Page 1

arw책m&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

1


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

yefMum;vTGm pm½Iol "r®rdwfaqG olawmfpiftaygif;wdkU ,ckxkwf a0aom - ]]Ak'¨bmomacgif; aqmif;xm;aom t&Sifa'0'wf\ wynfrh sm;}} trnf&Sd usrf;pmtkyfi,fudk xkwfa0jzefUcsd&onfh taMumif;udk tenf;i,f wifjyyg&ap/ rwå&mNrdKUe,f eHUomNrdKif temBuD;a&m*g ukoaom aq;½HkESihf eHUomNrdKif &Gmol&Gmom;rsm; vlrIa&;twGuf usif;y jyKvkyfaom txl;w&m;yGJ/ a[mMum;rnfh ae&mu rEÅav;NrdKU y[mavmu&HoD tdrfawmf&mapwD &ifjyifawmf/ a[mMum;rnfh q&mawmfu arwåm&Sif (a&Tjynfom) q&mawmf/ w&m;a'oemrsm; a[mMum;jyo½HkESifh tm;r&bJ? w&m;em vmMuukefaom "r®rdwfaqGrsm;udk zwf½I? avhvm? rSwfom; usihfBuH yGm;rsm;Edkif&ef þusrf;pmtkyfi,fudk tjref a&;om;NyD; "r®'getjzpf ay;a0vSL'gef;cJhygonf/ 2


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

þpmtkyfi,fudk wpfjynfvHk;jzefUcsd&ef &nf&G,fa&;om; jcif; r[kwfbJ "r®'getjzpf w&m;yGJrSm ay;a0&eftwGufom pDpOfcJhjcif; jzpfygonf/ vli,frsm;twGuf *rÇD&0dyóem twGJ (7+8) xJrS tjrefodapvdkaom taMumif;t&mrsm;udk xkwfEkwfí ¤if; aqmif;yg; ESpfyk'f oHk;yk'fESifh aygif;í a&;om;xm;aom þ"r® 'gepmtkyfudk &&SdcJhol pmzwfy&dowfrsm;u wpfjynfvHk; jzefUcsd ay;&efoifhaom pmtkyfjzpfaMumif; tBuHay;awmif;qkdvmMu aomaMumifh uRefawmfwdkU a&TjynfompmayESifh nDarwåmyHkESdyf wkdufrS wpfjynfvHk;odkU jzefUcsdvdkufygonf/ pm½Iol "r®rdwfaqGrsm;uvnf; pmtkyfESifh ywfouf aom tBuHÓPfrsm; &Sdygu tBuHay;Muyg&ef yefMum;tyfyg onf/

OD;pdk;wifh (a&Tjynfompmay) nDarwåm

3


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

raygif;oihfolESifh aygif;oifhol r[mork'´&m\wpfbufurf;odkU ul;ajrmufvkdolonf ao;i,faom opfom;azmifjzifh ul;onf&Sdaomf rnfodkUjzpfEdkif avrnfenf;/ xdkolonf r[mork'´&m\ vdIif;vHk;BuD;rsm; Mum;0,f epfjrKyf aoqHk;&rnfomwnf;/ þavmuü vHkUv r&Sdol? ysif;&daomoludk trSDo[J taygif;toif; rjyK&m? oHo&mü epfjrKyf qHk;½IH;&vdrfhrnf/ edAÁmefodkU apvTwfaom pdwfjzifh vHkUv 0D&d, xufoefol ynm&Sdolawmfaumif;wdkUESifh aygif;oif; qufqH&m\/

t&Sifaomrrdwå ('kuedygwf? 'kwd,0*f)

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arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

jyKvkyfjcif;jzpfonf/) vlaoaumif\ OD;acgif;onf EdkUpOf;tkd; uGJavouJhodkU z½dkz&J ,dkpD;oGm;av\/ okomefapmifhrdef;rBuD; onf oljzwfawmuf½dkufcGJaom vlaoaumif tpdwftydkif;rsm; udk wpfzefjyefvnfí qufpyfav\/ rlvtaetxm;twkdif; wnf&SdapNyD;aomf olonf tom;aps;jzefUcif;ouJhodkU cif;usif; um ililBuD;xkdifaeav\/ þonfum; Oyrmwnf;/ tMuifyk*¾dKvfonf ur®|mef;aumifBuD;udk jrif&aomf vnf; ur®|mef;tm½Hk rxif? ur®|mef;½Ijcif;ü rvdr®mojzifh roifhrwifhaom tm½Hkudkom ESvHk;oGif;rd\/ xdkUaMumifh udav omonfomvQif jzpfay:yGm;pnf;\/ ynmenf;aom xdkol onf qif;&Jjcif;odkU tzefzefqdkufa&muf&\/ udavomonf um; qif;&JaMumif;aywnf;[k odaom ynm&Sdonf vlao aumifuJhodkU OD;acgif;uGJoljzpfí wpfzef igrtdyfawmhtHh[k toifhtwifh ESvHk;oGif;vsuf udavomudk ESdrfeif;zsufqD;ypf &m\/

t&Sifr[mumv ('kwd,edygwf? 'kwd,0*f) nOfhtcsdefumvonf wdwfqdwf NidrfoufvSay\/ vloH iSufoHwdkUrS uif;ukef\/ eu©wfwm&mwdkUjzifh wifhw,f om,mjcif;vnf;&Sday\/ xdkodkUaom nOfhumvonf w&m;xl; udk r&ao;orQ tdyfpuf&ef r[kwfay/ xdkxkd-nOfhwdkUonf 5


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

w&m;udk ½Ijriftm;xkwf&efomvQif jzpfukefonfwum;/ ig onf qifpD;vsuf ppfajrjyifodkU 0ifonf&Sdaomf qifausmuf ukef;rS apmufxkd;us&m\/ xdktcg qifajymifBuD;onf ightm; eif;ajcíowfojzifh ppfajrjyifü ao&jcif;onf jrwfayao; \/ udavomwdkUrS ½IH;onfjzpfí udavomü epfrGef;vsuf touf&Sifae&jcif;um; ightwGuf rjrwfonfomwnf;/

t&SifaomPayg#d&d, ('kuedygwf? pwkw¬0*f) Ekyf - udkcspf&JU "r®oHa0*? "r®&oudkjzpfapwJh 'kw, d 0w¬Ku uRJ½dkif;wJh? uJ ... oHa0*rsufpdeJU qufzwfMunfh&atmif/     

6


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

(1) vif;Muuf wGefoH[m tarSmifxkudk xGif;azmufí xGufvmonf/ wpfbufodkU apmif;vsuf ESpfESpfNcdKufNcdKuf td yf armusaeonfh tarhtouf½SLoHudk rSefrSefMum;ae&onf/ ydefvSD yg;vsaom cE¨mudk,fonf touf½SLvkdufwkdif; edrfhcsnf jrifhcsnf jzpfaeonf/ 'DESpfykdif;rSm tarh½kyf&nfu ydkusvm onf[kxifonf/ aiGa&mifqHyifwdkUuvnf; OD;acgif;cGH{&d,m xuf0ufcefU ae&m,lxm;Muonf/ wu,fqdk&ifawmh tar tem;,loifhNyD/ odkUaomf tar rem;Edkifao;ay/ &SdorQtm;ESifh EdkiforQ0efudk BudK;pm;í xrf;aeqJyif jzpfonf/ tar em;&rnfh aeUonf rnfonfh aeUrsdK;jzpfaMumif; bkwfr BudKwifem;vnfxm;NyD jzpfonf/ cg; atmufxd avQmusaeaom apmifydkif;av;udk ycHk;txd qGJw if ay;vkdufonf/ tvif;a&mif rvmao;awmh xrif;xcsuf&ef apmao;onf/ NyD;awmh bkwfrwdkU om;trdESpfa,mufuawmh b,f tcsdefrS xrif;usufusuf ta&;rBuD;/ armifav; udk&if aombdw qGrf;rDzdkUom vdkonf/ bkwfronf tarhbufapmif; tdyfae&mrS tanmif;wpfcsufqefUvdkufNyD; yufvufvSefvdkuf 7


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

onf/ wnfNidrfaom bkwfr\ tawG;wdrfxkonf twm; tqD;rJh [if;vif;jyifqDodkU ysHUvGifhoGm;jyefonf/ tazonf bkwfr ckepfESpforD; t&G,fwGif t&uf tvGeftuRHaomufNyD; qHk;yg;oGm;cJhonf/ bkwfrwdkU armifESr ESpfa,mufonf &Gmvnfaps;onf ynmrJh rkqdk;r\ &ifcGifrSm BuD;jyif;vmcJhayonf/ taronf t&yfwumvnfí ukefpdrf; a&mif;&if;jzifh orD;ESifhom;udk auR;arG;vmcJhonf/ xdkUjyif bkwfrwdkU armifESrudk t&yfxdyf&Sd ab;rJhrlvwef;ausmif;wGif vnf; ynmoifapcJhonf/ ]a&Al;eJU zdeyfryg aEGcgrSodwJh} - 'Dtodavmufawmh bkwfru &,fonf/ bkwfrb0rSm av;wef;atmifonftxd zdeyfwpfcgrQrpD;bJ ausmif;wufcJh&onf/ bkwfr tm;ri,fcJh/ qif;&Jom;&yfuGufrSm&Sdonfh qif;&Jom;ausmif;&Sd ausmif;om; trsm;pkonf rdrduJhodkUyif ausmif;pdrf;abmif;bD? puwfwdkUü ta&miftqif;r&Sd/ ausmif;tusÐrSmvnf; tjzL[k rajymEdik f avmufatmif npfax;NyD;? tm;vHk;onf bkwfrxuf zdeyf wpf&H omao;onf[kom ajymEdkifonf/ 'gawmif wpfcg wpf&H rdrdESifh tqifhwloGm;Muao;onf/ armifav;oHcJrSm tzrJhom;yDopGm i,fpOfuwnf;u rvdr®mcJh/ ausmif;wufcsdefwGif av;cGwpfvufjzifh t&yfxJü 8


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

awGUae&wwfonf/ aemufawmh aps;0,faeus tarhazmuf onfrsm;u 0dkif;íajymMuawmhonf/ ]]rpdefO - nnf;vnf; 'Duav;udk qHk;cef;txd ynm oifay;EdkifrSm r[kwfbl;/ wpfaeUvHk; aps;a&mif;aeawmh qHk;r r,fholvnf; &Sdwmr[kwfbl;/ 'Dawmh 'Dt&G,fuwnf;u bke;f BuD;ausmif;wpfausmif;rSm udk&if0wfay;vdkuf/ nnf;vnf; 'ku©Nidrf;a&m? uav;vnf; rysufpD;awmhbl;}} odkUESifhbkwfrwdkUae&m eef;atmifajrt&yf\taemuf zufxdyf&Sd rEÅav;NrdKU\ emrnfBuD;ausmif;wpfausmif;jzpfaom a&Ttifyifausmif;wGif armifjzpfol oHcJonf udk&ifaombdw b0odkUul;ajymif;cJhayonf/ bkwfr rSwfrdaeygonf/ xdkaeUu tar rsuf&nfus&Smonf/ bkwfrtwGuf wpfckawmh pdwf oufom&m &vkdufonf/ bkef;BuD;ausmif;jzpfí zdeyfpD;&efrvdk aomaMumifhyif/ odkUaomf ntdyf&m0ifcsdefü om;trdoHk; a,muf tdyfaeus ckwifay:wGif armifav;udk yxrqHk; tBudrf cGJtdyf&onfhtwGuf bkwfrvnf; rsuf&nfuscJhygonf/ bkwfr ajcmufwef;a&mufonfhESpfrSmyif taraoG;qHk; udkifí tdyf&mxJ ESpfvMum vJawmhonf/ xlxlaxmifaxmif jzpfvmjyefawmhvnf; t&ifuvdk oefoefjrefjref r&Sdawmh/ bkwfrausmif;xGufvkduf&onf/ aq;vdyfcHkwpfckwGif aq;vdyf 9


