an immense wealth of information and code experience. I am always honored to represent Utah at these forums. We also hold regional group phone discussions during the year so that we stay in touch or capture the goings on related to recent incidents, etc. I was approached by NASFM’s leadership to represent the association at the upcoming 2016 NFPA Responder Forum in early November. The Responder Forum has representation from the IAFC, IAFF, ISFSI, NVFC, the Metro Chiefs, iWomen, NAHF, NAFTD, IABPF, NFPA, IAAI, USFA, and, of course, NASFM. These 13 organizations will meet to focus on three main topics: 1. 2. 3.

SMART Firefighting / The Internet of Things and Today’s Fire Department Fire Service Data and Analytics Adapting to SMART Firefighting and Data Analytics

In May of 2015, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), with assistance from the Fire Research Foundation, published a

FROM THE STATE FIRE MARSHAL document entitled NIST Special Publication 1191, Research Roadmap for Smart Fire Fighting. This 246-page report delves into the creation of a “road map” that we can follow to utilize technology in “all areas of fire protection engineering and the three phases of fire service emergency response: pre-incident, during-incident and post-incident. Smart Fire Fighting will transform traditional fire prevention and protection strategies and firefighting practices by ensuring the flow of critical information where and when it is needed. This flow will be achieved by increasing the power of information through enhanced data gathering, processing, and trageted communications” (NIST 1191, pg.3). We all know that fire losses everywhere are too high and that firefighting remains one of the most hazardous jobs in the country. Today, data from a variety of sources are routinely collected independently and processed separately, but evolving new technologies are enabling the use of vast amounts of information (mega or “big” data). For example, pressure and flow data from the water department or special service district or information about buildings and construction from the building or plan review department. Such information is there, but it is not directly available to the incident commander (IC) or the IC doesn’t have a means to view it in a convenient format or in a timely manner. The concept is that an evolving range of databases and sensor networks will be tapped to create, store, exchange, analyze, and integrate information into critical knowledge for the purpose of “Smart Firefighting.” Information will come from many sources: from the community, the bulding occupants, the building itself, and firefight-

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ers. Data from the community could include information about traffic, weather, police, and hospitals. Information from the building could include annotated, computer-aided design models or blueprints about the architecture, materials, and utilities and details on fire-related building sensors and equipments. Occupants might be able to provide information about the number, age, and condition of people in the building and any relevant health issues. At the first indication of a fire, the IC could use information from these repositories to plan an initial strategy for suppression and rescue and alert the necessary community services. That strategy would include the number and types of equipment and personnel needed at the fireground and the tactics that should be executed when they arrive. Personnel would be equipped with a variety of sensors, providing real-time data about their own conditions, their locations, the growth and spread of the fire, and suppression/rescue operations.

UVU’S EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY TEAM CALLS FOR VIDEO FOOTAGE

Sound like “tech” from Star Trek? Well most of the technology already exists, but it’s harnessing the data and the use of new and emerging computational tools to integrate all the data into a useable form. That’s the challenge we face and the purpose of the road map. The use of this information continues to demonstrate great promise at enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency with the duties handled by firefighters. This equates to improved safety and health for this high-risk profession, via situational and incident awareness and other factors. Knowledge is power, and harvesting the data important to firefighters is empowering the smart firefighter of the future. I’ll be sure to let you know what happens at the meetings in November. Let’s be extra safe out there!

Coy Utah State Fire Marshal Coy D. Porter retired from Provo Fire & Rescue after 30 years of service; he then worked for almost four years as the assistant director of training at UFRA. Porter enjoys his association with the firefighters of Utah in his position as state fire marshal.

UFRA continues to work with UVU’s Educational Technology Team to create quality video training as part of UFRA's blended learning initiative. If you are doing live fire training and/or have access to high quality video footage and images from live structure fires, please contact Dalene Rowley at dalener@uvu.edu. Fall 2016 | 5


BATTALION CHIEF

Battalion Chief:

Balancing Micromanagement and Autonomy We all begin our careers being micromanaged. We learn cadences to throw ladders, where to put our hands and feet when pulling hose, and acronyms to help us remember the specific order things should get done. Firefighters have to begin their careers this way to understand the mechanics and reasoning behind the tactics and strategies we use. However, firefighters must be given the latitude to take these learned skills and combine them with their innate abilities. Many of us are successful as firefighters because we are natural problem solvers. We have the ability to look at a given situation and quickly decipher the best way to limit injury, loss of life, or property damage. Firefighters are adept at combining all the step-by-step methodology we’ve learned with our own common sense way of doing things. At times, though, some of us fall victim to having so many learned lists, methods, orders, and the like interfere with efficiency and effectiveness. As chief officers you must provide the training needed to make your firefighters masters of their craft. After instilling the needed confidence, 6 | UFRA Straight Tip

stand back and give your firefighters the autonomy to act within their given responsibilities. For a moment let’s imagine a brand new recruit being introduced to a fire hose, Nomex clothing, and the use of an SCBA. Imagine this recruit is given an hour of training on how this equipment works. Now the training officer tests the newly learned skills by setting up a staged rescue. The recruit is told there is a victim on the first floor of a typical house fire and the job is to get this person out of the home. Many recruits, being the aggressive souls they are, would accomplish the rescue very quickly with this one hour learned skill set. Fast forward ten years into this firefighter’s career. We are on the fire drill ground hosting the same test—a simple house fire victim rescue. This firefighter has now learned enormous lists of things that have to be done and said at a simple house fire rescue. Fire ground factors, tactical priorities, size-up, and safety considerations have now significantly complicated this


As chief officers you must provide the training needed to make your firefighters masters of their craft. After instilling the needed confidence, stand back and give your firefighters the autonomy to act within their given responsibilities. rescue. In addition, if the firefighter has a chief officer who micromanages every move, the firefighter may not have the confidence to trust in his or her own ability to think through the situation. If this firefighter’s rescue were to be measured simply by rescue effectiveness, our imaginary recruit’s performance may have worsened. How do you as a chief officer rectify this conundrum? As a battalion chief, teach your firefighters not only the value of repetitive training but also the value of their innate problem solving ability. Your job as a battalion chief is that of oversight. You don’t need to micromanage and make every decision. Micromanaging and focusing solely on the lists and drills turns off the problem-solving abilities in our firefighters’ brains. Additionally, constant critiquing of officers’ decisions will cause those who work for and with you to become gun shy and begin to second guess themselves. Worse yet, they may begin to try to think through your brain, turning their own thought process off. Measuring their own actions by how you may or may not perceive their decisions is inefficient and can be disastrous. After teaching what your officers need to know, take care to give some autonomy—let your officers make decisions so they can practice combining their learned skills and innate ability. Show strong support for those actions and their decision-making abilities. In so doing, you will allow your firefighters to keep their brains turned on and to use the unique, innate capabilities they brought with them when they joined the fire service.

Paul Hewitt began his career as an Orem City reserve firefighter in 1987. After 20 years with the Salt Lake City Fire Department he served as a fire chief in Arizona before his 2011 appointment to fire chief of the Park City Fire District.

Congratulations, Fire Officer Designation Recipient!

William Elson of Layton Fire Department recently earned the Supervising Fire Officer Designation. The Utah Commission on the Fire Officer Designation Program is proud to recognize his high achievements in the program’s four categories: training, certification, education, and experience. More information about the program can be found at http://www.uvu.edu/ufra/resource_center/fodp.html. The next deadline for applications is December 31, 2016.

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MENTAL HEALTH

Make Suicide Prevention a Health and Safety Priority at Your Department by Sally Spencer-Thomas, CEO & Co-Founder, Carson J Spencer Foundation

Utah Firefighter Crisis Support Line: 801-587-1800 Available 24/7 Many things related to fire service culture can contribute to behavioral health issues that can lead to suicide—trauma, stress, substance abuse, “tough-guy” culture—but one common factor is what has been coined “psychache.” Psychache is the unimaginable psychological pain suicidal people experience that often leads to feelings of hopelessness and isolation. Reaching out to someone

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who is experiencing this level of despair can often save a life. According to the International Association of Suicide Prevention website, “The act of showing care and concern to someone who may be vulnerable to suicide can be a game-changer. Asking them whether they are OK, listening to what they have to say in a non-judgmental way, and letting

them know you care, can all have a significant impact. Isolation increases the risk of suicide, and, conversely, having strong social connections is protective against it, so being there for someone who has become disconnected can be life-saving.” A comprehensive and sustained approach to suicide prevention is recommended for a true cultural


“ Isolation increases the risk of suicide, and, conversely, having strong social connections is protective against it, so being there for someone who has become disconnected can be life-saving.”

HERE ARE SOME WAYS YOU CAN REACH OUT:

change. For more information on best practices involved, visit www. CarsonJSpencer.org and www.WorkingMinds.org. The National Volunteer Fire Council also has training, tools, and resources for emergency personnel and departments through their Share the Load Program at www.nvfc.org/help.

■ “I’ve noticed ______________ (list specific behaviors), and I am concerned.” ■ “Given what you’ve been going through, it would be understandable if you were thinking about suicide. I am wondering if this is true for you.” ■ “Tell me more about your thoughts of suicide and your distress.” And then listen. ■ “Thank you for trusting me. I am on your team; you are not alone. I have some ideas that might help.” ■ Suggest resources: • Fire/EMS Helpline: 1-888-731-3473 • Utah Firefighter Crisis Support Line: 801-587-1800 (available 24/7) • National Suicide Prevention Lifeline: 1-800-273-8255 • Department Employee Assistance Program • Utah Suicide Prevention Coalition: www.utahsuicideprevention.org • Other local mental health resources: www.dsamh.utah.gov

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BACK TO BASICS

Changes Coming for NFPA 472—

Standard for Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials/WMD Incidents (2018) National consensus standards, such as NFPA 472, drive the operations and levels of training for all hazmat operators in the nation. The standards can be adopted whole or in part by local jurisdictions. Failure to adopt these standards does not exempt the local jurisdiction from compliance. The measure of any response agency is how well they operate in compliance with national standards. Failure to operate as per what is accepted and agreed upon by the nation’s response community is where liability is assumed should something go wrong. NFPA standards can be enforced using OSHA’s “General Duty Clause,” which states that the jurisdiction has a “general duty” to keep responders safe through compliance with recognized consensus standards.

