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rmwdum pOf

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&wemoHk;yg;udk ylaZmfNcif;ukodkvf

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udk;uG,frI t"dyÜm,f (usrf;udk;-1)

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rudk;uG,f&mESifh udk;uG,f&m (usrf;udk;-1)

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udk;uG,frSm;tNypf? udk;uG,frSeftusdK; (usrf;udk;-1)

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Ak'¨bmom0if NzpfcGifh (usrf;udk;-5)

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udk;uG,f&m &wemoHk;yg; (usrf;udk;-1)

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&wemoHk;yg; *kPfawmfzGifh (usrf;udk;-2) ---

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Ak'¨bmomtNzpf cH,lNcif; (usrf;udk;-1)

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o&P*kH ygXfç teuf (usrf;udk;-6)

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o&P*Hk tzGifh (usrf;udk;-5)

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o&P*Hk oHk;yg; (usrf;udk;-1)

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o&P*Hk½Sif;vif;csuf (usrf;udk;-2)

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o&P*Hk (usrf;udk;-4) ---

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o&P*HkESifh o&P*Hkwnfol (usrf;udk;-2)

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o&P*HktppftrSef (usrf;udk;-3)

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o&P*HkygVd\ teuf (usrf;udk;-2)

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o&P*Hk cH,lyHk 4-rsdK; (usrf;udk;-4)

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o&P*Hkaqmufwnfenf; 4-rsdK; (usrf;udk;-2)

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&wemoHk;yg;ESifhpyfí rSwfzG,f (usrf;udk;-5)

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&wemNrwf oHk;yg; (usrf;udk;-4)

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tzdk;rNzwfEdkifaomo&P*Hk (usrf;udk;-3)

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o&P*Hkü txl;tjym; (usrf;udk;-7)

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o&P*Hk ESpfrsdK; (usrf;udk;-4)

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o&P*Hk ESpfrsdK; (usrf;udk;-3)

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o&P*Hkt*Fg&yfrsm; (usrf;udk;-3)

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o&P*kHcH,lrI &rIukdjyjcif; (usrf;udk;-6) ---

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o&P*Hkysufaom ½Sdcdk;Ncif;ESifh rysufaom ½Sdcdk;Ncif; (usrf;udk;-2)

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½Sdcdk;wdkif; o&P*HkrNzpf (usrf;udk;-4)

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o&P*HkaNrmufrI tav;NyKzG,f (usrf;udk;-2)

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ykxkZOfoHCm o&P*kHxkdufç rxkdufukd jyjcif; (usrf;udk;-6)

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½Sdcdk;Ncif;ESifh o&P*Hk (usrf;udk;-4)

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o&P*kHxkdufaom oHCmukdjyjcif; (usrf;udk;-6) ---

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o&P*Hkudk txyfxyf aqmufwnfNcif; (usrf;udk;-2)

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ukd;uG,frI 2-yg; jcm;em;ykHukdjyjcif; (usrf;udk;-6)

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o&P*Hk npfEGrf;Ncif; 4-rsdK; (usrf;udk;-4)

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o&P*Hk npfEGrf;aMumif; w&m;rsm; (usrf;udk;-2)

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o&P*HknpfnL;aMumif;w&m;rsm; (usrf;udk;-3)

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ar;jref;bG,f (usrf;udk;-6)

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ysufwwfaom o&P*HkESifh rysufwwfaom o&P*Hk (usrf;udk;-2) ---

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o&P*kHysufrysufukd jyjcif; (usrf;udk;-6)

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o&P*Hk ysufyHk 2-rsdK; (usrf;udk;-4)

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o&P*kHysufjcif;ESifh rysufjcif;tusOf;csKyf (usrf;udk;-6)

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o&P*HkysufrIESifh tavmif;udk o&P*HkwifNcif; (usrf;udk;-2)

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o&P*HkysufNcif; (usrf;udk;-3)

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o&P*Hk ysufpD;Ncif; (usrf;udk;-1)

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o&P*Hk rwnfEdkifol (usrf;udk;-4)

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o&P*Hk trSm;rsm; (usrf;udk;-4)

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o&P*HkykwD;pdyfNcif; (usrf;udk;-2)

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o&P*HkwnfNcif;\ tusdK; (usrf;udk;-1)

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o&P*Hk wnfNcif; tusdK;rsm; (usrf;udk;-2)

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o&P*Hk\tusdK; (usrf;udk;-4)

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om"u0w¬Krsm; (usrf;udk;-2)

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o&P*Hkwnfaom trsdK;om;wpfa,muftaMumif; (usrf;udk;-2)

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o&P*HkESifh oDv½Sdol tyg,frus (usrf;udk;-5) ---

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wBudrfaqmufwnf wpfoufwnf (usrf;udk;-5) ---

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&wemokH;yg;udk;uG,f&mü tusdK;BuD;ykHjyqdkcef; (usrf;udk;-8)

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o&P*kHtusKd;ukd jyjcif; (usrf;udk;-6)

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Oygoum Oygodum (usrf;udk;-4)

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usrf;udk;pm&if;

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o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) rdwfqufpum; bmoma&;todÓPfrsm;

wdk;yGg;aMumif;

vdkvm;wJh

usL;ypfnDtudktrrsm;eJU

tGefvdkif;rSae

bmoma&;udkavhvmaeMuwJh "r®rdwfaqGrsm;twGuf o&P*HkoHk;yg;eJU ywfoufwJh taMumif;t&mrsm;udk wpkwpnf;xJ

avhvmvdkU&atmif

q&mawmfBuD;rsm;&JU

a[mMum;csufrsm;?

qHk;Nzwfcsufrsm;eJU

aumif;Edk;&m&m vufvSrf;rSDorQ pmtkyfawGxJuae xkwfEIwfNyD; wifNyay;xm;ygw,f/ o&P*HkoHk;yg;[m

Ak'¨bmom0iftNzpf

pwifaNccsawmhr,fh

yk*¾dKvfwa,muftwGuf

ta&;BuD;vSovdk? Ak'¨bmom0ifrsm;taeeJUvnf; o&P*Hk npfEGrf;Ncif;rsm;? o&P*Hk ysufys,fNcif;rsm;[m b,fvdktaMumif;t&mawGaMumifhqdkwm odzdkUvdkygw,f/ odkUrSom o&P*Hkcdkifcdkifrmrmwnf? oDvvHkum? orm"dxlaxmifNyD;? ynmeJU xdk;xGif;um r*fw&m; zdkvfw&m; edAÁmefcsrf;omudk &EdkifrSm NzpfwJhtwGuf o&P*Hkaqmufwnfxm;Ncif;[m

tvGefta&;ygvSygw,f/

usrf;*efrsm;tqdkt&

o&P*HkaqmufwnfNcif;[m 'geNyKNcif;xuf omvGefaMumif; azmfNyxm;wm awGUMu&rSm Nzpfygw,f/ bmoma&;udk avhvmyGg;rsm;aeMuwJh nDtudktrrsm;taeeJUvnf; ,ck taMumif;t&mrsm;[m odNyD;om;awG Nzpfygvdrfhrnf/ odkUaomfvnf; ydkrdkNyD; ausausnufnuf od&atmiftwGuf&,f Ak'¨bmomudk pwifavhvmr,fh olawG? uRefawmfwdkUtaeeJU rdbae&mawG a&mufvmr,fhtcsdefMu&if usrf;*efrsm;eJUtnD ]]o&P*HkoHk;yg;}} taMumif;udk aocsmpGm aNymNyay;Edkifatmif &nf½G,fNyD; ]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkuae "r®'geNyKvdkufNcif;yg/ ------------------------------

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

1


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) &wemoHk;yg;udk ylaZmfNcif;ukodkvf ylaZmfNcif;udk

cH,lxdkufukefaom

w&m;awmfudkvnf;aumif;?

Nrwfbk&m;½Sif\

Nrwfbk&m;½Sifudkvnf;aumif;? wynhfom;

Nrwfbk&m;½Sif\

oHCmawmfwdkUudkvnf;aumif;

ylaZmfaom

ol\aumif;rIudk þaumif;rIonf þa½GU þrQ½Sd\[k wpfpHk wpfa,mufaomolonf a&wGufNcif;iSg rwwfaumif;ay/ ("r®y') ------------------------------

udk;uG,frI t"dyÜm,f vlUordkif;q&mwdkU\ tqdkt& vlonf aNcovHk;tdrfwdkifb0rS wNznf;Nznf;csif; ,Ofaus;vmNyD; tpktoif;ESifh aewwfvmolrsm; Nzpfonf[k od&\/ rnfodkUyifNzpfap vlonf aMumufwwfrIESifh &vdkrI oabmw&m;rsm;Nzifh zGJUpnf;xm;aom o@mefwpfckomNzpfaMumif; xif½Sm;\/ vlUavmuBuD;wGifvnf; aMumufp&m taNrmuftNrm; ½Sdonfhenf;wl &,lcsifp&mrsm;ESifhvnf; NynfhESufvsuf

½Sdaeygonf/

'Da&wufNcif;?

rD;BuD;avmifNcif;?

avrkefwdkif;usNcif;

paom

Moumoavmu\ ab;tEÅ&m,frsm;? a>rab;? opf? usm;? qif½dkif;ab;? rcspfrESpfoufolab; paom owåavmu\ vlom;onf

&efNyKrIrsm;ESifh tvl;tvJ

emzsm;rusef;rrm? cHae&onfom

tdkemao&

Nzpf\/

ab;'ku©rsm;\

þodkUaom

b0'ku©

ESdyfpufuvlNyKrIudk tEÅ&m,frsm;\

vHIUaqmfzefwD;rIaMumifh vlom;onf aMumufwwfvm\/ xdkab;qdk;ç 'ku©qdk;wdkUrS uif;Nidrf;rIudk vdkvm;vmMuonf/ udk;uG,f&mudk ½SmazGvmMuonf/ þtcsufESifh ywfoufí A[Hk a0 o&PH ,EÅd? yAÁwmed 0emed p/ tm&mr½ku©apwsmed? rEkó b,wZÆdwm/ ("r®y'? *gxm-188) ]]ab;&ef

tEÅ&m,ftrsdK;rsdK;udk

pdk;½GHUaMumufvefUaeMuukefaom

vlwdkUonf

awmifwdkUudkvnf;aumif;? awmwdkUudkvnf;aumif;? tm&mrfwdkUudkvnf;aumif;? t"du&opfyif paom udk;uG,f&mwdkUudkvnf;aumif; udk;uG,fMuukef\}} [k NrwfAk'¨ a[mMum;cJh\/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

2


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) yifv,f

ork'´&mwdkUü

toufarG;rI

NyKMuolwdkUonf

ork'´&mapmifh

ewfrsm;udk

udk;pm;Muonfhenf;wl awm&yfa'oü vkyfudkifpm;aomufMuolwdkUuvnf; awmawmifO,smOf ponfwdkUudk ylaZmfMuonf/ xdkUNyif aumufyifpdkufysdK; atmifNrifvdkrItwGuf rdk;ewf ponfwdkUudk yoMu\/ om;qkyef&ef awmpdk; opfyifBuD;rsm;ü ½Sdrnfxifaom ewfwdkUudk wifaNr§mufMuonf/ þonfwdkUrSm xdkpOfu urÇmUvlom; tm;vHk;vdkvdkESifh oufqdkifaom udk;uG,frIrsm; Nzpfonf/ udk;uG,frItp? udk;uG,frI\ t"dyÜm,f[k azmfNytyfygonf/ (usrf;udk;/

/ Ak'¨bmomaumif;wpfa,muf) ------------------------------

rudk;uG,f&mESifh udk;uG,f&m Ak'¨NrwfpGmbk&m;

yGifhxGef;awmfrlvmNyD;aemuf

rudk;uG,f&mESifh

udk;uG,f&mudk

cGJNcm;í

a[mMum;ñTefNycJhygonf/ NrwfAk'¨a[mMum;rdefUrSmcJhonfrSm aewH acg o&PH acrH? aewH o&P rkwårH/ aewH o&P rm*r®? oAÁ'ku©m yrkpöwd/ ("r®y'/ *gxm-189) ]]þawm awmif tm&mrf t"du&opfyif paom udk;uG,f&m[lorQudk udk;uG,fNcif;onf ab;uif;aom

udk;uG,fNcif;

r[kwf/

Nrwfaom

udk;uG,fNcif;

r[kwf?

þudk;uG,f&m[lorQudk

udk;uG,fqnf;uyfNcif;aMumifh 'ku©cyfodrf;rS rvGwfaNrmufEdkif}} [lí Nzpfygonf/ þuJhodkU ½Sif;vif;xif½Sm;pGm a[mMum;cJhonf w&m;awmft& rudk;uG,f&mudk twdtus od½SdMu&ygonf/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

3


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) udk;uG,f&mESifh ywfoufívnf; NrwfpGmbk&m;onf a,m p Ak'¨Oö "r®Oö? oHCOö o&PH *awm/ pwåm&d t&d,opömed? or®yÜnm, yówd/ 'ku©H 'ku©orkyÜg'H? 'ku©ó p twduúrH/ t&d,H p|*ÐwH r*¾H? 'ku©Lyor*grdeH/ ("r®y'/ *gxm-190? 191) tMuifolonf

NrwfpGmbk&m;udk

vnf;aumif;?

w&m;awmfudkvnf;aumif;?

oHCmawmfudkvnf;aumif; udk;uG,fqnf;uyf\/ xdkolonf qif;&JtrSef ]]'ku©opöm}}? qif;&JNcif;\ taMumif;&if;trSef ]]ork',opöm}}? qif;&JvGwfaNrmuf&mtrSef ]]eda&m"opöm}}? qif;&JNidrf;&m ]]edAÁmef}}odkU a&mufaMumif;trSef? ]]t*Fg½Spfyg;½Sdaom Nrwfaom r*¾opöm}} [laom t&d,opömav;yg;wdkUudk r*fynmNzifh aumif;pGm NrifEdkif\ }} [lí tus,fw0ifh a[mMum;ñTefNyawmfrlcJhonf/ (usrf;udk;/

/ Ak'¨bmomaumif;wpfa,muf) ------------------------------

udk;uG,frSm;tNypf? udk;uG,frSeftusdK; NrwfpGmbk&m;onf Nrwfaomudk;uG,fNcif; r[kwfvQif rnfodkUrnfyHk tNypf usa&mufEdkifaMumif; azmfNyvwåHUyg *gxmNzifh a[mMum;rdefUrSmcJhygonf aewH acg o&PH acrH? aewH o&P rkwårH/ aewH o&P rm*r®? oAÁ'ku©m yrkpöwd/ ("r®y'/ *gxm-189) ]]þawm awmif tm&mrf t"du&opfyif paom udk;uG,f&m[lorQudk udk;uG,fNcif;onf ab;uif;aom

udk;uG,fNcif;

r[kwf/

Nrwfaom

udk;uG,fNcif;

r[kwf?

þudk;uG,f&m[lorQudk

udk;uG,fqnf;uyfNcif;aMumifh 'ku©cyfodrf;rS rvGwfaNrmufEdkif}} [lí Nzpfygonf/ xdkUaMumifh vlwdkUonf udk;uG,frIrSm;vQif 'ku©cyfodrf; ruif;Nidrf;EdkifbJ oHo&m0JMoCtwGif; w0Jvnfvnf usifvnf usufpm; ae&rnfom Nzpfayonf/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

4


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) udk;uG,frI rSefvQif tusdK;aus;Zl; rsm;pGm &½SdEdkifaMumif;udkvnf; Ak'¨NrwfpGmonf{wH acg o&PH acrH? {wH o&P rkwårH/ {wH o&P rm*r®? oAÁ'ku©m yrkpöwd/ ("r®y'/ *gxm-192) ]]þ&wemoHk;yg;udk udk;uG,fqnf;uyfNzif;onf ab;r½Sdaom udk;uG,fqnf;uyfNcif; rnf\/ Nrwfaom

udk;uG,fqnf;uyfNcif;

rnf\/

þ&wemoHk;yg;udk

udk;uG,fNcif;aMumifh

'ku©cyfodrf;rS

vGwfaNrmuf\}} [k a[mMum; ñTefNyawmfrlcJhygonf/ xdkUaMumifh vlwdkUonf udk;uG,frIrSefvQif 'ku©cyfodrf; uif;Nidrf;NyD; vlcsrf;om? ewfcsrf;om? NA[®mcsrf;omrsm;udk

&½SdEdkif½HkrQru

r*fzdkvfedAÁmefodkUwdkif

rsufarSmufNyKEdkifygaMumif;

a&;om;azmfNytyfygonf/ (usrf;udk;/

/ Ak'¨bmomaumif;wpfa,muf) ------------------------------

Ak'¨bmom0if NzpfcGifh oAÁnKbk&m;½Sifudk ]]Ak'¨}} [k ac:\/ xdkAk'¨½SifawmfNrwf\

w&m;awmfudk

]]Ak'¨bmom}}

[k

ac:\/

xdkAk'¨½SifawmfNrwf\

w&m;awmftwdkif; vdkufem aexdkifoludk ]]Ak'¨bmom0if}} [k ac:\/ xdk Ak'¨bmom0if Nzpfvdkol? odkUr[kwf Nzpfaeolonf Ak'¨ç "r®ç oHCç (bk&m;ç w&m;ç oHCm) &wemNrwf 3-yg;\ taMumif;udk aumif;pGmem;vnf&rnf/ r,HkMunfbl;vm;[k

xdkodkU

em;vnfNyD;aemuf

pOf;pm;xdkuf\/

r,HkMunfvQif

xdk&wem

3-yg;udk

]]Ak'¨bmom0ifyg}}

rdrd

[k

,HkMunfovm;?

aNymqdkaeaomfvnf;

]]Ak'¨bmom0if}} rNzpfEdkifao;yg? ,HkMunfvQifum; ]]Ak'¨H o&PH *pämrd}} paom o&P*Hk 3-yg;udk aqmufwnf&\/ xdktcg Ak'¨bmom0if tppfNzpf\/ ynm Ak'¨bmom0if/ bk&m;½Sifudk

/ xdk Ak'¨bmom0ifwdkUonf ÓPfESifh,SOfí epfepfumum ,HkMunfolum;

udk;uG,f&mü

oufawmfxif½Sm;

NrwfpGmbk&m;udk

pdwfxJü

xifvm

Nrifvmatmif

udk;uG,fonfhtNyif ½kyfyHk? apwDawmfrsm;udkvnf; (a½T½SdonfNzpfap? r½SdonfNzpfap) ausauseyfeyf

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

5


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) av;Nrwfavh ½Sd\/ w&m;udk udk;uG,f&müvnf; w&m;tppftrSef usrf;*ef yd#uESifh r*fzdkvf edAÁmefw&m;udk rSef;qí

tm;&yg;&

tawmftwefNynfhpHkaom

ylaZmf\/

oHCmudk

udk;uG,f&müvnf;

ykxkZOfrsm;udkvnf;aumif;?

okyÜ#dyEéwm

trSef;twm;tm;Nzifh

paom

*kPfwdkUESifh

t&d,moHCmawmfrsm;udk

vnf;aumif; udk;uG,f\/ xdk &wem 3-yg; twGufqdkvQif toufudkyif pGefU0Hh\/ þolum; ÓPfESifh,SOfaom Ak'¨bmom0if Nzpfolaywnf;/ o'¨g Ak'¨bmom0if/

/ olrsm;taNymaumif;í ,HkMunfaom o'¨gNzifh? odkUr[kwf rd½dk;zvmNzifh

Ak'¨bmom0ifNzpfaeolwdkUum; bk&m;ppf w&m;ppf oHCmppfwdkUü xdxda&mufa&muf o'¨gpdwfaygufol enf;yg;\/ (vHk;vHk; r½Sdbl;[k rqdkvdkyg) bk&m;udk MunfndK&mü oufawmfxif½Sm; NrwfpGmbk&m;xdatmif pdwfra&mufbJ ½kyfyHk? apwDawmfavmufom pdwfa&muf\/ ½kyfyHk? apwDawmfrsm;wGifvnf; aqGbk&m; rsdK;bk&m;

rdrdylaZmfxm;aom

½kyfyGg;apwDawmfrsm;udk

ydkrdkí

MunfndKwwfMu\/

a½TaNymifaNymif

apwD½kyfyGg;udkvnf; omí MunfndKMuao;\/ xdkUaMumifhyif rdrdwdkU\ &yf½Gmü a½Tr½Sdaom ½kyfyGg;apwDawmfrsm;udk ypfxm;cJhí NrdKUBuD; NyBuD;odkU bk&m;zl;oGm;Mu\/ tcgwpfyg;ü awmurdef;rwpfpk rEÅav;odkU oGm;cgeD;0,f ]]bk&m;zl; oGm;rvdkU? bk&m;zl; oGm;rvdkU}} [k us,favmif us,favmifESifh aNymqdkaeMuonfudk tawmfem;vnfaom ausmif;'umBuD;u ]]wdk;wdk;aNymMuyg[½dkU? wdkU½Gmu udk,fawmfNrwfawG Mum;vQif tm;emp&m Nzpfaeyghr,f}} [k Nyuf&,fNyKvdkufowJh? xdk o'¨g Ak'¨bmom0ifwdkUonf bk&m;MunfndKyHkom pnf;urf;rusonf r[kwfao;? w&m; oHCm MunfndKMu&mwGifvnf; pnf;urf;rJhvSacs\/ (usrf;udk;/

/ awmifNrdKU*E¨m½Hkq&mawmfBuD;\ &wemh*kPf&nf) ------------------------------

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

6


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) udk;uG,f&m &wemoHk;yg; Ak'¨&wem Ak'¨bmom0ifwpfOD;onf Ak'¨&wem? "r®&wemESifh oHC&wemwnf;[laom &wemoHk;yg;udk udk;uG,f&rnf Nzpfygonf/ owå0gwdkU\ ab;'ku©udk y,fazsmufzsufqD;wwfaomaMumifh Ak'¨? "r®? oHCmwnf;[laom &wemoHk;yg;udk o&P[lívnf; ac:a0:ygonf/ NrwfAk'¨udk udk;uG,fylaZmf&Ncif;rSm Ak'¨½Sifawmfbk&m;onf owå0gwdkUudk BuD;yGg;csrf;omaMumif; enf;vrf;ü NzpfapNcif;? rBuD;yGg; rcsrf;omaMumif; raumif;aom enf;vrf;rS qkwfepfapNcif;ESifh tNypfa'go tvHk;pHk uif;pifí *kPfaus;Zl;tvHk;pHkESifh NynfhpHkapNcif;wdkUaMumifhyif Nzpfonf/

"r®&wem "r®&wemwnf;[laom

bk&m;\

w&m;awmfudk

udk;uG,f&Ncif;rSm

w&m;awmfudk

usifhMuHvdkufemolwdkUudk b0oHo&mc&D;cJrS xkwfqGJu,fwifNcif;? w&m;usifhwkef;tcdkufESifh usifhNyD; aemufumvwdkUüvnf;

oufomrIudk

ay;apNcif;Nzifh

owå0gwdkU\

ab;'ku©udk

y,fazsmufzsufqD;apEdkifNcif;aMumifh Nzpfygonf/

oHCm&wem oHCmawmfudk tusdK;rsm;ap&ef

udk;uG,f&Ncif;rSm NyKNcif;Nzifh

tenf;i,frQaom oHCmawmfrsm;onf

aumif;rIukodkvfwdkUudk

BuD;us,fzGHUNzdK;

owå0gwdkU\

ab;'ku©udk

y,fazsmufzsufqD;apEdkifNcif;aMumifh Nzpfygonf/ xdk&wemoHk;yg;tm;

MunfndKav;pm;

udk;uG,fqnf;uyfaomoludk

o&P*Hk

wnfol[k

ac:ygonf/ xdkolonf aumif;Nrwfaom b0odkU a&muf&rnf NzpfonfhNyif touf½SnfNcif;? tqif;vSNcif;? ta>ct&Haygrsm;Ncif; paom tusdK;rsm; &½Sdrnf Nzpfayonf/ (usrf;udk;/

/ Ak'¨bmomaumif;wpfa,muf) ------------------------------

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

7


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) &wemoHk;yg; *kPfawmfzGifh qif;&Judk

y,fazsmufí

,HkMunftm;udk;wdkif;

csrf;omodkU

o&P*HkaNrmuf

qif;&Judk

a&mufapEdkif&eftwGuf y,fazsmufí

bk&m;[k

csrf;omodkU

xifrSwfí

a&mufapEdkifMuonf[k

rrSwf,loifhyg/ avmuü pdefausmuf&wemwdkif; &wemppf &wemrSef rSwfwifcH r[kwfbJ twkta,mif &wemrsm;

½SdEdkifouJhodkU

,HkMunfudk;uG,frIESifhpyfaom

bk&m;twkta,mifç t&mwGif

w&m;twkta,mifrsm;

]]pOf;pm;rI

a½SUwnfç

vGefpGmaygrsm;vSygonf/

,HkMunfrI

aemufxm;}}

[laom

a½S;ynm½SdBuD;rsm;\ owday;pum;udk tav;tpm; NyKoifhygonf/ ,HkMunfrI (o'¨g) tm;BuD;í pOf;pm;qifNcif;rI (ynm) tm;enf;onfhtwGuf tppf trSef r[kwfaom bk&m;ç rrSefaom w&m;wdkUudk rpOf;rpm; ,HkMunfNyD; tm;udk;rSm;vQif ]]ukef½IH;vQif wpfacguf}} qdkwmrsdK; r[kwfbJ ]]o&P*Hk½HI;vQif woHo&mvHk;arSmuf}} qdkwmrsdK; Nzpfum 'ku©oHo&mvnfrqHk; NzpfEdkifygonf/ ]]bk&m;rSwfvdkU udk;uG,fcJhwm zGwfxGufrS awmifydkUrSef; od&onf}} ? ]]usm;aMumufvdkU ½SifBuD;udk; ½SifBuD; usm;xufqdk; Nzpf&onf}} [laom owday;pum;rsm;onf ,HkMunfudk;uG,frItrSm;\ 'ku©udk o½kyfNy ay:vGifapygonf/ a'0'wfudk ,HkMunftm;xm;í zcif&if;udk owfrdonftxd trdkufZmwfcif;um

i&Jvm;cJh&aom

tZmwowfrif;\

Nzpf&yfrSm

udk;uG,frItrSm;twGuf

om"uxifapaom tcsufyif Nzpfygonf/ xdkUaMumifh udk,fydkiftodÓPf ynmNzifh wu,fhrSwfwifcH tppftrSefNzpfaom bk&m;ç w&m;ç oHCm &wemrsm;udk pdppfa½G;cs,f udk;uG,fwwf&ef vdktyfygonf/ ]]ynm½Sd}}

[lí

udk;uG,fqnf;uyfzdkUta&;ü

qdk&mü

avmuDt&mrSm

ynmrsm;pGm

udk;uG,fqnf;uyfrIynmum;

½SdcsifrS

½Sdaomfvnf; ½Sdrnf?

&wemoHk;yg; tvdktavsmuf

xdk;xGif;wwfodEdkifonfh ynmrsdK; r[kwfaomaMumifh ]][kwfpGr½Sdu iuef;vrf;rod}} qdkwmrsdK;om NzpfEdkifygonf/ xdkUaMumifh udk;uG,fqnf;uyfrIynmü uRrf;usifvdr®mrI½Sdap&ef ]]&wemoHk;yg; *kPfawmfzGifh}} rsm;udk qufvufavhvmoifhygonf/ (usrf;udk;/

/Ak'¨bmomvufpGJusrf;) ------------------------------

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

8


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) Ak'¨bmomtNzpf cH,lNcif; pdwfxm;rSefuefNcif; vlUavmuwGif pdwfxm;NzLpif aNzmifhrwfrSefuef&ef ta&;BuD;vS\/ pdwfxm;NzLpif aNzmifhrwfrSefuefrSom ,HkMunfrI tm;aumif;onf/ bk&m;ç w&m;ç oHCm &wemoHk;yg;udk qnf;uyfudk;uG,fNcif;onf wpHkwa,mufaomoludk aMumuf½GHUaomaMumifh

qnf;uyfudk;uG,fNcif;rsdK;

rNzpfap&yg/

wpHkwa,mufaomolu

cdkif;apaomaMumifhvnf; rNzpfap&yg/ ypönf;vmbfvmbç tmPmç yg0g ponfwdkUudk &,lvdkaomaMumifh &wemoHk;yg;udk qnf;uyfudk;uG,fNcif;rsdK; rNzpfap&yg/ rdrdudk,fwdkifu ]]bk&m;tppf bk&m;trSefç w&m;tppf w&m;trSefç oHCmtppf oHCmtrSef wu,fNzpfonf}}

[k

,HkMunfouf0ifaomaMumifh

&wemoHk;yg;udk

udk;uG,fqnf;uyfNcif;rsdK;om

Nzpfap&ygrnf/ þodkU ppfrSefaom bk&m;ç w&m;ç oHCm &wemoHk;yg;udk udk;uG,fqnf;uyfNyD; w&m;tppf trSeftusifhrsm;udk

vdkufemusifhoHk;

BudK;pm;t;xkwfygu

vufiif;tm;Nzifh

pdwfcsrf;omrI

&½SdNyD;

0#fqif;&Jtaygif;rS {uefrkcs uif;vGwfEdkifonf[k rdrdudk,fwdkif rrSdwfrokef ,HkMunfouf0ifaomaMumifh &wemoHk;yg;udk udk;uG,fqnf;uyfNcif;rsdK; Nzpfap&ygrnf/ (usrf;udk;/

/ Ak'¨bmomaumif;wpfa,muf) ------------------------------

o&P*kH ygXfç teuf 1/ Ak'¨H o&PH *pämrd/ 2/ "r®H o&PH *pämrd/ 3/ oHCH o&PH *pämrd/ «'kwd,rÜd? wwd,rÜd okH;acgufqkdav» 1/ Ak'¨H=jrwfpGmbk&m;udk? o&PH-o&PH£wd? 'ku©uif;aysmuf csrf;oma&mufzdkY axmuf&mç wnf&mç udk;uG,f&m[lí? *pämrd=qnf;uyfyg\/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

9


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) 2/ "r®H=r*fav;wefç zdkvfav;wefç edAÁmefç y&d,wf- tjrwfq,fazmf w&m;awmfudk? o&PHo&PH£wd='ku©uif;aysmuf

csrf;oma&mufzdkY

axmuf&mç

wnf&mç

udk;uG,f&m[lí?