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

vdyf oifvdkufao;onf/ tarh usef;rma&;u raumif;awmh vufc&onftxd rapmifhEkdif/ vwfwavm 0ifaiGonfom t"dujzpfí tvkyfxGufvdkuf&onf/ reufapmapm udkif;wef;aps;rS ay;orQ toD;t&Guf tpHkudk taru ,lay;onf/ bkwfru t&yfxJvSnfhí a&mif; &onf/ t&if;EkwfvkdufvQif ajcmufusyf? ckepfusyf usefonf/ touf&Sif½Hkawmh pm;Edkifao;onf/ aemufwpfaeUtwGuf t&if;rEkwfEdkifonfh aeUrsm;ESihfBuHKvQif 'ku©a&muf&jyefonf/ tarhusef;rma&;uvnf; ydkícsdeJUvmonf/ udkif;wef;aps;udk reufapmapm xoGm;rnf qkdjyefawmhvnf; t&G,f&vmaom bkwfrudk taru pdwfrcsEdkifcJh/ onfawmh t&if;rpdkufbJ &Spfusyf? wpfq,f 0ifatmif &Sm&awmhonf/ refusnf;EkxGufcsdef wrmEkxGufcsdefwGif bkwfr aiG&Tif vmonf/ rydkayrJh ryl&awmh/ bkwfr opfyifaumif;aumif; wufwwfonf/ b,favmufBuD;wJh refusnf;yif? wrmyif jzpfygap vG,fvG,fulul wufoGm;Edkifonf/ ausmif;aepOfu at;aqmifESifh NydKifíyif tkef;yifwufcJhzl;onf/ bkwrf uom tEkdif&JNrJ r[kwfavm/ at;aqmifuvnf; ½IH;wdkif;ajymavh&Sd aom pum;wpfcGef;jzifh jyefvnfacsywwfonf/ 10


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

opfyifwuf aomuRJ ]]tHhp&myJ uRJu opfyifwufw,f}} ]]rom}} bkwfr tawG;ESifhyif NyHK;vkdufrdonf/ t½kPfOD;\ avsmU&J&J tvif;a&mifwef;wdkUu bkwfr\ tawG;wdrfxkudk yg;vsaysmufuG,fapcJhNyD/ tdyf&mrSxí uref;uwef; rsufESm opfvkdufonf/ rD;vnf;arT;a&m tarvnf; Edk;awmhonf/ ]]bkwfr - tar tdrfomoGm;rvdkU zdeyf,lcJhygOD;}} ]][kwf - vmNyD}} tarh cHkzdeyfNrD;wdk raeUuyJ jywfoGm;onf/ bkwfr pD;xm;onfU &mbmzdeyfuvnf; ajcmufwef; a&mufonfhESpf bkwfr q,fhESpfESpforD;u zdeyf? ck - bkwfr q,fhig;ESpfxJ a&mufvdkU jynfhvkeD;aeNyD/ &mbmzdeyfcHkonf tyg;vGefí zaemifhae&mr&Sdawmh/ oHk;ESpfumvtwGif; oJBudK;aygif;rsm;pGm ESifhvnf; nm;cJh&NyD;NyD/ vlUb0&JU tcif;tusif;rSm bkwfrudk tao;odrfqHk;aom Zmwf½kyftjzpf ae&mcsxm;ay;cJhaom uHMur®mudk ½dk;r,fzGJU½HkuvGJí bkwfr bmrQrwwfEdkifacs/      11


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

(2) t&yfxJ&Sd vrf;ab;refusnf;yiftm;vHk; bkwfr rSwfyHk wifxm;NyD; jzpfonf/ tjcm; rdef;uav;rsm;u ydawmufzl; uav;rsm;udk pdwf0ifwpm; armhMunfhaecsdefwGif bkwfronf refusnf; &GufEkuav;rsm;udkom warmharmh Munfhae&onf/ refusnf;&GufEk 0g0guav;rsm;uom bkwfr&ifudk at;jrap EdkifcJhonfom/ vrf;ab; refusnf;yifwGif t&GufEkuav;rsm; yg;oGm;ygu &GufEkvdIifvdIifxGufvmonftxd xdkifapmifhaeí rjzpf/ onfawmh olrsm;NcH0if;twGif;&Sd refusnf;yifrsm;udkyg vdkufMunfhxm;&onf/ NcH&Sifrsm;uvnf; wufcl;Edkifrnfr[kwf? onfvdkESifh &ifha&mfNyD; a<uus&rnfhtwlwl bkwfr wuf cl; onfrSm w&m;onf[k bkwfr ,lqonf/ oabmaumif; onfh NcH0if;&Sifrsm;uawmh bkwfr wufcl;onfudk bmrQrajym acs/ wcsdKUurl bmrQawmhrajym? bkwfr refusnf;yifwuf vQif NcHHxJu BudK;wef;ay: vSrf;xm;onfh t0wfuav;rsm; ½kwfodrf;oGm;Muonf/ rcHcsifpdwfESifh tarhudk ajymjyawmh taru azsmif;zsonf/ 12


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

]]r&Sd-cdk;Edk; rvS-pkef;½dk;qdkwmayhguG,f? onf;cHvdkufyg/ udk,fu olUNcHxJ oGm;cl;&wmudk;}} wcsdKUNcH&Sifrsm;uawmh wufoGm;pOf bmrQrajym? jyef qif;vmrS b,folU cGifhawmif;ovJ? b,folU ajymwufovJ ponfjzifh oa[mufovJvkyfNyD; wpfeyfpm EIwf,lvdkufMu onf/ aps;aumif;onfhtcsdefqdkvQif wpfusyfcGJzdk;cefUoGm;a&m/ vrf;ta&SUxdyf&Sd wdkufwpfwkdufqdkvQif refusnf;yifu NcHtjyif buf 0if;x&HrSm uyfNyD;aygufonfhtyif? olwdkUESifhbmrQrywf oufonfhtyif? odkUaomf NcH0if;twGif; refusnf;trdIufusí qdkum wufcGifhrjyKcJh/ r&Sdbl;qdkvQifawmh onftyifudk csefxm;írjzpfawmh? wufjzpfatmif wuf&awmhonf/ wkduf&SifwdkU rjrifomatmif tyifudkuG,fí wufonf/ vG,ftdwfwpfvHk; tjynfh&onf txd toHrxGufatmif *½kpdkufí cl;&onf/ jyeftqif;wGif ajrjyifrS vlwpf&yfavmuftvdka&mufcgrS jrifoGm;NyD; acG;ESifh ½SL;wkdufaomaMumifh atmufudk qufrqif;&JawmhbJ refusnf; yifzufí atmfidkcJh&zl;onf/ reufjzef uqkefvjynfh? udk&ifh qGrf;[if;av;awmh avmif;OD;rnf[kawG;um aeUcif;uvufusef refusnf;&Gufrsm; oifaeonf/ qGrf;uawmh &ufysufr&Sd avmif;EdkifcJhonf/ qGrf; 13


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

[if;uawmh ravmif;Edkifonfh&ufu rsm;onf/ wpfcgwpf&H udk&ifhoydwfxJrSyifvQif 'gav;awmh wynfhawmfudkpGefUygOD;[k avQmufum vS,f,lxm;&ao;onf/ vrf;bufrS toH0g0gESifh oDcsif;qdkoHwpfoH Mum;vdkuf&onf/ ]] uRJr ... uRJr ... tom;ndK }} 'g- at;aqmiftoH? 'DoDcsif;oHESifh bkwfrudk paeus? bkwfr i,fi,fuwnf;u tom;ndKí wkwfwkwfckdifckdif&Sd aomaMumifh taru avygwD\ uRJroDcsif;ESifh jr§LcJhonf/ tdrfeD;em;csif;wcsdKUuyif bkwfr[k rac:bJ uRJr[k ac:wwf Muonf/ bkwfr refusnf;&Gufoif&m teD;odkU at;aqmif a&mufvmonf/ ESpfcef;ywfvnfwJa&SU 0g;uGyfyspfwGif 0ifxdkifvdkuf aomaMumifh ESpfa,mufpvHk; NidrfhceJjzpfoGm;onf/ at;aqmif ycHk;wGif vG,ftdwfwpfvHk;ygonf/ tvkyfu jyefvmyHk&onf/ at;aqmifu &Srf;0dkif;&yfxJ&Sd csdKcsOfvkyfief;wpfckwGif tvk yf vkyfonf/ ]] at;aqmif ....eif eufjzef a&TMuuf,ufoGm;OD; rSmvm; }} 14


arwรฅm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

]] roGm;Edkifygbl;[m ... tvkyfqkdifu ta&;BuD; vdkUwJh? reufydkif; oGm;qif;&OD;rSm? eifa&m eufjzefem;rSmvm; }} ]] tvkyf&Sifvnf; igyJ? tvkyform;vnf; igyJ? em;vnf; &w,f? rem;vnf; &w,f? 'gayr,fh tajctaeu em;cGifhray;ygbl;[,f }} pdwfysufnnf;nLpGm ajym&if; oufjyif;wpfcsufyg cs vkdufonf/ ]] 'gaMumifh iguawmh cPcP ajymae&wm/ eifu em;rS r0ifbJudk; }} bkwfru qwfceJ rsufapmif;wpfcsufxdk;NyD; avoH rmrmESifh ar;vkdufonf/ ]] 'gu bmpum;vJ? vmjyefNyDvm; }} ]] ig xyfajymp&m vdkao;vm; bkwfr&m }} ]] igu eifhudk oli,fcsif;vdkyJ cifwJhOpรถm? cspfvkdUvnf; r&bl; }} ]] eifhudk ig wu,fcspfwmyg bkwfr&m }}

15


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

]] 'Dr,f at;aqmif ig'gawG pdwfrul;bl;? pOf;vnf; rpOf;pm;bl;? eif xyfrajymeJU/ xyfajym&if tarhudk atmfwkd if vkdufrSmyJ }} bkwfr NidKjiifrSmudkawmh at;aqmif pdk;&drfonf/ NyD; awmh a':pdefO tmudkvnf; aMumufonf/ onftaMumif;udk r&yfcsifbJ &yfvkduf&onf/ ]] aMomf - 'DrSm eifhzdkU zdeyfwpf&H ,lvmcJhw,f? wdkU tvkyf&Sif&JU orD;u rpD;awmhvdkU igawmif;,lcJhwm? eifvnf; zdeyfr&Sdbl;qdkwm odvkdU }} ajymajymqkdqdk vG,ftdwfxJrS owif;pmpuúLESifh ywf xm;aom zdeyfwpf&Hudk bkwfrtm; ay;vdkufonf/ om;a& cif;? om;a&BudK;ESifh qifpG,fa&mif uRJ½dkif;zdeyfwpf&H? bkwfr refusnf;&GufAef;udk ab;csvkdufNyD; zdeyfudk pl;pdkufíwtHhwMo Munfhaerdonf/ ]] taumif;BuD; &Sdao;wmyJ/ olwdkUu rpD;awmhbl; vm;/ t&rf;csrf;omwmyJaemf }} ]] topfqdk&ifawmh av;ig;q,favmuf&Sdwmaygh[/ ck[mu topfr[kwfayr,fh *Gwfpuif;[if;aygh }} 16


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

bkwfru rsufapmif;wpfcsuf xyfxdk;&if;u BuD;us,f vdkufwm[k pdwfxJwGif aumufcsufcsvkdufonf/ zdeyfudk vQdK MunfhvdkufaomtcgwGifvnf; tydktvdkr&Sd tm;vHk;tqifajy onf/ ]] zdeyfuav;uawmh vdkcsifw,f[m/ ig,lvdkuf&if eifu eifhudkBudKufvdkU,lw,fvdkU xifrSmvnf;pdk;w,f/ ½dk;½dk;om; om;oli,fcsif;vdkcifvdkU ay;wJhoabmrsdK;xm;NyD;awmh ay;[m? aemf ... at;aqmif }} bkwfrtzdkU zdeyfudkvnf; vufrvTwfcsif? rmeuvnf; ravQmhcsif/ 'gudkem;vnfaom at;aqmifu wpfqifhwufNyD; aoG;wdk;prf;Munfhonf/ ]] ,l&ifawmh BudKufvdkUyJ qdk&ifaum/ eifu wu,f r,lbl;aygh }} at;aqmif tuef;wufvmonfudk bkwfr em;vnf onf/ ]] at; 'gqdk&if zdeyfudk ,lxm;NyD; vludkrBudKufEkdifbl; vdkU ajymifajymifajymvTwfvkduf½HkyJ }} at;aqmif rsufESmwpfcsuf½IHUrJhvdkuf&if;u 17


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

]] uJuJ - pdwfvufcsrf;ompGm pD;awmfrlyg/ uRJyg;0 w,fqdkwm 'gyJ }} ]] rom }} ajymqdkNyD; at;aqmif xGufoGm;onf/ at;aqmif ausmjyifudk Munfh&if; pdwfxJrSm oem;ovdkawmh jzpfrdonf/ bkwfr&ifxJ aysmfaerdonf/ bkwfrb0wGif yxrqHk;pD;&onfh uRJ½dkif;zdeyfwpf&H? at;aqmifudkvnf; pdwfxJrS aus;Zl;wifae rdonf/     

(3) aemufwpfaeU tdyf,mrSEkd;onfESifh rsufvHk;tpHku ckwif ajc&if;&Sd zdeyfqDodkU a&mufoGm;onf/ ntdyf,m0if uwnf;u rdk;jrefjrefvif;ygap[kyJ qkawmif;aerdonf/ nu tdyfrufxJwGif bkwfr qifpG,fa&mifzdeyfav;udkudkif&if; r[m jrwfrked apmif;wef;xJwGif a&mufaeonf/ bkwfrtem;wGif at;aqmifonfvnf; uwåDygzdeyfwpf&Hudk udkifvsufo m; awGU&onf/ 18