The national 472 standard is the basis of Utah certifications. In May 2008, the Utah Hazmat Advisory Council adopted through State Rule R710-12 the requirement that “No person shall provide hazardous materials services as a member of an emergency response agency without first receiving a certificate issued by… the Utah Fire Service Certification Council” (5.1). Thus, NFPA 472 should be followed by every Utah emergency response agency. NFPA 472, 1072, and 475—Standards in Concert NFPA 472 is the parent standard for NFPA 1072, which is the professional qualification standard for Hazmat/WMD responders. NFPA 472 is used to train

Hazmat Technicians from the Montana 83rd CST prepare to stop a leak in a simulated ton cylinder. photograph by Andy Byrnes, 2016

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responders, where NFPA 1072 is used to certify responders using general and requisite knowledge and skills. These requisites are sometimes called “Job Performance Requirements” or JPRs. A third standard, NFPA 475, works together with NFPA 472 and 1072. This standard, entitled “Recommended Practices for Responding to Hazardous Materials/WMD,” establishes a common set of criteria for the organization, management, and deployment of personnel, resources, and programs for both private and public hazmat response agencies. As a “recommended practice,” not a standard, NFPA 475 contains “shoulds” not “shalls.” All three of these publications work in concert to provide a jurisdiction


be trained on the technology or on any specific device. Terminology: Other changes at the Tech level are in terminology and chemical and physical properties. The 2013 version of 472 required knowledge of 54 different terms; the new standard requires only 37 terms. Some of these terms were moved to the Operations level and some were deleted. Two new exposure values were added to the Tech level: sieverts and inhibitory concentration (IC50). Under product control skills, covering, fire suppression, solidification, and transfer were deleted while sealing closures and remote valve were added to the Tech level.

with the proper consensus-driven guidance regarding safe and efficient hazmat operations. 2018 Revisions Under the current revision of NFPA 472 (2018), Awareness and Operations levels have not changed significantly and do not warrant much discussion. At the Ops level, there are two new mission-specific operations: diving in contaminated water and evidence collection. The significant changes occur at the Technician level. In context, understand that the committee is still working on some of these changes to the 2018 edition. This article is intended as a heads up to agencies and training officers. Changes for Technician Level Detection and Monitoring: The most significant change, in my opinion, pertains to detection and monitoring. NFPA 472 will require Technician-level responders to know the technologies, procedures, monitoring strategies, field testing and maintenance, decon, reading, and recording of the devices carried by their agency; however, they must at least have a knowledge of a 4 or 5 gas meter (electrochemical, toxic, LEL, O2), colorimetric (papers, chips, tubes, reagents), photoionization detection (PID), and radiation detection. If your agency does not carry a GC/MS, IMS, or FT-IR device, you are not required to

Product Transfer Skills: Another significant change is that product transfer skills were added, meaning the tech will be able to select a recovery container, monitor for hazards, properly bond and ground, transfer the product, perform vapor suppression, select tools, and perform decon during these operations. This alone will have a significant impact on training technicians. Product Control Procedures: Specific controlling procedures for pressure vessels (the “A, B & C” kits) were deleted. Now the technician must use the equipment provided by the agency for plugging and patching pressure and non-pressure vessels “. . . following safety procedures, protecting exposures and personnel and avoiding or minimizing hazards” (Ch. 7). Biological Response: Knowledge of biological response will be required, of course; however, the NFPA 472 Technical Committee is still debating the requisite skills for a biological response. In addition, six new Technician-level specialties were added: air monitoring and detection; advanced chemical risk assessment and analysis; advanced product control; consequence analysis and planning; WMD; and advanced decontamination.

noteworthy. The agency can now train and the Certification Council can certify responders in accordance with that particular agency’s equipment, mission, or capability. Technicians will not be held accountable for skills or knowledge that are beyond their agency’s limitations while still meeting the standard’s minimum requirements. With all of these new specialties, an agency will need to determine a realistic operational response level and what is “nice to know” and what is “need to know” when it comes to training and certifying their own employees. Watch for the release of the new edition of NFPA 472 and be prepared to make some significant changes to your training regimen for Hazmat Technicians. Be informed, be safe.

Andy Byrnes, EFO, MEd, retired after 21 years at the Orem Fire Department as a special operations battalion chief. He was also a sworn law enforcement officer for 18 years and paramedic for 16 years. He is currently an associate professor at Utah Valley University’s (UVU) Emergency Services Department in Provo, Utah. Andy is the director of the Firefighter Recruit Candidate Academy Program at UVU. Andy is a graduate of the National Fire Academy’s Executive Fire Officer Program. He holds an associate’s degree in fire science, a bachelor’s degree in public emergency services management, and a master’s degree in instructional technology from Utah State University.

The NFPA Committee has shifted some of the knowledge and skills around within the standard, but the flexibility given to the individual agencies is most Fall 2016 | 11


FIRE TACTICS

What Do I Need to Do Next? Using Tactical Worksheets/Checklists for Safe and Efficient Operations At first I was thinking perhaps it was a result of age. I find myself using checklists more often to ensure I stay on task for the work day as well as pick up the necessary items at the store on my way home (my current “Chief ” checklist has 29 items on it). Then I reflected back to my 16th birthday and walking around my Cessna 150 at the Van Nuys Airport as I thoroughly went through my written checklist before my first solo flight—checking flaps, ailerons, tires, propeller, fuel, and so on to ensure I could have a roundtrip flight. I have seen the value of checklist use most recently in our pilot RSI (Rapid Sequence Intubation) Program for paramedics. We have repeatedly identified during the quality assurance process the value of checklist utilization related to successful intubations. Miller’s Law, which refers to Psychologist/Professor George Miller of Princeton University, is the result of research done back in 19561 that showed that the average person can remember seven items (plus or minus two). This could be digits, words, or letters. The correlation was made to the amount of digits in a phone number being seven. Add the area code, and I’m not sure about you, but I’m not remembering it! Regardless of the incident nature, the value of a tactical worksheet (with checklist items) cannot be overstated. Everyone that has gone through the UFRA Command Training Center has been taught the importance of utilizing a tactical worksheet in managing an incident. We refer to the tactical worksheet as a “risk management tool” and the foundation of the Incident Action Plan (IAP) as well as a checklist. A standardized tactical worksheet allows for tracking resources, tactical assignments, functional assignments, support assignments, air management, and proper notifications. One may notice I emphasized standardized. This is particularly important in today’s fire service based on the extensive automatic aid we enjoy today. In my last article on the role of the support officer (UFRA Straight Tip, “The Chief ’s Aide: A Lost Position Revamped”), I mentioned the importance of the support officer position in scene management and that sometimes this role may be filled by a neighboring department chief officer. Unless the tactical worksheet utilized is extremely similar, the “learning curve” on an incident could hamper efficiency. The tactical and functional assignments necessary to mitigate an incident should be part of the checklist aspect of the tactical worksheet. This will ensure that items such as strategy declaration, fire attack, search, 12 | UFRA Straight Tip

utilities, ventilation, water supply, rapid intervention team, rehab, and other tasks occur. As one assigns and tracks crews, the tactical worksheet allows for a visible indicator of the “span of control” in our divisions and groups. Whether using “T boxes” or a standard ICS organizational chart, this allows a graphic look at where crews are placed and who is working for whom. Tactical worksheets can be “all hazard” or incident-type specific. Our department has one standard worksheet for fires and one for major EMS incidents. Beyond that, we have developed a Davis County adopted Field Operations Guide (FOG) that has checklists for many low- (and high-) frequency/high-risk events. This was an adaptation of a similar FOG utilized in the Phoenix Valley Automatic Aid System. Familiarization with the tactical worksheets and field operations guides (checklists) only comes about with actual use and practice. I would encourage the use of tactical worksheets on smaller incidents to develop confidence and proficiency before use on the multi-alarm fire. Use a tactical worksheet at your next multi-company training evolution, and try out using the support officer position as well. Remember: you play like you have practiced, so get ready for game time and get comfortable with one of the most important tools a highly effective incident commander can use! _____________________

1 Miller, G. A. (1956). "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information", Psychological Review, 63, 81–87.

Kevin Ward is a 37-year fire service veteran, having been the fire chief for Layton City since 2004. Prior to this appointment, Chief Ward progressed through the ranks from firefighter/paramedic to battalion chief with the Chandler Fire Department in Arizona. He holds several NWCG qualifications, such as ICT3 and Structure Protection Specialist, and is an instructor for the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy. Chief Ward has been an instructor for UFRA’s Command Training Center since its inception.


Regardless of the incident nature, the value of a tactical worksheet (with checklist items) cannot be overstated. Natural Gas Emergencies Command Tactical Checklist "Burning natural gas should not normally be extinguished, since this would change the situation from a visible to invisible hazard with explosive potential. Fires should be controlled by stopping the flow." Incidents at Which an Explosion Has Occured ☐ Primary Assessment ☐ Establish command - size up ☐ Determine location, number and condition of victims (triage) ☐ Determine immediate priority (Fire control, Treatment, etc ... ) ☐ Identify immediate hazards (collapse, leaking gas, fire) ☐ Assign Fire Control, Evacuation/Extrication, and Treatment groups immediately ☐ Get an "All Clear" on involved structure ☐ Get an "All Clear'' on surrounding structures ☐ Get "Fire Control" and PAR's from Fire Control Groups ☐ Ensure Questar is notified ☐ Secondary Assessment ☐ Continue with Evacuation of all civilians and keep number of FD personnel to a minimum ☐ Do not rely on gas odor - use combustible gas indicators ☐ Check areas systematically ☐ Secure all possible sources of ignition/secure utilities ☐ Ventilate buildings - explosion proof equipment only ☐ Coordinate activities with gas company - gas company is responsible for locating and eliminating leaks ☐ Assess stability of structure - consider trench rescue/heavy rescue team to provide cribbing, shoring, etc. ☐ Divisions/Groups ☐ Fire ground Divisions (Interior, Roof, Directional, Loss Control, etc .. ) ☐ Evacuation ☐ Medical (extrication, treatment, transportation) ☐ Safety ☐ Hazard ☐ Staging ☐ Police Liaison ☐ PIO Incidents Involving a Reported Gas Leak—No Fire or Explosion ☐ Establish command - size up situation ☐ Establish a limited Access Zone ☐ Provide life and property safety (full protective equipment w/SCBA - hoselines, etc) ☐ Communicate with gas company personnel ☐ Evacuate any civilians in the area ☐ Obtain gas concentration readings - determine the degree of hazard ☐ Attempt to locate the source of the gas and any shutoff devices available ☐ Gas leak within a building - shut off at meter until repairs are completed ☐ Provide continued standby protection with a charged 1 % line for gas company

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VEHICLE EXTRICATION

Check the vehicle for air bag warning labels, typically located on the vehicle’s sun visors.

Location Currently the average number of air bags in a typical vehicle is six, although there are 27 possible air bag inflator locations. Most vehicles equipped with frontal air bags will have “Air bag” embossed on the cover in the center of the steering wheel (for the driver) and on the dashboard (for the right front passenger); you can check the vehicle for air bag warning labels, which are typically located on the vehicle’s sun visors. An important thing to consider when assessing a vehicle for air bags is that not all air bags are marked and the air bag markings that are present do not always indicate the location of the air bag; they may only indicate that an air bag is present in the vehicle. For example, air bag markings are found on the B pillar of vehicles; however, there are not—and have never been—air bags in the B pillar of any vehicle.