*pämrd=qnf;uyfyg\/ 3/ oHCH=oDv0efç *kP0efç yn0efç uvsmPykxkZÆef t½SifrGef t½SifjrwfwdkESifhwuG y&rw¬oHCm t&d,myk*¾Kdvftaygif;udk/

o&PH-o&PH£wd='ku©uif;aysmuf

csrf;oma&mufzdkY

axmuf&mçwnf&mç

udk;uG,f&m-[lí? *pämrd=qnf;uyfyg\/ «aMuaMu rGrG&ap/» o&P*kH ygXfç teufNyD;\/ (usrf;udk;/

/ v,fwDq&mawmfBuD;\ o&P*Hk0dedpä,usrf;opf) ------------------------------

o&P*Hk tzGifh 1- Ak'¨H o&PH *pämrdç "r®H o&PH *pämrdç oHCH o&PH *pämrd/ 2- 'kwd,rÜd Ak'¨H o&PH *pämrdç 'kwd,rÜd . . . *pämrd/ 3- wwd,rÜd Ak'¨H o&PH *pämrdç wwd,rÜd . . . *pämrd/ 1/ Ak'¨H- NrwfpGmbk&m;udk? o&PH- udk;uG,f vJavsmif; ykef;atmif;rSDcdk&m[lí? *pämrd? rSD0Jqnf;uyfç odrSwfyg\/ "r®H- w&m;awmfNrwfudk? o&PH- udk;uG,f vJavsmif; ykef;atmif;rSDcdk&m[lí? *pämrd? rSD0Jqnf;uyfç odrSwfyg\/ oHCH? t&d,moHCmawmfNrwfudk? o&PH- udk;uG,f vJavsmif; ykef;atmif;rSDcdk&m[lí? *pämrd? rSD0Jqnf;uyfç odrSwfyg\/ 2/ 'kwd,rÜd- ESpfBudrfaNrmufvnf; . . . a½SUtwdkif;qdk/ 3/ wwd,rÜd- oHk;BudrfaNrmufvnf; . . . a½SUtwdkif;qdk/ o&P*Hk/

/

]]o&P+*er}}

[laom

ygVdrS

]]o&P*Hk}}

[k

Nrefrmpum;

Nzpfvmonf/

(o&P=udk;uG,f&m[lí+*re=todtrSwfNyKvsuf qnf;uyfNcif;) ]]bk&m; w&m; t&d,moHCmonf udk;uG,f&m tppfNzpf\}} [k todtrSwfNyKvsuf ½dkaoav;Nrwf qnf;uyfvdkaom ukodkvfapwemudk

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

10


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) ]]o&P*Hk}} [k ac:\/ 1-bk&m; udk;uG,frI? 2- w&m;udk;uG,frI? 3- t&d,moHCm udk;uG,frI tm;Nzifh 3yg;½Sdonf/ ]]o&P*Hk 3yg;}} [k ,ckumv ac:MuonfrSmvnf; þ 3yg;yifwnf;/ rdrdoEÅmefü xdk&wemoHk;yg;udk qnf;uyfudk;uG,f vdkaom pdwfapwemNzpfaeaMumif; xif½Sm;NyzdkU&m ]]Ak'¨H o&PH *pämrd}} paom ygVdpum;udkNzpfap? ]]bk&m;udk;uG,fyg\}} paom Nrefrmpum;udkNzpfap? ½GwfqdkNcif;onf o&P*Hk aqmufwnfNcif; rnf\/ xdkodkU aqmufwnf&m0,f . . . Ak'¨H/

/ Ak'¨H-t& bk&m;[k qdk&mü ½kyfyHk ½kyfyGg; qif;wkapwDawmfrsm;avmufwGif pdwfrxm;bJ bk&m;

*kPfawmfzGifhüNycJhaom ]]bk&m;½Sif}} udk &nfrSef;í xm;&m\/ "r®H/

/ "r®H-t& w&m;[k qdk&mü "r®uxduawG? oH½SnfoHwdkqGJí ,yfvSJ ,yfaxmif w&m;rsm;ESifh

pmtkyfaypmawGavmufwGif pdwfrxm;bJ "r®pMum? tewåvu©Pokwf? r[mowdy|mef paom bk&m;a[m ygVdawmfç t|uxm usrf;pmtpOfESifh r*f zdkvf edAÁmef w&m;udk &nfrSef;xm;&m\/ oHCH/ / oHCH-t& oHCm[k qdk&mü ,ckumv &[ef;oHCmavmufwGif pdwfrxm;bJ oHCmh*kPfü NycJhaom t&d,moHCmudk &nfrSef;xm;&m\/ þodkU &nfrSef;EdkifrSom ]]o&P*Hk}} tppftrSef &rnf/ udk; uG,f vJavsmif; ykef;atmif; rSDcdk&m/ / &wemNrwfoHk;yg;onf tyg,fqif;&J? oHo&mqif;&JwdkUrS rusra&mufatmif a[mawmfrlaomtm;Nzifh apmifha½Smufawmfrlay&um; . . . udk; = &wem oHk;yg;udk udk;pm;&m (tm;udk;p&m) [lí vnf;aumif;? uG,f = ab;&efay:vmvQif umuG,fzdkU&m [lí vnf;aumif;? vJavsmif; = (rdbtay:rSm ,HkMunfí om;orD;rsm; vJavsmif; tdyfaeovdk) &wemoHk;yg;udk aumif;pGm ,HkMunfí vJavsmif;zdkU&m [lí vnf;aumif;? ykef;atmif; = tyg,fab; ra&mufatmif ykef;atmif;aezdkU [lí vnf;aumif;? rSDcdk = rdbu om;orD;udk rSDcdkouJhodkU rSDcdkzdkU&m [lí vnf;aumif; todtrSwfNyKvsuf ]]ESpfESpfoufouf rSD0J qnf;uyfyg\}} [k qdkvdkonf/ (usrf;udk;/

/ awmifNrdKU*E¨m½Hkq&mawmfBuD;\ &wemh*kPf&nf) ------------------------------

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

11


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) o&P*Hk oHk;yg; 1/

Ak'¨H o&PH *pämrd/ "r®H o&PH *pämrd/ oHCH o&PH *pämrd/

2/

'kwd,rÜd Ak'¨H o&PH *pämrd/ 'kwd,rÜd "r®H o&PH *pämrd/ 'kwd,rÜd oHCH o&PH *pämrd/

3/

wwd,rÜd Ak'¨H o&PH *pämrd/ wwd,rÜd "r®H o&PH *pämrd/ wwd,rÜd oHCH o&PH *pämrd/

o&P*Hk oHk;yg; teuf 1/ Ak'¨H? NrwfpGmbk&m;udk/ o&PH? o&PH £wd? udk;uG,fvJavsmif; ykef;atmif; rSDcdk&m [lí/ *pämrd? rSD0Jqnf;uyf odrSwfyg\/ -"r®H? r*fzdkvfedAÁmef "r®u©ef[k q,fwefydkif;Nzwf q,fyg;aom w&m;awmfNrwfudk/ o&PH? o&PH £wd? udk;uG,fvJavsmif; ykef;atmif; rSDcdk&m [lí/ *pämrd? rSD0Jqnf;uyf odrSwfyg\/ -oHCH? oHCmawmfNrwfudk/ o&PH? o&PH £wd? udk;uG,fvJavsmif; ykef;atmif; rSDcdk&m [lí/ *pämrd? rSD0Jqnf;uyf odrSwfyg\/ 2/ 'kwd,rÜd? ESpfBudrfaNrmufvnf;/ Ak'¨H? NrwfpGmbk&m;udk/ o&PH? o&PH £wd? udk;uG,fvJavsmif; ykef;atmif; rSDcdk&m [lí/ *pämrd? rSD0Jqnf;uyf odrSwfyg\/ - 'kwd,rÜd? ESpfBudrfaNrmufvnf;/ "r®H? r*fzdkvfedAÁmef "r®u©ef[k q,fwefydkif;Nzwf q,fyg;aom w&m;awmfNrwfudk/ o&PH? o&PH £wd? udk;uG,fvJavsmif; ykef;atmif; rSDcdk&m [lí/ *pämrd? rSD0Jqnf;uyf odrSwfyg\/ - 'kwd,rÜd? ESpfBudrfaNrmufvnf;/ oHCH? oHCmawmfNrwfudk/ o&PH? o&PH £wd? udk;uG,fvJavsmif; ykef;atmif; rSDcdk&m [lí/ *pämrd? rSD0Jqnf;uyf odrSwfyg\/ 3/ wwd,rÜd? oHk;BudrfaNrmufvnf;/ Ak'¨H? NrwfpGmbk&m;udk/ o&PH? o&PH £wd? udk;uG,fvJavsmif; ykef;atmif; rSDcdk&m [lí/ *pämrd? rSD0Jqnf;uyf odrSwfyg\/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

12


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) -wwd,rÜd? oHk;BudrfaNrmufvnf;/ "r®H? r*fzdkvfedAÁmef "r®u©ef[k q,fwefydkif;Nzwf q,fyg;aom w&m;awmfNrwfudk/ o&PH? o&PH £wd? udk;uG,fvJavsmif; ykef;atmif; rSDcdk&m [lí/ *pämrd? rSD0Jqnf;uyf odrSwfyg\/ -wwd,rÜd? oHk;BudrfaNrmufvnf;/ oHCH? oHCmawmfNrwfudk/ o&PH? o&PH £wd? udk;uG,fvJavsmif; ykef;atmif; rSDcdk&m [lí/ *pämrd? rSD0Jqnf;uyf odrSwfyg\/

o&P*HkoHk;yg; cH,laqmufwnfyHk ]]o&P*re}} [laom ygVdyk'frS *reudk *HkodkU aNymif;í o&P*Hk [k NrefrmrI NyKxm;Ncif; Nzpf\/ bk&m;ç w&m;ç oHCm &wemoHk;yg;udk udk;uG,f vJavsmif; ykef;atmif;rSDcdk&m[lí rSD0Jqnf;uyf odrSwfNcif;onf o&P*Hk aqmufwnfNcif; Nzpf\/ ]]bk&m;ç w&m;ç oHCm &wemoHk;yg;omvQif udk;uG,f&m tppftrSef}} [k ,HkMunfodrSwfvsuf ½dkaoav;Nrwf qnf;uyfvdkaom ukodkvfapwem (r[mukodkvfpdwf apwoduf emrf cE¨mtaygif;) udk ]]o&P*Hk}} [k ac:\/ udk;uG,frItm;Nzifh 1/ bk&m; ukd;uG,frI? 2/ w&m; ukd;uG,frI? 3/ oHCm ukd;uG,frI [lí oHk;yg;½Sdygonf/ þoHk;yg;udkyif ]]o&P*HkoHk;yg;}} [k ac:Ncif;Nzpf\/ rdrdoEÅmefü

&wemoHk;yg;udk

(r[mukodkvfpdwf

apwoduf

,HkMunfodrSwf emrf

qnf;uyfudk;uG,fvdkaom

cE¨mtaygif;)

NzpfaeaMumif;udk

pdwf

apwem

xif½Sm;NyzdkU&m

0efcHuwday;xm;aomtm;Nzifh ]]Ak'¨H o&PH *pämrd}} paom ygVdpum;udk oHk;BudrfNynfhatmif ½GwfqdkNcif;onf o&P*Hk aqmufwnfNcif; Nzpf\/ EIwfNzifh ½Gwfqdk&rnf/ pdwful;½HkrQNzifh aqmufwnf&m ra&muf/ vl0wfaMumifrsm;taeNzifh ygVdbmom r[kwfaomfvnf; rdrdwdkU uRrf;usifaom bmompum;Nzifh ]]bk&m;udk

udk;uG,fqnf;uyfyg\/

udk;uG,fqnf;uyfyg\}}

[laom

w&m;udk t"dyÜm,f

udk;uG,fqnf;uyfyg\/

ouf0ifatmif

oHCmawmfudk

av;euf,HkMunfpGm

o&P*Hk

aqmufwnfEdkifygonf/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

13


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) Ak'¨bmom0ifNzpfolonf &[ef;awmf wpfyg;yg;\ a½SUarSmufwGif ½dkaopGm xdkif½Sdcdk;í MoumoNzifh uefawmhNyD;rS ]]Ak'¨H o&PH *pämrd}} ponfNzifh yDopGm ½Gwfqdkvsuf o&P*Hkudk aqmufwnf&rnf/ &[ef;oHCmr½Sdaom ae&ma&mufaeygu ½kyfyGg;ç qif;wkç apwDawmfwdkU\ a½SUwGif ½dkaopGm xdkif½Sdcdk;í MoumoNzifh uefawmhNyD;rS o&P*Hkudk aqmufwnf&rnf/ ]]tZÆwa*¾ ygPkaywH Ak'¨H o&PH *pämrd}} ponfNzifhvnf; aqmufwnfEdkifonf/ ]]tZÆwa*¾ ygPkaywH? ,aeUrSpí toufqHk;onfwdkifatmif}} [k teufay;yg/ (usrf;udk;/

/ Ak'¨bmomaumif;wpfa,muf) ------------------------------

o&P*Hk½Sif;vif;csuf Ak'¨bmom0if rNzpfao;olrsm; Ak'¨bmom0ifwpfa,mufNzpfvm&ef ]]o&P*Hk}} udk a½S;OD;pGm aqmufwnf&\/ Ak'¨bmom0if NzpfNyD;olrsm; ]]ig;yg;ç ½Spfyg;ç udk;yg;ç q,fyg;}} paom oDvrsm;udk cH,laqmufwnf&müvnf;aumif;? ½SifNyK&[ef;cH NyKvkyf&müvnf;aumif; ]]o&P*Hk}} udk a½S;OD;pGm cH,laqmufwnf&\/ ]]o&P*Hk}} onf omoemawmfodkU tpueOD; 0ifaygufNzpfí Ak'¨bmomtNzpf pwifcH,lNcif; Nzpfygonf/ ñdI;EGrf;aom o&P*Hkudk Nyefvnf ta&mifwif&ef aeUpOf o&P*Hk cH,laqmufwnf&onf/ (usrf;udk;/

/Ak'¨bmomvufpGJusrf;) ------------------------------

o&P*Hk ygVdbmom o&P*re udk Nrefrmvdk o&P*Hk [kac:onf/ o&P = udk;uG,f&m? tm;udk;&m? tm;xm;&m/ *re = ,HkMunfqnf;uyfNcif;/ NrwfpGmbk&m;onf tm;udk;&m o&P/ NrwfpGmbk&m;\ w&m;awmfonf tm;udk;&m o&P/ oHCmawmftaygif;onf tm;udk;&m o&P/ vlwdkUu tm;udk;&m[lí ,HkMunf qnf;uyfNcif;onf *re = *Hk/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

14


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) xdkUaMumifh bk&m;? w&m;? oHCm &wemoHk;yg;udk tm;udk;&m[lí ,HkMunf qnf;uyfNcif;udk o&P *re = o&P*Hk oHk;yg;[k ac:onf/ 1/ NrwfpGmbk&m;udk tm;udk;&m[lí ,HkMunf qnf;uyfvQif Ak'¨o&P*Hk wnfonf/ 2/ NrwfpGmbk&m;\ w&m;awmfudk tm;udk;&m[lí ,HkMunf qnf;uyfvQif "r®o&P*Hk wnfonf/ 3/ oHCmawmftaygif;udk tm;udk;&m[lí ,HkMunf qnf;uyfvQif oHCo&P*Hk wnfonf/ o&P*Hk wnfolonf Ak'¨bmom0if? Ak'¨omoem0if Nzpfonf/ aqmifyk'f &wemoHk;Nzm? tm;udk;&m[k? qnf;uyfNyK? ac:rI o&P*Hk/ o&P*HkoHk;yg;? wnfolrsm;? &Nim;csrf;ompHk/ (usrf;udk;/

/ csrf;aNrUq&mawmf\ taNcysdK; Ak'¨bmom) ------------------------------

o&P*HkESifh o&P*Hkwnfol o&P*re=(o&P+*re/o&P=udk;uG,f&m[k+*re=,HkMunfodrSwfqnf;uyfudk;uG,fNcif;/) ]]o&P+*re}} [laomygVdrS ]]o&P*Hk}} [k Nrefrmpum; Nzpfvmonf/ bk&m;ç w&m;ç oHCm &wemNrwfoHk;yg;udk ]]udk;uG,f&mtppfNzpf\}} [k ,HkMunfodrSwf qnf;uyfudk;uG,faom ukodkvfpdwfudk ]]o&P*Hk}} [k ac:onf/ þukodkvfpdwfNzifh &wemoHk;yg;tay: ,HkMunfodrSwf qnf;uyfudk;uG,faeoludk ]]o&P*Hkwnfol}} [k ac:onf/

o&P*HkaqmufwnfNcif; o&P*Hkaqmufwnfvdkolonf ]]Ak'¨H o&PH *pämrd}} paom ygVdbmomudkNzpfap? ]]bk&m;udk udk;uG,fyg\}}

paom

NrefrmbmomudkNzpfap

½Gwfqdk

aqmufwnf&rnf/

,if;odkU

½GwfqdkaqmufwnfNcif;onf rdrdwdkUoEÅmefü &wemNrwfoHk;yg;udk ,HkMunfodrSwf qnf;uyfudk;uG,fvdkaom o'¨gynm Ny|mef;onfh ukodkvfpdwåKyÜg'frsm;NzpfaeaMumif; xif½Sm;ay:vGifatmif azmfNyNcif; Nzpf\/ ½Gwfqdkaqmufwnf&mü 0wfaus0wfuHk ½GwfqdkumrQ r[kwf? &wemNrwfoHk;yg;tay: wu,f,HkMunf udk;uG,fvdkaom o&P*Hkpdwfvnf; ½Sd&rnf/ o&P*Hkudk rdrdudk,fwdkifu ,Hk,HkMunfMunf rcH,l

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

15


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) raqmufwnfvQif

rnfonfhyk*¾dKvfurQ

ay;í

r&Edkifyg/

udk,fwdkifudk,fus

,Hk,HkMunfMunf

bk&m;ç

ponfrSmNzpfap?

cH,laqmufwnfrSom &Edkifygonf/ o&P*Hkudk

aqmufwnf&mwGifvnf;

&[ef;awmfwyg;yg;xHrSmNzpfap?

apwDç

ykxdk;ç

rdrdtvdktavsmufNzpfap

qif;wk

,Hk,HkMunfMunf

cH,laqmufwnfvQif

o&P*Hkudk r&r½Sd? &Edkifonfcsnf; Nzpf\/ wBudrf wpfcgrQ cH,laqmufwnfxm;vQif o&P*Hkpdwfudk rpGefUorQç Ak'¨bmom0iftNzpfrS tNcm; bmom0iftNzpfodkU raNymif;orQ touf½SifaeorQ o&P*Hk wnfEdkifygonf/

vlUo&P*HkESifh ½Sifho&P*Hk þü o&P*HkaqmufwnfyHk ]]Ak'¨H o&PH *pämrd}} paom ygVdbmomonf omrnynm½Sd u0dyk*¾dKvfwdkU zGJUqdkxm;aom pum;r[kwfyg? bk&m;½Sif udk,fawmfwdkif ½Sif&[ef;NyK&ef cGifhNyKawmfrl&mrS pwifay:aygufvmaom

pum;Nzpfonf/

o&P*HkaqmufwnfMu&mü

vl0wfaMumifwdkUtzdkU

ygVdbmomNzifhNzpfap? tNcm; Nrefrmç t*Fvdyfç *syef paom ESpfouf&m bmom(pum;) wrsdK;rsdK;NzifhNzpfap vdktyfovdk

½Gwfqdkí

aqmufwnfEdkifMu\/

ed½kwådy#dorÇd'gÓPf

taNccH&a&;twGuf

taxmuftulNzpfapEdkifaomaMumifh ygVdbmomNzifh ½GwfqdkaqmufwnfEdkifvQifum; taumif;qHk;Nzpf\/ ½SifomraP(NyKvdkol)wdkU ½GwfqdkaqmufwnfEdkifcGifh½Sdí

tzdkUum; ,if;odkU

rm*"bmomac:

ygVdbmom

½Gwfqdkaqmufwnf&müvnf;

wpfrsdK;wnf;Nzifhom

Xmefu½dkPf;usus

yDyDoo

½Gwfqdk&aMumif; owdNyKoifhMuygonf/ (usrf;udk;/

/Ak'¨bmomvufpGJusrf;) ------------------------------

o&P*HktppftrSef vl ewf NA[®mtaygif; wpfavmuvHk;\ udk;uG,fqnf;uyf&m tppftrSef Nzpfawmfrlaom bk&m;? w&m;? oHCmwnf;[laom &wem NrwfoHk;yg;wdkUtay:ü 'd|d(t,lrSm;rI)? 0dpdudpäm(,HkrSm; oHo,NzpfrI)? oar®m[(awGa0rI)? to'¨d,(r,HkMunfrI) wnf;[laom raumif;aom udavom tukodkvfw&m;rsm;udk y,fazsmufí xdk&wemNrwfoHk;yg;omvQif udk;uG,fqnf;uyf&m[k trSefwu,f ,HkMunf MunfndKNcif; o'¨gw&m;

trSefwu,f?

,HkMunfudk;pm;

tm;xm;&m[k

odNrifaom

ynm?

av;pm;Ncif;

*½ktNcif;t&mrsm;Nzifh rdrdwdkUo@mefü Nzpfay:aom ukodkvf pdwf? apwodufwdkUomvQif tzdk;rNzwfEdkifaom o&P*Hk tppftrSefrnf\/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

16


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) o&P*Hk\ t"dyÜg,f ygVdbmom o&P *reudk Nrefrmvdk o&P*Hk[k ac:onf/ o&P + *re = o&P*Hk

o&P o&PqdkonfrSm zsufqD;wwfaom 0w¬Krsm;Nzpfí udk;uG,f&m? vJavsmif;&m? ykef;atmif; rSDcdk&m? tm;xm;&mNzpf\/ wpfenf;tm;Nzifh bk&m;? w&m;? oHCm &wemNrwfoHk;yg;onf zsufqD;wwfaom 0w¬Krsm;Nzpfí &wemNrwfoHk;yg;udk qdkvdkonf/ bk&m;½Sifudk,fawmfNrwfonf

owå0gwdkU\

tusdK;pD;yGg;udk

vrf;nTefNcif;Nzifhvnf;aumif;?

tpD;tyGg;rJh tusdK;rJhudk wm;NrpfNcif;Nzifhvnf;aumif;? owå0gwdkU\ab;udk zsufqD;wwf\/ rsufarSmuf? rsufuG,f[lorQwGif raumif;rIrNyKMubJ oDv? orm"d? ynmwdkUNzifh NynfhpHkatmif usifhMuHtm;xkwfMu&ef enf;vrf;toG,foG,fNzifh

a[mMum;awmfrlNcif;Nzifh

owå0gwdkUtm;

tusdK;rJhw&m;wdkUrS

wm;Nrpfí

tpD;tyGg;udk NzpfxGef;ap\/ ½SifawmfNrwfbk&m;\ w&m;awmfonf w&m;awmftwdkif;usifhygu owå0gwdkU\ umrb0? ½lyb0?

t½lyb0qdkonfh

b0oHo&mBuD;udk

vGefaNrmufapNcif;Nzifh

ab;udk

y,fazsmufwwf\/

r*fw&m;onf b0udk vGefaNrmufapaomw&m;? zdkvfw&m;onf csrf;omrItppftrSefudk ay;EdkifpGrf;½Sdaom w&m;rsm;Nzpf\/ xdkUaMumifh owå0gwdkU\ ab;udk y,fazsmufay;EdkifpGrf;½Sd\/ oHCmawmfNrwfonf

vSL'gef;ylaZmf

qnf;uyfMuaom

yk*¾dKvfwdkUtm;

tusdK;BuD;Nrwfatmif

aqmif½Gufay;EdkifNcif;Nzifh owå0gwdkU\ab;udk zsufqD;wwf\/ xdkUaMumifh &wemNrwfoHk;yg;onf 0#fab;udk zsufqD;wwf\/ 0#fab;qdkonfrSm ur®0#f (ukodkvfuH? tukodkvfuHrsm;)? udavom0#f (t0dZÆm? wPSm? Oyg'gef qdkonfhw&m;rsm;ESifh)? 0dygu0#f (0dnmOf? emrf? ½kyf? y#dpöorkyÜg'fw&m;rsm;) wnf;[laom 0#foHk;yg;\ab;udk qdkvdk\/ þ0#foHk;yg;aMumifh owå0grsm;onf 'ku©trsdK;rsdK; awGUMuHK&í qif;&JMu&ukef\/ &wemNrwfoHk;yg;onf owå0gwdkU\ pdwfxdwfvefUNcif;? udk,fqif;&JNcif; 'ku©rsm;? tyg,fodkU vm;a&muf&Ncif; 'ku©rsm; tp½Sdonfhab;&efrsm;? qif;&J'ku©rsm; tm;vHk;udk zsufqD;wwf\/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

17


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) o&P*HkoHk;yg;onf

ppfrSefaomudk;uG,f&m

tyPÖuy#dy'g

rcRwf,Gif;

rrSm;Edkifaom

tusifhNzpfaomaMumifh aumif;usdK;udkom Nzpfapaom qif;&JNcif;udk y,fazsmufwwfaom ukodkvfw&m; ukodkvfpdwfNzpf\/ xdkUaMumifhowå0gwdkU\ ab;[lorQudk y,fazsmufwwfaom owå0gwdkU\ udk;uG,f&m (avmuD? avmukwå&mESpfNzmwGif aumif;usdK;csrf;omNzpfapEdkifoNzifh tm;udk;Ncif;? ab;&ef[lorQ umuG,fNcif;)? vJavsmif;&m

(,HkMunfrItNynfh½Sdí

vJavsmif;zdkU&m)?

ykef;atmif;&m

(ab;'ku©ra&mufatmif

ykef;atmif;zdkU&m)? rSDcdk&m (trSDo[JNyKzdkU&m)? tm;xm;&mtrSefNzpfaom &wemNrwfoHk;yg;onf o&Prnf\/

*re ,HkMunfpGm qnf;uyfNcif;? todtrSwfNyKNcif;udk *re[kac:onf/ wpfenf;tm;Nzifh oHo&m 0#f'ku© qif;&JNcif;taygif;rS vGwfaNrmufap&ef rdrdu udk;uG,ftm;xm;&m trSef[lí rSD0Jqnf;uyf todrSwfNyKNcif;yifNzpf\/

o&P*Hk Ak'¨omoemawmfudk pNyD; ouf0if,HkMunfum tpOD;qHk; cH,l&mNzpfonfh ukodkvfaumif;rI wpfrsdK;yif Nzpf\/ wpfenf;tm;Nzifh Ak'¨omoem0if tNzpf cH,l&m omoemh0ifaygufvnf; Nzpf\/ o&P*Hkonf o&P*rerS qif;oufvm\/ o&P*reqdkonfrSm bk&m;? w&m;? oHCm &wemNrwfoHk;yg;wdkUudk udk;uG,f&m[lí qnf;uyfaMumif;Nzpfaom ukodkvfw&m;? ukodkvfpdwåKyÜg'fudk qdkvdkonf/ wpfenf;tm;Nzifh &wemNrwfoHk;yg;udk udk;uG,faom tNcif;t&mtm;Nzifh Nzpfaom rdrdoEÅmefrS ukodkvfpdwf? apwodufw&m;taygif;udk ac:\/ xdkukodkvfpdwfwGif o&P*HktxaNrmuf\/

apwodufrsm;vnf;ygoNzifh þwGif

o'¨gqdkonfrSm

,HkMunfrIo'¨gESifh

&wemNrwfoHk;yg;udk

ynmygrS

udk;uG,f&m

trSef[lí

em;vnf,HkMunfNcif;ESifh ynmqdkonfrSm &wemNrwfoHk;yg;udk udk;uG,f&m trSef[lí odaomtodÓPfudk qdkvdkonf/ xdkUNyif

udk;uG,fxdkufonfh

0w¬Kuvnf;

trSefwu,f

udk;uG,f&m

NzpfaMumif;rSefrS

o&P*HkaNrmuf\/ odkUNzpfí udk;uG,fwdkif; o&P*Hk rNzpfonfudk rSwf&m\/ oHo&m0#fqif;&Jtaygif;rS

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

18


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) vGwfaNrmufap&ef rdrdu udk;uG,ftm;xm;&m[lí qnf;uyfNcif;? &wemNrwfoHk;yg;onf qif;&Jy,fazsmuf? csrf;oma&mufatmif apmifha½SmifhwwfaMumif; odaompdwfwdkUonf o&P*Hkrnf\/ (usrf;udk;/

/ OD;oufpdef\ NrwfAk'¨\omoemhtaNccH) ------------------------------

o&P*HkygVd\ teuf -Ak'¨H? NrwfpGmbk&m;udk/ o&PH? udk;uG,f&m[lí/ *pämrd? ,HkMunfodrSwf qnf;uyf udk;uG,fyg\ t½Sifbk&m;/ -"r®H? w&m;awmfNrwfudk/ o&PH? udk;uG,f&m[lí/ *pämrd? ,HkMunfodrSwf qnf;uyf udk;uG,fyg\ t½Sifbk&m;/ -oHCH? oHCmawmfNrwfudk/ o&PH? udk;uG,f&m[lí/ *pämrd? ,HkMunfodrSwf qnf;uyf udk;uG,fyg\ t½Sifbk&m;/ ('kwd,rÜd?