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

ESpfOD;om;,SOfvsuf bk&m;uefawmhMuonf/ bkwfr &ifxJwGif zdkceJjzpfoGm;onf/ csufcsif;xNyD; rsufESmopfypf vdkuf&onf/ eHeufajcmufem&Dxdk;csdefwGif xrif;vnf;usufNyD/ udk&ifhtwGufqGrf;[if; refusnf;&GufpyfcsOfcsufuvnf; usuf NyD/ udk&ifhudk tar apmifhavmif;NyD; oDv,l&ef ausmif;odkU wpfcgwnf;vdkufoGm;rnfjzpfonf/ uqkefvjynfhjzpfí ausmif; wGif vlpHkrnf/ tarhudk onfzdeyf ay;pD;vdkuf& aumif;rvm;[k awG; vdkufao;onf/ tdk - taruvlBuD;yJ? &mbmzdeyfeJU oGm;vnf; bmjzpfwmrSwfvdkU? ausmif;a&muf&if cRwfxm;&rSmyJ[k udk,fh bmomudk,f qHk;jzwfvdkufonf/ vG,ftdwfvG,fNyD; xGufvmcJh onf/ NyD;rS rnfonfhtyif wuf&aumif;rvJ[k pOf;pm;vkduf onf/ ]]tif; ....onfESpftzdkU onfwpfyif usefwmyJ? usefwmawGuvnf; enf;enf;yg;oGm;NyD}} wD;wdk;NiD;vdkufNyD; vrf;ta&SUxdyfqDodkU xGufvmcJh onf/ wdkuftwGif;rS MumeDuefq&mawmf\ y|mef;wdwfacGrS toHudk Mum;ae&onf/ bkwfr xbDudkwif;atmifjyif0wf vdkufNyD; zdeyfudk cg;Mum;xdk;vdkufonf/ vl&dyfvljcnfMunfh onf/ acG;ESpfaumifuawmh NcH0if;xJrSm aqmhaeonf/ bkwfr 19


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

oGufvufpGmyif refusnf;yifay:odkU wufoGm;onf/ acG;ESpf aumifu jrifaomfvnf; ½SL;wkdufrnfhol r&Sdí ra[mifMu awmh/ &GufEktrsm;qHk;ae&mudk Munfhvkdufonf/ xdktudkif;ESifh teD;qHk; cGqHkwpfckwGif tustexdkifNyD; cl;awmhonf/ vG,ftdwfoHk;yHkwpfyHkcefU &aomtcg aemufw pf ae&majymif;&ef pDpOf&onf/ OD;acgif;txuf&Sd tudkif;wpfudkif; udk qGJ&if; xvdkufonf/ bkwfr xr&bJjzpfaeonf/ vHkcsnf ESifhvnf; rNidacs/ qwfceJ xvdkufonfwGif cg;Mum;&Sdzdeyf wpfzufrS oJBudK;u udkif;wpfudkif;wGif Nidí csdwfNyD; usef&pfcJh avawmhonf/ yxrwGif udkif;ay: csdwfaeao;aomfvnf; vlu xvdkufojzifh udkif;uvIyfNyD; zdeyfonf atmufodkUus oGm;avonf/ ]] [,f }} trSwfwrhJatmfvkdufrdonf/ zdeyfwpfzufonf aqmh aeaom acG;ESpfaumifteD;odkU zkwfceJ usoGm;onf/ acG;wpf aumifu zdeyfudk udkufcsDNyD; vSnfhywfajy;aomtcg usefwpf aumifuyg ajy;vkdufNyD; zdeyfudkvkíudkufonf/ qifpG,af &mif zdeyfuav;wpfzufonf acG;ESpfaumif\ yg;pyfxJwGif/ ]] [JhacG; ...[JhacG; }} 20


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

zdeyftwGuf toufpGefUol refusnf;yifay:rS ysmysmovJ vSrf;atmfvkdufonf/ zdeyfoJBudK; acgifjyKwfoGm;onfudk tyifxufrS jrifvu kd f& onf/ bkwfr &ifxJwGif ppfceJ pl;pl;epfepf cHpm;vdkuf&onf/ opfudkif;ajcmufwpfckudkcsdK;í acG;ESpfaumifvkae&modkUatmf&if; vSrf;ypfvdkufonf/ t&SdefaMumifh bkwfrcE¨mudk,frSm r[efEdkif awmhbJ ,dkifoGm;onf/ eif;xm;aomudkif;uvnf; vIyfcgoGm; onf/ bkwfr aMumuftm;vefUtm;ESifh acgif;xufrStudkif;udk vSrf;qJGaomfvnf; rrDawmh/ bkwfr &ifwpfckvHk; [mceJjzpfoGm;onfudk cHpm;vdkuf &NyD; tm; ..[laom atmfoHESifhtwl wpfavmuvHk; arSm if rnf;oGm;awmhonf/ tvif;a&mifrJhaom? toH[lorQ vHk;0 qdwfokOf;aeaom [if;vif;jyifwGif wkefvIyfajcmufjcm;pGmjzifh rnfrQMumonftxd vGifharsmaecJhonfudk rcefUrSef;Edkif? tvif; rQifwef; zGzGav;wpfcku rsufvTmudk xdk;azmuf0ifa&mufvm onf/ rnDnmaom toHvdIif;wpfcsdKUonf bkwfr\ em;pnf odkU w&pyf 0ifa&muf½dkufcwfvmonf/ orD; ..orD; ..[k wGifwGifac:aeaom tarhtoH? wpfcsuf wpfcsufwGif bkwfr[k ac:vdkufaom at;aqmif toH? NyD;awmh acG;a[mifoH? NyD;awmh roJuGJaom vloHrsm;/ 21


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

rsufvTmudk &SdorQcGeftm; pdkufxkwfNyD; zGifhMunfhonf/ ryD0dk; w0g;aom tarh½kyfyHkvTm? rdrdudk ayGUxlxm;aom at;aqmif? xdkUaemuf rdrdudk 0dkif;xm;onfh rsufESmrsm;? jrifuGif;tm;vHk; onf *,ufxaeonf/ a&rsufESmjyifay:rS t&dyfrsm;uJhodkU yif toufudk wif;usyfpGm tm;pkduf½SLvdkufNyD; EIwfcrf;udk tm;,l vIyf&Sm;&if;u ]] t ..ar .. &,f }} av;wGJpGm ac:vdkufrdonf/ rsuf&nfylwdkU pD;usvm aomaMumifh tjriftm½HkwdkUuydkí0g;vmonf/ aemufwpfBudrf tm;,lvdkufNyD; ]] tarhudk ... ay;pD;cJh ...rd&if }} 0gusrqHk;cif bkwfr ZufusdK;usoGm;onf/ yg;pyfrS yGufceJ aoG;rsm;tefusvmonf/ a':pdefOrSm orD;a& ..[k wpfcGef;om atmfNyD; owdvpfoGm;onf/ at;aqmifrsufvHk; tdrfrS rsuf&nfylrsm;onf bkwfr yg;jyifay:odkU wpfayguf ayguf usvsuf ..../

(pmayvkyfom;? 'DZifbm? 1987)     

22


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

]]uJ 'gu tpm&Sm&wJh'ku©udk jrifomatmif udkcspf&JU vufawGUjzpf&yf 0w¬Kwdkav; ESpfyk'fudk xkwfjyvdkufwm/ tck wpfcg- OpömawGudk odkrSD;odrf;qnf;&jcif;&JU pufqkyzf G,faumif; yHkudk quf&atmif/

]]w&m;r&SdwJh yk*¾dKvfrsm;rSm r&Sdawmh awmifhwwJh avmbrD; avmifw,f/ &Sdjyefawmh aMumifhMuwJh aomurD; avmifjyefw,f/}} 'gaMumifh bk&m;tavmif; olawmfaumif; rsm;[m &SdorQpnf;pdrfawGudk pGefUvTwfvSL'gef;NyD; awmxGufMu wmaygh/ Ak'¨vufxufu wdóqdkwJ h&[ef;wpfyg;qdk&if ouFef; av; wpfpHk&wmudk aoaocsmcsm odrf;xm;w,f/ oGm;&mvm &m 0wf½Hkr,fqdkwJhoabmaerSmaygh/ a[m nvnf;a&mufa&m ysHawmfrlwmyJ/ olodrf;qnf;cJhwJh ouFef;udkpGJNyD; oufef;acguf xJrSm ckepf&uf oef;NydwåmjzpfcJh&w,f/ jynfc½dkif? Aygufacgif; NrdKUe,fu "r®uxdu bkef;BuD;wpfyg;qdk&if a&pufcswJhtcg ygwJh ta<uaphawGudk pkxm;wm aomuf a&tdk; wpfvHk;pm avmuf&owJh/ tJ'gawGudk b,folrQ rodatmif ausmif; avScg;atmufu ajrBuD;xJ wl;jr§Kyfxm;w,f/ 'gvnf; odrf;qnf;&wJh pufqkyfzG,f&m 'ku©awGaygh/ tJ'Dbkef;BuD; ysHawmfrlwJhtcg tJ'Dausmif;0dkif;xJrmS NydwåmBuD; 23


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

jyefjzpfaew,f/ awmfawmfeJU ruRwfbl;/ aemuf - owåd&SdwJh 'umwpfa,mufeJUawGUrS tJ'D'umu ukodkvfjyKNyD;trQay;vdkU uRwfoGm;w,f/ 'DtaMumif; tus,fudk ]]jrefrmwdkU\touf}} pmtkyfxJrSm a&;NyD;om;yg/ vlawGqkd&ifvnf; OpömawG pkrdvm&if rD;rsm;avmif rvm;? a&rsm; arsmrvm;? rif;ursm; odrf;rvm;? olckd;ursm; cdk;rvm;? om;qdk;orD;qdk;ursm; zsufqD;rvm;qdkNyD; tNrJwrf; ylavmifae&w,f/ (2006) ckESpfavmufu ucsifjynfe,f? NrdKUawmf jrpfBuD;em;NrdKUBuD; a&xJygoGm;zl;w,f/ rdom;pkav;&m avmuf 'ku©a&mufMuw,f/ &yfuGufESpfckyJ usefowJh/ wdkUrdwfaqG pma&;q&m yef;'umudkwifjrifhu jrpfBuD; em;rSm aewmrdkU 'DtaMumif;awGudk od&wm/ NrdwfNrdKUqdk&if rD; cPcPavmifw,f/ wpfcgavmif&if wpfNrdKUvHk;eD;yg; ukerf S &yfw,f/ wpfcgawmh tJovdkyJ rD;BuD;avmifwm b,frD;owf um;rS rEdkifawmhbl;/ 'DvdktcsdefrsdK;rSmqdk&if Opömpnf;pdrfrsm;rsm; pkEdkifav rsm;rsm;yl&avyJ/ wdkUeJU odwJh olaX;rwpfa,muf ydkifwJh opfpufawG? a&cJpufawG? pwdk;qkdifawG tukef rD;xJygw,f/ rD;avmifNyD;p tcsdefrSm tJ'D'umrBuD; ajymwJh pum;av; odyfaumif;w,f}} 24


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

oef;

]]b,fvdkrsm; ajymovJ bk&m;}}

Ekyf

]]udk,fjyKxm;wJh 'geukodkvfyJ udk,fydkifypönf; tppfqdk wm tckvdk udk,fhpnf;pdrf OpömawG rD;avmifcH&rS wu,f em;vnfvmw,f bk&m;/ wynfhawmf ydkifwJh puf½HkawG? tvkyf½HkawG? aps;qkdifawG? aetdrfwkdufwm awG rD;avmifwm jrif&awmh wynfhawmf cE¨mudk,f udk rD;vmavmifaeoavmuf ylavmif qif;&J&yg w,f bk&m;/ 'gayr,fh udk,faqmufvkyf vSLxm;rdwJh ausmif;wpfausmif; taMumif;vnf; pOf;pm;rdvdkuf a&m pdwfcsrf;omNyD; &ifxJudk at;oGm;wmyJ bk&m;/ aMomf - igwu,f ydkifwmqdkvdkU ausmif;aqmufvSL xm;wJh ukodkvfav; wpfckygvm;qkdwm awG;rdwmyg bk&m; - wJh}}

oef;

]]q&mawmfa&;wJh ]]vljzpf&jcif;&JU t"du&nf&G,fcsuf}} pmtkyfrSm udk,fydkifypönf;eJU bHkqkdifypönf;qdkwJh zGifhqdk csufav;u odyfaumif;vdkU wynfhawmf rSwfrdae w,f bk&m;}}