EXTRICATION TOOL BOX SRS/AIR BAGS, PART I The systems for occupant safety in motor vehicles change daily. As an emergency responder, your chance of encountering an undeployed air bag during an emergency incident increases with these changes. In order to safely and competently manage an incident involving un-deployed air bags and other vehicle safety systems, emergency personnel must understand how to deal with these systems during an incident. First of all, it is important to understand the history, location, and operation of supplemental restraint systems (SRS) found in most vehicles. History Since 1998, passenger cars have been required to have frontal air bags for the driver. Beginning in 1999, light trucks, pickups, vans, and SUVs with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 8,500 lbs. or less have been required to have frontal air bags for the driver and the right front passenger. Side-impact and rollover air bags are not required; however, they are offered as either a standard or optional feature by many vehicle manufacturers. Look for “Air Bag,” “SRS,” or “Side Air Bag” embossed on areas such as the steering wheel, B-post, seat back, door panel, or roof rail.

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“SRS Air Bag” or “Airbag” will be embossed on the air bag cover in the center of the steering wheel.

Driver Front Air Bag: The driver’s front air bag is located in the center of the vehicle’s steering wheel. This air bag usually deploys from a pyrotechnic inflator. However, stored gas inflators can be found in ANY air bag location inside a vehicle, including the driver’s frontal air bag.

Passenger Front Air Bag: The front passenger air bag is located in the dash in front of the passenger. Due to the large size, it often hits the inside of the windshield, which causes the passenger side of the windshield to be starred. Side Curtain Air Bags: Many vehicle manufacturers install side curtain air bags or laminated side window glass to reduce the


chance of occupant ejection and protect the occupant’s hip/pelvic region. These air bags can be found in the roof rail, door, or in the outer edge of any seat in the vehicle. Knee Air Bags: Knee air bags are common in most vehicles. These air bags are located in the dash in front of the occupant’s knees (driver & passenger) and are designed to keep the occupant from being forced under the dash during impact. Seat Belt Air Bags: These bags are designed to cushion the impact on the chest in a high-impact collision. Rear Window Air Bag: The rear window bag was first released in the Scion in 2012. This bag deploys from the headliner behind the rear occupants and protects them from hitting the rear window of the vehicle. Center Seat Air Bag: The center seat air bag is the latest air bag system. This air bag typically deploys from the driver’s seat between the front passengers. Vehicle manufacturers install safety systems in all makes and models of vehicles. Design, operation, and location can be different in each one. Take the time to locate and secure the safety systems during an emergency incident. Proper training on, and knowledge of, the various air bag system designs and inflator locations will increase your safety and the safety of other emergency personnel as well as the safety of the persons involved in the incident. Part II of this article will cover the deployment or non-deployment of an air bag during a crash and factors including the characteristics of a crash, individual air bag system design, and sensor locations. Stay safe… Chief Young

Russell Young is a battalion chief and assistant training officer for the Orem Fire Department, where he is responsible for extrication and ambulance driving operations. He is the chief of the Duchesne Fire Department and has been a paramedic for over 22 years. Young has a BS in emergency services management, is currently completing his MBA, has over 25 years of experience in fire and emergency medical service, and is an instructor and certification tester for UFRA.

Look for “Air Bag,” “SRS,” or “Side Air Bag” embossed on areas such as the B-post, seat back, door panel, or roof rail.

Not all air bags are marked and the air bag markings that are present do not always indicate the location of the air bag.

Fall 2016 | 15


WILDLAND photograph by Jason Curry

UTAH’S CATASTROPHIC WILDFIRE REDUCTION

STRATEGY

photograph by Nicolas Stiles

During the summer of 2012 the state of Utah faced a particularly active wildland fire season. Fires throughout the state caused considerable damage. Following this severe fire season, Governor Gary Herbert charged state land managers with the task of developing a cooperative strategy to reduce the size, intensity, and frequency of catastrophic wildfires in Utah. The Strategy Following the governor’s directive, a statewide Steering Committee was con16 | UFRA Straight Tip

vened to help develop the plan, and the Catastrophic Wildfire Reduction Strategy (CatFire) was finalized and presented to the governor in December 2013. The Utah Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands (FFSL) has the responsibility for implementing CatFire, and the statewide Steering Committee is now chaired by the state forester. The Steering Committee provides a venue for local, state, and federal agencies, along with NGOs and private sector partners, to have constructive dialogue and coordinate project planning, prioritization, and implementation. CatFire’s Goals The three goals at the heart of CatFire are based on the three interdependent goals of the National Cohesive Strategy (NCS): a. resilient landscapes b. fire-adapted communities c. safe and effective wildfire response

To show its commitment to the NCS, the Utah legislature passed Senate Bill 56, which codifies those goals: a. Restore and maintain landscapes, ensuring landscapes across the state are resilient to wildfire-related disturbances in accordance with fire management objectives. b. Create fire-adapted communities, ensuring that human populations and infrastructure can withstand a wildfire without loss of life or property. c. Improve wildfire response, ensuring that all political subdivisions can participate in making and implementing safe, effective, and efficient risk-based wildfire management decisions.


Utah is proud that the NCS goals are law and, along with CatFire, provide clear direction to FFSL and others for how we will cooperatively pursue wildfire risk reduction and suppression in the state. Risk Assessment and Prioritization The CatFire Steering Committee established six regional work groups covering the entire state. Each work group consists of local stakeholders representing private, local, state, and federal interests. Efforts are now underway to start up a web-based wildfire risk assessment portal in order to provide an additional science-based tool for regional work groups to assess risk and prioritize actions in their respective region. Once decisions have been made at the regional level, the proposed actions are passed to the Steering Committee for statewide prioritization. This prioritization process, directed from the regional level, is an integral component of the CatFire strategy. The risk assessment and prioritization allows local government, state agencies, federal agencies, and land managers to focus and distribute limited resources as efficiently as possible. The process also provides a scientific platform on which to base justification for specific expenditures. CatFire Support and Funding CatFire has been successful due particularly to the participation and support of Region Four of the US Forest Service, the Utah State Office of the Bureau of Land Management, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and State Conservationist. Through Region 4, state forestry, and private forestry, match funding has been provided for critical staffing needs. As well, NRCS, through the Regional Conservation Partnership Program, has provided substantial funding for both administrative support and on-the-ground treatments. The significant contributions of these agencies, along with the participation and support of so many other partners, has allowed the CatFire strategy to take hold statewide. Early on, the Steering Committee recommended that a significant additional investment be made by the state and affected stakeholders for prevention,

photograph by Nate Barrons

preparedness, and mitigation activities to reduce the threat of catastrophic wildfires. Subsequently the Utah legislature authorized funding for CatFire with approximately $2 million of state funds. This funding allotment represents the first time state funds have been appropriated for wildfire issues not directly related to suppression costs. CatFire Projects in Action Reducing the threat of catastrophic wildfire in Utah requires landscape modification of vegetation, reintroduction of managed fire, and substantial action by and within communities. Changes of this magnitude necessitate broad social and political awareness, understanding, and support. Efforts are underway to reach out to communities throughout the state to ensure everyone understands the importance of actively participating in mitigation and response programs, as well as creating and implementing Community Wildfire Preparedness Plans. Many of the initial projects designated for funding by CatFire were designed to augment existing state and federal cooperator projects. As an example, the FFSL’s project in the Willow Basin area in southeast Utah lies directly adjacent to recently completed fuels treatments. Additionally, a fuel break project in Sanpete County in central Utah was completed using program funds and is the culmination of a nearly five-year effort involving the Boy Scouts of America, numerous home owners associations, and the state of Utah.

Cooperation is Key Utah understands that for CatFire to succeed, the challenges of wildfires must be undertaken with a holistic approach. Without public participation and approval, it will be impossible to create meaningful, lasting changes. Without broad cooperation amongst stakeholders, both public and private, resilient landscapes and fire-adapted communities cannot be restored or maintained. The state, allied with its many federal agencies and local governments, will maintain an organized wildfire response force, but the effectiveness of that response is contingent on the other tenants of CatFire. CatFire is the culmination of a collaborative effort that should be emulated for its methodology and efficient process. With concerted effort and a commitment to this shared vision and strategy, all Utahans can contribute to healthy, fire-resilient ecosystems, to fortifying our vulnerable communities against wildfire’s impact, and to providing for the appropriate, professional fire response. To see a copy of Utah’s Catastrophic Wildfire Reduction Strategy visit: http://goo.gl/wtcCDb. Nate Barrons is the Catastrophic Wildfire Reduction Strategy coordinator and National Cohesive Strategy liaison for Utah’s Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands. For questions, contact him at nathanbarrons@utah.gov.

Fall 2016 | 17


FIRE PREVENTION

SO YOU ARE A FIRE INSPECTOR; WHAT DOES THAT REALLY MEAN? As a fire inspector, you play an important role in protecting life and property from the catastrophic consequences of a fire before it can begin. In that position, you will have many duties: • You will work with your local enforcement agencies (building, planning, legal, etc.), general contractors, fire protection contractors, and others to ensure that fire and life safety codes are met or exceeded. • You must know how to o read architectural drawings and fire protection system shop drawings, o conduct fire exit and evacuation drills, o inspect operational readiness and capabilities for fire sprinkler or fire alarm systems, and o witness the acceptance testing for newly installed or repaired fire and life safety protection and detection systems. • You might also have to deal with technical and legal issues. Have you, as a fire inspector, ever been asked how many lives you’ve saved? This isn’t as easy to answer as it is for those serving as an emergency responder. But how many lives will you save because of your diligence and attention to detail during your fire inspections? Being a fire inspector can be one of the most challenging and frustrating careers. Business owners in a community do not often embrace you as you come to perform an inspection. Hopefully you feel satisfaction in performing your duty—that you made the business safer for the owner and the public, not to mention the responding firefighters.

18 | UFRA Straight Tip

Fire code enforcement includes a wide range of activities aimed at identifying and eliminating hazards. Enforcement is commonly defined by four functions: inspection, detection, notification, and reporting. Inspection In the fire code enforcement process, structures and premises requiring fire inspections are identified. As the fire inspector, you will need to prioritize and perform these inspections so as to identify any fire and life safety code violations. Your fire inspection should be a careful examination of the plans or premises for the presence of any fire and life safety hazards using a systematic method that keeps the inspection process in the proper perspective of pursuing fire safety.