ESpfBudrfaNrmufvnf;/

Ak'¨H-ponfwdkU\

teufudk

a½S;twdkif;

qdkyg/

wwd,rÜd?

oHk;BudrfaNrmufvnf;/ Ak'¨H-ponfwdkU\ teufudk a½S;twdkif; qdkyg/) (usrf;udk;/

/Ak'¨bmomvufpGJusrf;) ------------------------------

o&P*Hk cH,lyHk 4-rsdK; o&P*Hk cH,l&mü cH,lyHk tNcif;t&m 4 rsdK;½Sd\/ xdk 4 rsdK;udkyif o&P*Hk 4 rsdK;[k ac:a0:Mu\/ ¤if; 4 rsdK;wdkUrSm 1/ twåoEéd,smwe o&P*Hk 2/ wyÜ&m,Pwm o&P*Hk 3/ odóbm0ly*re o&P*Hk 4/ yPdygw o&P*Hk 1/ &wemoHk;yg;udk tm½HkNyKvsuf ]],aeUrS tpNyKí igonf ig\udk,fudk bk&m;? w&m;? oHCm &wemNrwfoHk;yg;tm;

tyfESif;yg\}}

[k

rdrdudk,fudk

&wemoHk;yg;tm;

pGefUvTwftyfESif;Ncif;udk

twåoEéd,smwe o&P*Hk [kac:onf/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

19


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) 2/ ]],aeUrS pí igonf bk&m;? w&m;? oHCm &wemNrwfoHk;yg;omvQif tm;udk;yg\? tm;xm;yg\/ udk;uG,fyg\/

vnf;avsmif;yg\}}

[k

&wemoHk;yg;udkom

tm;udk;

tm;xm;Ncif;?

udk;uG,fvnf;avsmif;Ncif;udk wyÜ&m,Pwm o&P*Hk [kac:onf/ 3/ ]],aeUrS pí igonf bk&m;? w&m;? oHCm &wemNrwfoHk;yg;\ teD;aewynfh Nzpfonf}} [k &wemNrwfoHk;yg;\ wynfhtNzpf uyfa&mufNcif;? cH,lNcif;udk odóbm0ly*re o&P*Hk [kac:onf/ 4/ ]],aeUrS pí igonf bk&m;? w&m;? oHCm &wemNrwfoHk;yg;udkomvQif ½Sdcdk;Ncif;? c&D;OD;MudKNcif;? vuftkyfcsDNcif;? t½dktaoNyKNcif; trIwdkUudk NyKyg\}} [k &wemNrwfoHk;yg;ü txGwftNrwftNzpfNzifh vGefpGm ½dkaoyspf0yfNcif;udk yPdygw o&P*Hk [kac:onf/ þudk;uG,fqnf;uyfyHk av;rsdK;wGif wpfrsdK;rsdK;Nzifh tm;udk;tm;xm;&mtNzpf udk;uG,fqnf;uyfvWif o&P*Hk cH,lrIudpö NyD;aNrmufonf/ (oDvu©E¨0*¾t|uxm? pm 206-7) (usrf;udk;/

/ csrf;aNrUq&mawmf\ taNcysdK; Ak'¨bmom) ------------------------------

o&P*Hkaqmufwnfenf; 4-rsdK; ]]Ak'¨H

o&PH

*pämrd}}

ponfNzifh

½Gwfqdkí

o&P*Hk

aqmufwnfenf;rSwyg;

o&P*Hkaqmufwnfenf; 4-rsdK;udk usrf;*efwdkUü NyqdkMuao;\/ ,if;o&P*Hk aqmufwnfenf; 4rsdK;um; 1/

bk&m;ç

w&m;ç

oHCm

&wemNrwfoHk;yg;tm;

,HkMunfpdwfNzifh?

rdrdudk,fudk

tyfESif;Ncif;

(twåoEéd,smwe)/ w&m;tm;xkwfolwdkU rdrdcE¨mudk,ftay: wG,fwmrIr½Sdatmif ]]bkef;awmfBuD;aom NrwfpGmbk&m;- wynfhawmfonf þcE¨mudk,fudk NrwfpGmbk&m;tm; pGefUvSL tyfESif;ygonfbk&m;}} [lí ur®|mef; rpD;Nzef;rD rdrdudk,fudk pGefUvSLNcif;rsdK; Nzpfygonf/ 2/ bk&m;ç w&m;ç oHCm &wemNrwfoHk;yg;rS wyg; udk;uG,fvJavsmif;&m rSDcdktm;xm;&m r½Sd? &wemNrwfoHk;yg;omvQif aomwmyef

udk;uG,fvJavsmif;&m

tmV0ubDvl;BuD;onf

rSDcdktm;xm;&m

&wemNrwfoHk;yg;tay:

½Sd\[k

cH,lNcif;

(wyÜ&m,P)/

tvGeftm;xm;,HkMunfoNzifh

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

pdwfü

20


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) rsdKodyfxm;EdkifpGrf; r½Sd&um; ]]wynfhawmfonf a&mufav&m t&yfwdkif;ü bk&m;½Siftm; tNrJ ½Sdcdk;ylaZmfvsuf w&m;awmfNrwfudkvnf; tvGefaumif;Nrwfaom w&m;[k aNymqdkum vSnfhvnfoGm;vm aexdkifygrnf}} [k cH,laom o&P*HkrsdK; Nzpfygonf/ 3/bk&m;ç

w&m;ç

t½Sifr[muóy\

oHCm

&wemNrwfoHk;yg;\

&wemNrwfoHk;yg;tay:

wynfhtNzpfudk

wu,fh

bk&m;ç

cH,lNcif;

w&m;ç

(odóbm0ly*re)/

oHCm

tppftrSeftNzpf

,HkMunfouf0ifí bk&m;½Siftm; NrifvQifNrifcsif; wynhftNzpf rSwfawmfrl&ef wynfhcH avQmufxm;vsuf wynfhtNzpf cH,lNcif;rsdK; Nzpfygonf/ 4/bk&m;ç w&m;ç oHCm &wemNrwfoHk;yg;udk ½dkaoav;NrwfpGm ½Sdcdk;Ncif; (yPdygw)/ bk&m;½Sif\ aNcawmfudk acgif;Nzifh wdkufç yg;pyfNzifh pkyfç vufNzifh tm;&yg;&qkyfe,fum ]]t½Sifbk&m; . . . wynhfawmf NA[®m,k ykPÖm;ygbk&m;}} [k trnf azmfMum; avQmufxm;vsuf ½Sdcdk;Ncif;rsdK; Nzpfygonf/ tcsKyftm;Nzifh &wemNrwfoHk;yg;tm; ,HkMunfpdwfNzifh rdrdudk,fudk tyfESif;Ncif;? &wemNrwfoHk;yg;udk rSDcdktm;xm;Ncif;? &wemNrwfoHk;yg;\ wynfhtNzpfudk cH,lNcif;ESifh &wemNrwfoHk;yg;udk ½dkaopGm ½Sdcdk;Ncif; av;rsdK;teuf

wrsdK;rsdK;Nzifh

aqmufwnfvQif

]]Ak'¨H

o&PH

*pämrd}}

ponf

r½Gwfqdkapumrl

o&P*HkwnfEdkifygonf/ (usrf;udk;/

/Ak'¨bmomvufpGJusrf;) ------------------------------

&wemoHk;yg;ESifhpyfí rSwfzG,f bk&m; w&m;/

/

,cktcg

pOf;pm;avh½SdolwdkUonf

]]Ak'¨H

o&PH

*pämrd}}

paom

o&P*Hkü

]]oufawmfxif½Sm; NrwfpGmbk&m;udk udk;uG,f&rnf/ apwDawmfrsm;um; bk&m;½Sif\ t½dk;"mwfawmfudk Xmyemxm;&m

Nzpfívnf;aumif;?

½kyfyHk

qif;wkawmfrsm;rSm

bk&m;½Sif\

yHkawmfudk

pGrf;EdkiforQ

twkNyKvkyfxm;aom yHkawmfrsm; Nzpfívnf;aumif; bk&m;½Sifudk &nfrSef;í udk;uG,fylaZmf&m Xmersm; NzpfMuonf}} [k em;vnfMuayNyD/ w&m;udk udk;uG,f&müvnf; ]]udavom tnpftaMu;wdkUudk y,f½Sm;Edkifaom r*fw&m;? zdkvfw&m;? edAÁmefw&m;awmfrsm;ESifh bk&m;½Sif a[mawmfrltyfaom w&m;ppf w&m;rSefrsm;udkom udk;uG,f&rnf}} [k em;vnfMuayNyD/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

21


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) oHCm/ / ]]oHCmudk udk;uG,fyg\}} [k o&P*Hk aqmufwnf&müum; pdwfxJrSm &[ef;oHCmtrsdK;rsdK; ay:vmaomaMumifh ausauseyfeyf udk;uG,fvdkpdwf rNzpfEdkifMu/ xdkodkU Nzpf&ü bkef;BuD;wdkU uav;t½G,fu pdwfaepdwfxm;udk Nyefí owd&awmhonf/ bk&m;½Sdcdk;&mü uav;\ pdwfonf a½SUrSm½Sdaom apwDawmf? qif;wkawmfxuf ydkvGefí bk&m;½Sif tppfwdkifatmif rrSef;EdkifcJhyg/ txufwef;pmudk oif&aomtcgusrS apwDawmf? qif;wkawmfrsm;udk ½Sdcdk;wdkif; bk&m;½Siftppfa&mufatmif xGif;azmufí tm½HkNyKEdkifygonf/ xdkUtwl ykxkZOf &[ef; oHCmrsm;udk apwDawmf? qif;wkawmfrsm;uJhodkU oabmxm;í t&d,m NzpfNyD;aom &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm;udk bk&m;tppfvdk oabmxm;vsuf pOf;pm;Munfhaomtcg tawmf pdwf½Sif;oGm;ygvdrfhrnf/

apwDawmf?

qif;wkawmfrsm;udk

a½Twd*Hk?

r[mNrwfrkedwdkUuJhodkU

tvGef

tqifhtwef; Nrifhaeonfudkvnf; zl;awGUMu&\/ bk&m;'um bk&m;trESifh udk;uG,fol ½Gmom;wdkU tNyKtNyif

rwwfrIaMumifh

royÜm,faom

apwDawmf?

qif;wkawmfrsm;udkvnf;

(rvTJra½Smifom)

NrifawGU&\/ oyÜm,faom apwDawmf qif;wkawmfrsm;udk zl;aNrmf&aomtcg vGefpGm tm;&í oufawmfxif½Sm; bk&m;udkvnf; owd&ouJhodkU tqifhtwef; NrifhNrifhESifh w&m;usifhaeaom omoemhwm0efudk tm;oGef MudK;pm;aeaom

&[ef;oHCmawmfrsm;udk

zl;aNrmf&aomtcg

]]aMomf

bk&m;vufxufawmfü

t½Sifr[muóy paom oHCmawmfrsm;onf þodkU usifhawmfrlMuayvdrfhrnf/ t½Sifom&dykwå&m? t½Sifarm*¾v’mef? t½SifOygvd? t½SiftEk½k'¨g? t½SiftmeE´m? t½Sif&m[kvm paom oHCmawmfrsm;onf þodkUyif omoemhwm0efudk tm;oGefMudK;pm;awmf rlMuayvdrfhrnf}} [k t&d,m oHCmawmfrsm;ü xifNrifvmatmif

ESpfoufNcif;udk

aqmifEdkifMuygvdrfhrnf/

xdkuJhodkU

xifvm

Nrifvmatmifvnf;

owdxm;rdMuygap/ royÜm,faom apwD qif;wkawmfrsm;udk awGU&aomtcg ]]'D&yfol i,fom;awG tod tvdr®m enf;ao;vdkU ,ckvdk apwD qif;wkawmfrsm; royÜm,f rwifhw,fbJ ½SdaeMu&onf/ &yfol e,fom;wdkU tod tvdr®m wdk;yGg;vmvQif þapwD qif;wkawmfrsm;udk om;em;oyÜm,fatmif Nc,fvS,fEdkifayvdrfhrnf}} [k &yfole,fom;wdkU\ todÓPfudk Nr§ifhwifvdkaom pdwfqE´om Nzpfay:vmí qif;wk apwDawmfrsm;\ royÜm,frIudk tNypfrNrifEdkifawmhouJhodkU xdkUtwl tqifhtwef; rNrifh r<u,f royÜm,faom &[ef; oHCmawmfrsm;udk awGU&NyefvQifvnf; omoemudk udk;uG,faom vlwpfpk\ todÓPfenf;rIudkom tNypfwifum rawmfravsmf oGm;vm aexdkifolwdkUtay:rSm tNypfrwifombJ ½Sdygvdrfhrnf/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

22


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) bk&m;ay;aom o&P*Hk/ wpfa,muftm;

/

bk&m;½Sifonf

Ak'¨-"r®-o&P*Hk

]]qwå}}

ay;awmfrlNyD;aemuf

rnfaom

oHCmho&P*Hk

wuúodkvfausmif;om; ay;awmfrl&mü

]]t&d,m

oHCmawmfudk udk;uG,f qnf;uyfavmh}} [k rdefUawmfrlygonf/ (qwårmP0 0drme0w¬K) xdkUaMumifh ,cktcg ]]oHCH o&PH *pämrd = oHCmawmfudk qnf;uyf udk;uG,fyg\}} [l o&P*Hk aqmufwnf&mü t&d,m oHCmawmfudkom &nfrSef;í aqmufwnfMuygav/ oHCmEkówd ur®|mef; pD;Nzef;aom tcgvnf;

]]okyÜ#dyEé}}

paom

*kPfawmfrsm;ESifh

NynfhpHkNyD;aom

t&d,m

oHCmawmfrsm;udkom

tm½HkNyK&ygonf/ oHCmh*kPfawmftzGifhü t&d,m oHCmawmfrsm;csnf; yg0ifyHkudk Nyefí owdNyKyg/ &wemhokwfy&dwfawmfvm oHCmh*kPfudk Ny&müvnf; t&d,m oHCmawmfrsm;om Nzpfygonf/ ykxkZOf oHCmvnf; rvGwf/

/

oufawmfxif½Sm;

bk&m;r½Sdaom

,cktcgü

bk&m;½Sifudk

vSL'gef;ylaZmfvdkvQif bk&m;udk &nfrSef;í apwDawmf? qif;wkawmfudkom vSL'gef;ylaZmf&awmhouJhodkU xdkUtwl t&d,m oHCmudk &nfrSef;í vSL'gef;ylaZmfvdkvQif awGU&m MuHK&m ykxkZOfoHCmudkvnf; vSL'gef;ylaZmfMu&awmhonf/

]]tEkwå&H

yknacwåH

=

t&d,m

oHCmawmfonf

twkr½Sd

aumif;aomv,faNryifwnf;}} [k rdefUawmfrlcsuft& yxrwef; v,f,maNrudk r&vQif 'kwd,wef; v,f,maNrrSmyif pdkufysdK;&ouJhodkU yxrwef; oHCmudk r&vQif oDvç orm"dç ynmtm;Nzifh 'kwd,wef; ykxkZOf oHCmawmfudk ½Smí udk;uG,fqnf;uyfzdkU wm0efrSm wdkif;olNynfom;wdkU todÓPfay:üom wnf\/ tcsKyfrSm yk*¾dKvfaumif;udk a½G;cs,fí udk;uG,fEdkifrSom tusdK;rsm;rsm; &rnf[k qdkvdkygonf/ 'kwd,wef; v,f,maNr r½SdvQif wwd,wef; v,f,maNrüvnf; pdkufysdK;Mu&ouJhodkU xdkUtwl ykxkZOfoHCmrsm;udkvnf; taMumif;udkvnf;

csJUxGif

(oHCmudk

&nfrSef;í

pOf;pm;Muygav/

vSL'gef;ylaZmfEdkifvQif)

omoemqkwf,kwfonfxuf

xdkuforQ

tusdK;&rnfh

qkwf,kwfvmaomtcg

]]vnfyif;ü ouFef;ywfxm;aom &[ef;twkudkyif oHCmrSef;í vSL'gef;EdkifvQif ra&rwGufEdkifatmif tusdK;&Edkif\}} [k 'u©dP0db*Fokwfü a[mawmfrlygonf/ þ o&P*Hkudk aqmufwnfNyD;onfh tqHk;ü oDvay;udk,fawmfu ]]o&P*reH y&dykPÖH}} [k qdk\/ o&P*reH - o&P*Hkonf? y&dykPÖH - oifwdkU oEÅmefrSm NynfhpHkNyD/ ]]o&P*Hk wnfNyD}} [k qdkvdkonf/ xdkUaemuf vlrsm;u ]]tmr baEÅ = rSefyghbk&m;}} [k vdkufMuNyefonf/ bk&m;a½SUrSm rdrdbmom o&P*Hkudk aqmufwnf&müum; ½kyfyGg;awmfu ]]o&P*reH y&dykPÖH}} [k rdefUawmfrrlaomaMumifh ]]wwd,rÜd oHCH o&PH *pämrd}} tqHk;ü ]]tmrbaEÅ}} [k qdkbG,f rvdkawmhay/ (usrf;udk;/

/ awmifNrdKU*E¨m½Hkq&mawmfBuD;\ &wemh*kPf&nf) ------------------------------

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

23


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) &wemNrwf oHk;yg; avmuü a½T? aiG? pdef? ausmufpaom vlwdkU\ tzdk;wef toHk;taqmifwdkUudk vlwdkU\ pdwfESvHk;udk ½TifNyHK;ESpfouf pGJruf½TifaysmfapwwfaomaMumifh &wem [k ac:Mu\/ xdkUtwlyif Ak'¨=NrwfpGmbk&m;? "r®=w&m;awmf? oHC=oHCmawmfwdkUudkvnf; owå0gwdkU\ pdwfudk ESpfoufarGUavsmf ½TifaysmfMunfEl;apwwfaomaMumifh &wem [laom trnfxl;Nzifh csD;usL;ylaZmfMu&\/ xdkUaMumifh avmuü bk&m;&wem? w&m;&wem? oHCm&wem[k &wemawmfNrwf oHk;yg;udk Ak'¨bmom0ifrsm; ,HkMunfav;Nrwf qnf;uyfudk;uG,fMu&\/

Ak'¨&wem = bk&m;Nrwf&wem Ak'¨qdkonfrSm

w&m;tvHk;pHkudk

udk,fawmfwdkif

udk,fydkifÓPfNzifh

xdk;xGif;í

odNrifaom

tNrwfqHk;yk*¾dKvfudk ac:onf/ Nrefrmvdk NrwfpGmbk&m;[k ac:a0:odrSwfMuonf/ bk&m;Nrwf&wem[k txGwftNrwf qnf;uyfudk;uG,fMuonf/ Ak'¨=NrwfpGmbk&m; xdk;xGif;odaom trSefw&m;av;yg;rSm1/ qif;&JtrSefw&m; ('ku©opöm) 2/ qif;&JNzpfaMumif; trSefw&m; (ork',opöm) 3/ qif;&JcsKyfNidrf;Ncif; trSefw&m; (eda&m"opöm) 4/ qif;&JcsKyfNidrf;aMumif; tusifhvrf; trSefw&m; (r*¾opöm) Ak'¨NrwfpGmonf *kPfawmf udk;yg;ESifh NynfhpHkonf/

"r®&wem = w&m;Nrwf&wem ,HkMunfí vdkufemol vufawGU usifhMuHtm;xkwfolwdkUudk qif;&JrSvGwfatmif aqmifwwfaom 1-qHk;rMo0g'rsm; 2-usifhpOfrsm; 3-usifhí &NyD;aom r*fÓPf? zdkvfÓPf? edAÁmefwdkUudk "r®=w&m;[k ac:onf/ w&m;Nrwf&wem[k txGwftNrwf qnf;uyfudk;uG,fMuonf/ qHk;rMo0g'rsm; - raumif;wm tNypfruif;wmudk rvkyfESifh/ aumif;wm tNypfuif;wmudkom NyKvkyf/ wwfEdkiforQ pdwfaumif; pdwfNrwfxm;/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

24


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) usifhpOfrsm; - ody|mefav;yg;? r*¾if½Spfyg;/ usifhí&½Sdaom w&m;rsm; - r*fÓPfav;yg;? zdkvfÓPfav;yg;? edAÁmef/ w&m;awmfonf *kPfawmf aNcmufyg;ESifh NynfhpHkonf/

oHC&wem = oHCmawmfNrwf&wem Ak'¨NrwfpGm

a[mMum;awmfrlonfhtwdkif;

vufawGU

usifhMuH

tm;xkwfMuoNzifh

r*fÓPf?

zdkvfÓPfudk &NyD;aom t&d,m oHCmawmftaygif;ESifh xdk t&d,moHCmawmfwdkU\ tEG,f0if ykxkZOf &[ef;awmfrsm;udk oHCm[k ac:onf/ oHCmawmfNrwf&wem[k txGwftNrwf qnf;uyfudk;uG,fMuonf/ t&d,moHCmonf *kPfawmfudk;yg;ESifh NynfhpHkonf/ (usrf;udk;/

/ csrf;aNrUq&mawmf\ taNcysdK; Ak'¨bmom) ------------------------------

tzdk;rNzwfEdkifaomo&P*Hk avmuoHk;yg;ü trSefwu,f udk;uG,f&mtppf NzpfawmfrlMuaom bk&m;? w&m;? oHCm wnf;[laom &wemNrwfoHk;yg;tay:ü 'd|d(t,lrSm;rI)? 0dpdudpäm(,HkrSm; oHo,NzpfrI)? oar®m[(awGa0rI)? to'¨d,(r,HkMunfrI) wnf;[laom raumif;aom udavom tukodkvfw&m;rsm;udk y,fazsmufí xdk&wemNrwfoHk;yg;omvQif udk;uG,fqnf;uyf&m[k trSefwu,f ,HkMunf MunfndKNcif; o'¨gw&m; trSefwu,f? ,HkMunfudk;pm; tm;xm;&m[k odNrifaom ynm? av;pm;Ncif; *½ktNcif;t&mrsm;Nzifh rdrdwdkUo@mefü Nzpfay:aom ukodkvf pdwf? apwodufwdkUomvQif tzdk;rNzwfEdkifaom o&P*Hk tppftrSefrnf\/

Ak'¨o&P*Hk ½SifawmfNrwfbk&m;onf

udk;uG,f&mrJh

tppfwu,fwrf;Nzpfygay\/

aeMuukefaomowå0gwdkU\

oHo&mab;'ku©MuHKae&í

udk;uG,f

tm;xm;&m

aMumufvefUaeMuukefaom

owå0gtaygif;wdkUtm; ab;uif;a&;udk ay;awmfrl\/ olawmfaumif; NzpfMuukefaom ynm½Sdtaygif;wdkU\ 'ku©at;p&m tyef;aNzp&m Xmevnf; Nzpfygay\/ udk;uG,f&mudk ½SmrSD;Muukefaom vl ewf NA[®m owå0gtaygif;wdkU\ udk;uG,f&mtppf wu,fwrf;Nzpfygay\/ xdkUaMumifh opömav;yg;Nrwfbk&m;udk t<uif;rJh ydkif;Ncm; a0zefodNrifEdkifaom? udavom rSeforQudk t<uif;rJh

y,fypfawmfrlNyD;aom

NrwfpGmbk&m;tm;

oufawmfxif½Sm;

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

½SdMuonfhtvm;

25


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) udk;uG,fqnf;uyfNcif;udk Ak'¨o&P*Hk wnfonf[k ac:\/ bk&m;apwD ½kyfyGg;qif;wkawmfrsm;wGifom pdwfrxm;oifhaMumif;

azmfNycJhNyD;Nzpf\/

bk&m;udk

udk;uG,f&mtppftrSeftNzpf

qnf;uyfNcif;Nzifh

w&m;awmfESifh oHCmawmfwdkUudk udk;uG,fqnf;uyfNcif;yg wpfNydKifwnf; NyD;pD;\/

"r®o&P*Hk ,HkMunfí vdkufemol? vufawGU usifhMuHtm;xkwfolwdkUudk qif;&JNcif;taygif;rS vGwfatmif aqmifwwfaom qHk;rMo0g'rsm;? usifhpOfrsm;? usifh&í &½Sdaom r*fÓPf zdkvfÓPfedAÁmefwdkUonf NrwfpGmbk&m;½Sifa[mMum;xm;onfh w&m;awmftppftrSefrsm; NzpfMu\/ NrwfAk'¨u

enf;vrf;toG,foG,fNzifh

a[mMum;xm;aom

opömw&m;rsm;

Nzpfay&m

rnfonfhenf;vrf;MudKufMudKuf vdkufemtm;xkwfygu wu,fhoEÅdokc at;Nidrf;Ncif;&oudk udk,fawGU 'd| awGUNrifcHpm;&rnfNzpf\/

xdkUaMumifh

NrwfAk'¨u

owå0grsm;udk

csrf;omatmif

w&m;Nzifh

aqmif½Gufay;&Ncif;Nzpfí w&m;awmfNrwfonfvnf; udk;uG,f&mtppftrSef wu,fwrf; Nzpfawmfrlyg\/ "r®pMum? tewåvu©Pmokwf? r[mowdy|mefpaom bk&m;a[m usrf;pmrsm;? yd#uwfawmfrsm;? r*fzdkvfedAÁmefa&mufw&m;awmfrsm;tm; udk;uG,fqnf;uyfNcif;udk "r®o&P*Hkwnfonf[k ac:onf/

oHCo&P*Hk Nrwfbk&m;½Sif\w&m;awmfrsm;udk

a[mMum;Nyoay;awmfrlMuaom

twkr½SdvGefNrwfbdaom

owå0gtaygif;wdkU\ aumif;rIrsdK;aphrsm;udk pdkufysdK;MuJcs&m v,faNraumif;rsm;ozG,f NzpfawmfrlMuaom Nrwfaom tvSLcHyk*¾dKvfrsm;NzpfMuonfh t&d,moHCmawmfwdkUonfvnf; udk;uG,f&mtppf wu,fwrf; NzpfMuygay\/ tppftrSef

razmufNyefaom

y&rwåoHCmwnf;[laom

t&d,moHCmawmfNrwftm;

udk;uG,fqnf;uyfNcif;udk oHCo&P*Hkwnfonf[k ac:onf/ oHCmqdkonfrSm todtNrifcsif;? oDvcsif; wlnDMuaom zdkvftodtNrif?

yk*¾dKvftaygif;udk

ac:Ncif;Nzpf&m

ypöa0u©PmtodtNrif

t&d,moHCmawmfrsm;omvQif

(or®m'd|dr*¾if)

tm;Nzifhvnf;aumif;?

r*ftodtNrif? t&d,uEÅoDv

NynfhpHkpifMu,frItm;Nzifhvnf;aumif;? rsufarSmufrsufuG,f t&yfwdkUü tNrJwap wlnDaeMuonfom Nzpf\/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

26


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) odkUaomf ykxkZOfoHCmawmfrsm;onf t&d,mrNzpfao;onfhwdkifatmif t&d,moHCmawmfrsm;ESifh 0denf;?

odu©mcsif;wlMuoNzifh

or®KwdoHCmawmfrsm;taeNzifh

½dkaoav;pm;udk;uG,f

qnf;uyfxdkufonfom Nzpf\/ NrwfpGmbk&m;½Sif\ wynfhom;awmf &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm; udk,fpm; t&d,moHCmawmfrsm;udk tm½HkNyKNcif;Nzifh ydkítusdK;rsm;ygonf/ (usrf;udk;/

/ OD;oufpdef\ NrwfAk'¨\omoemhtaNccH) ------------------------------

o&P*Hkü txl;tjym; - þ0w¬K þ"r®udk ½Sdcdk;onf½Sdaomf ig\ ½Sdcdk;rIonf tyg,fab;rS vGwfatmif aqmifEdkifaom ukokdvfyknrI

jzpf\[k

½Sdcdk;\?

xdk

½Sdcdk;rIvnf;

{uEÅ

tyg,fab;rSvGwfatmifaqmifEdkifaom

ukokdvfyknrsdK;jzpfthH xdk0w¬K xdk"r®onf o&Prnf\? udk;uG,f&mxdkufaom 0w¬K"r®rnf\? xdkol\ ½Sdcdk;rIonfvnf; o&P*Hkrnf\/ - þ0w¬K þ"r®udk ½Sdcdk;onf½Sdaomf ig\ ½Sdcdk;rIonf tyg,fab;rS vGwfatmif aqmifEdkifaom ukokdvfykn jzpf\[k ½Sdcdk;um; ½Sdcdk;\? xdk½Sdcdk;rIonf {uEÅ tyg,fab;rS vGwfatmif aqmifEdkifaom ukokdvfyknrsdK; rjzpf? tcsnf;ESD;aom ½Sdcdk;rIom jzpftHh xdk0w¬K xdk"r®onf o&P r[kwf? udk;uG,f&mxdkufaom 0w¬K"r®rsdK; r[kwf? xdkol\ ½Sdcdk;rIonfvnf; o&P*Hk rjzpf/ o&PH *pämrd [k qnf;uyfrI aqmufwnfrIüIvnf þenftwdkif;odav/ oabm,kwådum;- jzLpifaom oDv? orm"d? ynm paom*kPfonf tvGefrGefjrwfaom ajrqDMoZmESifh wl\/ - xdk*kPfESifhjynfYpHkaom bk&m; w&m; oHCmonf xdkajrqDMoZmESifh jynfYpkHaom v,fcif;ESifh wl\/ - xdkbk&m; w&m; oHCmudk tm½HkjyKí wG,fwm wnfpkdufí rdrd oEÅmefüjzpfaom pdwf apwemonf xdkv,fcif;rSm pkdufysdK;aom pyg;rsdK;aphESifh wl\/ jzLpifaom oDv orm"d ynm tp½Sdaom*kPfrS uif;í tcsnf;ESD;aom rdpäm0dwufrsdK;ESifh aeaomolonf tqD MoZm oufoufr½Sdaom tvGefajcmufaom uswfwD;ukef;jyifESifh wl\? xdkolukd qdkcJYNyD;aomenf;jzifh ½Sdcdk;aomtrI qnf;uyfaom trIrsm;onf xdkuswfwD;ukef;jyifrSm BuJysdK;aom pyg;rsdK;ESifh wl\? ukokdvfykn rjzpf? tcsnf;ESD;omwnf;/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

27


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) urÇmpOfquf vlynm½Sd &aoh &[ef; ykPÖm; ynm½SdwdkY\ tpOfü xif½Sm;pGm vmcJYaom ukokdvfw&m; jzpfyGm;rI enf;vrf;rsdK;? tukokdvfw&m; jzpfyGm;rIenf;vrf;rsdK;? 'kpö½kdufenf;vrf;rsdK;? okp½kdufenf;vrf;rsdK;? ok*wdtvm; 'k*¾wdtvm; enf;vrf;rsdK;onf ½Sd\? xdkenf;vrf;rsdK;wdkYwGif wpfckaom enf;vrf;rsdK;ukdyif

y,fzsufí

t,lrdpäm½Sdaomolonf

tjypf½Sdonfukd

rD;vQH

tjypfr½Sd

rD;awmufxíaeaom

tusdK;½Sdonfudk

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ausmufzsmtjyifESifhwl\?

xdkolukd

qdkcJYNyD;aomenf;jzifh ½Sdcdk;aom trI qnf;uyfaom trIonf xdkausmufzsm tjyifrSm rsdK;BuJonfESifh wl\? tusdK;r½Sdonfhjyif wpfukd,fvHk;ukd rD;vQHoifhavao;\/ xdko&P*Hkonf-(1)okwo&P*Hk (2)'d|o&P*Hk[lí ESpfyg;tjym;½Sd\? xdkESpfyg;wGif ouúm,'d|d 0dpdudpämwdkY\ aysmufNidrf;&maom cE¨m"r®? tm,we"r®? "mwk"r®wdkY\ tjzpftysufudk jrifEdkifaom or®m'd|dÓPfum; r½Sd? MunfndK bG,faom bk&m;*kPf w&m;*kPf oHCm*kPf omoemh*kPfwdkYudk Mum;emrSwfom; o'¨gyGm;í qnf;uyfudk;uG,faom o&P*Hkonf okwo&P*Hkrnf\? bk&m; w&m; oCFm &wemokH;yg;udk jrifaom o&P*kHr[kwf bk&m; w&m; oCFm &wemokH;yg;ukd awGUaom o&P*Hkr[kwf omoe"r®udkjrifaom o&P*Hkr[kwf omoe"r®ukdawGUaom o&P*Hkr[kwf [lvdkonf/ xdkYaMumifha,m acg 0uúvd "r®H e yówd? aom rH e yówd/ (cE¨0*¾oH,kwåygVd) [lí a[mawmfrlonf/ 0uúvd=0uúvd&[ef;?

acg=pifppf?