Ekyf

]]uJ - rSwfrd&if ajymprf;ygOD;}}

25


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

udk,fwu,fydkifaom ypönf ;[lonf oef;

]]vSL'gef;NyD;aom'geukodkvfonf udk,fydkifypön;f ? rvSL &ao;aom Opömpnf;pdrf[lorQ bHkqdkifypönf;? vSL'gef; NyD;aom 'geukodkvf apwemonf emrfw&m;jzpfaom aMumifh rD;ravmif? a&rarsm? olcdk; rckd;? rif;u rodrf; Edkif? om;orD; rzsufqD;Edkif? aoaomtcg t&dyfyrm aemufuvdkufí b0wkdif; csrf;omatmif aumif;usdK; udk aqmifonf/ edAÁmefodkUvnf; ydkUonf/ xdkUaMumifh 'geukodkvfonf udk,fwu,fydkifaom ypönf;jzpfonf? rvSL&ao;aom ypönf;rsm;udk rD;avmifEdkifonf/ a& arsmEdkifonf/ rif;u odrf;Edkifonf/ olcdk;u cdk;Edkif onf/ om;qdk; orD;qdk;u zsufqD;Edkifonf/ rdrd ao aomtcg tukefxm;cJh&onf/ rvSL&ao;aomypönf; rsm;udk pGJaovQif tyg,fodkUyif us&ao;onf/ xkdU aMumifh rvSL&ao;aom Opömypönf; rSeforQ bHkqdkif ypönf;? trsm;qkdif ypönf;jzpfonf/ - qdkwJh 'óeav;yg bk&m;/ tJ'DxJrSm q&mawmfu &efukef wuúodkvf&dyfomvrf;xJu "g;jywkdufwJh trI wpfckudk xnfha&;xm;ao;w,f/ olaX;rdom;pk wpfpk udk "g;jywkdufNyD; vlowfoGm;w,f/ olaX;&,f? olaX; 26


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

uawmf&,f? orD; ESpfa,muf&,f? tapcHrav;&,f ig;a,mufvHk; acgif;udkcsnf; aoewfeJU ypfowfoGm; w,f/ olwdkUydkifwJhaiG odef;aygif; av;axmifygoGm; w,f/ vuf0wf&wemypönf; tukefygoGm;w,f/ tu,fí olwdkU[m 'Dodef;aygif;av;axmif xJu odef;aygif; av;q,favmufrsm; vSL'gef;cJhr,f qdk&if olwdkUtwGuf ygoGm;rSm? tckawmh wpfjym;rS rvSLcJhawmh olwdkUtwGuf bmrQrygoGm;awmhbl;qdkwJh taMumif;av;yg bk&m;}} Ekyf

]]at; - rif;u rSwfrdom;yJ/ tJ'D ypönf;odkrSD;rIeJU ywf oufNyD; bk&m;&Sifu t*FkwådK&fygVdawmf? e0uedygwfrSm wPSmrlvu w&m;udk;yg;qdkwmukd a[mxm;w,f/ vdkcsifwyfruf pGJvrf;wJhwPSmudk taMumif;jyKNyD; jzpf &wJh qdk;usKd;udk;rsdK;vkdU ajym&rSmayghuGm/ tJ'gawGu-–

wPSmrlvu w&m;udk;yg; 1/ vdkcsifrI wPSmudk tpGJjyKNyD; &SmrSDjcif;jzpfay:vm onf/ 2/ &SmrSD;jcif;udk tpGJjyKNyD; &jcif;jzpfay:vmonf/ 27


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

3/ &jcif;udk tpGJjyKNyD; pDrHqHk;jzwfaMumif; jzpfay:vm onf/ 4/ pDrHqHk;jzwfjcif;udk tpGJjyKNyD; rufarmjcif; qE´&m* jzpfay:vmonf/ 5/ rufarmrI qE´&m*udk tpGJjyKNyD; pGJvrf;jcif;jzpfay: vmonf/ 6/ pGJvrf;jcif;udk tpGJjyKNyD; odkrSD;odrf;qnf;jcif;jzpfay: vmonf/ 7/ odrf;qnf;&jcif;udk tpGJjyKNyD; 0efwkdjcif; rpä&d,jzpf ay:vmonf/ 8/ 0efwdkjcif;? rpä&d,udk tpGJjyKNyD; apmifha&Smuf&jcif; jzpfay:vmonf/ 9/ apmifha&Smuf&jcif;udk tpGJjyKNyD; wkwfudkif&jcif;? vufeuf udkif&jcif;? jiif;cHk&jcif;? eif-eif qdk&jcif;? ukef;wkdufjcif;? rkom;qkdjcif; paom rsm;pGmaom tukodkvfrsm; jzpfyGm;vm&onf - qkdwJh ukd;rsdK;yJ/ 'D'ku©awGu uif;vGwfcsifvdkU 'gejyKMuwmyJ/ 'gaMumifh olawmfaumif;awG[m 'gejyK&wmudk aysmf 28


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

Muwm? yg&rDqkdwm rdk;usa&Tudk,f r[kwfbl;/ vkyf,lrS &wm/ ololudk,fudk,f b0wpfck pNyDqdkwmeJU avmb u pjzpfwm? y#doaE¨pdwf aemufu csufcsif;vdkufjzpf wJh pdwf[m b0eduEÅdu avmbaZmpdwfyJ/ 'gaMumifh olUt&Sdtwdkif;omaer,fqkd&if vlwkdif;,l&if;eJUaooGm; csifwJhvlcsnf;yJ/ vSL&if;eJU aooGm;csifwJhvlvdkU r&Sdbl;/ vSLw,fqdkwm b0aygif;rsm;pGmu uyfygvm wJh avmbudk aoatmif owfwmyJ/ 'DtcsufeJU ywf oufNyD; q&mBuD;OD;a&Tatmifu Ak'¨ odkUr[kwf tEdIif;rJh aus;Zl;&Sif udk,fusifhAk'¨0ifed'gef;rSm tckvdka&;cJhw,f/ vlonf b0udk avmbjzifh pwifcJholjzpf \/ ,if; avmbudk ygVda0g[m&tm;jzifh b0eduEÅdu avmb[lí ac:\/ b0eduEÅduavmb\ teufrSm b0udk jrwfEdk;aom wPSm[líjzpf\/ xdkUaMumifh vl onf rdrd\b0udk ysufokOf;roGm;ap&ef avmbjzifh rdrdvdkcsifaom t&m&mwdkif;udk &atmif tm;xkwfav \/ þonfrSm "r®wmjzpf\/ odkU&mwGif þ"r®wmum; twå"r®wm jzpf\/ twå"r®wm jzpfonfhtavsmuf vlawmf vlaumif;rsm;taejzifh vdkufemusifhoHk;&aom

29


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

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vSLqJtcsdef pdwfxm;yHk wcsdKUu ay;vSLwJhtcgrSm tvSay;yk*¾dKvf? tvSLcH yk*d¾Kvf? vSLzG,f0w¬KawGudk ½kyfemrfocFg&tjzpf tedpö? 'ku©? tewåtjzpf vu©Pma&;wifNyD;vSLrS ÓPorÜ,kwf jzpfw,f vdkUajyma[mMuw,f/ tJ'guawmh t|omvdeDusrf;rSm 'geeJU pyfNyD; bm0emr,ukodkvf jzpfEdkifyHkudk jyqdkxm;wmeJU a&m a,mifNyD;ajyma[mcsufygyJ/ t|vmvdeDusrf;rSm jyxm;wmu ay;vSLNyD;wJhtcgrSm c,H? *pädówd? ukefjcif;odkU a&mufvwåH U/ 0,H *pädówd? ysufjcif;? aysmufuG,fjcif;odkU a&mufvwåHUvdkU 'DvdkESvHk;oGif;yHkudk jyxm;ygw,f/ tJ'g[m ay;vSLNyD;rSESvHk;oGif; yHkyg/ rvSLcifu ESvHk;oGif;yHkvnf; r[kwfygbl;/ vSLqJrSm ESvHk; oGif;yHkvnf; r[kwfygbl;/ aemufNyD;awmh tJ'Dvdk ESvk;H oGif;yHk jyxm;wm[m ÓPorÜ,kwfjzpfa&;twGufjywmvnf; r[kwf ygbl;/ bm0emr,ukodkvf jzpfa&;twGuf jywmyg/ tu,fí c,0, wifNyD;vSLrS ÓPorÜ,kwfjzpfw,fqdk&if omoemy rSm vSLwJh tvSL'ge[lorQ[m ÓP0dyÜ,kwfcsnf;jzpfw,fvdkU qdk&ygvdrfhr,f/ tJ'Dvdk rqdkoifhwmuawmh tvGefxif&Sm;yg w,f/ aemufwpfck pOf;pm;p&muawmh bk&m;tavmif;awmf tvSLay;wJhtcgawGrSm c,0, wifNyD; vSLaMumif; b,frSmrS jyqkdcsufr&Sdbl;/ jrwfpGmbk&m; a[mwJh w&m;awmfawGxJrSm 42


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

vnf; tvSL'gejyKwJhtcg c,0, wifNyD; vSL&r,fvdkU b,f rSmrS a[mMum;csuf r&Sdygbl;/ trSef&Sdwmuawmh tvSL cH yk*¾dKvf&JU *kPfawG jrifhjrwf&if jrifhjrwfoavmuf tusdK;BuD; aMumif; a[mMum;csufom&Sdygw,f/ 'Dawmh tvSLcHyk*¾dKvf\ *kPfudkom tm½HkjyKNyD; pdppfa&G;cs,fzdkUvdkygw,f/ tvSLcHyk*¾dKvf vnf; ½kyfemrfw&m;rQ? tedpö? 'ku©? tewå oabmrQ[k wu,f xifjrifygvQif *kPf&SdtvSLcHyk*¾dKvfESifh *kPfrJhtvSLcH yk*¾dKvf wef;wljzpfoGm;ygvdrfhr,f/ tJ'Dawmh MunfndKzG,fr&SdwJh twGuf 'geukodkvfvnf; xufoefzG,f r&Sd? tusdK;ay;vnf; xufoefzG,fr&Sd jzpfygvdrfhr,f/ 'Dae&mrSm c,0, wifNyD;vSL&if 0dyóemjzpfvdkU r*f zdkvfESifh ydkNyD;eD;pyfr,f r[kwfvm;vdkU apm'uwufzG,f &Sdyg w,f/ 0dyóem tppfjzpf&if r*fzkdvfeJUydkNyD; eD;pyfwm rSefyg w,f/ tJ'Dvdkqdk&if ypönf;tukefuscHNyD; ay;vSLaezdkU rvdkyg bl;/ rvSLbJeJU 0dyóemcsnf;oufouf ½Iae&if tJ'D c,0, wifwJh 0dyóemtwkxufydkNyD; r*fzdkvfeJU eD;pyfygw,f/ trSef uawmh ay;vSLw,fqdkwm 0dyóem½IzdkU &nf&G,f&if; r[kwf ygbl;/ 'geukodkvf\ tusdK;twGuf &nf&G,fNyD; ay;vSLMu wmom jzpfygw,f/

43


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

'gaMumifh jrwfpGmbk&m;u tvSL'gejyK&mrSm tusdK; BuD;jrwfapEdkifwJh tvSLcHy*k ¾dKvfawGudkvnf; oHaC'dEéHr[yævHoHCmtm;vSLvQif tusKd;BuD;onf ponfjzifh ñTefMum;xm;yg w,f/ ESvHk;oGif;yHkawGvnf; o'¨g, 'geH a'wd - uH? uH \ tusdK;udk ,HkMunfí ay;vSLonf ponfjzihf ñTefMum;xm;yg w,f/ ½kyf emrf tedpö 'ku© tewå ½INyD; vSL&ef a[mMum;xm; wmvnf; r&Sdygbl;/