Achieving fire safety objectives means using a balanced approach composed of some elements that prevent ignition and others that attempt to control the effects of fire. Fire safety objectives are not defined in the fire and life safety codes but rather by the users. You will need to establish what risks and costs are reasonable. Many different methods can be used to conduct fire inspections; however, each method has strengths and weaknesses. Here are three inspection techniques you can use to form the basis of your own inspection approach. Outside to inside: Beginning outside is not only logical, but necessary. Hazards and clues outside the building can suggest significant danger. You might ask yourself: "Do the things I see outside match what I am seeing inside?" Top to bottom: Since walking down the stairs is a lot easier than walking up the stairs, this easier path of travel will allow you to concentrate on the fire inspection itself. General to specific: This approach can help you keep the inspection in focus by allowing you to pay more attention to detail and by allowing you to focus on a specific problem without losing sight of the big picture. Detection A systematic approach to your fire inspection can assist you in detecting fire code violations. A fire hazard can be anything that fails to prevent a fire or permits a fire to spread unchecked. Similarly, a hazardous condition is one which prevents occupants from escaping or firefighters from entering. A systematic approach to fire inspections implies not only good organization but also a good understanding of the process of how fire will interact with and affect the structure, premises, and occupants. You will need to understand how people will use the structure and premises and how they will react in a fire emergency in order to understand how to keep the system in balance and prevent uncontrolled fires. Upon observing a hazardous condition, you must begin a process to correct it. This may be accomplished by removing or eliminating the hazardous condition or providing some countermeasure designed to lessen its effects on the property, occupants, or neighbors. Notification Fire inspectors must advise and notify the property owner and/or occupant of the deficiencies found and noted during the fire in-

spection. Part of this duty includes educating and promoting fire code compliance and even assisting the owner and/or occupant with suggestions on appropriate actions to establish compliance. However, a fire inspection program cannot identify and abate all hazards. Many fire and life safety code requirements maintain or reinforce features not intended to prevent a fire but rather to minimize the effect of a fire should it occur. That is why, when you are putting together a fire inspection program, you must also consider the benefits of educating the building owners and its occupants about fire hazards that could endanger their lives and property. Not only do such efforts help secure compliance with fire and life safety code requirements but they also are likely to secure a long-term commitment toward fire safety as well. Reporting Reporting is intended to help document and reinforce the lessons learned from the previous three phases. You as a fire inspector are responsible for issuing the owner and/or the occupant a written report of the fire code and life safety violations discovered and noted during your inspection, which will serve as a notice for further actions they will need to take and as a permanent record and your report of the fire inspection. As we all know, paperwork is not fun. However, without documentation, prosecuting an effective fire code enforcement program becomes nearly impossible. Accurate, concise, and timely records are essential for both legal and historical reasons. Documenting the fire inspection and violation history of a particular premise or owner is essential when prosecuting criminal actions under the code provisions. I hope this information will assist you in your endeavors as a fire inspector as you try to protect your community.

Scott W. Adams is employed with the Park City Fire Service District as the assistant fire chief / district fire marshal. Chief Adams graduated from the University of Maryland with a bachelor of science in fire protection engineering. Chief Adams is currently serving as the chairman for the ICC Governing Committee for the Fire Service Membership Council and is a former president for the International Fire Marshal’s Association.

Fall 2016 | 19


FIREFIGHTER LAW

Smartphones & Employee Privacy Over the years, we have seen courts conclude that firefighters can have a reasonable expectation of privacy with regard to the contents of their fire station lockers as well as what they store on department-owned computers. The deciding factor in whether a warrantless search in the workplace will be upheld often depends on whether the fire department had a policy that notified firefighters that such searches would be conducted. Smartphones: they are at once a communications device, an address book, a photo album, a navigation system and much, much more. It’s hard to remember life without them. The US Supreme Court recently wrote that smartphones “are now such a pervasive and insistent part of daily life that the proverbial visitor from Mars might conclude they were an important feature of human anatomy.”

Attorneys who advise fire departments universally recommend having clear policies that inform firefighters of the locations and objects that the department may search. From a managerial perspective, an employee’s expectation of privacy is shaped by such policies. Thus, a fire department can tell firefighters, “We reserve the right to look in your lockers” and thereby extinguish any reasonable expectation of privacy that may otherwise exist.

Smartphones also contain a mind-boggling array of personal information: where we’ve been, who we’ve called, personal passwords, text messages, emails, and even credit card information. Given the role of smartphones in modern society, it is not surprising that privacy concerns abound, including concerns related to privacy in the workplace.

Occasionally, a question arises about how far a fire department could constitutionally push the issue of a work-related search. Arguably, a department can go so far as to say, if you bring it into the workplace, we reserve the right to look at it. Such a policy could theoretically extend the department’s right to search personally owned backpacks, briefcases, and perhaps even vehicles brought into a fire station.

Is a smartphone like any other item that an employee may bring into the workplace? Most attorneys never gave that question much thought until the Supreme Court decided the case of Riley v. California last year. Background Information According to the Supreme Court, the Fourth Amendment requires government agents to obtain a search warrant before searching anywhere that a person has a “reasonable expectation of privacy.” While we often associate the Fourth Amendment with police searches in criminal cases, it is implicated whenever a public employer, such as a fire department, seeks to conduct workplace searches of public employees and their possessions. 20 | UFRA Straight Tip

Given the heightened expectations of privacy associated with a person’s home, it is inconceivable that a fire department could require a firefighter to open his/her home to a department inspection through a “right to search” policy. Beyond being outrageously offensive, that would be pushing the Fourth Amendment too far. Enter the Riley case. Expectations of Smartphone Privacy Riley v. California was a criminal case involving a police department’s search of an arrestee’s cellphone. The facts in the case


are of little relevance to firefighters. What is of concern is the Supreme Court’s approach to cell/smartphones and its implications for the workplace. Let’s consider some of the key quotes from the Supreme Court: • Cell phones differ . . . from other objects that might be kept on a . . . person. The term “cell phone” is itself misleading shorthand; many of these devices are in fact minicomputers that also happen to have the capacity to be used as a telephone. They could just as easily be called cameras, video players, rolodexes, calendars, tape recorders, libraries, diaries, albums, televisions, maps or newspapers. • One of the most notable distinguishing features of modern cell phones is their immense storage capacity . . . • Most people cannot lug around every piece of mail they have received for the past several months, every picture they have taken, or every book or article they have read— nor would they have any reason to attempt to do so. And if they did, they would have to drag behind them a trunk . . . • The current top-selling smart phone has a standard capacity of 16 gigabytes (and is available with up to 64 gigabytes). Sixteen gigabytes translates to millions of pages of text, thousands of pictures, or hundreds of videos . . . • Prior to the digital age, people did not typically carry a cache of sensitive personal information with them as they went about their day. Now it is the person who is not carrying a cellphone, with all that it contains, who is the exception. • In 1926, [Judge] Learned Hand observed that it is “a totally different thing to search a man’s pockets and use against him what they contain, from ransacking his house for everything which may incriminate him.” . . . If his pockets contain a cell phone, however, that is no longer true. Indeed, a cell phone search would typically expose to the government far more than the most exhaustive search of a house: A phone not only contains in digital form many sensitive records previously found in the home; it also contains a broad array of private information never found in a home in any form. • Modern cell phones are not just another technological convenience. With all they contain and all they may reveal, they hold for many Americans “the privacies of life.” • The fact that technology now allows an individual to carry such information in his hand does not make the information any less worthy of the protection for which the Founders fought. • Our answer to the question of what police must do before searching a cell phone seized during an arrest is accordingly simple—get a warrant. The Takeaway The Supreme Court’s startlingly clear conclusion in the Riley case is that the privacy interests associated with a smartphone exceed the privacy interests associated with one’s home. That means that a cell/smartphone being carried by on-duty firefighters is not simply another item they may have in their pocket or that they may leave in their locker.

Firefighters have a heightened expectation of privacy in their cell/smartphone that is equivalent to—or perhaps exceeds—the expectation of privacy they have in their home. This expectation of privacy is so strong that a fire department employer may not be able to invade it through the mere issuance of a policy. No doubt, future cases will further refine the relative rights of the fire department and the firefighter with regard to the privacy issues associated with cell and smartphones in the workplace. In the meantime, what should fire departments and firefighters alike do in light of Riley v. California?

The following are my recommendations for fire departments: 1. Policies that currently authorize workplace searches of personal backpacks, briefcases, and items brought into the workplace ought to be reviewed by legal counsel, with an eye toward addressing the constitutional issues associated with personal cell/smartphones as raised by the Riley case. 2. The department leadership and legal counsel should also consider applying the Riley case to other digital-age devices that may implicate similar privacy concerns, as well as its impact on department-issued devices and department-subsidized devices. 3. Workplace searches of an employee’s personal cell/ smartphone must be recognized as high-risk activities Continued on page 25

Fall 2016 | 21


Winter Fire School

2017

MARK YOUR CALANDARS FOR

JANUARY 20 – 21, 2017 At the Dixie Convention Center St. George, Utah REGISTRATION OPENS ONLINE November 1st at 8 a.m.

Visit our website for more details and the complete list of classes: www.uvu.edu/ufra/training/winterfireschool.html 22 | UFRA Straight Tip


New This Year:

*Combat Ready Firefighting...........................................Chief Richard Riley/ Chief Larry Shultz *Engaging the Public....................................................Chief Jeremy Craft *Firefighter I & FF II Skills Refresher...............................UFRA Cadre *Habits of Highly Effective Incident Commanders............Chief Kevin Ward/ DC Paul Sullivan *Haz-Mat Ops Refresher...............................................UFRA Cadre *New Concepts for Rapid Intervention Crews..................Jared Sholly *Spouses Only: Understanding Your Firefighter...............TBA (no registration needed) *Waving Red Flags.......................................................Chief Richard Riley/ Chief Larry Shultz

Returning Classes:

Advanced Extrication..................................................Jeff Gates; L.N. Curtis Advanced ICS I-400....................................................Joe Bystryski Arson Investigation.....................................................Bryan Thatcher/ Todd Holbein Basic Apparatus Maintenance......................................Bob Allen; AES Basic Extrication.........................................................UFRA Cadre Basic Fire Company Inspections...................................Scott Adams/ Chief Scott Spencer Down & Dirty Hydraulics..............................................Andy Byrnes Emergency Apparatus Driving Simulator.......................UFRA Cadre Firefighter Survival & RIT.............................................UFRA Cadre Fighting Fire with Limited Resources.............................Chief Rod Hammer Firefighting Tactics......................................................Dan Madrzykowski First Responder Suicide Prevention..............................Todd Harms Flashover...................................................................UFRA Cadre Forcible Entry.............................................................UFRA Cadre Grant Writing..............................................................Steve Lutz Hands on Fire Investigation..........................................Mike Andrew/ Mike Young Human Factor: Followership to Leadership....................Duane Woolsey Ice Rescue Awareness and Operations.........................Bo Tippetts Initial Fire Attack/FAST Prop........................................UFRA Cadre Instructor I.................................................................UFRA Cadre Juvenile Firesetter.......................................................Troy Mills Mobile Command Training Center.................................UFRA Cadre PPE/SCBA/S&R..........................................................UFRA Cadre Suicide Prevention......................................................Chief Todd Harms Rope Rescue..............................................................Leroy Harbach/ Fred Salazar: CMC Urban Interface Awareness..........................................Jennifer Hansen Ventilation Tactics.......................................................Scott Corrigan Wilderness Medicine...................................................Margaret Mittlemen Wildland Fire Investigator.............................................Chief Rod Hammer All classes subject to change

Fall 2016 | 23


A NEW PERSPECTIVE ON FIRE SERVICE SAFETY I have been fortunate to be involved in the National Safety Culture Change Initiative (NSCCI). The organization advocates that fire service organizations strive to be “As Safe As Realistically Achievable” (ASARA). My involvement has changed my perspective—and most importantly, my beliefs—related to firefighter safety. My experiences as an aggressive firefighter had skewed my perspective of safety. The desire to be first due, first in, and on the nozzle was engrained into my DNA. I was promoted from firefighter to lieutenant captain, being passionate about “knowing your trade.” The training schedule I had devised for our crew was viewed as extreme. It was focused on performance-based drills designed to test physical and mental limitations while wearing full protective clothing. What it lacked was focus on specific areas that I now believe to be essential to firefighter safety. Since 2013, we have been reviewing research publications, including near miss reports, to develop the curriculum. We discovered that firefighter safety at the emergency scene consists of decision making with the ability to gain and maintain situational awareness while implementing risk-based response principles. Prior to the response, each firefighter must strive for continual improvement through experience-based training while being fit for duty. The “Patch” all fire personnel must own to be as safe as realistically achievable is depicted below:

24 | UFRA Straight Tip

These six components of personnel safety need the support from fire service organizations. It starts with the leadership engaging the work force on the importance of safety while establishing expectations of personnel and implementing accountability and enforcement procedures. The need for a Health & Safety program with effective training and evaluation processes is included. Finally, the requirement for an organization to “walk the walk” is key in accomplishing a change in the organization’s safety culture. The requirement of firefighter competency is at the core of firefighter safety. Crew integrity, operational readiness, and adequate staffing and equipment are additional considerations for firefighter safety and must be the focus of fire service organizations. So how do you change the safety culture in the fire service? Dr. Jennifer Taylor from Drexel University has been conducting firefighter safety research for almost a decade to tackle this issue


It was focused on performance-based drills designed to test physical and mental limitations while wearing full protective clothing. What it lacked was focus on specific areas that I now believe to be essential to firefighter safety. (http://drexel.edu/dornsife/research/research-centers/FIRST). Her research supports the need to address the short-term safety climate of fire service organizations as a way to influence the longer term culture. Chief David Daniels has championed this message in his efforts as a lead influencer on the NSCCI project. Believing measurement drives behavior, the NSCCI project has developed a measurement tool that fire service personnel can use to assess their current safety culture. The measurement tool can be taken by each member of the organization and then the results can be used to bring focus to specific areas for improvement. The NSCCI curriculum can be accessed through the IAFC Learning Management System at http://www.ffsafetyculture.org. According to data compiled by the US Fire Administration, 1,160 firefighters died as a result of injuries sustained in the line of duty during the period from 2001 through 2011. Although the annual number of total firefighter deaths has declined in recent years,

firefighter deaths that occur inside of structures are occurring at higher rates than those reported in the 1970s and 1980s, despite a decrease in the overall number of fires (Kerber, 2012). By working toward a fire service culture of safety, we are fulfilling the fire service’s highest priority: the life safety of responders. The lives that will be saved will be our own. David Matthew has 30 years of fire service experience in Kansas and, most recently, in California. He is a current instructor for the UFRA Hazardous Materials Science Program and is a member of the UVU Test Team for the Jack Rabbit II Program at Dugway Proving Grounds. He is an active fire service researcher and served as the curriculum developer for the NSCCI project.

Smartphones & Employee Privacy (Continued from page 21) that should only be conducted after consultation with legal counsel. Cell/smartphones cannot be treated like any other object in the workplace. 4. In the event that a search of a cell/smartphone becomes necessary, obtain the written consent of the employee beforehand. Do not search the device without such consent, unless advised to do so by legal counsel. 5. Limit the scope of any search to the greatest extent possible. My recommendations for firefighters: 1. Recognize that you have the right to say no to any request for consent to search your cell/smartphone. 2. Depending on what is at stake, get union and/or legal advice as quickly as possible before making a decision. 3. Before consenting to a search, consider placing limits upon the scope of the search and insist that these limits be agreed to in writing. For example, if the issue concerns a text message that was sent within the past 24 hours, limit the scope of the search to text messages sent within that timeframe. Prohibit any additional searches of the device for any and all other information, and if possible, obtain a written assurance that anything be-

yond the scope that is discovered inadvertently cannot be used for any purpose. 4. If you choose not to consent, make your refusal to consent clear without being insubordinate. 5. Do not disobey an order to turn over a cell/smartphone, but make clear your objection to the order and your position that any warrantless search without your consent is a violation of your Fourth Amendment rights. Curt Varone has more than 40 years of experience in the fire service, including 29 years as a career firefighter with Providence, RI, retiring as a deputy assistant chief (shift commander). He is a practicing attorney licensed in both Rhode Island and Maine, and served as the director of the Public Fire Protection Division at the NFPA. Varone is the author of two books, Legal Considerations for Fire and Emergency Services and Fire Officer’s Legal Handbook, and remains active as a deputy chief in Exeter, RI. Reprinted with permission from Chief Varone and Firehouse magazine.

Fall 2016 | 25


ICS Brings Worlds Apart Close Together by Dennis Goudy, QA Program Manager

9,000 Miles from Home Imagine responding to an incident in a country thousands of miles away. Once you and your team arrive, you are escorted to a camp that is within reach of a very large natural disaster. Once in camp you are checked in using the Incident Command System (ICS) Form # 211 (Incident Check-In List). The camp has been set close enough to a base, which is supplied with some necessities. Soon you are moved to a staging area, where you await orders. While in staging you look around and notice that the only thing you and your team have in common with the other responders is that you all have similar personal protective equipment (PPE). Everyone is gathered together as teams and seems to be like race horses in the gate ready to go. Soon the staging area manager contacts your group supervisor, someone you just met, and relays information about an assignment sent from Command or Operations. Your team is assigned forward to a geographical or functional area within the incident organization. Once in the assigned area, you apply skills learned from a training center in Utah. Even though your group supervisor is speaking another language, he keeps the radio traffic limited and stays focused on the assignment and the safety of the crews. Things slow somewhat because the group supervisor uses a translator to relay important information about the assignments to you, but because you are working within a very similar incident management system, you get the point and apply the skills that you have learned from your home base in Utah, where you learned the principles of the ICS.

It is possible that ICS will be the accepted worldwide standard for the next generation of responders? This scenario is becoming more accurate than ever. Many countries are now looking closely at how the United States applies the ICS as a management tool for disasters and are asking the US to 26 | UFRA Straight Tip

share the ICS with them. It is possible that ICS will be the accepted worldwide standard for the next generation of responders?

Responder from TNI discusses ICS Org Chart with Dennis Goudy.

Allow Me to Share an Experience Several years ago, while serving as a government contractor, I was tasked with supporting government leaders in Padang (West Sumatra), Indonesia; the Indonesian National Army, referred to as Tentara Nasional Indonesia (TNI); and the United States Army Pacific (USARPAC) by conducting a Disaster Response Exchange and Exercise (DREE) in Padang, Indonesia. The overarching purpose of the DREE was to share the ICS with the West Sumatra, Indonesia, local responders, including police, fire, EMS, Search & Rescue, and other humanitarian assistance groups. Subject matter experts (SMEs) from the United States Army, Australian Army, United States Navy, United States Air Force, and the New Zealand Military joined forces to share information to well over 100 participants. Sharing ICS 100 & 200 with a group of non–English speaking responders was challenging. All of the ICS 100 & 200 Training Modules had to be presented with the same methodology and concepts as it is in the United States, but legally, the United States can only share how the United States uses ICS and not teach ICS.


Joe Bistryski leads a group presentation in one of UFRA's courses, which are designed to help department officers apply the ICS.

Naturally most of us want to jump in and just start teaching, but teaching isn’t easy when you consider the cultural differences, language barrier, and legal limitations between the various governments. I, being a man of few words—and not being ICS biased (yeah, right!)—was assigned to build the ICS modules in both English and Bahasa Indonesia (the official language of Indonesia). After three months of writing and building presentations, we went to print and made the trip to Padang, Indonesia. About Indonesia Padang (West Sumatra), Indonesia’s capitol city, sits in the upper third of West Sumatra. As the most seismically active area on earth, with three or more 3.5 magnitude earthquakes per week, natural disasters are continually imminent. Anytime a disaster strikes there, responders generally deal with large numbers of causalities due to densely populated areas, poorly constructed buildings, and large, powerful earthquakes, mudslides, and floods. Most responders in the US deal with disasters that involve a few people, but responders in Indonesia may experience several thousand casualties per incident. Most of you likely remember the horrific tsunami that struck Indonesia in late December of 2005 and killed over 250,000 people. We all watched those horrific videos and witnessed thousands of people being swept away by the surge of water that engulfed inhabited areas. Several of the participants at the ICS DREE in Padang were also responders to the 2005 tsunami. They were part of large Search and Rescue (SAR) teams, which changed quickly from SAR to body recovery teams. Two of the DREE participants tragically lost their entire families in that horrible disaster. Each of those young gentlemen stood and spoke about those horrible moments. They spoke with great strength and conviction to life, and even though they lost their families, they reported back to duty

just 72 hours after they experienced their personal tragedies. The desire, passion, and hunger for knowledge of those attending the DREE was very impressive and made me appreciate the importance of all responders using a worldwide Incident Management System. Prior to our departure from Indonesia, the prime minister of Indonesia officially adopted the United States Incident Command System as their incident management tool. Closer to Home It is possible to be deployed anywhere at any time. Evidence of that is the San Diego Fire Storm of 2003. At the peak of that incident, over 10,000 pieces of equipment or apparatus were sent to the area. Apparatus and crews responded to the incident from nearly every state, including Utah. To be successful, those deployed depended on an understanding and a working background of the ICS.

To be successful, those deployed depended on an understanding and a working background of the ICS. Continued on next page

Fall 2016 | 27


ICS training, like this group discussion led by Gary Kilgore, helps teach firefighters the importance of the ICS as an incident management tool. Continued from previous page

Recently, requests for ICS 300 & 400 training has increased, and program managers at the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy have responded by increasing ICS 300 & 400 training opportunities, including scheduling and delivering regional ICS training courses. Since early spring of 2014 through late summer of 2016, UFRA has provided ICS 300 & 400 training to over 300 fire officers and officer candidates. In order to maximize the training, a local scenario was developed for the courses using factual, historical data to add a realistic training tool for participants. The theme for the current 300 & 400 courses is, “How does this training apply to me as a company officer, shift supervisor, or officer candidate?” UFRA’s goal is to teach department offi-

cers the responsibility and expectations to become National Incident Command System (NIMS) compliant and better at using ICS. The instructors teach how it applies to the company officer, shift supervisor, and officer candidate during the courses. Although there is no direct penalty if a responder does not comply with NIMS, it makes sense that all responders train to those standards. By doing so, the responder can literally speak the same language and operate the same beyond state and national boundaries. When local responders choose to invent other management tools and alter or create specific terminology, nuances, and methods for their small geographical areas contrary to NIMS, it restricts the ability of other agencies who do comply to meld into that agency’s unique management system. If all agencies comply with NIMS and ICS, then integration into any incident regardless of size or complexity becomes easier to manage. It increases responder safety and accountability, improves efficiency of resource ordering, and eases some of the stress on the agency having jurisdiction for cost recovery. Currently, many of the fire departments in Utah have a basic understanding of the ICS 300 but are, at best, trained only to the ICS 100 to ICS 200 levels. UFRA offers a three-day ICS 300 course; the three-day course includes review of applying ICS 200. UFRA also offers a two-day ICS 400 course.