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e

yówd=jrifEdkifaomÓPfr½Sd? aom=xdkolonf? rH=igbk&m;ukd? e yówd=rjrif/ jrwfpGmbk&m;\

teD;tem;ü

tNrJaeí

aeYrpJ

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cE¨m

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emrf½kyfw&m;wdkY\ jzpfrI ysufrIudkvnf;aumif; rjrifEdkifaom olwdkY\ o&P*Hkonf 'd|o&P*Hkr[kwf? okwo&P*HkrQom jzpfaMumif;ukd qdkEdkif odEdkif&mownf;/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

28


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) 'd|o&P*Hk qdkonfum;-ouúm,'d|d 0dpdudpämwdkY\ aysmufNidrf; &maom cE¨m tm,we "mwfwdkYudkvnf;aumif;? xdkcE¨m tm,we "mwfwdkY\ jzpfrI ysufrIudkvnf;aumif; jrifEdkifaom or®m'd|dÓPfESifh jynfhpkHaomol\ o&P*Hkonf 'd|o&P*Hk rnf\? bk&m; w&m; oHCm &wemokH;yg;ukd jrif&aomo&P*HkawGU&aomo&P*Hk qdkvdkonf/ a,m acg 0uúvd "r®H yówd? aom rH yówd/ (cE¨0*¾oH,kwå ygVdawmf/ / teufvG,fNyD) 'ku©H 'ku©orkyÜg'H? 'ku©óp twduúrH/ t&d,|*ØuH r*¾H? 'ku©Lyor *grdeH/ / {wH acg o&PH acrH? {wH o&P rkwårH/ {wH o&P rm*r®? oAÁ'ku©m yrkpöwd/ / ("r®y'ygVdawmf) 'ku©H='ku©opömukdvnf;? yówd=jrif\? 'ku©orkyÜg'H='ku©jzpfyGm;aMumif;udkvnf;? yówd=jrif\? 'ku©ó='ku©opöm\? twduúrH=vGefajrmuf csKyfNidrf;rIukdvnf;? yówd=jrif\? 'ku©Lyor*grdeH='ku©\ Nidrf;rIokdY qdkufapwwfaom? t&d,Ht|*ØuHr*¾H=t|*Øu t&d,r*fudkvnf;? yówd=jrif\? acg=pifppf? {wH=þtjrifav;csufonfomvQif?

acrH=ab;uif;aom?

o&PH=udk;uG,f&mjzpf\?

{wH=þtjrifav;csufonfomvQif? OwårH=jrwfaom? o&PH=ukd;uG,f&mjzpf\? {wHo&PH=þukd; uG,f&mukd? tm*r®=qnf;uyfí? 0g=a&mufí&í? oAÁ'ku©m=tvHk;pkHaom 0#f'ku©rS? yrkpöwd=vGwfEdkif\/ þum; 'd|o&P*Hkwnf;/ þ'd|o&P*Hkonf xkwfjycJYNyD;aom cE¨0*¾oH,kwfygVdawmfukd tpOfavQmufí yxr 'd|o&P*Hkç 'kwd,ç wwd,ç pwkw¬ç yOörç q|ç owår 'd|o&P*Hk[lí ckepfyg;½Sd\/ / aumov’Xme ckepfyg;ESifh tpOftwdkif;,SOfav/ OyrmqdkOD;tHh-BuD;pGmaom ElempJGuyfí 'ku©jyif;pGm cHae&aom olESpfa,mufonf ½Sdowwf? ElemBuD;rsdK;ukd aysmufatmifukpm;Edkifaom 0dZÆmr,aq;orm;BuD;vnf; ½Sd\? wpfa,mufaomolonf aq;q&mESifh ,lZemwpf&m uGma0;\? aq;q&mBuD;ukd rjrifbl;ay? aq;q&mBuD;txHrS tqifhqifh

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

29


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) ,laqmifí a&mufvmaom aq;ukdawGU&í aumif;pGm rDS0Jjcif;aMumifh ElemBuD; tukefaysmufí rdarG;wdkif; barG;wdkif; ½Sdav\/ wpfa,mufaom olonfum; aq;q&mBuD;tdrfrSm wG,fwmí ae\? aq;ukdrlum; cg;onf eHonf[k

raomufrrsdK?

aq;orm;BuD;\

bkef;vmbfukdrDSí

tpm;taomufukdom

tm;xkwf\?

temwdk;rIom ½Sd\? ElemBuD;aysmufNidrf;aom olomvQif aq;q&mBuD;\ ynmpGrf; aq;\tpGrf;ukd udk,fawGU'd|odjrif&aomol jzpf\? aq;q&mBuD;\ tdrfrSm wG,fwmrDSuyfíae&aom olonfum; aq;q&mBuD;\ ynmpGrf; aq;\ tpGrf;ukd udk,fawGU'd| odjrif&aom olr[kwf aq;q&mBuD;\ ynmpGrf; aq;\tpGrf;ukd em;rSm Mum;od½kHrQom ½Sd\? þOyrmtwdkif; rSwfav/ xdkYaMumifh- jyqdkcJYNyD;aom aumov’Xme ckepfyg;wdkYü aumov’ tjzpfokdY a&mufjcif;iSm aumif;pGm tm;xkwfíaeaomolonf Ak'¨o&P*Hk "r®o&P*Hk oHCmho&P*Hkukd wrifaqmufwnfzG,f udpör½Sd bk&m;oGm; zG,fudpö r½Sd? xdktvkyfudk tm;rxkwfEdkifaom okwo&P*Hkorm;wdkY\ trIomwnf;? okwo&P*Hkorm;wdkY\ o&P*Hkonfum; ,aeYigwdkYbk&m; wynfhç eufjzefcg bk&m;wpfyg; ajymif;Edkif\? 'd|o&P*Hkorm;rlum;

toufudktaocHvQifom

cHawmYrnf?

pdwfapwemESifhwuG

bk&m;wpfyg;

rajymif;EdkifNyD/ (usrf;udk;/

/ v,fwDq&mawmfBuD;\ Owåryk&do 'DyeDusrf;) ------------------------------

o&P*Hk ESpfrsdK; ykxkZOf yk*¾dKvfwdkU\ oEÅmefü ,HkMunf qnf;uyfrINzifh wnfaom avmuD o&P*Hk? t&d,mwdkU\ oEÅmefü r*fÓPfESifh twlwuG Nzpfwnfvmaom avmukwå&m o&P*Hk [k 2-rsdK; ½Sd\/ avmuD o&P*Hkonf npfvnf; npfEGrf;Edkif\/ ysufvnf; ysufpD;Edkif\/ avmukwå&m o&P*Hkonf npfvnf; rnpfEGrf;? ysufvnf; rysufpD;ay/ (ck'´uyg|-| 7) (usrf;udk;/

/ csrf;aNrUq&mawmf\ taNcysdK; Ak'¨bmom) ------------------------------

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

30


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) o&P*Hk 2-rsdK; 1-avmuDo&P*Hk ykxkZOfyk*¾dKvfwdkU\ oEÅmefü ,HkMunfqnf;uyfrINzifh wnfaomo&P*Hk Nzpf\/ o&P*Hk npfnL;aMumif;w&m;awGudk

y,fazsmufNyD;

&wem

NrwfoHk;yg;*kPfudk

wdkuf½dkuftm½HkNyKum

oD;Ncm;aqmufwnfrS NyD;NynfhpHkaom o&P*Hk Nzpfonf/ þo&P*Hkonf npfEGrf;Edkif? ysufpD;Edkif\/ þb0wGif rnpfEGrf;? rysufpD;vQif aemifb0wdkUü npfEGrf;ysufpD;Edkif\/ tusdK;tm;Nzifh aumif;aomb0ü Nzpf&Ncif;? pnf;pdrfOpömNynfhpHkNcif; ponfwdkUudk cHpm;&\/

2-avmukwå&mo&P*Hk opömw&m;NrifNyD;Muukefaom Nzpfay:vm&aom

o&P*HkNzpf\/

t&d,m

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zsufqD;ypfNcif;? tNrpfNzwfypfNcif;Nzifh raqmufwnf&bJESifh o&P*HkwnfaeMuaom yk*¾dKvfrsdK; Nzpf\/ wpfenf;tm;Nzifh t&d,mopömudk odNrifNcif;onf avmukwå&mo&P*Hkyif Nzpf\/ edAÁmefr&rD b0qufwdkif;ü wnfNrJ\/ tusdK;tm;Nzifh t&d,mzdkvfw&m;av;yg; Nzpf\/ t&d,mwdkUonf o&P*Hkudk tm½HkrNyKaomfvnf; edAÁmefudk tm½HkNyK&if;Nzifh r*fyGg;rsm;rI? &wemoHk;yg;\*kPfodrI udpörsm;tm;vHk; wpfNydKifwnf;

NyD;NynfhpHk\/

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apcdkif;íNzpfap?

rdrdudk,füuNzpfap?

&wemoHk;yg;udk

MunfndKNyD;

o&P*Hk

aqmufwnfaomfvnf; &wemoHk;yg;\ *kPfawmfponfwdkUudk rodem;rvnfaom yk*¾dKvfrsm;\ o&P*Hkudk ÓPfrygaomo&P*Hk[k ac:\/

2/ÓPoorÜ,kwfo&P*Hk &wemoHk;yg;\ *kPfawmfponfwdkUudk od½Sdem;vnfNyD; &wemoHk;yg;udk MunfndKo'¨gyGg;rsm;rdí o&P*Hkaqmufwnfaom yk*¾dKvfrsm;\ o&P*Hkudk ÓPfygaomo&P*Hk[k ac:\/ (usrf;udk;/

/ OD;oufpdef\ NrwfAk'¨\omoemhtaNccH) ------------------------------

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

31


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) o&P*Hkt*Fg&yfrsm; atmufygt*Fg&yfrsm;teuf t*Fg&yfwpfyg;yg;ESifh NynfhpHkvQif o&P*Hk wnf\ 1-bk&m;? w&m;? oHCm &wemNrwfoHk;yg;tm; o'¨g,HkMunfpdwfNzifh rdrdudk,fudk tyfESif;Ncif;/ 2-bk&m;? w&m;? oHCm &wemNrwfoHk;yg;udk udk;uG,fvJavsmif;&m[lí rSDcdktm;xm;Ncif;/ 3-bk&m;? w&m;? oHCm &wemNrwfoHk;yg;\ wynfhtNzpf cH,lNcif;/ 4-bk&m;? w&m;? oHCm &wemNrwfoHk;yg;udk trSefwu,f ½dkaowkyf0yfpGm ½Sdcdk;Ncif;/ (usrf;udk;/

/ OD;oufpdef\ NrwfAk'¨\omoemhtaNccH) ------------------------------

o&P*kHcH,lrI &rIukdjyjcif; o&P*kH cH,laqmufwnfrIukd þokdYusrf;*efwkdYü vm\/ o&P*reH ye {ubdu©Kó 0g oEÅdau oHCó 0g *Pó 0g ouð *[dwH *[dwar0 a[mwd/ «oDvu©eft|uxm/» o&P*kHcH,laqmufwnfrIrnfonf wpfOD;wpfa,mufaom &[ef;\txHüvnf;aumif;ç 2-yg;3-yg;aom *kdPf;\ txHüaomfvnf;aumif;ç 4-yg;- 5-yg;paomoHCm\ txHüaomf vnf;aumif; wpfBudrfwpfcg cH,laqmufwnfonf½Sdaomf toufxufqkH; cH,laqmufwnfrI NyD;onfomvQifjzpf\? c&pf,mefbmomtp½Sdaom ukd;uG,f&mbmomwpfyg;okdY rajymif;onf½Sdaomf xyfrHí tzefzeftcgcg cH,laqmufwnfbG,fudpör½Sd-[lvkdonf/ «,ckumvüuJhokdY

tzefzeftcgcgcH,laqmufwnfrI\

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]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

32


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) o&P*kHcH,lrIç &rIukdjyjcif; rdrdtvkdtavsmufaqmufwnfí

ajrmufonfukd

¤if;#DumBuD;ü

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qkdvkd&if;jzpfonf?

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cH,laqmufwnfrIwkdYüum;-

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rmwm'D[d

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y#doaE¨uyif o&P*kHwnfaom0w¬K wpf&Ha&mtcg jrwfpGmbk&m;onf oHokrm&*d&dNrdKUokdY <ua&mufawmfrl\? aAm"drif;om;onf vkvifwpfa,mufESifh bk&m;xHokdYvmí csrf;omokcrnfonfukd 'ku©ESifh&if;rS &Ekdifonf[k xifrdygaMumif;

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

33


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) avQmufxm;\? xkdtcg jrwfpGmbk&m;onf [kwfvS\rif;om;-[k rdefYawmfrlí bk&m;tjzpf[laom okcukd&jcif;iSg

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]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

34


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) ,cko&P*kHoGefoifí ay;Muol q&mawmfBuD; *kdPf;oHCmBuD;wkdYonfrlum;rdrdwkdYay;Muaom o&P*kHtwGif;ü rdrdwkdYygxkdufrS ygMu&vdrfhrnf? rygxkdufvQif rygMu&? ygxkdufç rygxkdufukd aemufrSqkdvwåHU/ þokdYvQif o&P*kHay;onf? OykofoDvay;onf-[laompum;rsKd;ü oGefoifí ay;rIukdom qkdvkd&if;jzpfonf?

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/ v,fwDq&mawmfBuD;\ o&P*Hk0dedpä,usrf;opf) ------------------------------

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]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

35


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/Ak'¨bmomvufpGJusrf;) ------------------------------

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]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

36


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) ½Sdcdk;aomfvnf; o&P*Hkrysuf &wemoHk;yg;udk ,HkMunf qnf;uyfpNzifh o&P*Hk wnfaeaom Ak'¨bmom0ifwpfa,mufonf wpfNcm;bmomrS bk&m;qdkolrsm;? bkef;BuD;qdkolrsm;udk aqGrsdK;NzpfNcif;? q&mNzpfNcif;aMumifh ½Sdcdk;aomfvnf; wnfNyD;om; o&P*Hk rysuf/ NrifhNrwfaomyk*¾dKvf[k ,lqí ½Sdcdk;rSom o&P*Hk ysufonf/ ('D-| 1? 207) (usrf;udk;/

/ csrf;aNrUq&mawmf\ taNcysdK; Ak'¨bmom) ------------------------------

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]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

37


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) ,ckumv o&P*HkaqmufwnfMu&mü tcsdKUrSm ½Gwfqdkíaeaomfvnf;

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/Ak'¨bmomvufpGJusrf;) ------------------------------

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]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

38


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40


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rygxkduf-[laompum;ukd

xif½Sm;atmifajzqkdcsufwnf;/» (usrf;udk;/

/ v,fwDq&mawmfBuD;\ o&P*Hk0dedpä,usrf;opf) ------------------------------

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

41


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) ½Sdcdk;Ncif;ESifh o&P*Hk 1-atmufyg taMumif;rsm;aMumifh yk*¾dKvfwpfOD;udk ½Sdcdk;vQif o&P*Hk rNzpfay/ u-aqGrsdK;Nzpfí ½Sdcdk;Ncif;? c-aMumufí ½Sdcdk;Ncif;? *-q&mNzpfí ½Sdcdk;Ncif;? ,HkMunfudk;uG,fqnf;uyfrItaeNzifh ½Sdcdk;vQifom o&P*Hk Nzpfonf/ 2-o&P*HkwnfNyD;aom

yk*¾dKvfonf

tNcm;olwpfOD;udk

azmfNyygtaMumif;rsm;aMumifh

½Sdcdk;vQif

o&P*Hkrysufay/ &wemoHk;yg;rS tNcm;wpfOD;OD;udk ,HkMunfudk;uG,fqnf;uyfrItaeNzifh ½Sdcdk;vQif rdrd\o&P*Hk ysufonfudk owdNyKoifh\/ (usrf;udk;/

/ OD;oufpdef\ NrwfAk'¨\omoemhtaNccH) ------------------------------

o&P*kHxkdufaom oHCmukdjyjcif; ar;/ oHCo&P*kHü yg0ifxkdufaom uvsmPykxkZOf[lonf tb,fuJhokdYaom &[ef;ukd qkdygoenf;-[k tar;xkwf&m\/ ajz/ ykxkZOfonf uvsmPykxkZOfç tE¨ykxkZOf [lí 2-rsKd;½Sd\/ xkd 2-rsKd;wkdYwGif1/ cE¨m 5-yg;ç tm,we 12-yg;? "mwf 18-yg;ç y#dpöorkyÜg'fw&m;ç owdy|mefpaom aAm"dyu©d,w&m;wkdYü uRrf;usifvdrfrmaom ynmrsufpdr½SdMuol ½Sifvltaygif;onf tE¨ykxkZOfrnf\/ 2/

xkdw&m;wkdYü

uRrf;usifvdrfrmaom

ynmrsufpdESifh

jynfhpkHMuol

½Sifvltaygif;onf

uvsmPykxkZOf rnf\/ «þum;-tbd"r®mt|uxmç okwåeft|uxmwkdYü rsm;pGmvm½Sdonfjzpfí avmuü ajym½kd;qkdpOftm;jzifh xif½Sm;íaeaom ykxkZOf 2-rsKd; cGJenf;wnf;/»

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

42


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) ,ó [d cE¨"mwk tm,we ypö,um& owdy|mem'Dok O*¾[y&dykpäm0dedpä, &[dwåwm 'd|dyÜ#dao"aum ae0tm*arm tw¬dtp½Sdonfjzifh t|omvdeD t|uxmç rlvyPÖmo t|-uxmponfwkdYü xif½Sm;pGmvm½Sd\/ þoHCo&P*kHt&mü

&[ef;ukdomvQif

vkdtyf\?

xkdYaMumifh

þt|uxmBuD;wkdY\

tvkdtm;jzifh1/ cE¨mç tm,weç "mwfç y#dpo ö rkyÜg'fwkdYüvnf;aumif;? aAm"dyu©d,w&m;wkdYüvnf;aumif; cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmí odwwfaomÓPfrsufpdr½Sdaom &[ef;onf t0g 60-yif &aomfvnf; tE¨yk*¾dKvfjzpfí o&P*kH rxkduf? xkd&[ef;ukd ukd;uG,fío&P*kH r&/ 2/ xkdw&m;wkdYü cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmí odwwfaomÓPfrsufpdESifhjynfhpkHaom&[ef;onf ,aeYrSjzpfaom &[ef;i,fyifjzpfaomfvnf; uvsmPyk*¾dLvfjzpfí o&P*kHxkduf\? xkduJhokdYaom &[ef;ukdukd;uG,frS o&P*kH &\/ [laom t"dyÜg,fonf NyD;pD;\/ (usrf;udk;/

/ v,fwDq&mawmfBuD;\ o&P*Hk0dedpä,usrf;opf) ------------------------------

o&P*Hkudk txyfxyf aqmufwnfNcif; ]]o&P*Hk}} onf ,HkMunfav;NrwfpGm wpfBudrfaqmufwnfxm;vQif ,HkMunfpdwf rysuforQç ,HkMunf&m0w¬K (bk&m;ç w&m;ç oHCm) raNymif;orQ toufraoao;orQ woufvHk; wnf\/ txyfxyf

tcgcg

aqmufwnfaezG,f

rvdkyg/

odkUygvsuf

,cktcg

bk&m;½Sdcdk;wdkif;ç

oDvaqmufwnfwdkif;vdkvdkrSm o&P*Hk rygvQif rNyD; txyfxyf tcgcg aqmufwnfvsuf½SdMuonf/ ,if;odkU aqmufwnfaeNcif;onf tydktvkyfom Nzpfíaeonf r[kwfavm¿? taNzum;- tydktvkyf NzpfíaeonfrSm rSefygonf/ ,if;odkU tydktvkyf Nzpfíaeaomfvnf; tusdK;rJh pGefUy,fypf&rnfh tydkrsdK; r[kwfyg/ tydk tusdK;&atmif ydkí vkyfNcif;omNzpfaMumif; oabmaygufoifhMuygonf/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

43


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) rSefygonf/ ]]raumif;rI tukodkvfw&m;udk rNzpfao;u topf rNzpfapbJ NzpfNyD;ygu y,fypf&rnf/

aumif;rI

wdk;yGg;onfxuf

ukodkvfw&m;udk wdk;yGg;atmif

rdefU>rufa[mMum;awmfrlcJhygonf/

rNzpfao;u

topf

BudK;pm;&rnf}} o&P*Hkudk

txyfxyf

NzpfapNyD;aemuf [k

NzpfNyD;Nzpfygu

bk&m;½Sifudk,fawmfwdkif

aqmufwnfNcif;onf

o&P*Hk

txHk&Edkifygonf/ txHk&pGJNrJaeaom o&P*Hkonf aocgeD;rSmyif tm½Hkedrdwfaumif; xifí 'k*¾wdb0rS vGwfatmif u,fwifEdkifaMumif; ax&ty'gef okblwd0*fvm ]]o&P*red,ax&f}} \ twdwfZmwfcrf;u xif½Sm;apygonf/ xdkUNyif o&P*Hkudk txyfxyf cH,laqmufwnfNcif;onf t0wfEGrf;udk avQmfzGyf pifMu,fapouJhodkU o&P*Hk\ npfEGrf;rIudk pifMu,fopfvGifrI ½SdapEdkifygonf/ xdkUaMumifh o&P*Hk udk,fvHk;xHkEdkifatmif o&P*Hk pifMu,fopfvGifrI½Sdatmif o&P*Hkudk txyfxyf aqmufwnfoifhygonf/ (usrf;udk;/

/Ak'¨bmomvufpGJusrf;) ------------------------------

ukd;uG,frI 2-yg; jcm;em;ykHukdjyjcif; avmuü ukd;uG,f&mjyKrIrnfonf 2-rsKd;½Sd\/ 1/ o&P*kHudpöESifh ukd;uG,f&mjyKrI wpfrsKd;/ 2/ txl;ukokdvfjzpfyGm;&ef udpöESifhukd;uG,f&m jyKrIwpfrsKd;ç 1/

o&P*kHudpöESifh

ukd;uG,f&mjyKrIqkdonfum;-

oufawmfxif½Sm;½Sdawmfrlaom

oAÁnKjrwfpGmbk&m;ukdvnf;aumif;ç r*f 4-wefç zkdvf 4-wefç edAÁmefç y&d,wfwnf;[laom 10-yg;aom w&m;awmfjrwfukdvnf;aumif;ç

oDv0efç

*kP0ef

uvsmPykxkZOf&[ef;ESifhwuG

8-a,mufaom

t&d,moHCmawmfjrwfwkdYukd vnf;aumif; toufxufqkH; tNrJedpötm;jzifh ,ckb0ü rdrd\ukd;uG,f&m[k cH,laqmufwnfí ukd;uG,frIonf o&P*kHudpöESifh ukd;uG,f&m jyKrIrnf\/ 2/ apwDç ykxkd;ç ½kyfyGm;ç qif;wkwnfaxmifí ukd;uG,frI? rdrdrdrdwkdY MunfndKav;jrwf&m *kdPf;oHCm yk*¾dKvfukd

rdrdwkdYqkdif&m

q&morm;jyKvkyfí

toD;toD;

ukd;uG,fMurIrsm;onf

txl;

ukokdvfjzpfyGm;&efudpöESifh ukd;uG,f&mjyKrI rnf\/ xkd 2-rsKd;wkdYwGif 1/ o&P*kHudpöESifh ukd;uG,f&mjyKrIonf Ak'¨bmomrSefMuol ewfç vlç jA[®m owå0gcyfodrf; wpfxyfwnf; wlrQMu\? b,fol\ ukd;uG,f&mu ,kwfnHhonf? b,fol\ukd;uG,f&mu jrifhjrwfonf[lí r½SdMuNyD/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

44


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) 2/ txl;ukokdvfjzpfyGm;&ef udpöESifh ukd;uG,f&mjyKMurIüum;- b,fol\ ukd;uG,f&mu ,kwfnHhonf? b,fol\ ukd;uG,f&mujrifhjrwfonf[lí txl;xl;taxGaxG½SdMu\? txl;ukokdvfjzpfyGm;&ef udpöESifh ukd;uG,f&m jyKMurIonfum;- o&P*kHudpörsKd;r[kwf? þuJhokdY udk;uG,frIESifh o&P*kHudpö NyD;pD;onfvnf; r[kwf? o&P*kHudpöukd npfEGrf;apwwfç ysufpD;apwwfonfvnf; r[kwf/ xkdYaMumifh ck'´uygXt|uxmü{wH ye o&PH *wó tno®ð bdu©KoHaC 0g? bdu©KeDoHaC 0g Ak'¨yÜrkac 0g oHaC or®KwdoHaC 0g pwk0*¾g'daba' {uo®ð yk*¾avyd b*0EÅH O'´dó yAÁZdaw 0E´m'dud&d,m, o&P*reH ae0bdZÆwd e oHudvdówd/ [lí rdefYqkday\/ ygXfavQmuft"dyÜg,fum;/

/

þo&P*kHokdY

uyfNyD;aomoltm;

wpfyg;aom

bdu©KoHCmüvnf;aumif;ç bdu©KeD oHCmüvnf;aumif;ç bk&m;trSL;½Sdaom oHCmüvnf;aumif;ç pwk0*¾ ponf tjym;½Sdaom or®KwdoHCmüvnf;aumif;ç oAÁnKbk&m;ukd&nfpl;í yAÁZdwtjzpfokdY a&mufaom odu©rmef-omraP-oDwif;onf-&aoh-y&dAkdZfwkdYüvnf;aumif;