(r[mpnfq&mawmf\ y#dpöorkyÜg'fw&m;awmfrS)

oHo&mvnfapaomw7m; rmavmEG,f\ oabmudk Munfhygav/ vSrf;rSD&m opf yifudk NidwG,fvTrf;rkd;í BuD;yGm;avh&Sd\/ wPSmonf rmavm EG,fESifh wlavonf/ arharhavsmhavsmh vSnfhvnfaexdkifaom owå0gudk NidwG,fvTrf;rdk;í BuD;yGm;avh&Sd\/ opfoD;udk tvkd &Sdaom arsmufonf awmxJü wpfyifrSwpfyifodkU wpfudkif;rS wpfudkif;odkU ul;ajymif; ajy;vTm;aeav\/ xdkUtwl wPSm wdk;yGm;aeaom xdkyk*¾dKvfonf wpfb0rS wpfb0odkU ul;um ajymif;um usifvnfae&av\/

t&Sifrmvkusykwå(quúedygwf-5) 44


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

pdwfudkqHk;renf; Oyrm oifhtm; trsufa'go jzpfay:vmcJhaomf Murf;wrf; aomvToGm;udk Oyrmwifí ½Iavmh? tcsdKtcsOfpaom t& omü wyfrufrI wPSm jzpfay:vmcJhaomf rdrdf &ifaoG;i,f\ tom;udk pm;aomufjcif; Oyrmwifí ½Iqifjcifavmh/ oif\ pdwfonf umr*kPftm½HkwdkUü ajy;vTm;usufpm;aecJhaomf pyg; cif;udk 0ifa&mufarTaESmufonfh EGm;qdk;tm; BudK;jzifhaESmifwkyf um wkdifücsnfxm;onfudk Oyrmwifí½Iqifjcifavmh/ oif\ pdwfudk owd[laom BudK;jzihf orm"d[laom wkdifü zGJUcsnfí qHk;r ESdyfuGyfavavmh/

t&Sif jA[®'wå(quúedygwf-12) Ekyf

]]uJ - raomfwm&JU aqmif;yg;wdkav;udk zwfMunfh &atmif? aqmif;yg;acgif;pOfu - – ]arwåm&dyf atmuf0,f} wJh/

þurÇmavmuBuD;wGif arwåmw&m;onf txl;yif ta&;BuD;avonf/ arwåw&m;om r&SdawmhygvQifvnf; þ urÇmavmuBuD; ysufokOf;rnfrSmvnf; trSefyif jzpfayonf/ arwåmw&m; trSefwu,f&SdvmygvQif olwpfyg;wdkU\ aumif; 45


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

uGufrsm;udk tvdkvdk MunfhwwfvmNyD; raumif;uGufrsm;udk rMunfhawmhjcif;aMumifh bk&m;&Sifu t*FkwådK&fygVdawmfwGif a,medaom reoDum& (pdwfxm;aumif; ESvHk;oGif; rSefuefrI) &Sdolonf ukodkvfcsnf;om jzpf&onf[k a[mMum;cJhygonf/ arwåm"mwfjzihf aumif;uGufudkom MunfhrnfqdkvQif pdwfvnf; csrf;om&ovdk ukokdvfvnf; jzpfygonf/ a'go"mwfjzifh raumif;uGufudkom MunfhygvQif pdwfvnf; qif;&J&ovdk? tukodkvfvnf; jzpf&onf/ xdk'óeav;udk tNrJvufudk if xm;um udk,fawGU usifhBuH tm;xkwfaeaom q&mwpfql (arwåm&Sif)udk b0wGif awGU&SdcJh&onfh tcsdefrSpwifum uRefr \b0av;onf a'go"mwf tm;aumif;&mrS tajymif;vJBuD; ajymif;vJcJh&ygawmhonf/ xdkq&m t&Sifjrwf\ arwåm&dyf atmuf0,f ckdvIHcJhonfhtcsdefrSpí a'gorif;ESifh tNrJppfcif;chJ &aom uRefrb0 rvSryav;onf wppESifh El;nHhodrfarGU vmum arwåmxm;wwfvmygonf/ u½kPm xm;wwfvmyg onf/ avmutusdK; o,fydk;vdkpdwfrsm; wdk;yGm;vmygawmh onf/ pdwfxm;aumif; ESvHk;oGif;rSef&Sdol? arwåmw&m;? u½k Pmw&m; tm;aumif;vGef;ol? q&mt&SifjrwfaMumifhvnf; uRefrrSm rdrdrjyKzl;ao;aom aumif;rIukodkvfrsm; wdk;vmum 46


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

pdwfxm;aumif;rsm;vnf; tawmfwdk;wufcJhygonf/ e*dkuqkd vQif uRefrrSm rvSLwwf? rwef;wwf[k ajym&rnf xifyg onf/ taMumif;um; bk&m;ESifh oHCmawmft&Sifjrwfrsm;udk vSLrSom tusdK;BuD;onf[k cH,lxm;jcif;aMumifhyifjzpfygonf/ oHo&mwpfcGifrSm taoarsm arsmaeOD;rnfh xdktawG;rsm;udk q&mt&Sifonf yg&rDxdkufaom ukodkvfrsdK;udk udk,fawGUusifh jyjcif;? vufawGU usifhapjcif;jzifh ig aumif;pm;a&; rygapbJ? avmutwGuf trsm;tusdK;twGuf vdktyf&mwdkUudk vSL'gef; apcJhygonf/ ightwGuf r&nf&G,fbJ avmutwGuf trsm;twGuf jyKvQif yg&rDukodkvf jzpfonf/ avmutwGuf? olwpfyg; twGuf qkdonfESifh wpfNydKifeuf rdrdtwGuf wyfrufjcif; avmbudk tvdkvdk y,fpGefUNyD;om; jzpf&avonf/ ,if;udkyif aeu©r®yg&rD[k qkdygonf/ yg&rDq,fyg;wGif aeu©r®yg&rDonf ta&;tBuD;qHk;[k qkd&ayrnf/ aeu©r®yg&rD 0ifvdkufonfESihf aumif;rIjyKwkdif; olwpfyg; aumif;pm;zdkU&ef OD;wnfvdkufjcif; aMumifh igaumif;pm;&ef[laom 'd|dESifh avmbudk tvdk vdk y,fowfNyD;om; jzpfoGm;&ygonf/ rdrdwdkUxuf qif;&JEGrf;yg;aeolrsm;? tultnD vdktyf aeolrsm;udk twwfEdkifqHk; *½kpdkuf apmifha&Smuf ulnDvsuf 47


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

&Sdaom q&mt&Sifonf arwåmw&m;? u½kPmw&m; tm;enf; ao;aom uRefrudk udk,fwkdifudk,fus vufawGU usifhoHk;ap jcif;jzifh olawmfaumif;b0 a&muf&Sdapa&;twGuf enf; rsdK; pHkjzifh vrf;jyoGefoifay;cJhygonf/ wpfcgu NrdwfNrdKUe,f? ausmufjzLawmif&GmtwGif;rS tdrfwpftdrf rD;avmifcJhonf/ xdk tdrf&Sifonf rkqdk;rjzpfonf/ q&mawmfonf olUwGif&SdorQ aiGoHk;aomif;vHk;udk ¤if;rkqdk;rtm; tdrfjyefaqmuf&ef axmuf yHhulnDcJhonf/ (2004 0ef;usifcefUu)/ uRefrwdkU ZeD;armifEHS udkvnf; wwfEkdiforQvSLckdif;cJhonf/ uRefrrSm q&mudkMunf ndK íom vSLvdkuf&onf/ bmyDwdrS jzpfrvmyg/ q&muawmh 0rf;omtm;&ESifh at;jrMunfvifaom tNyHK;wdkUESifh uRefrudk udk,fwkdifudk,fus rdrdvufESifh vSLckdif;ygonf/ arwåm u½k Pm tm;enf;ao;aom rdrdu bmcHpm;rIrS r&Sdaomfvnf; arwåm u½kPm tm;aumif;vSaom q&mh tNyHK;udkawmh ,aeUwkd if rarhEdkifcJhyg/ xdktNyHK;av;rS cGeftm;owådrsm;udkawmh &cJhyg onf/ xkdcGeftm;owådrsm;onf ,cktcsdefwGifawmh arwåm u½kPmtm;rsm;udk wdk;yGm;vmapum rdrdonfvnf; rdrdpGrf;Edkif oavmuf EGrf;yg;olwdkUtm; 'gejyKwwfaeavNyD/ xdkUaMumifh omyif q&mt&Sifu &wemoHk;yg;ü omru qif;&JEGrf;yg;ae olrsm;tay:üvnf; ay;vSLwwfygu tjrifhjrwfqHk; yg&rD 48


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

q,fyg; ukodkvfrsdK; &aMumif; vufawGU usifhoHk;apjcif;jzifh oHo&mrS vGwfajrmuf&m enf;vrf;wpfckudk jyocJhonf/ xdkarwåm u½kPmrsm;udk tpOfwefzdk;xm;&if; q&mh aus;Zl;udk aeUpOf OD;ñTwf&ygonf/ 'gejyK&mwGif rdrdwdkUxuf jrifhjrwfoltm; vSLygu ylaZmfonfrnfygonf/ wef;wloltm; vSLygu ulnDonfrnfygonf/ rdrdxuf edrfhusoltm; vSLygu csD;ajr§mufonf rnfygonf/ v,fwDq&mawmfbk&m;BuD;\ Owåryk&do 'DyeDxJwGif tusdK;vdkvm;aom pdwfjzifh tvSL cH yk*¾dKvf t,kwftjrwf a&G;cs,frI? tusdK;BuD;aom tvSLcHudk a&G;cs,frIwdkUonf yg&rDukodkvfrsdK; r[kwf/ tusdK;udk tav; rxm;? vSL'gef;rIudkom tav;*½kjyKjcif;onfomvQif yg&rD ukodkvfrsdK;jzpfonf[k rdefUawmfrlxm;cJhygonf/ 'gejyKjcif;onf avmuudk aus;Zl;qyfjcif;yifjzpfonf? xdkavmuxJwGif *kPf&Sd? *kPfrJh? vlcsrf;om? vlqif;&J tm;vHk; ygonfomjzpfonf/ xdkyk*¾dKvftm;vHk;udk rdrdpGrf;tm;&SdorQ yHhydk; oifhaMumif;udk q&mBuD;OD;a&Tatmifu - ukrÇaCmotaMumif; aqmif;yg;wGif ,ckvdk a&;om;cJhonf/ þavmuü vlwdkUonf &nfrSef;csuf&Sdolrsm;vnf; &Sd Mu\/ &nfrSef;csufr&SdbJ ayghayghwefwefaeolrsm;vnf; &SdMu \/ &nfrSef;csufr&SdbJ ayghayghwefwefaeolrsm;onf olaX; 49


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

jzpfjzpf? qif;&Jom;jzpfjzpf &cJvSpGmaom vlUb0udk tusdK;rJh tcsnf;ESD; jzKef;wD;aeolrsm; jzpfMu\/ trSeftm;jzifh vlUb0 [lonf rdrdtwGuf pm;&½Hk? aomuf&½Hk? aysmf&Tif&½HkrQom teuf&Sdonf r[kwf/ vl Ub0[lonf xdkrQavmufom teuf &Sdonfqdkygu a&S;cwfrdpäm'd|d (pm&f0u)*dkPf;\ tqdktrdefUudk vdkufem&ma&muf\/ vlUb0[lonf aysmf&Tifp&maumif;vS aom upm;uGif;ozG,fjzpf\ [lí pm&f0u *dkPf;om;rsm;u qdkMu\/ vlUb0\tESpfom&um; uwnKwuwa0'Dr*Fvm w&m;awmft& ywf0ef;usifudk twwfEdkifqHk; aus;Zl;qyf&ef yifjzpfonf/ ywf0ef;usifwGif ouf&Sd oufrJh tm;vHk;yg0if\/ ywf0ef;usifudk tEdkifusihfívnf; &\/ yHhydk;ívnf; &\/ ywf0ef;usifudk tEdkifusifholonf opömrJholjzpf\/ aus;Zl;rJhol jzpf\/ rdrd\ b0&Sifoefaejcif;onf ywf0ef;usifu wpfenf; enf;jzifh yHhydk;aeaomaMumifh jzpf\/ odkUjzpfí ywf0ef;usifudk jyefvnfí aus;Zl;qyf&ef wm0ef&Sd\/ þodkU aus;Zl;qyfjcif; udk r*Fvm[lí qdk&\/ ouf&Sdywf0ef;usifudk tkyfpkvkduf cGJvdkufvQif rdrdxuf jrwfolvnf; &Sd\/ rdrdESifh wef;wlvnf; &Sd\/ rdrdxuf edrfholvnf;&Sd\/ xdkoHk;OD;vHk;yif rdrdb0 &Sifoef a&;twGuf olUenf;ESifhol aus;Zl;jyKaeolrsm; jzpfMu\/ xdkU aMumifh ywf0ef;usifudk aus;Zl;qyfaomtcg? rdrdxufjrihfhjrwf oltm; ylaZmfaomtm;jzihf qyf&\/ rdrdESifh wef;wlolrsm;udk 50