Battalion Chief Chris Milne leads team in group activity to reinforce the use of the ICS.

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UFRA will continuously address the needs of fire departments throughout the state by offering regional ICS 300 & 400 training. For more information, visit the UFRA website to contact the program manager that serves your area, or you can contact Dennis Goudy at 801-863-7727 or dennis.goudy@uvu.edu. Stay focused, train hard, be the best!


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Fall 2016 | 31


WORTHY OF TRUST IN A JOB THAT MATTERS How many of you would embrace a stranger and welcome them into your home? Welcome them into your life? Not many. When approached by strangers, we often maintain our distance and feel uncomfortable and wary. Trust Beyond Measure When you are called upon to exercise your duty as an American firefighter, you will not be a stranger. Think about it. You have seen it! An anxious father ushers you into his home and places his precious daughter into your care. A wife, married for 50 years and who is normally standoffish to strangers, will grab your arm and lead you to her sick husband. Neither that father nor that elderly woman know you, but in their times of need, you are their hope—sometimes their desperate hope.

Don’t blow off the high trust they placed in you. It sounds simple, but be nice, be professional, and be compassionate. In my years as a paramedic, there are many experiences I will never forget. One occurred 32 years ago on the 710 freeway in the LA area. A man in his early 40s was driving home from work in the middle of the night. He fell asleep and crashed into a bridge. Although initially unconscious, he became lucid for a time. I remember like it was yesterday. He knew he was gravely injured. He grabbed my arm and said, “Doc, am I going to die?” My eyes met his, and then he pleadingly said, “Doc, don’t let me die.” For that moment in time, he placed his absolute and complete hope in a stranger. How many jobs enjoy the privilege and honor of being welcomed into a life? In how many jobs would you, a stranger, be invited without reservation into a life with hope often laid upon your shoulders? 32 | UFRA Straight Tip

In Times of Sorrow During the horrible mud slides in La Canchita, California, a father was searching desperately for his wife and kids. Firefighters were by his side searching as well. Unfortunately, his entire family was found, his wife huddled with their children, all dead. On nationwide TV, a firefighter and the father were shown carrying a stretcher with the lifeless body of one of his children. For that moment in time, a stranger—a firefighter—shared a father’s grief. What do you do with that? You will become part of a life at its most happy moment or at its saddest time. The Honor and the Price of Being an American Firefighter What other job enjoys that honor? We shop for doctors and churches, not willing to take just anyone. But you—when you show up at a doorstep—you are no longer a stranger. Someone is placing their total and complete trust in you. That is an incredible honor, an immeasurable privilege. But with honor and privilege come a high degree of responsibility as well. We often hear said, those are awful big boots to fill! Well, the boots you are wearing are, indeed, awfully big. They require excellence to adequately fill them. You must be worthy of it. You Are Part of a Legacy But it is not just about you and your expertise. You are part of a legacy of America’s firefighters helping people. If you are a paramedic, that legacy began almost 50 years ago when two doctors had a wild idea to place needles and drugs into the hands of firefighters. The state of California thought they were nuts. The California Medical Association, the California Nurses Association, and a litany of others all came out against it. But then California Governor Ronald Reagan, who had recently lost his dad to a heart attack, signed the bill despite the outcry. So when you are ushered into a person’s life, into a family in the performance of your duty, there is a long line of those who have gone before you. Truly, you are part of a long and honored legacy. What Really Matters? But there is something else. And that is how you will treat those who usher you into their lives. I say that to impress upon you the responsibility to care for each one that turns to you in their time of need. Not just care for them professionally, but passionately


as well. I hope this article has impressed upon you the level of trust that your public has bestowed upon you, so care for it well. Although rescues will eventually become second nature to you, they will never become second nature to those who dial 911 with a true emergency. Don’t blow off the high trust they placed in you. It sounds simple, but be nice, be professional, and be compassionate. I often refer to a survey that the Sarasota County Fire Department did of those who had called 911 for service. Sarasota asked them, what is important to you? Their answers were • get there quick, • take away my pain, • tell me what you are doing and why, • be professional, and • be compassionate. Three out of the five answers were interpersonal skills. This is what people think are important. Do you think you are good? If you want to be good in the eyes of those who invite you into their lives, then be compassionate and be professional. Do what matters!

If you want to be good in the eyes of those who invite you into their lives, then be compassionate and be professional.

In Conclusion I envy where you are. I am now retired with a heart full of memories already made in one of the greatest professions ever known. For most who will read this article, you are still making those memories. But if there are two things that I wish each of you would take with you and use, they are these: 1. Understand the incredibly high level of trust that people have placed in you and earn it every time the bell goes off. 2. If you are doing this only for the money, you will not truly appreciate the privilege. If you are doing it to make a difference in people’s lives, to be part of a respected legacy, then stake your claim and begin to build a career and a heart that is full of precious memories of helping others and of a job that truly matters.

Mike Metro was the chief deputy for the Los Angeles County Fire Department until he retired in January of 2015. Mike has nearly 40 years of experience in the fire service, including five years for the city of El Cajon, a four-station fire department in San Diego County. In his last role with the Los Angeles County Fire Department, he provided executive oversight for the emergency operations of the department’s 170 fire stations protecting 58 cities and 4.5 million citizens. He was the chief of Emergency Medical Services for LA County Fire for seven years as well as the president of the California Association of Fire Chiefs EMS Section for four years. He currently serves on the Executive Board of the International Association of Fire Chiefs (IAFC) EMS Section as the vice chair as well as the chair of the IAFC’s Affordable Care Act Task Force.

Fall 2016 | 33


A FIREFIGHTER'S BIGGEST MISTAKE In striving to reach perfection, many firefighters overlook chances to learn from mistakes. As a firefighter, you must develop and reflect a departmental philosophy wherein mistakes are dealt with by honest acknowledgement. In their service to others, firefighters are compelled to conduct themselves under the incessant pressure to be error free. This pressure is tremendous. This is reflected every month in fire-related publications. It is preached by fire instructors and constantly drilled into us during trainings. It hovers around the firehouse reflected in stories and myth. The problem with this premise of perfection is the straightforward reality that mistakes happen. Despite the best intentions or any amount of training, things can and do go wrong.

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Successful firefighters understand that the key to lessening the impact of mistakes is to not allow them to repeat themselves, or more importantly, to gain momentum. Repeating the same mistake over and over can diminish a career. Mistakes that are compounded on the fireground can lead to delays, changes in strategy and tactics or an unsafe incident. Mistakes in the fire service come from many sources. Improper training, poor communications and lack of focus are a few of the origins of errors. Folly of youth Overzealous about everything and completely self-critical, the new recruit is totally stressed out every minute of the duty day waiting for that one slip, that one errant moment—the one critical mistake that could spell disaster on the fireground or at the grocery store. Interestingly, it is this basic fault of youth and inexperience that sets the tone for dealing with the more substantial mistakes throughout a fire department. As firefighters, we agree that the emergency scene is made up of tasks linked together in an appropriate and effective sequence that results in accomplishing a tactical objective. Mistakes arise when this sequence of events is repeated time and time again with success. Complexity gives way to routine and routine results in complacency. Even more critical, it is during this "sacred" routine that we tend to be closed to outside stimulus, whether from the public or from


one of our own. This isolation can lead to missed opportunities, poor decisions or inappropriate conclusions—all of which can result in mistakes. In and around the fire station, the customs surrounding a mistake are a little harder to define. There are some firefighters who simply won't admit that mistakes occur and certainly not by them. This leaves issues unresolved and little opportunity for improvement. Key to lessening mistakes Interestingly enough, the first mistake a newly promoted firefighter makes is denial. "That didn't happen on my watch." Experienced firefighters are a bit more realistic but quickly learn the art of deflection. "I didn't drop the nozzle; the nozzle fell out of my hand." For their part, skilled firefighters administer two philosophies: try to eliminate mistakes or at least control their fallout by taking full responsibly, whether it's warranted or not. The key to lessening mistakes is not to preach perfection, but to teach the credo that mistakes do exist and that they are not failures. We must adopt a culture in which the first mistake is a learning opportunity, not a source of ridicule and punishment. The "old academy" is gone, or should be. The same mistake made a second time should by all accounts be the last. Now is the time to question completely and honestly, without blame. The objective is to simply confirm a solution. It is only after the third time that a mistake becomes some type of serious breakdown and it is our job to find it and eliminate it. And for the repeat offender, it is their responsibility to never do it again. Mistakes: A harbinger of change As a firefighter, you must develop and reflect a departmental philosophy wherein mistakes are dealt with by honest acknowledgement, objective identification and a thorough resolution. This ensures a lack of repetition while allowing them to serve as a source of increasing success. Out in the open, they can be the seeds of doom or the roots of opportunity. It is up to you. But it is not just about winning achievement. Mistakes are the harbinger of change. You and your department must be open to the possibility that some policies may be outdated or inappropriate. Are you hypercritical in your pursuit of perfect performance or do you modify behavior through tolerance and understanding in your mission to create a better fire department?

Mistakes, like all agents of change, must be incorporated into our fire service culture. Mistakes, like all agents of change, must be incorporated into our fire service culture. To deny or diminish their worth by relegating them to fault and blame by criticizing and punishing is the ultimate error in judgment. Our ultimate goal should be to maintain quality of service and value to the community by aspiring to a principle of growth and progress free from the fear of failure rather than perpetuate a vapid quest toward perfection. Perfection can only lead to satisfaction or disappointment— never joy. Joy is found in the spirit of tradition and the excellence it inspires whatever the challenges.

Jim Spell spent 33 years as a professional firefighter with Vail (Colo.) Fire & Emergency Services, the last 20 years as a captain. He helped create the first student/resident fire science program west of the continental divide, formed the first countywide hazmat response unit and was on the original Colorado Governor’s Safety Committee. Today, Jim serves as an adjunct instructor with his hometown combination fire department. As founder of HAZPRO Consulting, LLC, Jim advises business and industry on subjects ranging from hazard analysis and safety response to personnel development and organization. As a writer, Jim has won six IAFF media awards since retiring from active duty. Jim has an associate’s degree in fire science and a bachelor’s degree in communications. He can be reached at Jim.Spell@ FireRescue1.com.

This article was originally published on April 25, 2016 in FireRescue1: http://www.firerescue1.com/cod-company-officer-development/ articles/84643018-A-firefighters-biggest-mistake/.

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Department Spotlight

SANDY CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT Q&A with Deputy Chief Derek Maxfield Sandy City Fire Department has seven chief officers: • • •

Chief: Bruce Cline Deputy chief: Derek Maxfield Battalion chiefs: • Chris Dawson • Matt Stuebner • Eric Larsen • Tim Norris • Robert Dekorver (fire marshal)

Q. What is the makeup of the area your

department serves?

A. Sandy City Fire Department serves approximately 25 square miles and 90,000 citizens. Our response area includes sections of I-15, Trax and Union Pacific Rail lines, Dimple Dell Recreation Park, the Jordan River, and the Wasatch Mountains. We also have a diverse mix of commercial, industrial, and residential structures within our city.