½Sdckd;jcif;ponfukd

jyKjcif;aMumifh

cH,laqmufwnfí xm;tyfaom yuwdo&P*kHonf ysudpD;jcif;ç npfEGrf;jcif;r½Sd-[lvkdonf/ þt|uxmygXfjzifhyuwdo&P*kHudpöESifh txl;ukd;uG,frIudpö 2-yg;\ uGJjym;jcm;em;rIonf tvGefxif½Sm;\? txl;ukd;uG,frI wpfrsKd;jzpfí

&[ef;oHCmü

½Sdckd;rIponfukdyif

o&P*kHysufaMumif;

r[kwf[k

uGufjcm;í

rdefYqkd&avownf;? ypöKyÜeftusKd;pD;yGm;twGufESifh rif;pkd;&mZmukd ½Sdckd;rIç rd½kd;zvmewfwkdYukd ½Sdckd;rIç ukd;uG,frI-ponfwkdYonfvnf; xkdYtwl o&P*kHysufaMumif; r[kwfukef/ «þum;-o&P*kHudpöESifhukd;uG,frIçtxl;ukd;uG,frI

2-yg;wkdY\

uGJjym;jcm;em;ykHukd

xif½Sm;atmif

jyqkdvkdufaom pum;&yfwnf;» (usrf;udk;/

/ v,fwDq&mawmfBuD;\ o&P*Hk0dedpä,usrf;opf) ------------------------------

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

45


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) o&P*Hk npfEGrf;Ncif; 4-rsdK; 1/ &wemoHk;yg;\ *kPfudk rodvQif Nzpfap? 2/ todrSm;vQif Nzpfap? 3/ ,HkrSm; oHo, ½SdvQif Nzpfap? 4/ &wemoHk;yg;udk r½dkaovQif Nzpfap o&P*Hk npfEGrf;\/ o&P*Hk npfEGrf;vQif MuD;us,f zGHUNzdK;aom aumif;usdK;udk r&Edkifay/ ('D-| 1? 209) aqmifyk'f &wemh*kPf&nf? rodNyD? npfonf o&P*Hk/ &wemh*kPf&nf? odrSm;NyD? npfonf o&P*Hk/ &wemh*kPf&nf? ,HkrSm;NyD? npfonf o&P*Hk/ &wemoHk;axG? r½dkao? npfav o&P*Hk/ (usrf;udk;/

/ csrf;aNrUq&mawmf\ taNcysdK; Ak'¨bmom) ------------------------------

o&P*Hk npfEGrf;aMumif; w&m;rsm; ]]o&P*Hk}} udk cH,laqmufwnfMu&mwGif o&P*Hk npfEGrf;aMumif;w&m;rsm; ½SdaevQif o&P*Hk aqmufwnfaomfvnf; raNrmufEdkifyg/ o&P*Hkudk cH,laqmufwnfxm;NyD; NzpfvQifvnf; npfEGrf;rI ½SdvmEdkifygonf/ xdkUaMumifh o&P*Hk npfEGrf;aMumif; w&m;rsm;udk odxm;oifhygonf 1/bk&m;ç w&m;ç oHCm &wemNrwfoHk;yg;(*kPfawmfrsm;)udk aumif;aumif;rodNcif;? vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm; rodNcif;? udk;uG,f&rSef; rodNcif; (arm[)? 2/bk&m;ç w&m;ç oHCm &wemNrwfoHk;yg;tay: tppftrSef [kwfyghrvm;[k ,HkrSm;oHo,NzpfNcif; (0dpdudpäm)? 3/bk&m;ç w&m;ç oHCm &wemNrwfoHk;yg;tay: trSefrNrifbJ trSm;NrifNcif;? ]]t&[H}} paom *kPfawmfrsm;udk *kPfawmf r[kwf[k aNymif;NyefNrifNcif;? &wemNrwfoHk;yg;udk udk;uG,fqnf;uyfrIonf tvum;yg ponfNzifh t,lrSm;Ncif; rdpäm'd|dt,l½SdNcif; ('d|d)? 4/bk&m;ç w&m;ç oHCm &wemNrwfoHk;yg;udk r,HkMunfrav;pm; rNrwfEdk;Ncif;? rMunfñdkNcif;? bk&m;½Sdcdk;rIponf rNyKvkyfNcif; (o'¨g\ qefUusifbuf tukodkvfrsm;)/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

46


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) þw&m;rsm;½SdaevQif o&P*Hk npfEGrf;rI rpifMu,frIrsm; NzpfyGg;Ekdif\/ bk&m; ponfudk rpGefUy,fao;vQif o&P*HkysufpD;rIum; rNzpfEdkifay/ (usrf;udk;/

/Ak'¨bmomvufpGJusrf;) ------------------------------

o&P*HknpfnL;aMumif;w&m;rsm; r*fuomtNywf½Sif;Edkif? y,fowfEdkifaom raumif;w&m;rsm;Nzpf/ 1/'d|d -t,lrSm;Ncif; todrSm;Ncif;/ (&wemoHk;yg;udk udk;uG,fNcif;onf tusdK;r½Sd? &wemoHk;yg;aMumifh owå0gawG npfnL;zdkU? pifMu,fzdkUtaMumif;r½Sd? tusdK;rJhNzpf\/ ukodkvf? tukodkvfNyKaomfvnf; tusdK;r½Sd? paomt,lrSm; todrSm;Ncif;rsm;) 2/0dpdudpäm

-,HkrSm;oHo,NzpfNcif;/

(bk&m;qdkonfrSm

tppftrSef½Sd&JUvm;?

w&m;qdkonfrSm

rSefuef&JUvm; ponfNzifh ,HkrSm; oHo,NzpfNcif;) 3/oar®m[

-awGa0Ncif;/

(&wemoHk;yg;tay:

qnf;uyfMunfndK&rSef;

rod?

&wemoHk;yg;

*kPfawmfrsm;udk rodem;rvnfNcif; ponfNzifh trSefudkrodNcif;) 4/tó'¨d,

-,HkMunfrIo'¨gr½SdNcif;/ (&wemoHk;yg;tay:ü ESpfouf-,HkMunfrIo'¨gw&m; r½SdNcif;)

(usrf;udk;/

/ OD;oufpdef\ NrwfAk'¨\omoemhtaNccH) ------------------------------

ar;jref;bG,f ar;/ ykxkZOf&[ef;ukd oHCo&P*kHt&müvnf;aumif;ç aou©t&müvnf;aumif; oGif;í jyqkdMuukefaom usrf;*eft&yf&yfwkdYü uvsmPykxkZOf&[ef;ukdom jyqkdMuukef\? tE¨ykxkZOf&[ef;ukd MuOfz,fMuukef\?

xkdokdYjzpfcJhaomf

cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmíodwwfaom

tMuif&[ef;onf

ÓPfrsufpdrlum;-r½Sd?

oDvESifhjynfhpkH\?

jyqkdNyD;aomw&m;wkdYü

xkd&[ef;onf

oHCo&P*kHt&mü

vkH;vkH;r0ifxkduf[krSwf&rnfavm[lrlajz/

oDvonfvnf;

uvsmP"r®yifjzpf\?

xkdYaMumifh

oDvESifhaumif;pGmjynfhpkHayvQifyif

xkduJhokdYaom ÓPfrsufpd r½Sdjim;aomfvnf; uvsmPykxkZOfü yg0ifoifhonfomjzpf\/ ar;/

xkdokdYjzpfcJhaomf

uvsmPykxkZOf\vu©PmukdjyqkdMuukefaom

t|uxmBuD;wkdYü

tb,fhaMumifh ynmrsufpdukdom uvsmPt*FgjyKí jyqkdMuukefoenf;[lrl-

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

47


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) ajz/ þomoemawmfwGif;ü cE¨mç tm,weç "mwfwnf;[laom tewåw&m;wkdYukd jrifEkdifaom olonfomvQif bk&m;ukdawGYjrifaomol rnf\? w&m;ukdawGYjrifaomol rnf\? oHCmukdawGYjrifaom olrnf\?

omoemawmfukdawGYjrifaomol

rnf\?

jyqkdcJhNyD;aom

ynmrsufpdESifh

jynfhpkHaom

&[ef;onfomvQif rdrdonfvnf; bk&m;ç w&m;ç oHCmç omoemawmfukd awGYjrif&\? rdrdukd MunfndKav;jrwf omoemawmfukd

qnf;uyfukd;uG,fMuol awGYjrifEkdifaom

½Sifvltaygif;wkdYtm;vnf;

ÓPfrsufpdukd

ay;Ekdif\?

bk&m;ç

xkdYaMumifh

w&m;ç

oHCmç

uvsmPykxkZOf\t*Fgukd

jyqkdMuukefaom t|uxmBuD;wkdYü cE¨mponfukd jrifEkdifaom ynmrsufpdukdom uvsmPt*FgjyKí jyqkdMuayukefownf;?

oDvESifhjynfhpkHaom

tE¨ykxkZOf&[ef;onf

o&P*kH

rxkdufaomaMumifh

ynmrsufpdukdom uvsmPt*FgjyKí jyqkdMuukefonfr[kwf-[kajz/ wpfenf;um;/ /þowå0gwkdYü ouúm,'d|dw&m;onf xif½Sm;½Sdae\/ ouúm,'d|dw&m; qkdonfum;owå0gwkdY\ cE¨mukd,frnfonf txl;xl; taxGaxGaom ½kyf"mwftpkç emrf"mwftpkomjzpf\? yk*¾dKvfr[kwfç owå0gr[kwfç rdef;rr[kwfç a,mufsm;r[kwfç yk*¾dKvfç owå0gç rdef;rç a,mufsm;[lír½Sd? tjyKtrl tajymtqkd tBuHtpnf[lorQonf ½kyf"mwfç emrf"mwfwkdY\ trIomwnf;? yk*¾Kdvfç owå0g\ trIr[kwf? xkdokdYjzpfygvsuf ½kyf"mwfç emrf"mwfwkdYukd rodrjrifEkdifMuukefonfjzpfí1/ yk*¾dKvfawGukdom aMumifaMumifBuD;xifjrifí aeMuukef\/ 2/ owå0gawGukdom aMumifaMumifBuD;xifjrifí aeMuukef\/ 3/ rdef;rç a,mufsm;awGukdom aMumifaMumifBuD;xifjrifí aeMuukef\/ 4/ ig[lí aMumifaMumifBuD;xifjrifvsuf aeMuukef\/ 5/ rnfolç rnf0g[lí aMumifaMumifBuD;xifjrifvsuf aeMuukef\/ 6/ igjrifonf? igMum;onf? igeHonf? igvsufonf? ukd,ft*Fgü tawGYtxdukd igodonf? igBuHonf? igoGm;onf? igvmonf? xkdxkdtrIukd igjyKonf? igajymqkdonf? igBuHzefonf-[k aMumifaMumifBuD; xifjrifvsuf aeMuukef\/ þokdYaMumifaMumifBuD; xifjrifrIç pGJvrf;rIawGukd ouúm,'d|dqkdownf;/ xkdouúm,'d|donf-1/ o&P*kH\ tEÅ&m,fBuD;aywnf;/ 2/ £a`E´orm"d\ tEÅ&m,fBuD;aywnf;/ 3/ ur®óuwmÓPf[kqkdtyfaom avmuDor®m'd|d\ tEÅ&m,fBuD;aywnf;/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

48


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) 4/ o&P*kHç oDvç £a`E´ç orm"dç avmuDor®m'd|dwkdYudk ypfcGif;bkdYvufeufBuD;aywnf;/ þowå0gtaygif;wkdYonfum;--1/ bk&m;omoemawmfwGif;ü BuHKBudKufonfhtcg o'¨g\tpGrf;tm;jzifh o&P*kHukdvnf; tzefzef aqmufwnfMuukef\ 2/ o&P*kHukd ypfcGif;&ef igig[laomç ig\ukd,f-ig\ukd,f[laom o&P*kHypf vufeufBuD;ukdvnf; aeY½SdorQ woo jyKpk ysKd;axmifvsufaeMuukef\/ 3/ rdrdwkdYaqmufwnfMuaom o&P*kHukd ypfcGif;&ef ouúm,'d|d vufeufwkdufBuD;ukd aeY½SdorQ aMumifhMupkdufxkwf jyKvkyfwnfaxmifvsuf aeMuukef\/ 4/ o&P*kHukdvnf; aeYpOfcH,lMuukef\/ 5/ o&P*kH\ &efoljzpfaom ouúm,'d|dBuD;ukdvnf; ukd,fwGif;ç ESvkH;wGif;ü &ifcGifykdufí tNrJarG;jrLvsuf ½SdaeMuukef\/ xkdYtwl-1/ 5-yg;oDvç 8-yg;oDvç 10-yg;oDvç 227-yg;aom &[ef;oDvwkdYukdvnf; cH,laqmifhxdef;Muukef\/ 2/ oDv\&efoljzpfaom ouúm,'d|dukdvnf; &ifcGifykdufí arG;jrLvsufxm;Muukef\/ 3/ £a`E´orm"dukdvnf; apmifhxdef;Muukef\/ 4/ £a`E´orm"d\ &efoljzpfaom ouúm,'d|dukdvnf; &ifcGifykdufí arG;jrLvsufxm;Muukef\/ 5/ 'geç oDvtp½Sdaom ur®óuwm or®m'd|d trIwkdYukdvnf; jyKMuukef\/ 6/ ur®óuwm or®m'd|d\ &efoljzpfaom ouúm,'d|dukdvnf; &ifcGifykdufí arG;jrLvsuf xm;Muukef\/ &ifcGifykdufí arG;jrLrIqkdonfum;-ouúm,'d|dukd y,fowf&ef ½kyfç emrfcE¨mw&m;wkdYü oduRrf;vdrfrmrIukd tm;rxkwfMuukefrlí igig[laom ouúm,'d|d yGm;rsm;&ef avmuDpnf;pdrfç avmuD*kPfç avmuDusufoa& yGm;rsm;rIukdom tm;xkwfMuukef\? þokdYtm;xkwfrIukd ]]ouúm,'d|dukd &ifcGifykdufí arG;jrLrI}} qkdownf;/ vGefavNyD;aom terw*¾oHo&müvnf;-1/ bk&m;omoemESifhawGUBuHKcJhMuvSukefNyD/ 2/ o&P*kHukd aqmufwnfcJhMuvSukefNyD/ 3/

rdrdwkdYo&P*kHukd

ouúm,'d|d[laom

vufeufjzifh

rdrdwkdYonfyifvQif

ypfcGif;íç

ypfcGif;í

ysufqkH;apMuvSukefNyD/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

49


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) 4/ &[ef;oDvç vloDvwkdYukdvnf; apmifhxdef;cJhMuvSukefNyD/ 5/ £a`E´orm"dwkdYukdvnf; apmifhxdef;cJhMuvSukefNyD/ 6/ ur®óuwm or®m'd|drIwkdYukdvnf; jyKcJhMuvSukefNyD/ 7/ oDvç orm"dç ynmrIwkdYukdvnf; ouúm,'d|d[laom vufeufjzifh rdrdwkdYonfyifvQif ypfcGif;íç ypfcGif;í ysufqkH;apvSukefNyD/ ,cktcgüvnf;--1/

ouúm,'d|dukd

arG;jrLvsuf

½SdaeMuukefaom

Ak'¨bmom0if

½Sifvltaygif;wkdYtm;

aqmufwnfapmifha½Smufí ½SdaeMuukefaom o&P*kHç oDvç orm"dç ynmwkdYonf wpf&ufç wpfvç wpfESpfç wpfb0ç w'*FrQom xkdolwkdY\oEÅmefü wnfaecGifh &MuukefvwåHU? wnfaeMupOf tcgüvnf; ouúm,'d|d

vufeufOD;rSm

wnfaeMu&ukefonfjzpfí

,ckaeYüyif

ysufqkH;&rnfavm?

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aovGefojzifhysufqkH;rIç

,ckb0wGifvnf;

bmomwpfyg;ajymif;vJojzifh

ysufqkH;rI-[laom

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]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

50


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) Ak'¨o&P*kH\&efolukd

arG;jrLíxm;Muukefaom

vl½Siftaygif;wkdYonf

bk&m;ukdMunfndKorI

jyKMuukefaomfvnf;? MunfndKonf rrnf? MunfndK&m ra&muf? oDv\&efolukd arG;jrLí xm;Muukefaom vl½Siftaygif;wkdYonf oDvukd ½kdaoMuukefaomfvnf; ½kdaoonf rrnf? ½kdao&m ra&muf? £a`E´orm"d\ tEÅ&m,fukdarG;jrLí xm;Muukefaom vl½Siftaygif;wkdYonf £a`E´orm"dukd apmifha½Smufonf rrnf? apmifha½Smuf&m ra&muf/ tb,fhaMumifhenf;qkdaomf-o&P*kHç oDvç orm"dwkdY\ tEÅ&m,fukd y,fowf&ef ÓPfvufeuf r½Sdojzifh tEÅ&m,f&efolukd arG;jrLí aeMuvsuf½SdaomaMumifhwnf;/ cE¨mç tm,weç "mwfç y#dpöorkyÜg'fwkdYü wwfodvdrfrmaom ÓPfynmrsufpd r½SdMuukefaom tE¨ykxkZOf &[ef;wkdYonf rdrdwkdYoEÅmefü terw*¾oHo&mwGif tpOfyg½Sdíaeaom o&P*kH\ &efolBuD; jzpfaom ouúm,'d|dukdyif ,ckb0üaomfvnf;aumif;ç aemufb0üaomfvnf;aumif; y,fowf&ef ÓPfynmrsKd;aphyif xkdÓPfynmrsKd;ukd

r½SdMuukefao;?

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tE¨ya0PD Oyrm tE¨ya0PD Oyrmqkdonfum;--wpfa,muf\yckH;ü

wpfa,mufukdifí

qufvufumaeMuaom

taxmifruaom

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tm,weç

"mwfç

y#dpöorkyÜg'fwkdYü

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tE¨ykxkZOf&[ef;wkdYukd ukd;uG,fMuol ½Sifvltaygif;wkdYonfvnf; þtE¨ya0PD Oyrmtwkdif;jzpfMu ukef&maomaMumifh

t|uxm

q&mjrwfwkdYonf

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tyjyKí

xm;Muukefonf? oHCo&P*kHt&mü vkH;vkH;r0ifxkdufaomaMumifh tyjyKí xm;Muukefonf

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

51


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) r[kwf[k-xkdtar;ukd ajzqkd&m\/ «þum;-usrf;*efwkdYü

oHCo&P*kHt&mrS

y,fíxm;Muaom

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oHCo&P*kHü

xnfhoGif;enf;ukd jyqkdvkdufaom pum;&yfwnf;/» cE¨m

tp½Sdonfukd

odjrifEkdifaomolonfomvQif

bk&m;ç

w&m;ç

oHCmç

omoemukd

awGYjrif&aomol rnf\[laom pum;üuð aw 0uúvd £rdem ar ylwduma,e 'da|e? a,m acg 0uúvd "r®H yówd aom rH yówd/ [laom 0uúvdokwfukd xkdt|uxmBuD;wkdYü jyqkdMuukef\/ xkdYaMumifh usrf;*efüjyqkdaom ÓP0dyÜ,kwf'Gd[dwf-o&P*kHç ÓPorÜ,kwf-wd[dwfo&P*kH 2yg;wkdYwGif1/ cE¨mtp½Sdaom w&m;ukd rjrifwwfMuukefaom olwkdYonf ÓP0dyÜ,kwf'Gd[dwf-o&P*kHukdom &EkdifMuukef\/ 2/ cE¨mtp½Sdaom w&m;ukd jrifwwfMuukefaom olwkdYonf ÓPorÜ,kwf-wd[dwfo&P*kHukdom &EkdifMuukef\/ þokdYaom txl;ukdom rSwf&m\/ oDv0EÅtE¨ykxkZOf &[ef;onf t0g 60-yif &aomfvnf; oHCo&P*kHt&mü rygxkduf? xkd&[ef;twGuf vlwkdYrSm o&P*kH r&xkduf? xkd&[ef;ukd ukd;uG,fonfhtwGuf o&P*kHysufonf [líum;-rqkdoifhay/

ar;jref;bG,f ar;/

tb,fhaMumifh

w&m;ukd

rjrifwwfMuaom

olwkdYrSm

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w&m;ukd

jrifwwfMuaom olwkdYrSm wd[dwfo&P*kH[lí jcm;em;&avoenf;[lrl-ajz/ o&P*kHtzGifh#DumBuD;wkdYü--or®m'd|Dwd Ak'¨ okAk'¨wH "r® ok"r®wH oHC okyÜ#dywådOö avmuD,m0 aAm"0aoae0 or®mÓa,e 'óeawm/ [k rdefYqkdMuukef\/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

52


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) t"dyÜg,fum;/ / cE¨m tp½Sdaom w&m; taxG tjym;wdkUrnfonf bk&m;rSwpfyg; wpfpkHwpfa,muf aomolrQ

odEkdifjrifEkdifMuonf

owå0gwkdYonfrlum;-

r[kwf?

bk&m;a[m

bk&m;ÓPfawmf\

a'oemukd

t&momjzpf\?

Mum;emMu&ukefrSomvQif

wpfyg;aom xkdw&m;wkdYukd

odEkdifjrifEkdifMuukef\/ xkdw&m;wkdYukd jrifaomolonfomvQif-1/ bk&m;ÓPfawmf\ t&mtcsufukd ukd,fwkdifrsufarSmufawGU\? jrif\? Ak'¨ okAk'¨wm *kPfawmf qkdonfum;

cE¨mtp½Sdaomw&m;wkdYü

t[kwftrSeftm;jzifh

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qkdownf;?

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/ v,fwDq&mawmfBuD;\ o&P*Hk0dedpä,usrf;opf) ------------------------------

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

53


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) ysufwwfaom o&P*HkESifh rysufwwfaom o&P*Hk ]]o&P*Hk}}

onf

avmuDo&P*HkESifh

avmukwå&m

o&P*Hk

(wenf;)

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o&P*Hkonf

t&d,r*fw&m;wnf;/

t&d,myk*¾dKvfwdkUtm;

r*fcPü

wnf\/

oD;Ncm;cH,laqmufwnfzG,f rvdk? wnfaom tcsdefrS pí rysuf raNymif;/ b0wyg; aNymif;oGm;onfh tcgüyif ysufNcif; aNymif;Ncif;r½Sd/ rysuf½Hk raNymif;½Hkru o&P*Hkpdwfudk npfEGrf;apwwfaom tukodkvfw&m;wdkUudk tNywf½Sif;xm;NyD;NzpfaomaMumifh npfEGrf;rIrQyifr½Sd/ xdkUaMumifh avmukwå&m o&P*Hkudk ]]oD;Ncm; cH,l aqmufwnfzG,f rvdkaom o&P*Hk (odkUr[kwf) rysufwwfaom o&P*Hk}} [k rSwftyf\/ 2/avmuDo&P*Hkum; o'¨gç ynm Ny|mef;aom r[mukodkvf pdwåKyÜg'fwnf;/ oD;Ncm;cH,laqmufwnf&\/ cH,laqmufwnfxm;aomfvnf;

tNrJwnfNyD[k

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tNywf½Sif;xm;NyD;

r[kwfaomaMumifh

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/Ak'¨bmomvufpGJusrf;) ------------------------------

o&P*kHysufrysufukd jyjcif; usKdufxkdNrdKUrS

wynfhjzpfol

½SifudwådavQmufxm;vkdufaompmvTmonf

ouú&mZf

1266-ck?

jymokdvqef; 8-&ufaeYwGif q&mawmfxHokdYa&mufvmonf? ¤if;avQmufvTmwGif yg½SdorQukd Munfh½I&m 0rf;ajrmuf 0rf;om½Sd\/ ]]&aohy&AkdZfrsm;ukd ukd;uG,fMuukefaom olwkdYtm; o&P*kH ysufrnf rysufrnfrsm;ukd jcm;em;pGm odvkdygonf}}[k avQmufxm;csuf yg½SdonfrSm-

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

54


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) 1/ oDvwnfrIç oDvysufrI? 2/ o&P*kHwnfrIç o&P*kHysufrI? wkdYukd xif½Sm;pGmjyí xkdtar;ukdajzqkd&m\/ 1/ oDvwnfrIrnfonf &[ef;oHCmç apwDç ykxkd;ücH,lcJhaomfvnf;aumif;ç rdrdtvkdtavsmufyif EIwf>rufí aqmufwnfcJhaomfvnf;aumif; xkdyk*¾Kdvftm; oDvonfwnf\? aeY&uf tykdif;tjcm;ESifh rSef;xm;í cH,laqmufwnfonf½Sdaomf xkdtykdif;tjcm;ukdvGefvQif xkdoDvonfysuf\/ ysuf\qkdaomfvnf; cH,lrIç aqmufwnfrI uG,fNidrf;í oGm;onfukdqkdvkdonf? usKd;aygufaom tysufrsKd;

r[kwf?

usL;vGefcJhonf½Sdaomf

cH,laqmufwnfaom usL;vGefaom

aeY&uftykdif;tjcm;ukd

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oDvysufrIü

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t½kd;tpOf

xif½Sm;íaeMuaom

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aeY&uftykdif;tjcm;ESifh

cH,laqmufwnfír&?

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cH,l

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o&P*kHü

ykdif;jcm;aom aeY&ufukdvGefí ysufrIr½Sd? aovGefrS ysufrIom½Sdonf/ «usL;vGefíysufrIonfrlum;-oDvço&P*kH 2-yg;pkHüyif½Sd\/» txl;rlum; oDvt&mü1/ wpfckaomodu©myk'fukd usL;vGefcJhvQif 5-yg;? 8-yg; tukefysufenf; wpfrsKd;? 2/ wpfckaom odu©myk'fukd usL;vGefcJhvQif wpfyg;aomodu©myk'fum; rysuf? usL;vGefaom odu©myk'f wpfckom ysufenf;wpfrsKd;/ [lí 2-rsKd;½Sd\/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

55


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) 1/ yOöodu©my'ged orm'd,mrd? t| Oaygox*Fged orm'd,mrd-[lí waygif;wnf; cH,laqmufwnf&mü wpfckysufvQif tukefysuf\/ 2/

,ckumvüuJhokdY

toD;toD;cH,laqmufwnf&mü

wpfckckukdusL;vGefrdvQif

usL;vGefrdaom

odu©myk'fomysuf\/ [k oar®m[0daem'eD odu©my'0dbif; t|uxmüvm\/ o&P*kHt&mürlum;xkduJhokdYr[kwf? waygif;wnf; cH,laqmufwnfonfjzpfap? toD;toD; cH,laqmufwnfonfjzpfap usL;vGefonf½Sdaomf waygif;wnf;omysuf\/ tb,faMumifhenf;qkdaomf1/ odu©myk'fwkdYrSm usL;vGefjcif;ajrmuf&ef t*FgtoD;toD; ½SdMuukef\/ 2/

o&P*kHürlum;-

usL;vGefrIrnfonf

Ak'¨bmomukd

pGefYí

bmomwpfyg;okdY

ajymif;a&TUjcif;

wpfyg;om½Sd\? wpfBudrfaqmufwnfíxm;aom o&P*kHrnfonf raorDtwGif;ü t½Sifa*gwrbk&m;ç t½Sifa*gwrw&m;ç t½Sifa*gwrwynfhom; oHCmç t½Sif a*gwromoemukd rukd;uG,fvkdNyD-[k Ak'¨bmomukd pGefYí c&pf,mefbmomtp½Sdaom bmomwpfyg;okdY ajymif;a&TUrSyif o&P*kHysufawmhonf/ xkdYaMumifh

o&P*kHrnfonf

rpGefYorQumvywfvkH;

tNrJwnf\?

wpfBudrfcH,laqmufwnfNyD;aemuf tcgcg

cH,laqmufwnfbG,fudpör½Sd?