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

ulnDyHhydk;aomtm;jzifh qyf&\/ rdrdxuf edrfhusolrsm;udk csD; ajr§mufaomtm;jzifh qyf&\/ þonfrSm ouf&Sdywf0ef;usif tay: jyefvnfí aus;Zl;qyfenf;jzpf\/ oufrJh ywf0ef;usifudkrl jyKpkysdK;axmifaomtm;jzihf qyf&\/ xdkodkU aus;Zl;qyf&mwGif o'¨gw&m;ESifhwuG wuf wuf<u<u&SdzdkUvnf; vdk\/ ,Ofaus; odrfarGUzdkUvnf; vdk\/ w&m;ESifhtnD toufarG;zdkUvnf; vdk\/ ukodkvfaumif;rIwdkUü rarhrvsmhzdkUvnf; vdk\/ xdktcg xdkol\oEÅmefü ppfrSefaom Opöm&wemonf t&dyfyrm aumufaumufvdkuf\/ xdkOpömudk olawmfaumif;wdkU\ Opöm&wem ckESpfyg;[lí qdk&\/ olawmf aumif;wdkU\ OpöckESpfyg;udk ydkifqkdifxm;oltwGuf uka#av; q,fonf ajymyavmufaom Opöm&wemrsm; r[kwfawmhay/ þum; q&mBuD;OD;a&Tatmif\ zGifhqdkcsufyif jzpfyg onf/ q&mBuD;\ zGifhqdkcsuftwkdif; uRefrwdkUwGif Opöm pnf;pdrfqkdí NcH0if;wpf0if;ESifh um;wpfpD;om &Sdygonf/ odkU aomf q&maumif;udk &&SdcJhaomaMumifh uRefrwdkUwGif oHo &m wpfavQmuf oHk;í rukefEdkifaom o'¨g? oDv? okw? pm*? ynm? [d&DMowåyÜ [laom olawmfOpömrsm;um; ra&rwGuf Edkifatmif csrf;omaeygNyD/ 51


arw책m&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

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arw책m&Sif-a&Tjynfom\wynfh raomfwm oef;

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Ekyf

]]aocsmwmayhg? tJ'DausmufjzLawmif&Gmqkdwm t&if u "m;jyawG a0pkcGJwJh ae&myJ/ wdkUausmif;wnfwJh ae&m[m "m;jyawG&JU t"duuswJhae&mayhg/ t&ifu vrf;yrf;qufoG,fa&;vnf; raumif;? tvkyfaumif; 52


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

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arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

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Ekyf

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arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

olwdkUudk,fwkdif temBuD;a&m*gonfb0udk a&mufoGm; Muw,f/ aemufwpfcsufu aq;ukaeMuwJh a&m*g onfawG[m qif;&Jom;awGyJ rsm;w,f/ wcsdKUqdk awmif;pm;Mu&wm/ 'Dawmh 'Daq;½HkrSm wm0efuswJh a'gufwmeJU 0efxrf;awGrSm atmufqkduf0ifaiGqdkwm r&Sdbl;/ 'gaMumifh a'gufwmtrsm;pk[m a&eHUomaq; ½HkrSm wm0efusrSmudk aoravmuf aMumufMuw,f/ wcsdKU a'gufwmawGrsm;qdk&if rjzpfrae txufu trdefUcsvdkU 'Daq;½Hk a&mufvmNyDqdk&if vlemudk udk,f wkdifaEG;axG;pGm ukoay;jcif; r&SdbJ? atmufvufi,f om;awGeJU vTwfxm;vkdufowJh/ 0wfauswef;ausaygh? 'DvdkeJU ESpfaphawmh ajymif;oGm;MuwmyJ/ 'DtaMumif; awGudk odoGm;wJh a'gufwmjrwfoDwmu olrsm;rvkyf csifwJhae&m igvkyfr,fqdkwJh temcHwJh pdwf"mwfeJU txufudk 'DydkUay;zdkU pmwifNyD; vlemawGudk udk,fwkdif ukoay;aewm tckqkd&if 13 ESpf avmuf&SdNyD/ a'gufwm a&mufpuqdk&if ab;uvlawGu ar;w,fwJh/ a'gufwmu c&pf,mefvm;? Ak'¨bmom vm;wJh/ aMomf - Ak'¨bmomyg? bmjzpfvkdU tckvdkar; wmvJqdkawmh 'Daq;½Hk a&mufvm&if c&pf,mefa'guf 104


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

wmawGyJ rsm;vkdU ar;wmygwJh/ wu,fawmh c&pf awmfu wpfb0om taocHNyD; temcHwJhusifhpOfudk jycJhwmyg/ Ak'¨bk&m;&Sifudk,fawmfjrwfBuD;u tavmif; awmfb0rSm b0aygif;rsm;pGm taocHjyNyD; temcHwJh usifhpOfudk jycJhwmyg/ r[muydZmwfqdk&if Munfhygvm;/ olU ta>c t&H arsmufaygif;rsm;pGm o&ufyifay:rSm ydwfrdae w,f/ bk&ifh av;onfawmfawGu 0dkif;xm;Muw,f/ 'DtcgrSm tompHolqdk&if wpfaumifwnf;udk,fvGwf ½kef;ajy;&if&w,f/ rajy;cJhbl;/ o&ufyifuae acsmif; BuD; wpfbufudk ul;ausmfNyD; awmxJa&mufatmif tavmif;awmf ckeful;oGm;w,f/ NyD;awmh EG,fBudK; wpfacsmif;udkjzwf cg;rSmcsnfNyD;? o&ufyif&Sd&mudk jyef ckefvmw,f/ EG,fBudK;u wkdoGm;vdkU o&ufyifay:xd ra&mufbl;/ o&ufudkif;udk vSrf;rD½Hkav;yJ &Sdw,f/ touf aowJhtxd temcHr,fh tavmif;awmf[m arsmufaygif;ig;&mudk olUausmay:uwqifh EG,fBudK; udk wGJavmif;ckdNyD; [dkbufawmxJudk ajy;MuzdkU trdefU ay;w,f/ 'Davmuf temcHaewmudkawmif rMunf ndKwwfwJh a'0'wftavmif; arsmufu bk&m; 105


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

tavmif;arsmuf&JU ausmay:udk tjrifhuae t&SdefeJU ckefcsNyD;rSul;vdkU arsmufawGvnf; [dkbufurf;a&muf a&m bk&m;tavmif;arsmufrif;[m aoyGJ0if&Smw,f/ a'0'wftavmif;arsmuf[m ol arsmufrif; ae&mvdkcsifvdkU bk&m;tavmif; arsmufrif;udk tao owfcJhwmyJ/ Zmwfawmf 550 xJrSm tavmif;awmf taocHNyD; temcHjycJhwmawGudk aoaocsmcsm zwf Munfhoifhw,f/

rjrif atmif arSmifxm;wJht &m c&pfawmfu wpfb0 taocHjywmeJUawmif c&pf,mefbmom0ifawGu 'Davmuf temcHEkdifao;&if? b0aygif; rsm;pGm taocHjycJhwJh Ak'¨&JUwynfh Ak'¨bmom0ifawG[m c&pf,mefbmom0ifawGxuf ydkNyD; tepfemcHoifhwmayhg/ 0rf;enf;aMuuGJp&maumif;wmu ,aeUacwf Ak'¨bm om0iftrsm;pk[m Ak'¨&JUwynfh trnfcHNyD; usihfMuHawmh Ak'¨ eJU qefUusifbuf a'0'wf&JUtusihfawGudk usifhaeMuwmyJ/ tNrD; usuf tNrD;pm;? acgif;usuf acgif;pm;? om&mrSmaer,fqkdwJh tusifhtMuHawG[m a'0'wf&JU usihfpOfawGyg/ Ak'¨&JUrl0g'u 106


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

aumif;ygvsuf Ak'¨bmom0ifawGu raumif;MuwJhtwGuf bk&m;&Sifawmif odu©mus&ygw,f/ 0efxrf;trsm;pk aiGrsm;rsm;&r,hfae&mudk vmbfxdk;NyD; ZGwfoGm;aeMuwm? &[ef;trsm;pk vmbfvmb rsm;rsm;&r,fh ae&mudkyJ ausmif;xdkifzdkU BudK;pm;aeMuwmawG[m t&Sifa'0 'wf&JU tompHvrf;pOfyJ/ aiGeJUvmbfvmbudk tav;rxm;bJ? EkdifiHtwGuf? omoemtwGuf wu,fvdktyfwJhae&mrSm ae ay;wm[m Ak'¨&JU temcHvrf;pOfyJ/ awm&GmawGrSm i,fjzL ausmif;xdkifbkef;BuD;awGr&SdwJhtwGuf omoemawmf[m wpf p wpfp qkwf,kwfvmNyD/ i,fjzL&[ef;awmftrsm;pk[m omoemawmf qkwf,kwfrSmudk *½krpdkufMubl;/ rdrdaowåmxJ 0w¬KaiGqkwf,kwf rSm udkyJ *½kpdkufaeMuw,f/ 'ghaMumifhvnf; NrdKUay:rSmausmif;xkdif jzpfatmif BudK;pm;Muw,f/ vSLr,fhol r&Sd&if 0,f,lMuw,f/ rdrdZmwd awm&Gmukdawmh awmxGufBuD;awGvufxJ bmjzpfjzpf qkdNyD;ypfxm;Muw,f/ 'DusifhpOfawG[m bk&m;eJUqefUusifbuf t&Sifa'0'wf&JU tompHwJh usifhpOfyJ/ awmifomNrdKUe,f? yef;aygif;&Gmausmif; q&mawmf OD;£E´0Hoqdk&if rEÅav;em;rSm ausmif;&Sdw,f/ raebl;/ &Gm ausmif;jyefxdkifNyD; omoemjyKaewm/ udk&iftyg; 50 ausmf &Sd 107


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

w,f/ ausmif;om; ta,mufESpf&mausmf &Sdw,f/ ysHawmfrl cJh NyDjzpfwJh awmifwef;q&mawmf OD;Owårom&qdk&if &efukefNrdKU ay:rSm ausmif;ESpfausmif;awmif &Sdw,f/ tJ'Dausmif;awGudk pGefUvTwfvdkufNyD; csif;jynfe,feJU em*awmifwef; awmBuD;xJ rSm omoemjyKvkdufwm ysHawmfrlwJhtxdygyJ/ 'Dq&mawmfawG [m Ak'¨&JU temcHwJhusifhpOfudk usifhMuwmyJ/ a'gufwmjrwfoDwm a&eHUomaq;½Hkudk a&mufp wpf &ufuayhg/ a&m*gonf trsdK;om;BuD;wpfa,muf&JU vuf udk,k,k,, udkifMunfhNyD; ]OD;av;oufom&JUvm;}vdkUvnf; ar; vdkufa&m trsdK;om;BuD;u bmrSjyefrajzEdkifbJ csHK;yGJcsNyD; idk&Sm w,f}} oef;

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Ekyf

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arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

wdkUwpfawG pkaygif;vSLwJh 54 odef;aom aiG awGxuf olwdkU auR;arG;wmudk igeJUtwl "r®rdwfaqG wpf&mausmfwdkU tm;&yg;& pm;Muwmudk olwdkUu ydkNyD; 0rf;omMuw,f? tJ'Dtacgufwkef;u q&m0ef? q&mr awG csufauR;r,fh tpDtpOfudk aemufqkwfckdif;NyD; a0'em&Sif rdom;pkawG csufauR;wmudkrS wdkUu pm; w,fqdkwm ½kyftm[m&tjyif emrftm[m&udkyg axmufyHhay;vdkufwJh oabmyg/ NyD;awmh A[kokw rSwfxm;&rSmu eHUomNrdKif rSm&SdwJh vlawGtm;vHk;rSm temBuD;a&m*gydk; r&Sdawmh bl;qdkwmyJ/ trf'DwDvdkUac:wJhaq;aygif;udk aomufNyD; uwnf;u olwdkUudk,frSm a&m*gydk;r&Sdawmhbl;/ a&m*g aysmufoGm;ayr,fh tem&GwfusefovdkrsdK;jzpfaewmudk aq;ynmA[kokw r&SdolawGu wtm;aMumufaeMu wm? vufav;awG wdkwm? ESmacgif;csdKifh0ifwm? rsufpd zGifhr&wmwdkU[m a&m*gaysmufoGm;ayr,fh? tem&Gwf usefaewJh oabmrsdK;yg/ olwdkUrSm a&m*gydk;r&SdawmhwJh twGuf olwdkU arG;vmwJh uav;awG tm;vHk;[m taumif;csnf;yJwJh/ 'gaMumifh olwdkUeJU vufqGJ rdwf qufvdkU? olwdkU csufauR;wmudk pm;vdkU bma&m*grS 109