Q. What makes your department unique? A. • We ran approximately 6,900 calls last year (5,280 medical and 1,676 fire). • We have 79 full-time employees (69 combat firefighters and 10 staff/office personnel). • We provide fire suppression, emergency medical services (including ALS transport), HazMat, and technical rescue. Our firefighters are also all Red Card certified in wildland. • We have five fire stations. Q. What does your department do for

community outreach?

A. We have a very active fire prevention and education program that offers CERT classes, CPR classes, school programs, and puppet shows. We also have a juvenile fire setter program for kids who have started fires or who are showing tendencies to play with or experiment with fire.

Q. What are the biggest challenges your department

Q. Is there anything else you would like readers

A. •

A. Great customer service is our number one priority, and we strive to make every interaction between the citizens and our department a positive one.

faces or top concerns in your community?

We have a significant wildland-urban interface area with Dimple Dell Recreation Park and the eastern bench along the Wasatch Front. We have implemented a “Ready Set Go” program to educate residents in those areas about ways that they can protect their homes. As part of that program, we have also proactively defined and marked routes for citizens who might need to evacuate in the event of a large wildland fire. We have a lot of growth and construction taking place throughout the city, especially near City Hall where the Hale Center Theater is being built. The city’s Cairns project includes plans for many high-rise structures in that area as well as large, multi-family residential structures. Many of these major construction projects are already in progress. We also have many popular hiking and recreation areas in the mountains along our eastern border and are called out to provide medical and technical rescue services to injured or stranded citizens.

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to know about your department?

Sandy City Fire Department members in front of city hall.


Change Your Wildland Ways by Marta Marrow

Students taking the pack test for wildland certification.

As we approach the end of the 2016 wildland fire season, the Certification Office would like to make some recommendations for the upcoming season.

The Certification Office guarantees 25 days from the date of receiving recertification requests to completion. Please plan accordingly.

1. Plan your pack tests and refresher courses in the off season. We all know that June marks the beginning of the intensive wildland fire season, whether in state or out of state. For those departments that anticipate deploying during the season, get your pack tests and refresher courses done in late Fall—October and November—and then submit your recertification requests in December and January. Do not wait until late spring to get your pack test and refresher course done and expect to be recertified by the first of June when every other department is doing the same.

2. Follow these instructions when preparing request forms. In order to expedite your request, please do the following: • List names on request in alphabetical order. • If a member of your department has information missing (i.e., IS-700 date, pack test date, etc.), do not list them on the request form. • If you are contacted for missing information on the original request and it is not received within 30 days, you will receive a final email notice granting 10 more days. If the needed information is not received at that time, you will need to resubmit new and complete paperwork. • Make sure to send both the Certification Request Form as well as the Wildland Firefighter Physical Fitness Test Form (Pack Test Form) for Wildland Certification or Recertification. 3. Keep up the good work. The Certification Team is working hard to make sure our wildland firefighters are ready to go when they are called upon. There were 1,647 Red Cards issued between April 1st and June 30th this year. We are grateful for your efforts and know that with your help in making some adjustments and planning ahead, we can serve you more efficiently. For questions or comments, please contact Marta Morrow at marta.morrow@uvu.edu or 801-863-7746. Fall 2016 | 37


OH, It’s Broke! “'If it ain't broke, don't fix it' is the slogan of the complacent, the arrogant or the scared. It's an excuse for inaction, a call to non-arms.” —Colin Powell We’ve all heard the statement “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it!” This statement is typically made in the context of someone resisting change, new methods, or new ideas. To the user, this statement really means, “We like how things are and through our experience we have seen success in how we do what we do.” The potential meaning behind this statement is much greater, though—it potentially says, “We aren’t curious, creative, or have never critically analyzed how we do what we do.” It also demonstrates complacency and a comfort with the status quo. The fact is, it is broken, and I can prove it! When I hear the “If it ain’t broke” statement while teaching, I address it this way: In my chief ’s office is a picture of a 1923 American LaFrance fire engine. This engine was Montrose, Colorado’s very first motorized fire truck. According to my chief (who is from this department), when this truck was received, it was not welcomed with open arms. The firefighters of the day exclaimed, “That piece of c@#p will never replace the horse!” On its first run it got stuck in the mud, proving their point. I am sure that every department has this same story and can add a similar story about every new idea or change since. We often are in the same position as the firefighters of 1923. In 1923 they responded to alarms, pulled hose, and squirted water; 38 | UFRA Straight Tip

and I’m sure fires went out. Today, we no doubt do this better, but fires eventually go out just like they did back then. Our similarity to them comes in the form of working within a box and a defined frame of reference. We do A expecting B to occur—it does, problem solved. The danger of being like them, though, comes not in what we see or know, but what we don’t see (because we aren’t looking) and what we don’t know (because other theories and methods are not explored). We can only expand our horizons and get better at what we do when we accept the fact that what we do is imperfect, or “broken,” and realize it always has been. But isn’t it pessimistic to think that everything we do is broken? Not if we look at “broke” as an opportunity. Not if we see what we do as something in process, and not if we see ourselves as catalysts for progress and change—then “broken” isn’t so bad. If nothing else, we need to quit using the “If it’s not broke” mantra. This statement slams the door on seeing what’s possible, stifles creativity, and leads to complacency. The horse may have been effective, but it’s nowhere near as effective as a better mode of transportation (like a 1923 American LaFrance!). And today’s turnouts and methods are better than yesterday's—do we really think we’ve arrived and the firefighters of tomorrow won’t see us as we see the firefighters of 1923? I’ll leave you with this quote:

“If it ain’t broke, fix it anyways!” —Tom Peters Paul Sullivan is deputy chief of the Weber Fire District. He has 36 years combined Fire and EMS experience, including 21 years with the Chandler, Arizona, Fire Department, where he retired at the rank of battalion chief. He has been a certified emergency paramedic for 34 years, currently holding certifications in both Utah and Arizona. Paul has been a fire service instructor for 24 years, teaching command, WMD, truck company operations, leadership, and other topics. Paul has an associate’s in fire science, a bachelor’s in public safety administration, and a master’s of public administration from Northern Arizona University.


SPOUSES ONLY CLASS at Winter Fire School 2017 Saturday, January 21, 2017, 3-5pm at the Holiday Inn Express - No registration required Forbes called firefighting the best job in America in 2014, but as of 2015, firefighting has the 9th worst suicide rates in the nation.

As you already know, being the spouse or partner of a firefighter is a “job” in and of itself! And even though firefighting is heroic and often very rewarding for firefighters and their families, it can also be very taxing when the stress gets out of control and the firefighter is bringing home the hardship so that it lands on the entire family. Refreshments provided by UFRA

Visit www.uvu.edu/ufra for more information about the event

What can we do? Join the conversation in a safe and private environment at the spouses only class at Winter Fire School. Our hope is to identify together which of the stressful parts of the job are causing the most concern (at work and home) and how spouses and partners can become the leading source of support for their spouse or partner.

SPRINGVILLE’S SECOND ANNUAL GOLF TOURNAMENT A SUCCESS On August 31, 2016, Springville Fire Department hosted the Second Annual Hobble Creek Firefighter Invitational at beautiful Hobble Creek Golf Course. The tournament, a competition between fire departments, was a four-man scramble with teams from all over Salt Lake and Utah counties. In addition to the many possible prizes at the tournament, the winning team took home an enormous traveling trophy that will carry the name of the winning department from year to year. This year the Provo Fire Department took home the trophy with a low score of 59. The winning team included Scott Anderson, Brady Johnson, Jeremy Hawley, and Chad Chapman. West Jordan Fire took second place and Springville Fire took third. Several local vendors helped financially with the costs of the tournament by sponsoring holes on the course.

Winning team members from Provo Fire Department (from L to R): Scott Anderson, Jeremy Hawley, Chad Chapman, and Brady Johnson.

With great weather, food, prizes, and participation, the day was a resounding success. Springville Fire Department looks forward to next year’s tournament and welcomes all fire departments across the state of Utah to participate. If you are interested in reserving a spot for your department, or in sponsoring a hole, please contact Springville Fire Department at 801-491-5600.

Fall 2016 | 39


Weber County Honor Guard presiding at station opening.

photography by Eric Bauman

OUT WITH THE OLD, AND IN WITH THE NEW

at its current location: 340 Washington Blvd. It was also very expensive to operate. Deputy Chief Eric Bauman said, “The entire old station #3 would fit in the apparatus bays of the new station.�

by Dave Owens, Program Manager

On July 7, 2016, the Ogden City Fire Department (OFD) held a ribbon-cutting ceremony and formally opened their new Station #3. This state-of-the-art facility is located at 450 E. North Street. The crews housed at this station service the northern part of Ogden City and the surrounding communities in northern Weber County. This area has seen substantial growth over the last two decades. The project, which broke ground on July 22, 2015, took almost a year to the day to complete. The new station replaces the old Station #3, which was erected July 18, 1948. Although it had been renovated and expanded several times during its 68-year life span, it no longer met the needs of this very busy department. The old station had two small bays and no extra room to expand

Although the old station has been an icon at this location in northern Ogden for at least six decades, the administration at OFD knew they needed to replace this aging, outdated, and inefficient facility with a newer, more efficient, and communityfriendly one. However, higher priorities seemed to continually push this project back. But after several years of diligence, hard work, and planning, a new, energy-efficient, cost-effective station has become a reality. The new facility is a 10,555-square-foot, energy-efficient building that is as beautiful on the inside as it is attractive on the outside. Ogden City Fire Department was able to combine the crews of two stations into one, which makes this a cost-effective move for the taxpayers as well. The limited size of the old station forced OFD to lease space at the Business Depot Ogden to house Ambulance 6. The building housing Ambulance 6 was the old fire station used by Defense Depot Ogden (DDO) when it was in operation. OFD has been leasing it since DDO was closed by the federal government about 20 years ago. It was also a very old, dated building and, like the old Station #3, very inefficient to heat, cool, and maintain. The cost of the new building is $3.3 million, and the general contractor for the project was SEI Construction. It features enough room to comfortably house the seven crew members staffing an engine, rescue squad, and ambulance, as well as other personnel that may be living in the station from time to time. These will include interns and paramedic students from local technical schools, Utah Valley University, or Weber State University. There is also a community training room that can be used by the

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New Ogden Station 3.

citizens of Ogden and for fire department training. Finally, it has the latest and greatest in dispatch technology, LED and natural lighting throughout, and a secure parking area. In 1999, OFD moved into a new Public Safety Building shared with the Ogden Police Department. Since that time, Fire Chief Mike Mathieu has been working diligently to remodel or rebuild OFD’s aging five stations. He has pursued and received several grants, and through good fiscal management, has been able to upgrade OFD’s stations and get the department ready for the future. Stations #2, #4, and #5 were built in the early 1960s. Since that time, the fire service technology has changed dramatically, and consequently, so has the needs of the quarters for staff and

equipment. At this point, Chief Mathieu has remodeled stations #2 and #5 and rebuilt and relocated stations #1 and #3. Only Station #4 is left to bring up to date. However, there are some new and exciting things happening at the Ogden Airport, which may require Station #4 to be moved closer to the airport in order to accommodate larger planes and more airline traffic. So, OFD is waiting to see how and what they may need to do to deal with this growth. It is a very exciting time to be a member of OFD. With the addition of this new station, Ogden City Fire Department is set to efficiently and cost-effectively provide the emergency services and deliver its mission to the citizens of Ogden City and Weber County for many years to come.