Ak'¨bmomukd okdYaomfvnf;

tcgcgcH,laqmufwnfrIonf ukokdvfw&m; topftopf yGifhvif;rIjzpf\? xkdYaMumifh ,ckumvü vlwkdYonf o&P*kHukdvnf; oDvESifhtwl tcgcg cH,laqmufwnfMu&ukef\? 5-yg;oDvuJhokdY usL;vGefrdcJhaomfç

ysufpD;cJhaomf-[k

rdrdukd,fukd

rdrdpdwfrcsom½Sdí

tcgcgcH,laqmufwnf

Muukefonfvnf;r[kwf? OaygoxoDvuJhokdY ,cifucH,l aqmufwnfaom aeY&uftykdif;tjcm;ukdvGefí Nidrf;cJhNyD-[k tcgcg cH,laqmufwnfMuukefonfvnf; r[kwf/ (usrf;udk;/

/ v,fwDq&mawmfBuD;\ o&P*Hk0dedpä,usrf;opf) ------------------------------

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

56


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) o&P*Hk ysufyHk 2-rsdK; wpfpHkwpfa,muf\ oEÅmefü wnfaeaom o&P*Hkonf1/ wNcm;bmom t,l0g'udk ,HkMunf udk;uG,faomaMumifh Nzpfap? 2/ aoqHk;aomaMumifh Nzpfap ysufpD;\/ t,l0g'wpfyg; aNymif;oGm; ukd;uG,fí o&P*Hk ysufpD;vQif 'd|dwPSm paom udavom yGg;í tNypfrsm;\/ aoqHk;aomaMumifh o&P*Hk ysufpD;vQif rnfonfh tNypfrQ r½Sday/ (ck'´uyg|-|? 7) aqmifyk'f bmomwyg;? udk;uG,fNim;? ysufNym; o&P*Hk/ aoqHk;avNim;? xdkoltm;? ysufNym; o&P*Hk/ (usrf;udk;/

/ csrf;aNrUq&mawmf\ taNcysdK; Ak'¨bmom) ------------------------------

o&P*kHysufjcif;ESifh rysufjcif;tusOf;csKyf 'k0da"m o&P*reaba'g-tp½Sdonfjzifh Ak'¨bmomukdpGefYí bmomwpfyg; ajymif;a&TUojzifh ysufjcif;ç aovGefojzifhysufjcif;-[lí avmuDo&P*kHysufjcif; 2-yg;um;-xif½Sm;NyD;jzpfí tus,frqkdvkdufNyD/ vdk&if;t"dyÜg,frSmrlum;1/ ½Sifa*gwrbk&m;ukd bk&m;r[kwf? ½Sifa*gwr\ w&m;ukd w&m;aumif;r[kwf? ½Sifa*gwr\ wynfh t&d,moHCmukd oHCmaumif;r[kwf-[k pdwfqkH;jzwfonfESifhwpfNydKifeuf xkdolrSm o&P*kHysuf\/ 2/

xkdokdYaom

pdwfrsKd;r½Sdrlí

y&d,wfw&m;ukdvnf;aumif;?

bk&m;ukdvnf;aumif;ç 8-a,mufaom

r*f

4-wefç

zkdvf

4-wefç

t&d,moHCmawmfukdvnf;aumif;

edAÁmefç ,kHMunfNrJ

ukd;uG,fNrJwkdif;aom pdwfukd rpGefYrlí ukokdvfyGg;ç ynmyGg;ç ab;uif;ç &efuif;tm;jzifh wpfyg;aomyk*¾dKvfç wpfyg;aomq&mç rif;pkd;&mZmç rdpämpkef;ewf tp½Sdonfukd ½Sdckd;0yfwGm; cçpm;½kdao ukd;uG,favaomfvnf; o&P*kH rysuf[krSwf/ «þum;-o&P*kHysufjcif;ESifh rysufjcif;ukd tusOf;csKyfjyqkdcsufwnf;/» (usrf;udk;/

/ v,fwDq&mawmfBuD;\ o&P*Hk0dedpä,usrf;opf) ------------------------------

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

57


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) o&P*HkysufrIESifh tavmif;udk o&P*HkwifNcif; avmuDo&P*Hkonf tNrJwnfNyD[k pdwfrcs&? tcsdefra½G; ysufwwf\/ ,if;odkU ysuf&mwGif ]]tNypf½Sdaom ysufNcif;ESifh tNypfr½Sdaom ysufNcif;}} [lí o&P*HkysufNcif; ESpfrsdK;½Sdonf 1/bk&m;rSwyg;

tNcm;

(wdw¬dpaom)

udk;uG,fvQifaomfvnf;aumif;ç

bk&m;½Sif\

q&mrsm;udk

tav;tNrwf

t,l0g'rSwyg;

taetm;Nzifh

tNcm;bmom

t,l0g'odkU

aNymif;vQifaomfvnf;aumif; o&P*Hk ysuf\/ þodkU ysufNcif;um; tNypf½Sdaom ysufNcif;rnf\ (om0ZÆ)/ 2/aovQif o&P*Hk (ukodkvfpdwf) r½SdaomaMumifh o&P*Hk ysuf\/ (aovQif bmrQ rod? ukodkvfpdwfomru tukodkvfpdwfvnf; r½Sd/) þodkU ysufNcif;um; tNypf½Sdaom o&P*Hk ysufNcif;uJhodkU raumif;usdK; ray;ç tusdK;ay;wwfaom w&m;rsdK;vnf; r[kwfaomaMumifh tNypfr½Sdaom ysufNcif;rnf\ (te0ZÆ)/ þodkU wpfOD; wpfa,muf aoqHk;Ncif;odkU a&mufí o&P*Hk ysufoGm;onfhtwGuf tavmif;udk o&P*Hk wifMu&mwGif bmudkrQ rodwwfaom tavmif;aumiftwGuf o&P*Hk wifay;aomfvnf; wifay;aom o&P*Hkudk &Ekdif ,lEdkifonfum; r[kwfyg/ ,if;odkU r&Edkif r,lEdkifaomfvnf; &Edkif,lEdkifaom (o&Jç wapäç aNrbkwfç rSifpmç tpdrf;ç ewfpdrf;ç ewfbDvl;ç ponfac:a0:aom NydwåmtBuD;pm; tol&um,f) b0odkU a&mufí owd&aevQif o&P*Hkudk &ygapç ,lygapawmh[k owday;aomtm;Nzifh &nfrSef;í tavmif;udk o&P*Hkwif½dk; NyKMuNcif; Nzpf\/ þodkU NyKMuNcif;Nzifh aoqHk;olrsm;tzdkU o&P*Hkudk &Edkifu &rnf? ,lEdkifu ,lrnf/ tu,fí aoqHk;oltzdkU (&,lEdkifaom b0r[kwfí) r&Edkif r,lEdkif½Sdapumrl touf½Sif usef&pfaeolrsm;tzdkUum; o&P*Hkudk rvGJraoG &EdkifMuonfom Nzpf\/ xdkUNyif

teD;tyg;½Sd

a½S;u

aovGefoGm;olrsm;taeNzifh

o&P*Hkudk

&vdk,lvdkvQifvnf;

&Edkif,lEdkifMuygonf/ xdkUaMumifh Ak'¨bmom0ifrsm; taeNzifh aoonfhtcg tavmif;udk o&P*Hk wifNcif;onf tusdK;rJh aqmif½GufMuNcif;r[kwf? twåy& (rdrd olwyg; ESpfOD;om;) tusdK;½SdapEdkifaom aumif;rIrsdK;tNzpf aqmif½GufaeMuNcif;NzpfaMumif; oabmaygufoifhMuygonf/ (usrf;udk;/

/Ak'¨bmomvufpGJusrf;) ------------------------------

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

58


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) o&P*HkysufNcif; o&P*Hk wpfBudrfaqmufwnfxm;vQif &wemNrwfoHk;yg;tay: ,HkMunfudk;uG,f qnf;uyfpdwf raysmuforQ umvywfvHk; wnfae\/ o&P*Hk ysufpD;Ncif; ESpfrsdK;½Sdonf/ 1-&wemoHk;yg;udk ,HkMunfudk;uG,fqnf;uyfrI r½SdawmhNcif;/ 2-aoqHk;oGm;Ncif;/ yxrtcsufaMumifh

o&P*HkysufvQif

rdpäm'd|dNzpfoGm;í

oHo&mwGif

tNypfrsm;\/

aoqHk;oGm;Ncif;aMumifh o&P*HkysufvQif tNypfr½Sday/ ,cktcg aoqHk;oGm;aom yk*¾dKvfrsm;udk o&P*HkwifonfqdkNyD; NyKvkyfavh½Sd\/ trSefwu,frSm aoqHk;oGm;ol\

pdwfr½Sdawmhaom

OwkZ½kyftavmif;BuD;onf

tb,frSmvQif

o&P*Hk

wnfEdkifygrnfenf;/ raorD o&P*Hk rnpfnL;rysufpD;&atmif aqmufwnfxm;rSom tusdK;rsm;ygrnf/ odkUaomf aoqHk;oltwGuf NyKvkyfaqmif½GufMuolrsm;rSmrl &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm;xH o&P*Hk aqmufwnfNyD; aumif;rItpkpk NyKvkyfMuNcif;twGuf tusdK;rsm;ygonf/ (usrf;udk;/

/ OD;oufpdef\ NrwfAk'¨\omoemhtaNccH) ------------------------------

o&P*Hk ysufpD;Ncif; bk&m; w&m; oHCm &wemoHk;yg;onf udk;uG,ftm;xm;&m NzpfaomaMumifh ]]o&P}} Nzpfí xdk ]]o&P}} tay:wGif ,HkrSm;awGa0rIr½SdbJ MunfndKav;Nrwf qnf;uyfudk;uG,faom o'¨g? ynm ponfh ukodkvfpdwfrsm;onf ]]o&P*Hk}} NzpfaMumif; azmfNyNyD; Nzpfygonf/ ,if; ]]o&P*Hk}} onf ]]avmuDo&P*Hk}}? ]]avmukwå&mo&P*Hk}} [lí taNccH trsdK;tpm;tm;Nzifh 2-rsdK;½Sdonf/

avmukwå&mo&P*Hk

qdkonfrSm

t&d,myk*¾dKvfwdkUtzdkU

aomwmywådr*fÓPf

Nzpfay:cdkufcPrSmyif &wemoHk;yg;tay:ü awGa0,HkrSm;rI? r,HkMunfrIrsm; uif;NywfNyD; NzpfoNzifh txl;aqmufwnf&ef rvdkawmhacs/ tvdkvdk o&P*Hk wnfNyD; Nzpf\/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

59


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) avmuDo&P*Hkrlum; azmfNyvwåhUygtwdkif; 4-rsdK;½Sd\/ 1/ rdrdudk,fudk &wemoHk;yg;tm; tyfESif;Ncif; (twåoEéd,smwe o&P*Hk)? 2/

rdrdudk,fudk

&wemoHk;yg;omvQif

udk;uG,fvJavsmif;&m

½Sdonf\tNzpfudk

NyKNcif;

(0g)

&wemoHk;yg;tay: vHk;0tm;udk;xm;Ncif; (wyÜ&m,Pwm o&P*Hk)? 3/ rdrdudk,fudk &wemoHk;yg;\ wynfhtNzpf cH,lNcif; (odóbm0ly*re o&P*Hk)? 4/ &wemoHk;yg;tm; 0yfwGm;c, rdrdudk,fudk ESdrfhcsí tvGef ½dkaoaom tNcif;t&mudk NyoNcif; (yPdygw o&P*Hk)/ trSwfpOf (4)Nzpfaom ]]yPdygw o&P*Hk}} wGif 1-omuD0ifrif;rsdK;wdkUu bk&m;½Siftm; aqGrsdK;tNzpfrSwf,lí ½Sdcdk;Ncif;? c&D;OD;MudKNcif;? vuftkyfcsDNcif;? t½dktaoNyKNcif;rsdK;onf o&P*Hk aqmufwnf&m ra&muf/ 2-taMumufw&m;udk taNccHí ½Sdcdk;Ncif;? c&D;OD;MudKNcif;? vuftkyfcsDNcif;? t½dktaoNyKNcif;rsdK;onf o&P*Hk aqmufwnf&m ra&muf/ 3-bk&m;½Siftm; avmuDvrf;ñTef tqHk;trpum;udk em,l&aomaMumifh q&mtNzpf rSwf,lí c&D;OD;MudKNcif; ponfudk NyKvkyfNcif;onf o&P*Hk aqmufwnf&m ra&muf/ 4-oDv? orm"d? ynm*kPf ponfwdkUudk &nfrSwfí ½Sdcdk;Ncif;? c&D;OD;MudKNcif;? vuftkyfcsDNcif; ponfwdkUudk NyKvQif ]]'u©daP,syPdygw}} Nzpfí o&P*Hk wnfonf/ xdkUaMumifh aqGrsdK;ÓwdtrSwfNzifhvnf;aumif;? aMumufíaomfvnf;aumif;? twwfynmoifay;ol q&mtNzpf

rSwf,líaomfvnf;aumif;

rnfolrqdk

½Sdcdk;rI?

c&D;OD;MudKrI

ponfudkNyKvQif

aqmufwnfxm;aom o&P*Hk ysuf,Gif;Ncif; r½Sdacs/ (rSwfcsuf/

/ bk&m;ç w&m;ç oHCmudk rypfy,fbJ vmbfvmb ½Tifapvdkí ewfudk ylaZmfyoNcif;?

ewfzrf;pm;rnfudk pdk;&drfí ½dk;&m wifaNr§mufNcif;wdkUonf o&P*Hk rysufay/) odkU&mwGif &wemoHk;yg;rS wyg;aom yk*¾dKvfwdkU\ oDv? orm"d? ynm*kPf BuD;NrwfrIudk &nfrSwfvsuf

txufwGif

azmfNycJhonfh

avmuDo&P*Hk

aqmufwnfyHk

4-rsdK;udk

NyKvkyfvQifaomfvnf;aumif;? o&P*Hk aqmufwnfxm;ol aoqHk;vQifaomfvnf;aumif; o&P*Hk vHk;0ysufpD;onf/ (rSwfcsuf/

/ bk&m;udk ypfy,fNyD; ewfudkNzpfap? wNcm;aom bk&m;tavmif; (w½kwftef;ukef;)

ponfudkNzpfap udk;uG,f&m[lí qnf;uyfrlum; o&P*Hk ysufonf/)

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

60


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) &wemoHk;yg; *kPfawmfrsm;ü rodem;rvnfNcif;? &wemoHk;yg;tay: awGa0Ncif;? rSm;,Gif;pGm ,lqNcif;? r½dkrao rav;rpm;NyKNcif;wdkUaMumifh aqmufwnfxm;aom o&P*Hk npfEGrf;onf/ odkUNzpfí npfEGrf;Ncif;? ysufpD;Ncif;r½Sdatmif owdaqmifMu&monf/ (usrf;udk;/

/ Ak'¨bmomaumif;wpfa,muf) ------------------------------

o&P*Hk rwnfEdkifol o&P*Hk wnfaeolonf wNcm;bmomudk aNymif;vGJ udk;uG,frI rNyKorQ raorcsif; olUoEÅmefü o&P*Hk wnfae\/ aovQifum; o&P*Hk ysufoGm;ayNyD/ aoNyD;aemuf pdwf r½Sdawmhaom OwkZ½kyftavmif;ürl

o&P*Hk

rwnfEdkifay/

pdwfonfvnf;

OwkZ½kyf<uif;teD;ü

r½SdawmhbJ

aemufwpfb0ü Nzpfysuf tpOftwdkif; NzpfvsufaeavNyD/ (usrf;udk;/

/ csrf;aNrUq&mawmf\ taNcysdK; Ak'¨bmom) ------------------------------

o&P*Hk trSm;rsm; bk&m;? w&m;? oHCm &wemoHk;yg;rS wpfyg; wNcm; w&m;? wNcm; t&mudk rdrdwdkU qif;&Judk Nidrf;ay;Edkifonf[k xifrSwfum tm;udk;&m taeNzifh ,HkMunf qnf;uyf udk;uG,fvQif rSm;,Gif;aom ,HkMunf tm;udk;rI? rSm;,Gif;aom udk;uG,frIom Nzpf\/ tb,fhaMumifhqdkaomf xdkw&m; xdkt&mwdkUü qif;&JNidrf;aMumif; tusifhaumif; tusifhrSef r½SdaomaMumifhyif/ NrwfpGmbk&m; vufxufawmftcgu t*¾d'wå &aohBuD;ESifh wynfh wpfaomif;wdkUonf opfyif? awm? awmif? opfoD;O,smOf? yef;O,smOf? ewfuGef;awGudk udk;uG,faeMu\/ NrwfpGmbk&m;u olwdkU udk;uG,faeMuonfrSm rSm;,Gif;aom udk;uG,frIawG NzpfaMumif;? qif;&Judk rNidrf;apEdkifaMumif;

&wemoHk;yg;udk

,HkMunfudk;uG,frSomvQif

r*¾if½Spfwef

tusifhrSefudk

usifhMuHtm;xkwfcGifh &oNzifh opömav;yg; trSefw&m;udk odí qif;&J Nidrf;apEdkifaMumif; a[mMum;vsuf vrf;rSefudk Nyay;&\/ xdktcgrSyif t*¾d'wåESifh wynhftm;vHk; todrSef tNrifrSef&um &[EÅm NzpfoGm;Mu\/ ("r®-| 2? 159) (usrf;udk;/

/ csrf;aNrUq&mawmf\ taNcysdK; Ak'¨bmom) ------------------------------

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

61


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) o&P*HkykwD;pdyfNcif; a½S;a½S;q&mNrwfwdkUonf o&P*Hkudk txyfxyf tcgcg cH,laqmufwnf½HkrQru o&P*Hk txHk&ap&efESifh o&P*Hk npfEGrf;rIr½SdbJ tpOfxm0& NzLpifawmufyrI½Sdap&ef o&P*HkygVdudk txyfxyf tcgcg ½GwfqdkyGg;rsm;NyD; ykwD;pdyfNcif;rsm;vnf; ½Sdygonf/ ykwD;pdyfenf;udkvnf; atmufygtwdkif; nTefMum;azmfNyMuygonf-rsufpdudkrSdwf (odkUr[kwf) rsufvTmudkcs? ]]Ak'¨H o&PH *pämrd}} [lí yg;pyfu qdk? vufu ykwD;wpfvHk;cs/ NrwfpGmbk&m;udk ]]qif;&Judk y,fazsmuf csrf;omudk a&mufapwwfaom udk;uG,f&m bk&m;Nrwf&wem}} [lí pdwfu od? ykwD;wpfywf&atmifpdwf/ -rsufpdudkrSdwf (odkUr[kwf) rsufvTmudkcs? ]]"r®H o&PH *pämrd}} [lí yg;pyfu qdk? vufu ykwD;wpfvHk;cs/ w&m;awmfNrwfudk ]]qif;&Judk y,fazsmuf csrf;omudk a&mufapwwfaom udk;uG,f&m w&m;Nrwf&wem}} [lí pdwfu od? ykwD;wpfywf&atmifpdwf/ -rsufpdudkrSdwf (odkUr[kwf) rsufvTmudkcs? ]]oHCH o&PH *pämrd}} [lí yg;pyfu qdk? vufu ykwD;wpfvHk;cs/ oHCmawmfNrwfudk

]]qif;&Judk

y,fazsmuf

csrf;omudk

a&mufapwwfaom

udk;uG,f&m

oHCmawmfNrwf&wem}} [lí pdwfu od? ykwD;wpfywf&atmifpdwf/ þenf;tm;Nzifh t"d|mef0wfxm;í Nzpfapç 0wfrxm;bJ Nzpfap o&P*Hk ygVdrsm;udk ½GwfyGg;NyD; ykwD;pdyfEdkifMuygonf/ ykwD;pdyfNcif;onf ygVdawmfç t|uxmç #Dum usrf;rsm;wGif vmaom usrf;*efvm tvkyfrsdK;r[kwfapumrl a½S;a½S;q&mNrwfwdkU pOfqufrNywf usifhoHk;awmfrlcJhMuaom ukodkvfaumif;rI vkyfief;wpfck Nzpfygonf/ ,aeUtxdvnf; ykwD;pdyfNcif;tvkyfudk olawmfpifwdkU ½dkaopGm vdkufem vkyfudkifaqmif½Gufvsuf ½Sdygonf/ o&P*Hk ykwD;pdyfNcif;Nzifh o&P*Hk npfEGrf;rIr½SdbJ NzLpifrI&apNyD; udk,fEIwfESvHk; oHk;yg;vHk; o&P*HktxHkaumif;pGm &EdkifMuygonf/ cE¨mudk,fwpfckvHk; o&P*HkNzifh xHkxm;Edkifygu txHk&pGJNrJaeaom o&P*Hkpdwfonf

um,uH

aomif;usef;rIç

Nzpfapwwfonfh

tukodkvftnpfw&m;rsm;udk

0pDuH

aomif;usef;rIç

z,f½Sm;NyD;

raemuH

NzLpifaom

aomif;usef;rIudk ukodkvfw&m;rsm;udk

tpOfwdk;yGg;apEdkifygonf/ o&P*Hkukodkvfpdwfonf omoemwGif;ukodkvfNzpfí vGefpGm pGrf;tm; BuD;rm;vS\/ xdkUaMumifh tqdkyg o&P*Hkukodkvfpdwfonf a&xJodkU ypfcsvdkufwdkif; NrKyfwwfaom av;vHonfhausmufcJ oHcJrsm;udk avSoabFmBuD;rsm;onf rNrKyfatmif umqD; wm;NrpfEdkifouJhodkU tukodkvfw&m;\ tusdK;ay;cGifhudkyif

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

62


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) umqD;wm;NrpfNyD; ewf½Gmok*wdodkU vm;a&muf&Ncif; paom aumif;aom tusdK;rsm;udk ay;pGrf;Edkifygonf/ ,if;odkU

tusdK;

ay;pGrf;EdkifaMumif;

odomxif½Sm;vSygonf/

oH,kwfusrf;vm

rdrdwdkUudk,fwdkif

]]o&POygoum}}

vkyfudkifaqmif½GufNcif;Nzifh

\

Zmwfvrf;t&

vufawGU

tusdK;rsm;udk

odNrifcHpm;EdkifMuygonf/ atmufygwdkUrSm a½S;q&mNrwfwdkU azmfNytyfaom o&P*Hk ykwD;pdyfNcif;\ tusdK;NyvuFmrsm; Nzpfygonf -o&P*Hk? oHk;yg;pHk? Munf,HkykwD;pdyf/ -o&P*Hk? udk,fvHk;xHk? NynfhpHkod'¨d[dwf/ -o&P*Hk? udk,fvHk;xHk? tm½Hkxifedrdwf/ -tEÅ&m,fuif;? uyfausmfeif;? aygNcif;vmbfrqdwf/ (usrf;udk;/

/Ak'¨bmomvufpGJusrf;) ------------------------------

o&P*HkwnfNcif;\ tusdK; o&P*Hk raqmufwnfbJ oDv,lEdkifaomfvnf; o&P*Hk wnfNyD;rS aqmufwnf usifhoHk;tyfaom oDvonfomvQif ydkrdkNyD; aumif;usdK;BuD;rm; Nrifhrm;aomaMumifh o&P*Hk aqmufwnfNyD;rSom ig;yg;oDvç ½Spfyg;oDv ponfwdkUudk aqmufwnfMuygonf/

ÓPf,SOfç r,SOf apwDç

ykxdk;ç

½kyfyGg;ç

qif;wkawmfrsm;udk

awGUNrifaomtcgESifh

&[ef;oHCmawmfrsm;udk

awGUNrifaomtcg rdbwdkUu ]]½Sdcdk;Mu? OD;csMu}} [k cdkif;aomaMumifh &wemoHk;yg;udk qnf;uyfudk;uG,faom uav;oli,fwdkU\ rd½dk;zvm o&P*Hkonf ÓPfr,SOf (ÓP0dyÜ,kwfNzpf) aom o&P*HkNzpfonf/ þo&P*Hkonfvnf; aumif;usdK;&Edkif\/ bk&m;ç w&m;ç oHCm &wemoHk;yg;\ *kPfawmfrsm;udk razmufrNyef rSefuefpGm ygVdteuf t"dyÜm,f

xifNrifí

,HkMunfouf0ifvsuf

ok*wdb0tqifhqifhESifh &wemoHk;yg;wdkUudk

edAÁmefwdkifatmif

udk;uG,fqnf;uyfolwdkU\

aumif;usdK;&Edkifonf[k o&P*Hkonf

ÓPfESifh,SOf

(ÓPorÜ,kwfNzpf) aom o&P*Hk Nzpf\/ o&P*Hk\ aumif;usdK;tmedoifum; vlUb0ç ewfb0\ NynfhpHkNcif; vlUpnf;pdrfç ewfpnf;pdrfç NA[®mhpnf;pdef csrf;omrsm;ESifh NynfhpHkonfhtNyif r*f? zdkvf? edAÁmefwdkifatmif aumif;usdK;ay;Edkifonf/ (usrf;udk;/

/ Ak'¨bmomaumif;wpfa,muf) ------------------------------

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

63


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) o&P*Hk wnfNcif; tusdK;rsm; avmuü bk&m;ç w&m;ç oHCm &wemNrwfoHk;yg;onf rnfonfht&mESifhrQ EdIif;pmí r&atmif tNrifhqHk; twkrJh &wemrsm;Nzpfygonf/ tvGefvnf; awGUcJ qHkcJ MuHKMudKufcJygonf/ ,if;odkU tNrifhqHk; tNrwfqHk; twkrJh &wemrsm;Nzpfí tvGefvnf; awGUcJ qHkcJ MuHKMudKufcJvSaom &wemNrwfoHk;yg;udk udk;uG,ftm;xm;&m[lí ,HkMunfodrSwf qnf;uyfudk;uG,f&oNzifh o&P*Hkwnf&Ncif;onf vGefpGm tusdK;BuD;NrwfvSyg\/ tNrifhqHk; tNrwfqHk; twkrJh tusdK;rsm;udk &½SdcHpm;EdkifMuygonf/ aumif;aom ok*wdb0odkU a&muf&Ncif;ç pnf;pdrfOpömESifh NynfhpHk&Ncif;ç tyg,f'k*¾wdb0odkU rus ra&muf&bJ ewfNynfodkU a&muf&Ncif;ç ewfNynfodkU a&mufaomtcgü touf½SnfNcif;ç tqif;vSNcif;ç csrf;omBuD;Ncif;ç ta>ct&Hrsm;Ncif;ç tpdk;&Ncif; ig;rsdK;ESifh tqif; toHç teHUç t&omç tawGUtxd tm½Hkig;yg;? aygif; q,fyg;wdkUrSm tNcm; (o&P*Hk rwnfaom) ewfrsm;xuf omvGefNcif;wdkUudk &½SdcHpm;Edkif\/ wenf;tm;Nzifh Nzpfav&m b0wdkif;ü trsm;ylaZmf cH&Ncif;ç xufaom ÓPfynm½SdNcif;ç rdrdtvdkodkU vdkufygapEdkifNcif;ç trsm;ESifhrwlaom pnf;pdrfcsrf;omrsm;udk cHpm;&Ncif;ç a½Ttqif;ESifh wlNcif;ç trsm; ESpfoufMunfñdkrIudk

cH&Ncif;ç

rdwfaqG

taygif;toif;rsm;\

cspfcifESpfoufrIudk

&Ncif;ç

ausmfapmxif½Sm;Ncif; [laom tusdK;xl; ½Spfyg;udk &Ncif;wdkUrSm o&P*HkwnfNcif;aMumifh &½SdcHpm;&aom usrf;*efvm tusdK;rsm;Nzpfygonf/ xdkrSwyg; o&P*Hkudk ½GwfyGg;í tpmpm;vQif tpm tqdyfroifh/ udk,f0ef½SdaepOf o&P*Hkudk ½GwfyGg;vQif csrf;ompGm arG;zGm;\/ tarG;& vG,ful\/ arG;zGm;vmaom om;orD;rsm; ab;&efuif;\/ o&P*Hkudk tNrJ½GwfyGg;aevQif o&J wapä raNcmuf? ab;&efra&muf? o&P*Hkudk ½Gwfqdkí opfyifrsm;udk pdkufysdK;vQif opfyifrsm; ydk;rus? aumif;pGm ½Sifoefí zGHUxGm;oefrmaom toD;tESH t½Gufrsm;udk &Edkifonf paomtm;Nzifh

vufawGUtusdK;

vGefpGmrsm;vSygonf/

cHpm;&olwdkUu

pifppftm;Nzifhum;

0ef;&HaNymqdkMuaom

o&P*HkwnfNcif;\

o&P*Hk

tusdK;oGm;onf

tusdK;wdkUrSmvnf; ]]þrSomwnf;?