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

rul;Ekdifbl;qdkwm aq;ynm A[kokwtaeeJU vlwdkif; odoifhw,f/ NyD;awmh temBuD;a&m*gjzpfvnf;aMumufp&m rvdkawmhbl;/ trf'DwDqkdwJh aq;aygif;udk ajcmufv aomuf&if aysmufwmyJ/ ododcsif; jrefjrefaomuf&if ydkNyD;jrefjrefaysmufw,f/ igajymcsifwmav;awG awmf awmf pHkoGm;NyDuG/ tckajymcJhwJh pmrsufESm wpf&m avmufudk tusOf;csKyf tESpfxkwfvkduf&if tckvdkjzpf vmr,f/ tompHjcif;0g'udk t&Sifa'0'wf wnfaxmifcJhonf/ tompHjcif;0g'\ aemufqHk; yef;wkdifonf tyg,fav;yg;? tompHjcif;0g'udk wnfcJhaom t&Sifa'0'wf udk,fwkdif ,ck tcgwGif t0Dpdi&J usa&mufae&NyD jzpfonf/ tompHjcif;[l onf y,fowf&rnfh ork',opöm wPSmudk odrf;ydkufxm;jcif; jzpfonf/ temcHjcif;0g'udk Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwf wnfaxmifawmf rlcJhonf/ temcHjcif;0g'\ aemufqHk; yef;wkdifonf edAÁmef? temcHjcif;0g'udk wnfaxmifcJhaom Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfudk,f wkdif ,cktcg edAÁmefcsrf;omudk cHpm;aeNyDjzpfonf/ temcHjcif; [lonf y,fowf&rnfh ork',opömac: wPSmudk tvkyfjzifh vufawGUy,fowfjcif;jzpfonf/ 110


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

bmudkyJvkyfvkyf igaumif;pm;wJhbuf OD;wnfoGm;&if t&Sifa'0'wf&JU tompHvrf;pOf jzpfoGm;wmyJ/ bmyJvkyfvkyf avmuvlom;awG aumif;pm;wJhbuf OD;wnfvdkuf&if bk& m; &Sif&JU temcHvrf;pOf jzpfoGm;wmyJ/ rif;wdkU igwdkUwpfawG[m b0oHo&mtpuae tcktcsdefwkdifatmif tompHwJhvrf;pOf aemufyJvdkufcJhMuw,f/ 'ghaMumifhvnf; **Fg0gVKoJpkru bk &m; awG yGifhcJhMuayr,fh wkdUwpfawG[m tckcsdefxdatmif &[EÅm tjzpfeJU uRwfwef;r0ifEdkifMuwmaygh/

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arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

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arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

temcHwmvdkUac:w,f/ tcktcsdefrSm pmtkyfawGa&m? w&m;acGawGa&m atmifjrifvmNyD/ udk,fjzpfcsifwm awG jzpfvmNyD/ 'DtcsdefrSm odef;axmifcsDwefwJh um; BuD;awG pD;r,fqdk&ifpD;EdkifNyD/ tJ,m;uGef;awG pavmif; awGeJU ZdrfcHr,fqdk&if ZdrfcHvdkU&NyD/ tJovdk ZdrfrcHbJeJU opfom;ausmif;av; aqmufNyD; jzpfovdkaew,f/ c&D;a0; vrf;Murf;awG qdk&if nDawmfarmifpdk;wifh 0,fxm;wJh [dkif;vwfum; BuD;eJU <uw,f/ t½kPfqGrf;qdk&if rsm;aomtm;jzifh [if;wpfcGuf? trsm;qHk; ESpfcGufavmufeJUyJ pm;w,f/ 'gayr,fh vlrsdK;ra&G;? bmomra&G; 'ku©onftm;vHk; udk ulnDaxmufyHhw,f/ tJ'g tusdK;rSmyg temcHwm yJ/ tJ'Dvdk taMumif;w&m;? tusdK;w&m; ESpfrsdK;vHk;rSm temcHrS yg&rDxdkufwJh ukodkvfvkdU ac:w,f/ 'Dvdk atmifjrifwJhb0 a&mufvmatmif ig wpfa,mufwnf; tyifyef;cH BudK;pm;cJh&wm? 'Datmif jrifrI tusdK;awGudk igyJ cHpm;r,fqdk&if 'g- taMumif; w&m;rSmom temcHNyD;? tusdK;w&m;rSm temrcHwm bJ/ 'grsdK;u EdkifiHa&;rSmvnf; &Sdw,f/ AdkvfcsKyfatmif qef;[m taMumif;w&m;? tusdK;w&m; ESpfrsdK;vHk;rSm 113


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

temcHcJholyJ/ jrefrmjynf vGwfvyfa&;&atmif ol[m toufpGefU BudK;yrf;tm;xkwfcJhw,f/ tJ'g taMumif;w&m;rSm temcHwmyJ/ tck EdkifiH vGwfvyfa&; &wmvnf; olUaus;Zl;aMumifhygyJ/ EdkifiHvGwfvyfa&;&vQif pma&;q&mvkyfr,fvdkU ol[m twdtvif; ajymxm;NyD;om;yg/ tJ'g tusdK;w&m;rSm yg temcHwmyg/ 'DEkdifiH vGwfvyfa&;&atmif igvkyf cJhwm/ 'DEdkifiHrSm igyJ aowJhtxd 0efBuD;csKyftjzpf (odkUr[kwf) or®wtjzpf tkyfcsKyfr,fqdk&if taMumif; w&m;rSmom temcHNyD;? tusdK;w&m;rSm temrcHolyg/ a0rmvGif[m tar&duefrSm tckvdk aexkdif ynmoifcGifh&atmif olUrdbrsm;eJUtwl trsm;BuD; BudK;pm;cJh&wmyg/ 'g[m taMumif;w&m;rSm temcH wmyg/ tckvdk aecGihf&NyD; ynmoifcGifh&NyDqdkwJhtcg &orQaiGaMu;awGudk ig tyifyef; tqif;&JcHvdkU tck vdk aiGaMu;awG&wm? igyJ oHk;pGJr,fqdk&if taMumif; w&m;rSmtemcHNyD; tusdK;w&m;rSm temrcHolyg/ tck awmh tm½Hkig;yg; cHpm;zdkUtwGuf oH k;&r,fhaiGudk roHk; bJ rdrdtay: aus;Zl;trsm;qHk; jrefrmjynfrSm ESpfpOf 114


arw책m&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

vmNyD; vSLw,fqkdwm taMumif;w&m;? tusdK;w&m; ESpfrsdK;vHk;rSm temcHjcif;ygyJ/ armifrsdK;oefUwdkU raomfwmwdkU[mvnf; tck vdk taumufcGef OD;pD;rSL;b0 a&mufvmatmif ESpf aygif;ESpfq,favmufBudK;pm;cJh&w,f/ 'g[mtaMumif; w&m;rSm temcHwmyg/ tck taumufcGefOD;pD;rSL;jzpf vmNyD/ 'Dvdkjzpfvmatmif ighrSm tcsdefawG? aiGawG trsm;BuD; &if;ESD;cJh&wm? tckvdk taumufcGefOD;pD;rSL; jzpfcsdefrSm ightdwfxJ aiGawG &oavmufxnfhr,fqdk &if tusdK;w&m;rSm temrcHwmygyJ/ raomfwmqdk&ifvnf; touf 30 ausmf t&G,fqdkwm vSvSyy 0wfpm; jyifqifaewwfwJh t&G,fyg/ pdefvufpGyfawG? qGJBudK;awG? vufaumuf awGeJU t&m&Sduawmf trsm;pk[m 'DvdkyJ aewwfMu ygw,f/ tck raomfwmudk vSrf;Munfhvdkuf&if t&m&Sd uawmfqdkwm b,folrS rodygbl;/ omref r&Sdr&Sm;? t&yfolwpfa,mufavmufyJ xifMurSmyg/ tckawmh vifr,m; ESpfa,mufpvHk;[m &vmorQudk avmu twGuf? omoemtwGuf pGefUvTwf vSL'gef;Muw,f 115


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

qdkwm taMumif;w&m;? tusdK;w&m; ESpfrsdK;vHk;rSm temcHMuwmygyJ/ a'gufwm jrwfoDwmqkd&if q&m0ef jzpfvm atmif tcsdefawG? aiGawG? um,tm;awG? ÓP tm;awG trsm;BuD; pdkufxkwf BudK;pm;cJh&w,f/ tJ'g taMumif;w&m;rSm temcHwmyJ/ tck q&m0efwpf a,muf jzpfvmNyD/ 'Dvdk q&m0efwpfa,muf jzpfvm atmif ig aiGawG trsm;BuD; pdkufxkwfcJh&w,f? tck vdk q&m0ef jzpfockdufrSm igpdkufxkwfcJhorQ&JU tq wpfaxmifruatmif jyef,lr,fqdkwJh &nf&G,fcsufeJU aiGrsm;rsm;&wJhae&mudkyJ a&G;aer,fqkd&if tusdK;w&m; rSm temrcHwmygyJ/ tckawmh a'gufwm jrwfoDwm[m atmuf qdkufaiG vHk;0r&EdkifwJh a&eHUomaq;½HkBuD;rSm ESpfaygif; rsm;pGm wm0efxrf;aqmifaew,fqdkwm taMumif; w&m;? tusdK;w&m; ESpfrsdK;vHk;rSm temcHvdkufwmygyJ/ ighudk arG;wJhae&m? tr&yl&NrdKU? eef;awmf&m pHjy uGufopf NrdKUolNrdKUom;awGtwGuf pmMunfhwdkufav; aqmufNyD; aus;Zl;qyfcsifaewm MumygNyD/ 'gayr,fh 116


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

olUxuf ta&;BuD;wJh ae&mawGrSm vSL'gef;ae&awmh pmMunfhwkdufudk awmfawmfeJU rpjzpfygbl;/ 'DtcsdefrSm rEÅav;NrdKUay:u touf 30 0ef; usifavmufom &Sdao;wJh udkNzdK;eJU olUZeD; rololat; wdkUu pmMunfhwkdufqdkwm avmutwGuf odyfaus;Zl; rsm;w,fqdkwm aoaocsmcsm odxm;vdkU olwdkUwwf EdkiforQ vpOfvSLr,fqdkNyD; vSLaewm? tckqdk&if odef; wpf&meD;yg; &SdaeNyD/ taqmuftODvnf; paeygNyD/ igaecJhwJh rlvwef;ausmif;0dkif;xJrSm ESpfxyfausmif; wpfausmif; ig aqmufvSLwmuvnf; rNyD;ao;bl;/ 'gaMumifh pmMunfhwkdufudk ig tm;rxnfhEdkifao;wm/ 'D- udkNzdK;wdkU vifr,m;[mvnf; tckvdk zkef; ta&mif;t0,fvkyfief;vkyfudkifEkdifatmif aiG? tquf toG,f? tcsdef? rdwf - trsm;BuD; BudK;pm;cJh&w,f/ 'g[m taMumif;w&m;rSm temcHcJhwmyJ/ tckqdk&if vkyfief; tajctaet& aiGaMu; tawmfrsm;rsm;eJU vnfywf vkyfudkifEkdifaeNyD/ igwdkU BudK;pm;cJhvdkU 'D tajctae a&mufvmwm? igwdkUyJ um;aumif;aumif; pD;r,f? igwdkUyJ wkdufaumif;aumif; aqmufr,fqdk&if tusdK;w&m;rSm temrcHwmyg/ 117


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

tckawmh olwkdU vifr,m;ESpfa,muf[m ol wdkUtwGuf tm½HkcHpm;r,fh ae&mawGudk avQmhcsNyD; pm MunfhwkduftwGuf vpOfvSL'gef;aewm[m taMumif; w&m;? tusdK;w&m; ESpfrsdK;vHk;rSm temcHvdkufwmygyJ/ wpfck owdxm;&rSmu ]]taMumif;w&m;rSmom temcHNyD;? tusdK; w&m;rSm temrcHol[m tompHoleJUtwlwlyJ qdkwJh tcsufyJ/ taMumif;w&m;rSmom temcHNyD;? tusdK; w&m;rSm temrcHcsifoludk Ak'¨bmomacgif; aqmif; xm;wJh a'0'wf&JU wynfUvdkU qdk&r,f}} olwdkU[m ynmwwf vlrdkufawGjzpfvdkU ½dk;½dk;vlrdkuf tompHol xufawmif ydkaMumufp&maumif;w,f/ jrefrmjynfom;trsm;pk[m Ak'¨bmomawGjzpf wJhtwGuf Ak'¨&JUwynfhawGyJ/ Ak'¨&JUwynfh trnfcH xm;&if Ak'¨&JUvrf;pOfudkyJ vdkuf&r,f/ Ak'¨&JUvrf;pOfu taMumif;w&m;? tusdK;w&m; ESpfckvHk;rSm temcHwm yJ/ Ak'¨bmom0ifygvdkU trnfcHxm;ygvsuf? tompH wJhvrf;pOfudk vdkufr,f (odkUr[kwf) taMumif;w&m; rSmomtemcHNyD; tusdK;w&m;rSm temrcHbl;qdk&if Ak'¨ 118