RETIREMENTS:

Captain John Lee Daly has retired from the Tooele Army Depot (TEAD) Fire Department after 25 years with the department and a total of 29 years of federal service. At an early age, Mr. Daly made his future career with the fire service known as he rode his tricycle out to watch Tooele City fire trucks, with lights and sirens blaring. He graduated from Tooele High School and then from ITT Technical Institute. In 1987, he joined the US Navy and was stationed on the USS Saratoga (CV-60) and involved in Operation Desert Storm. His love for firefighting grew with watching the flight decks Crash Crew; he knew then he had found his calling in life.

In 1991 Mr. Daly accepted a GS-05 Firefighter Trainee position with Tooele Army Depot FD. He worked his way through the ranks and made captain in 2007. While working at TEAD Fire Department, Mr. Daly held several positions: firefighter trainee, firefighter, driver operator, captain, and special operations captain. He retired from the fire service in March of this year. Mr. Daly had also joined the Tooele City Volunteer Fire Department in 1994 to support his local community and further his knowledge and skills. In 2014 Captain Daly went on the seniors list with Tooele City Volunteer FD. Mr. Daly will be making his son happy; his son said, “Dad, now we can do all this stuff without you going to work.” Captain Daly, who was the only boy in a family of

Climbing the Ladder Tooele Army Depot Tooele Army Depot has announced two more shift captains: George Sweeting (left) will be running a crew at Station 2, and Russell Feala (right) will be running a crew at Station 1. With years of fire experience, they are excited for the opportunity to further their career paths within the department.

George Sweeting & Russell Feala 42 | UFRA Straight Tip

South Davis Metro Fire would like to congratulate the following personnel on their recent promotions:

New Hire

Casey Vorwaller

five kids, stated, “I’ve met a lot of firefighters throughout my career; I will always remember them, as they were my first opportunity to have brothers.” Congratulations to Battalion Chief Steve Kubisch on his recent retirement from South Davis Metro Fire. Chief Kubisch moved steadily up the ranks during his career and was promoted to battalion chief in July 2007. He served the citizens of South Davis County from 1977–1981 and 1985–2016. His expertise on the fire ground and leadership on A Platoon will be greatly missed. After presenting him with a Traeger smoker, his platoon wishes him “Happy Smoking.”

South Davis Metro Fire

Greg Stewart Battalion Chief

Spencer Gregory Captain

Tyler Bowman Engineer

South Davis Metro Fire’s new fire marshal, Casey Vorwaller, has spent the past nine years working in fire prevention bureaus with both Orem City and the Park City Fire District. Casey has also been active on the state level, having served as president and vice president of the Fire Marshal’s Association of Utah, as a board member of the Utah Chapter of IAAI, and as a board member of the State Uniform Building Codes Commission. With Casey’s extensive experience in code enforcement, public education, plan reviews, and fire investigation, we are excited to include Casey as part of the South Davis Metro Fire family.


North Fork Fire District training new swift water technicians.

New Certification Levels for Technical Rescue by Lori Howes, Certification Program Manager

On May 26th, the Certification Council approved new disciplines of Technical Rescue for certification: Surface Water Level I & II, Swiftwater Level I & II, and Ice Level I & II. These levels meet all requirements of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standards. The updated Technical Rescue standard is available online at http://www. uvu.edu/ufra/certification/standards.html.

The Certification Council would like to recognize and extend a voice of appreciation to the following fire service professionals for their work on these certification standards. These individuals devoted many hours to reviewing the NFPA standard and the certification test bank and developing the skills for this standard. Thanks to all committee members for a job well done!

Swiftwater Committee Jason Earl,* Battalion Chief Orem Fire Department

Surface Water Committee Chris Trevino,* Captain West Jordan Fire Department

Ice Committee Chris Trevino,* Captain West Jordan Fire Department

Kenny Johnson, Captain Saratoga Springs Fire Department

Jake Beck, Captain Lehi Fire Department

Tyson Frazier, Captain Saratoga Springs Fire Department

Jason Jones, Paramedic/FF Unified Fire Authority

Tyson Frazier, Captain Saratoga Springs Fire Department

Travis Ball, Firefighter/Paramedic West Jordan Fire Department

Stephen Miche, Captain North Fork Fire District

Kenny Johnson, Captain Saratoga Springs Fire Department

Jake Beck, Captain Lehi Fire Department

Jay Torgersen, Captain Unified Fire Authority

Jeff Smith, Captain Lehi Fire Department

*Certification Council representative

Fall 2016 | 43


EARN YOUR EMERGENCY SERVICES SPRING 2017 SEMESTER

ES FACE-TO-FACE & ONLINE CLASS ES 1150 Community Emergency Preparedness Now is the time to begin working on your emergency services degree or finish the degree you have been working on.

Why Should I Earn a College Degree? • • •

Personal improvement Preparation for promotion Expand career opportunities

What Degrees are Offered? Certificates • Firefighter Recruit Candidate • Paramedic • Aviation Fire Officer

Associate of Science Emergency Services Associate of Applied Science Emergency Services • Fire Officer • Emergency Care • Wildland Fire Management • Aviation Fire Officer Bachelor of Science Emergency Services Administration • Emergency Care • Emergency Management (offered 100% online)

How Do I Enroll? • •

Apply for admissions by going to: http://www.uvu.edu/admissions/ If you have attended another college or university, request an official transcript be sent to: UVU Admissions Office 800 West University Parkway MS 106 Orem, Utah 84058-5999

What Will It Cost?

• For official UVU tuition/fee amounts go to: http://www.uvu.edu/tuition/tuitionFees13-1428-28.pdf • Some courses have “course fees” in addition to tuition.

For more information regarding admissions and registration, call 801-863-7798 or 888-548-7816 to schedule a phone or office appointment with an Emergency Services Administration Academic Advisor.

44 | UFRA Straight Tip

ESFF FACE-TO-FACE CLASSES ESFF 1000 Introduction to Emergency Services ESFF 1360 Recruit Candidate Academy Internship ESFF 250A Firefighter RCA I ESFF 250B Firefighter RCA II ESFF 281R Emergency Services Internship ESFF ONLINE CLASSES ES 1150 Emergency Prepardeness in Communities ESFF 1000 Introduction to ES & Physical Ability Testing ESFF 2100 The Desire to Serve ESFF 1120 Principles of Fire and ES Safety and Survival ESFF ONLINE CLASSES ESFF 1000 Introduction to ES & Physical Ability Testing ESFF 1120 Principles of Fire & ES Safety & Survival ESFF 2100 The Desire to Serve ESFO ONLINE CLASSES ESFO 2030 Fire Inspector I ESFO 2100 Fire Officer I Supervisor Leader ESEC FACE-TO-FACE CLASSES ESEC 114A Emergency Medical Tech Basic – Part I ESEC 114B Emergency Medical Tech Basic – Part II ESEC 114C Emergency Medical Tech Basic – Part III ESEC 3060 Emergency Medical Tech Advanced ESEC 3110 Paramedic I ESEC 3120 Paramedic Lab ESEC 3130 Paramedic II ESEC 3140 Paramedic III ESEC 4150 Critical Care Emergency Medical Transport Please check http://www.uvu.edu/esa for current and updated course listings.

Enroll early! Please note that courses are subject to cancellation due to low enrollment.


DEGREE AT UVU SPRING 2017 SEMESTER ESMG ONLINE CLASSES

ESMG 310G Introduction to Homeland Security ESMG 3150 Public Program Administration ESMG 3200 Health Safety Program Management ESMG 3250 Managing Emergency Medical Services ESMG 3300 Master Planning for Public ES ESMG 3350 Analytical Research Approaches to Public ES ESMG 3600 Psychology of Emergency Services ESMG 4150 Humanitarian Relief and Disaster Relief ESMG 4200 Disaster Response and the Public ESMG 4400 Legal Considerations for the EM ESMG 445G Human Factors Emergency Management ESMG 4500 Customer Service & Marketing for ES ESMG 4550 Principles of Disaster and Emergency Mgmt ESMG 4600 Public Administration Emergency Mgmt ESMG 4650 Emergency Services Capstone ESMG 481R Emergency Services Internship ESMG 489R Special Topics in Emergency Services ESMG 491R Topics in Cardiology and Medical Trends ESMG 492R Topics in Trauma and Pharmacology ESMG 493R Topics in Medical Litigation ESWF FACE-TO-FACE CLASSES ESWF 1400 Wildland Firefighting Fundamentals RECRUIT CANDIDATE ACADEMY (RCA) By application only. For more information visit http://www.uvu.edu/esa/rca/ or make an appointment with an academic advisor by calling the Student Center at 801-863-7798. On-the-job internships are available for all RCA graduates. Application deadlines: June 1st for Fall Semester and October 1st for Spring Semester. PARAMEDIC By application only. For more information visit http://www.uvu.edu/esa/paramedic/index.html or call 801-863-7700 or 888-548-7816.

Andy Byrnes Receives Prestigious Award from International Association of Fire Chiefs Andy Byrnes, UVU’s Recruit Candidate Academy coordinator and associate professor as well as a UFRA winter fire school instructor, has received the John P. O’Gorman “Making a Difference Award” at the 2016 IAFC International Hazardous Materials Response Teams Conference in Baltimore, Maryland. This award is given yearly in professional recognition of significant contributions to the hazardous materials and emergency response profession. It recognizes individuals with an exceptional level of leadership, service, and commitment to their local and regional hazardous materials response community. Byrnes received this award as recognition for mentoring other professionals in the emergency services field and contributing to the hazardous materials emergency response community with his work on the Jack Rabbit II study at Dugway Proving Ground. The Jack Rabbit II project is a series of large-scale outdoor chlorine release trials that were conducted by a collaborative team of partners from government, industry, and academia, including Byrnes. The trial results will provide an understanding of behavior and consequences of large-scale liquefied compressed gas chemical releases. We congratulate Andy on this award and appreciate the expertise he brings to UFRA and UVU. Fall 2016 | 45


Nonprofit Organization U.S. POSTAGE

Nonprofit Organization U.S. POSTAGE

Utah Valley University

Utah Valley University

PAID

VALLEY UNIVERSITY

UTAH FIRE AND RESCUE ACADEMY . MS 193

. M S 1 9 3 OREM, UT 84058-6703 R E A N D R E800 S C UW. E UNIVERSITY A C A D E M Y PARKWAY,

U N I V E R S I T Y P A R K W AY, O R E M , U T 8 4 0 5 8 - 5 9 9 9

CHANGE SERVICE REQUESTED

RESS SERVICE REQUESTED

PAID

UFRA Straight Tip Fall 2016 - Volume 17, issue 4  

UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy (https://www.uvu.edu/...

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