þxufrydk}} [k qdkzG,fr½Sdyg/ tNrifhqHk; tNrwfqHk;Nzpfaom twkrJh &wemNrwfoHk;yg;tay: ,HkMunfodrSwf qnf;uyf

udk;uG,f&Ncif;aMumifh

&Edkifaom

tusdK;wdkUum;

teEÅ

ty&drmP

twdkif;twmr½Sd

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

64

rsm;Nym;BuD;us,fonfom trSefNzpfygonf/ (usrf;udk;/

/Ak'¨bmomvufpGJusrf;) ------------------------------


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) o&P*Hk\tusdK; o&P*HkwnfvQif b0aumif; b0rGefawGudk&Ncif;? pnf;pdrfOpöm NynfhpHkNcif;rS pí qif;&Jcyfodrf; Nidrf;onftxd aumif;usdK;csrf;omudk &½SdEdkif\/

ewfNzpf&aom wHigonf a½S;u oD[dkVfuRef;ü ½GmwGif wrDvf vlrsdK; wHigonf wpfa,muf ½Sd\/ olonf ESpfaygif; ig;q,fwdkifwdkif wHigvkyfief;Nzifh toufarG;0rf;ausmif;NyD;aemuf tdkrif;rpGrf; Nzpfaomtcg a&m*g ESdyfpufí tdyf&mxufü vJavsmif;ae\/ &[ef;awmfwpfyg;onf xdk wHigonfESifh oduRrf;oNzifh aocgeD; wHigonfrSm tenf;i,frQyif axmufwnf&m &apawmhqdkaom oabmNzifh olUtdrfodkU <uoGm;\/ tdrfodkU a&mufaomtcg vlrrm wHigonfudk o&P*Hk aqmufwnfap\/ wHigonfonf aoab;udk aMumufoNzifh o&P*Hkudk vdkvdkvm;vm; cH,laqmufwnf\/ &[ef;awmfu qufvufí ig;yg;oDv wdkifay;aomtcg vlrrmrSm ar;cdkifoGm;í vdkufrqdkEdkifawmhay/ &[ef;awmfu oifhavmufNyD[kqdkum ausmif;odkU Nyef<uoGm;\/ rMumrDyif wHigonf uG,fvGefí pwkr[m&mZfewfNynfü ewfpnf;pdrf csrf;omudk cHpm;&\/ þwHigonf ESpfaygif;ig;q,f NyKvkyfcJhaom ygPmwdygw (tmpdPÖuH) tukodkvfudk aocgeD;rS NyK&aom (tmoEéuH) o&P*Hk ukodkvfu wm;Nrpfvdkufum aumif;usdK;csrf;omudk ay;Ncif;Nzpfonf (tH-| 2? 107)/ odkUaomf o&P*Hkukodkvf\ tpGrf;owåd ukefqHk;aomtcg xdkol\ ygPmwdygwuH tusdK;ay;cGifh &vmEdkifayonf/ (usrf;udk;/

/ csrf;aNrUq&mawmf\ taNcysdK; Ak'¨bmom) ------------------------------

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

65


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) om"u0w¬Krsm; o&P*HkwnfNcif;

tusdK;rsm;udk

ay:vGifrIESifh

cdkifvHkrI½Sd&ef

usrf;*efvm

xif½Sm;aom

o&P*HktusdK;Ny om"u0w¬Krsm;udk azmfNyygOD;rnf/

aoaomufMuL; ]]o&POygoum}} taMumif; bk&m;½Sif

vufxufawmfü

bk&m;½Sif\

aqGawmfrsdK;awmf

trsdK;om;wpfa,mufonf

t&ufaopmudk vlrSef;odwwfonfh t½G,frSpí rNywfrvyf aomufpm;avh½SdcJhonf/ xdkodkU t&ufaopm aomufpm;avh½Sdaomfvnf; bk&m;ç w&m;ç oHCm &wemoHk;yg;tay:ü ,HkMunftm;xm;onfhpdwfum; vGefpGmBuD;rm;cdkifrmvS\/ tb,frQBuD;rm;oenf;[lrl wpfOD;wpfa,mufu ]]oifonf bk&m;udk bk&m;r[kwfbl;? w&m;udk w&m; r[kwfbl;? oHCmudk oHCmr[kwfbl;vdkU aNymvQifaNym? raNymvQif oif\ OD;acgif;udk Nzwfypfrnf}} [k qdkcJhvQif ]]oifNzwfvdku Nzwfyg? ightaeeJU bk&m;udk bk&m;r[kwfbl;? w&m;udk w&m; r[kwfbl;? oHCmudk oHCmr[kwfbl;[k b,fenf;ESifhrQ raNym0Hhyg}} [lí

NyefaNymEdkifpGrf;onftxd

BuD;rm;cdkifrmolNzpfonf/

þrQ

BuD;rm;vGef;onfhtwGufaMumifhvnf;

&wemoHk;yg;tay:ü

,HkMunftm;xm;onfhpdwf"mwf

&wemoHk;yg;tay:ü

,HkMunftm;xm;onfhpdwf"mwf

xdktrsdK;om;\

trnfudk

trsm;u

]]o&POygoum}}

[k

ac:cJhMuonf/ xdk ]]o&POygoum}} ac: aoaomufMuL;trsdK;om;onf xdkb0rS aovGefonf½Sdaomf &wemoHk;yg;tay:

toufpGefUí

,HkMunftm;xm;aom

o&P*HkpdwfaMumifh

ewfNynfodkU

vm;a&muf&avonf/ þodkU b0wavQmufvHk;

ewfNynfa&muf&aMumif;udk t&ufaopm

bk&m;½Sifu

a[mNyawmfrl&m

aomufpm;vmcJholNzpfygvsuf

o&POygoumonf

aoonfhtcg

ewfNynfodkU

a&mufoGm;onfqdkaom bk&m;½Sif\ a[mMum;csufudk aqGawmfrsdK;awmftm;vHk;u r,HkMunfEdkifNzpfMuonf/ tcsif;csif; pkrdwdkif; aNymqdkMuí NrwfpGmbk&m;tm; uJh&JUNypfwifMuawmhonf/ þtaMumif;udk bk&m;½Sif\ baxG;awmf ]]r[memrf}} omuD0ifrif;u Mum;&onfhtwGuf bk&m;½Siftm; avQmufxm;&m -

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

66


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) r[memrf . . . &wem oHk;yg;ü rwkefrvIyf ouf0if ,HkMunfol ]]o&POygoum}} onf aoqHk;onfESifh wNydKifeuf aomwmyeftNzpfa&mufNyD; ewfNynfodkU a&mufoGm;&Ncif;rSm rSefayonf/ ]]&wemoHk;yg;\ *kPfawmf aus;Zl;awmfrsm;u twdkif;rod BuD;us,fNrifhNrwfNcif;ç &wemoHk;yg;tay: toufpGefUí

rwkefrvIyf

ao&nfao&uf

,HkMunfaom

aomufpm;um

o'¨gw&m;

xm;½SdNcif;}}

tukodkvftm;tpGrf;onf

[laom

taMumif;wdkUaMumifh

o&P*HkwnfNcif;\

ukodkvfpGrf;tm;udk

umqD;wm;NrpfNcif;rNyKEdkif [lí bk&m;½Sifu NyefvnfrdefUMum;awmfrlcJhygonf (oH? 3? 326) / (þ0w¬Konf

&wemoHk;yg;udk

toufESif;í

rysufr,Gif;

rwkefrvIyf

,HkMunfudk;uG,faom

avmukwå&mo&P*Hk tusdK;Ny om"u0w¬K Nzpf\/) (usrf;udk;/

/Ak'¨bmomvufpGJusrf;) ------------------------------

o&P*Hkwnfaom trsdK;om;wpfa,muftaMumif; taemr'óD NrwfpGmbk&m;yGifhxGef;awmfrl&mtcgü rsufrNrifrdbESpfyg;wdkUudk NyKpkvkyfauR;aeaom vkvifwpfa,muf½Sdavonf/ ¤if;vkvifonf wpfaeUoü þodkU tMuHwpfckNzpfav\ igonf rsufrNrif rdb ESpfyg;udk vkyfauR;ae&onfhtwGuf ½Sif&[ef;NyKcGifhr& Nzpfae&onf? bk&m;½SifyGifhawmfrl&m omoemawmfESifh MuHKMudKufonfhtcdkuf udk;uG,f&m wpfckudkawmh ½SmazGqnf;yl;rS oifhrnf [lí tMuHNzpfavonf/ ,if;odkU

MuHNyD;aemuf

taemr'óD

NrwfpGmbk&m;\

t*¾om0uwynfhNzpfaom

]]edobrax&fNrwf}} xHodkU csOf;uyfNyD; o&P*Hk oHk;yg;udk woufvHk; rysufatmif aqmufwnfcJhavonf/ xdktcsdefu

vlwdkU\

toufwrf;onf

wpfodef;wrf;NzpfaomaMumifh

vGefpGm

touf½SnfoNzifh

o&P*Hkvnf; MumMumwnf&avonf/ o&P*Hkonf umv½Snf½Snfwnfav tusdK;rsm;av Nzpfygonf/ xdkvkvifonf rsufrNrif rdbESpfyg;wdkUudk vkyfauR;vsufyif o&P*Hkudk toufxufqHk; rysuf rpD;&atmif udk;uG,f tm;xm;&m NyKí aqmufwnfNyD; xdkb0rS pkawaovGefvQif o&P*Hkudk

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

67


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) toufxufqHk;

rysufrpD;&atmif

aqmufwnfxm;aom

aumif;rIaMumifh

wm0wðomewfNynfü

ewfwumwdkUudk tpdk;&aom odMum;rif;BuD; Nzpf&av\/ þodkUþyHk o&P*Hkudk vHkNcHKpGm woufvHk; aqmufwnfcJhaomaumif;rI\ tusdK;qufaMumifhyif odMum;rif; tNzpfcsnf;yJ qufumqufum Nzpf&onfrSm tBudrfaygif; ½Spfq,f? av;uRef;vHk;udk tpdk;&aom pMum0aw;rif;BuD; Nzpf&onfrSm ckepfq,fhig;Budrf? ya'o&mZfç {u&mZfrif; tNzpfwdkUrSm ra&rwGufEdkifatmif tBudrf rsm;vSygonf/ xdkvkvifonf udk;q,fhwurÇmywfvHk; tyg,fav;yg;odkU wpfBudrfwpfcgrQ

rvm;a&muf&bJ

vlUbHkESifh

ewf&yfwdkUüom

txyfxyfvSnfhum

vlrif;pnf;pdrf

ewfrif;pnf;pdrfcsrf;omwdkUudk tBudrfBudrf tcgcg rsm;pGm cHpm;cJh&ygonf/ Nzpfav&m b0wdkUüvnf; olwyg;wdkUxuf xl;uJaom ]]trsm;tylaZmfcH&Ncif;? xufaomÓPfynm½SdNcif;}} ponfh tusdK;xl;½Spfyg;udk txift½Sm;

cHpm;cJh&ygonf/

þodkU

pnf;pdrfcsrf;omtNzmNzmudk

aumif;pGm

cHpm;pHpm;NyD;

þa*gwrNrwfpGmbk&m; yGifhxGef; ay:aygufvmaomtcg ]]om0w¬dNrdKU}} 0,f Opöm<u,fNzdK; olaX;rsdK;ü Nzpfvmavonf/ xdkoli,f olaX;om;av;onf ckepfESpfom;t½G,fodkU a&mufaomtcg upm;azmfoli,frsm;\ a½SUoGm;acgif;aqmifNzpfí

upm;NrL;xl;aysmfyg;&if;

&[ef;awmfrsm;

oDwif;oHk;&m

ausmif;wdkufodkU

oGm;a&mufum o&P*Hk oHk;yg; ay;oem;awmfrlygbk&m;[k avQmufav\/ &[EÅmwpfyg;u o&P*Hk oHk;yg;udk ay;awmfrlavvQif ckepfESpfom;t½G,f xdkoli,fonf o&P*Hkudk cH,l aqmufwnfí NyD;vQif NyD;csif;yif &[EÅmtNzpfodkU a&mufavonf/ taemr'óD NrwfpGmbk&m; yGifhawmfrl&m vGefcJhaom wpfoacsFESifh urÇmwpfodef;tcgrS pí wpfBudrfwpfcgom

aqmufwnfcJhzl;aom

o&P*Hkudk

vHkNcHKpGm

rysufpD;atmif

apmifha½SmufcJhaom

aumif;rIudk taNccHNyKí &[EÅmtNzpfodkU a&muf&avaomaMumifh þomoemawmfü ]]o&P*reD,ax&f}} [k aevtoGif xif½Sm; ausmfapm cJhygonf (ty? 1? 82/ ty? |? 2? 39) /

wHigonf wpfOD;taMumif; a½S;tcg ]]'rdV}} rnfaom trsdK;om; wpfOD;onf tESpfig;q,fywfvHk; wHigtvkyfNzifh toufarG;aexdkifvmcJhayonf/ rxEdkifNzpfcJhayonf/

touf-50

tdrf½SifrNzpfolu

t½G,fwGif

aNcqkyfvufe,f

a&m*ga0'empGJuyfí

NyKay;vsuf

½SdaepOf

tdyf&mrS

&[ef;awmfwpfyg;

<uvmoNzifh tdrf½Sifru awmifausmif;ae &[ef;awmf <uvmaMumif; 'rdCVwHigonftm; aNymNyonf/ 'rdV wHigonfu ]]igonf tESpfig;q,fywfvHk; rax&f\ txHodkU wpfcgrQ roGm;a&mufzl;yg?

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

68


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) rax&fonf tb,faus;Zl;udkaxmufí ighxHodkU vmoenf;}} [k tar;cdkif;vdkufonf/ tdrf½SifrNzpfolu cdkif;aponfhtwdkif; raNymbJ ]]uefawmhqGrf;ygbk&m;}} [k &[ef;awmfudk avQmufxm;vdkufygonf/ xdktcg &[ef;awmfu ]]'g,um . . . b,fE, S faewHk;}} [k Nyefvnf ar;Nref;awmfrl&m tdrf½Sif'g,dumr-u &[ef;awmfvnf;

]]'g,umrSm tdrfwGif;odkU

raqmufwnfvdkbl;vm;}}

0ifa&muf<uvmNyD;

[k

NyefMum;avQmufxm;onfhtwGuf

tvGeftm;enf;aeygaMumif;}} ar;Nref;onf/

&[ef;awmfu

]]'g,um

NyefMum;avQmufxm;oNzifh .

'g,umu

'g,umtm;

.

.

o&P*HkoDvrsm;

]]aqmufwnfvdkaMumif;}}

o&P*HkESifhwuG

ig;yg;oDvudk

ay;avonf/ þodkU ay;aepOf ig;yg;oDvcH,l aqmufwnfEdkifonftxd ra&mufbJ o&P*HktqHk;rSmyif yg;pyf rvIyfEdkifawmhbJ aoqHk;um ewfNynfodkU qdkufa&mufoGm;avonf/ ewfNynfodkU a&mufvQif a&mufcsif; o&P*Hk cH,laqmufwnfcJh&aom aumif;rIaMumifh ,ckuJhodkU ewfNynfa&muf&aMumif; od½Sdum vlUNynfodkU qif;NyD; o&P*HkoDvcsD;Nr§ifhay;oem;aom &[ef;awmftm; zl;aNrmfuefawmhvsuf ewfNynfa&muf&yHk taMumif;pHkudk þodkU avQmufxm;avonf t½SifNrwfbk&m; . . . wynfhawmfonf ,ckuJhodkU (pwkr[m&mZf) ewfNynfodkU a&muf&Ncif;onf t½Sifbk&m; csD;Nr§ifhay;oem;awmfrlaom o&P*Hkudk cH,laqmufwnf&onfhtwGuf Nzpfygonf/ t½Sifbk&m; csD;Nr§ifh

ay;oem;awmfrlaom

ig;yg;oDvudkyg

wynfhawmf

raorD

tu,fíom

qufvuf

cH,laqmufwnfcGifh &cJhygvQif txufxuf ewfNynfrsm;odkUyif a&mufEdkifygonf/ t½Sifbk&m;\ aus;Zl;onf wynfhawmftay:ü vGefpGmBuD;rm; rsm;Nym;vSygonf bk&m; [lí 0rf;aNrmuf0rf;om NyefMum;avQmufxm;avonf/ o&P*Hkay;aom q&mum; q&mrnfumrwå r[kwfyg? teEÅ*dkPf;0if aus;Zl;½Sifq&mrsdK; Nzpfygonf (tH? |? 2? 107) /

o&P*Hkrwnfu vlrrnfNcif;taMumif; oD[dVf(,ck oD&dvuFm)EdkifiH omoem0ifordkif;wGif ]]'k|*grPdrif;BuD;}} onf rdrdEdkifiHtm; usL;ausmfapmfum;vmonfh

]]tau©mbdPD}}

ru

rsm;aom

rdpäm'd|d

]]usnf;ukvm;}}

rsm;udk

wGef;vSefwdkufcdkuf&mü &wemoHk;yg;udk OD;xdyfwifí w&m;aom ppfyGJudk qifETJcJhonf-

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

69


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) ,ck igppfwdkufNcif;onf rif;pnf;pdrf[laom ig\ tusdK;pD;yGg;twGuf r[kwfyg? tenf;i,frQyif udk,fusdK; ryg½Sdyg/ twkr½Sdaom NrwfpGmbk&m;½Sif omoemawmfESifh &wemNrwfoHk;yg; wnfwHh NyefUyGg;xGef;um;&ef twGufom Nzpfygonf [k opömt"d|mefpum; usL;&ifh >rufMum;cJhonf/ &wem oHk;yg;tm; toufudk ESif;í w&m;aomppfyGJ qifETJcJh&m atmifyGJ&cJhavonf/ 'k|*grPdrif;BuD;onf

tau©mbdPD

ruaom

usnf;ukvm;wdkUudk

owfNzwfESdrfESif;í

ppfcif;atmifNrifcJhNyD;aemuf ,if;odkU owfNzwfaoapcJh&Ncif;twGuf rdrdtm; oufom&m&Edkif&ef taMumif; tcGifhaumif; ½Sdç r½Sd &[EÅmrax&fNrwf ½Spfyg;wdkUxH ar;Nref;avQmufxm;cJh&m &[EÅmrax&fNrwf½Spfyg;wdkUu oufom&m &EdkifaMumif; atmufygtwdkif; rdefU>ruf aNzMum;awmfrlcJhonf rif;Nrwf . . . oif rif;Nrwfonf tau©mbdPD ruaom usnf;ukvm;rsm;udk owfNzwfaoap&mü (o&P*Hk wnfol wpfa,mufESifh ig;yg;oDvNrJol wpfa,muf yg0ifaomaMumifh) wpfa,mufESifh wpfydkif;twGufom (vlowfrI) tNypf ½Sdonf/ <uif;aom (rdpämt,l½SdolESifh oDvr½Sdol) &efoltm;vHk;wdkU owfrItwGuf (vlowfrI) tNypfr½Sd? wd&pämefom;orifrsm; owfrI tNypfrsdK;avmufom ½Sdonf[k rSwf,loifh\/ oif rif;Nrwf wd&pämef om;orifrsm; EGm;rsm;ESifh wlaom &efolrsm;ESifh wuG vlwpfa,mufESifh wpfydkif;wdkUudk owfrdaom tukodkvfonf NrwfpGmbk&m;½Sif\ omoemawmfNrwf oHk;yg; wnfwHhNyefUyGg; xGef;um;a&;twGuf &nf½G,fonfNzpfaomaMumifh oif rif;Nrwftm; ewfNynfa&muf&ef tEÅ&m,fç r*fzdkvf&&ef tEÅ&m,f rNzpfEdkifyg/ NyD;cJhonfh ppfyGJrsm;udk taMumif;NyKí ESvHk;rom,mNcif;NzpfaevQif ,if;udk y,fazsmufavmh [k &[EÅmrax&fNrwf ½Spfyg;wdkUu oufom&m &EdkifaMumif;pum; rdefU>ruf aNzMum;awmfrlcJhygonf (r[m0Hot|uxm) / azmfNyyg o&P*Hk tusdK;Ny om"u0w¬Krsm;t& qdk;oGrf;olwdkUtwGufyif txl;tm;udk;tm;xm; rSDcdkp&mNzpfí raumif;usdK;[lorQudk wm;qD;NyD; aumif;usdK;csrf;om[lorQudk trsm;BuD;ay;pGrf;Edkifaom vlUb0twGuf

tm;txm;xdkufqHk;

bk&m;ç

w&m;ç

oHCm

&wemNrwfoHk;pHk

o&P*Hkudk

uav;oli,frsm;utp vlwdkif;vlwdkif; ,HkMunfpGm cH,laqmufwnfí udk,fvHk;xHkxm;oifhygonf/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

70


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) aAm"drif;om;\

r,fawmfonf

aAm"drif;om;av;

udk,f0ef½SdpOfrSpíyif

aAm"drif;om;av;twGufyg &nfrSef;NyD; bk&m;½SifxHü o&P*Hkudk cH,laqmufwnfxm;cJh&m rdrd(r,fawmf) twGufomru 0rf;wGif;ü½Sdaom udk,f0efom;i,fav;twGufyg o&P*Hk\ tapmifhta½Smufudk aumif;pGm &cJhygonf (r? 2? 227) / (usrf;udk;/

/Ak'¨bmomvufpGJusrf;) ------------------------------

o&P*HkESifh oDv½Sdol tyg,frus/

/ ]]qif;wk? apwDawmfrsm;udk zl;aNrmf&onfrSm ukodkvfr&}} [k

rqdkvdkyg/ rsm;pGm ukodkvf&ayonf/ odkUaomf qif;wkawmf? apwDawmfrsm;onf oufawmfxif½Sm; NrwfpGmbk&m;udk

xifNrifvmzdkU&m

wnfxm;

udk;uG,ftyfaom

twktyGg;rQom

NzpfaomaMumifh

bk&m;½Sifwdkifatmif tm½HkNyKEdkif? rSef;qEdkifrSom pepfwus omítusdK;&aom zl;aNrmfNcif;[k qdkvdkygonf/ xdkodkU bk&m;½Sif\ *kPfawmfrsm;ESifhwuG w&m; oHCmawmf\ *kPfawmfrsm;udk av;av;pm;pm; tm½HkNyKwwf? MunfndKwwfonfhNyif 'kp½dkufq,fyg;lrS a½Smifaom udk,fusifhw&m;ESifh NynfhpHk vHkNcHKygrlum;]]£" r[memr {uapöm yk*¾avm e a[0 acg Aka'¨ ta0pö yoma'e orEém*awm a[mwd? e "ar® oHaC? e [moyanmç e {0yanmç ep 0drkwd,m orEém*awm? tydpó £ar "r®m a[mEÅd? o'¨NE´d,H 0D&d,dNE´d,H owdNE´d,H yndNE´d,H? wxm *aw pó o'¨grwåH a[mwd ayrrwåH? t,H yd acg r[memr yk*¾avm t*EÅm ed&,Hç t*EÅm wd&dpämea,meðç t*EÅm aywåd0do,Hç t*EÅm tyg,H 'k*¾wð 0dedygwH}} [lí . . . a[mawmfrltyfaom (r[m0*¾ç aomwmywåd oH,kwfç o&Pmed0*fç yxr o&Pmedouúokwf) ygVdawmfESifh avsmfnDpGm tyg,fav;yg;rS wpfcgwnf; uif;vGwfaom aomwmyef taNcodkU a&mufavNyD[k ,HkMunf pdwfcsxdkufayawmhonf/ xdkpum; rSef\/ yifudku atmuftaMuodkU pD;aeaom Nrpfa&tvsOfonf ork'´&mESifh Mumav eD;avNzpfouJhodkU tedpö 'ku© tewå oabmudk xifNrifí oHo&mü NiD;aiGUvufp½Sdaom xdk olawmfpif\ pdwftpOfonfvnf; edAÁmefodkU ñTwfudkif;&if;½Sd&um; edAÁmefESifh Mumav eD;avyif Nzpfawmh\/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

71


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) ta½SUzufodkU udkif;ñGwfvsuf½Sdaom opfyifonf vJonfhtcg ta½SUzufodkUom vJzG,f½SdouJhodkU edAÁmefodkU

udkif;ñGwfaeaom

pdwftpOfonf

ukodkvfaumif;rI

NyKorQ

edAÁmefzufodkUom

ñGwfvsuf½SdonfNzpfí xdkolawmfpifonf tb,frSm tyg,fav;yg;odkU oGm;zG,f&m ½SdygawmhtHhenf;/ o&P*Hk oDvvHkol aomwmyefESifhwl/

/ qdktyfNyD; pum;ü ]]udk,fusifhvHkNcHK}} [l&m0,f ]]i,fpOfupí

vHkNcHKrSom vHkNcHK&ma&mufonf}} [k rqdkvdkyg/ owdw&m;&onfupí pdwfcsvufcs vHkNcHKvmvQif vHkNcHKonfyif

rnfEdkifygonf/

bk&m;vufxufawmfü

]]o&Pmed}}

rnfaom

Oygoumonf

&wemoHk;yg;udk tonf;pGJ MunfndKaeaomfvnf; i,f½G,fpOfumvu ig;yg;oDvavmufrQ rvHkNcHKbJ ½SdcJh&m pkawcgeD;usrS owd&í vlUodu©mudk apmifhxdef;vsuf pkawonf/ xdkUaemuf usef&pfolwdkUu xdkol\ vm;&m*wdudk bk&m;½Siftm; avQmufxm;Mu&m bk&m;½Sifu xdk Oygoumudk tyg,fav;yg;rS vGwfaom aomwmyefNzpf&um; ok*wdodkU a&mufaeaMumif;udk rdefUawmfrlygonf/ MudK;pm;zG,f/

/

xdkUaMumifh

raumif;aom

aNr

a&ü

pdkufysdK;avorQ

rsdK;aphonf

rnfrQyif

atmifNrifapumrl tusdK;rNyD; tcsnf;ESD; ysufNym; qHk;yg;&uJhodkU rlv rlrrSefaom bk&m; w&m;ü tm;xm; udk;uG,favorQonf tcsnf;ESD; tusdK;rJh Nzpf½Hkomru xdk bk&m; w&m;zufü tm;wufoa&m a[maNymrIaMumifh txktxnf BuD;rm;vSaom raumif;rI tusdK;udkyif cH½Sm&ayOD;rnf/ xdkrQavmuf tNypfrsm;í qHk;yg;zG,f½Sdaom bmomwpfyg; t,l½SdMuolrsm;onf olwdkU\ bk&m; w&m;udk tm;xm; rSDcdk MunfndK av;NrwfMuukefao;\/ aumif;aom BuD;NrifhxGm;usdK;if;aom

a&aNrüum;

tm;yg;wpdkufr[kwfbJ

tyifBuD;rsm;udk

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bk&m;

rvdkvJ

vdkvJ

w&m;

oHCm

pdkufysdK;½HkrQNzifh rSefwdkUudk

NyKpk

tm;xkwfvdkuforQonf ]]anmifaphuav;rS anmifyifBuD;aygufonfhyrm}} ,HkMunfzG,f&m r½Sdavmufatmif Nrifhacgif BuD;rm;aom tusdK;w&m;udk cHpm;&ayrnf/ pdwfygvufyg tm;&yg;& *½kpdkufí udk;uG,fqnf;uyf vdkufygrlum;

wpfoHo&mvHk;

taMumif;tusdK;pdppfu

pdwfcsvufcs

tNypfqdkzG,fr½Sdaom

edAÁmefwdkifatmif Ak'¨bmom

tusdK;udk

t,lBuD;udk

rkcs&EdkifonfNzpfí vufudkif&Muygvsuf

,HkMunfcsufavsmhí tb,frSm cyfayghaygh aexdkufygtHhenf;/ aeUpOf &ufquf ESpfoufauseyfatmif txyfxyf pOf;pm;í w&m;awmft& ususee vdkufem aexdkifMuonf r[kwfygavm/ (usrf;udk;/

/ awmifNrdKU*E¨m½Hkq&mawmfBuD;\ &wemh*kPf&nf) ------------------------------

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

72


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) wBudrfaqmufwnf wpfoufwnf/ aqmufwnfxm;vQif

,HkMunfpdwf

/

þodkU

rysuforQ

,HkMunfav;NrwfpGm

wpfoufvHk;

wpfBudrfavmuf

]]o&P*Hkwnfol}}

rnfawmh\/

xyfumxyfum aqmufwnfaezG,f rvdkyg/ ckumvüum; oDvaqmufwnfwdkif; xyfí o&P*Hk aqmufwnfavh½SdMuonf/ odkUaomf tNypfr½Sdí xdkenf;udk ry,fzsufvdkyg/ o&P*Hk wifMuyHk/

/ &wemoHk;yg;udk rudk;uG,faomtcgESifh toufqHk;aomtcgü o&P*Hk ysuf\/

xdkUaMumifh wpfpHkwpfa,muf tedpöa&mufaomtcg ]]a&muf&mb0u owd&aevQif o&P*Hk ,lygapwmh}} [k &nfrSef;í tavmif;udk o&P*Hk wif½dk; NyKMuonf/ pdwfr½Sdaom tavmif;twGufum; o&P*Hk wifaomfvnf; o&P*Hk r&yg/ owdNyKzG,f/

/ ,cktcg o&P*Hk aqmufwnfolwdkUwGif wcsdKUrSm ]]Ak'¨H o&PH *pämrd}} paom ygVdudk

½Gwfaeaomfvnf; Nrefrmvdk bmudk qdkvdkaMumif; rodMu/ Ak'¨H "r®H oHCH[k EIwfu½Gwfaeaomfvnf; bk&m; w&m; oHCmtppfudk em;rvnfMuacs/ xdkodkU em;rvnfolwdkUrSm ÓPfESifh,SOfaom ÓPorÜ,kwf r[mukodkvf o&P*Hk r&Edkif? tawmftwef em;vnfol bk&m; w&m; oHCmudk udk;uG,fvdkpdwf ½Sdolüum; ÓP0dyÜ,kwf o&P*HkrQom &zG,f½Sd\/ vHk;vHk;em;rvnfolwdkUrSm o&P*HkudkrQ vHk;vHk;&zG,fr½Sd/ o&P*Hk rwnfvQif Ak'¨bmom0if r[kwfao;/ xdkUaMumifh o&P*Hk taMumif;udk aumif;aumif; em;vnfatmif avhvmMuygukef/ (usrf;udk;/

/ awmifNrdKU*E¨m½Hkq&mawmfBuD;\ &wemh*kPf&nf) ------------------------------

&wemokH;yg;udk;uG,f&mü tusdK;BuD;ykHjyqdkcef; bk&m;çw&m;çoHCm- &wemokH;yg;udk Munfñdkukd;uG,f vSL'gef;ylaZmfMu&mü usrf;*efqkdcsufESifh jrwfpGmbk&m;\ oP²mefukd pdwfraemxJwGif rSef;qí &nf&G,fjcif;onf tvGefrSdefarS;\? um;ay:ü jrwfpGmbk&m;oP²mefawmfukd ½kyfykHawmfa&;om;í jrwfpGmbk&m; oP²mefawmfukd MunfndK&jcif;onf pdwfraemxJwGif rSef;qí MunfndK&onfxuf tqt&mru pdwftm;aumif;\/ xkdum;ay:ü

½kyfykHawmfukd

MunfndK&onfxuf

tkwf½kd;

½kyfykHawmfç

opfom;½kyfwkawmfç

ausmuf½kyfwkawmfç aMu;½kyfwkawmfrsm;ukd zl;arQmfMunfndK&jcif;onf tqt&mru pdwftm; aumif;\/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

73


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) þpum;ü- xkd½kyfwkoP²mefawmfrsm;onf jrwfpGmbk&m;oP²mefawmfESifh qufpyfvsuf½Sdonfjzpfí xkd½kyfykHç ½kyfwkawmfrsm;ukd jrifonfESifhwpfNydKifeuf bk&m; bk&m;[lí jrwfpGmbk&m;ukd tm½kHjyKaompdwfonf xif½Sm;pGmay:vm\? jrwfpGmbk&m;ukd tm½kHjyKí tm;aumif;pGm jzpfay:vmaom xkdukokdvfpdwfrsm;onf oHo&mtusdK;ukd tvkd½SdaomolwdkYtm; aemifoHo&mü b0rsm;pGm vlYcsrf;omç ewfcsrf;omukd ay;Ekdif\? ½kyfykHawmfç

½kyfxkawmfrsm;ukd

0wfedA'fxm;í

tNrJylaZmfaom

olrsm;rSm

aemif-b0

axmifaomif;ruyifaomfvnf; r&PmoEéaZmonf tcGifhomwkdif; xifvmwwf\? xifvmcJhaomf ]]Ak'¨ó ylZH r[mawZ0aEÅm}} [laomygXfESifhtnD-tvGef wefckd;BuD;aom vlYb0ç ewfb0ukd jzpfapwwf\? tukokdvfuH wpfyg;aMumifh tyg,fi&JokdY usa&mufíoGm;aomfvnf; ½kyfykHawmfç ½kyfxkawmfrsm;onf tyg,fi&JrSm r&PmoEétcg xifvmwwf\? xifvmonf½Sdaomf vlYbkHç vlYb0ç ewfbkHç ewfb0okdY a&mufapwwf\? i&Jrif;BuD;wkdY\ ppfaq;&mXmerSm xifvmonf½Sdaomf xkdcPüyif i&JrSpkawí vlYbkHç vlYb0ç ewfbkHç ewfb0okdY a&muf vmwwf\/ (usrf;udk;/

/ v,fwDq&mawmfBuD;\ omoemh0daom"eDusrf;-yxrwGJ) ------------------------------

o&P*kHtusKd;ukd jyjcif; ,cktcg ted,wo&P*kHç ed,wo&P*kH 2-yg;wkdY\tusKd;oGm;ukd jyqkd&m\/ jyqkdcJhNyD;aom 'Gd[dwfo&P*kHç wd[dwfo&P*kH 2-rsKd;wkdYwGif1/ 'Gd[dwfo&P*kHonf ted,wo&P*kH ykHaownf;? tusKd;oGm;rSmvnf; aemufaemufb0wkdYü 'Gd[dwfy#doaE¨tusKd;ukdomay;Ekdif\? ÓPfynmtvdrfrmtusKd;ukdrlum; ray;Ekdif/ xkdYaMumifh ,cktcg tvGefawGUcJ BuHKcJ eufeJxl;jrwfvSpGmaom jrwfpGmbk&m; omoemawmfjrwfü BuKHBudKufMu&ukefaom &[ef; ½Sif vl olawmfaumif;taygif;wkdYonf rdrdwkdYukd,fukd tE¨ykxkZOftjzpfç 'dG[dwfo&P*kHrsKd;

tjzpfüwnfí

wpfoufwpfcE¨m

wpfomoemNyD;qkH;í

oGm;Murnfhta&;ukd

pkd;&drfMuukef&m\? raorDumv twGif;ü wpfBudrfwpfcgrQyifaomfvnf; rdrdwkdYukd;uG,f&m bk&m;ç w&m;ç oHCmç

omoemrsm;ukd

wd[dwfo&P*kHrsKd;tjzpfüwnfí

ukd,fawGU'd| aemifwd[dwfy#doef

awGUjrifbl;&aom ÓPftvdrfrmrsKd;rsm;ukd

uvsmPBuD;tjzpfç &EkdifMu&ef

BuHzef

tm;pkdufMuukef&monf/ 2/ þ'Gd[dwfo&P*kHuJhokdYyifvQif ,ckb0ü tewåy&dnmpcef;okdY ra&mufaom wd[dwfo&P*kH onfvnf; ted,wrsKd;yifwnf;? aemufaemufb0wkdYü todtvdrfrm ÓPfynmukdrlum; ay;Ekdif\/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

74


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) ,cktcgü þted,wo&P*kH 2-yg;wkdY\ tvm;ukd xif½Sm;apjcif;iSgememow¬m&meH rkcH Oav’mauEÅDwd ykxkZÆem[laom y#dorÇd'gr*f ygVdawmfjrwf\ teuft"dyÜg,fukd jyqkd&m\/ teufum;/

/ememow¬m&meH=txl;xl;aom

ukd;uG,f&m

q&mwkdY\?

rkcH=rsufESmukd?