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

bmomacgif; aqmif;xm;wJh t&Sifa'0'wf&JU wynfh rsm;vdkUyJ owfrSwf&vdrfhr,f/

tusdK;pD;yGm;oHk;rsdK; ,SOfcJhvQif yxrtaejzifh rdom;pktusdK;pD;yGm;udk aqmif&Guf&\/ xdkUaemuf trsdK;om;tusdK;pD;yGm;udk aqmif&Guf&\/ xdkUaemuf vlom;rsm; (odkUr[kwf) urÇmhtusdK;pD;yGm;udk aqmif&Guf&\/ tusdK;pD;yGm;oHk;rsdK;vHk;onf tcsif;csif;rSDvsuf&SdMu\/ xdkUaMumifh tusdK;pD;yGm;oHk;rsdK;vHk;udk olUtwkdif;twm ESifhol tav;tjrwfjyKtyf\/ rdom;pktusdK;pD;yGm; uGufuGuf ukdom OD;wnfí aqmif&Guf&ef rjzpfEkdif/ tb,hfaMumifhqkd aomf rdom;pk tusdK;pD;yGm;\ aemufuG,fü trsdK;om;tusdK; pD;yGm;onf &Sdjyef\/ ,if;\ aemufuG,fü urÇmhtusdK;pD;yGm; onf &Sdjyefav\/ þodkUvQif (1) rdrd? (2) rdrd\ trsdK;om;? (3) urÇm[lí jzpfpOfrsm;onf "r®wmtm;jzifh oHk;rsdK;&SdMu\/ okdUjzpfí trsdK;bmom? omoemtwGuf aqmif&Guf&mü "r® wmudk ausmfvGefNyD; aqmif&Gufír&/ xdkUaMumifh ightwGuf uGufuGufuav;udkom MunfhNyD; aqmif&GufvQifvnf; "r®wmudk ausmfvGefaqmif&Guf&ma&muf 119


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

aomaMumifh atmifjrif&efcJ,Of;\/ tu,fí atmifjrifygu vnf; ylylavmifavmif atmifjrifjcif;rsdK;jzpfí a&&SnfwnfwHh &ef cJ,Of;jyef\/ xdkUaMumifh rdrd\ tusdK;pD;yGm;twGuf aqmif &GufawmhrnfqdkvQif trsdK;om; tusdK;pD;yGm;ESifh xdyfwkduf& if rqdkif&avatmif qifjcif&\/ wpfzef trsdK;om; tusdK;pD;yGm; twGuf aqmif&GufawmhrnfqdkvQifvnf; urÇmhtusdK;pD;yGm;ESifh qefUusifbuf rjzpf&avatmif tNrJwrf; owdorÜZOf ÓPf,SOfí qifjciftyf\/ bmomtwGuf aqmif&Guf&müvnf;aumif;? omo emtwGuf aqmif&Guf&müvnf;aumif;? xdkenf;twl "r®wm udk rausmfvGefbJ rdrdtqifh? trsdK;om;tqifh? urÇmhtqifh [lí tqifhtvdkuf aqmif&Guf&\/ þodkU aqmif&GufrSvnf; "r®0de,ESifhtnD aqmif&Guf&m a&muf\/ ighrdom;pkudpö ig aumif;onfxifovdk vkyfrnf[lívnf;aumif;? ightrsdK;om; a&;udpö igaumif;onf xifovdk vkyfrnf[lívnf;aumif; cH,lcsufrsdK; r&Sdaumif;ay/ tu,fí xdkcH,lcsufrsdK; &SdvQif vnf; Ak'¨bmom cH,lcsuf r[kwf/ rw&m;ojzifh tEkdifusihfí aqmif&Gufjcif;rsdK;omjzpf\/     

120


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

'umrsm;bufuvnf; trsdK;? bmom? omoemudk jrefrmEdkifiHü wnfaqmuf&mwGif rdrdwdkU\oEÅmefü "r®0de,udk tajccHtkwfjrpftjzpf cH,lrxm;bJ uGefjrLepf0g'? qdk&, S fvpf 0g'? t&if;&Sif0g' ponfjzihf udavomwef;vef;&Sdaom ykxk ZOfwkdU\ 0g'rsm;udkom tajccHtkwfjrpftaejzifh cH,lNyD; trsdK; bmom? omoemudk wnfaqmufrnfqdkygu jrefrmEkdifiHü ppfrSefaomNidrf;csrf;rIESifh ppfrSefaomcsrf;ajrUrIudk &&Sd&ef cufcJ yg\/ tb,fhaMumifhqdkaomf - uGefjrLepf0g'? qdk&S,fvpf0g'? t&if;&Sif0g' ponfwdkUonf udk,fhusifhodu©m jrifhrm;rItay:ü tajcrcHbJ pdwf"mwf cdkifrmrIESifh todynm<u,f0rI tay:ü om tajccHaomaMumifh jzpf\/ trSeftm;jzifh udk,fusifhodu©mjrifhrm;rItay:ü tajc rcHbJ &&Sdvmaom pdwf"mwfckdifrmrIESifh todynm <u,f0 rI onf twåudk BuD;onfxufBuD;atmif? ckdifrmonfxuf ckdif rm atmifom wnfaqmufay;Edkifyg\/ twåBuD;rm;vmonfESifh trQ twåckdifrmvmonfESifhtrQ ighrdom;pk aumif;pm;a&; y"me[laom cH,lcsufonf ckdifrmvm\/ xkdUxuf&ifhvQif igh vlrdsK;aumif;pm;a&;om y"em[laomtjrifonf ckdifrmvm\/ urÇmhorkdif;udk MunfhvQif ighrdom;pk aumif;pm;a&;om y"me [laom oufOD;qHydkifpepfonfvnf; "r®wmESifh qefUusifaom 121


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

aMumifh usqHk;cJh&aMumif; awGUjrif&\? vlrsdK;aumif;pm;a&;om y"me[laom zufqpf0g'ESifh emZD0g'rsm;onfvnf; "r®wm ESifh qefUusifaomaMumifh usqHk;cJh&aMumif; awGUjrif&\/ odkUjzpfav&m twåtay: tajccHaom 0g'[lorQ onf "r®wmESifh qefUusifaomaMumifh ppfrSefaom Nidrf;csrf;rI ESifh ppfrSefaom csrf;ajrUrIudk rjzpfapEdkifojzifh wpfckaomaeU? wpfckaomtcsdfefwGif rvGJraoG usqHk;rnfjzpfaMumif; ,HkrSm; oHo, r&Sdtyfygacs/ tewåtay:tajccHaom ax&0g'onfomvQif "r® wmESifh rqefUusifaomaMumifh ppfrSefaom csrfajrUrIudk jzpfap Edkifojzifh urÇmwnfoa&GU wnf&Sdrnf jzpf\/ ax&0g' Ak'¨ bmomonfomvQif pdwf"mwf cdkifrmrIESifh todynm <u,f0 rIudk udk,fusifhodu©m jrifhrm;rItay:ü wnfaqmufxm;aom aMumifh tjcm;0g'rsm;u wnfaqmufay;aom pdwf"mwfckdifrm rIESifh todynm<u,f0rIwdkUESifhrwlbJ "r®wmt& rdrd\rdom;pk udkvnf; aumif;pm;ap\/ rdrdvlrsdK;udkvnf; aumif;pm;ap\/ urÇmavmutwGif;&Sd vlom;tm;vHk;udkvnf; aumif;pm;ap\? ax&0g'ESifh tjcm;0g'rsm;\ t"du jcm;em;csufrSm þodkUjzpf\/ ax&0g'onf ÓPfpGrf;&Sdoavmuf? 0D&d,pGrf; &Sdoavmuf BudK;pm;í&vmaom tusdK;tjrwf[lorQudk avm 122


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

utwGuf pGefUvTwfjcif;? tavmbü &oudk&Sm\/ tjcm;0g' rsm;um; ÓPfpGrf;&Sdoavmuf? 0D&d,pGrf;&Sdoavmuf BudK;pm; í&vmaom tusdK;tjrwf[lorQudk rdrdtwGuf odrf;ydkufjcif;? avmbü &oudk&Sm\/ þodkUvQif 0g'ESpfrsdK;onf OD;wnfcsuf yef;wdkifcsif; jcm;em;\/

q&mBuD;OD;a&Tatmif (1992 ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dvxkwf? Asm'dwfyef;r*¾Zif;yg trsdK;bmom? omoemaqmif;yg;rS)     

pmayoHk;rsdK;ESifh pmzwfenf ;oHk;rsdK; pmayonf uGrf;,mESifhwlaompm? MuHESifhwlaompm? EGm;EdkUESifhwal ompm[k oHk;rsdK;&Sdonf/ ypöu©? oHo&m? avmuD? avmukwå&m bmrQtusdK;r&Sdaom typftcwf? tnpftywf? cspf BudKuf nm; uGJ taMumif;t&mrsm;udkom a&;xm;aom pmtkyfrsdK;onf t&nfa&mtzwfa&m axG;ypf&onfh-uGrf;,m ESifhwlaom pmayrsdK;wnf;/ ypöu©b0ESifh avmuDtwGuf om 123


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

tusdK;&Sdaom b0ynmay; pmtkyfrsm;? wufusrf; pmtkyfrsm; onf t&nfudk NrdKcsNyD;? tzwfudk axG;xkwf&onfh BuHEiS fhwl aom pmayrsdK;wnf;/ ypöu©? oHo&m? avmuD? avmukwå&m? okw &o ESpfrsdK;vHk;ygatmif a&;xm;aom pmtkyfrsdK;onf t&nfa&mtzwfyg rsdKcs&onfh EGm;EdkUESifhwlaom pmaywnf;/ oufwrf;wdkUonftcsdefjzpfaomaMumifh rSefuefaom tusdK;&Sdaom? pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;aom t*FgoHk;csufESifh nD aom pmtkyfrsm;udkom OD;pm;ay;í zwfoifhonf/ pmzwfenf;onf pma&;q&maemufrS vdkufzwfjcif;? pma&;q&mESifh &ifaygifwef;zwfjcif;? pma&;q&mudk ausmfzwf jcif;[lí oHk;rsdK;&Sdonf/ xdkenf;wdkUwGif pma&;q&m a&;o avmufom odjcif;onf pma&;q&maemufrS vdkufzwfjcif;jzpf onf/ pma&;q&m\ &nf&G,fcsufESifh apwemudkyg odatmif zwfjcif;onf pma&;q&mudk &ifaygifwef;zwfjcif; jzpfonf/ rnfonfhpmudk zwfzwf tewåqdkufatmif zwfEkdifjcif;onf pma&;q&mudk ausmfízwfjcif; jzpfonf/ tenf;qHk; pma&; q&mudk &ifaygifwef; zwfEdkifrSom pmzwf&usKd;eyfygonf/ arwåm&Sif (a&Tjynfom) 124


arwåm&Si f (a&Tjynfom)

tompHvrf;pOf ESihf temcHvrf;pOf tompHjcif;vrf;pOfudk t&Sifa'0'wf wnfa xmifcJhonf/ tompHjcif;vrf;pOf\ aemufqHk;yef;wkdifonf tyg,fav;yg;? tompHjcif;vrf;pOfudk wnfaxmifcJhaom t&Sifa'0'wfudk,fwkdif ,cktcg tyg,fav;yg;odkU usa&mufae&NyDjzpfonf/ tompHjcif;[lonf y,fowf&rnfh ork',opömac: wPSmavmbudk odrf;ydkufxm;jcif; jzpfonf/ temcHjcif;vrf;pOfudk Ak'¨ wnfaxmifawmfrlcJhonf / temcHjcif;vrf;pOf\ aemuf qHk;yef;wkdifonf edAÁmef? temcHjcif;vrf;pOfudk wnfaxmifcJhaom Ak'¨udk ,fwkdif ,cktcg edAÁmefcsrf;omudk cHpm;aeNyDjzpfonf/ temcHjcif;[lonf y,fowf&rnfh ork',opö mac: wPSmavmbudk tvkyfjzifh vufawGUy,fowfjcif; jzpfonf/ tusOf;csKyftm;jzifh rnfonfhtvkyfudk vkyfvkyf igaumif;pm;zdkU &nf&G,fcsufjzifh vkyfvQif t&Sifa'0'wf\ tompHvrf;pOfjzpfonf/ rnfonfh tvkyfudk vkyfvkyf avmuaumif;pm;zdkU &nf&G,fcsufjzifh vkyfvQif Ak'\ ¨ temcHvrf;pOf jzpfonf/ arwåm&Sif (a&Tjynfom) 125

ဗုဒၶဘာသာ ေခါင္းေဆာင္းထားေသာ ေဒ၀ဒတ္  

1 arwå m &amp;S i f (a&amp;T j y nf o m) a0aom - ]]Ak ' ¨ b momacg i f ; aqmif ; xm;aom t&amp;S i f a '0'wf \ wynf h r s m ;}} trnf &amp; S...

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