Oav’mauEÅd=warmharmhMunfhwwfukef\? £wdwo®m=xkdYaMumifh? ykxkZÆem=ykxkZOfrnfukef\/ «wpfb0wpfb0vQif wpfrsKd;wpfrsKd; ukd;uG,f&majymif;a&TUwwfukef\-[lvkd/»

ab;BuD; 3-yg; þoHo&mü txl;aMumufrufzG,f aumif;vSaom ab;BuD; 3-yg;½Sd\/ 3-yg;[lonfum;1/ 0dedygwab;BuD; wpfyg; 2/ rdpäm'd|dab;BuD; wpfyg; 3/ ememow¬m& Oav’mueab;BuD; wpfyg; þ 3-yg;wkdYwnf;? xkd 3-yg;wkdYwGif1/ 0dedygwab;BuD; qkdonfum;-ouúm,'d|d wif;vif;½SdaeMuukefaom vlç ewfç jA[®m owå0g taygif;wkdYonf rdrdwkdYjzpf&mbkHb0rS pkawMuukefonf½Sdaomf b,fbkHb,fb0rSm igjzpfrnf[k tvkd½Sd&m bkHb0okdY

oGm;EkdifMuukefonfr[kwf?

ur®óumuHypfcs&m[k

aoonfhaemufb0ü

aygufvTwfxm;Mu&ukef\? ,lZemrsm;pGmus,faom xef;awmç tkef;awmBuD;rS ckwfcsKdifí cstyfukefaom xef;oD;ç tkef;oD;wkdYonf aygufvTwf'vMurf; y&rf;ywm usa&mufMuavukefouJhokdY? xkdYtwl(u) vlUbkHrS pkawukefaom vlowå0gtaygif;wkdYonfvnf; aoonf\aemufü aygufvTwf'vMurf; y&rf;ywm uHypfcs&m usa&mufMuavukef\/ (c) ewfjynf 6-xyf ewfbkHwkdYrS pkawMuukefaom ewfowå0gtaygif;wkdYonfvnf;aumif;? ½lyg0p&ç t½lyg0p&jA[®mhjynfrS pkawMuukefaom jA[®mowå0gtaygif;wkdYonfvnf;aumif;? aoonf\ aemufü aygufvTwf'vMurf; y&rf;ywm uHypfcs&m usa&mufMuavukef\/ (*) r[myx0Dç jrifhrkd&fç owå&befç bkHAdrmefwkdYonf raorDumvüom wnf&mrSD&mudpöukd NyD;pD;apukef\? aoonf\

aemufürlum;-atmuf

r[mt0Dpdi&JBuD;

tjyifwkdifatmif

aumif;uif[if;vif;

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

75


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) teEÅacsmufBuD;wGif;okdY

usMuukefbdouJhokdY

tNidtwG,f

tuG,ftumr½Sd

uHypfcs&m

usa&mufMuavukef\/ jrwfpGmbk&m;onfvnf;-aoMuukefaom owå0gtaygif;wkdYwGif ok*wdb0okdY a&mufMuukefaom owå0gwkdYonf ig\ vufonf;awmfay:rSmwif½Sdaom a&mufMuavukefaom

ajrrIefYyrmPuJhokdY

owå0gwkdYonfrlum;

tvGefenf;MuvSukef\?

r[myx0DajrBuD;rSm½Sdaeaom

tyg,fbkHokdY ajrrIefYyrmPuJhokdY

tvGefrsm;vSukef\-[lí a[mawmfrlay\? wpfa,mufaomol\ ukd,fü½Sdaom ykd;rsKd; 80-wkdYrSpí i&JBuD; 8-jynfaxmifwdkYESifhwuG tyg,f 4-bkHwkdYü tvkH;pkHaom a&owå0gç ukef;owå0gwkdY\ aygrsm;ykHukd qifjcifajrmfaxmuf ojzifhvnf; a'oemawmftwkdif; rSefvSayonf[k ,kHMunfMuukef&m\/ þokdYvQif jA[®mowå0g

terw*¾oHo&mjyifBuD;ü

taygif;wkdYtm;

pkawrae

ouúm,'d|d

wif;vif;½SdaeMuukefaom

aovGefMuaomtcgü

usvkd&mus

vlç

ewfç

a&mufvkd&ma&muf

aygufvTwfavsmufvsm; ur®óum uHypfcs&m[k uHwpfckç Mur®mwpfck vTwfíxm;Mu&ojzifh uHypfcs&m y&rf;ywm usa&mufNrJ "r®wmjzpfaomab;BuD;onf 0dedygwab;BuD;rnf\/ ynm½Sdol ewfç vltaygif;wkdYonf oHo&mtjyifü þ0dedygw 'ku©ab;BuD;ukd tvGefaMumufMuç pufqkyfMuukefonfjzpfí xkdab;BuD;rS vGwfcGifhukd &jcif;iSg bk&m;omoemawmfukd wajrmfwnf; ajrmfMu&ukef\? bk&m;omoemawmfESifh awGUBuHKMuaomtcg wpfyg;aom aqGa&;ç rsKd;a&;ç Opöma&;ç pD;yGm;a&;wkdYxuf xkdab;BuD;rS vGwfNyD;jzpfwnfhMujcif;iSg tewåbm0emw&m;ukd tm;xkwfpGJNrJMu&ukef\/ «þum;-terw*¾oHo&mBuD;ü tvGefaMumufrufzG,f aumif;vSaom 0dedygwab;BuD;ukd t&dyft>rufrQ jyqkdvkdufaom pum;&yfwnf;/» 2/ rdpäm'd|dab;BuD;qkdonfum;-ew¬d 'dEéH? ew¬d ,d|H? ew¬d[kwH-tp½Sdonfjzifhvmaom 10-yg;tjym;½Sdaom ,cktcg taemufEkdifiHwpfcGifvkH;ü xGef;um;íaeaom rdpäm'd|dab;BuD;wnf;? ur®óuwm or®m'd|d ÓPfrsufpd\ tEÅ&m,fjzpfaom ab;BuD;wnf;/ «ur®óuwmor®m'd|dÓPfrsufpdqkdonfum;oHo&mpcef;ukdvnf;aumif;ç oHo&mvrf;ukdvnf;aumif;odwwfjrifwwfaom ÓPfrsufpdukd qkdownf;/»

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

76


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) (u) oHo&mpcef;qkdonfum; aoonf\tjcm;rJhü uHtm;avsmfpGm qkdufa&mufMu&aom tyg,f 4-bkHç vlUbkHç ewfjynf 6-xyfewfbkHç ½lyç t½lyç jA[®mjynfbkHwkdYukd oHo&mpcef;qkdonf/ (c ) aoonfrS aemufü owå0gwkdY\ vm;&m a&muf&m tyg,f 4-bkHwkdYonf &Sdukef\? tyg,f 4bkHwdkYokdYvnf;

vm;Mua&mufMu&ukef\?

txufewfjynf

6-xyf

ewfbkHwkdYonf

½Sdukef\?

ewfjynfokdYvnf; a&mufMu&ukef\? jA[®m 20-wkdYvnf;½Sdukef\? jA[®mjynfokdYvnf; a&mufMu&ukef\-[k odwwfjrifwwfaom ÓPfrsufpdrnf\/ (*) owå0gwkdYjyKí aeMu&ukefaom um,uHrIç 0pDuHrIç raemuHrIwkdYukd þtrI þtrIwkdYum;'kp½kdufrIwkdYwnf;? vlUb0ç

tyg,fi&JokdY

ewfb0okdY

Mua&mufrnfhvrf;wnf;?

a&muf&rnfhvrf;wnf;?

a&muf&rnfhvrf;wnf;-[k

þtrI

odwwfjrifwwfaom

þtrIþtrIwkdYum;-okp½kdufrIwdkYwnf;?

þtrIwkdYum;-

ÓPfonf

½lyç

oHo&mvrf;ukd

t½ly

jA[®mhbkHokdY

odwwfjrifwwfaom

ÓPfrsufpdrnf\/ terw*¾oHo&mü usifvnfíaeMuukefaom owå0gtaygif;wkdYtm; þur®óu- wmor®m'd|d ÓPfrsufpdukdyif

tvGefw&m&cJvSukef\?

b0wpf&mrS

wpfcgr&EkdifMuukef?

b0wpfaxmifrS

wpfcgr&EkdifMuukef? oHo&mrSm oGm;vmusifvnfqJrwfwwfü rdpäm'd|d'PfBuD; xdMuojzifh xkdrsufpd 2vkH;

uG,fqkH;íaeMuaom

þrsufpd½SdMuukef\?

b0wkdYonfom

Ak'¨bmom

tvGefrsm;Muukef\?

vlrsKd;rSwpfyg;

,cktcg

t&yf&yfaomvlrsKd;ç

Ak'¨bmomvlrsKd;wdkYü

tvkH;pkHaom

a&owå0gç

ukef;owå0grsKd;wkdYrSm þrsufpdr½SdMuavNyD? atmufü i&JbkHç NydwåmbkHç tok&um,fbkHç txufü ewfbkHç jA[®mhbkH½SdrSef;ukdyif rodMuukefNyD? rdrd rdrdwkdY aeY½SdorQ jyKvkyfíaeMuaom um,uHrIç 0pDuHrIç raemuHrI wkdYukdyif okp½kdufrIrSef;ç 'kp½kdufrIrSef;ç ok*wdvrf;rSef;ç 'k*¾wdvrf;rSef; rodMuukefNyD/ þur®óuwmor®m'd|dÓPfrsufpd 2-vkH; ysufqkH; uG,faysmufíaeMuukefaom owå0gwkdYtm; aeY½SdorQ &uf&SdorQ vIyfvIyf&G&GjyKMu vkyfMu ajymMu qkdMu BuHpnfMuorQaom um,uHrIç 0pDuHrIç raemuHrIwkdYonf tyg,f 4-yg;ü jr§KyfMubkdYç epfMubkdYomjzpfukef\? xkdrsufpd 2-vkH; uG,faysmuf&m t&yfwkdYrnfonf wpfrsKd;vkH;ç wpfaqGvkH;ç wpf&yfvkH;ç wpf&GmvkH;ç wpfNrdKUvkH;ç wpfe,fvkH;ç wpfwkdif;vkH;ç wpfjynfvkH;ç wpfEkdifiHvkH; tyg,fi&JokdYcsnf; pkH;pkH;jr§KyfMuavukef\? terw*¾oHo&mwpfjyifvkH;onf rdpäm'd|dawmBuD; *EkdifBuD;uJhokdYjzpf\? owå0gtaygif;wkdYonf rsm;aomtm;jzifh rdpäm'd|db0wkdYESifhom awGYBuHKMu&ukef\/ þokdYvQif

ouúm,'d|d

wif;vif;½SdaeMuukefaom

owå0gtaygif;wkdYtm;

urf;rjrifaom

ork'´&mtjyifü ewfe*g;wkdY\ tqdyfavç tqdyfckd;wkdYESifh awGUBuHKMuí yuwdrsufpd 2-vkH;ysufqkH;

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

77


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) uG,fyí aeMuukefaom oabFmom;rsm;ç avSom;trsm; oluef;a,mufsm;wkdYonf avSoabFmukdvTwfí xm;jyefvQifvnf; urf;ESifha0;onfxuf a0;&mokdYom a&tvkduf avtvkduf arsmMu ygMuavukef&m\? avSmfrIç cwfrIç &GufwkdufrIç pufckwfrI ya,m*ukd jyKMuukefjyefvQifvnf; ta½SUç taemufç awmifç ajrmufukd rjrifbJjyKMu&onfhtwGuf urf;ESifha0;onfxuf a0;&mokdYom jyKrdMuukef&m\/ xkdYtwl tqdyfckd;wkdYESifh

terw*¾oHo&mjyifBuD;0,f awGUBuHKMuí

oknurÇmwkdYü

b0tqufquf

rdpäm'd|dwnf;[laom

or®m'd|drsufpd

2-vkH;

tqdyfavç

ysufqkH;uG,fyvsuf

usifvnfMuukefaom owå0g taygif;wkdYtm; jyKorQ jzpforQaom ukd,fya,m*ç EIwfya,m*ç pdwfya,m*wkdYonf jr§Kyfonfxuf jr§KyfbkdY? epfonfxuf epfbkdYom jzpfMuavukef\/ «þum;-&mZawm0g apm&awm0g-[laom y&dwfBuD;ü toE´d|dawm0g- [lí vm½Sdaom rdpäm'd|d oHo&mab;BuD;aywnf;/» ynm½Sdol ewfç vlç jA[®m owå0gtaygif;wkdYonf terw*¾oHo&mwpfjyifvkH;ü oHo&mESifh tjynfh½Sdaom NrdKU&GmEkdifiHESifhwuG tyg,fi&JokdY pkH;pkH;pkyfpkyfjr§KyfapEkdifaom þtoE´d|dab;BuD;ukdvnf; tvGefaMumufvefYMuç bk&m;omoemawmf

tvGefpufqkyfMuukefonfjzpfí ukdom

wajrmfwnf;ajrmfMu&ukef\?

xkdab;BuD;rS

vGwfcGifhukd

&jcif;iSg

bk&m;omoemawmfESifhawGUBuHKMuaomtcg

wpfyg;aom aqGa&;ç rsKd;a&;ç pD;yGm;a&;ç csrf;oma&;wkdYxuf xkdab;BuD;rS vGwfNyD;jzpfwnfhMu&ef tewåbm0ema&;ukdom ukd,fa&;jyKvkyfí tm;xkwfpGJNrJMu&ukef\/ «þum;-terw*¾oHo&mBuD;ü tvGefaMumufrufzG,faumif;vSaom toE´d|drdpämab;BuD;ukd t&dyft>rufrQ jyqkdvkdufaom pum;&yfwnf;/» 3/

ememow¬m&

Oav’mueab;BuD;qkdonfum;-terw*¾oHo&mtjyifü

usifvnfMuukefaom

owå0gtaygif;wkdYtm; bk&m;[kwf bk&m;rSefESifh awGYBuHKrIrnfonf urÇmtoacsFaygif; toacsFyif Mumaomfvnf; wpf&Hwpfcg BuHKBudKufcJvS\? xkdYtwl w&m;[kwf w&m;rSefç oHCm[kwf oHCmrSefç omoem[kwf

omoemrSefukd

awGUBuHKrIrnfonf

urÇmtoacsFaygif;

toacsFyifMumaomfvnf;

wpf&HwpfcgrQ awGUBuHKcJvS\/ (u) &Hcg jA[®mukd bk&m;vkyfí ukd;uG,fMu&ukef\/ (c) &HcgodMum;ukd bk&m;vkyfí ukd;uG,fMu&ukef\/

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

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o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) (*) &Hcgaeukdç &Hcgvukdç &Hcgxkdxkdeu©wfukdç &Hcgy&rDoGmewfrsKd;ukdç &HcgAdóPkd;ewfrsKd;ukdç &Hcgxdkxdk bDvl;BuD;wkdYukdç &Hcg e*g;BuD;wkdYukdç &Hcg*VKefBuD;wkdYukdç (C) &Hcgawmifukdç &Hcgawmukdç &HcgxkdxkdopfyifwkdYukdç &HcgjrpfBuD;wkdYukdç &HcgtkdifBuD;wkdYukdç &Hcga&ukdç &HcgrD;ukdç &Hcgavukd bk&m;vkyfí ukd;uG,fMu&ukef\/ (i) &HcgacG;ukd OyZÑm,fq&mvkyfí ukd;uG,fMu&ukef\/ (p) &HcgEGm;ukdç &Hcgjrif;ukdç &Hcgqifukd tp½Sdonfjzifh wpfb0wpfb0vQif wpfrsKd;wpfrsKd; ukd;uG,f&m jyKMu&ukef\/ txl;tm;jzifhrlum;- yk&mPuóyç ru©vda*gomv tp½SdonfwkdYuJhokdYaom t,kwfwrm rdpäm'd|d BuD;wkdYrnfonf þoHo&mBuD;ü urÇmtpOf½SdMuukef\? xkdolwkdYukd MuyfMuyfukd;uG,favav tyg,fi&J eufavavom jzpfukef\? wpftdrfvkH;ukd;uG,fvQif wpftdrfvkH; pkH;pkH;jr§KyfMuavukef\? wpf&yfvkH;ç wpf&GmvkH;ç wpfNrdKUvkH;ç wpfEkdifiHvkH; ukd;uG,fvQif wpfEkdifiHvkH; tyg,fi&JokdY jr§KyfMuavukef\? bk&m;vufxufawmfü

yk&mPuóyBuD;ukd

ukd;uG,fMuolwdkYonf

tdrfajcig;&mpvkH;

t0Dpdi&JokdY

jr§KyfMuavukef\? xkdYtwl ru©vda*gomvq&mBuD;ukd ukd;uG,fMuol tdrfajcig;&m tp½Sdonfjzifh usrf;*efwkdYüvm\/ «þum;-terw*¾ oHo&mjyifBuD;ESifh tjynfh½Sdaeaom ememow¬m& Oav’mueab;BuD;wnf;/» ynm½Sdol ewfç vlç jA[®m owå0gtaygif;wkdYonf oHo&mü t,kwfwrmBuD;awGukd bk&m;jyKvkyfí wpfb0vQif

wpfrsKd;wpfrsKd;

ukd;uG,fíaeMu&aomab;BuD;ukdvnf;

BudK;BudK;pm;pm; tvGefaMumufvefYMuç

tarSmufarSmuf

trSm;rSm;

tvGefpufqkyfMuukefonfjzpfí

xkdab;BuD;rS vGwfjcif;iSg bk&m;omoemawmfukdom wajrmfwnf; ajrmfMu&ukef\? bk&m;omoemawmfESifh awGYBuHKMuaomtcg wpfyg;aom aqGa&;ç rsKd;a&;ç pD;yGm;a&;ç csrf;oma&;wkdYxuf xkdab;BuD;rSvGwfNyD; jzpfwnfhMujcif;iSg tewåbm0ema&;ukdom ukd,fa&; jyKvkyfí tm;xkwfpGJNrJ tm;cJMu&ukef\/ «þum;-terw*¾oHo&mBuD;ü tvGefaMumufrufzG,faumif;vSaom ememow¬m& Oav’mueab;BuD;ukd t&dyft>rufrQ jyqkdvkdufaompum;&yfwnf;» «þum;-ab;BuD; okH;yg;ukd jyqkdjcif;wnf;/» ynm½Sdol ewfç vlç jA[®m owå0gtaygif;wkdYonf xkdab;BuD;okH;yg;wkdYrS uRwfvGwfaom tcGifhukd&jcif;iSg bk&m;omoemawmfukd ajrmfac:awmifhwí 'geç oDvtp½Sdaom ukokdvfaumif;rIwkdYukd

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79


o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) jyKvkyftm;xkwfí

vmMuukef&m

xkdukokdvfaumif;rIwkdY\

tusKd;tm;jzifh

bk&m;omoemawmfESifh

awGUBuHKMu&ukefaomfvnf; tMuifolwkdYonf ted,wo&P*kHrQESifh aoqkH;Muavukef\? tewåy&dnmokdY qkdufaom

ed,w

o&P*kHokdY

ra&mufMuavukef?

&[ef;ç

½Sifç

vl

xkdoltaygif;wkdYonf

ab;BuD;okH;yg;wkdYrS uRwfvGwfcGifhokdY ra&mufMuukefrlí aoonfrS aemufumvü o&P*kHuG,faysmufí xkdab;BuD;okH;yg;twGif;okdYom a&mufNrJa&mufMuavukef\/ tb,fhaMumifhenf;qkdaomfxkd&[ef;ç ½Sifç vlwkdYonf omoemwGif;ü BuHKBudKufMu onfqkdjim;aomfvnf; BuHKBudKufcgrQom ½SdMuukef\?

cE¨mç

tm,weç

"mwfç

y#dpöorkyÜg'f[kqkdtyfaom

tewå"r®wkdYukd

r½Iwwfç

rjrifwwfMuukefonfjzpfí bk&m;ukdvnf; awGUjrif&ol r[kwfMuukef? w&m;udkvnf; awGUjrif&ol r[kwfMuukef?

oHCmukdvnf;

awGUjrif&ol

r[kwfMuukef?

omoemawmfukdvnf;

awGUjrif&ol

r[kwfMuukef? bk&m;vufxufawmfü aumovrif;BuD;ç vmVK'g,D rax&fBuD; tp½Sdaom vl ½Sifç &[ef;wkdYuJhokdYwnf;/ (u)

aumovrif;BuD;onf

to'do

tvSLBuD;ukdvnf;

vSL&\?

aZw0efausmif;awmfwGif;ü

uav½krnfaom ausmif;ukdaqmufvkyfí ausmif;wumvnf; cH&\? bk&m;txHodkYvnf; aeYpOf qnf;uyf&\? cE¨mç tm,weç "mwfç y#dpöorkyÜg'f-wnf;[laom tewå"r®udk awGUjrifrI r&Sdonfh twGufaMumifh bk&m;udkawGUjrif&ol[líum;-rqdktyf/ (c) vmVK'g,Dtrnf&Sdaom rax&fBuD;onf aZw0efausmif;awmfwGif;rSm bk&m;ESifh toufxufqkH;ae&\? cE¨mç tm,weç "mwfç y#dpöorkyÜg'f-wnf;[laom tewå"r®udk awGUjrifrI r&Sdonfh twGufaMumifh bk&m;udk awGUjrif&ol[líum;-rqdktyf/ «0uúvdokwf oH,kwfygVdawmfudk a&S;ü jyqdkcJhNyD» t|uxmBuD;wdkYüvnf;pu©Kem=rsufpdjzifh? yóaEÅmyd=jrifíaeygaomfvnf;? ÓaPe=ÓPfjzifh? t&da,[d=t&d,m yk*¾dKvfwdkYonf? 'd|H=jriftyfaom? tedpöm'dvu©PH=tedpötp&Sdaom oabmvu©Pmudk? tyóaEÅmp= rjrifaomoludkvnf;aumif;? t&d,m"d*wH=t&d,mwdkYonf odtyfaom? "r®H=aAm"dyu©d,w&m;tpkudk? te"d*päaEÅmp=rodaomoludkvnf;aumif;? w&m;wkdYudk?

t&d,u&"r®meH=t&d,mjzpfatmifjyKEdkifaomcE¨mtp&Sdaom

t'd|wåmp=rjrifonf\tjzpfaMumifhvnf;aumif;?

t&d,bm0ó=t&d,mjzpfaMumif;

]]NrefrmusL;ypf omoemhygv}} nDtudkarmifESrwpfpkrS "r®'geNyKonf

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o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) jzpfaom

aAm"dyu©d,w&m;udk?

t'd|wåmp=rjrifonf\tjzpfaMumifhvnf;aumif;?

t&d,meH=

bk&m;tp&Sdaom t&d,mwdkYudk? t'óm0Dwd=rawGUrjrif&aom ol[lí? a0'dwaAÁm=odtyf\/ [lírdefYqdkMuavukef\/ «tedpöESifh tewåum;-twlwl? tedpötppfudk jrifwwfvQif tewåudkjrifawmhonf/» þodkYvQif

aumovrif;BuD;

BuHKBudKufMuygukefaomfvnf; ra&mufMuukefonfESifh aoonf\aemufü

vmVK'g,Drax&fBuD;wkdYuJhodkYomoemwGif;ü

o'¨g\pcef;rQodkYom

o'¨gawGUudkrQom o&P*kH

qdkufa&mufMuukefí

awGUMuukefí

uG,faysmufí

ÓPfawGU

ÓPf\pcef;odkY

rawGUMuukefaomaMumifh

xdkab;BuD;okH;yg;twGif;odkYom

a&mufNrJ

a&mufMuavukefownf;/ vGefavNyD;aom ,ck&SdaeMuaom

terw*¾oHo&mü

jrwfpGmbk&m;onf

&Sifvltaygif;wkdYonfvnf;

**FgoJvkH;rQru

vGefavNyD;aom

yGifhMuavukefNyD?

jrwfpGmbk&m;wdkY\

omoemü

BuHKBudKufcJhMuvSukefNyD? ynmpcef;odkYum; ra&muf? o'¨gpcef;rQESifhomtm;&wif;wdrfí vmcJhMuaomaMumifh ed,wo&P*kHodkY

ra&mufMuukefonfESifh

,aeYxufwkdifatmifyif

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84


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o&P*HkoHk;yg; (Ak'¨bmom0if) usrf;udk;pm&if; 1/ omoema&;0efBuD;XmerSxkwfa0aom Ak'¨bmomaumif;wpfa,muf 2/ omoema&;0efBuD;XmerSxkwfa0aom Ak'¨bmomvufpGJusrf; 3/ OD;oufpdef\ NrwfAk'¨\omoemhtaNccH 4/ csrf;aNrUq&mawmf\ taNcysdK; Ak'¨bmom 5/ awmifNrdKU*E¨m½Hkq&mawmfBuD;\ &wemh*kPf&nf 6/ v,fwDq&mawmfBuD;\ o&P*Hk0dedpä,usrf;opf 7/ v,fwDq&mawmfBuD;\ Owåryk&do 'DyeDusrf; 8/ v,fwDq&mawmfBuD;\ omoemh0daom"eDusrf;-yxrwGJ

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သရဏဂံု သံုးပါး  

rmwdum 30/ o&amp;P*HkaNrmufrI tav;NyKzG,f (usrf;udk;-2) bmoma&amp;;todÓPfrsm; wdk;yGg;aMumif; vdkvm;wJh usL;ypfnDtudktrrsm;eJU tGefvdkif;rSa...